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Sample records for rice leaves electronic

  1. Cyclic electron flow may provide some protection against PSII photoinhibition in rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaves under heat stress.

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    Essemine, Jemaa; Xiao, Yi; Qu, Mingnan; Mi, Hualing; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2017-04-01

    Previously we have shown that a quick down-regulation in PSI activity compares to that of PSII following short-term heat stress for two rice groups including C4023 and Q4149, studied herein. These accessions were identified to have different natural capacities in driving cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI; i.e., low CEF (lcef) and high CEF (hcef) for C4023 and Q4149, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these two lines have different mechanisms of protecting photosystem II from photodamage under heat stress. We observed a stepwise alteration in the shape of Chl a fluorescence induction (OJIP) with increasing temperature treatment. The effect of 44°C treatment on the damping in Chl a fluorescence was more pronounced in C4023 than in Q4149. Likewise, we noted a disruption in the I-step, a decline in the F v due to a strong damping in the F m , and a slight increase in the F 0 . Normalized data demonstrated that the I-step seems more susceptible to 44°C in C4023 than in Q4149. We also measured the redox states of plastocyanin (PC) and P 700 by monitoring the transmission changes at 820nm (I 820 ), and observed a disturbance in the oxidation/reduction kinetics of PC and P 700 . The decline in the amplitude of their oxidation was shown to be about 29% and 13% for C4023 and Q4149, respectively. The electropotential component (Δφ) of ms-DLE appeared more sensitive to temperature stress than the chemical component (ΔpH), and the impact of heat was more evident and drastic in C4023 than in Q4149. Under heat stress, we noticed a concomitant decline in the primary photochemistry of PSII as well as in both the membrane energization process and the lumen protonation for both accessions, and it is evident that heat affects these parameters more in C4023 than in Q4149. All these data suggest that higher CET can confer higher photoprotection to PSII in rice lines, which can be a desirable trait during rice breeding, especially in the context of a

  2. Photosynthetic Characteristics of Flag Leaves in Rice White Stripe Mutant 6001 During Senescence Process

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    Xiao-hui ZHEN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Physiological, biochemical and electron microscopy analyses were used to investigate the photosynthetic performance of flag leaves in rice white stripe mutant 6001 during the senescence process. Results showed that the chlorophyll content at the heading and milk-ripe stages in rice mutant 6001 were about 34.78% and 3.00% less than those in wild type 6028, respectively. However, the chlorophyll content at the fully-ripe stage in rice mutant 6001 was higher than that in wild type 6028. At the heading stage, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn in rice mutant 6001 was lower than that in wild type 6028. Rice mutant 6001 also exhibited a significantly slower decrease rate of Pn than wild type 6028 during the senescence progress, especially at the later stage. Furthermore, Ca2+-ATPase, Mg2+-ATPase and photophosphorylation activities exhibited the similar trends as the Pn. During the senescence process, the 68 kDa polypeptide concentrations in the thylakoid membrane proteins exhibited a significant change, which was one of the critical factors that contributed to the observed change in photosynthesis. We also observed that the chloroplasts of rice mutant 6001 exhibited higher integrity than those of wild type 6028, and the chloroplast membrane of rice mutant 6001 disintegrated more slow during the senescence process. In general, rice mutant 6001 had a relatively slower senescence rate than wild type 6028, and exhibited anti-senescence properties.

  3. Cassava leaves in combination with sera onggok and rice bran as supplements in buffaloes ration

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    Hendratno, C.; Sofian, L.A.; Abidin, Z.; Bahaudin, R.; Suharyono.

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments have been undertaken to evaluate the utilization of cassava leaves in combination with sera onggok or rice bran as supplements in buffalo ration under traditional village condition. In experiment 1, 16 buffaloes were divided in four groups, each receiving a different ration ranging from mixed forage alone to mixed forage supplemented with a combination of cassava leaves and sera onggok or rice bran. Changes in dry metter consumption, daily weight gain, feed convertion ratio and incom over feed cost were assesed. Experiments 2 covered an in vitro study on the changes in rumen fermentation as affected by different rations. The results of experiment 1 indicated the lack of differences in dry matter consumption. However, the daily weight gain, feed convertion ratio and income over feed cost (IOFC) higher in animal receiving mixed forage suplement with cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran as compared to those of animal receiving mixed forage or mixed forage supplemented with cassava leaves. Experiment 2 revealed that amonia concentration and volatile fatty acid production were able to support a higher microbil activity supplemented with cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran as compared to those receiving the other two rations. In conclusion it is obvious that cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran used as supplements could promote a better production in animal in the villages. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

  4. The Evolutionary Basis of Naturally Diverse Rice Leaves Anatomy.

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    Jolly Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Rice contains genetically and ecologically diverse wild and cultivated species that show a wide variation in plant and leaf architecture. A systematic characterization of leaf anatomy is essential in understanding the dynamics behind such diversity. Therefore, leaf anatomies of 24 Oryza species spanning 11 genetically diverse rice genomes were studied in both lateral and longitudinal directions and possible evolutionary trends were examined. A significant inter-species variation in mesophyll cells, bundle sheath cells, and vein structure was observed, suggesting precise genetic control over these major rice leaf anatomical traits. Cellular dimensions, measured along three growth axes, were further combined proportionately to construct three-dimensional (3D leaf anatomy models to compare the relative size and orientation of the major cell types present in a fully expanded leaf. A reconstruction of the ancestral leaf state revealed that the following are the major characteristics of recently evolved rice species: fewer veins, larger and laterally elongated mesophyll cells, with an increase in total mesophyll area and in bundle sheath cell number. A huge diversity in leaf anatomy within wild and domesticated rice species has been portrayed in this study, on an evolutionary context, predicting a two-pronged evolutionary pathway leading to the 'sativa leaf type' that we see today in domesticated species.

  5. Anti-fouling properties of microstructured surfaces bio-inspired by rice leaves and butterfly wings.

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    Bixler, Gregory D; Theiss, Andrew; Bhushan, Bharat; Lee, Stephen C

    2014-04-01

    Material scientists often look to biology for new engineering solutions to materials science problems. For example, unique surface characteristics of rice leaves and butterfly wings combine the shark skin (antifouling) and lotus leaf (self-cleaning) effects, producing the so-called rice and butterfly wing effect. In this paper, we study antifouling properties of four microstructured surfaces inspired by rice leaves and fabricated with photolithography and hot embossing techniques. Anti-biofouling effectiveness is determined with bioassays using Escherichia coli whilst inorganic fouling with simulated dirt particles. Antifouling data are presented to understand the role of surface geometrical features resistance to fouling. Conceptual modeling provides design guidance when developing novel antifouling surfaces for applications in the medical, marine, and industrial fields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of arsenic accumulation in rice and evaluation of protective effects of Chorchorus olitorius leaves against arsenic contaminated rice induced toxicities in Wistar albino rats.

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    Hosen, Saeed Mohammed Imran; Das, Dipesh; Kobi, Rupkanowar; Chowdhury, Dil Umme Salma; Alam, Md Jibran; Rudra, Bashudev; Bakar, Muhammad Abu; Islam, Saiful; Rahman, Zillur; Al-Forkan, Mohammad

    2016-10-14

    In the present study, we investigated the arsenic accumulation in different parts of rice irrigated with arsenic contaminated water. Besides, we also evaluated the protective effects of Corchorus olitorius leaves against arsenic contaminated rice induced toxicities in animal model. A pot experiment was conducted with arsenic amended irrigation water (0.0, 25.0, 50.0 and 75.0 mg/L As) to investigate the arsenic accumulation in different parts of rice. In order to evaluate the protective effects of Corchorus olitorius leaves, twenty Wistar albino rats were divided into four different groups. The control group (Group-I) was supplied with normal laboratory pellets while groups II, III, and IV received normal laboratory pellets supplemented with arsenic contaminated rice, C. olitorius leaf powder (4 %), arsenic contaminated rice plus C. olitorius leaf powder (4 %) respectively. Different haematological parameters and serum indices were analyzed to evaluate the protective effects of Corchorus olitorius leaves against arsenic intoxication. To gather more supportive evidences of Corchorus olitorius potentiality against arsenic intoxication, histopathological analysis of liver, kidney, spleen and heart tissues was also performed. From the pot experiment, we have found a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase of arsenic accumulation in different parts of rice with the increase of arsenic concentrations in irrigation water and the trend of accumulation was found as root > straw > husk > grain. Another part of the experiment revealed that supplementation of C. olitorius leaves with arsenic contaminated rice significantly (p rice induced toxicities. Arsenic accumulation in different parts of rice increased dose-dependently. Hence, for irrigation purpose arsenic contaminated water cannot be used. Furthermore, arsenic contaminated rice induced several toxicities in animal model, most of which could be minimized with the food supplementation of Corchorus olitorius

  7. Broader leaves result in better performance of indica rice under drought stress.

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    Farooq, M; Kobayashi, N; Ito, O; Wahid, A; Serraj, R

    2010-09-01

    Leaf growth is one of the first physiological processes affected by changes in plant water status under drought. A decrease in leaf expansion rate usually precedes any reduction in stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Changes in leaf size and stomatal opening are potential adaptive mechanisms, which may help avoid drought by reducing transpiration rate, and can be used to improve rice genotypes in water-saving cultivation. The indica rice cultivar IR64 and four of its near-isogenic lines (NILs; BC(3)-derived lines) unique for leaf size traits, YTK 124 (long leaves), YTK 127 (broad leaves), YTK 205 (short leaves) and YTK 214 (narrow leaves), were compared in this study for changes in leaf growth and its water status. The plants were subjected to two soil water regimes, well-watered and progressive soil drying measured by the fraction of transpirable soil water (FTSW). Applied drought reduced leaf number, total leaf area, specific leaf area, plant biomass, tiller number, plant height, stomatal conductance, amount of water transpired, leaf relative water content, and leaf water potential more in IR64 and the NILs than in the respective controls; nonetheless, transpiration efficiency (TE) was slightly higher under drought than in the well-watered controls. NILs with broader leaves had higher biomass (and its individual components), less stomatal conductance, and higher TE under drought than NILs with narrow and shorter leaves. Under drought, leaf number was positively correlated with tiller number and plant height; nonetheless, root weight and total biomass, water transpired and TE, and plant height and TE were positively correlated with each other. However, a negative correlation was observed between stomatal conductance and the FTSW threshold at which normalized transpiration started to decline during soil drying. Overall, the IR64-derived lines with broader leaves performed better than NILs with narrow and short leaves under drought. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Gmb

  8. Genomic DNA sequence and cytosine methylation changes of adult rice leaves after seeds space flight

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    Shi, Jinming

    In this study, cytosine methylation on CCGG site and genomic DNA sequence changes of adult leaves of rice after seeds space flight were detected by methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) and Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique respectively. Rice seeds were planted in the trial field after 4 days space flight on the shenzhou-6 Spaceship of China. Adult leaves of space-treated rice including 8 plants chosen randomly and 2 plants with phenotypic mutation were used for AFLP and MSAP analysis. Polymorphism of both DNA sequence and cytosine methylation were detected. For MSAP analysis, the average polymorphic frequency of the on-ground controls, space-treated plants and mutants are 1.3%, 3.1% and 11% respectively. For AFLP analysis, the average polymorphic frequencies are 1.4%, 2.9%and 8%respectively. Total 27 and 22 polymorphic fragments were cloned sequenced from MSAP and AFLP analysis respectively. Nine of the 27 fragments from MSAP analysis show homology to coding sequence. For the 22 polymorphic fragments from AFLP analysis, no one shows homology to mRNA sequence and eight fragments show homology to repeat region or retrotransposon sequence. These results suggest that although both genomic DNA sequence and cytosine methylation status can be effected by space flight, the genomic region homology to the fragments from genome DNA and cytosine methylation analysis were different.

  9. Interaction between Pyricularia oryzae, four Helminthosporium species and Curvularia lunata in rice leaves

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    M. Bahous

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between six fungal parasites of rice: Pyricularia oryzae, Helminthosporium oryzae, H. sativum, H. spiciferum, H. australiensis and Curvularia lunata was studied quantitatively by a modified plant ecology technique known as the de Wit replacement series. Each fungus was inoculated alone or in combination with one of the other five fungi in various proportions into rice plants under experimental conditions. Leaves developing lesions were harvested and incubated in a moist chamber. The yield of each fungus was its conidial production on the rice leaves. The artificial inoculations indicated that interactions between the pathogens in the mixture could be beneficial, antagonistic, or null. Interspecific interaction (i.e. antagonism occurred in the majority of paired combinations (H. oryzae + P. oryzae; H. sativum + H. spiciferum, H. australiensis, C. lunata or P. oryzae; H. australiensis + H. spiciferum, C. lunata or P. oryzae; and P. oryzae + C. lunata. The relative yield total (RYT lines were significantly lower than the expected value, which is 1. The RYT lines were concave upward, revealing a beneficial effect of one or both pathogens on the other, when H. oryzae was in mixture with H. sativum or H. spiciferum. A null effect between fungi occurred in four combinations (H. oryzae + H. australiensis or C. lunata; H. spiciferum + C. lunata; and P. oryzae + H. spiciferum showing that with these combinations inter- and intraspecific competitions were equal in intensity. Thus, the de Wit replacement series technique indicated that it was possible to quantify the interaction between all the pathogenic fungi tested.

  10. Evaporation kinetics of surfactant solution droplets on rice (Oryza sativa) leaves

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    Cao, Li-Dong; Zheng, Li; Xu, Jun; Li, Feng-Min; Huang, Qi-Liang

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of evaporating sessile droplets on hydrophilic or hydrophobic surfaces is widely studied, and many models for these processes have been developed based on experimental evidence. However, few research has been explored on the evaporation of sessile droplets of surfactant or pesticide solutions on target crop leaves. Thus, in this paper the impact of surfactant concentrations on contact angle, contact diameter, droplet height, and evolution of the droplets’ evaporative volume on rice leaf surfaces have been investigated. The results indicate that the evaporation kinetics of surfactant droplets on rice leaves were influenced by both the surfactant concentrations and the hydrophobicity of rice leaf surfaces. When the surfactant concentration is lower than the surfactant CMC (critical micelle concentration), the droplet evaporation time is much longer than that of the high surfactant concentration. This is due to the longer existence time of a narrow wedge region under the lower surfactant concentration, and such narrow wedge region further restricts the droplet evaporation. Besides, our experimental data are shown to roughly collapse onto theoretical curves based on the model presented by Popov. This study could supply theoretical data on the evaporation of the adjuvant or pesticide droplets for practical applications in agriculture. PMID:28472108

  11. ZrO2/bamboo leaves ash (BLA) Catalyst in Biodiesel Conversion of Rice Bran Oil

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    Fatimah, Is; Taushiyah, Ana; Badriatun Najah, Fitri; Azmi, Ulil

    2018-04-01

    Preparation, characterization and catalytic activity of ZrO2/bamboo leaves ash (BLA) catalyst for conversion of rice bran oil to biodiesel have been investigated. The catalyst was prepared by impregnation method of ZrOCl2 as ZrO2 precursor with BLA at a theoretical content of 20% wt. followed by calcination. The physicochemical properties of the catalyst material were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and surface acidity measurement. Activity test of materials in biodiesel conversion of rice bran oil was used by reflux method and microwave (MW) assisted method. Reaction variables studied in the investigation were the effect of catalyst weight and time of MW irradiation compared with the use reflux method. The results showed that ZrO2/BLA catalyst exhibited competitively effective and efficient processes for the production of biodiesel. The reflux method demonstrated an higher conversion (%) compared to MW method, however MW method showed the better reusable properties.

  12. Discrimination of Rice with Different Pretreatment Methods by Using a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue

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    Li Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an application of a voltammetric electronic tongue for discrimination and prediction of different varieties of rice was investigated. Different pretreatment methods were selected, which were subsequently used for the discrimination of different varieties of rice and prediction of unknown rice samples. To this aim, a voltammetric array of sensors based on metallic electrodes was used as the sensing part. The different samples were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry with two sample-pretreatment methods. Discriminant Factorial Analysis was used to visualize the different categories of rice samples; however, radial basis function (RBF artificial neural network with leave-one-out cross-validation method was employed for prediction modeling. The collected signal data were first compressed employing fast Fourier transform (FFT and then significant features were extracted from the voltammetric signals. The experimental results indicated that the sample solutions obtained by the non-crushed pretreatment method could efficiently meet the effect of discrimination and recognition. The satisfactory prediction results of voltammetric electronic tongue based on RBF artificial neural network were obtained with less than five-fold dilution of the sample solution. The main objective of this study was to develop primary research on the application of an electronic tongue system for the discrimination and prediction of solid foods and provide an objective assessment tool for the food industry.

  13. Oxidative stress-triggered interactions between the succinyl- and acetyl-proteomes of rice leaves.

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    Zhou, Heng; Finkemeier, Iris; Guan, Wenxue; Tossounian, Maria-Armineh; Wei, Bo; Young, David; Huang, Jingjing; Messens, Joris; Yang, Xibin; Zhu, Jun; Wilson, Michael H; Shen, Wenbiao; Xie, Yanjie; Foyer, Christine H

    2018-05-01

    Protein lysine acylations, such as succinylation and acetylation, are important post-translational modification (PTM) mechanisms, with key roles in cellular regulation. Antibody-based affinity enrichment, high-resolution liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis, and integrated bioinformatics analysis were used to characterize the lysine succinylome (K suc ) and acetylome (K ace ) of rice leaves. In total, 2,593 succinylated and 1,024 acetylated proteins were identified, of which 723 were simultaneously acetylated and succinylated. Proteins involved in photosynthetic carbon metabolism such as the large and small subunits of RuBisCO, ribosomal functions, and other key processes were subject to both PTMs. Preliminary insights into oxidant-induced changes to the rice acetylome and succinylome were gained from treatments with hydrogen peroxide. Exposure to oxidative stress did not regulate global changes in the rice acetylome or succinylome but rather led to modifications on a specific subset of the identified sites. De-succinylation of recombinant catalase (CATA) and glutathione S-transferase (OsGSTU6) altered the activities of these enzymes showing that this PTM may have a regulatory function. These findings not only greatly extend the list of acetylated and/or succinylated proteins but they also demonstrate the close cooperation between these PTMs in leaf proteins with key metabolic functions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The mechanism of improved aeration due to gas films on leaves of submerged rice.

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    Verboven, Pieter; Pedersen, Ole; Ho, Quang Tri; Nicolai, Bart M; Colmer, Timothy D

    2014-10-01

    Some terrestrial wetland plants, such as rice, have super-hydrophobic leaf surfaces which retain a gas film when submerged. O2 movement through the diffusive boundary layer (DBL) of floodwater, gas film and stomata into leaf mesophyll was explored by means of a reaction-diffusion model that was solved in a three-dimensional leaf anatomy model. The anatomy and dark respiration of leaves of rice (Oryza sativa L.) were measured and used to compute O2 fluxes and partial pressure of O2 (pO2 ) in the DBL, gas film and leaf when submerged. The effects of floodwater pO2 , DBL thickness, cuticle permeability, presence of gas film and stomatal opening were explored. Under O2 -limiting conditions of the bulk water (pO2  gas film significantly increases the O2 flux into submerged leaves regardless of whether stomata are fully or partly open. With a gas film, tissue pO2 substantially increases, even for the slightest stomatal opening, but not when stomata are completely closed. The effect of gas films increases with decreasing cuticle permeability. O2 flux and tissue pO2 decrease with increasing DBL thickness. The present modelling analysis provides a mechanistic understanding of how leaf gas films facilitate O2 entry into submerged plants. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Briquettes of rice husk, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and dried leaves as implementation of wastes recycling

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    Hariyanto, Sucipto; Usman, Mohammad Nurdianfajar; Citrasari, Nita

    2017-06-01

    This research aim is to determine the best briquettes as implementation of wastes recycle based on scoring method, main component composition, compressive strength, caloric value, water content, vollatile content, and ash content, also the suitability with SNI 01-6235-2000. Main component that used are rice husk, 2mm and 6 mm PET, and dried leaves. Composition variation in this research are marked as K1, K2, K3, K4, and K5 with 2 mm PET plastic and K1, K2, K3, K4, and K5 with 6 mm PET plastic. The total weight of the briquettes is 100 g and divided into 90% main components and 10% tapioca as binder. The compressive strength, caloric value, water content, vollatile content, and ash content were tested according to ASTM D 5865-04, ASTM D 3173-03, ASTM D 3175-02, ASTM D 3174-02. The tested results were used to determine the best briquette by scoring method, and the chosen briquettes is K2 with 6 mm PET plastic. The composition is 70% rice husk, 20% 6 mm PET plastic, and 10% dried leaves with the compressive strength, caloric value, water content, vollatile content, and ash content value is 51,55 kg/cm2; 5123 kal/g; 3,049%; 31,823%, dan 12,869%. The suitable value that meet the criteria according to SNI 01-6235-2000 is compressive strength, caloric value, water content, and ash content.

  16. Comparison of ion balance and nitrogen metabolism in old and young leaves of alkali-stressed rice plants.

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    Wang, Huan; Wu, Zhihai; Han, Jiayu; Zheng, Wei; Yang, Chunwu

    2012-01-01

    Alkali stress is an important agricultural contaminant and has complex effects on plant metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the alkali stress has different effects on the growth, ion balance, and nitrogen metabolism in old and young leaves of rice plants, and to compare functions of both organs in alkali tolerance. The results showed that alkali stress only produced a small effect on the growth of young leaves, whereas strongly damaged old leaves. Rice protected young leaves from ion harm via the large accumulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) in old leaves. The up-regulation of OsHKT1;1, OsAKT1, OsHAK1, OsHAK7, OsHAK10 and OsHAK16 may contribute to the larger accumulation of Na(+) in old leaves under alkali stress. Alkali stress mightily reduced the NO(3)(-) contents in both organs. As old leaf cells have larger vacuole, under alkali stress these scarce NO(3)(-) was principally stored in old leaves. Accordingly, the expression of OsNRT1;1 and OsNRT1;2 in old leaves was up-regulated by alkali stress, revealing that the two genes might contribute to the accumulation of NO(3)(-) in old leaves. NO(3)(-) deficiency in young leaves under alkali stress might induce the reduction in OsNR1 expression and the subsequent lacking of NH(4)(+), which might be main reason for the larger down-regulation of OsFd-GOGAT and OsGS2 in young leaves. Our results strongly indicated that, during adaptation of rice to alkali stress, young and old leaves have distinct mechanisms of ion balance and nitrogen metabolism regulation. We propose that the comparative studies of young and old tissues may be important for abiotic stress tolerance research.

  17. Effect of heavy metal stress on the catalase activity and expression of isozymes in the leaves of rice seedling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Cailin; Yang Xiaoyong; Zhu Hongxia; Wang Zegang; Luo Shishi; Ma Fei; Sun Jinhe

    2002-01-01

    The effect of heavy metal stress on the catalase (CAT) activity and expression of isozymes in the leaves of rice (Wuyujing, Yangdao 6, Shanyou 818) seedling was measured and analyzed. The results showed as follows. (1) When the concentration of Cu, Cd and Hg was in the range of 0.05-2.0 mM, the CAT activity decreased continuously with the concentration of Cu and Cd increasing. However, with the concentration of Hg increasing the CAT activity rapidly decreased first, and then increased slightly, and again decreased obviously, indicating that the Cu, Cd and Hg of 0.05-2.0 mM inhibited the CAT activity in the leaves of rice seedling. (2) The results by using polyacrylamide concentration gradient gel electrophoresis technique to analyze the CAT isozymes indicated that, on the normal condition, there were 1 to 2 CAT isozymes being expressed in the rice leaves (2 CAT isozymes being expressed in Wuyujing leaves, 1 CAT isozymes in Yangdao 6 and Shanyou 818 leaves). 0.1 mM Cd stress induced Wuyujing leaves to express 1 new CAT isozymes, 0.1 mM Cd and Hg stress also induced Yangdao 6 leaves to express 1 new CAT isozymes, but the expression of CAT isozymes, which were expressed in normal condition, were inhibited by Cu, Cd and Hg stress

  18. Alterations in Gas Exchange and Oxidative Metabolism in Rice Leaves Infected by Pyricularia oryzae are Attenuated by Silicon.

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    Domiciano, Gisele Pereira; Cacique, Isaías Severino; Chagas Freitas, Cecília; Filippi, Marta Cristina Corsi; DaMatta, Fábio Murilo; do Vale, Francisco Xavier Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila

    2015-06-01

    Rice blast, caused by Pyricularia oryzae, is the most important disease in rice worldwide. This study investigated the effects of silicon (Si) on the photosynthetic gas exchange parameters (net CO2 assimilation rate [A], stomatal conductance to water vapor [gs], internal-to-ambient CO2 concentration ratio [Ci/Ca], and transpiration rate [E]); chlorophyll fluorescence a (Chla) parameters (maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II [Fv/Fm], photochemical [qP] and nonphotochemical [NPQ] quenching coefficients, and electron transport rate [ETR]); concentrations of pigments, malondialdehyde (MDA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), and lypoxigenase (LOX) in rice leaves. Rice plants were grown in a nutrient solution containing 0 or 2 mM Si (-Si or +Si, respectively) with and without P. oryzae inoculation. Blast severity decreased with higher foliar Si concentration. The values of A, gs and E were generally higher for the +Si plants in comparison with the -Si plants upon P. oryzae infection. The Fv/Fm, qp, NPQ, and ETR were greater for the +Si plants relative to the -Si plants at 108 and 132 h after inoculation (hai). The values for qp and ETR were significantly higher for the -Si plants in comparison with the +Si plants at 36 hai, and the NPQ was significantly higher for the -Si plants in comparison with the +Si plants at 0 and 36 hai. The concentrations of Chla, Chlb, Chla+b, and carotenoids were significantly greater in the +Si plants relative to the -Si plants. For the -Si plants, the MDA and H2O2 concentrations were significantly higher than those in the +Si plants. The LOX activity was significantly higher in the +Si plants than in the -Si plants. The SOD and GR activities were significantly higher for the -Si plants than in the +Si plants. The CAT and APX activities were significantly higher in the +Si plants than in the -Si plants. The supply of

  19. [Effects of soil water status on gas exchange of peanut and early rice leaves].

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    Chen, Jiazhou; Lü, Guoan; He, Yuanqiu

    2005-01-01

    The gas exchange characteristics of peanut and early rice leaves were investigated in experimental plots under different soil water conditions over a long growth period. The results showed that at the branching stage of peanut, the stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr) decreased slightly under mild and moderate soil water stress, while the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and leaf water use efficiency (WUE) increased. The Gs/Tr ratio also increased under mild water stress, but decreased under moderate water stress. At podding stage, the Gs, Tr, Gs/Tr ratio and Pn decreased, while WUE increased significantly under mild and moderate water stress. The peanut was suffered from water stress at its pod setting stage. At the grain filling stage of early rice, the Gs, Tr and Gs/Tr ratio fluctuated insignificantly under mild and moderate water stress, while Pn and WUE increased significantly, with an increase in grain yield under mild water stress. It's suggested that the combination of Gs and Gs/Tr ratio could be a reference index for crop water stress, namely, crops could be hazarded by water stress when Gs and Gs/Tr decreased synchronously.

  20. Distribution of assimilates derived from canopy leaves at different milky stage of intergeneric high-yielding hybrid rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jianjun

    1997-01-01

    Distribution characteristics of assimilates derived from 14 C-glucose fed on different canopy leaves of the high-yielding intergeneric hybrid rice Yuanyou 1 and GER-1, intra-varietal 3-line hybrid rice Shanyou 63, maternal and paternal parents of intergeneric hybrid rice at various ripening stage from flowering stage to late milky stage were studied with pot experiments under greenhouse in 1993 and 1994 in Guangzhou. The results indicates that there exists a significant difference in exportation of radioactivity from the leaf fed, partitioning of radioactivity exported into different organs and importation accumulation percent of total radioactivity in the rice panicle Yuanyou 1 has a high average exportation percent, importation accumulation percent and a stable and sustainable grain-filling process, which results in a high seed-setting rate with large spikelet population

  1. Electronic pay and leave statements (e-Payslips)

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of measures to simplify and rationalise administrative procedures, the FI and IT Departments proposed a project to introduce electronic pay and leave statements. The project was launched at the beginning of 2004 after it had been approved by the Director of the Finance and Human Resources Departments. The project was presented to the GTPA (Groupe de Travail sur les Procédures Administratives) and discussed at the meeting of the SCC (Standing Concertation Committee) on 8 July 2004. The system designed and developed by the IT Department is now operational. What will change? Members of the personnel who currently receive a paper copy of their pay and/or leave statement will, in future, receive monthly e-mail notification of their electronic pay and leave statement, instead of the paper document. The current project does not affect retired members of the personnel. Each person receiving the e-mail notification will be invited to consult these electronic statements by clicking on a link p...

  2. Transcriptional profile of genes involved in ascorbate glutathione cycle in senescing leaves for an early senescence leaf (esl) rice mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaowei; Su, Da; Lei, Bingting; Wang, Fubiao; Geng, Wei; Pan, Gang; Cheng, Fangmin

    2015-03-15

    To clarify the complex relationship between ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle and H2O2-induced leaf senescence, the genotype-dependent difference in some senescence-related physiological parameters and the transcript levels and the temporal patterns of genes involved in the AsA-GSH cycle during leaf senescence were investigated using two rice genotypes, namely, the early senescence leaf (esl) mutant and its wild type. Meanwhile, the triggering effect of exogenous H2O2 on the expression of OsAPX genes was examined using detached leaves. The results showed that the esl mutant had higher H2O2 level than its wild type at the initial stage of leaf senescence. At transcriptional level, the association of expression of various genes involved in the AsA-GSH cycle with leaf senescence was isoform dependent. For OsAPXs, the transcripts of two cytosolic OsAPX genes (OsAPX1 and OsAPX2), thylakoid-bound OsAPX8, chloroplastic OsAPX7 and peroxisomal OsAPX4 exhibited remarkable genotype-dependent variation in their expression levels and temporal patterns during leaf senescence, there were significantly increasing transcripts of OsAXP1 and OsAPX7, severely repressed transcripts of OsAPX4 and OsAPX8 for the esl rice at the initial leaf senescence. In contrast, the repressing transcript of OsAPX8 was highly sensitive to the increasing H2O2 level in the senescing rice leaves, while higher H2O2 concentration resulted in the enhancing transcripts of two cytosolic OsAPX genes, OsAPX7 transcript was greatly variable with different H2O2 concentrations and incubating duration, suggesting that the different OsAPXs isoforms played a complementary role in perceiving and scavenging H2O2 accumulation at various H2O2 concentrations during leaf senescence. Higher H2O2 level, increased AsA level, higher activities of APX and glutathione reductase (GR), and relatively stable GSH content during the entire sampling period in the leaves of esl mutant implied that a close interrelationship existed

  3. DNA comet assay for rice seeds treated with low energy electrons ('soft-electrons')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Hayashi, Toru

    1999-01-01

    As rice seeds are sometimes contaminated with phytopathogenic organisms such as blast disease fungi and nematodes, a novel non-chemical disinfection method for rice seeds is highly required. In order to develop a disinfection method, the effect of low energy electron ('soft-electrons') on seed DNA was examined by using the neutral comet assay. Rice seeds (whole grain) were treated with electrons of different acceleration voltages (180 kV to 1 MV) at a dose of 5 kGy. Nucleus suspensions were prepared from whole brown rice and subjected to electrophoresis. DNA from un-irradiated (control) seeds relaxed and produced comets with a short tail, most of the comets distributed within the range of comet length between 30 μm to 70 μm. In the case of seeds treated with electrons at acceleration voltages up to 190 kV, cells without seed coats were not damaged and the frequency histograms of comet length showed almost the same pattern as that for control. At acceleration voltages higher than 200 kV, the cells were distributed into two categories; DNA comets with a short tail (with little DNA damages, less than 70 μm in the comet length) and DNA comets with long tails (with sever strand breaks, more than 130 μm in the comet length). The ratios of damaged cells increased with increasing acceleration voltage. The growths of rice seedlings were not affected by the treatment with electrons at up to 200 kV. On the contrary, the cells of gamma-irradiated seed showed small variations in the comet length, and which were depending on radiation dose. The individual cells of gamma-irradiated seeds at 1 kGy showed shorter comet than the damaged cells with soft electron, seed treated with gamma rays (1-5 kGy) did not shoot nor root. (author)

  4. Response of oxidative stress defense systems in rice (Oryza sativa) leaves with supplemental UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Q.; Yan, B.; Huang, S.; Liu, X.; Peng, S.; Miranda, M.L.L.; Chavez, A.Q.; Vergara, B.S.; Olszyk, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    The impact of elevated ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280–320 nm) on membrane systems and lipid peroxidation, and possible involvement of active oxygen radicals was investigated in leaves of two UV-B susceptible rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L. cvs IR74 and Dular). Rice seedlings were grown in a greenhouse for 10 days and then treated with biologically effective UV-B (UV-B BE ) radiation for 28 days. Oxidative stress effects were evaluated by measuring superoxide anion (O 2 ) generation rate, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) content, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and relative electrolyte conductivity (EC) for IR74 and Dular at 0 (control), 6 or 13 kJ m −2 day −1 UV-B BE . Significant increases in these parameters were found in rice plants grown at 13 vs 0 kJ m −2 day −1 UV-B BE after 28 days; indicating that disruption of membrane systems may be an eventual reason for UV-B-induced injury in rice plants. There was a positive correlation between O 2 − generation and increases in EC or MDA in leaves. Activities of enzymatic and nonenzymatic free radical scavengers were measured for IR74 after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of exposure to 13 or 0 UV-B BE to evaluate dynamics of these responses over time. Activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (but not ascorbate peroxidase) and concentrations of ascorbic acid and glutathione were enhanced by 13 vs 0 UV-B BE after 14 days of UV-B exposure. Further exposure to 28 days of UV-B was associated with a decline in enzyme activities and ascorbic acid, but not glutathione. It is suggested that UV-B-induced injury may be associated with disturbance of active oxygen metabolism through the destruction and alteration of both enzymatic and nonenzymatic defense systems in rice. (author)

  5. Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics in Flag Leaves of the C Liangyou Series of Hybrid Rice Combinations at Late Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-bang TANG

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The contents of chlorophyll, soluble sugars, soluble proteins and thiobarbituric acid reaction substance (TBARS, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, net photosynthetic rate as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD of flag leaves at the late growth stages were studied by using C Liangyou series of hybrid rice combinitions as material and Shanyou 63 as control. The C Liangyou series of hybrid rice combinations used in the experiment included C Liangyou 396, C Liangyou 87, C Liangyou 755 and C Liangyou 34, which all used C815S as male sterile line. The contents of chlorophyll, soluble sugars and soluble proteins in flag leaves of the C Liangyou series combinations at the late growth stages were higher than those of the control, whereas the TBARS content was lower than that of the control. The activities of SOD and POD were significantly higher than those of the control on the 7th day after heading, and then decreased slowly. FPSII value and qP value of flag leaves decreased at the late growth stages, and these two parameters in flag leaves of the C Liangyou series combinations were higher than those of the control, while the qN value increased at the late growth stages and was lower than that of the control. The net photosynthetic rate of flag leaves at the late growth stage was higher compared with the control. These results suggest that slow senescence and strong photosynthetic capability in flag leaves at the late growth stages are the physiological basis of the C Liangyou series combinations.

  6. Two-line hybrid rice male sterile line 'NHR111S' with a marker of green-revertible albino leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wei; Liu Xin; Shu Xiaoli; Shu Qingyao; Xia Yingwu; Wu Dianxing

    2006-01-01

    NHR111S is a new two-line male sterile line with a marker of green-revertible albino leave that was bred from in vitro mutagens is of the thermo/photoperiod-sensitive male sterile line 'Guangzhan63S' by 60 Co γ-rays. It has the same desired agronomic traits, fertility characteristics and combining ability as characteristics of the parent. It is convenient to develop leaf color marker-aided elimination strategy in the multiplication and production of hybrid rice seeds. (authors)

  7. Toxicity of essential oils from leaves of Piperaceae species in rice stalk stink bug eggs, Tibraca limbativentris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diones Krinski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tibraca limbativentris to is an important rice pest and occurs in all rice-growing regions of Latin America. The control this insect is accomplished with synthetic chemical insecticides, however, new approaches are needed to reduce risks to the environment, to the natural enemies and also to avoid the onset of insecticides resistance. This study was designed to assess the toxicity of essential oils (EOs from leaves of Piper aduncum, P. gaudichaudianum, P. malacophyllum, P. marginatum and P. tuberculatum (Piperaceae on rice stalk stink bug eggs, T. limbativentris. Essential oils were extracted with steam distillation and dilutions were made for bioassays at concentrations of 0.25; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0%. Essential oils from all species of Piperaceae displayed ovicidal activity. The LC50 values indicated that both younger and older eggs were susceptible to these oils. Ovicidal activity is related to the potential toxicity of several compounds, especially dilapiolle, myristicin, cubebene, α-guaiene, longifolene, prezizane, spathulenol, sabinene and δ-2-carene. Thus, EOs tested showed promising results for use as biorational botanical insecticides.

  8. Comparative Study on Characteristics and Potential of Rice Straws and Dry Leaves as a Binder in Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulhafizal Othman; Lias, K.; Hashim, N.H.; Clement, F.N.

    2013-01-01

    Integrated waste management systems are one of the greatest challenges in order to develop the green environment. In this research, two types of binder were chosen in producing of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) which is rice straws and dry leaves. The objective of the research is to identify which types of binder that can give the optimum performance. This two binder was mixed with paper and plastic waste with controlled mixing ratio which is 3:1 (ratio 1), 3:1.5(ratio 2) and 3:2 (ratio 3). In order to identify the optimum ratio of RDF, 45 number of samples was prepared and their properties such as moisture content, carbon content, sulfur content, chlorine content and calorific value were evaluated. Result indicated that samples with rice straw as a binder give the optimum result with the ratio of 3:1. The optimum values of the carbon content is 50.9 %, moisture content is 5.5 %, chlorine content is 0.0 %, sulfur content is 2.1 % and calorific value is 29.0 MJ/ kg. Hence, rice straws shows a great potential to be used as binder in production of RDF. (author)

  9. Exogenous superoxide dismutase may lose its antidotal ability on rice leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf diffusates of the resistant rice cultivars suppressed spore germination of blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea). Bovine Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) added to the diffusate abolished its toxicity. However, the enzyme added to the inoculum did not affect the toxicity of the diffusate. Even the s...

  10. Development of the spectrometric imaging apparatus of laser induced fluorescence from plants and estimation of chlorophyll contents of rice leaves; Laser reiki keiko sokutei sochi no kaihatsu to inehanai no chlorophyll ganryo no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaya, K.; Shoji, K.; Hanyu, H.

    1999-05-01

    Photosynthetic activity of plants is an important factor to assess the micrometeorological effect of plant canopy or to estimate the influence of circumstances such as water stress. Light illumination induces fluorescence from a leaf or suspension of chloroplasts. The red chlorophyll fluorescence had been used to determine the process of the electron transportation in photosynthetic reaction. The fluorescence source other than chlorophyll is not announced sufficiently, but is supposed to be useful to determine the contents of the substance corresponding to physiological response of plants. We developed a fluorescence imaging apparatus to observe spectrum and distribution of laser induced fluorescence from a leaf. Pulsed UV-laser (Nd:YAG) induced blue-green fluorescence and red chlorophyll fluorescence from a green leaf. The pulse modulated measuring light and CCD with image-intensifier (ICCD) enable to detect the fluorescence from plants under illumination. The laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra were investigated to estimate the chlorophyll contents in leaves of rice. During the greening course of dark grown etiolated rice leaves, chlorophyll contents were determined using the extraction of leaves and steady state LIF spectra were measured. As a result, the ratio of fluorescent intensity between blue-green and red peaks (F460/F740 and F510/F740) decreased in proportion to alteration of chlorophyll contents respectively. These fluorescence intensity ratios perform more precise estimation of higher chlorophyll contents of leaves than reported red chlorophyll fluorescence intensity ratio (F690/E740). (author)

  11. Improved performance of photosynthetic light response equations with unified parameters for rice leaves with different SPAD values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Peng, S.; Kong, W.

    2015-01-01

    The rectangular hyperbola (RH), Mitscherlich (M) and YE equation were applied to describe the photosynthetic light response (PLR) curves measured from rice leaves with different SPAD values, to reveal the relationship between SPAD values and parameters in different equations, and to establish the modified PLR equations. The parameters in PLR equations are largely varied. SPAD value, as an indicator of leaf N contents, was highly correlated to the parameter of Pnmax in RH, M and YE equations. Incorporating the factor SPAD into PLR equations, the modified equations (MRH, MM, and MYE) were established which were feasible to describing the PLR curves for leaves with different SPAD values using the identical parameters for the ten PLR curves as a whole, and perform much better than the general PLR equations (GRH, GM, and GYE). It indicated that incorporating easy available indicators of leaf physiological and morphological traits in the PLR equations, such as SPAD as an indicator of leaf N or Chlorophyll contents, is an easy way to overcome the shortcoming of parameters variation in PLR equations between individuals of the same specie growing in different environments. Further validation should be done for different crops with both SPAD and other possible factors. (author)

  12. Aquaporin Expression and Water Transport Pathways inside Leaves Are Affected by Nitrogen Supply through Transpiration in Rice Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ding

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthetic rate increases under high-N supply, resulting in a large CO2 transport conductance in mesophyll cells. It is less known that water movement is affected by nitrogen supply in leaves. This study investigated whether the expression of aquaporin and water transport were affected by low-N (0.7 mM and high-N (7 mM concentrations in the hydroponic culture of four rice varieties: (1 Shanyou 63 (SY63, a hybrid variant of the indica species; (2 Yangdao 6 (YD6, a variant of indica species; (3 Zhendao 11 (ZD11, a hybrid variant of japonica species; and (4 Jiuyou 418 (JY418, another hybrid of the japonica species. Both the photosynthetic and transpiration rate were increased by the high-N supply in the four varieties. The expressions of aquaporins, plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs, and tonoplast membrane intrinsic protein (TIP were higher in high-N than low-N leaves, except in SY63. Leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf was lower in high-N than low-N leaves in SY63, while Kleaf increased under high-N supply in the YD6 variant. Negative correlations were observed between the expression of aquaporin and the transpiration rate in different varieties. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between transpiration rate and intercellular air space. In conclusion, the change in expression of aquaporins could affect Kleaf and transpiration. A feedback effect of transpiration would regulate aquaporin expression. The present results imply a coordination of gas exchange with leaf hydraulic conductance.

  13. Comparative Study of the Detection of Chromium Content in Rice Leaves by 532 nm and 1064 nm Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyu Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fast detection of toxic metals in crops is important for monitoring pollution and ensuring food safety. In this study, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS was used to detect the chromium content in rice leaves. We investigated the influence of laser wavelength (532 nm and 1064 nm excitation, along with the variations of delay time, pulse energy, and lens-to-sample distance (LTSD, on the signal (sensitivity and stability and plasma features (temperature and electron density. With the optimized experimental parameters, univariate analysis was used for quantifying the chromium content, and several preprocessing methods (including background normalization, area normalization, multiplicative scatter correction (MSC transformation and standardized normal variate (SNV transformation were used to further improve the analytical performance. The results indicated that 532 nm excitation showed better sensitivity than 1064 nm excitation, with a detection limit around two times lower. However, the prediction accuracy for both excitation wavelengths was similar. The best result, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9849, root-mean-square error of 3.89 mg/kg and detection limit of 2.72 mg/kg, was obtained using the SNV transformed signal (Cr I 425.43 nm induced by 532 nm excitation. The results indicate the inspiring capability of LIBS for toxic metals detection in plant materials.

  14. In vitro degradability test on rice bran containing Tithonia diversifolia (HEMSL. A. Gray and kelor (Moringa oleifera, LAMK leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firsoni

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A research was done to investigate the advantages of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray and Moringa oleifera Lamk leaves as protein source in ruminant concentrate on in-vitro rumen metabolism. Randomized Block Design with 4 treatments and 5 replications was applied in this experiment. The treatments were: A = Tithonia diversifolia (TD 75% + Rice Bran (DD 25%: B = TD (56.25% + Moringa oleifera (MO 18.75% + DD 25%; C = TD 37.50% + MO 37.50% + DD 25%; D = TD 18.75% + MO 56.25% + DD 25%. Samples were weighted 375 ± 5 mg, placed into syringe glass 100 ml, 30 ml rumen liquor with bicarbonat buffer media was added and incubated in 390C for 48 hours. Parameters measured were gas production after 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours incubation, degradability of organic matter (DBK and dry matter (DBO, NH3, total VFA concentration, and microbe biomass production (mg after 48 hours incubation. Results showed that Moringa oleifera replaced some Tithonia diversifolia in concentrate could improve gas production, total VFA concentration, DBK and DBO significantly (P < 0.05. The highest gas production was obtained from treatment D (52.98 ml/375 mg DM and the lowest was from treatment A (41,02 ml/375 mg DM. The highest VFA total was produced by treatment D (88.20 mM and the lowest was from treatment A (78.86 mM. The highest DBK dan DBO were obtained from treatment D (73.74 and 73.32% and the lowest was from treatment A (68.77 and 67.54%. Treatment D produced the highest NH3 and microbial biomass (38.09 mg/100 ml and 89.50 mg, the lowest was obtained from treatment A (35.84 mg/100 ml and 84.66 mg.

  15. Characterization of 68Zn uptake, translocation, and accumulation into developing grains and young leaves of high Zn-density rice genotype*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-yong; Feng, Ying; Shohag, Md. Jahidul Islam; Lu, Ling-li; Wei, Yan-yan; Gao, Chong; Yang, Xiao-e

    2011-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient for humans, but Zn deficiency has become serious as equally as iron (Fe) and vitamin A deficiencies nowadays. Selection and breeding of high Zn-density crops is a suitable, cost-effective, and sustainable way to improve human health. However, the mechanism of high Zn density in rice grain is not fully understood, especially how Zn transports from soil to grains. Hydroponics experiments were carried out to compare Zn uptake and distribution in two different Zn-density rice genotypes using stable isotope technique. At seedling stage, IR68144 showed higher 68Zn uptake and transport rate to the shoot for the short-term, but no significant difference was observed in both genotypes for the long-term. Zn in xylem sap of IR68144 was consistently higher, and IR68144 exhibited higher Zn absorption ratio than IR64 at sufficient (2.0 µmol/L) or surplus (8.0 µmol/L) Zn supply level. IR64 and IR68144 showed similar patterns of 68Zn accumulation in new leaves at seedling stage and in developing grains at ripening stage, whereas 68Zn in new leaves and grains of IR68144 was consistently higher. These results suggested that a rapid root-to-shoot translocation and enhanced xylem loading capacity may be the crucial processes for high Zn density in rice grains. PMID:21528496

  16. Visualized attribute analysis approach for characterization and quantification of rice taste flavor using electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lin; Hu, Xianqiao [Rice Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, Ministry of Agriculture, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Tian, Shiyi; Deng, Shaoping [College of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China); Zhu, Zhiwei, E-mail: 615834652@qq.com [Rice Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, Ministry of Agriculture, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China)

    2016-05-05

    This paper deals with a novel visualized attributive analysis approach for characterization and quantification of rice taste flavor attributes (softness, stickiness, sweetness and aroma) employing a multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue. Data preprocessing methods including Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) were provided. An attribute characterization graph was represented for visualization of the interactive response in which each attribute responded by specific electrodes and frequencies. The model was trained using signal data from electronic tongue and attribute scores from artificial evaluation. The correlation coefficients for all attributes were over 0.9, resulting in good predictive ability of attributive analysis model preprocessed by FFT. This approach extracted more effective information about linear relationship between electronic tongue and taste flavor attribute. Results indicated that this approach can accurately quantify taste flavor attributes, and can be an efficient tool for data processing in a voltammetric electronic tongue system. - Graphical abstract: Schematic process for visualized attributive analysis approach using multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue for determination of rice taste flavor attribute. (a) sample; (b) sensors in electronic tongue; (c) excitation voltage program and response current signal from MLAPS; (d) similarity data matrix by data preprocessing and similarity extraction; (e) feature data matrix of attribute; (f) attribute characterization graph; (g) attribute scores predicted by the model. - Highlights: • Multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue was used. • A visualized attributive analysis approach was created as an efficient tool for data processing. • Rice taste flavor attribute was determined and predicted. • The attribute characterization graph was represented for visualization of the

  17. Characterization of Chinese rice wine taste attributes using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, HaiYan; Zhao, Jie; Li, Fenghua; Tian, Huaixiang; Ma, Xia

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese rice wine, wine samples sourced from different vintage years were analyzed using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue. Six organic acids and seventeen amino acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five monosaccharides were measured using anion-exchange chromatography. The global taste attributes were analyzed using an electronic tongue (E-tongue). The correlations between the 28 taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes, and the correlations between the E-tongue response and the sensory attributes were established via partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). E-tongue response data combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to discriminate the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from different vintage years. Sensory evaluation indicated significant differences in the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 vintage years in the sensory attributes of harmony and mellow. The PLSDA model for the taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes showed that proline, fucose, arabinose, lactic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, and lysine had an influence on the taste characteristic of Chinese rice wine. The Chinese rice wine samples were all correctly classified using the E-tongue and LDA. The electronic tongue was an effective tool for rapid discrimination of Chinese rice wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, and Burkholderia glumae in infected rice seeds and leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is particularly useful for plant pathogen detection. In the present study, multiplex PCR and SYBR green real-time PCR were developed to facilitate simultaneous detection of three important rice pathogens, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, and Bur...

  19. The Cellulolytic Activity And Volatile Fatty Acid Product Of Rumen Bacteria Of Buffalo And Cattle On Rice Straw, Elephant Grass, and Sesbania Leaves Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caribu Hadi Prayitno

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiment on The Cellulolytic Activity and Volatile Fatty Acid Product of Rumen Bacteria of Buffalo and Cattle on Rice Straw, Elephant Grass, and Sesbania Leaves Substrates had been conducted at Feedstuff Laboratory of Animal Science Soedirman University. The basic design  that was used in this experiment was Completely Randomized Design (CRD with factorial pattern of 6 x 3, three replications. The bacteria isolate as the factors were cellulolytic rumen bacteria isolate of buffalo (A1, A2, and A3 and cattle (A4, A5 and A6 while the substrates (second factor  were NDF rice straw (S1, elephant grass (S2, and sesbania leaves (S3 Cell walls. The result of this experiment showed that the interaction between bacteria isolate and substrate  type were significant on pH, NDF digestibility, cellulase activity, pH was  6.28 until 6.43.  The NDF digestibility range was 12.27 until 55.61 percent. The lowers of cellulase activity was 5.11 IU/ml and the higher was 24.47 IU/ml. The range of acetic acid yield was 63.37 to 307.467 mg/100 ml. Range of  propionic production was 15.17 to 352.20 mg/ 100 ml. The production of butiric acid was 8.77 to 40.87 mg/ 100 ml. The cellulase activity  of cellulolytic rumen bacteria of buffalo was higher than cattle, and also their effect on NDF digestibility of rice straw, elephant grass, and sesbania leaves cell walls. The A3 of cellulolytic rumen bacteria isolate of  buffalo changed cell walls substrat to volatile fatty  acid was more effective than cattle, especially on cell elephant grass. Propionic and butiric  acid that was produced by cellulolytic rumen bacteria isolate of buffalo more higher than cattle (Animal Production 1 (1 : 1-9 (1999 Key Words: Cellulolytic, VFA, Rumen Bacteria, Buffalo, Cattle.

  20. Photosynthetic /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation in the leaves of rice and some other species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, R; Samejima, M; Murata, Y [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1977-03-01

    The activity of CO/sub 2/-fixing enzymes and the initial products of photosynthetic /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation in two rice varieties, the one japonica and the other indica, were examined, comparing with those in several C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ crop species. Corn and barnyard grass as C/sub 4/ plants and barley and wheat as C/sub 3/ plants were used as comparison materials. The plants were cultured at 25 deg. C in daytime and 20 deg. C in night under natural light in a phytotron. After about a month from sowing, the fully expanded leaf blades were subjected to the experiments. The fresh leaf blades of one gram were homogenized in 5 ml of 50 mM Tris-H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ buffer (pH 7.7) containing 4 mM EDTA, 10 mM dithiothreitol and 50 mg of polyamide powder. After filtration, the supernatant was used as the crude enzyme extract for assaying the activity of RuDP carboxylase and PEP carboxylase. The experiments revealed that (1) in C/sub 3/ plants, the RuDP carboxylase activity was higher, and the PEP carboxylase activity was lower than those in C/sub 4/ plants; (2) the initial products of photosynthetic /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation in the japonica rice variety were mainly PGA and other sugar phosphates as in barley, whereas in corn, they were malic and aspartic acids; (3) the /sup 14/C incorporation into glycine and serine was high in the japonica rice and barley, whereas low in corn. From these results, rice could be regarded as C/sub 3/ plant.

  1. The Utilization of Bottom Ash Coal for Briquette Products by Adding Teak Leaves Charcoal, Coconut Shell Charcoal, and Rice Husk Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafrudin Syafrudin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The limitations of the availability of energy sources especially fuel oil has become a serious threat for the society. The use of coal for energy source as the replacement of fuel oil, in one hand, is very profitable, but on the other hand, will cause problem which is the coal ash residue. This coal ash is a by-product of coal combustion. This coal ash contains bottom ash. Through this observation, the bottom ash can be processed to be charcoal if added by teak leaves, coconut shell, and rice husk. Also, this observation needs to add binder materials for further processing in order to form briquette. It can be used as alternative fuel, the utilization of bottom ash and biomass will give positive impact to the environment. This observation was conducted by using compositions such as bottom ash, teak leaves, coconut shell, and rice husk. The treatment was using comparison 100%:0% ; 80%:20% ; 60%:40% ; 50%:50% ; 40%:60% ; 20%:80% ; 0%:100%. The result that the best briquette was on the composition of 20% bottom ash : 80% coconut shell. The characteristic values from that composition were moisture content of 3.45%, ash content of 17,32%, calorific value of 7.945,72 Cal/gr, compressive strength of 2,18 kg/cm2, level of CO of 105 mg/m3, and heavy metals Cu of 29,83 µg/g and  Zn 32,99 µg/g. The characteristic value from each briquette composition treatment showed that the increasing usage proportion of biomass as added material for briquette was able to increase its moisture content and calorific value. Besides, it is also able to decrease its ash content and compressive strength

  2. Ethnobotanicals for Storage Pest Management: Effect of powdered leaves of Olax zeylanica in suppressing infestations of rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachini Dinusha Fernando

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae is considered the major problem in stored rice in Sri Lanka. Due to the adverse effects of pesticide usage, research on the re-evaluation and use of many ethnobotanicals as alternative storage pest control agents has been intensified. Although plant materials with insecticidal properties provide small-scale farmers with a locally available, eco-friendly and inexpensive method of control of storage insect pests, lack of understanding and knowledge prevent their widespread application. The present study was therefore undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of the botanical Olax zeylanica in controlling infestations of the rice weevil with the view of fulfilling this lack. In two separate bioassays, contact/feeding and fumigant toxicity of powdered leaves of O. zeylanica were tested against 1-7 days old adults under laboratory conditions. All experiments were conducted using a no-choice bioassay apparatus. Contact/feeding toxicity was tested by directly exposing weevils to 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 7.5g of leaf powder mixed with 100g of rice grains while fumigant toxicity was evaluated by using the same doses where weevils were exposed to fumes emitted from the leaf powders. In both bioassays 100% mortality of the weevils was observed within 18 hours of exposure to 3.0, 5.0 and 7.5g doses of leaf powder. Percentage weevil mortality in treated rice tested with three doses of leaf powder at all the time intervals (except for 1.0g was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that of the corresponding control. No Contact/feeding toxicity was recorded when weevils were directly exposed to 1.0g leaf powder whereas only 14% weevil mortality was observed even after 24hours of exposure to fumes of leaf powder. Results also revealed that weevil mortality increased both with increasing dose and time of exposure. It is of interest to note that in both bioassays a 100% weevil mortality was obtained after 18 hours of exposure to

  3. Scanning electron microscopic study of Piper betle L. leaves extract effect against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; Thurairajah, Nalina

    2011-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that Piper betle L. leaves extract inhibits the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to glass surface, suggesting its potential role in controlling dental plaque development. In this study, the effect of the Piper betle L. extract towards S. mutans (with/without sucrose) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and on partially purified cell-associated glucosyltransferase activity were determined. S. mutans were allowed to adhere to glass beads suspended in 6 different Brain Heart Infusion broths [without sucrose; with sucrose; without sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL(-1) and 4 mg mL(-1)); with sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL(-1) and 4 mg mL(-1))]. Positive control was 0.12% chlorhexidine. The glass beads were later processed for SEM viewing. Cell surface area and appearance and, cell population of S. mutans adhering to the glass beads were determined upon viewing using the SEM. The glucosyltransferase activity (with/without extract) was also determined. One- and two-way ANOVA were used accordingly. It was found that sucrose increased adherence and cell surface area of S. mutans (pPiper betle L. leaves extract. It was also found that the extract inhibited glucosyltransferase activity and its inhibition at 2.5 mg mL(-1) corresponded to that of 0.12% chlorhexidine. At 4 mg mL(-1) of the extract, the glucosyltransferase activity was undetectable and despite that, bacterial cells still demonstrated adherence capacity. The SEM analysis confirmed the inhibitory effects of the Piper betle L. leaves extract towards cell adherence, cell growth and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. mutans visually. In bacterial cell adherence, other factors besides glucosyltransferase are involved.

  4. Involvement of NADPH oxidase isoforms in the production of O2- manipulated by ABA in the senescing leaves of early-senescence-leaf (esl) mutant rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaowei; Wang, Fubiao; Zhao, Qian; Liu, Jianchao; Cheng, Fangmin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the differences in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in senescing leaves were investigated by early-senescence-leaf (esl) mutant and its wild type, to clarify the relationship among ABA levels, ROS generation, and NADPH oxidase (Nox) in senescing leaves of rice (Oryza sativa). The temporal expression levels of OsNox isoforms in senescing leaves and their expression patterns in response to ABA treatment were determined through quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Results showed that the flag leaf of the esl mutant generated more O2- concentrations and accumulated higher ABA levels than the wild-type cultivar did in the grain-filling stage. Exogenous ABA treatment induced O2- generation; however, it was depressed by diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) pretreatment in the detached leaf segments. This finding suggested the involvement of NADPH oxidase in ABA-induced O2- generation. The esl mutant exhibited significantly higher expression of OsNox2, OsNox5, OsNox6, and OsNox7 in the initial of grain-filling stage, followed by sharply decrease. The transcriptional levels of OsNox1, OsNox3, and OsFR07 in the flag leaf of the esl mutant were significantly lower than those in the wild-type cultivar. The expression levels of OsNox2, OsNox5, OsNox6, and OsNox7 were significantly enhanced by exogenous ABA treatments. The enhanced expression levels of OsNox2 and OsNox6 were dependent on the duration of ABA treatment. The inducible expression levels of OsNox5 and OsNox7 were dependent on ABA concentrations. By contrast, exogenous ABA treatment severely repressed the transcripts of OsNox1, OsNox3, and OsFR07 in the detached leaf segments. Therefore, OsNox2, OsNox5, OsNox6, and OsNox7 were probably involved in the ABA-induced O2- generation in the initial stage of leaf senescence. Subsequently, other oxidases activated in deteriorating cells were associated with ROS generation and accumulation in the

  5. Induction of cyclic electron flow around photosystem I during heat stress in grape leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongjiang; Geng, Qingwei; Du, Yuanpeng; Yang, Xinghong; Zhai, Heng

    2017-03-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) in plants is susceptible to high temperatures. The cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI is thought to protect both PSII and PSI from photodamage. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms of the photosynthetic electron transport process and the role of CEF in grape at high temperatures remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we examined the responses of PSII energy distribution, the P700 redox state and CEF to high temperatures in grape leaves. After exposing 'Cabernet Sauvignon' leaves to various temperatures (25, 30, 35, 40 and 45°C) in the light (600μmol photons m -2 s -1 ) for 4h, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) significantly decreased at high temperatures (40 and 45°C), while the maximum photo-oxidizable P700 (Pm) was not affected. As the temperature increased, higher initial rates of increase in post-illumination Chl fluorescence were detected, which were accompanied by an increase in high energy state quenching (qE). The chloroplast NAD(P)H dehydrogenase-dependent CEF (NDH-dependent CEF) activities were different among grape cultivators. 'Gold Finger' with greater susceptibility to photoinhibition, exhibited lower NDH-dependent CEF activities under acute heat stress than a more heat tolerant 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. These results suggest that overclosure of PSII reaction centers at high temperature resulted in the photoinhibition of PSII, while the stimulation of CEF in grape played an important role in the photoprotection of PSII and PSI at high temperatures through contributing to the generation of a proton gradient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Photosynthetic characterization of a rolled leaf mutant of rice ( Oryza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new rolling leaf rice mutant was identified which showed an apparently straighter longitudinal shape normal transverse rolling characters at all developing stages. The chlorophyll contents per fresh weight of this mutant leaves were lower than those of wild-type. The electron transfer rate (ETR) and photochemical ...

  7. Short-term regulation and alternative pathways of photosynthetic electron transport in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubitsin, Boris V; Vershubskii, Alexey V; Priklonskii, Vladimir I; Tikhonov, Alexander N

    2015-11-01

    In this work, using the EPR and PAM-fluorometry methods, we have studied induction events of photosynthetic electron transport in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves. The methods used are complementary, providing efficient tools for in situ monitoring of P700 redox transients and photochemical activity of photosystem II (PSII). The induction of P700(+) in dark-adapted leaves is characterized by the multiphase kinetics with a lag-phase, which duration elongates with the dark-adaptation time. Analyzing effects of the uncoupler monensin and artificial electron carrier methylviologen (MV) on photooxidation of P700 and slow induction of chlorophyll a fluorescence (SIF), we could ascribe different phases of transient kinetics of electron transport processes in dark-adapted leaves to the following regulatory mechanisms: (i) acceleration of electron transfer on the acceptor side of PSI, (ii) pH-dependent modulation of the intersystem electron flow, and (iii) re-distribution of electron fluxes between alternative (linear, cyclic, and pseudocyclic) pathways. Monensin significantly decreases a level of P700(+) and inhibits SIF. MV, which mediates electron flow from PSI to O2 with consequent formation of H2O2, promotes a rapid photooxidation of P700 without any lag-phase peculiar to untreated leaves. MV-mediated water-water cycle (H2O→PSII→PSI→MV→O2→H2O2→H2O) is accompanied by generation of ascorbate free radicals. This suggests that the ascorbate peroxidase system of defense against reactive oxygen species is active in chloroplasts of H. rosa-sinensis leaves. In DCMU-treated chloroplasts with inhibited PSII, the contribution of cyclic electron flow is insignificant as compared to linear electron flow. For analysis of induction events, we have simulated electron transport processes within the framework of our generalized mathematical model of oxygenic photosynthesis, which takes into account pH-dependent mechanisms of electron transport control and re-distribution of

  8. Taking Leave?

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Planning a holiday? Then if you're a member of the personnel, you'll need to use the Laboratory's new leave system that will be put in place on 1 October. Leave allocations don't change - you are entitled to just as much holiday as before - but instead of being credited annually, your leave will be credited on a monthly basis, and this information will be communicated on your salary slip. The reason for the change is that with the various new leave schemes such as Recruitment by Saved Leave (RSL) and the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), a streamlined procedure was required for dealing with all kinds of leave. In the new system, each member of the personnel will have leave accounts to which leave will be credited monthly from the payroll and debited each time an absence is registered in the CERN Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). Leave balances will appear on monthly pay slips, and full details of leave transactions and balances will be available through EDH at all times. As the leave will be c...

  9. Improved algorithms for the classification of rough rice using a bionic electronic nose based on PCA and the Wilks distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sai; Zhou, Zhiyan; Lu, Huazhong; Luo, Xiwen; Lan, Yubin

    2014-03-19

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is one of the main methods used for electronic nose pattern recognition. However, poor classification performance is common in classification and recognition when using regular PCA. This paper aims to improve the classification performance of regular PCA based on the existing Wilks Λ-statistic (i.e., combined PCA with the Wilks distribution). The improved algorithms, which combine regular PCA with the Wilks Λ-statistic, were developed after analysing the functionality and defects of PCA. Verification tests were conducted using a PEN3 electronic nose. The collected samples consisted of the volatiles of six varieties of rough rice (Zhongxiang1, Xiangwan13, Yaopingxiang, WufengyouT025, Pin 36, and Youyou122), grown in same area and season. The first two principal components used as analysis vectors cannot perform the rough rice varieties classification task based on a regular PCA. Using the improved algorithms, which combine the regular PCA with the Wilks Λ-statistic, many different principal components were selected as analysis vectors. The set of data points of the Mahalanobis distance between each of the varieties of rough rice was selected to estimate the performance of the classification. The result illustrates that the rough rice varieties classification task is achieved well using the improved algorithm. A Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN) was also established to test the effectiveness of the improved algorithms. The first two principal components (namely PC1 and PC2) and the first and fifth principal component (namely PC1 and PC5) were selected as the inputs of PNN for the classification of the six rough rice varieties. The results indicate that the classification accuracy based on the improved algorithm was improved by 6.67% compared to the results of the regular method. These results prove the effectiveness of using the Wilks Λ-statistic to improve the classification accuracy of the regular PCA approach. The results

  10. Endophytic Colonization and In Planta Nitrogen Fixation by a Herbaspirillum sp. Isolated from Wild Rice Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbeltagy, Adel; Nishioka, Kiyo; Sato, Tadashi; Suzuki, Hisa; Ye, Bin; Hamada, Toru; Isawa, Tsuyoshi; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria were isolated from the stems of wild and cultivated rice on a modified Rennie medium. Based on 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, the diazotrophic isolates were phylogenetically close to four genera: Herbaspirillum, Ideonella, Enterobacter, and Azospirillum. Phenotypic properties and signature sequences of 16S rDNA indicated that three isolates (B65, B501, and B512) belong to the Herbaspirillum genus. To examine whether Herbaspirillum sp. strain B501 isolated from wild rice, Oryza officinalis, endophytically colonizes rice plants, the gfp gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was introduced into the bacteria. Observations by fluorescence stereomicroscopy showed that the GFP-tagged bacteria colonized shoots and seeds of aseptically grown seedlings of the original wild rice after inoculation of the seeds. Conversely, for cultivated rice Oryza sativa, no GFP fluorescence was observed for shoots and only weak signals were observed for seeds. Observations by fluorescence and electron microscopy revealed that Herbaspirillum sp. strain B501 colonized mainly intercellular spaces in the leaves of wild rice. Colony counts of surface-sterilized rice seedlings inoculated with the GFP-tagged bacteria indicated significantly more bacterial populations inside the original wild rice than in cultivated rice varieties. Moreover, after bacterial inoculation, in planta nitrogen fixation in young seedlings of wild rice, O. officinalis, was detected by the acetylene reduction and 15N2 gas incorporation assays. Therefore, we conclude that Herbaspirillum sp. strain B501 is a diazotrophic endophyte compatible with wild rice, particularly O. officinalis. PMID:11679357

  11. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Omar, O.

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC–MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties

  12. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A. [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kampus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Omar, O. [Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Persiaran MARDI-UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC–MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties.

  13. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Omar, O.

    2015-05-01

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC-MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties.

  14. Transfer of gaseous iodine from atmosphere to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiya, Misako; Uchida, Shigeo; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohmomo, Yoichiro; Yamaguchi, Shuho; Obata, Hitoshi.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in order to obtain information required for establishing transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine (I 2 ) to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice. The gaseous iodine deposited on young rice plants before the heading period was scarcely found in the rough rice harvested at the full ripe stage. The biological half life of iodine in hull, however, was much slower than that in leaves of 14 days. The translocation of iodine from leaves and stalks to rough rice was not clearly recognized. Therefore, it was deduced that iodine found in brown rice mainly should originate from that deposited on the hull. The distribution ratios of iodine between rough rice and brown rice, and between brown rice and polished rice were 100:4 and 100:30 on 100 grains basis, respectively. If average normalized deposition velocity (V d(m) ) or derived deposition velocity (V s ) are given, the transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine to rough rice (TF r ), brown rice (TF b ) and polished rice (TF p ) could be calculated. (author)

  15. Effects of Rice Husk Modification with Liquid Natural Rubber and Exposure to Electron Beam Radiation on the Mechanical Properties of NR/ HDPE/ Rice Husk Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, C.E.; Ishak Ahmad; Ibrahim Abdullah; Dahlan Mohd

    2011-01-01

    Rice husk (RH) powder is a natural fibre capable of reinforcing natural rubber thermoplastic (TPNR) NR/ HDPE composites on specific modification of the particle surface. In this study the modification of RH powder involved pre-treatment with 5 % sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, soaking in LNR solution and exposure of LNR coated RH to electron beam (EB) irradiation. Preparation of NR/ HDPE/ RH composites was via melt-mixing in an internal mixer at predetermined conditions. Morphology study of the composites using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed a homogeneous distribution of modified RH particles and particle-matrix interaction in the composite. Modified RH filled composites exhibited a significant change in mechanical properties. The maximum stress and impact strength were 6.7 MPa and 13.2 kJ/ m 2 , respectively at 20 kGy radiation, while the tensile modulus was 79 MPa at 30 kGy dose. The interfacial RH-TPNR interaction for the LNR-EB treated RH particles had improved in the EB dosage range of 20-30 kGy. However, over exposure to radiation caused degradation of rubber coat and interaction between particles to increase. Agglomeration of filler particles would occur and caused inhomogeneous distribution of filler in the composite. (author)

  16. Preparation and characterization of electron-beam treated HDPE composites reinforced with rice husk ash and Brazilian clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, A.V., E-mail: angelortiz@ipen.br [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Teixeira, J.G.; Gomes, M.G.; Oliveira, R.R. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Díaz, F.R.V. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, University of São Paulo Av. Prof. Mello de Morais 2463, São Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Moura, E.A.B. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We examine changes in HDPE properties when waste and clay are used as reinforcement. • The addition of only 3% of clay leads to important gains in HDPE properties. • The use of electron-beam contributes to greater improvements in material properties. • We observe 85% of cross-linking degree for the HDPE when treated with e-beam. - Abstract: This work evaluates the morphology, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. HDPE reinforced with rice husk ashes (80:20 wt%), HDPE reinforced with clay (97:3 wt%) and HDPE reinforced with both rice husk ashes and clay(77:20:3 wt%) were obtained. The Brazilian bentonite chocolate clay was used in this study. This Brazilian smectitic clay is commonly used to produce nanocomposites. The composites were produced by melting extrusion process and then irradiation was carried out in a 1.5 MeV electron-beam accelerator (room temperature, presence of air). Comparisons using the irradiated and non-irradiated neat polymer, and the irradiated and non-irradiated composites were made. The materials obtained were submitted to tensile, flexural and impact tests. Additionally HDT, SEM and XRD analyses were carried out along with the sol–gel analysis which aimed to assess the cross-linking degree of the irradiated materials. Results showed great improvement in most HDPE properties and a high cross-linking degree of 85% as a result of electron-beam irradiation of the material.

  17. The water-water cycle in leaves is not a major alternative electron sink for dissipation of excess excitation energy when CO2 assimilation is restricted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driever, S.M.; Baker, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    Electron flux from water via photosystem II (PSII) and PSI to oxygen (water–water cycle) may provide a mechanism for dissipation of excess excitation energy in leaves when CO2 assimilation is restricted. Mass spectrometry was used to measure O2 uptake and evolution together with CO2 uptake in leaves

  18. Identification of the Rice Wines with Different Marked Ages by Electronic Nose Coupled with Smartphone and Cloud Storage Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhebo; Xiao, Xize; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hui

    2017-10-31

    In this study, a portable electronic nose (E-nose) was self-developed to identify rice wines with different marked ages-all the operations of the E-nose were controlled by a special Smartphone Application. The sensor array of the E-nose was comprised of 12 MOS sensors and the obtained response values were transmitted to the Smartphone thorough a wireless communication module. Then, Aliyun worked as a cloud storage platform for the storage of responses and identification models. The measurement of the E-nose was composed of the taste information obtained phase (TIOP) and the aftertaste information obtained phase (AIOP). The area feature data obtained from the TIOP and the feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP were applied to identify rice wines by using pattern recognition methods. Principal component analysis (PCA), locally linear embedding (LLE) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were applied for the classification of those wine samples. LDA based on the area feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP proved a powerful tool and showed the best classification results. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) and support vector machine (SVM) were applied for the predictions of marked ages and SVM (R² = 0.9942) worked much better than PLSR.

  19. Identification of the Rice Wines with Different Marked Ages by Electronic Nose Coupled with Smartphone and Cloud Storage Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhebo Wei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a portable electronic nose (E-nose was self-developed to identify rice wines with different marked ages—all the operations of the E-nose were controlled by a special Smartphone Application. The sensor array of the E-nose was comprised of 12 MOS sensors and the obtained response values were transmitted to the Smartphone thorough a wireless communication module. Then, Aliyun worked as a cloud storage platform for the storage of responses and identification models. The measurement of the E-nose was composed of the taste information obtained phase (TIOP and the aftertaste information obtained phase (AIOP. The area feature data obtained from the TIOP and the feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP were applied to identify rice wines by using pattern recognition methods. Principal component analysis (PCA, locally linear embedding (LLE and linear discriminant analysis (LDA were applied for the classification of those wine samples. LDA based on the area feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP proved a powerful tool and showed the best classification results. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR and support vector machine (SVM were applied for the predictions of marked ages and SVM (R2 = 0.9942 worked much better than PLSR.

  20. Production and accumulation of UV-B [ultra violet] absorbing compounds in UV-B irradiated leaves of rice, Oryza SativaL.: effects of varying UV-B doses on leaf damage, phenolic content and HPLC [high performance liquid chromatography] peak I area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caasi-Lit, M.T.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of varying UV-B doses on leaf damage, phenolic content and HPLC peak 1 area were studied using 65-d-old plants of the UV-B tolerant rice cultivar, M202, and the UV-B susceptible rice cultivar, Dular. Results showed that the production and accumulation of UV-B- absorbing compounds in rice leaves were affected by leaf position and levels (dose) of UV-B and time or duration of UV-B irradiation or exposure. The youngest terminal leaves showed the least damage when exposed to medium and high UV-B doses. The production of these absorptive compounds as represented by relative phenolic and HPLC peak 1 were significantly higher in younger leaves and lower in older or senescing leaves. M202 showed significantly higher amounts of peak 1 area and relative phenolic compared to UV-B susceptible rice cultivar, Dular. The results also confirmed the strong relationship of overall damage rating and area of HPLC peak 1. The development of UV-B symptoms in the susceptible cultivar was hastened when a high UV-B treatment was applied. Peak 1 area did not accumulate in the UV-B susceptible Dular at any given UV-B dose

  1. Reinforcement of natural rubber/high density polyethylene blends with electron beam irradiated liquid natural rubber-coated rice husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, E.L.; Ahmad, Ishak [Polymer Research Center (PORCE), School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 4, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Dahlan, H.M. [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Abdullah, Ibrahim, E-mail: dia@ukm.m [Polymer Research Center (PORCE), School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 4, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2010-08-15

    Coating of rice husk (RH) surface with liquid natural rubber (LNR) and exposure to electron beam irradiation in air were studied. FTIR analysis on the LNR-coated RH (RHR) exposed to electron beam (EB) showed a decrease in the double bonds and an increase in hydroxyl and hydrogen bonded carbonyl groups arising from the chemical interaction between the active groups on RH surface with LNR. The scanning electron micrograph showed that the LNR formed a coating on the RH particles which transformed to a fine and clear fibrous layer at 20 kGy irradiation. The LNR film appeared as patches at 50 kGy irradiation due to degradation of rubber. Composites of natural rubber (NR)/high density polyethylene (HDPE)/RHR showed an optimum at 20-30 kGy dosage with the maximum stress, tensile modulus and impact strength of 6.5, 79 and 13.2 kJ/m{sup 2}, respectively. The interfacial interaction between the modified RH and TPNR matrix had improved on exposure of RHR to e-beam at 20-30 kGy dosage.

  2. Effects of silicon application on diurnal variations of physiological properties of rice leaves of plants at the heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yun-sheng; Wu, Lei; Lixuan, Ren; Meng, Yan; Shidi, Zhao; Huaiwei, Zhu; Yiwei, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of silicon (Si) application on diurnal variations of photosynthetic and transpiration physiological parameters in potted rice ( Oryza sativa L. cv Nanjing 45) at the heading stage. The plants were subjected to two UV-B radiation levels, i.e., reference UV-B (A, ambient, 12.0 kJ m-2 day-1) and elevated UV-B radiation (E, a 20 % higher dose of UV-B than the reference, 14.4 kJ m-2 day-1), and four Si application levels, i.e., Si0 (no silicon supplementation, 0 kg SiO2 ha-1), Si1 (sodium silicate, 100 kg SiO2 ha-1), Si2 (sodium silicate, 200 kg SiO2 ha-1), and Si3 (slag silicon fertilizer, 200 kg SiO2 ha-1). Compared with the reference, elevated UV-B radiation decreased the diurnal mean values of the net photosynthetic rate ( Pn), intercellular carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration ( Ci), transpiration rate ( Tr), stomatal conductivity ( Gs), and water use efficiency (WUE) by 11.3, 5.5, 10.4, 20.3, and 6.3 %, respectively, in plants not supplemented with silicon (Si0), and decreased the above parameters by 3.8-5.5, 0.7-4.8, 4.0-8.7, 7.4-20.2, and 0.7-5.9 %, respectively, in plants treated with silicon (Si1, Si2, and Si3), indicating that silicon application mitigates the negative effects of elevated UV-B radiation. Under elevated UV-B radiation, silicon application (Si1, Si2, and Si3) increased the diurnal mean values of Pn, Ci, Gs, and WUE by 16.9-28.0, 3.5-14.3, 16.8-38.7, and 29.0-51.2 %, respectively, but decreased Tr by 1.9-10.8 %, compared with plants not treated with silicon (E+Si0), indicating that silicon application mitigates the negative effects of elevated UV-B radiation by significantly increasing the P n, C i, G s, and WUE and decreasing the T r of rice. Evident differences existed in mitigating the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation on diurnal variations of physiological parameters among different silicon application treatments, exhibiting as Si3>Si2>Si1>Si0. In addition to recycling steel industrial wastes, the

  3. Effects of silicon application on diurnal variations of physiological properties of rice leaves of plants at the heading stage under elevated UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yun-sheng; Wu, Lei; Lixuan, Ren; Meng, Yan; Shidi, Zhao; Huaiwei, Zhu; Yiwei, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of silicon (Si) application on diurnal variations of photosynthetic and transpiration physiological parameters in potted rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Nanjing 45) at the heading stage. The plants were subjected to two UV-B radiation levels, i.e., reference UV-B (A, ambient, 12.0 kJ m(-2) day(-1)) and elevated UV-B radiation (E, a 20% higher dose of UV-B than the reference, 14.4 kJ m(-2) day(-1)), and four Si application levels, i.e., Si0 (no silicon supplementation, 0 kg SiO2 ha(-1)), Si1 (sodium silicate, 100 kg SiO2 ha(-1)), Si2 (sodium silicate, 200 kg SiO2 ha(-1)), and Si3 (slag silicon fertilizer, 200 kg SiO2 ha(-1)). Compared with the reference, elevated UV-B radiation decreased the diurnal mean values of the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), intercellular carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductivity (Gs), and water use efficiency (WUE) by 11.3, 5.5, 10.4, 20.3, and 6.3%, respectively, in plants not supplemented with silicon (Si0), and decreased the above parameters by 3.8-5.5, 0.7-4.8, 4.0-8.7, 7.4-20.2, and 0.7-5.9%, respectively, in plants treated with silicon (Si1, Si2, and Si3), indicating that silicon application mitigates the negative effects of elevated UV-B radiation. Under elevated UV-B radiation, silicon application (Si1, Si2, and Si3) increased the diurnal mean values of Pn, Ci, Gs, and WUE by 16.9-28.0, 3.5-14.3, 16.8-38.7, and 29.0-51.2%, respectively, but decreased Tr by 1.9-10.8%, compared with plants not treated with silicon (E+Si0), indicating that silicon application mitigates the negative effects of elevated UV-B radiation by significantly increasing the P n, C i, G s, and WUE and decreasing the T r of rice. Evident differences existed in mitigating the depressive effects of elevated UV-B radiation on diurnal variations of physiological parameters among different silicon application treatments, exhibiting as Si3>Si2>Si1>Si0. In addition to recycling steel industrial wastes, the

  4. The temporal and species dynamics of photosynthetic acclimation in flag leaves of rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) under elevated carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.; Zeng, Q.; Xie, Z.; Tang, H.; Zhu, C. (Chinese Academy of Sciences. State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Nanjing (China)); Hasegawa, T. (National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences. Agro-Meteorology Div., Tsukuba (Japan)); Ziska, L. (Crop Systems and Global Change Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States)); Jia, X. (Chinese Academic of Sciences/Nanjing Botanical Garden Memorial Sun Yat-Sen. Jiangsu Institute of Botany, Nanjing (China))

    2012-07-15

    In this study, we tested for the temporal occurrence of photosynthetic acclimation to elevated [CO{sub 2}] in the flag leaf of two important cereal crops, rice and wheat. In order to characterize the temporal onset of acclimation and the basis for any observed decline in photosynthetic rate, we characterized net photosynthesis, g{sub s}, g{sub m}, C{sub i}/C{sub a}, C{sub i}/C{sub c}, V{sub cmax}, J{sub max}, cell wall thickness, content of Rubisco, cytochrome (Cyt) f, N, chlorophyll and carbohydrate, mRNA expression for rbcL and petA, activity for Rubisco, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SS) at full flag expansion, mid-anthesis and the late grain-filling stage. No acclimation was observed for either crop at full flag leaf expansion. However, at the mid-anthesis stage, photosynthetic acclimation in rice was associated with RuBP carboxylation and regeneration limitations, while wheat only had the carboxylation limitation. By grain maturation, the decline of Rubisco content and activity had contributed to RuBP carboxylation limitation of photosynthesis in both crops at elevated [CO{sub 2}]; however, the sharp decrease of Rubisco enzyme activity played a more important role in wheat. Although an increase in non-structural carbohydrates did occur during these later stages, it was not consistently associated with changes in SPS and SS or photosynthetic acclimation. Rather, over time elevated [CO{sub 2}] appeared to enhance the rate of N degradation and senescence so that by late-grain fill, photosynthetic acclimation to elevated [CO{sub 2}] in the flag leaf of either species was complete. These data suggest that the basis for photosynthetic acclimation with elevated [CO{sub 2}] may be more closely associated with enhanced rates of senescence, and, as a consequence, may be temporally dynamic, with significant species variation. (Author)

  5. Use of electron microprobe x-ray analysis for determination of low calcium concentrations across leaves deficient in calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, D. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    An electron microprobe with wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (WDS) was found to be useful for the determination of Ca concentrations in leaf tissue deficient in Ca. WDS effectively detected Ca concentrations as low as 0.2 mg/g dry wt in the presence of high levels of K and Mg (120 and 50 mg/g dry wt, respectively). Leaf specimens were prepared for analysis by quick-freezing in liquid nitrogen and freeze-drying at -20 degrees C to maintain elemental integrity within the tissue. Because dry material was analyzed, sample preparation was simple and samples could be stored for long periods before analysis. A large beam diameter of 50 gm was used to minimize tissue damage under the beam and analyze mineral concentrations within several cells at one time. Beam penetration was between 50 and 55 microns, approximately one-third of the thickness of the leaf. For analysis of concentrations in interveinal areas, analyses directed into the abaxial epidermis were found most useful. However, because of limited beam penetration, analyses of veinal areas would require use of cross sections [correction of crosssections]. Solid mineral standards were used for instrument standardization. To prevent measurement errors resulting from differences between the matrix of the mineral standards and the analyzed tissue, concentrations in leaves were corrected using gelatin standards prepared and analyzed under the same conditions. WDS was found to be useful for documenting that very low Ca levels occur in specific areas of lettuce leaves exhibiting the Ca deficiency injury termed tipburn.

  6. Driving decisions when leaving electronic music dance events: driver, passenger, and group effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark B; Voas, Robert B; Miller, Brenda A

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this article was to identify characteristics of drivers and passengers that predicted peer groups whose drivers exit dance clubs with alcohol levels indicative of impairment (blood alcohol content [BAC] ≥ 0.05 g/dL). We used the portal survey methodology to randomly sample groups of electronic music dance event (EMDE) patrons as they entered and exited a club. From May through November 2010, data were collected from 38 EMDEs hosted by 8 clubs in the San Francisco Bay area. Data included in these analyses are results from breath samples for measuring BAC and self-report data on demographics, recent drinking history drinking, drinking intentions, travel to and from the clubs, and the familiarity/experience with other group members. These data were collected from a subset of 175 drivers and 272 passengers. Although drivers drank less than passengers, one driver in 5 groups had a BAC indicative of elevated crash risk (BAC ≥ 0.05 g/dL). Groups of drivers and/or passengers with a recent history of binge drinking were more likely to have drivers with BACs ≥ 0.05 g/dL. One unanticipated finding was that drivers who knew more group members relatively well were more likely to exit the club with a BAC ≥ 0.05 g/dL. Additionally, we found that groups with all female passengers were at greater risk for having a driver whose BAC was ≥ 0.05 g/dL. Some group characteristics predicted drivers who exit clubs with BACs ≥ 0.05 g/dL. One intervention strategy to promote safety might be to encourage group members to reconsider who is sober enough to drive away from the club; for some groups, a change of drivers would be a safer choice, because a passenger may have a relatively safe BAC. Groups of females appear to have a particularly elevated risk of having a driver whose BAC exceeds 0.05 g/dL, and new intervention efforts should be particularly directed to these at-risk groups.

  7. Electron microscopy and image analysis of the GroEL-like protein and its complexes with glutamine synthetase from pea leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsuprun, Vladimir L.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Pushkin, Alexander V.; Tagunova, Irina V.

    1992-01-01

    The molecular structure of groEL-like protein from pea leaves has been studied by electron microscopy and image analysis of negatively stained particles. Over 1500 molecular projections were selected and classified by multivariate statistical analysis. It was shown that the molecule consists of 14

  8. Involvement of NADPH oxidase isoforms in the production of O2− manipulated by ABA in the senescing leaves of early-senescence-leaf (esl) mutant rice (Oryza sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fubiao; Zhao, Qian; Liu, Jianchao; Cheng, Fangmin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the differences in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in senescing leaves were investigated by early-senescence-leaf (esl) mutant and its wild type, to clarify the relationship among ABA levels, ROS generation, and NADPH oxidase (Nox) in senescing leaves of rice (Oryza sativa). The temporal expression levels of OsNox isoforms in senescing leaves and their expression patterns in response to ABA treatment were determined through quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Results showed that the flag leaf of the esl mutant generated more O2- concentrations and accumulated higher ABA levels than the wild-type cultivar did in the grain-filling stage. Exogenous ABA treatment induced O2- generation; however, it was depressed by diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) pretreatment in the detached leaf segments. This finding suggested the involvement of NADPH oxidase in ABA-induced O2- generation. The esl mutant exhibited significantly higher expression of OsNox2, OsNox5, OsNox6, and OsNox7 in the initial of grain-filling stage, followed by sharply decrease. The transcriptional levels of OsNox1, OsNox3, and OsFR07 in the flag leaf of the esl mutant were significantly lower than those in the wild-type cultivar. The expression levels of OsNox2, OsNox5, OsNox6, and OsNox7 were significantly enhanced by exogenous ABA treatments. The enhanced expression levels of OsNox2 and OsNox6 were dependent on the duration of ABA treatment. The inducible expression levels of OsNox5 and OsNox7 were dependent on ABA concentrations. By contrast, exogenous ABA treatment severely repressed the transcripts of OsNox1, OsNox3, and OsFR07 in the detached leaf segments. Therefore, OsNox2, OsNox5, OsNox6, and OsNox7 were probably involved in the ABA-induced O2- generation in the initial stage of leaf senescence. Subsequently, other oxidases activated in deteriorating cells were associated with ROS generation and accumulation in the

  9. Studies on the effect of the relative humidity of the atmosphere on the growth and physiology of rice [Oryza sativa] plants, 10: Effect of ambient humidity on the translocation of assimilated 13C in leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, G.; Okumura, T.; Takeuchi, S.; Tanaka, O.; Chujo, H.; Tanaka, N.

    1996-01-01

    13C-labeled CO2 was fed to rice seedlings for 60 min in the light under low (60%) or high (90%) humidity. The amount of 13C assimilated by the leaves under high humidity was much greater than that by the plants under low humidity. The 13C-labeled CO2 was fed to the plants for 60 min at 75% humidity and then the plants were kept at 60 or 90% humidity under illumination. In 10 hours after the end of 13C feeding, the amount of 13C and 13C content increased in the roots of the plants kept under high humidity. On the other hand, they increased in the sixth leaf and the transfer of 13C to the roots was very low in the plants kept under low humidity. These results support our previous observations that dry matter production of the plants grown under high humidity was higher than that of the plants grown under low humidity, that the dry matter increase of roots in the plants grown under high humidity was higher than that of the plants grown under low humidity and that the stress caused by low humidity increased the partition of dry matter to the top of plants

  10. Rice microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of plant structure is desirable to obtain a clear idea of the overall impact of a crop. A mature rice plant consists of leafy components (left in the field post-harvest) and paddy rice (collected). The rice plant is supported by a hollow stem (culm) with leaf sheaths attached to nod...

  11. Effects of slag-based silicon fertilizer on rice growth and brown-spot resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Dongfeng; Song, Alin; Fan, Fenliang; Li, Zhaojun; Liang, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented that slag-based silicon fertilizers have beneficial effects on the growth and disease resistance of rice. However, their effects vary greatly with sources of slag and are closely related to availability of silicon (Si) in these materials. To date, few researches have been done to compare the differences in plant performance and disease resistance between different slag-based silicon fertilizers applied at the same rate of plant-available Si. In the present study both steel and iron slags were chosen to investigate their effects on rice growth and disease resistance under greenhouse conditions. Both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the effects of slags on ultrastructural changes in leaves of rice naturally infected by Bipolaris oryaze, the causal agent of brown spot. The results showed that both slag-based Si fertilizers tested significantly increased rice growth and yield, but decreased brown spot incidence, with steel slag showing a stronger effect than iron slag. The results of SEM analysis showed that application of slags led to more pronounced cell silicification in rice leaves, more silica cells, and more pronounced and larger papilla as well. The results of TEM analysis showed that mesophyll cells of slag-untreated rice leaf were disorganized, with colonization of the fungus (Bipolaris oryzae), including chloroplast degradation and cell wall alterations. The application of slag maintained mesophyll cells relatively intact and increased the thickness of silicon layer. It can be concluded that applying slag-based fertilizer to Si-deficient paddy soil is necessary for improving both rice productivity and brown spot resistance. The immobile silicon deposited in host cell walls and papillae sites is the first physical barrier for fungal penetration, while the soluble Si in the cytoplasm enhances physiological or induced resistance to fungal colonization.

  12. Efect of intercellular extracts from banana inoculated leaves with Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet, on chloroplast electronic transport of Grande naine (AAA cv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Leiva-Mora

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Some foliar pathogens colonize intercellular spaces of damage tissues during infection process, mediated by toxins production and diffusion to kill adjacent healthy cells. Due to the absence of reliable bioassays, the physiologic effects of several phytotoxins are still ignored on cellular membranous systems of the affected cells. In the present work it was extracted the intercellular content from not inoculated and inoculated banana leaves with different Mycosphaerella fijiensis strains. Their effects on chloroplasts of Grande naine cv were evaluated by the absorbance evolution (595 nm of Hill reactive (DCPIP, mixture with 810 ì l of chloroplasts suspension and 99 ì l of the intercellular contents. The electronic exchange on chloroplasts suspension was inhibited by intercellular contents of inoculated leaves. The intercellular contents from leaves inoculated with I1 (high virulence strain had a major inhibiter effect respect to leaves inoculates with G1 strain (low virulence, showing a correspondence between the inhibiter effect of intercellular contents and the affection levels of affected tissues. The procedures used in this work will let to make studies concerned with Mycosphaerella fijiensis-Musa spp interactions and the future breeding programs. Key words: banana breeding, black Sigatoka, host pathogen interaction, physiological bioassays

  13. [Effects of fish on field resource utilization and rice growth in rice-fish coculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Hu, Liang Liang; Ren, Wei Zheng; Guo, Liang; Wu, Min Fang; Tang, Jian Jun; Chen, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Rice field can provide habitat for fish and other aquatic animals. Rice-fish coculture can increase rice yield and simultaneously reduce the use of chemicals through reducing rice pest occurrence and nutrient complementary use. However, how fish uses food sources (e.g. phytoplankton, weeds, duckweed, macro-algal and snail) from rice field, and whether the nutrients releasing from those food sources due to fish transforming can improve rice growth are still unknown. Here, we conducted two field experiments to address these questions. One was to investigate the pattern of fish activity in the field using the method of video recording. The other was to examine the utilization of field resources by fish using stable isotope technology. Rice growth and rice yield were also exa-mined. Results showed that fish tended to be more active and significantly expanded the activity range in the rice-fish coculture compared to fish monoculture (fish not living together with rice plants). The contributions of 3 potential aquatic organisms (duckweed, phytoplankton and snail) to fish dietary were 22.7%, 34.8% and 30.0% respectively under rice-fish coculture without feed. Under the treatment with feed, however, the contributions of these 3 aquatic organisms to the fish die-tary were 8.9%, 5.9% and 1.6% respectively. The feed contribution was 71.0%. Rice-fish coculture significantly increased the nitrogen concentration in rice leaves, prolonged tillering stage by 10-12 days and increased rice spike rate and yield. The results suggested that raising fish in paddy field may transform the nutrients contained in field resources to bioavailable for rice plants through fish feeding activity, which can improve rice growth and rice yield.

  14. Low Temperature Storage of Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus-Infected Rice Plants Cannot Sustain Virus Transmission by the Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danfeng; Li, Pei; Han, Yongqiang; Lei, Wenbin; Hou, Maolin

    2016-02-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a novel virus transmitted by white-backed planthopper Sogatella furcifera (Hováth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Due to low virus transmission efficiency by the planthopper, researchers are frequently confronted with shortage of viruliferous vectors or infected rice plants, especially in winter and the following spring. To find new ways to maintain virus-infected materials, viral rice plants were stored at -80°C for 45 or 140 d and evaluated as virus sources in virus transmission by the vector. SRBSDV virions were not degraded during storage at -80°C as indicated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription real-time PCR detection. The planthopper nymphs fed on the infected thawed plants for 48 h survived at about 40% and showed positive detection of SRBSDV, but they lost the virus after feeding for another 20 d (the circulative transmission period) on noninfected plants. Transmission electron microscope images indicated broken capsid of virions in infected thawed leaves in contrast to integrity capsid of virions in infected fresh leaves. These results show that low temperature storage of SRBSDV-infected rice plants cannot sustain virus transmission by white-backed planthopper. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Conversion efficiency in the shrimp, Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius), fed on decomposed mangrove leaves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Ramadhas, V.

    Feeding experiments were carried out with Metapenaeus monoceros using mangrove leaves at different stages of decomposition, in combination with rice bran. Maximum conversion efficiency was found in shrimps fed completely decomposed mangrove leaves...

  16. Circumvention of over-excitation of PSII by maintaining electron transport rate in leaves of four cotton genotypes developed under long-term drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitao, M; Lei, T T

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the patterns of response to a long-term drought in the field in cotton cultivars (genotypes) with known differences in their drought tolerance. Four cotton genotypes with varying physiological and morphological traits, suited to different cropping conditions, were grown in the field and subjected to a long-term moderate drought. In general, cotton leaves developed under drought had significantly higher area-based leaf nitrogen content (N (area)) than those under well irrigation. Droughted plants showed a lower light-saturated net photosynthetic rate (A (sat)) with lower stomatal conductance (g (s)) and intercellular CO (2) concentration (C (i)) than irrigated ones. Based on the responses of A (sat) to g (s) and C (i), there was no decreasing trend in A (sat) at a given g (s) and C (i) in droughted leaves, suggesting that the decline in A (sat) in field-grown cotton plants under a long-term drought can be attributed mainly to stomatal closure, but not to nonstomatal limitations. There was little evidence of an increase in thermal energy dissipation as indicated by the lack of a decrease in the photochemical efficiency of open PSII (F (v)'/F (m)') in droughted plants. On the basis of electron transport (ETR) and photochemical quenching (q (P)), however, we found evidence indicating that droughted cotton plants can circumvent the risk of excessive excitation energy in photosystem (PS) II by maintaining higher electron transport rates associated with higher N (area), even while photosynthetic rates were reduced by stomatal closure.

  17. Realistic Simulation of Rice Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-long DING

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The existing research results of virtual modeling of rice plant, however, is far from perfect compared to that of other crops due to its complex structure and growth process. Techniques to visually simulate the architecture of rice plant and its growth process are presented based on the analysis of the morphological characteristics at different stages. Firstly, the simulations of geometrical shape, the bending status and the structural distortion of rice leaves are conducted. Then, by using an improved model for bending deformation, the curved patterns of panicle axis and various types of panicle branches are generated, and the spatial shape of rice panicle is therefore created. Parametric L-system is employed to generate its topological structures, and finite-state automaton is adopted to describe the development of geometrical structures. Finally, the computer visualization of three-dimensional morphologies of rice plant at both organ and individual levels is achieved. The experimental results showed that the proposed methods of modeling the three-dimensional shapes of organs and simulating the growth of rice plant are feasible and effective, and the generated three-dimensional images are realistic.

  18. Uptake and distribution of 137Cs, stable Cs and K in rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Hidenao

    2003-01-01

    The uptake and distributions of 137 Cs, stable Cs and K were determined for rice plant components, including polished rice, rice bran, hulls, leaves, stems, and roots. The distribution of 137 Cs in polished rice and rice bran was similar to that of stable Cs, while that of K was different. The concentration ratios of Cs/K in leaves increased in older leaf blade positions, which meant that the translocation rate of stable Cs, was slower than that of K. At harvest the dry weight of polished rice accounted for 34% of the entire rice plant, while the distributions of stable Cs in the polished rice and the non-edible parts were 7 and 93%, respectively. These findings suggest that the transfer and distribution of stable Cs in rice plants are different from those of K, and the behavior of stable Cs provides a useful analogue in predicting the fate of 137 Cs in an agricultural environment. (author)

  19. Ectopic Expression of Hrf1 Enhances Bacterial Resistance via Regulation of Diterpene Phytoalexins, Silicon and Reactive Oxygen Species Burst in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weigong; Yang, Jie; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Guang; Wang, Dong; Xiao, Shanshan; Chang, Shanshan; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan

    2012-01-01

    Harpin proteins as elicitor derived from plant gram negative bacteria such as Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), Erwinia amylovora induce disease resistance in plants by activating multiple defense responses. However, it is unclear whether phytoalexin production and ROS burst are involved in the disease resistance conferred by the expression of the harpinXoo protein in rice. In this article, ectopic expression of hrf1 in rice enhanced resistance to bacterial blight. Accompanying with the activation of genes related to the phytoalexin biosynthesis pathway in hrf1-transformed rice, phytoalexins quickly and consistently accumulated concurrent with the limitation of bacterial growth rate. Moreover, the hrf1-transformed rice showed an increased ability for ROS scavenging and decreased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration. Furthermore, the localization and relative quantification of silicon deposition in rice leaves was detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Finally, the transcript levels of defense response genes increased in transformed rice. These results show a correlation between Xoo resistance and phytoalexin production, H2O2, silicon deposition and defense gene expression in hrf1-transformed rice. These data are significant because they provide evidence for a better understanding the role of defense responses in the incompatible interaction between bacterial disease and hrf1-transformed plants. These data also supply an opportunity for generating nonspecific resistance to pathogens. PMID:22970151

  20. Ectopic expression of Hrf1 enhances bacterial resistance via regulation of diterpene phytoalexins, silicon and reactive oxygen species burst in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqi Li

    Full Text Available Harpin proteins as elicitor derived from plant gram negative bacteria such as Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo, Erwinia amylovora induce disease resistance in plants by activating multiple defense responses. However, it is unclear whether phytoalexin production and ROS burst are involved in the disease resistance conferred by the expression of the harpin(Xoo protein in rice. In this article, ectopic expression of hrf1 in rice enhanced resistance to bacterial blight. Accompanying with the activation of genes related to the phytoalexin biosynthesis pathway in hrf1-transformed rice, phytoalexins quickly and consistently accumulated concurrent with the limitation of bacterial growth rate. Moreover, the hrf1-transformed rice showed an increased ability for ROS scavenging and decreased hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 concentration. Furthermore, the localization and relative quantification of silicon deposition in rice leaves was detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS. Finally, the transcript levels of defense response genes increased in transformed rice. These results show a correlation between Xoo resistance and phytoalexin production, H(2O(2, silicon deposition and defense gene expression in hrf1-transformed rice. These data are significant because they provide evidence for a better understanding the role of defense responses in the incompatible interaction between bacterial disease and hrf1-transformed plants. These data also supply an opportunity for generating nonspecific resistance to pathogens.

  1. Freeze-fracture of infected plant leaves in ethanol for scanning electron microscopic study of fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jayma A; Payne, Scott A

    2012-01-01

    Fungi often are found within plant tissues where they cannot be visualized with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). We present a simple way to reveal cell interiors while avoiding many common causes of artifact. Freeze-fracture of leaf tissue using liquid nitrogen during the 100% ethanol step of the dehydration process just before critical point drying is useful in exposing intracellular fungi to the SEM.

  2. Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-Wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-Hua; Jiang, Ming-Xing; Cheng, Jia-An

    2008-07-01

    The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice.

  3. Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-hua; Jiang, Ming-xing; Cheng, Jia-an

    2008-01-01

    The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice. PMID:18600788

  4. Photochemical oxidants injury in rice plants. III. Effect of ozone on physiological activities in rice plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H; Saka, H

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were made to determine the effect of photochemical oxidants on physiological activities of rice plants. Rice plants were fumigated with ozone at concentrations of 0.12-0.20 ppm for 2-3 hr to investigate acute injury and at 0.05 and 0.09 ppm for daily exposure from 3.0 leaf stage to assess the effect of ozone on growth. It was observed that malondialdehyde produced by disruption of the components of the membrane increased in the leaves exposed to ozone. Ozone reduced the RuBP-carboxylase activity in both young and old leaves 12-24 hr after fumigation. In the young leaves the activity of this enzyme recovered to some extent after 48 hr, but it did not show any recovery in the old leaves. On the other hand, ozone remarkably increased the peroxidase activity and slightly increased acid phosphatase in all leaves. Abnormally high ethylene evolution and oxygen uptake were detected in leaves soon after ozone fumigation. In general, high molecular protein and chlorophyll contents in the detached leaves decreased with incubation in dark, particularly in the old ones. These phenomena were more accelerated by ozone fumigation. Kinetin and benzimidazole showed significant effects on chlorophyll retention in ozone-exposed leaves. Reduction of plant growth and photosynthetic rate was recognized even in low concentration of ozone in daily exposure at 0.05 and 0.09 ppm. From these results it was postulated that ozone may cause the senescence of leaves in rice plants.

  5. Automated rice leaf disease detection using color image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugoy, Reinald Adrian D. L.; Mariano, Vladimir Y.

    2011-06-01

    In rice-related institutions such as the International Rice Research Institute, assessing the health condition of a rice plant through its leaves, which is usually done as a manual eyeball exercise, is important to come up with good nutrient and disease management strategies. In this paper, an automated system that can detect diseases present in a rice leaf using color image analysis is presented. In the system, the outlier region is first obtained from a rice leaf image to be tested using histogram intersection between the test and healthy rice leaf images. Upon obtaining the outlier, it is then subjected to a threshold-based K-means clustering algorithm to group related regions into clusters. Then, these clusters are subjected to further analysis to finally determine the suspected diseases of the rice leaf.

  6. Microencapsulated antimicrobial compounds as a means to enhance electron beam irradiation treatment for inactivation of pathogens on fresh spinach leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carmen; Moreira, Rosana G; Castell-Perez, Elena

    2011-08-01

    Recent outbreaks associated to the consumption of raw or minimally processed vegetable products that have resulted in several illnesses and a few deaths call for urgent actions aimed at improving the safety of those products. Electron beam irradiation can extend shelf-life and assure safety of fresh produce. However, undesirable effects on the organoleptic quality at doses required to achieve pathogen inactivation limit irradiation. Ways to increase pathogen radiation sensitivity could reduce the dose required for a certain level of microbial kill. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using natural antimicrobials when irradiating fresh produce. The minimum inhibitory concentration of 5 natural compounds and extracts (trans-cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, garlic extract, propolis extract, and lysozyme with ethylenediaminetetraacetate acid (disodium salt dihydrate) was determined against Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. In order to mask odor and off-flavor inherent of several compounds, and to increase their solubility, complexes of these compounds and extracts with β-cyclodextrin were prepared by the freeze-drying method. All compounds showed bacteriostatic effect at different levels for both bacteria. The effectiveness of the microencapsulated compounds was tested by spraying them on the surface of baby spinach inoculated with Salmonella spp. The dose (D₁₀ value) required to reduce the bacterial population by 1 log was 0.190 kGy without antimicrobial addition. The increase in radiation sensitivity (up to 40%) varied with the antimicrobial compound. These results confirm that the combination of spraying microencapsulated antimicrobials with electron beam irradiation was effective in increasing the killing effect of irradiation. Foodborne illness outbreaks attributed to fresh produce consumption have increased and present new challenges to food safety. Current technologies (water washing or treating with 200 ppm chlorine) cannot

  7. Laser induced fluorescence of some plant leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmi, M.S.; Mohamed, M.M.; Amer, R.; Elshazly, O.; Elraey, M.

    1992-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is successfully used as a technique for remote detection of spectral characteristics of some plants. A pulsed nitrogen laser at 337.1 nm is used to excite cotton, corn and rice leaves. The fluorescence spectrum is detected in the range from 340 nm to 820 nm. It is found that, these plant leaves have common fluorescence maxima at 440 nm, 685 nm and 740 nm. plant leaves are also found to be identifiable by the ratio of the fluorescence intensity at 440 nm to that at 685 nm. The present technique can be further used as a means of assessing, remotely, plant stresses. 5 fig

  8. (PGMS) rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... tics, led us to predict that pollen cell abortion in this type of rice when ... averages of natural day-light-lengths and temperatures were used. A natural long ... blocks were allowed to grow under natural growth conditions (which.

  9. Evidence for Non-Transmission of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV through Rice Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy, AA.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An indexing of the organs (radicle and plumule and components (husk, endosperm and embryo of rice seeds using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA was carried out to detect Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV and establish the exact location of the virus in the rice seed. RYMV was detected only in the husk (seed coat but not in the endosperm, plumule, radicle, nor embryo. None of the seedlings raised from the seeds expressed RYMV symptoms. No virus particle was detected by the ELISA test in the leaves of the screenhouse-reared plants obtained from seeds of infected plants. The results indicate that RYMV is apparently not transmitted through rice seed probably because the virus is seed-borne in the husk (seed coat of mature rice seeds.

  10. Methyl jasmonate induced resistance in cheniere rice and soybean plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, C.

    2017-12-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is a compound naturally occurring in certain plants that aids in plant defense. In this study, we examined the difference in herbivory of fall armyworm (FAW) on control plants (treated without MJ) and MJ-treated plants. Seeds of cheniere rice and soybean were soaked in MJ overnight and planted in the greenhouse, although the soybean never grew. Therefore, only the mature plant leaves of cheniere rice were fed to FAW and the difference in herbivory was looked at. Our results show there is no statistical difference in the herbivory of the cheniere rice plant leaves.

  11. Gene expression analysis in rice plants after external radiation exposure in Iitate village

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, G.; Fukumoto, M. [Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University (Japan); Imanaka, T. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (Japan); Shibato, J. [Department of Anatomy I, School of Medicine, Showa University (Japan); Kubo, A. [Center for Environmental Biology and Ecosystem Studies, National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); Kikuchi, S. [Plant Genome Research Unit, Agrogenomics Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences (Japan); Rakwal, R. [Organization for Educational Initiatives, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Rice plants exposed to radiation respond to the stress by activating self-defense mechanisms. A well-established molecular approach to measure stress is by cataloging global gene expression profiles. Here, we examined the effect of radiation exposure in a cereal crop model plant - rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Nipponbare - in the village of Iitate of Fukushima prefecture. Iitate village is a highly radio-contaminated site due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake. The experimental approach comprised of five steps. First, healthy rice seedlings were grown in the greenhouse facility at National Institute for Environmental Sciences. Post-germination at 30 deg. C similarly germinated seeds were placed in neat rows in seedling pots having commercial soil (JA Zen-Noh, Japan; http//www.zennoh.or.jp/) with recommended NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash) doses at a controlled (25 deg. C, 70% relative humidity and natural light condition) greenhouse. Second, the seedlings were transported from a controlled greenhouse in Tsukuba to Iitate Farm (ITF) and placed, with no direct contact with soil, in a low-level gamma field where the rate of Cs-137 was 700 kBq/m{sup 2}. Third, exposure periods were set at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after arrival at ITF, and rice leaves at the 3. position (from the base) from 6 to 10 seedlings were sampled in dry ice. As control, rice leaves were sampled at the start in Tsukuba and immediately at arrival upon ITF; to know the radiation levels during growth and transport of the rice to ITF, accumulated radiation dose was calculated using a MYDOSE mini electronic pocket dosimeter (model PDM-222-52, ALOKA, Japan). A sample set was also taken at 72 h from healthy rice seedlings in the greenhouse at Tsukuba. All samples were stored at -80 deg. C. Accumulated total dose for exposed rice seedlings at 72 h was 200 mSv. Fourth, gene expression analysis was initiated by grinding the leaves to a

  12. Labelling of rice seedlings and rice plants with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Nasroh, K.

    1989-01-01

    Labelling of rice seedlings and rice plants with 32 P. Labelled rice seedlings can be used to tag insect pests that feed on. Radioactivity counting of 32 P in the endosperm and in the shoot of rice seeds that soaked for 72 hours in KH 2 32 PO 4 solution of 1 μCi/ml were 29,300 and 9,500 cpm respectively. When these labelled seedlings were grown in unlabelled medium the radioactivity in the shoot increased. It was due to the 32 P that was translocated to the shoot from the endosperm. The 32 P translocation reached maximum about one week after the seedling were grown in the unlabelled medium. Labelled seedlings could also be produced by growing 5, 10 and 15 days old seedlings hydroponically in Kimura B solution containing 32 P. Ten days after growing, the radioactivity concentration of the seedlings stem reached about 115,000; 85,000 and 170,000 cpm/mg dry weight for the 5, 10 and 15 days old seedlings respectively. For the implementation of this method, 20 ml labelled Kimura B was needed for labelling of one seedling. The seedlings should be prepared in tap water. During the growth the 32 P in the labelled seedlings was distributed throughout the plant, so that new leaves and tillers became also radioactive. (author). 5 refs

  13. Autophagy Supports Biomass Production and Nitrogen Use Efficiency at the Vegetative Stage in Rice1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Yasukazu; Kurusu, Takamitsu; Kojima, Soichi; Makino, Amane

    2015-01-01

    Much of the nitrogen in leaves is distributed to chloroplasts, mainly in photosynthetic proteins. During leaf senescence, chloroplastic proteins, including Rubisco, are rapidly degraded, and the released nitrogen is remobilized and reused in newly developing tissues. Autophagy facilitates the degradation of intracellular components for nutrient recycling in all eukaryotes, and recent studies have revealed critical roles for autophagy in Rubisco degradation and nitrogen remobilization into seeds in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we examined the function of autophagy in vegetative growth and nitrogen usage in a cereal plant, rice (Oryza sativa). An autophagy-disrupted rice mutant, Osatg7-1, showed reduced biomass production and nitrogen use efficiency compared with the wild type. While Osatg7-1 showed early visible leaf senescence, the nitrogen concentration remained high in the senescent leaves. 15N pulse chase analysis revealed suppression of nitrogen remobilization during leaf senescence in Osatg7-1. Accordingly, the reduction of nitrogen available for newly developing tissues in Osatg7-1 likely led its reduced leaf area and tillers. The limited leaf growth in Osatg7-1 decreased the photosynthetic capacity of the plant. Much of the nitrogen remaining in senescent leaves of Osatg7-1 was in soluble proteins, and the Rubisco concentration in senescing leaves of Osatg7-1 was about 2.5 times higher than in the wild type. Transmission electron micrographs showed a cytosolic fraction rich with organelles in senescent leaves of Osatg7-1. Our results suggest that autophagy contributes to efficient nitrogen remobilization at the whole-plant level by facilitating protein degradation for nitrogen recycling in senescent leaves. PMID:25786829

  14. Autophagy supports biomass production and nitrogen use efficiency at the vegetative stage in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Shinya; Hayashida, Yasukzu; Izumi, Masanori; Kurusu, Takamitsu; Hanamata, Shigeru; Kanno, Keiichi; Kojima, Soichi; Yamaya, Tomoyuki; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Makino, Amane; Ishida, Hiroyuki

    2015-05-01

    Much of the nitrogen in leaves is distributed to chloroplasts, mainly in photosynthetic proteins. During leaf senescence, chloroplastic proteins, including Rubisco, are rapidly degraded, and the released nitrogen is remobilized and reused in newly developing tissues. Autophagy facilitates the degradation of intracellular components for nutrient recycling in all eukaryotes, and recent studies have revealed critical roles for autophagy in Rubisco degradation and nitrogen remobilization into seeds in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we examined the function of autophagy in vegetative growth and nitrogen usage in a cereal plant, rice (Oryza sativa). An autophagy-disrupted rice mutant, Osatg7-1, showed reduced biomass production and nitrogen use efficiency compared with the wild type. While Osatg7-1 showed early visible leaf senescence, the nitrogen concentration remained high in the senescent leaves. (15)N pulse chase analysis revealed suppression of nitrogen remobilization during leaf senescence in Osatg7-1. Accordingly, the reduction of nitrogen available for newly developing tissues in Osatg7-1 likely led its reduced leaf area and tillers. The limited leaf growth in Osatg7-1 decreased the photosynthetic capacity of the plant. Much of the nitrogen remaining in senescent leaves of Osatg7-1 was in soluble proteins, and the Rubisco concentration in senescing leaves of Osatg7-1 was about 2.5 times higher than in the wild type. Transmission electron micrographs showed a cytosolic fraction rich with organelles in senescent leaves of Osatg7-1. Our results suggest that autophagy contributes to efficient nitrogen remobilization at the whole-plant level by facilitating protein degradation for nitrogen recycling in senescent leaves. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice lines on mortality and feeding behavior of rice stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Guoan; Zhang, Qifa; Lin, Yongjun

    2008-02-01

    Ten transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis Bt rice, Oryza sativa L., lines with different Bt genes (two Cry1Ac lines, three Cry2A lines, and five Cry9C lines) derived from the same variety Minghui 63 were evaluated in both the laboratory and the field. Bioassays were conducted by using the first instars of two main rice lepidopteran insect species: yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) and Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker). All transgenic lines exhibited high toxicity to these two rice borers. Field evaluation results also showed that all transgenic lines were highly insect resistant with both natural infestation and manual infestation of the neonate larvae of S. incertulas compared with the nontransformed Minghui63. Bt protein concentrations in leaves of 10 transgenic rice lines were estimated by the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cry9C gene had the highest expression level, next was cry2A gene, and the cry1Ac gene expressed at the lowest level. The feeding behavior of 7-d-old Asiatic rice borer to three classes of Bt transgenic rice lines also was detected by using rice culm cuttings. The results showed that 7-d-old larvae of Asiatic rice borer have the capacity to distinguish Bt and non-Bt culm cuttings and preferentially fed on non-Bt cuttings. When only Bt culm cuttings with three classes of different Bt proteins (CrylAc, Cry2A, and Cry9C) were fed, significant distribution difference of 7-d-old Asiatic rice borer in culm cuttings of different Bt proteins also was found. In the current study, we evaluate different Bt genes in the same rice variety in both the laboratory and the field, and also tested feeding behavior of rice insect to these Bt rice. These data are valuable for the further development of two-toxin Bt rice and establishment of appropriate insect resistance management in the future.

  16. Lead enrichment in different genotypes of rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Sun, Guo-rong; Liu, Ai-ping; Zhou, Wei-dong

    2008-03-01

    Using environmental scanning electron microscopy and X-ray electron probe microanalysis, the lead content was studied in inner and outer surface of rice glume, surface of caryopsis, center of caryopsis, near aleuronic layer and aleuronic layer in 21 genotypes of rice grains. The results showed that the lead content in different part of 21 genotypes of rice grains changed as inner surface of rice glume > aleuronic layer > near aleuronic layer > surface of caryopsis > outer surface of rice glume > center of caryopsis. There were genetic differences in lead enrichment in different genotypes of rice grains, which reflected as the differences of lead content in the same part and different part of rice grains. In different genotypes of rice grains, there were significant non-linear correlations between lead content in the inner surface of rice glume, center of caryopsis, aleuronic layer and that in the other parts of rice grain. The results also indicated that the lead enrichment in the center of caryopsis regulated by glume and aleuronic layer. In addition, in different genotypes of rice grains, there were differences in regulation of lead enrichment among different parts, which changed non-linearly.

  17. Endophytic Colonization of Rice by a Diazotrophic Strain of Serratia marcescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyaneshwar, Prasad; James, Euan K.; Mathan, Natarajan; Reddy, Pallavolu M.; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara; Ladha, Jagdish K.

    2001-01-01

    Six closely related N2-fixing bacterial strains were isolated from surface-sterilized roots and stems of four different rice varieties. The strains were identified as Serratia marcescens by 16S rRNA gene analysis. One strain, IRBG500, chosen for further analysis showed acetylene reduction activity (ARA) only when inoculated into media containing low levels of fixed nitrogen (yeast extract). Diazotrophy of IRBG500 was confirmed by measurement of 15N2 incorporation and by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified fragment of nifH. To examine its interaction with rice, strain IRBG500 was marked with gusA fused to a constitutive promoter, and the marked strain was inoculated onto rice seedlings under axenic conditions. At 3 days after inoculation, the roots showed blue staining, which was most intense at the points of lateral root emergence and at the root tip. At 6 days, the blue precipitate also appeared in the leaves and stems. More detailed studies using light and transmission electron microscopy combined with immunogold labeling confirmed that IRBG500 was endophytically established within roots, stems, and leaves. Large numbers of bacteria were observed within intercellular spaces, senescing root cortical cells, aerenchyma, and xylem vessels. They were not observed within intact host cells. Inoculation of IRBG500 resulted in a significant increase in root length and root dry weight but not in total N content of rice variety IR72. The inoculated plants showed ARA, but only when external carbon (e.g., malate, succinate, or sucrose) was added to the rooting medium. PMID:11274124

  18. Diurnal Solar Energy Conversion and Photoprotection in Rice Canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Katherine; Sirault, Xavier; Quick, W Paul; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Furbank, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Genetic improvement of photosynthetic performance of cereal crops and increasing the efficiency with which solar radiation is converted into biomass has recently become a major focus for crop physiologists and breeders. The pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence technique (PAM) allows quantitative leaf level monitoring of the utilization of energy for photochemical light conversion and photoprotection in natural environments, potentially over the entire crop lifecycle. Here, the diurnal relationship between electron transport rate (ETR) and irradiance was measured in five cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa) in canopy conditions with PAM fluorescence under natural solar radiation. This relationship differed substantially from that observed for conventional short term light response curves measured under controlled actinic light with the same leaves. This difference was characterized by a reduced curvature factor when curve fitting was used to model this diurnal response. The engagement of photoprotective processes in chloroplast electron transport in leaves under canopy solar radiation was shown to be a major contributor to this difference. Genotypic variation in the irradiance at which energy flux into photoprotective dissipation became greater than ETR was observed. Cultivars capable of higher ETR at midrange light intensities were shown to produce greater leaf area over time, estimated by noninvasive imaging. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. UV-irradiation enhances rice allelopathic potential in rhizosphere soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Khan, Muhammad Bismillah; Song, Yuan Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation is rising continuously due to stratospheric ozone depletion over temperate latitudes. This study investigated effects of UV exposure on rice allelopathic potentials. For this purpose, two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars BR-41 (high allelopathic = able to inhibit neighboring...... grass and lettuce). These bioassays showed significant inhibition in lettuce and barnyard growth after UV in both rice cultivars. Interestingly, Huajingxian, which did not exhibit allelopathic potential in absence of UV showed significant inhibition after UV exposure. Phenolics, enzymes activities...... and genes responsible for biosynthesis of allelopathic compounds were examined after UV exposure. Phenolic compounds accumulated in rice leaves were quantified through HPLC analysis. They were significantly higher in BR-41 leaves after UV exposure. Enzyme activities (PAL and C4H) were significantly higher...

  20. Three-dimensional intracellular structure of a whole rice mesophyll cell observed with FIB-SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Takao; Enomoto, Sakiko; Nakao, Tomoyo; Arai, Shigeo; Yamane, Koji; Taniguchi, Mitsutaka

    2017-07-01

    Ultrathin sections of rice leaf blades observed two-dimensionally using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) show that the chlorenchyma is composed of lobed mesophyll cells, with intricate cell boundaries, and lined with chloroplasts. The lobed cell shape and chloroplast positioning are believed to enhance the area available for the gas exchange surface for photosynthesis in rice leaves. However, a cell image revealing the three-dimensional (3-D) ultrastructure of rice mesophyll cells has not been visualized. In this study, a whole rice mesophyll cell was observed using a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM), which provides many serial sections automatically, rapidly and correctly, thereby enabling 3-D cell structure reconstruction. Rice leaf blades were fixed chemically using the method for conventional TEM observation, embedded in resin and subsequently set in the FIB-SEM chamber. Specimen blocks were sectioned transversely using the FIB, and block-face images were captured using the SEM. The sectioning and imaging were repeated overnight for 200-500 slices (each 50 nm thick). The resultant large-volume image stacks ( x = 25 μm, y = 25 μm, z = 10-25 μm) contained one or two whole mesophyll cells. The 3-D models of whole mesophyll cells were reconstructed using image processing software. The reconstructed cell models were discoid shaped with several lobes around the cell periphery. The cell shape increased the surface area, and the ratio of surface area to volume was twice that of a cylinder having the same volume. The chloroplasts occupied half the cell volume and spread as sheets along the cell lobes, covering most of the inner cell surface, with adjacent chloroplasts in close contact with each other. Cellular and sub-cellular ultrastructures of a whole mesophyll cell in a rice leaf blade are demonstrated three-dimensionally using a FIB-SEM. The 3-D models and numerical information support the hypothesis that rice mesophyll

  1. In vitro sterilization technique on embryo of black Toraja rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, F.; Riadi, M.; Rafiuddin; Sjahril, R.; Muchlis, A. R.

    2018-05-01

    Toraja black rice has a high anthocyanin content, a water-soluble pigments, with antioxidant activity. Toraja black rice has a variety of seeds colour in one panicles such as full black (the outside and inside the rice), medium black (the outside and slightly inside rice) and a little black (only the outside of rice). Embryo culture in vitro is one way to grow plants in sterile conditions. The presence of contamination and the death of the embryo require in vitro embryo culture. The sterilization technique is a very important first step to eliminate contamination and the death of embryos. This research aims to determine the right material composition for sterilization of black rice’s embryo. The experiment was done by growing black rice on half strength MS media with the treatment of three method of sterilization, i.e.: S1 (70% alcohol for 5 minutes, 3% and 2% Chlorox each for 10 minutes,), S2 (70% alcohol for 3 minutes, 2% Clorox for 10 minutes) and S3 (70% alcohol for 3 minutes and 1% Clorox for 15 minutes). The materials used are rice seedlings that have been cut in two and opened the pericarp of paddy grain, leaving a piece of rice that has a complete embryo. The best sterilization for Toraja black rice embryo culture was using the S3 composition. Best germination was seen on the seeds with full and medium black color.

  2. Investigating the roles of MicroRNAs in biotic stress response induced by Rhizoctonia solani in rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syuhada, O. Nurfarahana; Kalaivani, N. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Sheath blight disease, caused by Rhizoctonia solani 1802/KB was screened on two rice varieties, Oryza sativaindica cultivar MR219 and Oryza sativa indica cultivar UKMRC9. The disease symptom was severe in MR219 compared to UKMRC9. Total RNA from R. solani 1802/KB, infected rice leaves of MR219 and infected rice leaves of UKMRC9 were extracted using TRIzol reagent, purified and sent for small RNA sequencing. Three miRNA libraries were generated and analyzed. The libraries generated 65 805, 78 512 and 81 325 known miRNAs respectively. The structure of miRNA of these samples was predicted. The up-regulated and down-regulated of miRNAs target gene prediction and its target functions were discovered and were mainly related to the growth and development of metabolism, protein transport, transcriptional regulation, stress response, and hormone signaling and electron transfer. Sheath blight-induced differential expression of known miRNAs tends to targetMYB transcription factor, F-box proteins, NBS-LRR, leucine-rich repeat receptor protein kinases and zinc finger proteins. Detecting new miRNAs and measuring the expression profiles of known miRNAs is an important tasks required for a better understanding of various biological conditions. Therefore, further analysis using Gene Ontology Slim will be conducted to deduce some biological information from the datasets obtained.

  3. Leaf application of silicic acid to upland rice and corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Si (stabilized silicic acid, Silamol® leaf application on mineral nutrition and yield in upland rice and corn crops. The treatments were the control (without Si and Si foliar split spraying using 2 L ha-1 of the Silamol® commercial product, with 0.8% soluble Si as concentrated stabilized silicic acid. Silicon leaf application increased the concentrations of K, Ca and Si in rice and corn leaves, the number of panicles per m2 of rice and the number of grains per ear of corn; accordingly, the Si leaf application provided a higher grain yield in both crops.

  4. Leaf gas films contribute to rice (Oryza sativa) submergence tolerance during saline floods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Max; Konnerup, Dennis; Pedersen, Ole

    2018-01-01

    Floods and salinization of agricultural land adversely impact global rice production. We investigated whether gas films on leaves of submerged rice delay salt entry during saline submergence. Two-week-old plants with leaf gas films (+GF) or with gas films experimentally removed (-GF) were submerged...

  5. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp

  6. Excessive sulfur supply reduces cadmium accumulation in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Jianling; Hu Zhengyi; Ziadi, Noura; Xia Xu; Wu Congyanghui

    2010-01-01

    Human activities have resulted in cadmium (Cd) and sulfur (S) accumulation in paddy soils in parts of southern China. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of excessive S supply on iron plaque formation and Cd accumulation in rice plants, using two Cd levels (0, 1.5 mg kg -1 ) combined with three S concentrations (0, 60, 120 mg kg -1 ). The results showed that excessive S supply significantly decreased Cd accumulation in brown rice due to the decrease of Cd availability and the increase of glutathione in rice leaves. But excessive S supply obviously increased Cd accumulation in roots due to the decrease of iron plaque formation on the root surface of rice. Therefore, excessive S supply may result in loss of rice yield, but it could effectively reduce Cd accumulation in brown rice exposed to Cd contaminated soils. - Excessive sulfur reduces cadmium accumulation in brown rice.

  7. Acetylated starch of Ofada rice as a sustained polymer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To formulate and evaluate repaglinide microspheres using acetylated starch of the indigenous rice species Oryza glaberrima Steud (Ofada) as polymer. Materials and Methods: Ofada rice starch was acetylated with acetic anhydride in pyridine (DS 2.68) and characterized for morphology (Scanning electron ...

  8. Transfer of technetium from soil to paddy and upland rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kei; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    1995-01-01

    Soil-plant transfer factors (concentration ratio between the plant and soil) of technetium in paddy and upland rice plants were obtained from laboratory experiments. The transfer factor is one of the most important parameters for environmental radiation dose assessment. Technetium tracer ( 95m TcO 4 - ) was added to the soil prior to rice cultivation. The transfer factor of technetium for the hulled grains (brown rice) of paddy rice (≤0.0002) was much lower than for that of upland rice (0.021). The transfer factors for both types of hulled grains were much lower than in the leaves. The technetium decontamination rate from hulled grains by polishing was 34%, the percentage of the weight decrease being 12%. The concentration of technetium in the soil solution collected from the paddy rice soil (flooded conditions) decreased rapidly with time due to its adsorption on the soil. In the upland rice soil (non-flooded) solution, the decrease in the technetium concentration was fairly slow. The low transfer factors for the paddy rice plants could be explained by the immobilization of technetium in the flooded soil. The oxidation-reduction potentials (Eh) in the flooded soil decreased rapidly with time. We conclude that technetium tracer added as TcO 4 - to flooded soil is readily transformed to an insoluble form (e.g.TcO 2 ) under the reducing conditions provided by flooding. (author)

  9. Efeito do estresse salino sobre a concentração de pigmentos e prolina em folhas de arroz Effect of salt stress on pigments and proline concentrations in leaves of rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça de Souza Lima

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação com as cultivares BRS Bojurú, IAS 12-9 Formosa e BRS Agrisul, a fim de analisar o efeito da concentração de NaCl (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 mM nos teores de clorofilas, carotenóides totais e de prolina, determinados a 30 dias após salinização do solo. A salinidade reduziu fortemente o teor de clorofilas e carotenóides totais no genótipo Agrisul, mas esses pigmentos não foram afetados no Bojurú e Formosa pela concentração salina. O teor de prolina foi maior na cultivar Agrisul do que nas cultivares Bojurú e Formosa e acentuou-se com o incremento na concentração de NaCl. Foi verificada uma concentração salina limiar que inicia o processo de acúmulo de prolina nas folhas, sendo de 50 mM para a cultivar BRS Agrisul (sensível e de 75 mM para BRS Bojurú e IAS 12-9 Formosa (tolerantes.In order to analyse the effect of salt (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM concentration on chlorophylls, total carotenoids and proline contents, an experiment was carried out in greenhouse conditions with cultivars BRS Bojurú, IAS 12-9 Formosa and BRS Agrisul. Total contents were determined 30 days after soil salinization. The salinity strongly reduced chlorophylls and total carotenoids contents on Agrisul genotype, but pigments were not quite affected on Bojuru and Formosa. Proline contents were ligher in Agrisul than in the Bujuru and Formosa genotypes, and the proline accumulation was accentuated with increase in salt concentration. A threshhold of salt concentration that starts the process of proline accumulation in leaves was verified, being 50 mM to cultivar BRS Agrisul (sensitive and 75 mM to cultivars BRS Bojuru and IAS 12-9 Formosa (tolerants.

  10. Study on rice absorption and distribution of Cd in applying Zn fertilizer with 65Zn, 115Cdm tracing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Nianxin; Shen Jinxiong

    1994-01-01

    Results of study by using 65 Zn and 115 Cd m tracers show that, along with the increase of the amount of Cd in applying Zn fertilizer to soil, rice has the phenomena of growth retard and tiller delay in the earlier growing stage. The inhibiting phenomenon is lightened along with the progress of rice growth. Very small quantity of Cd might be helpful to the growth of rice. It would cause serious inhibition to rice growth when the amount of Cd reaches to a definite limitation (64 x 10 -6 ). The distribution of Cd in a rice plant follows the following order in content: root>stem and leaves>brown rice>ear stalk>rice shell. Cd is mainly accumulated in rice root, taking 90% of the total amount of Cd contained in whole rice plant. The amount of Cd absorbed by rice increases with the amount of Cd applied to soil, though the total absorption extremely low, for example, only about 0.1% of the applied amount could be absorbed by two crops of rice, most of the applied Cd still retains in soil. Less and less Zn could be absorbed and utilized by rice along with the increase of the amount of the applied Cd. Application of Mn fertilizer affects negatively the absorption of Cd by rice, especially in brown rice

  11. Induced Mutations in Thai Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klakhaeng, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Rice is the primary source of food for more than half of the world's population. It benefits greatly from technological inputs in the area of breeding such as induced mutation. Induced mutation can produce mutants with significant improvement in plant type, maturity, yields and protein ratio when compared to the parent. These improved traits enable the mutants to fit into farming systems with either shorter or longer growing seasons. Three induced mutant rice varieties, including RD6, RD10 and RD15, are well accepted by farmers and consumers in Thailand. RD6 and RD15 were aromatic, photosensitive varieties which were derived from KDML105 by acute irradiation of 20 and 15 kilorad gamma ray, respectively. After induced mutation, pedigree selection was applied. RD6 showed drought tolerance and also good grain quality including softness and good aroma with a higher average yield than the famous glutinous variety, San-Pah-Tong. Additionally, it was resistant to blast and brown spot diseases with an average yield of 4.19 tons/ha. RD15 showed drought tolerance and resistance to brown spot disease with the highest yield of 3.5 tons/ha. These two mutant varieties are currently the most famous aromatic rice varieties in Thailand. On the other hand, RD10 is a glutinous, photoperiod insensitive rice variety which was derived from RD1 by irradiation of 1 kilorad fast neutrons. RD10 showed good grain quality such as softness and stickiness with the yield of 4.25 tons/ha. As an on-going project, recommended rice varieties were irradiated with electron beam for anaerobic germination ability, submergence tolerance, stagnant-flood tolerance and also internode elongation.

  12. Effects of Soil Veterinary Antibiotics Pollution on Rice Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Qiu-tong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the potential effect of soil veterinary antibiotics pollution on the growth of rice, a main food crop in China, oxytetracycline which was used widely in livestock and poultry breeding was selected to test the effects of different levels of soil antibiotics pollution on growth and yield of rice plant at both seedling and growth periods. Relationship between oxytetracycline accumulated in different organs of rice plant and oxytetracycline pollution levels in the soil was characterized. The results showed that the effects of soil oxytetracycline pollution on rice growth mainly occurred at the seedling stage, and the effect on the underground part was obviously greater than the above-ground part of rice. Significant negative effects on biomass of the underground part of rice, root activity, and chlorophyll content and oxidase activity of the leave at the seedling stage were found when soil oxytetracycline pollution concentrations was over 30 mg·kg-1. The consequence from the impact of soil oxytetracycline pollution on rice seedling could be extended to the whole growth period of the plant, which could reduce the number of tiller and rice yield. Oxytetracycline accumulated in various organs of rice plant was in the sequence of root> leaf> stem> grain. Rice roots had low capacity to uptake oxytetracycline from the soil, the transfer capacity of oxytetracycline from the roots to leaf, stem, and grain was also weak. Considering the low oxytetracycline pollution levels in most of current actual farmland soils (less than 10 mg·kg-1 and lower accumulation character of oxytetracycline in the grain, it is thought that the direct damage of soil oxytetracycline pollution on rice production is small.

  13. Obtaining high purity silica from rice hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José da Silva Júnior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many routes for extracting silica from rice hulls are based on direct calcining. These methods, though, often produce silica contaminated with inorganic impurities. This work presents the study of a strategy for obtaining silica from rice hulls with a purity level adequate for applications in electronics. The technique is based on two leaching steps, using respectively aqua regia and Piranha solutions, which extract the organic matrix and inorganic impurities. The material was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, powder x-ray diffraction (XRD, x-ray fluorescence (XRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, particle size analysis by laser diffraction (LPSA and thermal analysis.

  14. Radiation disinfection of rice-straw products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao; Ohki, Yumi.

    1991-01-01

    For the quarantine treatment of rice-straw products from foreign countries, irradiation effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on plant pathogenic microorganisms especially on fungi were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria in rice-straw was determined to be 3x10 7 - 3x10 8 per gram which consisted mainly of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Erwinia. The principal bacteria in rice-straw could be eliminated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Deinococcus proteolyticus and Pseudomonas radiora were the main survivors at 5 to 12 kGy of irradiation. Saprophytic fungus which belongs to Dimorphospora also survived up to 8 kGy of irradiation. The D 10 values of 26 strains of fungi isolated from rice-straw were 1.1 to 2.5 times higher in the dry condition compared to the values when irradiated in 0.067 M phosphate buffer solution. The induction dose in the dry condition also increased from 1.5 to 10 times than that in the wet condition. In the case of electron beam irradiation of fungi under dry conditions, D 10 values were about 1.3 times higher than that of gamma irradiation. From this study, the dose necessary to reduce the plant pathogenic fungi in rice-straw at a level below 10 -4 per gram was estimated to be as 7-8 kGy for gamma-irradiation and 10 kGy for electron beam irradiation. (author)

  15. Reduced arsenic accumulation in indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar with ferromanganese oxide impregnated biochar composites amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lina; Gao, Minling; Qiu, Weiwen; Wang, Di; Huang, Qing; Song, Zhengguo

    2017-12-01

    The effects of biochar (BC) and ferromanganese oxide biochar composites (FMBC 1 and FMBC 2 ) on As (Arsenic) accumulation in rice were determined using a pot experiment. Treatments with BC or FMBC improved the dry weights of rice roots, stems, leaves, and grains in soils containing different As contamination levels. Compared to BC treatment, FMBC treatments significantly reduced As accumulation in different parts of the rice plants (P rice can be attributed to As(III) to As(V) oxidation by ferro - manganese binary oxide, which increased the As adsorbed by FMBC. Furthermore, Fe and Mn plaques on the rice root surface decreased the transport of As in rice. Taken together, our results demonstrated the applicability of FMBC as a potential measure for reducing As accumulation in rice, improving the amino acid content of rice grains, and effectively remediating As-polluted soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Electron microscopy of the complexes of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) and Rubisco subunit-binding protein from pea leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsuprun, V.L.; Boekema, E.J.; Samsonidze, T.G.; Pushkin, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    The structure of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) subunit-binding protein and its interaction with pea leaf chloroplast Rubisco were studied by electron microscopy and image analysis. Electron-microscopic evidence for the association of Rubisco subunit-binding protein, consisting of

  17. Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Christoffersen, Mogens; Weise, Hanne

    This artcle considders the political aims for different leave schemes and reviews studies af these schemes. The use of parental leave is sensitive to the financial loss involved in taking leave: a decrease in the benefit payments has had a significant influence on take-up, while, in general, fami......, families'' loss of income is less if leave is taken up by the mothers. Only few fathers participate in parental leave....

  18. Roles of xanthophylls and exogenous ABA in protection against NaCl-induced photodamage in rice (Oryza sativa L) and cabbage (Brassica campestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Su-Qin; Chen, Ming-Wei; Ji, Ben-Hua; Jiao, De-Mao; Liang, Jian-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Changes in actual efficiency of PS II photochemistry, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), content of xanthophylls and kinetics of de-epoxidation were studied in ABA-fed and non-ABA-fed leaves of rice and cabbage under NaCl stress. Salt stress induced more progressive decrease in actual efficiency of PS II photochemistry (ФPS II), higher reduction state of PS II, and a small significant increase in NPQ in NaCl-sensitive rice plants as compared with NaCl-tolerant cabbage plants, whereas exogenously supplied ABA alleviated the decrease in actual efficiency of PS II photochemistry (ФPS II), induced a lower reduction state of PS II, and caused higher capacity of NPQ in ABA-fed plants than in non-ABA-fed plants. As a result, there were higher activities of photosynthetic electron transport, higher capacity of energy dissipation, and lower cumulation of excess light in cabbage than in rice plants, and in ABA-fed leaves than in non-ABA-fed leaves. The effect of ABA was more efficient in cabbage than in rice plants. Addition of exogenous ABA resulted in enhancement of the size of the xanthophyll cycle pool, promotion of de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle components, and a rise in the level of NPQ by altering the kinetics of de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle. Protection from photodamage appears to be achieved by coordinated contributions by exogenous ABA and xanthophyll cycle-mediated NPQ. This variety of photoprotective mechanisms may be essential for conferring photodamage tolerance under NaCl stress. © The Author [2011]. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology]. All rights reserved.

  19. Uptake and translocation of Cd in different rice cultivars and the relation with Cd accumulation in rice grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianguo; Qian Min; Cai Guoliang; Yang Jianchang; Zhu Qingsen

    2007-01-01

    The variations among six rice cultivars in cadmium (Cd) uptake and translocation were investigated with pot soil experiments. The results showed that only a very small portion (0.73%) of Cd absorbed by rice plant was transferred into grain. With regard to plant total Cd uptake, Cd concentrations and quantity accumulations in roots, stems and leaves, the differences among the cultivars (between the largest one and the smallest one) were less than one time. But for Cd concentrations and Cd quantity accumulations in the grains, the differences were more than five and eight times, respectively. With respect to Cd distribution portions in plant organs, the diversities among the cultivars were also small in roots, stems and leaves, but much larger in grains. Grain Cd concentrations correlated positively and significantly (P < 0.01) with Cd quantity accumulations in plant, Cd distribution ratios to aboveground parts, and especially with Cd distribution ratios from aboveground parts to the grain. The results indicated that Cd concentration in rice grain was governed somewhat by plant Cd uptake and the transport of Cd from root to shoot, and in a greater extent, by the transport of Cd from shoot to grain. Cd was not distributed evenly in different products after rice grain processing. The average Cd concentration in cortex (embryo) was five times more than that in chaff and polished rice. With regard to Cd quantity accumulation in the products, near 40% in cortex (embryo), 45% in polished rice and 15% in chaff averagely

  20. Transfer of gaseous iodine (I2) from atmosphere to rice grains through dry deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Sumiya, Misako; Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1989-01-01

    The report briefly outlines parameters required to determine the transfer of 129 I from the atmosphere to rice grains, and presents results of a study in which the transfer of iodine from the atmosphere to rice grains is calculated using empirically determined parameters. There are four major parameters required for the calculation: (1) the major transfer route (translocation either from leaves or from the surface of hulls to rice grains), (2) rate of deposition onto the surface of leaves or hulls, (3) biological half-life of iodine deposited on leaves or hulls, and (4) either the rate of translocation from leaves to hulls (where the translocation from leaves is the major route) or the ratio of iodine distribution among hulls, unpolished rice grains, and polished rice grains (where the translocation from hulls is the major route). Techniques available to determine the translocation route, deposition rate, biological half-life and distribution ratio are outlined. Chemical forms of iodine, parameters relating to the transfer of gaseous iodine to paddy rice, and calculation models are also described. (N,K.)

  1. Effect of Stewing in Cooking Step on Textural and Morphological Properties of Cooked Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GHASEMI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Stewing of rice grains by steam after boiling in excess water can be used for cooking rice perfectly. The effects of this procedure in cooking of three varieties of Iranian rice (Sang Tarom, Domsiyah and Fajr on textural and morphological properties of cooked rice grains were investigated. The results showed that this step in rice cooking reduced the hardness and increased the adhesiveness of rice grains significantly. By the use of the scanning electron microscopy, it was shown that the outer surface of cooked rice stewed by steam had less porosity and closer pores due to the modification during cooking, and better gelatinization and more expansion of starch granules compared to non-stewed samples. The use of this procedure in rice cooking to provide a fully cooked and gelatinized, softer and stickier final product is recommended.

  2. Effects of the components in rice flour on thermal radical generation under microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lufen; Huang, Luelue; Fan, Daming; Hu, Bo; Gao, Yishu; Lian, Huizhang; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-12-01

    The relationships between radical generation under microwave irradiation and the components of various types of rice flour were investigated. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to characterize the radicals found in rice flour samples. The EPR spectra revealed that several types of radical (carbon-centered, tyrosyl and semiquinone) were localized in the starch and protein fractions of the rice flour. The signal intensity of the free radicals was observed to increase exponentially with increasing microwave power and residence time. The rice bran samples exhibited the greatest free radical signal intensity, followed by the brown rice samples and the white rice samples. This finding was consistent for both the native and the microwaved samples. The ratio of rice starch to rice protein also played an important role in the generation of radicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytological and molecular analysis of nonhost resistance in rice to wheat powdery mildew and leaf rust pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yulin; Yao, Juanni; Zhang, Hongchang; Huang, Lili; Kang, Zhensheng

    2015-07-01

    Cereal powdery mildews caused by Blumeria graminis and cereal rusts caused by Puccinia spp. are constant disease threats that limit the production of almost all important cereal crops. Rice is an intensively grown agricultural cereal that is atypical because of its immunity to all powdery mildew and rust fungi. We analyzed the nonhost interactions between rice and the wheat powdery mildew fungus B. graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) and the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina (Ptr) to identify the basis of nonhost resistance (NHR) in rice against cereal powdery mildew and rust fungi at cytological and molecular levels. No visible symptoms were observed on rice leaves inoculated with Bgt or Ptr. Microscopic observations showed that both pathogens exhibited aberrant differentiation and significantly reduced penetration frequencies on rice compared to wheat. The development of Bgt and Ptr was also completely arrested at early infection stages in cases of successful penetration into rice leaves. Attempted infection of rice by Bgt and Ptr induced similar defense responses, including callose deposition, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and hypersensitive response in rice epidermal and mesophyll cells, respectively. Furthermore, a set of defense-related genes were upregulated in rice against Bgt and Ptr infection. Rice is an excellent monocot model for genetic and molecular studies. Therefore, our results demonstrate that rice is a useful model to study the mechanisms of NHR to cereal powdery mildew and rust fungi, which provides useful information for the development of novel and durable strategies to control these important pathogens.

  4. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  5. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...... of leaving home. Results showed that while some differences disappeared when controlling for covariates, others persisted, thus indicating ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns. A strong link between leaving home and marriage was substantiated for Turks, but not for Somalis. The home-leaving patterns...... of Somalis were much more similar to those of Danes. Overall, Turkish descendants were similar to Turkish immigrants but with some differentiation. The analyses identified the existence of ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns but also found evidence of a shift towards less traditional patterns, i...

  6. Response of Chloroplast NAD(PH Dehydrogenase-Mediated Cyclic Electron Flow to a Shortage or Lack in Ferredoxin-Quinone Oxidoreductase-Dependent Pathway in Rice Following Short-Term Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemaa eEssemine

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic electron flow around PSI can protect photosynthetic electron carriers under conditions of stromal over-reduction. The goal of the research reported in this paper was to investigate the responses of both PSI and PSII to a short-term heat stress in two rice lines with different capacities of cyclic electron transfer, i.e. Q4149 with a high capacity (hcef and C4023 with a low capacity (lcef. The absorbance change at 820 nm (ΔA820 was used here to assess the charge separation in the photosystem I (PSI reaction center (P700. The results obtained show that short-term heat stress abolishes the FQR-dependent CEF in rice and accelerates the initial rate of P700+ re-reduction. The P700+ amplitude was slightly increased at a moderate heat-stress (35°C because of a partial restriction of FQR but it was decreased following high heat-stress (42°C. Assessment of PSI and PSII activities shows that PSI is more susceptible to heat stress than photosystem II (PSII. Under high temperature, FQR-dependent CEF was completely removed and NDH-dependent CEF was up-regulated and strengthened to a higher extent in C4023 than in Q4149. Specifically, under normal growth temperature, hcef (Q4149 was characterized by higher FQR- and NDH-dependent CEF rates than lcef (C4023. Following thermal stress, the activation of NDH-pathway was 130% and 10% for C4023 and Q4149, respectively. Thus, the NDH-dependent CEF may constitute the second layer of plant protection and defence against heat stress after the main route, i.e. FQR-dependent CEF, reaches its capacity. We discuss the possibility that under high heat stress, the NDH pathway serves as a safety valve to dissipate excess energy by cyclic photophosphorylation and overcome the stroma over-reduction following inhibition of CO2 assimilation and any shortage or lack in the FQR pathway. The potential role of the NDH-dependent pathway during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis is briefly discussed.

  7. Excessive sulfur supply reduces cadmium accumulation in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jian-Ling; Hu, Zheng-Yi; Ziadi, Noura; Xia, Xu; Wu, Cong-Yang-Hui

    2010-02-01

    Human activities have resulted in cadmium (Cd) and sulfur (S) accumulation in paddy soils in parts of southern China. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of excessive S supply on iron plaque formation and Cd accumulation in rice plants, using two Cd levels (0, 1.5 mg kg(-1)) combined with three S concentrations (0, 60, 120 mg kg(-1)). The results showed that excessive S supply significantly decreased Cd accumulation in brown rice due to the decrease of Cd availability and the increase of glutathione in rice leaves. But excessive S supply obviously increased Cd accumulation in roots due to the decrease of iron plaque formation on the root surface of rice. Therefore, excessive S supply may result in loss of rice yield, but it could effectively reduce Cd accumulation in brown rice exposed to Cd contaminated soils. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermoplastic starch materials prepared from rice starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontes, Barbara R.B.; Curvelo, Antonio A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Rice starch is a source still little studied for the preparation of thermoplastic materials. However, its characteristics, such as the presence of proteins, fats and fibers may turn into thermoplastics with a better performance. The present study intends the evaluation of the viability of making starch thermoplastic from rice starch and glycerol as plasticizer. The results of X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy demonstrate the thermoplastic acquisition. The increase of plasticizer content brings on more hydrophilic thermoplastics with less resistance to tension and elongation at break. (author)

  9. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  10. Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Leaves and Fruits of Pepper Tree (Schinus molle L. to Control Rice Weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L. Bioactividad de aceites esenciales de hojas y frutos del aguaribay (Schinus molle L. en el gorgojo del arroz (Sitophilus oryzae L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Benzi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L. is a primary insect pest of stored grain. The development of resistance resulted in the application of synthetic insecticides. In recent years many plant essential oils have provided potential alternatives to currently used insect control agents. The Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus molle L. var. areira (L. DC. (Anacardiaceae has different biological properties such as insecticidal activity. In this study, repellent, fumigant activity, nutritional indices, and feeding deterrent action were evaluated on S. oryzae adults. Filter paper impregnation was used to test fumigant toxicity, whereas treated whole wheat was used to evaluate repellent activity and a flour disk bioassay was done to evaluate feeding deterrent action and nutritional index alteration. Leaf essential oils showed repellent effects at both concentrations (0.04 and 0.4% w/w, while fruit essential oils lacked repellent activity. Both plant oils altered nutritional indices. Fruit essential oils had a strong feeding deterrent action (62% while leaves had a slight effect (40.6%. With respect to fumigant activity, neither of the essential oils was found to be toxic.El gorgojo del arroz (Sitophilus oryzae. L. es un insecto-plaga de infestación primaria de granos. El uso de insecticidas sintéticos ha desarrollado fenómenos de resistencia. En los últimos años los aceites esenciales se presentan como una alternativa en el control de insectos-plaga. El aguaribay (Schinus molle L. var. areira (L. DC. (Anacardiaceae es una planta con diferentes propiedades biológicas entre las que se destacan el uso como insecticida. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad fumigante, repelente, los índices nutricionales y la actividad antialimentaria de los aceites esenciales de hojas y frutos de S. molle var. areira en adultos de S. oryzae. Para la actividad fumigante se utilizó la técnica de impregnación de papeles de filtro; para la actividad repelente

  11. Nuclear analytical methods on ancient Thai rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won-in, K.; Thongleurm, C.; Dararutana, P.

    2013-01-01

    For more than half of humanity, rice is life. Rice is a grain which has shaped the history, culture, diet and economy of billions of people in Asia. In Thailand, it is the essence of life. Archaeological evidence revealed that rice had been planted in northeastern area of Thailand more than 5,500 years ago which is earlier than in China and India. The ancient rice grains were found in various archaeological sites in Thailand such as Nakhon Nayok, Suphan Buri and Prachin Buri Provinces. In this work, the ancient black rice from Nakhon Nayok Province was elementally analyzed using scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy and micro-beam energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy was also used to study the chemical composition and bio-molecular structure. The grains were oblique in shape with a rough surface. Three major elements (Si, Ca and Al) and other trace elements were detected. The IR spectra provided some information about the presence of molecular bonds. (author)

  12. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  13. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  14. Induced mutation for tungro resistance in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, R.; Yumol, R.R.; Taura, S.

    2001-01-01

    Tungro is the most serious virus disease of rice in South and Southeast Asia. It is a composite disease of two kinds of viruses, rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV). Damage to the plant is mostly caused by RTBV, while RTSV acts to facilitate RTBV acquisition and transmission by insect vector. Both viruses are transmitted mainly by green leafhopper (GLH). Resistance to GLH is common in rice germplasm but extremely rare for the two viruses. To induce mutations for tungro resistance, a susceptible variety IR22 was treated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNH) following the procedure of Satoh and Omura. The panicles of rice variety 'IR22' were soaked in 1 mM MNH solution for 45 minutes at 16 to 18 hours after flowering. Two thousand six hundred and forty fertile M 1 plants were produced. From these plants M 2 lines with 10 or more seedlings were planted in the field to evaluate their reaction against tungro under natural conditions in the 1990 dry season on the IRRI central research farm, Los Banos, the Philippines. Of these, 124 M 2 lines were selected by visual evaluation. Five plants were harvested individually from each selected line. A bulk was also made from all the remaining plants in the line. In the M 3 generation, each family consisted of five sister lines and one bulked line. One line (M 3 -723) showed no tungro symptoms and its related bulk segregated for resistance but all other M 3 lines from the same family were susceptible to tungro. The resistant line, M 3 -723, showed low infection with RTBV and RTSV when leaves were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to diagnose tungro infection. All M 4 lines from M 3 -723 showed uniform resistance in the field. They were not infected with RTBV and were resistant to RTSV infection

  15. Rice hypersensitive induced reaction protein 1 (OsHIR1) associates with plasma membrane and triggers hypersensitive cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; Cheung, Ming-Yan; Li, Man-Wah; Fu, Yaping; Sun, Zongxiu; Sun, Sai-Ming; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2010-12-30

    In plants, HIR (Hypersensitive Induced Reaction) proteins, members of the PID (Proliferation, Ion and Death) superfamily, have been shown to play a part in the development of spontaneous hypersensitive response lesions in leaves, in reaction to pathogen attacks. The levels of HIR proteins were shown to correlate with localized host cell deaths and defense responses in maize and barley. However, not much was known about the HIR proteins in rice. Since rice is an important cereal crop consumed by more than 50% of the populations in Asia and Africa, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms of disease responses in this plant. We previously identified the rice HIR1 (OsHIR1) as an interacting partner of the OsLRR1 (rice Leucine-Rich Repeat protein 1). Here we show that OsHIR1 triggers hypersensitive cell death and its localization to the plasma membrane is enhanced by OsLRR1. Through electron microscopy studies using wild type rice plants, OsHIR1 was found to mainly localize to the plasma membrane, with a minor portion localized to the tonoplast. Moreover, the plasma membrane localization of OsHIR1 was enhanced in transgenic rice plants overexpressing its interacting protein partner, OsLRR1. Co-localization of OsHIR1 and OsLRR1 to the plasma membrane was confirmed by double-labeling electron microscopy. Pathogen inoculation studies using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing either OsHIR1 or OsLRR1 showed that both transgenic lines exhibited increased resistance toward the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. However, OsHIR1 transgenic plants produced more extensive spontaneous hypersensitive response lesions and contained lower titers of the invading pathogen, when compared to OsLRR1 transgenic plants. The OsHIR1 protein is mainly localized to the plasma membrane, and its subcellular localization in that compartment is enhanced by OsLRR1. The expression of OsHIR1 may sensitize the plant so that it is more prone to HR and hence can react more

  16. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers...... and whether parental leave is associated with a signaling cost. The results from this study of Swedish mothers show that lone mothers use more temporary parental leave than partnered mothers. Further, within the group of lone mothers, those with higher socioeconomic status take less temporary parental leave...... than those with lower socioeconomic status, whereas no such differences are found within the group of partnered mothers. One possible interpretation is that signaling costs negatively influence the utilization of temporary parental leave for lone mothers....

  17. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of rice kernels and flours: Measurement of surface chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Malik A; Gaiani, Claire; Fukai, Shu; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the ability of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to differentiate rice macromolecules and to calculate the surface composition of rice kernels and flours. The uncooked kernels and flours surface composition of the two selected rice varieties, Thadokkham-11 (TDK11) and Doongara (DG) demonstrated an over-expression of lipids and proteins and an under-expression of starch compared to the bulk composition. The results of the study showed that XPS was able to differentiate rice polysaccharides (mainly starch), proteins and lipids in uncooked rice kernels and flours. Nevertheless, it was unable to distinguish components in cooked rice samples possibly due to complex interactions between gelatinized starch, denatured proteins and lipids. High resolution imaging methods (Scanning Electron Microscopy and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy) were employed to obtain complementary information about the properties and location of starch, proteins and lipids in rice kernels and flours. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Radiation disinfection of rice-straw products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Ohki, Yumi

    1991-11-01

    For the quarantine treatment of rice-straw products from foreign countries, irradiation effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on plant pathogenic microorganisms especially on fungi were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria in rice-straw was determined to be 3x10{sup 7} - 3x10{sup 8} per gram which consisted mainly of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Erwinia. The principal bacteria in rice-straw could be eliminated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Deinococcus proteolyticus and Pseudomonas radiora were the main survivors at 5 to 12 kGy of irradiation. Saprophytic fungus which belongs to Dimorphospora also survived up to 8 kGy of irradiation. The D{sub 10} values of 26 strains of fungi isolated from rice-straw were 1.1 to 2.5 times higher in the dry condition compared to the values when irradiated in 0.067 M phosphate buffer solution. The induction dose in the dry condition also increased from 1.5 to 10 times than that in the wet condition. In the case of electron beam irradiation of fungi under dry conditions, D{sub 10} values were about 1.3 times higher than that of gamma irradiation. From this study, the dose necessary to reduce the plant pathogenic fungi in rice-straw at a level below 10{sup -4} per gram was estimated to be as 7-8 kGy for gamma-irradiation and 10 kGy for electron beam irradiation. (author).

  19. Diurnal Solar Energy Conversion and Photoprotection in Rice Canopies1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, W. Paul; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Furbank, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Genetic improvement of photosynthetic performance of cereal crops and increasing the efficiency with which solar radiation is converted into biomass has recently become a major focus for crop physiologists and breeders. The pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence technique (PAM) allows quantitative leaf level monitoring of the utilization of energy for photochemical light conversion and photoprotection in natural environments, potentially over the entire crop lifecycle. Here, the diurnal relationship between electron transport rate (ETR) and irradiance was measured in five cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa) in canopy conditions with PAM fluorescence under natural solar radiation. This relationship differed substantially from that observed for conventional short term light response curves measured under controlled actinic light with the same leaves. This difference was characterized by a reduced curvature factor when curve fitting was used to model this diurnal response. The engagement of photoprotective processes in chloroplast electron transport in leaves under canopy solar radiation was shown to be a major contributor to this difference. Genotypic variation in the irradiance at which energy flux into photoprotective dissipation became greater than ETR was observed. Cultivars capable of higher ETR at midrange light intensities were shown to produce greater leaf area over time, estimated by noninvasive imaging. PMID:27895208

  20. Radioactive cesium deposition on rice, wheat, peach tree and soil after nuclear accident in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, T.M.; Kobayashi, N.I.; Tanoi, K.

    2013-01-01

    We present how radioactive Cs was deposited on wheat, rice, peach tree and soil after nuclear accident in Fukushima. The deposition of radioactive Cs was found as spots at the surface of the leaves, branch or trunk of the trees, as well as in soil using one of the imaging method, autoradiography. The deposited radioactive Cs was not easily washed out, even with the treatment of acid solution. When the wheat was harvested 2 months after the accident, high radioactivity of Cs was found only on the leaves developed and expanded at the time of the accident. In the case of the rice grain, most of the radioactivity was found in bran and the radioactivity was drastically reduced in milled rice. Most of the radioactive Cs accumulation in rice plants was estimated from the absorption of the Cs ion dissolved in water, rather than Cs adsorbed in soil. (author)

  1. Growth inhibition and effect on photosystem by three imidazolium chloride ionic liquids in rice seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Huijun, E-mail: lhj@mail.zjgsu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Zhang, Shuxian [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Jiaxing University, Jiaxing 314001, Zhejiang Province (China); Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Caidong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • The three ILs have phytotoxic on rice growth. • The antioxidant enzyme activities increased first and then declined with ILs concentration increased. • The Hill reaction activity decreased and the PS II of leaves was damaged by ILs. • The toxicity of ILs increased as the alkyl chain length increased as the order: [OMIM]Cl < [DMIM]Cl < [C{sub 12}MIM]Cl. - Abstract: The effects of three imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs) including 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid ([OMIM]Cl), 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid ([DMIM]Cl) and 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid ([C{sub 12}MIM]Cl) were studied in hydroponically grown rice seedlings. The growth inhibition rate increased and the Hill reaction activity of isolated rice chloroplasts decreased with increasing ILs concentrations. The IC{sub 50,5d} for stem length was 0.70 mg/L of [OMIM]Cl, 0.15 mg/L of [DMIM]Cl, and 0.055 mg/L of [C{sub 12}MIM]Cl, respectively. The SOD, POD and CAT activities of chloroplast exhibited initial increases followed by decreases in activity with increasing ILs concentrations. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters such as the maximum effective quantum yield of PSII(F{sub v}/F{sub m}), the potential activity of PSII(F{sub v}/F{sub 0}), the yield of photochemical quantum [Y(II)], the photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), the non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) and the relative electron transport ratio (rETR) were affected, showing that ILs will damage the PSII. The results demonstrated that imidazolium chloride ILs are phytotoxic to rice growth and their photosystem, the toxicity increased as the alkyl chain length increased with the following order: [OMIM]Cl < [DMIM]Cl < [C{sub 12}MIM]Cl. The results will help to better understand the possible role of the defense mechanism in rice caused by ILs exposure.

  2. Effects of Low Light on Agronomic and Physiological Characteristics of Rice Including Grain Yield and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-hua LIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Light intensity is one of the most important environmental factors that determine the basic characteristics of rice development. However, continuously cloudy weather or rainfall, especially during the grain-filling stage, induces a significant loss in yield and results in poor grain quality. Stress caused by low light often creates severe meteorological disasters in some rice-growing regions worldwide. This review was based on our previous research and related research regarding the effects of low light on rice growth, yield and quality as well as the formation of grain, and mainly reviewed the physiological metabolism of rice plants, including characteristics of photosynthesis, activities of antioxidant enzymes in rice leaves and key enzymes involved in starch synthesis in grains, as well as the translocations of carbohydrate and nitrogen. These characteristics include various grain yield and rice quality components (milling and appearance as well as cooking, eating and nutritional qualities under different rates of shading imposed at the vegetative or reproductive stages of rice plants. Furthermore, we discussed why grain yield and quality are reduced under the low light environment. Next, we summarized the need for future research that emphasizes methods can effectively improve rice grain yield and quality under low light stress. These research findings can provide a beneficial reference for rice cultivation management and breeding program in low light environments.

  3. Deposition velocity of gaseous organic iodine from the atmosphere to rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Shigeo-Uchida; Sumiya, Misako; Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1996-01-01

    To obtain parameter values for the assessment of 129 I transfer from the atmosphere to rice, deposition of CH 3 I to rice plants has been studied. The mass normalized deposition velocity (V D ) of CH 3 I for rough (unhulled) rice was 0.00048 cm 3 g -1 s -1 , which is about 1/300 of that of I 2 . Translocation of iodine, deposited as CH 3 I on leaves and stems, to rice grain was negligibly small. Distribution of iodine between hull and inner part of the grain was found to depend also on the chemical forms of atmospheric iodine to be deposited. The ratio of the iodine distribution in a grain exposed to CH 3 I was as follows: rough rice: brown rice (hulled rice):polished rice = 1.0:0.49:0.38. The distribution ratio in polished grains for CH 3 I exposed rice was about 20 times higher than that for I 2 . 22 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  4. Levels of polonium-210 in the grapevine leaves in Alasehir district in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurboga, G.; Aytas Oelmez, S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of present work is the estimation of Po-210 (polonium) content in the edible grapevine leaves (Vitis viniferae, L.cv Sultana syn.) collected from Gediz plain in Western Turkey. Alasehir District in Gediz plain is one of the most important wine culture region of Turkey. Grapevine leaves are important food material for Dolma in Turkish cuisine. Dolma is a name applied to such vegetables as grapevine leaves, cabbage leaves and green peppers stuffed ground meat or spiked rice. Levels of Po-210 in the grapevine leaves had not been analyzed before in Turkey. In this study, after wet ashing of grapevine leaves, Po-210 was spontaneously plated onto a copper disc from dilute hydrochloric acid medium and deposited activity was measured. The results for Po-210 in the grapevine leaves are compared with the other foodstuff values in the literature

  5. Anatomy and Histochemistry of Roots and Shoots in Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaodong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb. is a famous, perennial, emergent vegetable in China. The current work explores the anatomy and histochemistry of roots, stems, and leaves and the permeability of apoplastic barriers of wild rice. The adventitious roots in wild rice have suberized and lignified endodermis and adjacent, thick-walled cortical layers and suberized and lignified hypodermis, composed of a uniseriate sclerenchyma layer (SC underlying uniseriate exodermis; they also have lysigenous aerenchyma. Stems have a thickened epidermal cuticle, a narrow peripheral mechanical ring (PMR, an outer ring of vascular bundles, and an inner ring of vascular bundles embedded in a multiseriate sclerenchyma ring (SCR. There is evidence of suberin in stem SCR and PMR sclerenchyma cells. Sheathing leaves are characterized by thick cuticles and fibrous bundle sheath extensions. Air spaces in stems and leaves consist of mostly lysigenous aerenchyma and pith cavities in stems. Apoplastic barriers are found in roots and stems.

  6. Mapping of QTLs for Leaf Malondialdehyde Content Associated with Stress Tolerance in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing JIANG

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Malondialdehyde (MDA is the final product of lipid peroxidation, and MDA content can reflect the stress tolerance of plants. To map QTLs conditioning the MDA content in rice leaves, a recombinant inbred line (RIL population with 247 lines derived from an indica-indica cross Zhenshan 97B×Milyang 46, and a linkage map consisting of 207 DNA markers were used. The RIL population showed a transgressive segregation in the MDA content of rice leaves. Two QTLs for the MDA content in rice leaves were detected in the intervals RG532–RG811 and RG381–RG236 on chromosome 1, with the additive effects from maternal and paternal parents, accounting for 4.33% and 4.62% of phenotype variations, respectively.

  7. Prevalence of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) on Rice Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Incidence of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) on rice plants (ofada) grown in two local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State had been evaluated during a two year field survey. Six month old rice plants were observed for symptom expression and leaf samples collected for serological indexing. Of the 60 leaf ...

  8. Transcriptome Analysis of Salt Stress Responsiveness in the Seedlings of Dongxiang Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Yang, Ping; Cui, Fenglei; Zhang, Fantao; Luo, Xiangdong; Xie, Jiankun

    2016-01-01

    Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) is the progenitor of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), and is well known for its superior level of tolerance against cold, drought and diseases. To date, however, little is known about the salt-tolerant character of Dongxiang wild rice. To elucidate the molecular genetic mechanisms of salt-stress tolerance in Dongxiang wild rice, the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was used to analyze the transcriptome profiles of the leaves and roots at the seedling stage under salt stress compared with those under normal conditions. The analysis results for the sequencing data showed that 6,867 transcripts were differentially expressed in the leaves (2,216 up-regulated and 4,651 down-regulated) and 4,988 transcripts in the roots (3,105 up-regulated and 1,883 down-regulated). Among these differentially expressed genes, the detection of many transcription factor genes demonstrated that multiple regulatory pathways were involved in salt stress tolerance. In addition, the differentially expressed genes were compared with the previous RNA-Seq analysis of salt-stress responses in cultivated rice Nipponbare, indicating the possible specific molecular mechanisms of salt-stress responses for Dongxiang wild rice. A large number of the salt-inducible genes identified in this study were co-localized onto fine-mapped salt-tolerance-related quantitative trait loci, providing candidates for gene cloning and elucidation of molecular mechanisms responsible for salt-stress tolerance in rice.

  9. Alterations in growth, oxidative damage, and metal uptake of five aromatic rice cultivars under lead toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Umair; Hussain, Saddam; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Abbas, Farhat; Tanveer, Mohsin; Noor, Mehmood Ali; Tang, Xiangru

    2017-06-01

    Lead (Pb) affects plant growth and its related physio-biochemical functions negatively. The present study investigated the responses of five different fragrant rice cultivars viz., Meixiangzhan (MXZ-2), Xiangyaxiangzhan (XYXZ), Guixiangzhan (GXZ), Basmati-385 (B-385), and Nongxiang-18 (NX-18) to four different Pb concentrations viz., 0, 400, 800 and 1200 μM. Results depicted that Pb toxicity significantly (P rice plants; nonetheless, a significant variation was found in the sensitivity of rice cultivars to Pb toxicity. Soluble sugars increased significantly only at 1200 μM in GXZ and 800 μM in B-385, whilst the maximum reductions in protein contents were observed at 1200 μM Pb for all rice cultivars. Proline contents were reduced for XYXZ and NX-18 at Pb1200 μM. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) showed differential behavior among Pb treatments and rice cultivars. Among rice cultivars, GXZ showed better antioxidative defense system under Pb toxicity compared with all other cultivars. For all rice cultivars, the trend for Pb accumulation was recorded as: roots > stems > leaves. Furthermore, significant but negative correlations among Pb uptake and plant height (r = -0.79), tillers per plant (r = -0.91) and plant dry biomass (r = -0.81) were recorded for all rice cultivars whereas the values of translocation factor (TF) from stems to leaves were higher than roots to stems. In sum, Pb reduced the early growth and caused physio-biochemical changes in all rice cultivars, nonetheless, GXZ proved better able to tolerate Pb stress than all other rice cultivars under study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Cyanobacteria-mediated phenylpropanoids and phytohormones in rice (Oryza sativa) enhance plant growth and stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dhananjaya P; Prabha, Ratna; Yandigeri, Mahesh S; Arora, Dilip K

    2011-11-01

    Phenylpropanoids, flavonoids and plant growth regulators in rice (Oryza sativa) variety (UPR 1823) inoculated with different cyanobacterial strains namely Anabaena oryzae, Anabaena doliolum, Phormidium fragile, Calothrix geitonos, Hapalosiphon intricatus, Aulosira fertilissima, Tolypothrix tenuis, Oscillatoria acuta and Plectonema boryanum were quantified using HPLC in pot conditions after 15 and 30 days. Qualitative analysis of the induced compounds using reverse phase HPLC and further confirmation with LC-MS/MS showed consistent accumulation of phenolic acids (gallic, gentisic, caffeic, chlorogenic and ferulic acids), flavonoids (rutin and quercetin) and phytohormones (indole acetic acid and indole butyric acid) in rice leaves. Plant growth promotion (shoot, root length and biomass) was positively correlated with total protein and chlorophyll content of leaves. Enzyme activity of peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase and total phenolic content was fairly high in rice leaves inoculated with O. acuta and P. boryanum after 30 days. Differential systemic accumulation of phenylpropanoids in plant leaves led us to conclude that cyanobacterial inoculation correlates positively with plant growth promotion and stress tolerance in rice. Furthermore, the study helped in deciphering possible mechanisms underlying plant growth promotion and stress tolerance in rice following cyanobacterial inoculation and indicated the less explored avenue of cyanobacterial colonization in stress tolerance against abiotic stress.

  11. Monitoring leaf photosynthesis with canopy spectral reflectance in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Y.; Zhu, Y.; Cao, W.

    2005-01-01

    We determined the quantitative relationships between leaf photosynthetic characteristics (LPC) and canopy spectral reflectance under different water supply and nitrogen application rates in rice plants. The responses of reflectance at red radiation (680 nm) to different water contents and N rates were parallel to those of leaf net photosynthetic rate (PN). The relationships of reflectance at 680 nm and ratio index of R(810,680) (near infrared/red) to PN of different leaf positions and layers indicated that the top two full leaves were the best positions for quantitative monitoring of PN with remote sensing technique, and the index R(810,680) was the best ratio index for evaluating LPC. Testing of the models with independent data sets indicated that R(810,680) could well estimate PN of the top two leaves and canopy leaf photosynthetic potential. Hence R(810,680) can be used to monitor LPC in rice under diverse growing conditions

  12. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  13. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  14. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  15. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  16. Extraction of rice bran oil from local rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Zaman, W.; Salman, M.; Jabeen, N.

    2006-01-01

    Rice Bran Oil is widely used in pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries due to its unique properties and high medicinal value. In the present work, extraction of rice bran oil from different samples of rice husk collected from local rice shellers by solvent extraction method has been studied. Experiments were conducted using a soxhelt apparatus, to extract rice bran oil using hexane, petroleum ether, ethanol and methanol as the solvents and the yields obtained under different conditions were compared. Batch extraction tests showed that the rate of extraction decreases with time and the solution approaches saturation at an exponential rate. (author)

  17. Influence of rice straw-based polyols on the morphology, thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    replacement of rice straw-based polyols produced closed cell structures suitable for insulation material as revealed in Scanning electron microscope images. Higher percentage of rice straw-based polyols replacement will trigger cell wall structure rapturing that will deteriorate the properties of polyurethane foam.

  18. Whole-plant mineral partitioning during the reproductive development of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperotto, R.A.; Vasconcelos, M.W.; Grusak, M.A.; Fett, J.

    2017-07-01

    Minimal information exists on whole-plant dynamics of mineral flow. Understanding these phenomena in a model plant such as rice could help in the development of nutritionally enhanced cultivars. A whole-plant mineral accumulation study was performed in rice (cv. Kitaake), using sequential harvests during reproductive development panicle exertion, grain filling, and full maturity stages in order to characterize mineral accumulation in roots, non-flag leaves, flag leaves, stems/sheaths, and panicles. Partition quotient analysis showed that Fe, Zn, Cu and Ni are preferentially accumulated in roots; Mn and Mg are accumulated in leaves; Mo, Ca, and S in roots and leaves; and K in roots, leaves and stems/sheaths. Correlation analysis indicated that changes in the concentrations of mineral pairs Fe-Mn, K-S, Fe-Ni, Cu-Mg, Mn-Ni, S-Mo, Mn-Ca, and Mn-Mg throughout the reproductive development of rice were positively correlated in all four of the above ground organs evaluated, with Fe-Mn and K-S being positively correlated also in roots, which suggest that root-to-shoot transfer is not driven simply by concentrations in roots. These analyses will serve as a starting point for a more detailed examination of mineral transport and accumulation in rice plants.

  19. Preparation and characterization of rice hull silica products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirit, Leni L.; Llaguno, Elma C.; Pagdanganan, Fernando C.; Hernandez, Karen N.

    2008-01-01

    Rice hull is an abundant agricultural waste material which could be a renewable energy source when combusted. The combustion residue (called rice hull ash or RHA) contains a significant amount (20% of the hull) of potentially high grade silica. Silica gels prepared from rice hull were found to have properties comparable to two commercial desiccant silica gels (Blue Merck and FNG-A) in terms of chemical and amorphous structure, surface area, desiccant characteristics, microstructure and heats of adsorption. These properties were determined from water vapor adsorption measurements, electron microscopy, and from infrared and x-ray diffraction spectra. The acid treated rice hull gels were found to have fewer elemental impurities detected by qualitative x-ray fluorescence, compared to the commercial gels. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data showed that this technique can also be used to indirectly compare impurity levels in the samples, in terms of the amorphous to crystalline phase transition. Using an improved acid treatment method, a silica gel sample was prepared from rice hull and compared to three commercial chromatographic silica gels using quantitative elemental x-ray fluorescence analysis. Elemental levels in the rice hull gel were within the range of levels or close to the detection limits of corresponding elements in the chromatographic gels. Water vapor adsorption, x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that the rice hull gel was similar to the commercial chromatographic silica gel Davison 12. Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates used as molecular sieves for purification and catalytic purposes. Zeolites X and Y were synthesized from rice hull silica gel and aluminum hydroxide. For comparison, controls were synthesized from commercial silica gel. The samples and controls exhibited characteristics infrared peaks corresponding to the vibrations of the TO 4 (T=Si, Al) of the zeolite framework. The x

  20. SALINITY TOLERANCE OF SEVERAL RICE GENOTYPES AT SEEDLING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Safitri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the most serious problems in rice cultivation. Salinity drastically reduced plant growth and yield, especially at seedling stage. Several rice genotypes have been produced, but their tolerance to salinity has not yet been evaluated. The study aimed to evaluate salinity tolerance of rice genotypes at seedling stage. The glasshouse experiment was conducted at Cimanggu Experimental Station, Bogor, from April to May 2013. Thirteen rice genotypes and two check varieties, namely Pokkali (salt tolerant and IR29 (salt sensitive were tested at seedling stage. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications and two factors, namely the levels of NaCl (0 and 120 mM and 13 genotypes of rice. Rice seedlings were grown in the nutrient culture (hydroponic supplemented with NaCl at different levels. The growth and salinity injury levels of the genotypes were recorded periodically. The results showed that salinity level of 120 mM NaCl reduced seedling growth of all rice genotypes, but the tolerant ones were survived after 14 days or until the sensitive check variety died. Based on the visual injury symptoms on the leaves, five genotypes, i.e. Dendang, Inpara 5, Inpari 29, IR77674-3B-8-2-2-14-4-AJY2, and IR81493-BBB-6-B- 2-1-2 were tolerant to 120 mM salinity level, while Inpara 4 was comparable to salt sensitive IR29. Hence, Inpara 4 could be used as a salinity sensitive genotype for future research of testing tolerant variety. Further evaluation is needed to confirm their salinity tolerance under field conditions. 

  1. Gasification of rice husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzetti, P. (ENEA, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Fonti Alternative e Risparmio Energetico)

    The paper outlines the thermochemical processes and equipment involved in the gasification of rice husks. An assessment is made of the feasibility (availability, technology requirements, economics of production and marketing) of this renewable energy source. Results, reported here in tabular form, of experimental trials at an Italian pilot plant (producing, with the use of 165 kg/h of rice husks, 350,000 kcal/h of gas with a conversion yield of 70%) indicated good feasibility. More research is required to improve the combustion qualities of the final product.

  2. Effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on rice straw fibre structure and enzyme hydrolyzation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingping; Li Wenge; Peng Ling; Wang Keqin; Xiong Xingyao

    2008-01-01

    The effect of improving enzyme hydrolyze of rice straw was estimated with treating dry rice straw and raw fiber by 60 Co γ-rays irradiation. the water-soluble deoxidize carbohydrate and total carbohydrate of 60 Co γ-rays irradiated rice straw and raw fibres were measured by DNS method and vitrol-phenol method. The changes of deoxidize carbohydrate groups of irradiated hydrolyzing rice straw were analyzed by gas chromatography. The organism structures of irradiated rice straw were scanned by electron microscope, the results showed that 1000-1500 kGy 60 Co γ-irradiation doses effectively destroyed rice straw's organism structures, especially the silicon crystal structures, and along with irradiation doses increased the breakage degree enlarged significantly. The contents of the water-soluble deoxidize carbohydrate and total carbohydrate of rice straw increased significantly. treated by both irradiation and enzyme, the cellulose transform rate of rice straw was 88.7%, which is better than that only treated by 60 Co γ-irradiation or enzyme. The content of water-solubility deoxidize carbohydrate of the treated rice straw was 214.4 mg/g and the total carbohydrate of straw was 758.5 mg/g. The contents of mannose, galactose, glucose, arabinose and xylose increased significantly, among those carbohydrate, the glucose's increment was the largest and account for 62.64%, and mannose's increments was the second. The contents of lignin of the rice straw were not influenced obviously by irradiation treatment. (authors)

  3. Study on residues of 14C-Fenitrothion in a model rice-fish ecosystem and in a field rice-fish ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhongliang; Wang Huaxin; Guo Dazhi; Chen Zhiyu; Wu Suchueng

    1993-01-01

    Residues of 14 C-fenitrothion in a model rice-fish ecosystem and field rice-fish ecosystem were studied. When equal amounts of the pesticide were applied, the extractable residues in brown rice (equivalent to 34.3±1.9 μg/kg fenitrothion) and rice stems and leaves (20.9±1.5 μg/kg) of the model rice-fish ecosystem were 10-15 times higher than that of the field rice-fish ecosystem (4.48±0.13 μg/kg and 1.27±0.34 μg/kg respectively). Residues in upper part of the soil (6.50±0.1--8.10±0.2 μg/kg) and lower part of the soil (1.30±0.1--1.50±0.1 μg/kg) of the model rice-fish ecosystem were 10-40 times higher than that of the field rice-fish ecosystem (0.17±0.01 μg/kg). The extractable residues in paddy water of the model ecosystem (0.30 ± 0.01 μg/kg) were similar to that of the field ecosystem (0.20±0.02 μg/kg). When the fenitrothion was sprayed on the rice plants, residues in brown rice, fish body, soil and paddy water were lower than those when the pesticide was spread on the surface of the soil. (author). 4 refs, 2 tabs

  4. Transcriptome analysis of phosphorus stress responsiveness in the seedlings of Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qian-Wen; Luo, Xiang-Dong; Chen, Ya-Ling; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Fan-Tao; Hu, Biao-Lin; Xie, Jian-Kun

    2018-03-15

    Low phosphorus availability is a major factor restricting rice growth. Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) has many useful genes lacking in cultivated rice, including stress resistance to phosphorus deficiency, cold, salt and drought, which is considered to be a precious germplasm resource for rice breeding. However, the molecular mechanism of regulation of phosphorus deficiency tolerance is not clear. In this study, cDNA libraries were constructed from the leaf and root tissues of phosphorus stressed and untreated Dongxiang wild rice seedlings, and transcriptome sequencing was performed with the goal of elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in phosphorus stress response. The results indicated that 1184 transcripts were differentially expressed in the leaves (323 up-regulated and 861 down-regulated) and 986 transcripts were differentially expressed in the roots (756 up-regulated and 230 down-regulated). 43 genes were up-regulated both in leaves and roots, 38 genes were up-regulated in roots but down-regulated in leaves, and only 2 genes were down-regulated in roots but up-regulated in leaves. Among these differentially expressed genes, the detection of many transcription factors and functional genes demonstrated that multiple regulatory pathways were involved in phosphorus deficiency tolerance. Meanwhile, the differentially expressed genes were also annotated with gene ontology terms and key pathways via functional classification and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes pathway mapping, respectively. A set of the most important candidate genes was then identified by combining the differentially expressed genes found in the present study with previously identified phosphorus deficiency tolerance quantitative trait loci. The present work provides abundant genomic information for functional dissection of the phosphorus deficiency resistance of Dongxiang wild rice, which will be help to understand the biological regulatory mechanisms of phosphorus

  5. Gibberellin biosynthesis and signal transduction is essential for internode elongation in deepwater rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayano, Madoka; Kani, Takahiro; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kitaoka, Takuya; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B; Kitano, Hidemi; Nagai, Keisuke; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2014-10-01

    Under flooded conditions, the leaves and internodes of deepwater rice can elongate above the water surface to capture oxygen and prevent drowning. Our previous studies showed that three major quantitative trait loci (QTL) regulate deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. In this study, we investigated the age-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. We also investigated the relationship between deepwater-dependent internode elongation and the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) by physiological and genetic approach using a QTL pyramiding line (NIL-1 + 3 + 12). Deepwater rice did not show internode elongation before the sixth leaf stage under deepwater condition. Additionally, deepwater-dependent internode elongation occurred on the sixth and seventh internodes during the sixth leaf stage. These results indicate that deepwater rice could not start internode elongation until the sixth leaf stage. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the phytohormone contents showed a deepwater-dependent GA1 and GA4 accumulation in deepwater rice. Additionally, a GA inhibitor abolished deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. On the contrary, GA feeding mimicked internode elongation under ordinary growth conditions. However, mutations in GA biosynthesis and signal transduction genes blocked deepwater-dependent internode elongation. These data suggested that GA biosynthesis and signal transduction are essential for deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Differences in phytoalexin response among rice cultivars of different resistance to blast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, V.M.; Overton, J.; Grayer, R.J.; Harborne, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    he production of both flavonoid and diterpenoid phytoalexins after induction by UV irradiation was studied in five rice genotypes of different susceptibility to the rice blast fungus Pyricularia oryzae. Consistent qualitative and quatitative differences were found between the rice cultivars in the phytoalexins produced, and there was a strong correlation between the accumulation of the phytoalexins, sakuranetin, momilactone A and oryzalexin S, and rice resistance to blast. Production of phytoalexins was also investigated in rice genotype Tetep after inoculation with an incompatible race of P. oryzae. Similar levels of sakuranetin and oryzalexin E were formed 3 days after both inoculation and UV irradiation of the leaves, but there were different levels of momilactone A and the other oryzalexins. Although a given rice genotype may respond quite differently in its production of phytoalexins depending on whether it has been irradiated or inoculated with a fungus, and in the latter case on whether a compatible race of the pathogen has been used, the present results indicate that genetic differences in phytoalexin response between rice cultivars are likely to play an important role among the many factors that determine differences in blast resistance between different rice genotypes. (author)

  7. Dose-dependent response of Trichoderma harzianum in improving drought tolerance in rice genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Veena; Ansari, Mohammad W; Tula, Suresh; Yadav, Sandep; Sahoo, Ranjan K; Shukla, Nandini; Bains, Gurdeep; Badal, Shail; Chandra, Subhash; Gaur, A K; Kumar, Atul; Shukla, Alok; Kumar, J; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-05-01

    This study demonstrates a dose-dependent response of Trichoderma harzianum Th-56 in improving drought tolerance in rice by modulating proline, SOD, lipid peroxidation product and DHN / AQU transcript level, and the growth attributes. In the present study, the effect of colonization of different doses of T. harzianum Th-56 strain in rice genotypes were evaluated under drought stress. The rice genotypes treated with increasing dose of T. harzianum strain Th-56 showed better drought tolerance as compared with untreated control plant. There was significant change in malondialdehyde, proline, higher superoxide dismutase level, plant height, total dry matter, relative chlorophyll content, leaf rolling, leaf tip burn, and the number of scorched/senesced leaves in T. harzianum Th-56 treated rice genotypes under drought stress. This was corroborated with altered expression of aquaporin and dehydrin genes in T. harzianum Th-56 treated rice genotypes. The present findings suggest that a dose of 30 g/L was the most effective in improving drought tolerance in rice, and its potential exploitation will contribute to the advancement of rice genotypes to sustain crop productivity under drought stress. Interaction studies of T. harzianum with three aromatic rice genotypes suggested that PSD-17 was highly benefitted from T. harzianum colonization under drought stress.

  8. Optimizing hill seeding density for high-yielding hybrid rice in a single rice cropping system in South China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danying Wang

    Full Text Available Mechanical hill direct seeding of hybrid rice could be the way to solve the problems of high seeding rates and uneven plant establishment now faced in direct seeded rice; however, it is not clear what the optimum hill seeding density should be for high-yielding hybrid rice in the single-season rice production system. Experiments were conducted in 2010 and 2011 to determine the effects of hill seeding density (25 cm×15 cm, 25 cm×17 cm, 25 cm×19 cm, 25 cm×21 cm, and 25 cm×23 cm; three to five seeds per hill on plant growth and grain yield of a hybrid variety, Nei2you6, in two fields with different fertility (soil fertility 1 and 2. In addition, in 2012 and 2013, comparisons among mechanical hill seeding, broadcasting, and transplanting were conducted with three hybrid varieties to evaluate the optimum seeding density. With increases in seeding spacing from 25 cm×15 cm to 25 cm×23 cm, productive tillers per hill increased by 34.2% and 50.0% in soil fertility 1 and 2. Panicles per m2 declined with increases in seeding spacing in soil fertility 1. In soil fertility 2, no difference in panicles per m2 was found at spacing ranging from 25 cm×17 cm to 25 cm×23 cm, while decreases in the area of the top three leaves and aboveground dry weight per shoot at flowering were observed. Grain yield was the maximum at 25 cm×17 cm spacing in both soil fertility fields. Our results suggest that a seeding density of 25 cm×17 cm was suitable for high-yielding hybrid rice. These results were verified through on-farm demonstration experiments, in which mechanical hill-seeded rice at this density had equal or higher grain yield than transplanted rice.

  9. Soybean-Enriched Snacks Based on African Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Marengo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Snacks were produced by extruding blends of partially-defatted soybean flour with flours from milled or parboiled African-grown rice. The interplay between composition and processing in producing snacks with a satisfactory sensory profile was addressed by e-sensing, and by molecular and rheological approaches. Soybean proteins play a main role in defining the properties of the protein network in the products. At the same content in soybean flour, use of parboiled rice flour increases the snack’s hardness. Electronic nose and electronic tongue discriminated samples containing a higher amount of soybean flour from those with a lower soybean flour content.

  10. Soybean-Enriched Snacks Based on African Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Mauro; Akoto, Hannah F.; Zanoletti, Miriam; Carpen, Aristodemo; Buratti, Simona; Benedetti, Simona; Barbiroli, Alberto; Johnson, Paa-Nii T.; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther O.; Saalia, Firibu K.; Bonomi, Francesco; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Manful, John; Iametti, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Snacks were produced by extruding blends of partially-defatted soybean flour with flours from milled or parboiled African-grown rice. The interplay between composition and processing in producing snacks with a satisfactory sensory profile was addressed by e-sensing, and by molecular and rheological approaches. Soybean proteins play a main role in defining the properties of the protein network in the products. At the same content in soybean flour, use of parboiled rice flour increases the snack’s hardness. Electronic nose and electronic tongue discriminated samples containing a higher amount of soybean flour from those with a lower soybean flour content. PMID:28231133

  11. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  12. Grain, milling, and head rice yields as affected by nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed FIROUZI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application on grain, milling, and head rice yields, a field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Station of Tonekabon, Iran, in 2013. The experimental design was a factorial treatment arrangement in a randomized complete block with three replicates. Factors were three N rates (0, 75, and 150 kg ha-1 and two bio-fertilizer applications (inoculation and uninoculation with Nitroxin, a liquid bio-fertilizer containing Azospirillum spp. and Azotobacter spp. bacteria. Analysis of variance showed that rice grain yield, panicle number per m2, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, grains N concentration and uptake, grain protein concentration, and head rice yield were significantly affected by N rate, while bio-fertilizer application had significant effect on rice grain yield, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, harvest index, grains N concentration and uptake, and grain protein concentration. Results showed that regardless of bio-fertilizer application, rice grain and biological yields were significantly increased as N application rate increased from 0 to 75 kg ha-1, but did not significantly increase at the higher N rate (150 kg ha-1. Grain yield was significantly increased following bio-fertilizer application when averaged across N rates. Grains N concentration and uptake were significantly increased as N rate increased up to 75 kg ha-1, but further increases in N rate had no significant effect on these traits. Bio-fertilizer application increased significantly grains N concentration and uptake, when averaged across N rates. Regardless of bio-fertilizer application, head rice yield was significantly increased from 56 % to 60 % when N rate increased from 0 to 150 kg ha-1. Therefore, this experiment illustrated that rice grain and head yields increased with increasing N rate, while bio-fertilizer application increased only rice grain

  13. Sorbents based on carbonized rice peel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansurova, R. M.; Taipova, R. A.; Zhylybaeva, N. K.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Bijsenbaev, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    The process receiving of sorbents based on carbonized rice peel (RP) was received and their sorption properties were investigated. Processing carbonization of samples leading on station, this was developed in laboratory of hybrid technology. Carbonization of samples was realized in nitric atmosphere on 400-8000 deg. C. On raising temperature of carbonization content of carbon in samples is rice, hydrogen and oxygen is reduce as a result isolation of volatility products is discover. The samples carbonized on 650 deg. C (910 m 2 /g) owners with maximum removed surface is discover. On carbonization temperature 600-800 deh. C the sorption of ions, which carbonized by sorbents based on rice peel is run to 95-100 %. Electron-microscopic investigation of samples leaded on EM-125 mechanism by accelerating pressure 100 kV. From electron-microscopic print of original samples of RP it is evident, that sample consists of carbonic fractions of different species: carbonic fiber of rounded fractions, fractions of ellipsoid form and of more thickly carbonic structure. Increasing sizes of pores and modification structure of synthesized sorbent is occur during carbonization process. The RP-samples, which carbonized by 650 deg. C has the higher specific surface. Samples consist of thin carbonic scum and reducing specific surface, by higher temperature

  14. Rice as commodity and anti-commodity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    2016-01-01

    On the Upper West Africa coast rice belongs to two species — African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) and Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.). African rice was domesticated in the region, perhaps three millennia ago, from a presumed wild ancestor, O. barthii. Asian rice was introduced via trans-Saharan

  15. Diseases of wild rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases are much more pronounced in cultivated wild rice than in natural stands, most likely due to the narrower genetic base of the populations, plant stress due to high planting density and floodwater removal prior to harvest, and high relative humidity in the plant canopy. Yield losses occur as ...

  16. Promising rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Two induced mutants namely, Mut NS 1 (tall) and Mut NS 5 (semi-dwarf) derived from rice variety Nizersail were evaluated for various agronomic characters at four locations in Bangladesh. Both the mutants matured about three weeks earlier and yielded significantly higher than the parent variety Nizersail. (author). 3 tabs., 9 refs

  17. The relationship between restraints of trade and garden leave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between restraints of trade and garden leave. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... The purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between a so-called "garden leave" clause and a post-termination restraint of trade clause in employment contracts, ...

  18. Investigating differences in light stable isotopes between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukusamude, C.; Kongsri, S.

    2017-10-01

    We report the differences in light stable isotopes between two kinds of Thai rice (Thai jasmine and Sungyod rice). Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice were cultivated in the northeast and the south of Thailand. Light isotopes including 13C, 15N and 18O of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice samples were carried out using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Thai jasmine rice (Khao Dawk Mali 105) was cultivated from Thung Kula Rong Hai area, whereas Sungyod rice was cultivated from Phathalung province. Hypothesis testing of difference of each isotope between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice was also studied. The study was the feasibility test whether the light stable isotopes can be the variables to identify Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. The result shows that there was difference in the isotope patterns of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. Our results may provide the useful information in term of stable isotope profiles of Thai rice.

  19. Radiation disinfestation of Basmati rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.S.; Gholap, A.S.; Adhikari, H.R.; Nair, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Effect of low dose γ-radiation on prepackaged Basmati rice was studied in order to achieve disinfestation of rice. Basmati rice procured from local market was repacked in 1 kg pouches made from high density polyethylene (HDP) and biaxially oriented polypropylene: low density polyethylene (BOPP/LDP) laminate and irradiated at doses from 0.25-1.0 kGy. Within one month of storage at room temperature, unirradiated (control) Basmati rice developed heavy infestation. No infestation was observed in any of the irradiated samples even at 0.25 kGy and the rice could be stored for 6 months in a clean state. Irradiation (at 0.25 kGy) did not alter the moisture content of the rice. Likewise, no significant change was noted due to irradiation in the functional properties of rice such as swelling index and water absorption and in total volatile components responsible for flavour of Basmati rice. In organoleptic evaluation, no significant difference was found between the acceptability of irradiated (0.25 kGy) and control rice. These results are significant in view of the high export potential of Basmati rice and the transit losses at present due to infestation. (author). 24 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  20. Prediction of tritium behavior in rice plant after a short-term exposure of HTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yook, Dae Sik; Lee, Kun Jai; Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Chang Min

    2001-01-01

    In many Asian countries including Korea, rice is a very important food crop. Its grain is consumed by humans and its straw is used to feed animals. Because four CANDU reactors are in operation in Korea, relatively large amounts of tritium are released into the environment and the dose by these tritium in the rice plant must be estimated. Since 1997, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has carried out experimental studies to obtain domestic data on various parameters related to the direct tritium contamination of plant. But the analysis of the tritium behavior in the rice plant has been insufficient. In this study, the behavior of the tritium in the rice plant is predicted and compared with the measurement performed at KAERI. Using the conceptual model of the soil-plant-atmosphere tritiated water transport system which was suggested by Charles E. Murphy, transient tritium concentrations in soil and leaves were predicted. If the effect of tritium concentration in the soil is taken into account, the tritium concentration in leaves can be described by a double exponential model, however if the tritium concentration in the soil is disregarded, the tritium concentration in leaves can be described by a single exponential term like other relevant models e.g. UFOTRI or STAR-H3 model. The results can be used to predict the tritium concentration in the rice plant near the plant site and to estimate the ingestion dose after the release of tritium to the environment

  1. Does Leave Work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heleen van Luijn; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2004-01-01

    More and more people have to combine work and care responsibilities, and work part-time or use daycare and after-school care facilities to help them do so. The Work and Care Act, which came into force on 1 December 2001, combined all the existing schemes - such as parental and maternity leave -

  2. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  3. Interaction between sulfur and lead in toxicity, iron plaque formation and lead accumulation in rice plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junxing; Liu, Zhiyan; Wan, Xiaoming; Zheng, Guodi; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Hanzhi; Guo, Lin; Wang, Xuedong; Zhou, Xiaoyong; Guo, Qingjun; Xu, Ruixiang; Zhou, Guangdong; Peters, Marc; Zhu, Guangxu; Wei, Rongfei; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun

    2016-06-01

    Human activities have resulted in lead and sulfur accumulation in paddy soils in parts of southern China. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of S supply on iron plaque formation and Pb accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under two Pb levels (0 and 600 mg kg(-1)), combined with four S concentrations (0, 30, 60, and 120 mg kg(-1)). Results showed that S supply significantly decreased Pb accumulation in straw and grains of rice. This result may be attributed to the enhancement of Fe plaque formation, decrease of Pb availability in soil, and increase of reduced glutathione (GSH) in rice leaves. Moderate S supply (30 mg kg(-1)) significantly increased Fe plaque formation on the root surface and in the rhizosphere, whereas excessive S supply (60 and 120 mg kg(-1)) significantly decreased the amounts of iron plaque on the root surface. Sulfur supply significantly enhanced the GSH contents in leaves of rice plants under Pb treatment. With excessive S application, the rice root acted as a more effective barrier to Pb accumulation compared with iron plaque. Excessive S supply may result in a higher monosulfide toxicity and decreased iron plaque formation on the root surface during flooded conditions. However, excessive S supply could effectively decrease Pb availability in soils and reduce Pb accumulation in rice plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  5. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Feizabadi, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  6. Os11Gsk gene from a wild rice, Oryza rufipogon improves yield in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalapati, Sudhakar; Batchu, Anil K; Neelamraju, Sarla; Ramanan, Rajeshwari

    2012-06-01

    Chromosomal segments from wild rice species Oryza rufipogon, introgressed into an elite indica rice restorer line (KMR3) using molecular markers, resulted in significant increase in yield. Here we report the transcriptome analysis of flag leaves and fully emerged young panicles of one of the high yielding introgression lines IL50-7 in comparison to KMR3. A 66-fold upregulated gene Os11Gsk, which showed no transcript in KMR3 was highly expressed in O. rufipogon and IL50-7. A 5-kb genomic region including Os11Gsk and its flanking regions could be PCR amplified only from IL50-7, O. rufipogon, japonica varieties of rice-Nipponbare and Kitaake but not from the indica varieties, KMR3 and Taichung Native-1. Three sister lines of IL50-7 yielding higher than KMR3 showed presence of Os11Gsk, whereas the gene was absent in three other ILs from the same cross having lower yield than KMR3, indicating an association of the presence of Os11Gsk with high yield. Southern analysis showed additional bands in the genomic DNA of O. rufipogon and IL50-7 with Os11Gsk probe. Genomic sequence analysis of ten highly co-expressed differentially regulated genes revealed that two upregulated genes in IL50-7 were derived from O. rufipogon and most of the downregulated genes were either from KMR3 or common to KMR3, IL50-7, and O. rufipogon. Thus, we show that Os11Gsk is a wild rice-derived gene introduced in KMR3 background and increases yield either by regulating expression of functional genes sharing homology with it or by causing epigenetic modifications in the introgression line.

  7. Application of two-stream model to solar radiation of rice canopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakata, T.

    2005-01-01

    The amount of solar radiation absorbed by a crop canopy is correlated with crop production, and thus it is necessary to estimate both transmission and reflection around the canopy for crop growth models. The 'forward and backward streams' representation of radiation has been refined to account for both transmission and reflection in the crop canopy. However, this model has not been applied to a rice canopy through the growing period. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the two-stream model is applicable to the rice canopy, and to investigate the parameters of the model. The values for both transmittance below the rice canopy and reflectance above it that were derived from the two-stream model represent the observed values throughout the growing period. The inclination factor of leaves (F), which is used in the two-stream model, was almost equivalent to the extinction coefficient of transmittance in the case of the rice canopy

  8. Response of nitrogen-fixing water fern Azolla biofertilization to rice crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, K; Singh, Pawan Kumar

    2015-08-01

    The water fern Azolla harbors nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae as symbiont in its dorsal leaves and is known as potent N 2 fixer. Present investigation was carried out to study the influence of fresh Azolla when used as basal incorporation in soil and as dual cropped with rice variety Mahsoori separately and together with and without chemical nitrogen fertilizer in pots kept under net house conditions. Results showed that use of Azolla as basal or dual or basal plus dual influenced the rice crop positively where use of fern as basal plus dual was superior and served the nitrogen requirement of rice. There was marked increase in plant height, number of effective tillers, dry mass and nitrogen content of rice plants with the use of Azolla and N-fertilizers alone and other combinations. The use of Azolla also increased organic matter and potassium contents of the soil.

  9. An Inclusive Investigation on Conceivable Performance of Rice Straw Incinerated Electricity Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Subhadeep; Mohanta, Subhajit

    2018-03-01

    Biomass energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources which occupy 77% of the available natural resources of the world. In India, agro residues constitute a major part of the total annual production of the biomass resource. Rice is the major crop in India that leaves substantial quantity of straw in the field. 34% of rice straw residue produced in the country is surplus and is either left in the field as uncollected or to a large extent open-field burnt. Thus, the unutilized rice straw is found promising for heat and power generation either through incineration (direct combustion) or thermo chemical conversion. This present work envisages the comprehensive performative evaluation of a rice straw supported biomass incineration power plant mainly through plant performance characterization, plant economics, and co-firing issues with emission analysis.

  10. A novel method for transmitting southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus to rice without insect vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Shi, Jing; Cao, Lianlian; Zhang, Guoping; Wang, Wenli; Hu, Deyu; Song, Baoan

    2017-08-15

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) has spread from the south of China to the north of Vietnam in the past few years, and has severely influenced rice production. However, previous study of traditional SRBSDV transmission method by the natural virus vector, the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera), in the laboratory, researchers are frequently confronted with lack of enough viral samples due to the limited life span of infected vectors and rice plants and low virus acquisition and inoculation efficiency by the vector. Meanwhile, traditional mechanical inoculation of virus only apply to dicotyledon because of the higher content of lignin in the leaves of the monocot. Therefore, establishing an efficient and persistent-transmitting model, with a shorter virus transmission time and a higher virus transmission efficiency, for screening novel anti-SRBSDV drugs is an urgent need. In this study, we firstly reported a novel method for transmitting SRBSDV in rice using the bud-cutting method. The transmission efficiency of SRBSDV in rice was investigated via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and the replication of SRBSDV in rice was also investigated via the proteomics analysis. Rice infected with SRBSDV using the bud-cutting method exhibited similar symptoms to those infected by the WBPH, and the transmission efficiency (>80.00%), which was determined using the PCR method, and the virus transmission time (30 min) were superior to those achieved that transmitted by the WBPH. Proteomics analysis confirmed that SRBSDV P1, P2, P3, P4, P5-1, P5-2, P6, P8, P9-1, P9-2, and P10 proteins were present in infected rice seedlings infected via the bud-cutting method. The results showed that SRBSDV could be successfully transmitted via the bud-cutting method and plants infected SRBSDV exhibited the symptoms were similar to those transmitted by the WBPH. Therefore, the use of the bud-cutting method to generate a cheap, efficient, reliable supply of

  11. Nicaragua - Rice and Banana Farmers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report is an impact evaluation of two components of the Rural Business Development Program (RBD) in Nicaragua, specifically the components benefitting rice and...

  12. Sorghum and rice: Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Agriculture is the mainstay of the Malian economy and yet cereal imports absorb 6.5% of GDP. Food self-sufficiency is therefore a national priority. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division is supporting a programme to improve local varieties of sorghum and rice by using nuclear techniques to develop new cultivars that will produce higher yields under Mali's semi-arid climatic conditions. (IAEA)

  13. Diversity of some endophytic fungi associated with rice black bug Paraeucosmetus pallicornis on rice plant

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Amin; La Daha; Nurariaty, Agus; Ade, Rosmana; Muh., Fadlan

    2015-01-01

    A new rice insect pest was sighted in some rice producing areas of South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This pest is rice black bugs Paraeucosmetus pallicornis. The research aimed to isolation of fungi associated with rice black bugs Paraeucosmetus pallicornis, so as to know the cause of a bitter taste to the rice. The isolation of the fungi consist of three kinds of treatment, namely rice black bugs without sterilization, with sterilization and rice black bugs cut and sterilized. The resul...

  14. Evaluating the non-rice host plant species of Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as natural refuges: resistance management of Bt rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuorong; Gao, Yulin; Luo, Ju; Lai, Fengxiang; Li, Yunhe; Fu, Qiang; Peng, Yufa

    2011-06-01

    Although rice (Oryza sativa L.) lines that express Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have shown great potential for managing the major Lepidoptera pests of rice in southern China, including Sesamia inferens, their long-term use is dependent on managing resistance development to Bt toxins in pest populations. The maintenance of "natural" refuges, non-Bt expressing plants that are hosts for a target pest, has been proposed as a means to minimize the evolution of resistance to Bt toxins in transgenic plants. In the current study, field surveys and greenhouse experiments were conducted to identify host plants of S. inferens that could serve as "natural" refuges in rice growing areas of southern China. A field survey showed that 34 plant species in four families can be alternative host plants of S. inferens. Based on injury level under field conditions, rice (Oryza sativa L.); water oat (Zizania latifolia Griseb.); corn (Zea mays L.); tidalmarsh flatsedge (Cyperus serotinus Rottb.); and narrow-leaved cat-tail (Typha angustifolia Linn.) were identified as the primary host plant species of S. inferens. Greenhouse experiments further demonstrated that water oat, corn, and narrow-leaved cat-tail could support the survival and development of S. inferens. Interestingly, greenhouse experiments showed that S. inferens preferred to lay eggs on tidalmarsh flatsedge compared with the other three nonrice host species, although no pupae were found in the plants examined in field surveys. Few larvae were found to survive on tidalmarsh flatsedge in greenhouse bioassays, suggesting that tidalmarsh flatsedge could serve as a "dead-end" trap crop for S. inferens, but is not a candidate to serve as natural refuge to maintain susceptible S. inferens. Overall, these results suggest that water-oat, corn, and narrow-leaved cat-tail might serve as "natural refuge" for S. inferens in rice planting area of southern China when Bt rice varieties are planted.

  15. Research Advances in High-Yielding Cultivation and Physiology of Super Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing FU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, China launched a program to breed super rice or super hybrid rice by combining intersubspecific heterosis with ideal plant types. Today, approximately 80 super rice varieties have been released and some of them show high grain yields of 12–21 t/hm2 in field experiments. The main reasons for the high yields of super rice varieties, compared with those of conventional varieties, can be summarized as follows: more spikelets per panicle and larger sink size (number of spikelets per square meter; larger leaf area index, longer duration of green leaf, greater photosynthetic rate, higher lodging resistance, greater dry matter accumulation before the heading stage, greater remobilization of pre-stored carbohydrates from stems and leaves to grains during the grain-filling period; and larger root system and greater root activity. However, there are two main problems in super rice production: poor grain-filling of the later-flowering inferior spikelets (in contrast to earlier-flowering superior spikelets, and low and unstable seed-setting rate. Here, we review recent research advances in the crop physiology of super rice, focusing on biological features, formation of yield components, and population quality. Finally, we suggest further research on crop physiology of super rice.

  16. Estimation of rice situation index in Japan using remotely sensed and meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, D.

    2006-01-01

    This research aims to develop a remote sensing method for monitoring rice production in Japan. A photosynthesis-based crop production index CPI for rice is proposed that takes into consideration the solar radiation, the effective air temperature, and normalized vegetation index NDVI as a factor representing vegetation biomass. The CPI index incorporates temperature influences such as the effect of temperature on photosynthesis by grain plant leaves, low-temperature effects of sterility, cool summer damage due to delayed growth, and high-temperature injury. These latter factors are significant at around the heading period of rice. The CPI index for rice was modeled at ten monitoring sites in the Kanto, Tohoku, and Hokkaido districts, which occasionally tend to suffer poor harvests as a result of low temperatures. The photosynthesis-based crop production index CPI proposed here can predict the crop situation index of rice by using NDVI, solar radiation at meteorological observatories and air temperature at AMeDAS sites. The method is based on routine observation data, allowing automated monitoring of rice situation index at arbitrary sites in Japan. However, it is possible to further refine the estimation formula for the rice situation index for early monitoring

  17. The components of rice and watermelon root exudates and their effects on pathogenic fungus and watermelon defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lixuan; Huo, Hongwei; Zhang, Fang; Hao, Wenya; Xiao, Liang; Dong, Caixia; Xu, Guohua

    2016-06-02

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is susceptible to wilt disease caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp niveum (FON). Intercropping management of watermelon/aerobic rice (Oryza sativa) alleviates watermelon wilt disease, because some unidentified component(s) in rice root exudates suppress FON sporulation and spore germination. Here, we show that the phenolic acid p-coumaric acid is present in rice root exudates only, and it inhibits FON spore germination and sporulation. We found that exogenously applied p-coumaric acid up-regulated the expression of ClPR3 in roots, as well as increased chitinase activity in leaves. Furthermore, exogenously applied p-coumaric acid increased β-1,3-glucanase activity in watermelon roots. By contrast, we found that ferulic acid was secreted by watermelon roots, but not by rice roots, and that it stimulated spore germination and sporulation of FON. Exogenous application of ferulic acid down-regulated ClPR3 expression and inhibited chitinase activity in watermelon leaves. Salicylic acid was detected in both watermelon and rice root exudates, which stimulated FON spore germination at low concentrations and suppressed spore germination at high concentrations. Exogenously applied salicylic acid did not alter ClPR3 expression, but did increase chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities in watermelon leaves. Together, our results show that the root exudates of phenolic acids were different between rice and watermelon, which lead to their special ecological roles on pathogenic fungus and watermelon defense.

  18. Broken rice kernels and the kinetics of rice hydration and texture during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed; Meullenet, Jean-Francois

    2013-05-01

    During rice milling and processing, broken kernels are inevitably present, although to date it has been unclear as to how the presence of broken kernels affects rice hydration and cooked rice texture. Therefore, this work intended to study the effect of broken kernels in a rice sample on rice hydration and texture during cooking. Two medium-grain and two long-grain rice cultivars were harvested, dried and milled, and the broken kernels were separated from unbroken kernels. Broken rice kernels were subsequently combined with unbroken rice kernels forming treatments of 0, 40, 150, 350 or 1000 g kg(-1) broken kernels ratio. Rice samples were then cooked and the moisture content of the cooked rice, the moisture uptake rate, and rice hardness and stickiness were measured. As the amount of broken rice kernels increased, rice sample texture became increasingly softer (P hardness was negatively correlated to the percentage of broken kernels in rice samples. Differences in the proportions of broken rice in a milled rice sample play a major role in determining the texture properties of cooked rice. Variations in the moisture migration kinetics between broken and unbroken kernels caused faster hydration of the cores of broken rice kernels, with greater starch leach-out during cooking affecting the texture of the cooked rice. The texture of cooked rice can be controlled, to some extent, by varying the proportion of broken kernels in milled rice. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Comparison of net photosynthetic rate and 14C distribution between different cultural conditions on double cropping rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jianliang; Li Hesong; Zou Yingbin; Tu Naimei; Li Jianhui

    2002-01-01

    By applying the cultural method 'Vigorous Root-Strong Stem-Heavy Panicle Cultural Method' (VSHM), the yield of double cropping rice reached 18000 kg/hm 2 in large area at Liling county, Hunan province. The net photosynthetic rate and 14 C distribution of rice leaves between VSHM and traditional cultural methods (CK) were compared. The photosynthetic rate of the flag leaves at ripening stages under VSHM was higher than that of controls with both earlier rice or later rice. Regarding the net amount of 14 C-assimilate by a single flag leaf and the second top leaf, there were differences at the significant level of 0.01 and 0.05, respectively between VSHM and controls, and VSHM were 7.72%-35.05% higher. The percentage of distribution at panicles of 14 C-assimilate were 51.93%-61.40% when flag leaf was labelled, and 45.34%-54.25% when the second top leaf was labelled, that of earlier rice was higher than later rice respectively, but the differences were not significant between VSHM and CK. The actual yield of double cropping rice under the cultural condition of VSHM was 17710 kg/hm 2 , and increased by 18.33% when compared with controls

  20. The Haitian Rice Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundahl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se ha argumentado que los problemas agríco-las de Haití derivan de la tarifa del arroz de a mediados de los años noventa. Antes, supues-tamente, Haití fue autosuficiente, abastecida por su producción doméstica. Después de la reducción, el mercado haitiano se inundó en importaciones de arroz barato de los EEUU, lo cual despojó a los campesinos de sus fincas, convirtiendolos en migrantes internos, hacia los empleos de bajo pago de las ciudades. El artículo rechaza ese argumento y demuestra que es falso. La malnutrición fue un fenómeno extendido en Haití mucho antes de la reducción de la tarifa del arroz, la cual tampoco tuvo un gran impacto en la importación y la producción doméstica del arroz. Lo que sí impulsó el aumento de las importaciones fue el crecimiento de la población. También el artículo argumenta que un aumento de la tarifa del arroz no solucionará el problema de la alimentación que sufre Haití. English: It has been argued that Haiti’s agricultural problems derive from the reduction of the rice tariff in the mid-1990s. Before that Haiti was allegedly able to meet its food needs by domestic production. After the reduction the Haitian market was swamped by imports of cheap American rice which drove the farmers off their lands and forced them to migrate to low-wage industrial jobs in the cities. The article demonstrates that the argument is false. Malnutrition was widespread in Haiti long before the rice tariff reduction, and the latter did not have much of an impact on rice imports and domestic production. Instead, the main driving force behind imports appears to be population growth. It is also shown that an increase of the rice tariff will not solve Haiti’s food problem.

  1. Effects of 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene and Mercury Ion Stress on Ca2+ Fluxion and Protein Phosphorylation in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-lin GE

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of 5 mg/L 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB and 0.1 mmol/L mercury ion (Hg2+ stresses on Ca2+ fluxion and protein phosphorylation in rice seedlings were investigated by isotope exchange kinetics and in vitro phosphorylation assay. The Ca2+ absorption in rice leaves and Ca2+ transportation from roots to leaves were promoted significantly in response to Hg2+ and TCB treatments for 4-48 h. The Ca2+ absorption peaks presented in the leaves when the rice seedlings were exposed to Hg2+ for 8-12 h or to TCB for 12-24 h. Several Ca2+ absorption peaks presented in the roots during rice seedlings being exposed to Hg2+ and TCB, and the first Ca2+ absorption peak was at 8 h after being exposed to Hg2+ and TCB. The result of isotope exchange kinetic analysis confirmed that short-term (8 h Hg2+ and TCB stresses caused Ca2+ channels or pumps located on plasmalemma to open transiently. The phosphorylation assay showed that short-term TCB stress enhanced protein phosphorylation in rice roots (TCB treatment for 4-8 h and leaves (TCB treatment for 4-24 h, and short-term (4-8 h Hg2+ stress also enhanced protein phosphorylation in rice leaves. The enhancement of protein phosphorylation in both roots and leaves corresponded with the first Ca2+ absorption peak, which confirmed that the enhancement of protein phosphorylation caused by TCB or Hg2+ stress might be partly triggered by the increases of cytosolic calcium. TCB treatment over 12 h inhibited protein phosphorylation in rice roots, which might be partly due to that TCB stress suppressed the protein kinase activity. Whereas, Hg2+ treatment inhibited protein phosphorylation in rice roots, and Hg2+ treatment over 12 h inhibited protein phosphorylation in rice leaves. This might be attributed to that not only the protein kinase activity, but also the expressions of phosphorylation proteins were restrained by Hg2+ stress.

  2. Isoenzymes performance of some rice varieties and their mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winarno, Ermin; Suliwarno, Ambyah; Ismachin, M.

    1992-01-01

    Isoenzymes performance of some rice varieties and their mutants. Genetics studies on alcohol dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, peroxidase, acid phosphase, and aminopeptidase isoenzymes were carried out on several groups of rice varieties and their mutant lines. The first groups consisted of Atomita I, Pelita I/1, A227/5, Mudgo, TN-1, and IR-26. The second group was Cisadane variety and its five mutants, namely OBS 18, OBS 208, OBS 297, OBS 306, and OBS 330. The third group was mutants line 627-10-3 and its mutants, namely 1063, 1066, 1067, 1076, and 1090. Isoenzymes extracts of the rice leaves were fractionated using polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis. The pattern of acid phosphate isoenzyme shows the specific character of rice mutants susceptible to brown plant hopper biotype 1. The gene(s) controlling malic enzyme in Cisadane's mutants is (are) estimated more resistant toward gamma irradiation than gene(s) responsible for controlling the other enzymes. Generally, the isoenzymes zymograms show that gene(s) controlling the mutants enzyme have undergone mutation. This case is shown by the changes of Rm value, as well as the amount and intensity of mutants bands. (authors). 7 refs., 7 figs

  3. Employer Provisions for Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenheimer, Joseph R., II

    1989-01-01

    Slightly more than one-third of full-time employees in medium and large firms in private industry were covered by maternity- or paternity-leave policies; days off were usually leave without pay. (Author)

  4. Nutritional test of rice in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horii, Masaji; Yoshikawa, Seiji

    1980-01-01

    Behaviors on N derived from rice were followed up by means of 15 N-labeled rice. In the first test, the single unpolished rice diet and the diet of rice and bean lecithin (4.5%) produced urinary excretion of 10 - 12% of 15 N, and that of rice and mannan from devil's tongue (3%), 16 - 20%. The single unpolished rice diet showed slightly more urinary excretion of 15 N, and the other 2 diets showed a similar proportion of 15 N in 3 days. The results indicated that the diet containing mannan from devil's tongue resulted in a poor N absorption by rice, a large quantity of N being excreted over a long period of time. This suggested differences and time lags in the excretion of rice N into the stool and urine depending on the diet constitution. With the unpolished rice diet, a small quantity of rice protein was not absorbed, but was excreted. In the 2nd test with 15 N-polished rice, the urinary excretion rate was 11.44% for a single rice diet, 11.16% for a mixed diet of rice and bean (1:1 in protein), 10.99% for rice and egg yolk, 9.66% for rice, bean and egg yolk and 8.10% for rice and bean lecithin. This decrease in urinary excretion indicated a corresponding increase in absorption of rice protein. (Chiba, N.)

  5. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2002-01-01

    Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'*) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that, since last year, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2002 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they are still participants in the schem...

  6. Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22 B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the ...

  7. Electronic emission and electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the process of electron emission from metal surface. Although electrons move freely in conductors like metals, they normally do not leave the metal without some manipulation. In fact, heating and bombardment are the two primary ways in which electrons are emitted through the use of a heating element behind the cathode (termed thermionic emission) or as a result of bombardment with a beam of electrons, ions, or metastable atoms (termed secondary emission). Another important emission mechanism called Explosive Electron Emission (EEE) is also often used in various High Voltage Pulse Power Systems to generate very high current (few hundreds of kA) pulsed electron beams. The electron gun is the device in that it shoots off a continuous (or pulsed) stream of electrons. A brief idea about the evolution of the electron gun components and their basis of functioning are also discussed. (author)

  8. Characteristics of silica rice husk ash from Mojogedang Karanganyar Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryana, R.; Iriani, Y.; Nurosyid, F.; Fasquelle, D.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia is one of the countries in the world as the most abundant rice producer. Many researchers have demonstrated that the highest composition in the rice husk ash (RHA) is silica. Some of the advantages in utilizing silica as the raw material is the manufacture of ceramics, zeolite synthesis, fabrication of glass, electronic insulator materials, and as a catalyst. The amount of silica from rice husk ash is different for each region. Therefore, the study of silica from RHA is still promising, especially rice organic fertilizers. In this study, the rice came from Mojogedang Karanganyar Indonesia. Rice husk was dried under the solar radiation. Then the rice husk was heated in two steps: the first step at a temperature of 300°C and the second step at a temperature of 1200°C with a holding time at 2 h and 1 h, respectively. Furthermore, the temperature of the second step was varied at 1400 °C and 1600 °C. This heating process produced RHA. The content of RHA was observed on the EDAX spectrums while the morphology was observed from SEM images. The crystal structure of RHA was determined from XRD spectrums. The EDAX spectrums showed that RHA composition was dominated by elements Si and O for all the heating temperature. SEM images showed an agglomeration towards larger domains as heating temperatures increase. Analysis of XRD spectra is polycrystalline silica formed with the significant crystal orientation at 101, 102 and 200. The intensity of 101 increases significantly with increasing temperature. It is concluded that the crystal growth in the direction of 101 is preferred.

  9. Identification of phasiRNAs in wild rice (Oryza rufipogon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Fan, Longjiang

    2013-08-01

    Plant miRNAs can trigger the production of phased, secondary siRNAs from either non-coding or protein-coding genes. In this study, at least 864 and 3,961 loci generating 21-nt and 24-nt phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs),respectively, were identified in three tissues from wild rice. Of these phasiRNA-producing loci, or PHAS genes, biogenesis of phasiRNAs in at least 160 of 21-nt and 254 of 24-nt loci could be triggered by interaction with miRNA(s). Developing seeds had more PHAS genes than leaves and roots. Genetic constrain on miRNA-triggered PHAS genes suggests that phasiRNAs might be one of the driving forces contributed to rice domestication.

  10. Characterization of untreated and treated male and female date palm leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlMaadeed, M.A.; Kahraman, Ramazan; Noorunnisa Khanam, P.; Al-Maadeed, Somaya

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sheshi female and male date palm leaves were treated with NaOH concentrations. ► Male leaves have lower mechanical properties and improved when treated by NaOH 2%. ► Female leaves have higher thermal stability. ► There are different properties for different types of date leaves. ► Leaves can be used as reinforcements for thermoplastic materials. -- Abstract: This paper describes the characterization of male and female date palm leaves from two different cultivars, Sheshi female and unknown male leaves. Characterization was done for both untreated and NaOH treated date palm leaves by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopic techniques. To our knowledge, the difference in specious reaction to the treatment type of date palm fiber has not been investigated earlier. These leaves were treated with different concentrations of NaOH, 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (w/w). The results from this investigation indicate that female leaves have better tensile properties which deteriorate with the increase of the alkali. The male leaves have lower tensile properties than female leaves and their mechanical properties are improved slightly by NaOH treatment. Female leaves have more pores than male leaves, this was proved and calculated by image analysis. Untreated female leaves have higher thermal stability (353 °C) than male leaves (343 °C). Both can be used as reinforcements in thermoplastic matrix materials whose processing temperatures are below 300 °C.

  11. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in rice field soil and on rice roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, T; Stubner, S; Conrad, R

    1999-05-01

    Rice plants that were grown in flooded rice soil microcosms were examined for their ability to exhibit sulfate reducing activity. Washed excised rice roots showed sulfate reduction potential when incubated in anaerobic medium indicating the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Rice plants, that were incubated in a double-chamber (phylloshpere and rhizosphere separated), showed potential sulfate reduction rates in the anoxic rhizosphere compartment. These rates decreased when oxygen was allowed to penetrate through the aerenchyma system of the plants into the anoxic root compartment, indicating that sulfate reducers on the roots were partially inhibited by oxygen or that sulfate was regenerated by oxidation of reduced S-compounds. The potential activity of sulfate reducers on rice roots was consistent with MPN enumerations showing that H2-utilizing sulfate-reducing bacteria were present in high numbers on the rhizoplane (4.1 x 10(7) g-1 root fresh weight) and in the adjacent rhizosperic soil (2.5 x 10(7) g-1 soil dry weight). Acetate-oxidizing sulfate reducers, on the other hand, showed highest numbers in the unplanted bulk soil (1.9 x 10(6) g-1 soil dry weight). Two sulfate reducing bacteria were isolated from the highest dilutions of the MPN series and were characterized physiologically and phylogenetically. Strain F1-7b which was isolated from the rhizoplane with H2 as electron donor was related to subgroup II of the family Desulfovibrionaceae. Strain EZ-2C2, isolated from the rhizoplane on acetate, grouped together with Desulforhabdus sp. and Syntrophobacter wolinii. Other strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria originated from bulk soil of rice soil microcosms and were isolated using different electron donors. From these isolates, strains R-AcA1, R-IbutA1, R-PimA1 and R-AcetonA170 were Gram-positive bacteria which were affiliated with the genus Desulfotomaculum. The other isolates were members of subgroup II of the Desulfovibrionaceae (R-SucA1 and R-LacA1), were

  12. Parental leave and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhm, C J

    2000-11-01

    This study investigates whether rights to parental leave improve pediatric health. Aggregate data are used for 16 European countries over the 1969 through 1994 period. More generous paid leave is found to reduce deaths of infants and young children. The magnitudes of the estimated effects are substantial, especially where a causal effect of leave is most plausible. In particular, there is a much stronger negative relationship between leave durations and post-neonatal or child fatalities than for perinatal mortality, neonatal deaths, or low birth weight. The evidence further suggests that parental leave may be a cost-effective method of bettering child health.

  13. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose and...

  14. Transgenic rice plants expressing a fused protein of Cry1Ab/Vip3H has resistance to rice stem borers under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Tian, Jun-Ce; Shen, Zhi-Chen; Peng, Yu-Fa; Hu, Cui; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2010-08-01

    Six transgenic rice, Oryza sativa L., lines (G6H1, G6H2, G6H3, G6H4, G6H5, and G6H6) expressing a fused Cry1Ab/Vip3H protein, were evaluated for resistance against the Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and the stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the laboratory and field. The bioassay results indicated that the mortality of Asiatic rice borer and S. inferens neonate larvae on six transgenic lines from seedling to filling stage was up to 100% at 168 h after infestation. The cumulative feeding area by Asiatic rice borer neonate larvae on all transgenic lines was significantly reduced compared with the untransformed parental 'Xiushui 110' rice. A 2-yr field evaluation showed that damage during the vegetative stage (deadheart) or during the reproductive stage (whitehead) caused by Asiatic rice borer and S. inferens for transgenic lines was much lower than the control. For three lines (G6H1, G6H2, and G6H6), no damage was found during the entire growing period. Estimation of fused Cry1Ab/Vip3H protein concentrations using PathoScreen kit for Bt-Cry1Ab/1Ac protein indicated that the expression levels of Cry1Ab protein both in main stems (within the average range of 0.006-0.073% of total soluble protein) and their flag leaves (within the average range of 0.001-0.038% of total soluble protein) were significantly different among six transgenic lines at different developmental stages. Both laboratory and field researches suggested that the transgenic rice lines have considerable potential for protecting rice from attack by both stem borers.

  15. The prevalence of sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette; Damm, Peter; Bendix, Jane

    2018-01-01

    of long-term sick leave. Method Data from 508 employed pregnant women seeking antenatal care was collected by questionnaires from August 2015 to March 2016. The questionnaires, which were filled in at 20 and 32 weeks of gestation, provided information on maternal characteristics, the number of days spent...... on sick leave and the associated reasons. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were applied. Results The prevalence of sick leave was 56% of employed pregnant women in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four reported long-term sick leave (>20 days, continuous...... was a negative predictor. Conclusions The prevalence of sick leave was 56% in the first 32 weeks of gestation and more than one in four women reported long-term sick leave. The majority of reasons for sick leave were pregnancy-related and low back pain was the most frequently given reason....

  16. Enhanced Sucrose Loading Improves Rice Yield by Increasing Grain Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Lu, Qingtao; Wen, Xiaogang; Lu, Congming

    2015-12-01

    Yield in cereals is a function of grain number and size. Sucrose (Suc), the main carbohydrate product of photosynthesis in higher plants, is transported long distances from source leaves to sink organs such as seeds and roots. Here, we report that transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa) expressing the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) phloem-specific Suc transporter (AtSUC2), which loads Suc into the phloem under control of the phloem protein2 promoter (pPP2), showed an increase in grain yield of up to 16% relative to wild-type plants in field trials. Compared with wild-type plants, pPP2::AtSUC2 plants had larger spikelet hulls and larger and heavier grains. Grain filling was accelerated in the transgenic plants, and more photoassimilate was transported from the leaves to the grain. In addition, microarray analyses revealed that carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism was enhanced in the leaves and grain of pPP2::AtSUC2 plants. Thus, enhancing Suc loading represents a promising strategy to improve rice yield to feed the global population. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Ancient rice cultivar extensively replaces phospholipids with non-phosphorus glycolipid under phosphorus deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawaraya, Keitaro; Honda, Soichiro; Cheng, Weiguo; Chuba, Masaru; Okazaki, Yozo; Saito, Kazuki; Oikawa, Akira; Maruyama, Hayato; Wasaki, Jun; Wagatsuma, Tadao

    2018-02-07

    Recycling of phosphorus (P) from P-containing metabolites is an adaptive strategy of plants to overcome soil P deficiency. This study was aimed at demonstrating differences in lipid remodelling between low-P-tolerant and -sensitive rice cultivars using lipidome profiling. The rice cultivars Akamai (low-P-tolerant) and Koshihikari (low-P-sensitive) were grown in a culture solution with [2 mg l -1 (+P)] or without (-P) phosphate for 21 and 28 days after transplantation. Upper and lower leaves were collected. Lipids were extracted from the leaves and their composition was analysed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Phospholipids, namely phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), diacylglycerol (DAG), triacylglycerol (TAG) and glycolipids, namely sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and 1,2-diacyl-3-O-alpha-glucuronosyl glycerol (GlcADG), were detected. GlcADG level was higher in both cultivars grown in -P than in +P and the increase was larger in Akamai than in Koshihikari. DGDG, MGDG and SQDG levels were higher in Akamai grown in -P than in +P and the increase was larger in the upper leaves than in the lower leaves. PC, PE, PG and PI levels were lower in both cultivars grown in -P than in +P and the decrease was larger in the lower leaves than in the upper leaves and in Akamai than in Koshihikari. Akamai catabolised more phospholipids in older leaves and synthesised glycolipids in younger leaves. These results suggested that extensive phospholipid replacement with non-phosphorus glycolipids is a mechanism underlying low-P-tolerance in rice cultivars. © 2018 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  18. Ambit determination method in estimating rice plant population density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar, B.,

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice plant population density is a key indicator in determining the crop setting and fertilizer application rate. It is therefore essential that the population density is monitored to ensure that a correct crop management decision is taken. The conventional method of determining plant population is by manually counting the total number of rice plant tillers in a 25 cm x 25 cm square frame. Sampling is done by randomly choosing several different locations within a plot to perform tiller counting. This sampling method is time consuming, labour intensive and costly. An alternative fast estimating method was developed to overcome this issue. The method relies on measuring the outer circumference or ambit of the contained rice plants in a 25 cm x 25 cm square frame to determine the number of tillers within that square frame. Data samples of rice variety MR219 were collected from rice plots in the Muda granary area, Sungai Limau Dalam, Kedah. The data were taken at 50 days and 70 days after seeding (DAS. A total of 100 data samples were collected for each sampling day. A good correlation was obtained for the variety of 50 DAS and 70 DAS. The model was then verified by taking 100 samples with the latching strap for 50 DAS and 70 DAS. As a result, this technique can be used as a fast, economical and practical alternative to manual tiller counting. The technique can potentially be used in the development of an electronic sensing system to estimate paddy plant population density.

  19. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  20. Evaluating Leaf and Canopy Reflectance of Stressed Rice Plants to Monitor Arsenic Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varaprasad Bandaru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination is a serious problem in rice cultivated soils of many developing countries. Hence, it is critical to monitor and control arsenic uptake in rice plants to avoid adverse effects on human health. This study evaluated the feasibility of using reflectance spectroscopy to monitor arsenic in rice plants. Four arsenic levels were induced in hydroponically grown rice plants with application of 0, 5, 10 and 20 µmol·L−1 sodium arsenate. Reflectance spectra of upper fully expanded leaves were acquired over visible and infrared (NIR wavelengths. Additionally, canopy reflectance for the four arsenic levels was simulated using SAIL (Scattering by Arbitrarily Inclined Leaves model for various soil moisture conditions and leaf area indices (LAI. Further, sensitivity of various vegetative indices (VIs to arsenic levels was assessed. Results suggest that plants accumulate high arsenic amounts causing plant stress and changes in reflectance characteristics. All leaf spectra based VIs related strongly with arsenic with coefficient of determination (r2 greater than 0.6 while at canopy scale, background reflectance and LAI confounded with spectral signals of arsenic affecting the VIs’ performance. Among studied VIs, combined index, transformed chlorophyll absorption reflectance index (TCARI/optimized soil adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI exhibited higher sensitivity to arsenic levels and better resistance to soil backgrounds and LAI followed by red edge based VIs (modified chlorophyll absorption reflectance index (MCARI and TCARI suggesting that these VIs could prove to be valuable aids for monitoring arsenic in rice fields.

  1. Comparison of NH4+-N and NO3--N nutrition in hybrid and conventional rice at the late growth stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoe; Sun Xi

    1990-01-01

    The difference of NH 4 + -N/NO 3 - -N nutrition between hybrid and conventional rice varieties at the late growth stage was studied by using 15 N-tracer technique. The results showed that the nitrate fertilizer utilization efficiency by the hybrid rice after anthesis was 7.8% higher than that by the ordinary rice variety, and the nitrate fertilizer recovery fraction by the former was 13.2% greater than that by the latter. The varietal difference in NO 3 - -N uptake and utilization was almost twice as that in NH 4 + -N. It was also showed that 15 N distribution in ear of the hybrid rice was about 20% greater than that of the conventional variety, but there were no obvious differences between NO 3 - -N and NH 4 + -N. However, 15 N distribution in the lower node leaves and root was found to be significant higher with NO 3 - -N than that with NH 4 + -N in both rice varieties, particularly in the hybrid rice. Compared with NH 4 + -N, NO 3 - -N top-dressing before anthesis was observed to have much greater positive effects on the uptake of calcium and magnesium and the growth of the superficial root and the grain yield of the tested rice varieties, especially of the hybrid rice

  2. Differentially expressed genes distributed over chromosomes and implicated in certain biological processes for site insertion genetically modified rice Kemingdao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Li, Yunhe; Zhao, Jie; Chen, Xiuping; Jian, Guiliang; Peng, Yufa; Qi, Fangjun

    2012-01-01

    Release of genetically modified (GM) plants has sparked off intensive debates worldwide partly because of concerns about potential adverse unintended effects of GM plants to the agro system and the safety of foods. In this study, with the aim of revealing the molecular basis for unintended effects of a single site insertion GM Kemingdao (KMD) rice transformed with a synthetic cry1Ab gene, and bridging unintended effects of KMD rice through clues of differentially expressed genes, comparative transcriptome analyses were performed for GM KMD rice and its parent rice of Xiushui11 (XS11). The results showed that 680 differentially expressed transcripts were identified from 30-day old seedlings of GM KMD rice. The absolute majority of these changed expression transcripts dispersed and located over all rice chromosomes, and existed physical distance on chromosome from the insertion site, while only two transcripts were found to be differentially expressed within the 21 genes located within 100 kb up and down-stream of the insertion site. Pathway and biology function analyses further revealed that differentially expressed transcripts of KMD rice were involved in certain biological processes, and mainly implicated in two types of pathways. One type was pathways implicated in plant stress/defense responses, which were considerably in coordination with the reported unintended effects of KMD rice, which were more susceptible to rice diseases compared to its parent rice XS11; the other type was pathways associated with amino acids metabolism. With this clue, new unintended effects for changes in amino acids synthesis of KMD rice leaves were successfully revealed. Such that an actual case was firstly provided for identification of unintended effects in GM plants by comparative transciptome analysis.

  3. Effect of Various Types of Herbs on Sensory Properties and Blood Glucosa Response Adan Instant Black Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernatal Saragih

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Management based on the carbohydrate diet is very important to do and not to be avoided but how diet and variations of carbohydrate consumed is set mainly the source of rice that does not fast respond to an increase in blood glucose. Therefore, Evaluation of nutritional and instant rice production that is the functional food and have a low glycemic index rice sourced locally as the East Kalimantan native rice black Adan will be very beneficial for health. The aim of this research was to evaluate of the nutritional and effect of various herbal on sensory properties and blood glucose response Adan instant black rice. Adan black rice has a protein content of 8.10%, Fe 3.61 mg/1000g and 3.33 g/100g total dietary fiber and includes a group of rice with low amylose. Organoleptic value of instant rice black Adan produced the most preferred by panellists also from the addition of ginger extract and pandan leaves , water, onion tiwai, tea and last turmeric. The digestibility of starch decreased 19.04 (mg/1000g after being a functional of instant rice black Adan. Difference in reduction of blood glucose levels in volunteers who consumed black Adan instant rice by 14.20 mg/dL, whereas the provision of a reference food (glucose of 71.50 mg/dL, this indicates of instant rice functional black Adan provide availability of glucose in the blood longer available.

  4. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households

    OpenAIRE

    Bartel, Ann P.; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides quasi-experimental evidence on the impact of paid leave legislation on fathers' leave-taking, as well as on the division of leave between mothers and fathers in dual-earner households. Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, which is the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the United States. Our results show that fathers in Califo...

  5. Immobilization of cellulose producing cells (sporotrichum cellulophilum) using irradiated rice husk as a substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lina, M.R.; Tamada, M.; Kumakura, M.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment to study the effect of irradiated rice husk as a substrate on cellulase production of free and immobilized cells of S. cellulophium was carried out. Radiation pretreatment of rice husk was done using electron beam accelerator (Dynamitron IEA 3000-25,2), with doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 MGy. The substrate used in cellulase production of free and immobilized cells were cellulose powder as a standard, and 1.0 MGy irradiated rice husk. Concentrations of cellulose powder for free and immobilized cells were 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8% (w/v). Irradiated rice husk concentrations for free cells were 3, 6, 9, 15, and 24% (w/v), whereas for immobilized cells were 3, 6, and 9% (w/v). Results showed that glucose concentration in 1.0 MGy irradiated rice husk was the highest of all irradiated and unirradiated rice husks. The GPA (glucose production activity) values used of free immobilized cells of S. cellulophium in medium containing 1.0 MGy irradiated rice husk were about 50% lower than in cellulose powder medium. Cellulase solution resulted by immobilized cells, either in cellulose powder or in irradiated rice husk media, were clear and did not contain mycelium. (authors). 7 refs, 7 figs

  6. Paid Family Leave, Fathers' Leave-Taking, and Leave-Sharing in Dual-Earner Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Anne P; Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Stearns, Jenna; Waldfogel, Jane

    Using difference-in-difference and difference-in-difference-in-difference designs, we study California's Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program, the first source of government-provided paid parental leave available to fathers in the Unites States. Relative to the pre-treatment mean, fathers of infants in California are 46 percent more likely to be on leave when CA-PFL is available. In households where both parents work, we find suggestive evidence that CA-PFL increases both father-only leave-taking (i.e., father on leave while mother is at work) and joint leave-taking (i.e., both parents on leave at the same time). Effects are larger for fathers of first-born children than for fathers of later-born children.

  7. Zinc allocation and re-allocation in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Jiang, Wen; Van Der Putten, Peter E. L.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Agronomy and breeding actively search for options to enhance cereal grain Zn density. Quantifying internal (re-)allocation of Zn as affected by soil and crop management or genotype is crucial. We present experiments supporting the development of a conceptual model of whole plant Zn allocation and re-allocation in rice. Methods: Two solution culture experiments using 70Zn applications at different times during crop development and an experiment on within-grain distribution of Zn are reported. In addition, results from two earlier published experiments are re-analyzed and re-interpreted. Results: A budget analysis showed that plant zinc accumulation during grain filling was larger than zinc allocation to the grains. Isotope data showed that zinc taken up during grain filling was only partly transported directly to the grains and partly allocated to the leaves. Zinc taken up during grain filling and allocated to the leaves replaced zinc re-allocated from leaves to grains. Within the grains, no major transport barrier was observed between vascular tissue and endosperm. At low tissue Zn concentrations, rice plants maintained concentrations of about 20 mg Zn kg−1 dry matter in leaf blades and reproductive tissues, but let Zn concentrations in stems, sheath, and roots drop below this level. When plant zinc concentrations increased, Zn levels in leaf blades and reproductive tissues only showed a moderate increase while Zn levels in stems, roots, and sheaths increased much more and in that order. Conclusions: In rice, the major barrier to enhanced zinc allocation towards grains is between stem and reproductive tissues. Enhancing root to shoot transfer will not contribute proportionally to grain zinc enhancement. PMID:24478788

  8. Asian wild rice is a hybrid swarm with extensive gene flow and feralization from domesticated rice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hongru; Garrett Vieira, Filipe Jorge; Crawford, Jacob E.; Chu, Chengcai; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    The domestication history of rice remains controversial, with multiple studies reaching different conclusions regarding its origin(s). These studies have generally assumed that populations of living wild rice, O. rufipogon, are descendants of the ancestral population that gave rise to domesticated rice, but relatively little attention has been paid to the origins and history of wild rice itself. Here, we investigate the genetic ancestry of wild rice by analyzing a diverse panel of rice genome...

  9. Longevity of guard cell chloroplasts in falling leaves: implication for stomatal function and cellular aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, E; Schwartz, A

    1982-11-12

    Guard cell chloroplasts in senescing leaves from 12 species of perennial trees and three species of annual plants survived considerably longer than their mesophyll counterparts. In Ginkgo biloba, stomata from yellow leaves opened during the day and closed at night; guard cell chloroplasts from these leaves showed fluorescence transients associated with electron transport and photophosphorylation. These findings indicate that guard cell chloroplasts are highly conserved throughout the life-span of the leaf and that leaves retain stomatal control during senescence.

  10. Alteration in caesium behavior in rice caused by the potassium, phosphorous, and nitrogen deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuya Nobori; Kobayashi, N.I.; Keitaro Tanoi; Nakanishi, T.M.

    2016-01-01

    The physiological effects of critical nutrient deficiencies (K, P, N) on the uptake of caesium (Cs) and impact on plant growth has been investigated in rice plants. Growth defects were observed after 2 weeks of a state of nutrient starvation (K, P, or N). However, only K starvation produced increased Cs content in the shoot and the intensive transport to young leaves. These observations support that modification of Cs uptake and transport in rice plants was achieved based on the distinctive physiological effect of K. (author)

  11. Residual, direct and cumulative effect of zinc application on wheat and rice yield under rice-wheat syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Khan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is prevalent particularly on calcareous soils of arid and semiarid region. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the direct, residual and cumulative effect of zinc on the yield of wheat and rice in permanent layout for two consecutive years, 2004-05 and 2005-06 at Arid Zone Research Institute D.I. Khan. Soil under study was deficient in Zn (0.8 mg kg-1. Effect of Zn on yield, Zn concentrations in leaf and soils were assessed using wheat variety Naseer-2000 and rice variety IRRI-6. Three rates of Zn, ranging from 0 to 10 kg ha-1 in soil, were applied as zinc sulphate (ZnSO4. 7H2O along with basal dose fertilization of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Mature leaf and soil samples were collected at panicle initiation stage. The results showed that grain yield of wheat and rice was significantly increased by the direct application of 5 and 10 kg Zn ha-1. Highest grain yield of wheat (5467 kg ha-1 was recorded with the direct application of 10 kg Zn ha-1 while 4994 kg ha-1 was recorded with the cumulative application of 10 kg Zn ha-1 but the yield increase due to residual effect of Zn was statistically lower than the cumulative effect of Zn. Maximum paddy yield was recorded with the cumulative application ofZn followed by residual and direct applied 10 and 5 kg Zn kg ha-1, respectively. Zn concentration in soils ranged from 0.3 to 1.5 mg kg-1 in wheat and 0.24 to 2.40 mg kg-1 in rice, while in leaves it ranged from 18-48 mg kg-1 in wheat and 15-52 mg kg-1 in rice. The concentration of Zn in soil and leaves increased due to the treatments in the order; cumulative > residual > direct effect > control (without Zn. The yield attributes like 1000- grain weight, number of spikes, spike length and plant height were increased by the residual, direct and cumulative effect of Zn levels; however, the magnitude of increase was higher in cumulative effect than residual and direct effect of Zn, respectively. Under Zn-deficient soil

  12. Zinc fertilization of flooded rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Local scientists studied Zn fertilization of flooded rice soils in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Egypt, the Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. Diagnosis of Zn deficiency was carried out for submerged rice soils. Soil maps were prepared, designating areas as low, medium and high in Zn, based on Zn extraction with DTPA and HCl solutions and on rice leaf analysis. The effectiveness of various Zn fertilizer sources and methods of application in field and greenhouse experiments was measured, using 65 Zn. The percent Zn derived from fertilizer was shown to be a much more sensitive measure of efficiency than yield or total uptake

  13. Deferral of leaf senescence and increased productivity in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, A.K.; Choudhari, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of spraying of different hormones and nurtient solutions on plants at 3 developmental stages of growth of Jaya rice has been studied. Increased plant growth and leaf longevity have been correlated with increased yield of the crop. 32 P feeding experiments showed that major export of materials took place from flag leaf to grains, while various treatments with hormones and nutrients could modify this export by implicating other leaves as well. These data also support the increased yield and longevity of the top. (author)

  14. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  15. Gravimorphism in rice and barley: promotion of leaf elongation by vertical inversion in agravitropically growing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Takahashi, H; Suge, H

    1998-12-01

    We have compared shoot responses of agravitropic rice and barley plants to vertical inversion with those of normal ones. When rice plants were vertically inverted, the main stems of a japonica type of rice, cv. Kamenoo, showed negative gravitropism at nodes 2-15 of both elongated and non-elongated internodes. However, shoots of lazy line of rice, lazy-Kamenoo, bent gravitropically at nodes 11-15 only elongated internodes but not at nodes 2-10 of non-elongated ones. Thus, shoots of Kamenoo responded gravitropically at all stages of growth, whereas shoots of lazy-Kamenoo did not show gravitropic response before heading. In Kamenoo plants, lengths of both leaf-sheath and leaf-blade were shortened by vertical inversion, but those of the vertically inverted plants of lazy-Kamenoo were significantly longer than the plants in an upright position. When agravitropic and normal plants of barley were vertically inverted, the same results as in rice were obtained; elongation of both leaf-sheath and leaf-blade was inhibited in normal barley plants, Chikurin-Ibaragi No. 1, but significantly stimulated in agravitropic plants of serpentina barley. These results suggest that vertical inversion of rice and barley plants enhances the elongation growth of leaves in the absence of tropistic response.

  16. Effect of microcystins on root growth, oxidative response, and exudation of rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Rediske, Richard R; Yao, Lei; Xie, Liqiang

    2018-03-01

    A 30 days indoor hydroponic experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of microcystins (MCs) on rice root morphology and exudation, as well as bioaccumulation of MCs in rice. MCs were bioaccumulated in rice with the greatest concentrations being observed in the leaves (113.68μgg -1 Fresh weight (FW)) when exposed to 500μgL -1 MCs. Root activity at 500μgL -1 decreased 37%, compared to the control. MCs also induced disruption of the antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation in rice roots. Root growth was significantly inhibited by MCs. Root weight, length; surface area and volume were significantly decreased, as well as crown root number and lateral root number. After 30 days exposure to MCs, an increase was found in tartaric acid and malic acid while the other organic acids were not affected. Glycine, tyrosine, and glutamate were the only amino acids stimulated at MCs concentrations of 500μgL -1 . Similarly, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and carbohydrate at 50 and 500μgL -1 treatments were significantly increased. The increase of DOC and carbohydrate in root exudates was due to rice root membrane permeability changes induced by MCs. Overall, this study indicated that MCs significantly inhibited rice root growth and affected root exudation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Utilizing Bacillus to inhibit the growth and infection by sheath blight pathogen, Rhizoctoniasolani in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margani, R.; Hadiwiyono; Widadi, S.

    2018-03-01

    Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn is a common pathogen of rice. The pathogen causes sheath blight of rice. The pathogen can cause loss in the production of rice up to 45%. So far, the disease however is still poorly taken care of by the farmers and researchers, so the control measures is nearly never practiced by the farmers in the fields. It due to the unavailability of effective control method of the disease. Therefore, development to control the disease is important. Bacillus is one of popular bacteria which is effective as biological control agent of a lot of pathogens in plants, but it has not been used for control sheath blight in rice yet. The current researches were aimed to study the potential of Bacillus collected from healthy rice as candidates of biological control agent of the disease. The results showed that some isolates showed indications to inhibit significantly the growth and infection of the pathogen. We obtained at least five isolates of Bacillus collected from leaves, sheath, and stem of healthy rice fields. All of the isolates could effectively inhibit the growth of R. solani in vitro on potato dextrose medium at range 30.33-58.00%, whereas in vivo B05 isolate was the most effective in inhibiting the infection of pathogen at 30.43%. It was not significantly different (P≥0.05) to application of hexaconazol with dosage of 2 ml L-1.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Early Responsive Genes in Rice during Magnaporthe oryzae Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most serious diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L. in most rice-growing regions of the world. In order to investigate early response genes in rice, we utilized the transcriptome analysis approach using a 300 K tilling microarray to rice leaves infected with compatible and incompatible M. oryzae strains. Prior to the microarray experiment, total RNA was validated by measuring the differential expression of rice defense-related marker genes (chitinase 2, barwin, PBZ1, and PR-10 by RT-PCR, and phytoalexins (sakuranetin and momilactone A with HPLC. Microarray analysis revealed that 231 genes were up-regulated (>2 fold change, p < 0.05 in the incompatible interaction compared to the compatible one. Highly expressed genes were functionally characterized into metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction categories. The oxidative stress response was induced in both early and later infection stages. Biotic stress overview from MapMan analysis revealed that the phytohormone ethylene as well as signaling molecules jasmonic acid and salicylic acid is important for defense gene regulation. WRKY and Myb transcription factors were also involved in signal transduction processes. Additionally, receptor-like kinases were more likely associated with the defense response, and their expression patterns were validated by RT-PCR. Our results suggest that candidate genes, including receptor-like protein kinases, may play a key role in disease resistance against M. oryzae attack.

  19. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  20. Influence of fertilization on the capability of rice resistance to diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Chang, Yue-Ya; Jiang, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan; Luo, Fan

    2013-04-01

    Organic cultivation of rice requires no use of any agricultural chemicals during the entire period of growth, and so the rice's self-prevention of diseases and pests is vitally important. A field experiment was carried out to study the possible influence of different fertilization on the capability of rice resistance to diseases and pests. A rice variety used for this experiment is Jia-He 218. Four treatments (A, B, C and D) were designed: A is a control, without using any fertilizers; B, after manuring of green azolla, 0.67 kg/m2; C, after manuring of rapeseed cake, 0.30 kg/m2; D, after fertilizing of ammonium bicarbonate, 0.025 kg/m2, and urea, 0.025 kg/m2. The experiment plot is 66.7 m2, with three replicates. The results indicated that the fertilization patterns significantly influence the growth of rice seedlings: The heights by A, B, C and D are 37 cm, 40 cm , 42 cm and 45 cm on average, respectively; the spike numbers, 45, 65, 73 and 75, respectively; chlorophyll contents in leaves, 1.84 mg/g, 2.42 mg/g, 3.02 mg/g and 3.97 mg/g, respectively. The rice with the different fertilization also varies in nutrient concentration in leaves: NH4-N concentration in leaves by A, B, C and D is 47.5 mg/kg, 61.1 mg/kg, 74.7 mg/kg and 135.8 mg/kg on average, respectively; NO3-N in leaves, 138.9 mg/kg, 185.2 mg/kg, 154.3 mg/kg and 293.2 mg/kg, respectively. The fertilization patterns, moreover, show a significant influence on the incidence of diseases and pests to rice seedlings: The incidence of rice cnaphalocrocis medinalis by A, B, C and D is 1.33 %, 1.50 %, 1.75 % and 89.0 % on average, respectively; that of bacterial leaf blight, 0, 1.25 %, 1.75 % and 85.0 %, respectively; number of rice planthopper in each plant, 20, 21, 21 and 30, respectively. As a result, the yield of rice grain by A, B, C and D is 4540 kg/ha, 4606 kg/ha, 4503 kg/ha and 4092 kg/ha on average, respectively. In conclusion, the rice seedlings treated with chemical fertilizers grow large and tender

  1. Identification of Morphological Character and Esterase Isozyme Pattern in Second-Generation Black Rice Plant Irradiated to Gamma Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartanti, R. S.; Putri, T. A. N.; Zulfa, F.; Sutarno; Suranto

    2017-04-01

    Black rice is one of the functional foods due to its high anthocyanin content. Black rice grain was irradiated by gamma rays with a dose of 200 Gy and 300 Gy. The main purpose of this irradiation is to induce mutation to the black rice plant in order to achieve the improved organism. This study was undertaken to elucidate the morphological character and esterase isozyme pattern of black rice plant after irradiated by gamma rays. There were morphological differences on leaves, stems and grains between irradiated and non irradiated black rice plant. Gamma radiation dose of 200 Gy showed the significant influence of the length of the stem, number of internodes, and length of leaves. The radiation dose of 300 Gy showed the significant influence of the decrease value of diameter of 3rd internodes, number of branches and width of leaves. Flowering time is getting faster as increasing radiation dose. At the age of 74 days after planting there are 9.15% plants of 200 Gy radiation dose that have flowered faster than normal plants. This value increased into 11.45% at the dose of radiation 300 Gy. There were differences in the esterase banding pattern between radiation dose of 200 Gy and 300 Gy than the control plants, indicated that randomly mutation has occurred.

  2. Parental Leave Policies and Parents' Employment and Leave-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Ruhm, Christopher; Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    We describe trends in maternal employment and leave-taking after birth of a newborn and analyze the extent to which these behaviors are influenced by parental leave policies. Data are from the June Current Population Survey (CPS) Fertility Supplements, merged with other months of the CPS, and cover the period 1987 to 1994. This time span is one…

  3. Rice vaikib salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopasse visiidile sõitev USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice külastab Saksamaad, Rumeeniat, Ukrainat ja Belgiat. Süüdistusi CIA lennukite maandumiste ja salavanglate kohta ei olevat tal kavas kommenteerida

  4. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rice are used in food products in Chinese cuisine, including Peking duck. Others have been sold as ... Medicine . 2010;170(19):1722–1727. Halbert SC, French B, Gordon RY, et al. Tolerability of red ...

  5. indica rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... fresh weight, regeneration, proline level and total protein content in salt sensitive indica rice cv. IR 64. For callus ... INTRODUCTION. Salinity is one of the ... Proline is reported to reduce the enzyme denaturation caused due.

  6. Mutant heterosis in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In the variety TKM6 a high yielding semidwarf mutant has been induced. This TKM6 mutant was used in test crosses with a number of other varieties and mutants to examine the extent of heterosis of dwarfs in rice and to select superior crosses. An excerpt of the published data is given. It appears from the backcross of the mutant with its original variety, that an increase in number of productive tillers occurs in the hybrid, leading to a striking grain yield increase, while the semi-dwarf culm length (the main mutant character) reverts to the normal phenotype. In the cross with IR8 on the other hand, there is only a minimal increase in tiller number but a substantial increase in TGW leading to more than 30% yield increase over the better parent

  7. Effect of drying conditions on drying kinetics and quality of aromatic Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Rayaguru, Kalpana; Routray, Winny

    2010-01-01

    Pandanus amaryllifolius is a plant with aromatic leaves, which impart the characteristic flavour of aromatic rice. The quality of aromatic Pandanus leaves dried at low temperature (35 °C) and low RH (27%) in a heat pump dryer was evaluated and compared with those obtained from hot air drying at 45 °C. Thin-layer drying kinetics has been studied for both the conditions. To determine the kinetic parameters, the drying data were fitted to various semi-theoretical models. The goodness of fit was ...

  8. Short communication. A spontaneous mutant of L-202 rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Yzaguire, A.; Padrones, T.

    2009-07-01

    A new spontaneous phenotype of the rice cultivar L-202 was found. Mendelian analysis indicates that it is a monogenic, recessive mutant. Its distinguishing features are: dark blue-green colour, short and narrow leaves, high tillering and relatively short height. The objectives of this study were: to characterize it, to determine if it is heritable and if so, its genetic basis. Its distinguishing features are: dark blue-green colour, short and narrow leaves, high tillering and relatively short height. Selfing the new phenotype resulted in a uniform progeny, with the traits of the parent plant (wild type). Crossing the new phenotype with the normal L-202 cultivar resulted in a uniform F1 hybrid generation, with the wild type. The F2 generation showed a mendelian segregation which did not depart significantly from three normal plants : one new phenotype. It is concluded that it is a monogenic, recessive mutant. (Author) 3 refs.

  9. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  10. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2)Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the interest of all parties concerned. This automatic transfer procedure has a number of advantages for participants in the SLS scheme. First, staff members will no longer have to take any administrative steps. Secondly, the new proced...

  11. Storage stability of flour-blasted brown rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rice was blasted with rice flour rather than sand in a sand blaster to make microscopic nicks and cuts so that water can easily penetrate into the brown rice endosperm and cook the rice in a shorter time. The flour-blasted American Basmati brown rice, long grain brown rice, and parboiled long...

  12. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...

  13. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...

  14. CMYB1 Encoding a MYB Transcriptional Activator Is Involved in Abiotic Stress and Circadian Rhythm in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Duan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Through analysis of cold-induced transcriptome, a novel gene encoding a putative MYB transcription factor was isolated and designated Cold induced MYB 1 (CMYB1. Tissue-specific gene expression analysis revealed that CMYB1 was highly expressed in rice stems and nodes. qRT-PCR assay indicated that CMYB1 was dramatically induced by cold stress (>100-folds and induced by exogenous ABA and osmotic stress. Interestingly, CMYB1 showed rhythmic expression profile in rice leaves at different developmental stages. Subcellular localization assay suggested that CMYB1-GFP (green fluorescent protein fusion protein was localized in the nuclei. Moreover, CMYB1 exhibited the transcriptional activation activity when transiently expressed in rice protoplast cells. Taken together, CMYB1 probably functions as a transcriptional activator in mediating stress and rhythm responsive gene expression in rice.

  15. Wheat Yield Trend and Soil Fertility Status in Long Term Rice-Rice-Wheat Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabin Rawal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A long-term soil fertility experiment under rice-rice-wheat system was performed to evaluate the long term effects of inorganic fertilizer and manure applications on soil properties and grain yield of wheat. The experiment began since 1978 was laid out in randomized complete block design with 9 treatments replicated 3 times. From 1990 onwards, periodic modifications have been made in all the treatments splitting the plots in two equal halves of 4 x 3 m2 leaving one half as original. In the original treatments, recent data revealed that the use of Farm Yard Manure (FYM @10 t ha-1 gave significantly (P≤0.05 higher yield of 2.3 t ha-1 in wheat, whereas control plot gave the lowest grain yield of 277 kg ha-1. Similarly, in the modified treatments, the use of FYM @10 t ha-1 along with inorganic Nitrogen (N and Potassium oxide (K2O @ 50 kg ha-1 produced significantly (P≤0.05 the highest yield of 2.4 t/ha in wheat. The control plot with an indigenous nutrient supply only produced wheat yield of 277 kg ha-1 after 35th year completion of rice-rice-wheat system. A sharp decline in wheat yields was noted in minus N, phosphorus (P, Potassium (K treatments during recent years. Yields were consistently higher in the N:P2O5:K2O and FYM treatments than in treatments, where one or more nutrients were lacking. The application of P2O5 and K2O caused a partial recovery of yield in P and K deficient plots. There was significant (P≤0.05 effect of use of chemical fertilizers and manure on soil properties. The soil analysis data showed an improvement in soil pH (7.8, soil organic matter (4.1%, total N content (0.16%, available P (503.5 kg P2O5 ha-1 and exchangeable K (137.5 kg K2O ha-1 in FYM applied treatments over all other treatments. The findings showed that the productivity of the wheat can be increased and sustained by improving nutrient through the integrated use of organic and inorganic manures in long term.

  16. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Nakamura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR, germinated brown rice (GBR and partially-milled rice (PMR contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR. Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled, and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society.

  17. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg -1 , dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and rice samples, respectively, median PA concentrations were 5438 and 1906 mg kg -1 , and median PA:Zn molar ratios were 29 and 13. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements (mg kg -1 , dry weight) in brown and white rice samples, respectively, were: As = 0.030 and 0.006; Cd  ≤ 0.002 and 0.006; Pb = 0.008 and 0.008. Approximately 95 % of As was found to be inorganic As, where this could be quantified. Malawian rice, like the more widely consumed staple grain maize, contains inadequate Ca, I, Se or Zn to meet dietary requirements. Biofortification strategies could significantly increase Se and Zn concentrations and require further investigation. Concentrations of Fe in rice grain varied

  18. Effects of Aluminium Sulfate on Cadmium Accumulation in Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamvarn, Vararas; Boontanon, Narin; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Kumsopa, Acharaporn; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn

    2011-06-01

    Full text: Cadmium accumulation in Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 rice cultivars was investigated upon treatment with aluminium sulfate as a precipitant. Rice was grown hydroponically in a medium containing 4 ppm cadmium nitrate with or without 4 ppm aluminium sulfate. Root, stem with leaves and grain samples were collected and analyzed for cadmium content using atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Without the addition of aluminium sulfate, Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 accumulated 24.71∫ 3.14 ppm and 34.43 ∫ 4.51 ppm (dry weight of whole plant) of cadmium, respectively. With aluminium sulfate, cadmium accumulation increased to 40.66 ∫ 2.47 ppm and 62.94 ∫ 10.69 ppm, respectively. The addition of aluminium sulfate to the planting medium did not reduce cadmium accumulation but caused the rice to accumulate more cadmium especially in the shoots and grains. This observation might serve as the basis for future research on the management of agricultural areas that are contaminated with cadmium and aluminium

  19. Radial Oxygen Loss in the Rhizosphere of Wild Rice as a Control On Root Surface Mineral Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K.; Trejo, B.; LaFond-Hudson, S.

    2017-12-01

    Wild rice (Zizania palustris) is an aquatic plant native to the Great Lakes region that is culturally and nutritionally significant for the Ojibwe people of Northern Minnesota. Concern for the future health of wild rice populations has increased amidst ongoing pressures from proposed mining projects that risk sulfate contamination to natural waters. Although sulfate itself is not toxic to wild rice, bacteria living in anoxic sediments use the sulfate as an electron acceptor, converting it to sulfide, which subsequently precipitates in the form of iron-sulfide on the root surface of wild rice. These precipitates are linked to lowered viability of wild rice. Most wetland plants are able to shield against the harmful accumulation of these precipitates through a process known as radial oxygen loss (ROL), in which oxygen leaches from roots into anoxic sediments to form protective iron-oxide plaques. This mechanism, however, had yet to be experimentally confirmed in wild rice. In this study, we eliminated the potential for ROL to occur in wild rice prior to the reproductive phase, and measured the rates of iron-sulfide accumulation on the roots and in associated sediments. We compared these data with the geochemical composition of roots and sediment from wild rice that accumulated iron-sulfide precipitate during the reproductive phase. In doing so, we demonstrate that ROL is indeed a mechanism by which wild rice protects itself against sulfide exposure, and examine the nuances of ROL as it relates to the life cycle of wild rice. The better we understand the vulnerability of wild rice across its life cycle and comparative rates of both toxic and protective precipitate accumulation, the better we can approach wild rice conservation.

  20. 75 FR 56911 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and... reviewing the United States Standards and grading procedures for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice under the Agriculture Marketing Act of 1946 (AMA). Since the standards were last revised...

  1. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... insurance, health benefits, retirement coverage, and leave accrual). (e) The agency shall determine the... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule... reduced leave schedule unless the employee and the agency agree to do so. (b) Leave under § 630.1203(a) (3...

  2. Effects of ozone on growth, yield and leaf gas exchange rates of four Bangladeshi cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, Nahid; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Inada, Hidetoshi; Hoshino, Daiki; Kondo, Taisuke; Fukami, Motohiro; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effects of tropospheric O 3 on rice cultivated in Bangladesh, four Bangladeshi cultivars (BR11, BR14, BR28 and BR29) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) were exposed daily to charcoal-filtered air or O 3 at 60 and 100 nl l -1 (10:00-17:00) from 1 July to 28 November 2008. The whole-plant dry mass and grain yield per plant of the four cultivars were significantly reduced by the exposure to O 3 . The exposure to O 3 significantly reduced net photosynthetic rate of the 12th and flag leaves of the four cultivars. The sensitivity to O 3 of growth, yield and leaf gas exchange rates was not significantly different among the four cultivars. The present study suggests that the sensitivity to O 3 of yield of the four Bangladeshi rice cultivars is greater than that of American rice cultivars and is similar to that of Japanese rice cultivars and that O 3 may detrimentally affect rice production in Bangladesh. - Bangladeshi cultivars of rice are sensitive to O 3 below 100 ppb.

  3. Physiological Age Status of Female Adults and Off-Season Survival of Rice Leaffolder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavathi Chintalapati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, is one of the major foliage feeders found in the rice growing regions in India. When the crop was at maturity, numerous adults of rice leaffolder were found in the rice fields though the larval population gradually decreased, and no eggs were found on rice leaves. The population characteristics of C. medinalis were assessed based on the physiological age status of adults at different crop growth stages. Based on egg development within ovarioles, ovariole appearance, number and colour of fat bodies, and characteristics of bursa copulatrix, physiological age status of the adults was described, which served as a basis for the determination of age composition. C. medinalis adults were found during the first week of August on rice plants, of which 44% were in Age 0 with immature ovaries, indicating immigrants. However, 28% adults each were at Ages 1–2 with developing ovaries, indicating local breeding population. The carryover and off-season survival of C. medinalis were also studied to determine the contribution of the alternative hosts in the population growth that helped in devising efficient management strategies. Rice was the most preferred host followed by Triticum aestivum, Echinochloa crusgulli and Brachiaria plantaginea. Various routes of the carryover of C. medinalis from season to season were discussed.

  4. Pattern of photosynthesis in saline indica var. of rice Kala Rata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, B.A.; Joshi, G.V.

    1975-01-01

    The present investigation on Kala Rata deals with the pattern of photosynthesis and the salt stress effect on the photosynthetic efficiency in rice. It is evident from the investigation that chlorophyll synthesis is enhanced with the increasing concentration of NaCl in the bathing medium. However, the efficiency of photosynthesis does not increase with increased chlorophyll production. All ions in leaves can stimulate CO 2 incorporation but inhibit at higher concentration. Analysis of short term products of photosynthesis revealed that aspartate is the major product to be heavily labelled which is evident from autoradiogram. PGA has also appreciable label, where as, malate has the least. It appears therefore, that in rice, both, Calvin as well as C 4 type of pathways are operating. 'Aspartate former' type of rice does not seem to be efficient in photosynthesis as it has C 3 pathway also in operation. (author)

  5. Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and can be increased by diet like white rice (WR). Though brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) have high antioxidant potentials as a result of their bioactive compounds, reports of their effects on oxidative stress-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes are lacking. We hypothesized therefore that if BR and GBR were to improve antioxidant status, they would be better for rice consuming populations inst...

  6. Diversity of global rice markets and the science required for consumer-targeted rice breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of different quality traits that make up the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice ...

  7. Rice varieties in relation to rice bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hye Min; Cho, Jun Hyeon; Kang, Hang Won; Koh, Bong Kyung

    2012-05-01

    It is difficult to predict rice bread quality only from the amylose content (AC) or dough characteristics of new lines produced by rice breeding programmes. This study investigated the AC relative to bread baking quality of rice varieties developed in Korea, and identified specific characteristics that contribute to rice bread quality. Manmibyeo, Jinsumi, Seolgaeng and Hanareumbyeo were classified as low AC, YR24088 Acp9, Suweon517, Chenmaai and Goamibyeo as intermediate AC and Milyang261 as high AC. Suweon517, Milyang261 and Manmibyeo had a high water absorption index (WAI), while Goamibyeo, YR24088 Acp9, Jinsumi, Seolgaeng, Hanareumbyeo and Chenmaai had a low WAI. The gelatinisation enthalpy of flour varied from 9.2 J g(-1) in Milyang261 to 14.8 J g(-1) in YR24088 Acp9. After 7 days of storage the rate of flour retrogradation and crumb firmness were weakly correlated, with the exception of Jinsumi. Bread volumes of Jinsumi, Chenmaai, YR24088 Acp9 and Goamibyeo were comparable to that of wheat flour, but the rest were unsuited to bread making because of their low volume and hard crumb texture. Based on volume, texture and crumb firmness ratio, Chenmaai and Goamibyeo were the most appropriate varieties for making bread. An intermediate AC and low WAI were the primary indicators of rice bread flour quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Growth, Metabolism and Yield of Rice Cultivated in Soils Amended with Fly Ash and Cyanobacteria and Metal Loads in Plant Parts

    OpenAIRE

    Rabindra N. Padhy; Nabakishore Nayak; Rajesh R. Dash-Mohini; Shakti Rath; Rajani K. Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Soil amendment with fly ash (FA) and combined supplementation with N2-fixing cyanobacteria masses as biofertilizer were done in field experiments with rice. Amendments with FA levels, 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kg/m2, caused increase in growth and yield of rice up to 8.0 kg/m2, monitored with several parameters. Pigment contents and enzyme activities of leaves were enhanced by FA, with the maximum level of FA at 10.0 kg/m2. Protein content of rice seeds was the highest in plants grow...

  9. A Rice Immunophilin Gene, OsFKBP16-3, Confers Tolerance to Environmental Stress in Arabidopsis and Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cheul Ahn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The putative thylakoid lumen immunophilin, FKBP16-3, has not yet been characterized, although this protein is known to be regulated by thioredoxin and possesses a well-conserved CxxxC motif in photosynthetic organisms. Here, we characterized rice OsFKBP16-3 and examined the role of this gene in the regulation of abiotic stress in plants. FKBP16-3s are well conserved in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms, including the presence of a unique disulfide-forming CxxxC motif in their N-terminal regions. OsFKBP16-3 was mainly expressed in rice leaf tissues and was upregulated by various abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, high light, hydrogen peroxide, heat and methyl viologen. The chloroplast localization of OsFKBP16-3-GFP was confirmed through the transient expression of OsFKBP16-3 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis and transgenic rice plants that constitutively expressed OsFKBP16-3 exhibited increased tolerance to salinity, drought and oxidative stresses, but showed no change in growth or phenotype, compared with vector control plants, when grown under non-stressed conditions. This is the first report to demonstrate the potential role of FKBP16-3 in the environmental stress response, which may be regulated by a redox relay process in the thylakoid lumen, suggesting that artificial regulation of FKBP16-3 expression is a candidate for stress-tolerant crop breeding.

  10. The impact of germination on the characteristics of brown rice flour and starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Zhang, Hui; Guo, Xiaona; Qian, Haifeng

    2012-01-30

    In recent years, germinated brown rice as a functional food has received great attention with its improved sensory and nutritional properties. Particularly of interest are the high levels of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) which can be obtained during germination. However, more studies are needed to fully understand the effect of germination on the physicochemical properties of brown rice. Germination altered the chemical composition of brown rice, resulting in an increase in reducing sugar and ash content, and a reduction in amylose. Solubility, paste viscosity, transition temperatures (T(o) , T(p) and T(c) ) and percentage of retrogradation (%Retrogradation) were decreased, while swelling power and turbidity were significantly increased. Scanning electron micrographs indicated that starch granules from germinated brown rice became smaller and less homogeneous. Moreover, germination shortened the chain length of amylopectin and amylose molecules. This investigation provides information on changes in the characteristics of rice flour and rice starch during germination, leading to a better understanding on the chemistry of brown rice germination. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Methodology development for area determination of rice planted paddy using RADARSAT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishitsuka, N.; Saito, G.; Murakami, T.; Ogawa, S.; Okamoto, K.

    2003-01-01

    Every year, the agricultural statistics section of the Japanese government announces rice planting paddy area and rice yield per hectare (ha). At present, the rice planting paddy area is calculated based on field survey by human power. In future, the Japanese government should like to determine the rice transplanted paddy area using remote sensing. Already, some results have come out using satellite-borne optical sensors. However, Japan has a rainy-season at crop growing time, and therefore it is difficult, under such weather condition, to make accurate and consistent observation of paddy fields every year by optical means. On the other hand, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is capable of observing the earth's surface without influence of clouds. Making use of this all-weather imaging capability, we are currently developing a method to determine the rice planted paddy area using SAR data acquired by RADARSAT. Paddy fields are filled with water during rice-planting period. When the microwave is incident on the filled paddy fields, it is reflected away from the SAR antenna by the water surface acting like a mirror. This phenomenon is called 'specular reflection'. The microwave backscatter is therefore small from the surface covered with water. Thus, the radar cross section (RCS) is very small from rice paddies at a transplanting period due to the specular reflection, and it increases with the growth of rice plants because of volume scatter by stems and leaves, and also by multiple reflection between the water surface and rice plants. In our study, this characteristic is used to develop methods of estimating rice paddy area. Our study area is the Saga plain in the southeast Japan. First, We determine the threshold of image intensity to separate the land and water areas using the histogram and maps. Next, we develop techniques of classification, utilizing (1) RADARSAT and optical data, (2) two multi-temporal RADARSAT data, (3) RADARSAT and GIS data, and (4

  12. Cytokinin delays dark-induced senescence in rice by maintaining the chlorophyll cycle and photosynthetic complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talla, Sai Krishna; Panigrahy, Madhusmita; Kappara, Saivishnupriya; Nirosha, P; Neelamraju, Sarla; Ramanan, Rajeshwari

    2016-03-01

    The phytohormone cytokinin (CK) is known to delay senescence in plants. We studied the effect of a CK analog, 6-benzyl adenine (BA), on rice leaves to understand the possible mechanism by which CK delays senescence in a drought- and heat-tolerant rice cultivar Nagina22 (N22) using dark-induced senescence (DIS) as a surrogate for natural senescence of leaves. Leaves of N22-H-dgl162, a stay-green mutant of N22, and BA-treated N22 showed retention of chlorophyll (Chl) pigments, maintenance of the Chl a/b ratio, and delay in reduction of both photochemical efficiency and rate of oxygen evolution during DIS. HPLC analysis showed accumulation of 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll (HmChl) during DIS, and the kinetics of its accumulation correlated with progression of senescence. Transcriptome analysis revealed that several plastid-localized genes, specifically those associated with photosystem II (PSII), showed higher transcript levels in BA-treated N22 and the stay-green mutant leaves compared with naturally senescing N22 leaves. Real-time PCR analyses showed that genes coding for enzymes associated with Chl a/b interconversion and proteins associated with light-harvesting complexes maintained higher transcript levels up to 72h of DIS following BA treatment. The pigment-protein complexes analyzed by green gel remained intact in both N22-H-dgl162 and BA-treated N22 leaves even after 96h of DIS. Thus, CK delays senescence by accumulation of HmChl and up-regulating genes in the Chl cycle, thereby maintaining the Chl a/b ratio. Also, CK treatment retains higher transcript levels of PSII-related genes, resulting in the stability of photosynthetic pigment complexes and functional stay-greenness in rice. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. Physical and structural changes induced by high pressure on corn starch, rice flour and waxy rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Carola; Lucisano, Mara; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Mariotti, Manuela

    2016-07-01

    The impact of high pressure (HP) processing on corn starch, rice flour and waxy rice flour was investigated as a function of pressure level (400MPa; 600MPa), pressure holding time (5min; 10min), and temperature (20°C; 40°C). Samples were pre-conditioned (final moisture level: 40g/100g) before HP treatments. Both the HP treated and the untreated raw materials were evaluated for pasting properties and solvent retention capacity, and investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry and environmental scanning electron microscopy. Different pasting behaviors and solvent retention capacities were evidenced according to the applied pressure. Corn starch presented a slower gelatinization trend when treated at 600MPa. Corn starch and rice flour treated at 600MPa showed a higher retention capacity of carbonate and lactic acid solvents, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry and environmental scanning electron microscopy investigations highlighted that HP affected the starch structure of rice flour and corn starch. Few variations were evidenced in waxy rice flour. These results can assist in advancing the HP processing knowledge, as the possibility to successfully process raw samples in a very high sample-to-water concentration level was evidenced. This work investigates the effect of high pressure as a potential technique to modify the processing characteristics of starchy materials without using high temperature. In this case the starches were processed in the powder form - and not as a slurry as in previously reported studies - showing the flexibility of the HP treatment. The relevance for industrial application is the possibility to change the structure of flour starches, and thus modifying the processability of the mentioned products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Selenium reduces cadmium uptake and mitigates cadmium toxicity in rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Li; Zhou, Weihui; Dai, Huaxin; Cao, Fangbin; Zhang, Guoping [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); Wu, Feibo, E-mail: wufeibo@zju.edu.cn [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se alleviated Cd-toxicity, reduced Cd content and O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, MDA in rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se counteracted Cd-induced alterations of antioxidant enzymes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se suppressed Cd-induced increase in SOD, APX, but elevated depressed CAT activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se markedly increased H{sup +}-ATPase, Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities in roots under Cd exposure. - Abstract: Hydroponic experiments were performed to investigate physiological mechanisms of selenium (Se) mitigation of Cd toxicity in rice. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd concentration in leaves, roots, and stems. Addition or pretreatment of 3 {mu}M Se in 50 {mu}M Cd solution significantly addressed Cd-induced growth inhibition, recovered root cell viability, and dramatically depressed O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation. Supplemental Se counteracted 50 {mu}M Cd-induced alterations of certain antioxidant enzymes, and uptake of nutrients, e.g. depressed Cd-induced increase in leaf and root superoxide dismutase (SOD) and leaf peroxidase (POD) activities, but elevated depressed catalase (CAT) activity; decreased Cd-induced high S and Cu concentrations in both leaves and roots. External Se counteracted the pattern of alterations in ATPase activities induced by Cd, e.g. significantly elevated the depressed root H{sup +}- and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities, but decreased the ascent root Na{sup +}K{sup +}-ATP activity. Results indicate that alleviated Cd toxicity by Se application is related to reduced Cd uptake and ROS accumulation, balanced nutrients, and increased H{sup +}- and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities in rice.

  15. Rice Seed Priming with Picomolar Rutin Enhances Rhizospheric Bacillus subtilis CIM Colonization and Plant Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Singh

    Full Text Available The effect of rutin, a bioflavonoid on the growth and biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis strain CIM was investigated. In addition to swimming, swarming, and twitching potentials of B. subtilis CIM (BS, one picomolar (1 pM of rutin was also observed to boost the biofilm forming ability of the bacterium. Bio-priming of rice seeds with BS and rutin not only augmented root and shoot lengths but also the photosynthetic pigments like chlorophyll and carotenoid. Similarly, high accumulation of phenolic and flavonoid contents was observed in the leaves. Fluorescent microscopic images revealed that BS plus rutin enhanced callose deposition in the leaves. It was also established that the least formation of reactive oxygen species in BS plus rutin treated rice plants was due to higher free radicals scavenging activity and total antioxidant potential. The results highlight chemo attractant nature of BS towards rutin, which by enhancing biofilm formation and root colonization indirectly strengthened the plants' defensive state.

  16. Involvement of Antioxidative Defense System in Rice Seedlings Exposed to Aluminum Toxicity and Phosphorus Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-rong GUO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing in acid soils may suffer both phosphorus (P deficiency and aluminum (Al toxicity. Hydroponic experiments were undertaken to assess the single and combination effects of Al toxicity and low P stress on seedling growth, chlorophyll and proline contents, antioxidative response and lipid peroxidation of two rice genotypes (Yongyou 8 and Xiushui 132 differing in Al tolerance. Al toxicity and P deficiency both inhibited rice seedling growth. The development of toxic symptoms was characterized by reduced chlorophyll content, increased proline and malondialdehyde contents in both roots and leaves, and increased peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in roots, but decreased in leaves. The stress condition induced more severe growth inhibition and oxidative stress in Yongyou 8, and Xiushui 132 showed higher tolerance to both Al toxicity and P deficiency. P deficiency aggravated Al toxicity to plant growth and induced more severe lipid peroxidation.

  17. Determination of plant species for the phytoremediation of carbofuran residue in rice field soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissara Reungsang

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study searched for plant species suitable for accumulating carbofuran residue in rice field soil. Three groups of plant, i.e. grass crops, upland crops, and vegetable crops, were grown in 8 inches diameter plastic pots filled with soil containing 5 mg/kg carbofuran. Parts of plants (stems and leaves, roots, fruits were harvested at day 120 and analyzed for carbofuran residue using HPLC. The results indicated that Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower was the most suitable species for phytoremediation of carbofuran residue in rice field soil because it highly accumulated carbofuran up to 93.4 μg/kg dry weight in its stems and leaves. In addition, H. annuus L. (sunflower could tolerate carbofuran since it showed similar physical appearance (circumference and height to control not receiving carbofuran.

  18. A Non-destructive and Continuous Measurement of Gelatinization of Rice in Rice Cooking Process

    OpenAIRE

    Hagura, Yoshio; Suzuki, Kanichi

    2002-01-01

    A non-destructive and continuous method to measure gelatinization of rice samples in a rice-water system during rice cooking process was examined. An aluminum pot and a lid of a rice cooker were used as two electrode plates, and changes in dielectric properties (capacitance : C, and dielectric dissipation factor : tan δ) of the samples in the rice cooking process were measured by a capacitance meter. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure gelatinization enthalpy and to de...

  19. Effect of Rice bran on the Quality of Rice Flour Breads (Gluten-free)

    OpenAIRE

    仲上, 晴世; 矢部, えん; Haruyo, Nakagami; En, Yabe

    2016-01-01

    Over recent years progress has been made in the development of substitute foods for allergy patients. One such is rice flour bread. However, typically rice flour bread uses polysaccharide thickener in substitution for the gluten in wheat. Most polysaccharide thickeners are of dietary fiber origin, and the nutritive value is poor. Therefore, in this study, I made rice flour bread adding rice bran in place of polysaccharide thickener. Various nutrients are included in rice bran, including vitam...

  20. New statement of leave format

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the communication of the Standing Concertation Committee published in Weekly Bulletin No. 18-19 of 27 April 2009, the current statement of leave on monthly pay slips has been replaced with the EDH Leave Transactions report that displays the up-to-date situation of individual leave balances at all times. The report is available on EDH. Additionally, the layout of the pay slip has been modernised. The new version of the pay slip will be send out from September 2009 onwards. Finance and Purchasing Department, Personnel Accounting Human Resources Department, Organisation and Procedures General Infrastructure Services Department, Administrative Information Services

  1. Effect of root and leaf applications of soluble silicon on blast development in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaias Severino Cacique

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blast, caused by Pyricularia oryzae, is the most important fungal disease of rice worldwide. This study aimed to compare root and foliar supply of soluble silicon (Si on rice resistance to blast. The application of soluble Si to the roots increased Si concentration in leaf tissues as compare to plants grown in soil amended with calcium silicate. There was no increase in leaf Si concentration after soluble Si spray, regardless if the leaves were washed or not before analysis. X-ray microanalysis revealed that Si deposition was very similar on the leaf epidermis of plants sprayed with soluble Si, root amended with soluble Si or grown in soil amended with calcium silicate. The lesion size, the number of lesions per cm² of leaf and the area under blast progress curve were reduced for rice plants grown in soil that received the application of soluble Si or was amended with calcium silicate. The results of this study showed that the supply of soluble Si to the roots or its spray onto to the rice leaves can decrease blast symptoms.

  2. Leaves of Absence. School Law Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    This report contains State-by-State statutory summaries on three types of leaves of absence relating to teachers -- sick leave, maternity leave, and sabbatical leave. Only State laws that have specific reference to one of these three types of leaves of absence are included. Not included are those statutes granting boards of education the general…

  3. Rainfed Rice Production and there Germplasm Development in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyango, J.C.; Onyango, M.O.A.

    1999-01-01

    Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) has been grown in Kenya for several centuries and during this time has been locally selected by farmers for adaptation in the dry climate of Kenya highlands and coastal region. this history of selection by farmers has led to the concentration of genetic information for performance under drought conditions in locally-adapted rice types. Since water availability affects many processes in plants, drought tolerance is a complex character and due to the complex nature of the drought tolerance limited progress has been made in breeding for drought tolerance using simple screening methods. To produce drought tolerant cultivars, characters can used as parents in a breeding program, this is a two step process. Obviously, the root system is central to drought tolerance. The root system must be able to remove water efficiently from soils with low moisture and withstand the dynamics of soil during drought conditions will prevent stomata closure and maximise photosynthesis which is essential for high crop production. Over 365 cultivars of rainfed rice have been identified in Kenya and can be used in the two step process as source material for identifying characters related to drought tolerance and as parental lines. To advance the first step, research was conducted to identify drought tolerance characters in rainfed cultivars from Kenya. The study had a total of 580 mm of rainfall which was below the mean precipitation requirement of 750 mm. The drought sensitive variety IR20 was compared with drought tolerant IR52 and five KR (Kenya Rice) KR21, KR22, KR35,KR108 and KR135 cultivars. Plant biomass, plant height, leaf area, leaf length, protein: chlorophyll content ratio and grain yield were affected by limiting water availability and differences between cultivars were noted. The protein to chlorophyll ratio in leaves in the KR. cultivars increase from 18.4 to 28.0 as water deficient increases from -0.8 mpa to -1.4 Mpa allowing these cultivars to maintain

  4. Conversion of the fungicide, ziram in rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumarasamy, R.; Raghu, K.

    1976-01-01

    Zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (ziram) is a toliar fungicide used for the control of the blast disease of rice caused by Pyricularia oryzae, and is also used for the control of the plant diseases in crops like groundnut, cotton, etc. Since there is lack of data on the conversion products of this fungicide. This investigation was carried out. The results of the author's recent studies with 35 S-labelled ziram in rice seedlings were reported. The 35 S-Labelled ziram (specific activity 1.5 m Ci/m mole) was sprayed on the rice seedlings of 25 days old. At different intervals of time, the seedlings were removed, washed thoroughly, cut into pieces, and extracted with 80% ethanol. By the method described in ''K. Raghu et al., Origin and fate of chemical residents in food, agriculture and fisheries, I.A.E.A., Vienna, 1975, pp. 137-148,'' the segments corresponding to the standards of dimethyl dithio carbamate-alanine (DDCA), DDC-glucoside (DDCG), thiazolidine-2-thione-4-carbamic acid (TTCA), unidentified divolent fungicide (X), and ziram were cut out and the radioactivity was counted in cocktail D scintillation fluid using an LS-100 Beckmann liquid scintillation counter. It is indeed interesting to note that ziram is converted in plant tissues into dimethyldithiocarbamate derivatives like DDCG, DDCA, TTCA and X within 24 hr after spraying. The amounts of these derivatives varied in the course of sampling up to 8 days after spraying. Further studies are needed as to the quantitative nature of these products, but the present report clearly demonstrates the formation of these conversion products in the rice leaves treated with ziram. (Kobatake, H.)

  5. Genetically engineered rice. The source of β-carotene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Terlecki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available β-carotene is a precursor of vitamin A. It is converted to vitamin A in the humans intestine by the β-carotene-15,15’-monooxygenase. Vitamin A is essential to support vision, as an antioxidant it protects the body from free radicals, it helps to integrate the immune system, as well as takes part in cellular differentiation and proliferation. Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem especially among developing countries. Nyctalopia, commonly known as „Night Blindness” is one of the major symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency (VAD. Plants such as apricots, broccoli, carrots, and sweet potatoes are rich in β-carotene. Some of the plants are characterized by a higher content of provitamin-A. Among vegetables rich sources of β-carotene are: carrots, pumpkin, spinach, lettuce, green peas, tomatoes, watercress, broccoli and parsley leaves. Amongst fruits the highest content of β-carotene is in apricot, cherry, sweet cherry, plum, orange and mango. The aim of the present study was to analyze available literature data of increasing the content of β-carotene in genetically engineered rice. The genetically modified cultivar contains additional genes: PSY and CRTI thanks to which rice seed endosperm contains β-carotene. Genetically engineered rice with β-carotene is an effective source of vitamin A, it contains approximately 30 μg β-carotene per 1 g. Fortunately some of the advantages of Genetically Modified Food give an opportunity to reduce VAD worldwide, by introducing the rice which has been genetically engineered to be rich in β-carotene. The popularity of this plant as an element of nutrition is simultaneously a source of vitamin A.

  6. FLUORIDE LEVELS IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE RICE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2013-05-05

    May 5, 2013 ... Rice is one of the commonly consumed cereals for more than half of the ... also used as flour, for making rice wine, as ingredient for beer and liquor, ... Fluoride is a necessary element to human health, and a moderate amount of fluoride intake ... For Ethiopian red rice (ERR) Fogera was selected to collect.

  7. Impact of bio-processing on rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLAU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The usual way of preparing rice is boiling, thermal process that gives it a lower digestibility as compared to instantiation, extrusion or expandation. Having in view this fact, the possibility to biotechnologically improve the boiled rice digestibility was investigated in a laboratory study. In this respect, boiled rice wassolid state fermented using a strain of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, an amylase producing yeast originating from ragi. Fermented rice was then analyzed from the point of view of its content in easily assimilable sugars, protein, amino-acids, phosphorus and vitamins from B group. Biochemical analyses revealed that the fermented rice has a ten times higher content of reducing sugars than boiled rice, due to starch hydrolysis, while chromatographic studies proved that the fermented rice contains glucose, maltose, maltotriose and maltotetrose that are easily assimilable carbohydrates.Fermented rice has a protein content that is two times higher than that of boiled rice because it contains the yeast biomass, and is enriched in vitamins from B group (B1, B2, and B6 that are synthesized by the yeast. Inorganic phosphorus present in rice doubles its concentration in fermented rice, which means thatphosphorus bioavailability is increased.The sensorial profile of boiled rice is also improved by fermentation.This study proves the possibility to have a processing method which is relatively cheap, practical and of which the resulting product has good nutritive qualities and does not pose safety problems due to pure culture utilization as starter.

  8. PICTORIAL INTERLUDES Flake-shaped rice bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    removing the rice bodies and the bursa.3. In summary: rice bodies can occur without underlying systemic disorder, have different shapes and sizes, and have specific signal characteristics on. MRI that allow discrimination from synovial chondromatosis. 1. Cheung HS, Ryan LM, Kozin F, McCarty DJ. Synovial origins of rice ...

  9. New market opportunities for rice grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding efforts for rice have been focusing on increasing yield and improving quality (milling yield and grain quality), while maintaining cooked rice sensory properties to meet consumer preferences. These breeding targets will no doubt continue as the main foci for the rice industry. However, the ...

  10. Arsenic in rice: A cause for concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all rice products, stri...

  11. Consumer preference mapping for rice product concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Chaveesuk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries is decreasing constantly, but American and European citizens are eating more rice nowadays. A preference study among consumers was carried out with the aim of determining new rice product characteristics in order to support export of Thai

  12. Asian wild rice is a hybrid swarm with extensive gene flow and feralization from domesticated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongru; Vieira, Filipe G; Crawford, Jacob E; Chu, Chengcai; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-06-01

    The domestication history of rice remains controversial, with multiple studies reaching different conclusions regarding its origin(s). These studies have generally assumed that populations of living wild rice, O. rufipogon , are descendants of the ancestral population that gave rise to domesticated rice, but relatively little attention has been paid to the origins and history of wild rice itself. Here, we investigate the genetic ancestry of wild rice by analyzing a diverse panel of rice genomes consisting of 203 domesticated and 435 wild rice accessions. We show that most modern wild rice is heavily admixed with domesticated rice through both pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow. In fact, much presumed wild rice may simply represent different stages of feralized domesticated rice. In line with this hypothesis, many presumed wild rice varieties show remnants of the effects of selective sweeps in previously identified domestication genes, as well as evidence of recent selection in flowering genes possibly associated with the feralization process. Furthermore, there is a distinct geographical pattern of gene flow from aus , indica , and japonica varieties into colocated wild rice. We also show that admixture from aus and indica is more recent than gene flow from japonica , possibly consistent with an earlier spread of japonica varieties. We argue that wild rice populations should be considered a hybrid swarm, connected to domesticated rice by continuous and extensive gene flow. © 2017 Wang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Effects of Extraction Methods on Phytochemicals of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Singanusong, Riantong; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kimura, Fumiko; Ito, Junya

    2018-02-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) especially from colored rice is rich in phytochemicals and has become popular in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications owing to its offering health benefits. This study determined the contents of phytochemicals including oryzanols, phytosterols, tocopherols (Toc) and tocotrienols (T3) in RBOs extracted using different methods namely cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO 2 extraction (SC-CO 2 ). Two colored rice, Red Jasmine rice (RJM, red rice) and Hom-nin rice (HN, black rice), were studied in comparison with the popular Thai fragrant rice Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105, white rice). RBOs were found to be the rich source of oryzanols, phytosterols, Toc and T3. Rice varieties had a greater effect on the phytochemicals concentrations than extraction methods. HN rice showed the significantly highest concentration of all phytochemicals, followed by RJM and KDML 105 rice, indicating that colored rice contained high concentration of phytochemicals in the oil than non-colored rice. The RBO samples extracted by the CPE method had a greater concentration of the phytochemicals than those extracted by the SC-CO 2 and SE methods, respectively. In terms of phytochemical contents, HN rice extracted using CPE method was found to be the best.

  14. Texture and wettability of metallic lotus leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankiewicz, C.; Attinger, D.

    2016-02-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces.Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional

  15. Mechanical Properties of Rice Husk Biochar Reinforced High Density Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfa Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice husk biochar was utilized to reinforce high-density polyethylene (HDPE and to prepare biochar/plastic composites (BPC by the extrusion method. Morphologies, non-isothermal crystallization behavior, and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. The SEM (scanning electron microscope showed that HDPE was embedded into the holes of the rice husk biochar. The DSC (differential scanning calorimeter showed that biochar could reduce the crystallization rate and the higher the content of rice husk biochar, the slower the crystallization rate. Significantly, the bending and tensile strength of BPC could reach 53.7 and 20 MPa, far beyond WPC (wood plastic composites. With the increase of filler content, BPC were still stronger than WPC, although the impact strength of BPC and WPC all showed a general decline in the trend. The strong interaction was achieved by the utilization of rice husk biochar to reinforce HDPE.

  16. Isolation and characterization of pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiful Azhari, S.; Suhardy, D.; Kasim, F.H; Nazry Saleh, M.

    2007-01-01

    The amount of sugarcane bagasse and rice straw in the state of Perlis (Malaysia) is abundant while its utilization is still limited. One of the alternatives for the bagasse and straw utilization is as pulp raw material. This paper reviews on pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw and its suitability for paper production. In this study, the pulp was extracted by the Soxhlet extraction method. The objective of this study was to investigate the cellulose, lignin and silica content of the pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw. For rice straw, the presence of large amount of pentosanes in the pulp and black liquors, which also contain silica were decreased the using of straw in the paper industry. Therefore, formic acid pulping and NaOH treatment are studied to reduce or prevent silica. The isolated pulp samples were further characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to investigate their fiber dimensions. (Author)

  17. Chitinase from phaseolus vulgaris leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boller, T.; Gehri, A.; Mauch, F.; Vogeli, V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of ethylene on chitinase activity in bean leaves. The authors have purified the enzyme in the course of their work. The purification method is detailed and the colorimetric and radiochemical assays are compared

  18. The Problems of Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sean

    2017-10-01

    The United States is the only major industrialized country in the world to not require paid parental leave. Numerous studies have shown that allowing parents time with a newborn makes the child and the parents healthier, both physically and mentally. Many physicians, especially those who work in practices with five or fewer doctors, worry about how to pay for parental leave for themselves and their staff.

  19. Isotope studies on rice fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the report is to provide practical information on the efficient utilization of nitrogen fertilizers in rice production. Results obtained from field investigations during the years 1970 to 1974 in ten countries (Bangladesh, Burma, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Philippines), using 15 N-labelled nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, urea) are given. The experiments, which were conducted both during the dry and wet seasons, included comparison of varieties, effect of placement, source and time of nitrogen fertilizer application on the yield and quality of rice. The data from the project is presented in table form. In most of the experiments, the addition of nitrogen increased the rice grain yield. The role of soil nitrogen vs. fertilizer nitrogen is compared, and it is concluded that the physiological growth stage at which fertilizer-derived nitrogen is absorbed is of great importance

  20. Evaluation of Protocols for Measuring Leaf Photosynthetic Properties of Field-Grown Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Tian-gen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Largely due to the heterogeneity of environmental parameters and the logistical difficulty of moving photosynthetic equipment in the paddy fields, effective measurement of lowland rice photosynthesis is still a challenge. In this study, we showed that measuring detached rice leaves in the laboratory can not effectively represent the parameters measured in situ. We further described a new indoor facility, high-efficiency all-weather photosynthetic measurement system (HAPS, and the associated measurement protocol to enable whole-weather measurement of photosynthetic parameters of rice grown in the paddy fields. Using HAPS, we can conduct photosynthetic measurements with a time span much longer than that appropriate for the outdoor measurements. Comparative study shows that photosynthetic parameters obtained with the new protocol can effectively represent the parameters in the fields. There was much less standard deviation for measurements using HAPS compared to the outdoor measurements, no matter for technical replications of each recording or for biological replications of each leaf position. This new facility and protocol enables rice photosynthetic physiology studies to be less tough but more efficient, and provides a potential option for large scale studies of rice leaf photosynthesis.

  1. Biallelic and Genome Wide Association Mapping of Germanium Tolerant Loci in Rice (Oryza sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Talukdar

    Full Text Available Rice plants accumulate high concentrations of silicon. Silicon has been shown to be involved in plant growth, high yield, and mitigating biotic and abiotic stresses. However, it has been demonstrated that inorganic arsenic is taken up by rice through silicon transporters under anaerobic conditions, thus the ability to efficiently take up silicon may be considered either a positive or a negative trait in rice. Germanium is an analogue of silicon that produces brown lesions in shoots and leaves, and germanium toxicity has been used to identify mutants in silicon and arsenic transport. In this study, two different genetic mapping methods were performed to determine the loci involved in germanium sensitivity in rice. Genetic mapping in the biparental cross of Bala × Azucena (an F6 population and a genome wide association (GWA study with 350 accessions from the Rice Diversity Panel 1 were conducted using 15 μM of germanic acid. This identified a number of germanium sensitive loci: some co-localised with previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL for tissue silicon or arsenic concentration, none co-localised with Lsi1 or Lsi6, while one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP was detected within 200 kb of Lsi2 (these are genes known to transport silicon, whose identity was discovered using germanium toxicity. However, examining candidate genes that are within the genomic region of the loci detected above reveals genes homologous to both Lsi1 and Lsi2, as well as a number of other candidate genes, which are discussed.

  2. Effect of microwave energy on grain quality of four Spanish rice varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osca, J.M.; Marzal, A.; Castell, V.; Martínez, J.; Benedito, C.; Balbastre, J.V.; Sánchez-Hernández, D.

    2005-01-01

    A microwave system can be used as an alternative method to methyl bromide to control rice storage pests. Four rice varieties (Oryza sativa L.) grown in Spain (‘Bomba’, ‘Senia’, ‘Puntal’ and ‘Thainato’) were irradiated with three levels of microwave energy (0, 70 and 100 J g –1 ). Rice quality attributes were analysed to establish hypothetical quality changes in order to use microwave energy as an alternative method to control pests. Results of the factorial analysis showed that the analysed attributes differed more within varieties than among microwave treatments of the varieties, except for ‘Thainato’ which, after applying microwave energy of 100 J g –1 , presented a different adhesiveness from the other two treatments determined by factor 1 and ‘Puntal’ treated with microwaves presented a different water uptake and loss of solids in cooking water determined by factor 3 than the control. The increase in hardness and decrease in adhesiveness as a consequence of the microwave treatment could possibly damage rice quality. This aspect must be taken into account with this method. In conclusion, microwave energy can be used as an alternative method of insect control because it does not seriously affect rice quality. Microwave treatments did not leave undesirable residues and could be as effective at controlling insect infestation as any procedure currently available. (author) [es

  3. Iron biofortification of Myanmar rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sann Aung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency causes elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75% and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high yields and/or qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  4. Effects of cobalt-60 low doses radiation on beam, rice and radish seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, O.K.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) were studied. Bean and rice seeds were irradiated with 3.5 and 7.7 Gy (32 Gy/h). There was an apparent acceleration on rice seed germination with 3.5 Gy when they were stored for 6 days after irradiation, but the same dose caused a delay when the store time was 1 day. Bean seeds germination was not modified by 3.5 and 7.7 Gy, but the fresh and dry weight of young plants showed an increase, mainly due the major quantity of water in the embryonic axis. Bean seeds were irradiated with 0.5 and 2.0 Gy (30 Gy/h). Seeds germination showed a slight delay irradiating with 0.5 Gy, while height, fresh and dry weight and primary leaves area of the young plants as well as number of nodes, leaves, flowers, beans and seeds were not modified after irradiation with 0.5 and 2.0 Gy. Radish seeds irradiated with 10 and 30 Gy at dose rates of 4.5, 22.5 and 45.0 Gy/h showed a germination delay and fresh and dry weight values for young plants leaves lower than control. Roots of totally developed plants showed no modifications in weight, volume, mean diameter, lenght and in the amount of soluble reducing sugar. (author)

  5. Photosynthetic Properties and Potentials for Improvement of Photosynthesis in Pale Green Leaf Rice under High Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfei Gu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Light is the driving force of plant growth, providing the energy required for photosynthesis. However, photosynthesis is also vulnerable to light-induced damage caused by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Plants have therefore evolved various protective mechanisms such as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ to dissipate excessively absorbed solar energy as heat; however, photoinhibition and NPQ represent a significant loss in solar energy and photosynthetic efficiency, which lowers the yield potential in crops. To estimate light capture and light energy conversion in rice, a genotype with pale green leaves (pgl and a normally pigmented control (Z802 were subjected to high (HL and low light (LL. Chlorophyll content, light absorption, chloroplast micrographs, abundance of light-harvesting complex (LHC binding proteins, electron transport rates (ETR, photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, and generation of ROS were subsequently examined. Pgl had a smaller size of light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna and absorbed less photons than Z802. NPQ and the generation of ROS were also low, while photosystem II efficiency and ETR were high, resulting in improved photosynthesis and less photoinhibition in pgl than Z802. Chlorophyll synthesis and solar conversion efficiency were higher in pgl under HL compared to LL treatment, while Z802 showed an opposite trend due to the high level of photoinhibition under HL. In Z802, excessive absorption of solar energy not only increased the generation of ROS and NPQ, but also exacerbated the effects of increases in temperature, causing midday depression in photosynthesis. These results suggest that photosynthesis and yield potential in rice could be enhanced by truncated light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size.

  6. Photosynthetic Properties and Potentials for Improvement of Photosynthesis in Pale Green Leaf Rice under High Light Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junfei; Zhou, Zhenxiang; Li, Zhikang; Chen, Ying; Wang, Zhiqin; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Jianchang

    2017-01-01

    Light is the driving force of plant growth, providing the energy required for photosynthesis. However, photosynthesis is also vulnerable to light-induced damage caused by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Plants have therefore evolved various protective mechanisms such as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) to dissipate excessively absorbed solar energy as heat; however, photoinhibition and NPQ represent a significant loss in solar energy and photosynthetic efficiency, which lowers the yield potential in crops. To estimate light capture and light energy conversion in rice, a genotype with pale green leaves (pgl) and a normally pigmented control (Z802) were subjected to high (HL) and low light (LL). Chlorophyll content, light absorption, chloroplast micrographs, abundance of light-harvesting complex (LHC) binding proteins, electron transport rates (ETR), photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, and generation of ROS were subsequently examined. Pgl had a smaller size of light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna and absorbed less photons than Z802. NPQ and the generation of ROS were also low, while photosystem II efficiency and ETR were high, resulting in improved photosynthesis and less photoinhibition in pgl than Z802. Chlorophyll synthesis and solar conversion efficiency were higher in pgl under HL compared to LL treatment, while Z802 showed an opposite trend due to the high level of photoinhibition under HL. In Z802, excessive absorption of solar energy not only increased the generation of ROS and NPQ, but also exacerbated the effects of increases in temperature, causing midday depression in photosynthesis. These results suggest that photosynthesis and yield potential in rice could be enhanced by truncated light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size. PMID:28676818

  7. Mechanisms of Fe biofortification and mitigation of Cd accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown hydroponically with Fe chelate fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Tang, Ye-Tao; Zhou, Can; Xie, Shu-Ting; Xiao, Shi; Baker, Alan J M; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2017-05-01

    Cadmium contaminated rice from China has become a global food safety issue. Some research has suggested that chelate addition to substrates can affect metal speciation and plant metal content. We investigated the mitigation of Cd accumulation in hydroponically-grown rice supplied with EDTANa 2 Fe(II) or EDDHAFe(III). A japonica rice variety (Nipponbare) was grown in modified Kimura B solution containing three concentrations (0, 10, 100 μΜ) of the iron chelates EDTANa 2 Fe(II) or EDDHAFe(III) and 1 μΜ Cd. Metal speciation in solution was simulated by Geochem-EZ; growth and photosynthetic efficiency of rice were evaluated, and accumulation of Cd and Fe in plant parts was determined. Net Cd fluxes in the meristematic zone, growth zone, and maturation zone of roots were monitored by a non-invasive micro-test technology. Expression of Fe- and Cd-related genes in Fe-sufficient or Fe-deficient roots and leaves were studied by QRT-PCR. Compared to Fe deficiency, a sufficient or excess supply of Fe chelates significantly enhanced rice growth by elevating photosynthetic efficiency. Both Fe chelates increased the Fe content and decreased the Cd content of rice organs, except for the Cd content of roots treated with excess EDDHAFe(III). Compared to EDDHAFe(III), EDTANa 2 Fe(II) exhibited better mitigation of Cd accumulation in rice by generating the EDTANa 2 Cd complex in solution, decreasing net Cd influx and increasing net Cd efflux in root micro-zones. Application of EDTANa 2 Fe(II) and EDDHAFe(III) also reduced Cd accumulation in rice by inhibiting expression of genes involved in transport of Fe and Cd in the xylem and phloem. The 'win-win' situation of Fe biofortification and Cd mitigation in rice was achieved by application of Fe chelates. Root-to-stem xylem transport of Cd and redistribution of Cd in leaves by phloem transport can be regulated in rice through the use of Fe chelates that influence Fe availability and Fe-related gene expression. Fe fertilization

  8. Dolce Vita in the Rice Paddy - Characterization of weedy rice groups in Northern Italy and investigation of their evolutionary origins

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Annabelle

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with the topic of the invasive rice form called weedy rice or red rice. Studies focused on the geographical area of Italy. Different populations of weedy rice in Italy were genetically characterized. The evolutionary origins of different weedy rice groups were investigated using molecular, morphological and physiological methods. Invasion of wild rice as well as de-domestication of cultivars could be identified as evolutionary sources of weedy rice in Northern Italy.

  9. [Disability leave and sick leave in Spain. 2016 legislative update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, María Teófila; Terradillos-García, María Jesús; Capdevila-García, Luisa M; Ramírez-Íñiguez de la Torre, María Victoria; Aguilar-Jiménez, Encarna; Aguado-Benedí, María José; López-González, Angel Arturo; Torres-Alberich, José Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    In Spanish, the concepts of discapacidad (disability leave) and incapacidad (sick leave) jointly refer to the impairment of a person due to injuries, diseases or deficiencies that limit their activity in a social, personal or occupational field. However, this common link does not imply that both concepts are the same. Statistical data from INE (Instituto Nacional de Estadística: Statistic National Institute) show that Spain had in 2015 3.85 million persons with a disability (59.8% were women). Statistical data from 2015 from INSS (Instituto Nacional de Seguridad Social: Social Security National Institute) show high levels in the number of processes and in workers affected by temporary sick leave, with social costs to the social security system. Both concepts have been updated: about disability leave, Law 39/2006 adjusted terminology by avoiding the use of concepts with discriminating or pejorative connotation. Regarding sick leave, the Ley General de Seguridad Social (General Social Security Law)has been amended and came into effect in January, 2016. It is necessary to know and distinguish these aspects for a better administrative management, and a more oriented information to the affected patient.

  10. Down-regulation of OsSPX1 causes high sensitivity to cold and oxidative stresses in rice seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunchao Wang

    Full Text Available Rice SPX domain gene, OsSPX1, plays an important role in the phosphate (Pi signaling network. Our previous work showed that constitutive overexpression of OsSPX1 in tobacco and Arabidopsis plants improved cold tolerance while also decreasing total leaf Pi. In the present study, we generated rice antisense and sense transgenic lines of OsSPX1 and found that down-regulation of OsSPX1 caused high sensitivity to cold and oxidative stresses in rice seedlings. Compared to wild-type and OsSPX1-sense transgenic lines, more hydrogen peroxide accumulated in seedling leaves of OsSPX1-antisense transgenic lines for controls, cold and methyl viologen (MV treatments. Glutathione as a ROS scavenger could protect the antisense transgenic lines from cold and MV stress. Rice whole genome GeneChip analysis showed that some oxidative-stress marker genes (e.g. glutathione S-transferase and P450s and Pi-signaling pathway related genes (e.g. OsPHO2 were significantly down-regulated by the antisense of OsSPX1. The microarray results were validated by real-time RT-PCR. Our study indicated that OsSPX1 may be involved in cross-talks between oxidative stress, cold stress and phosphate homeostasis in rice seedling leaves.

  11. Intercellular production of tamavidin 1, a biotin-binding protein from Tamogitake mushroom, confers resistance to the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Yoshimitsu; Oka, Naomi; Suzuki, Junko; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Ishida, Yuji

    2012-05-01

    The blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, one of the most devastating rice pathogens in the world, shows biotin-dependent growth. We have developed a strategy for creating disease resistance to M. oryzae whereby intercellular production of tamavidin 1, a biotin-binding protein from Pleurotus cornucopiae occurs in transgenic rice plants. The gene that encodes tamavidin 1, fused to the sequence for a secretion signal peptide derived from rice chitinase gene, was connected to the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, and the resultant construct was introduced into rice. The tamavidin 1 was accumulated at levels of 0.1-0.2% of total soluble leaf proteins in the transgenic rice and it was localized in the intercellular space of rice leaves. The tamavidin 1 purified from the transgenic rice was active, it bound to biotin and inhibited in vitro growth of M. oryzae by causing biotin deficiency. The transgenic rice plants showed a significant resistance to M. oryzae. This study shows the possibility of a new strategy to engineer disease resistance in higher plants by taking advantage of a pathogen's auxotrophy.

  12. Objective evaluation of whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes using a portable spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hajime; Asanome, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Keitaro; Sano, Tomoyoshi; Saito, Hiroshi; Abe, Yohei; Chuba, Masaru; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    The whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes was evaluated using a portable spectrophotometer with a whiteness index (WI). Also, by using boiled rice for measurement of Mido values by Mido Meter, it was possible to infer the whiteness of cooked rice without rice cooking. In the analysis of varietal differences of cooked rice, 'Tsuyahime', 'Koshihikari' and 'Koshinokaori' showed high whiteness, while 'Satonoyuki' had inferior whiteness. The whiteness of rice cakes made from 'Koyukimochi' and 'Dewanomochi' was higher than the whiteness of those made from 'Himenomochi' and 'Koganemochi'. While there was a significant correlation (r = 0.84) between WI values and whiteness scores of cooked rice by the sensory test, no correlation was detected between the whiteness scores and Mido values, indicating that the values obtained by a spectrophotometer differ from those obtained by a Mido Meter. Thus, a spectrophotometer may be a novel device for measurement of rice eating quality.

  13. RiceAtlas, a spatial database of global rice calendars and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborte, Alice G; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Balanza, Jane Girly; Saito, Kazuki; Zwart, Sander J; Boschetti, Mirco; Murty, M V R; Villano, Lorena; Aunario, Jorrel Khalil; Reinke, Russell; Koo, Jawoo; Hijmans, Robert J; Nelson, Andrew

    2017-05-30

    Knowing where, when, and how much rice is planted and harvested is crucial information for understanding the effects of policy, trade, and global and technological change on food security. We developed RiceAtlas, a spatial database on the seasonal distribution of the world's rice production. It consists of data on rice planting and harvesting dates by growing season and estimates of monthly production for all rice-producing countries. Sources used for planting and harvesting dates include global and regional databases, national publications, online reports, and expert knowledge. Monthly production data were estimated based on annual or seasonal production statistics, and planting and harvesting dates. RiceAtlas has 2,725 spatial units. Compared with available global crop calendars, RiceAtlas is nearly ten times more spatially detailed and has nearly seven times more spatial units, with at least two seasons of calendar data, making RiceAtlas the most comprehensive and detailed spatial database on rice calendar and production.

  14. Sustainable rice production in Malaysia beyond 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Ho Nai Kin; Ismail Sahid; Ahyaudin Ali; Lum Keng Yeang; Mashhor Mansor

    2002-01-01

    This book is a compendium of works carried out by various institutions on subjects related to sustainable rice production. The institutions comprise Department of Agriculture, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Muda Agricultural Development Authority, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, International Islamic University of Malaysia and the Agrochemical Company Mosanto. Integrated Biodiversity Management parallel with the Integrated Weed / Pest / Disease Management, rice-fish farming networking, agrochemical residue monitoring in rice and marine ecosystems, and application of biotechnology in rice productivity are taken as the future direction towards achieving sustainable rice production beyond 2000. Challenges from social and technical agroecosystem constraints, agricultural input management and maintenance of agroecosystem biodiversity are highlighted. It is imperative that the challenges are surmounted to attain the target that would be reflected by tangible rice output of 10 t/ha, and at the same time maintaining the well-being of rice-farmers. (Author)

  15. Experimental investigation of ash deposits characteristics of co-combustion of coal and rice hull using a digital image technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Kunzan; Zhang, Hailong; Zhou, Hao; Zhou, Bin; Li, Letian; Cen, Kefa

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated the ash deposit characteristics during the co-firing Da Tong (DA) coal with different proportions of rice hull (0%, 5%, 10%, and 20%, based on weight) in a pilot-scale furnace. The growth of ash deposit with a four-stage mode was presented. The stable thickness values of DA coal, 5% rice hull, 10% rice hull, and 20% rice hull were 0.5, 1.4, 2.9, 5.7 cm, with stable heat flux values of 230, 200, 175, and 125 kW/m 2 , respectively. According to the results of scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), the amount of Si in the deposits increased with the increasing proportion of rice hull rich in SiO 2 . The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis results indicated that most elements except Si were in the amorphous state because of the formation of eutectics. The stable thicknesses of deposits increased exponentially with the proportion of rice hull. The deposit was loose, easy removable but it reduced the heat transfer significantly. Consequently, sootblowing timely was necessary when co-firing DA coal with rice hull. - Highlights: • Digital image technique was used to monitor deposits growth process. • A type of four stages mode of ash deposit growth was presented. • The heat flux of ash deposits fit a three-stage mode. • The addition of rice hull increased the porosity of deposits

  16. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Coordinated Regulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis through Signal Transduction and Sugar Metabolism in Black Rice Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linghua; Huang, Yining; Xu, Ming; Cheng, Zuxin; Zheng, Jingui

    2017-12-15

    Black rice ( Oryza sativa L.) is considered to be a healthy food due to its high content of anthocyanins in the pericarp. The synthetic pathway of anthocyanins in black rice grains has been identified, however, the proteomic profile of leaves during grain development is still unclear. Here, isobaric Tags Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ) MS/MS was carried out to identify statistically significant changes of leaf proteome in the black rice during grain development. Throughout three sequential developmental stages, a total of 3562 proteins were detected and 24 functional proteins were differentially expressed 3-10 days after flowering (DAF). The detected proteins are known to be involved in various biological processes and most of these proteins were related to gene expression regulatory (33.3%), signal transduction (16.7%) and developmental regulation and hormone-like proteins (12.5%). The coordinated changes were consistent with changes in regulatory proteins playing a leading role in leaves during black rice grain development. This indicated that signal transduction between leaves and grains may have an important role in anthocyanin biosynthesis and accumulation during grain development of black rice. In addition, four identified up-regulated proteins associated with starch metabolism suggested that the remobilization of nutrients for starch synthesis plays a potential role in anthocyanin biosynthesis of grain. The mRNA transcription for eight selected proteins was validated with quantitative real-time PCR. Our results explored the proteomics of the coordination between leaf and grain in anthocyanins biosynthesis of grain, which might be regulated by signal transduction and sugar metabolism in black rice leaf.

  17. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Coordinated Regulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis through Signal Transduction and Sugar Metabolism in Black Rice Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linghua Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Black rice (Oryza sativa L. is considered to be a healthy food due to its high content of anthocyanins in the pericarp. The synthetic pathway of anthocyanins in black rice grains has been identified, however, the proteomic profile of leaves during grain development is still unclear. Here, isobaric Tags Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ MS/MS was carried out to identify statistically significant changes of leaf proteome in the black rice during grain development. Throughout three sequential developmental stages, a total of 3562 proteins were detected and 24 functional proteins were differentially expressed 3–10 days after flowering (DAF. The detected proteins are known to be involved in various biological processes and most of these proteins were related to gene expression regulatory (33.3%, signal transduction (16.7% and developmental regulation and hormone-like proteins (12.5%. The coordinated changes were consistent with changes in regulatory proteins playing a leading role in leaves during black rice grain development. This indicated that signal transduction between leaves and grains may have an important role in anthocyanin biosynthesis and accumulation during grain development of black rice. In addition, four identified up-regulated proteins associated with starch metabolism suggested that the remobilization of nutrients for starch synthesis plays a potential role in anthocyanin biosynthesis of grain. The mRNA transcription for eight selected proteins was validated with quantitative real-time PCR. Our results explored the proteomics of the coordination between leaf and grain in anthocyanins biosynthesis of grain, which might be regulated by signal transduction and sugar metabolism in black rice leaf.

  18. Transgene Flow from Glufosinate-Resistant Rice to Improved and Weedy Rice in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-liang LU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of transgenic rice with novel traits in China can increase rice productivity, but transgene flow to improved or weedy rice has become a major concern. We aimed to evaluate the potential maximum frequencies of transgene flow from glufosinate-resistant rice to improved rice cultivars and weedy rice. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete blocks with three replicates. Experiments were conducted between 2009 and 2010 at the Center for Environmental Safety Supervision and Inspection for Genetically Modified Plants, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou, China. Glufosinate-resistant japonica rice 99-1 was the pollen donor. The pollen recipients were two inbred japonica rice (Chunjiang 016 and Xiushui 09, two inbred indica rice (Zhongzu 14 and Zhongzao 22, two indica hybrid rice (Zhongzheyou 1 and Guodao 1, and one weedy indica rice (Taizhou weedy rice. The offspring of recipients were planted in the field and sprayed with a commercial dose of glufosinate. Leaf tissues of survivors were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of the transgene. The frequency of gene flow ranged from 0 to 0.488%. In 2009, the order of gene flow frequency was as follows: weedy rice > Chunjiang 016 > Xiushui 09 and Zhongzu 14 > Guodao 1, Zhongzheyou 1 and Zhongzao 22. Gene flow frequencies were generally higher in 2009 than in 2010, but did not differ significantly among rice materials. Gene flow frequency was the highest in weedy rice followed by the inbred japonica rice. The risk of gene flow differed significantly between years and year-to-year variance could mask risk differences among pollen recipients. Gene flow was generally lesser in taller pollen recipients than in shorter ones, but plant height only accounted for about 30% of variation in gene flow. When flowering synchrony was maximized, as in this study, low frequencies of gene flow occurred from herbicide-resistant japonica rice to other cultivars and

  19. Phenotyping of VIGS-mediated gene silencing in rice using a vector derived from a DNA virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ravi; Dasgupta, Indranil

    2017-07-01

    Target genes in rice can be optimally silenced if inserted in antisense or hairpin orientation in the RTBV-derived VIGS vector and plants grown at 28 °C and 80% humidity after inoculation. Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a method used to transiently silence genes in dicot as well as monocot plants. For the important monocot species rice, the Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV)-derived VIGS system (RTBV-VIGS), which uses agroinoculation to initiate silencing, has not been standardized for optimal use. Here, using RTBV-VIGS, three sets of conditions were tested to achieve optimal silencing of the rice marker gene phytoene desaturase (pds). The effect of orientation of the insert in the RTBV-VIGS plasmid (sense, antisense and hairpin) on the silencing of the target gene was then evaluated using rice magnesium chelatase subunit H (chlH). Finally, the rice Xa21 gene, conferring resistance against bacterial leaf blight disease (BLB) was silenced using RTBV-VIGS system. In each case, real-time PCR-based assessment indicated approximately 40-80% fall in the accumulation levels of the transcripts of pds, chlH and Xa21. In the case of pds, the appearance of white streaks in the emerging leaves, and for chlH, chlorophyll levels and F v /F m ratio were assessed as phenotypes for silencing. For Xa21, the resistance levels to BLB were assessed by measuring the lesion length and the percent diseased areas of leaves, following challenge inoculation with Xanthomonas oryzae. In each case, the RTBV-MVIGS system gave rise to a discernible phenotype indicating the silencing of the respective target gene using condition III (temperature 28 °C, humidity 80% and 1 mM MES and 20 µM acetosyringone in secondary agrobacterium culture), which revealed the robustness of this gene silencing system for rice.

  20. Why People Leave Their Jobs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Domínguez A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show the results of the review of literature of relevant studies of the causal elements of intention to leave in the last five years (2009-2013. The method used to evaluate the literature was based on the seven steps for research synthesis: problem formulation, literature search, obtaining information from studies, quality assessment studies, analysis and integration of results, interpretation of evidence and presentation of results. 48 studies from 15 different countries with a sample of 35804 employees of different companies were evaluated. The findings suggest the existence of 89 different variables influencing the intention to leave of employees in an organization. The results of this study will allow researchers to better understand the variables that can be studied to verify the impact of variables such as causal elements, but also see those that have a mediating effect between them for predicting intention to leave as an element of employee turnover. This study makes three important contributions to literature of turnover. First, in this study all the parameters associated with the intention to leave were checked. Second, this study categorizes and displays in proportion relevant interests to the scientific community whom studying employee turnover across the intention to leave. And thirdly provides clues organizations to improve some of its structural and contextual features to control turnover.

  1. Evaluation of tall rice mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    One tall mutant (Mut NS1) of rice variety Nizersail was put to multilocation on-farm trial. It showed improvement over the parent in respect of by earlier maturity and higher grain yield at all locations and thus it appears as an improved mutant of Nizersail. (author). 6 refs

  2. Growth and Productivity of Response of Hybrid Rice to Application of Animal Manures, Plant Residues and Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Amanullah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of organic sources (animal manures vs. plant residues at the rate of 10 t ha-1 each on the productivity profitability of small land rice (Oryza sativa L. grower under different levels of phosphorus (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg P ha-1 fertilization. Two separate field experiments were conducted. In experiment (1, impact of three animal manures sources (cattle, sheep & poultry manures and P levels was studied along with one control plot (no animal manure and P applied as check was investigated. In experiment (2, three plant residues sources (peach leaves, garlic residues & wheat straw and P levels was studied along with one control plot (no plant residues and P applied as check. Both the experiments were carried out on small land farmer field at District Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (Northwest Pakistan during summer 2015. The results revealed that in both experiments the control plot had significantly (p≤0.05 less productivity than the average of all treated plots with organic sources and P level. The increase in P levels in both experiments (animal manure vs. plant residues had resulted in higher rice productivity (90 = 60 > 30 > 0 kg P ha-1. In the experiment under animal manures, application of poultry manure increased rice productivity as compared with sheep and cattle manures (poultry > sheep > cattle manures. In the experiment under plant residues, application of peach leaves or garlic resides had higher rice productivity over wheat straw (peach leaves = garlic residues > wheat straw. On the average, the rice grown under animal manures produced about 20% higher grain yield than the rice grown under crop residues. We concluded from this study that application of 90 kg P ha-1 along with combined application of animal manures especially poultry manure could increase rice productivity. We conclude from this study that application of 90 kg P ha-1 along with combined application of animal

  3. Parental leave: the impact of recent legislation on parents' leave taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2003-02-01

    We use data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation to examine the impact of leave entitlements on unpaid leave usage by men and women after the birth of a child from 1991 to 1999. The results indicate that legislation providing the right to unpaid leave has not affected men's leave usage. The results for women are mixed: in some specifications, leave entitlements are associated with increased leave taking or longer leaves, but the results depend on how we define leave coverage. Our results point to the limited impact of unpaid leave policies and the potential importance of paid-leave policies.

  4. Assessment of total soil and plant trace elements in rice-based production systems in NE Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Kato, Yoichi; Vianello, Gilmo; Vittori, Livia; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    Macro- and micronutrients concentrations, and PTEs contents in soils and plants (rice) from the rice district in the Venetian territory (NE Italy) have been determined by ICP-MS spectrometry, with the following aims: - to determine the background levels of macro- and microelements in the study area; - to assess possible contamination of soils and plants; - to calculate the Translocation Factor (TF) of metals from soil to plant, and the possible hazard for human health. Four rice plots with different rotation systems were investigated from seedling time to harvesting; sampling of soils (0-30cm) and plants was carried out 4 times during growing season (three replicates). Rice plants were separated into roots, stems, leaves and grains, and then oven-dried. Chemical and physical analyses were carried out at the Soil Science Lab of the University of Bologna and Venice, respectively. The results obtained point to a land with moderate soil contamination by trace elements (namely Li, Sn, Tl, Sr, Ti, Fe). Heavy metal (Sb, As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, V, Zn ) concentrations in soils are below the threshold indicated by the Italian legislation (DM 152/2006). Cd, Sn, and Ti contents in soils are positively correlated with soil pH, while As, Fe, Li, Ti, Tl and Zn are negatively correlated with organic matter content. With the exception of Strontium, soil metal contents are always correlated between variable couples. HMs in plants vary according to the sampling season, texture and moisture, and soil pH. Most non-essential trace elements are accumulated in rice roots and, only in cases of essential micronutrients, in leaves. Therefore, rice can be assumed as an accumulator plant of As, Pb, Cr, Ba, and Ti, whereas it is as an indicator plant for Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn and Zn. The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that soil pH has a larger effect on Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ti and Zn concentrations in grain than other soil parameters. The average translocation of

  5. In planta assay of hygromycin susceptibility and mutant screening in rice at heading stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Haowei; Li Youfa; Ma Xinghua; Shen Shengquan; Shu Xiaoli; Shu Qingyao; Chen Yang

    2012-01-01

    Cells and tissue of plants carrying the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (HPT) are tolerant to antibiotic hygromycin and hence become the common selection gene for genetic transformation of crop plants, particularly monocots. The present study aimed at establishing a rapid method for in planta screening of hygromycin tolerant plants in transgenic breeding. At heading stage transgenic and conventional rice plants were sprayed with hygromycin solutions of different concentrations (25 ∼ 100 mg/L) and toxic symptoms were observed in the following days. It was observed that yellow-brown necrotic spots appeared in the leaves and grains of conventional rice varieties after foliar spraying of 50 mg/L hygromycin, and the more spots were occurred with the higher hygromycin solution. There were 21.1 and 19.2 spots per cm 2 on flag leaves of indica varieties Jiayou 99 and C10, respectively; while 27.6% and 23.5% grains were yellow-brown in the varieties, respectively. The corresponding data for two japonica varieties Jiayou 5 and R5 were 11.8 and 10.7 for leave spots and 11.2% and 11.6% for yellow-brown grains, respectively. These results indicated that the two indica varieties are more sensitive to hygromycin than the two japonica varieties. In the treatment of hygromycin with above levels, the transgenic rice line KMD1 with the HPT gene showed no toxic symptoms on leaf or panicles. The γ-rays treated M 2 population of KMD1 was sprayed with 100 mg/L hygromycin solution at heading stage and 42 plants were screened out with toxic symptoms in leaves and panicles form 120000 plants. Among the 42 hygromycin susceptible plants, 14 plants with leaves available for in vitro feeding assay were subjected to the feeding of rice striped steam borers [Chilo supperssalis (Walker)] and all showed high resistance. The above results showed that spraying of 100 mg/L hygromycin solution at heading stage would lead to visually apparent toxic symptoms in susceptibility rice plants and hence

  6. Temporal variability in trace metal solubility in a paddy soil not reflected in uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yunyu; Koopmans, Gerwin F; Bonten, Luc T C; Song, Jing; Luo, Yongming; Temminghoff, Erwin J M; Comans, Rob N J

    2016-12-01

    Alternating flooding and drainage conditions have a strong influence on redox chemistry and the solubility of trace metals in paddy soils. However, current knowledge of how the effects of water management on trace metal solubility are linked to trace metal uptake by rice plants over time is still limited. Here, a field-contaminated paddy soil was subjected to two flooding and drainage cycles in a pot experiment with two rice plant cultivars, exhibiting either high or low Cd accumulation characteristics. Flooding led to a strong vertical gradient in the redox potential (Eh). The pH and Mn, Fe, and dissolved organic carbon concentrations increased with decreasing Eh and vice versa. During flooding, trace metal solubility decreased markedly, probably due to sulfide mineral precipitation. Despite its low solubility, the Cd content in rice grains exceeded the food quality standards for both cultivars. Trace metal contents in different rice plant tissues (roots, stem, and leaves) increased at a constant rate during the first flooding and drainage cycle but decreased after reaching a maximum during the second cycle. As such, the high temporal variability in trace metal solubility was not reflected in trace metal uptake by rice plants over time. This might be due to the presence of aerobic conditions and a consequent higher trace metal solubility near the root surface, even during flooding. Trace metal solubility in the rhizosphere should be considered when linking water management to trace metal uptake by rice over time.

  7. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Stevia leaves extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguta, Iryna; Stavinskaya, Oksana; Kazakova, Olga; Fesenko, Tetiana; Brychka, Sergey

    2018-02-01

    Three extracts of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) were prepared using different types of raw materials: leaves of plants grown ex situ, leaves of plants grown in vitro, callus culture formed on damaged leaves. Composition of the extracts was studied by means of high-performance liquid chromatography and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry; total phenol content was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteau method. Flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids were found to be the main groups of phenol antioxidants available in the Stevia leaves, with the amount of these compounds in the extract being dependent on the type of raw material. The reducing properties of phenol compounds identified in the extracts were characterized using quantum chemical method; flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids were found to have similar redox parameters. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) colloids were synthesized using three Stevia extracts; AgNPs size distribution were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy. All the extracts revealed significant activity in AgNPs synthesis; the nanoparticles of predominantly spherical shape with the average sizes of 16-25 nm were formed. The reducing properties of the extracts were found to correlate with total phenol content; the activity of extracts from the leaves of plants grown ex situ and from callus culture in Ag+ ions reduction was similar to each other and exceeded the activity of extract from the leaves of plants grown in vitro.

  8. Nurse manager job satisfaction and intent to leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshawsky, Nora E.; Havens, Donna S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The nurse manager role is critical to staff nurse retention and often the portal to senior nursing leadership, yet little is known about nurse managers' job satisfaction and career plans. The purpose of this study was to describe nurse managers' job satisfaction and intent to leave. Methods An electronic survey was used to collect data from 291 nurse managers working in U.S. hospitals. Findings Seventy percent were satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and 68% were either likely or very likely to recommend nursing management as a career choice. Seventy-two percent of these nurse managers were also planning to leave their positions in the next five years. The four most common reasons reported for intent to leave included burnout, career change, retirement, and promotion. Burnout was the most common reason cited by the entire sample but the fourth most common reason for leaving cited by those nurse managers who were planning to leave and also satisfied or very satisfied with their positions. Conclusions Recommendations for nursing leaders include evaluating the workload of nurse managers, providing career counseling, and developing succession plans. Additional research is needed to understand the determinants and consequences of nurse manager job satisfaction, intent to leave, and turnover. PMID:24689156

  9. [Nitrogen cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during double cropping rice growth season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Sui, Peng; Gao, Wang-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Raising duck in paddy rice field is an evolution of Chinese traditional agriculture. In May-October 2010, a field experiment was conducted in a double cropping rice region of Hunan Province, South-central China to study the nitrogen (N) cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during early rice and late rice growth periods, taking a conventional paddy rice field as the control. Input-output analysis method was adopted. The N output in the early rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 239.5 kg x hm(-2), in which, 12.77 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks, and the N output in the late rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 338.7 kg x hm(-2), in which, 23.35 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks. At the present N input level, there existed soil N deficit during the growth seasons of both early rice and late rice. The N input from duck sub-system was mainly from the feed N, and the cycling rate of the duck feces N recycled within the system was 2.5% during early rice growth season and 3.5% during late rice growth season. After late rice harvested, the soil N sequestration was 178.6 kg x hm(-2).

  10. A comparative study of competitiveness between different genotypes of weedy rice (Oryza sativa) and cultivated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Lu, Baorong; Qiang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Competition from weedy rice can cause serious yield losses to cultivated rice. However, key traits that facilitate competitiveness are still not well understood. To explore the mechanisms behind the strong growth and competitive ability, replacement series experiments were established with six genotypes of weedy rice from different regions and one cultivated rice cultivar. (1) Weedy rice from southern China had the greatest impact on growth and yield of cultivated rice throughout the entire growing season. Weedy rice from the northeast was very competitive during the early vegetative stage while the competitive effects of eastern weedy rice were more detrimental at later crop-growth stages. (2) As the proportion of weedy rice increased, plant height, tillers, above-ground biomass, and yield of cultivated rice significantly declined; the crop always being at disadvantage regardless of proportion. (3) Weedy biotypes with greater diversity as estimated by their Shannon indexes were more detrimental to the growth and yield of cultivated rice. Geographic origin (latitude) of weedy rice biotype, its mixture proportion under competition with the crop and its genetic diversity are determinant factors of the outcome of competition and the associated decline in the rice crop yield. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P < 0.01) between rice plant parameters, rice yield and soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal

  12. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  13. Rice agroecosystem and the maintenance of biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahyaudin Ali

    2002-01-01

    Rice fields are a special type of wetland. They are shallow, constantly disturbed and experience extremes in temperature and dissolved oxygen content. They receive nutrients in the form of fertilizers during rice cultivation. Rice fields; support a variety of flora and fauna that have adapted and adjusted themselves to the extreme conditions. Since rice fields also support populations of wild fish, rice?fish integration should be done in order to optimize land use and provide supplementary income to farmers. Rice?fish farming encourages farmers to judiciously apply pesticides and herbicides in their fields thus helping to control excessive and unwarranted use of these chemicals. Rice fields also support many migratory and nonmigratory bird species and provides habitat for small mammals. Thus the rice agroecosystem helps to maintain aquatic biodiversity. The Muda rice agroecosystem consists of a troika of interconnected ecosystems. The troika consisting of reservoirs, the connecting network of canals and the rice fields; should be investigated further. This data is needed for informed decision-making concerning development and management of the system so that productivity and biodiversity can be maintained and sustained. (Author)

  14. An Evaluation of Paid Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten

    This paper analyzes a labor market program which enables workers to leave employment temporarily with a compensation financed by the taxpayers. The main aim of the program was to increase the chances of the unemployed finding a job. However, the empirical analysis reveals a clear negative...... relationship between the unemployment rate and transition rates from employment into the paid leave scheme. Program participation is low, precisely in those labor market states, where the scheme has a potential to perform as a remedy by increasing the transition rate from unemployment to employment. Several...

  15. Investigating Pigment Radicals in Black Rice Using HPLC and Multi-EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Maeda, Hayato

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the location and distribution of paramagnetic species in black and white rice using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-band (9 GHz) EPR imaging (EPRI), and HPLC. EPR primarily detected two paramagnetic species in black rice, which were identified as a stable radical and Mn 2+ species, based on the g values and hyperfine components of the EPR signals. The signal from the stable radical appeared at g ≈ 2.00 and was relatively strong and stable. Subsequent noninvasive two-dimensional (2D) EPRI revealed that this stable radical was primarily located in the pigmented region of black rice, while very few radicals were observed in the rice interior. Pigments extracted from black rice were analyzed using HPLC; the major compound was found to be cyanidin-3-glucoside. EPR and HPLC results indicate that the stable radical was only found within the pigmented region of the rice, and that it could either be cyanidin-3-glucoside, or one of its oxidative decomposition products.

  16. Assessment of Rice Associated Bacterial Ability to Enhance Rice Seed Germination and Rice Growth Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gholamalizadeh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The application of beneficial bacteria has recently been used for sustainable agriculture. In current research, 71 bacterial isolates were obtained from rice plant and the rhizosphere soil of different paddy fields in Guilan province, Iran. After primitive investigation, 40 bacteria with typical predominant characteristics were selected. By PCR-RFLP of their 16S r-DNA gene, 8 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs totally consisted of 33 isolates were obtained. From all of them, 8 isolates were selected for rice seed germination experiment, then, effective isolates were used for pot experiment to evaluate their ability for promoting rice growth. All of them were able to increase rice growth and yield, but in different potential. These tested isolates were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis (DEp8, O1R4, Pantoea ananatis (AEn1, Bacillus vietnamensis (MR5, Bacillus idriensis (MR2 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia by partial sequencing of their 16S r-DNA gene. Among them, AEn1 and MR5 produced indole-3- acetic acid (IAA in larger amounts than the other isolates and the isolates AEn1 and O1R4 were able to solubilize phosphate in higher amounts. According to the results obtained, it can be concluded that AEn1, O1R4 and MR5 can be considered as bacterial inoculants to use as alternatives for chemical fertilizers.

  17. A Rice Gene Homologous to Arabidopsis AGD2-LIKE DEFENSE1 Participates in Disease Resistance Response against Infection with Magnaporthe oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga Young Jung

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ALD1 (ABERRANT GROWTH AND DEATH2 [AGD2]-LIKE DEFENSE1 is one of the key defense regulators in Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana. In these model plants, ALD1 is responsible for triggering basal defense response and systemic resistance against bacterial infection. As well ALD1 is involved in the production of pipecolic acid and an unidentified compound(s for systemic resistance and priming syndrome, respectively. These previous studies proposed that ALD1 is a potential candidate for developing genetically modified (GM plants that may be resistant to pathogen infection. Here we introduce a role of ALD1-LIKE gene of Oryza sativa, named as OsALD1, during plant immunity. OsALD1 mRNA was strongly transcribed in the infected leaves of rice plants by Magnaporthe oryzae, the rice blast fungus. OsALD1 proteins predominantly localized at the chloroplast in the plant cells. GM rice plants over-expressing OsALD1 were resistant to the fungal infection. The stable expression of OsALD1 also triggered strong mRNA expression of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEIN1 genes in the leaves of rice plants during infection. Taken together, we conclude that OsALD1 plays a role in disease resistance response of rice against the infection with rice blast fungus.

  18. Stability of gluten free sweet biscuit elaborated with rice bran, broken rice and okara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Oliveira TAVARES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A challenge to the food sector has been the development of new products incorporating co-products from the food processing industry with minimal impact on their pre-determined structures and adding nutritional quality. In order to add value and develop alternatives for the use of co-products generated during the agroindustrial processing, this work aimed to study the stability of gluten-free sweet biscuits developed with soybean okara, rice bran and broken rice. The formulations were elaborated with increasing percentages of these ingredients and compared with the standard (commercial sweet biscuit for ten months. The analyses were: weight, diameters (internal and external, thickness, specific volume, instrumental parameters of color, texture, scanning electron microscopy, water activity, proximal composition and isoflavones. The experimental sweet biscuits had characteristics of color, weight, volume and diameters (internal and external very similar to the commercial, whereas texture, lipids and energy value decreased, and aw, moisture and protein increased during storage. The sweet biscuits showed the same stability when compared to the standard, and the

  19. Tier I Rice Model - Version 1.0 - Guidance for Estimating Pesticide Concentrations in Rice Paddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes a Tier I Rice Model (Version 1.0) for estimating surface water exposure from the use of pesticides in rice paddies. The concentration calculated can be used for aquatic ecological risk and drinking water exposure assessments.

  20. Application of perennial legume green manures to improve growth and yield of organic lowland rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Winarni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment in green house was done to study the effect of the dosage and speciesof perennial legume green manures to the physiological traits, growth and yield of organic lowland rice (Oryza sativaL., and to obtain the optimal dosage as well.  The research was arranged in a factorial randomized block design consistedof two factors with three replications.The first factor was the species of perennial legume thatconsisted of threespecies: Turi (Sesbaniagrandiflora, Glirisidia (Gliricidiasepium, and Lamtoro (Leucaenaleucocephala and cow manure as control treatment. The second factor was the dosage of green manure thatconsisted of four levels: 5, 10, 20 and 40 t/ha.  The results showed that application ofperennial legumesinto the soil significantly improved the growth and yield of rice.  The application of  20 t Glirisidia leaves/haproduced the highest grain yield, followed by 20 t Lamtoro leaves/ha and 20 t Turi leaves/ha.  The optimal dosages of S. grandiflora, G. sepium and L. leucochepala leaves that could yield 58.03 g/hill (equivalent to14.51 t/ha, 53.67 g/hill (equivalent to 13.42 t/ha, and 49.67 g/hill (equivalent to 12.42 t/ha were 28.05, 25.46 and 26.41 t/ha, respectively.

  1. Studies on the physiological changes in the rice plants infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Minoru; Samejima, Shin-ichi; Hosokawa, Daijiro

    1980-01-01

    Accumulation of 14 C-photosynthetic assimilates in rice leaves infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae was studied by using autoradiography for the purpose of elucidating the movement of nutrients from healthy tissues to the infected parts. When rice plants were exposed to 14 CO 2 immediately after inoculation, 14 C-photosynthetic assimilates did not accumulate in and around the inoculated spots of leaves until the lesions became visible, i.e., approximately 7 days after inoculation. When the leaves were exposed to 14 CO 2 before visible lesions appeared, 2 and 5 days after inoculation, the assimilates did not accumulate in the inoculated areas, but apparently accumulated in the lesions 24 hr later on from the exposure of leaves with visible lesions. In the newly formed lesions, accumulation site corresponded to the yellow streak parts of lesions along leaf veins. In the large and old lesions, assimilates hardly any accumulated in the center of lesions, grayish-white in color, but accumulated in the border parts of lesions adjacent to healthy tissues which are developing and yellow streak in symptoms. (author)

  2. Study on the Long Term Effects of Radiation on Irradiated Manawthukha Rice Grain (Mahsuri-M)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aye Aye Mar; Aye Aye Mon; Hnin Hnin Than; Ba Han; Tin Tin; Myint U

    2008-03-01

    Radioactivity monitoring of first and second generations Manawthukha paddy grain before cultivations were carried out. It was found out that there were no induced activity. Therefore it can be concluded that similarly it will be the same for third generation rice. The second generation rice was obtained from cultivation and harvesting of first generation [(i) non-irradiated (control), (ii) gamma-irradiated, (iii) neutron-one hour irradiated, (iv) neutron one-day irradiated rice]. Agronomical characteristics of three different types of generation of rice were studied. Morphological characteristics studies such as plant height, leaf width and panicle length,there was no large variation between three generations of rice. Phenotypes were found to be stable. Yield improvement was calculated. Nutritional values of rice generation were studied. They were (i) element analysis by different methods (NAA, EDXRF and AAS), vitamin determination and protein percent determination. There was no distinctive difference between first, second and third generation rice. In element analysis, eleven elements such as Mg, Mn, Na, K, Cl, Al, Ca, Fe, Zn, P and Cu were observed by NAA, AAS and EDXRF methods. Vitamin content (B1, B2) and protein content were also studied. Determination of amylose content, gel consistency and gelatinization temperature were involved in grain quality study. There was no large variation in three generations. Surface texture of first, second and third generation Manawthukha rice were studied by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It was observed that the change of texture from generation to generation tend to become more distinctive in third generation.

  3. significance of rice sheath photosynthesis: yield determination by c ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    1State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center, Changsha 410125, P.R. China. 2School of ... for contribution rates of sheath photosynthesis to economical yield. ..... related processes during ripening in rice plants.

  4. Perceived factors limiting rice production in Pategi Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    perceived limiting factors in rice production include lack of rice processing ... This production increase has not been enough to meet the consumption demand of ... of Kwara State, Nigeria seeks to determine some of the factors limiting rice ...

  5. potential for biological control of rice yellow mottle virus vectors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Insect pests and disease infestations are the primary constraints in rice (Oryza sativa) production .... Asia. Of all the rice diseases, the one caused by the rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV), first reported ..... yellow mottle virus in Central Africa.

  6. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-ping LIU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. direct sowing rice 10–20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting, ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting, PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting, and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting, were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002, there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003. Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments

  7. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticle using Bambusa arundinacea leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Bharat; Shyam, Vasvani; Kaushik, Babiya; Vasoya, Jaydeep; Joseph, Joyce; Savaliya, Chirag; Kumar, Sumit; Parikh, Sachin P.; Thakar, C. M.; Pandya, D. D.; Ravalia, A. B.; Markna, J. H.; Shah, N. A.

    2017-05-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticles using ecofriendly way is an interesting area in advance nanotechnology. Silver (Ag) nanoparticles are usually synthesized by chemicals route, which are quite flammable and toxic in nature. This study deals with a biosynthesis process (environment friendly) of silver nanoparticles using Bambusa arundinacea leaves for its antibacterial activity. The formation and characterization of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from AgNO3 through a simple green route using the latex of Bambusa arundinacea leaves as reducing as well as capping agent. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) study indicates the formation of grains (particles) with different size and shape.

  8. Watch out for the leaves!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Now that autumn is here, dead leaves falling from the trees form a colourful carpet that is pleasing to the eye. However, the reality is less pleasant for pedestrians, since these leaves increase the risk of slipping and falling, especially when the ground is wet.   These conditions are also hazardous for two- and four-wheeled vehicles, whose grip on the ground can be severely reduced, thereby increasing the risk of them skidding out of control. Cyclists are among the most vulnerable road users when faced with these hazards. It is therefore essential to be alert to the dangers, which can be lessened by taking a few simple precautions such as moderating your speed and wearing suitable shoes. We also invite you to notify the Service Desk if you notice a road or pavement where there is a high concentration of dead leaves. The CERN Roads and Drainage Service will then ensure that the leaves are cleared in order to reduce the risk of accidents in the area.

  9. Nutrient resorption from seagrass leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, J.; Hemminga, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The resorption of nutrients (C, N and P) from senescent leaves of six seagrass species from nine different locations in tropical (Indonesia and Kenya), Mediterranean (Spain) and temperate (The Netherlands) regions has been investigated. Resorption was quantitatively assessed by calculating the

  10. Assessing the impacts of climate change on rice yields in the main rice areas of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Fengmei [College of Earth Sciences, The Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing, 100049 (China); Xu, Yinglong; Lin, Erda [Agricultural Environment and Sustainable Development Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081 (China); Yokozawa, Masayuki [National Institute for Agro-environmental Sciences, Tsukuba 305-8604 (Japan); Zhang, Jiahua [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, 100081 (China)

    2007-02-15

    This paper assesses the impact of climate change on irrigated rice yield using B2 climate change scenario from the Regional Climate Model (RCM) and CERES-rice model during 2071--2090. Eight typical rice stations ranging in latitude, longitude, and elevation that are located in the main rice ecological zones of China are selected for impact assessment. First, Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis (CERES)-rice model is validated using farm experiment data in selected stations. The simulated results represent satisfactorily the trend of flowering duration and yields. The deviation of simulation within {+-} 10% of observed flowering duration and {+-} 15% of observed yield. Second, the errors of the outputs of RCM due to the difference of topography between station point and grid point is corrected. The corrected output of the RCM used for simulating rice flowering duration and yield is more reliable than the not corrected. Without CO2 direct effect on crop, the results from the assessment explore that B2 climate change scenario would have a negative impact on rice yield at most rice stations and have little impacts at Fuzhou and Kunming. To find the change of inter-annual rice yield, a preliminary assessment is made based on comparative cumulative probability at low and high yield and the coefficient variable of yield between the B2 scenario and baseline. Without the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, the result indicates that frequency for low yield would increase and it reverses for high yield, and the variance for rice yield would increase. It is concluded that high frequency at low yield and high variances of rice yield could pose a threat to rice yield at most selected stations in the main rice areas of China. With the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, rice yield increase in all selected stations.

  11. Assessing the impacts of climate change on rice yields in the main rice areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Fengmei; Xu, Yinglong; Lin, Erda; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Zhang, Jiahua

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of climate change on irrigated rice yield using B2 climate change scenario from the Regional Climate Model (RCM) and CERES-rice model during 2071--2090. Eight typical rice stations ranging in latitude, longitude, and elevation that are located in the main rice ecological zones of China are selected for impact assessment. First, Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis (CERES)-rice model is validated using farm experiment data in selected stations. The simulated results represent satisfactorily the trend of flowering duration and yields. The deviation of simulation within ± 10% of observed flowering duration and ± 15% of observed yield. Second, the errors of the outputs of RCM due to the difference of topography between station point and grid point is corrected. The corrected output of the RCM used for simulating rice flowering duration and yield is more reliable than the not corrected. Without CO2 direct effect on crop, the results from the assessment explore that B2 climate change scenario would have a negative impact on rice yield at most rice stations and have little impacts at Fuzhou and Kunming. To find the change of inter-annual rice yield, a preliminary assessment is made based on comparative cumulative probability at low and high yield and the coefficient variable of yield between the B2 scenario and baseline. Without the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, the result indicates that frequency for low yield would increase and it reverses for high yield, and the variance for rice yield would increase. It is concluded that high frequency at low yield and high variances of rice yield could pose a threat to rice yield at most selected stations in the main rice areas of China. With the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, rice yield increase in all selected stations

  12. Rice Seedling Substrate Produced by Coal Gangue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAO Yu-fei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Peats are the mostly used material in making rice seedling substrate. However, mining peats could cause environmental problems. In order to reduce or replace peats in rice seedling substrate industry, this paper studied suitable way to configure rice seedling. The coal gangue was used to experiment cultivating rice. Four rice seeding experiments were carried out based on physical and chemical properties of materials attributes. The results showed:(1 Coal gangue was feasible for rice seedling; (2 The maximum adding amount of coal gangue was 80%(volume ratio though the coal gangue need to be activated; (3 In the case of no activated treatment only 38%(volume ratio of coal gangue could be added to the substrate.

  13. Improvement of rice starch by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Zhiying; Wu Dianxing; Shen Shengquan; Han Juanying; Xia Yingwu

    2003-01-01

    Three types of rice cultivars, Indica, Japonica and hybrid rice, with similar intermediate apparent amylose content (AAC) as well as early Indica rice cultivars with different amounts of AAC were selected for studying the effects of gamma irradiation on starch viscosity, physico-chemical properties and starch granule structure. Four major parameters of RVA profile, peak viscosity (PKV), hot paste viscosity (HPV), cool paste viscosity (CPV), setback viscosity (SBV) and consistence viscosity (CSV) were considerably decreased with increasing dose levels. Gamma irradiation reduced the amylose contents in the cultivars with low AAC, intermediate AAC, and glutinous rice, but had no effects on the high AAC cultivar. No visible changes in alkali spreading value (ASV) were detected after irradiation, but the peak time (PKT) were reduced with the dose level. Gel consistency (GC) were significantly increased in the tested cultivars, especially in the high AAC Indica rice, suggesting that it is promising to use gamma irradiation to improve eating and cooking quality of rice

  14. Rice- and butterfly-wing effect inspired self-cleaning and low drag micro/nanopatterned surfaces in water, oil, and air flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixler, Gregory D.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2013-12-01

    In search of new solutions to complex challenges, researchers are turning to living nature for inspiration. For example, special surface characteristics of rice leaves and butterfly wings combine the shark skin (anisotropic flow leading to low drag) and lotus leaf (superhydrophobic and self-cleaning) effects, producing the so-called rice and butterfly wing effect. In this paper, we study four microstructured surfaces inspired by rice leaves and fabricated with photolithography techniques. We also present a method of creating such surfaces using a hot embossing procedure for scaled-up manufacturing. Fluid drag, self-cleaning, contact angle, and contact angle hysteresis data are presented to understand the role of sample geometrical dimensions. Conceptual modeling provides design guidance when developing novel low drag, self-cleaning, and potentially antifouling surfaces for medical, marine, and industrial applications.

  15. RiceAtlas, a spatial database of global rice calendars and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laborte, Alice G.; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Balanza, Jane Girly; Saito, Kazuki; Zwart, Sander; Boschetti, Mirco; Murty, M. V.R.; Villano, Lorena; Aunario, Jorrel Khalil; Reinke, Russell; Koo, Jawoo; Hijmans, Robert J.; Nelson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Knowing where, when, and how much rice is planted and harvested is crucial information for understanding the effects of policy, trade, and global and technological change on food security. We developed RiceAtlas, a spatial database on the seasonal distribution of the world's rice production. It

  16. DETERMINATION OF SPATIAL INTEGRATION AND SUBSTITUTION OF FOREIGN RICE FOR LOCAL RICE IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Kofi ADOM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tested for spatial integration in the rice market and the substitution of imported rice for local rice in Ghana. It is established that the markets for domestic imported rice are well-integrated, but not complete. The imperfect spatial integration of domestic foreign rice markets implies that the market provides opportunities for arbitrage. Price leadership roles are found to be determined by the kind of sub-inter-regional-trade network defined. However, in all, the Accra market emerged as a dominant market leader in the domestic foreign rice market. There is evidence of significant regional substitution of foreign rice for local rice in the long run, but the result is mixed in the short run. The result that local rice is not a perfect substitute for imported rice implies that price disincentive measures such as increasing the import tariffs on foreign rice will only produce a mild effect on increasing the producer price faced by local rice farmers, but aggravate the burden on households’ budget.

  17. Soil to rice transfer factors for 210Pb: a study on rice grown in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunakara, N.; Rao, Chetan; Ujwal, P.; Yashodhara, I.; Sudeep Kumara; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Bhaskara Shenoy, K.; Ravi, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    India is the second largest producer of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the world and rice is the essential component of the diet for the majority of the population of India. However, detailed studies aimed at evaluation of radionuclide transfer factors (F v ) for rice grown in India are almost non-existent. This paper presents soil to rice transfer factors for 210 Pb for rice grown in natural field conditions on the West Coast of India. A rice field was developed very close to the Kaiga nuclear power plant for the field studies. For a comparative study of radionuclide transfer factors, rice samples were also collected from the rice fields of nearby villages. The soil to un-hulled rice grain 210 Pb varied in the range <1.2 x10 -2 to 8.1 x 10 -1 with a mean of 1.4 x 10 -1 . The mean values of un-hulled grain to white rice processing retention factors (F r ) was 0.03 for 210 Pb. Using the processing retention factors the soil to white rice transfer factor was estimated and found to have the mean value of 4.2 x 10 -3 . The study has shown that the transfer of 210 Pb was retained in the root and its transfer to above ground organs of rice plant is significantly lower. (author)

  18. An Economic Risk Analysis of Weed Suppressive Rice Cultivars in Rice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeds are a major constraint to rice production. In the United States, most rice cultivars are not inherently weed-suppressive and require substantial herbicide inputs to achieve agronomic and economic viability. Intensive herbicide application in rice also has many potential drawbacks, resulting in...

  19. Salinity alters the protein composition of rice endosperm and the physicochemical properties of rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Graeme; Zhao, Jian; Blanchard, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Salinity is one of the major threats to production of rice and other agricultural crops worldwide. Although numerous studies have shown that salinity can severely reduce rice yield, little is known about its impact on the chemical composition, processing and sensory characteristics of rice. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of salinity on the pasting and textural properties of rice flour as well as on the protein content and composition of rice endosperm. Rice grown under saline conditions had significantly lower yields but substantially higher protein content. The increase in protein content was mainly attributed to increases in the amount of glutelin, with lesser contributions from albumin. Salinity also altered the relative proportions of the individual peptides within the glutelin fraction. Flours obtained from rice grown under saline conditions showed significantly higher pasting temperatures, but lower peak and breakdown viscosities. Rice gels prepared from the flour showed significantly higher hardness and adhesiveness values, compared to the freshwater controls. Salinity can significantly affect the pasting and textural characteristics of rice flour. Although some of the effects could be attributed to changes in protein content of the rice flour, especially the increased glutelin level, the impact of salinity on the physicochemical properties of rice is rather complex and may involve the interrelated effects of other rice components such as starch and lipids. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. High level expression of Acidothermus cellulolyticus β-1, 4-endoglucanase in transgenic rice enhances the hydrolysis of its straw by cultured cow gastric fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Hong L.; Dai, Ziyu; Hsieh, Chia W.; Ku, Maurice S.

    2011-12-10

    Large-scale production of effective cellulose hydrolytic enzymes is the key to the bioconversion of agricultural residues to ethanol. The goal of this study was to develop a rice plant as a bioreactor for the large-scale production of cellulose hydrolytic enzymes via genetic transformation, and to simultaneously improve rice straw as an efficient biomass feedstock for conversion of cellulose to glucose. In this study, the cellulose hydrolytic enzyme {beta}-1, 4-endoglucanase (E1) from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus was overexpressed in rice through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The expression of the bacterial gene in rice was driven by the constitutive Mac promoter, a hybrid promoter of Ti plasmid mannopine synthetase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer with the signal peptide of tobacco pathogenesis-related protein for targeting the protein to the apoplastic compartment for storage. A total of 52 transgenic rice plants from six independent lines expressing the bacterial enzyme were obtained, which expressed the gene at high levels with a normal phenotype. The specific activities of E1 in the leaves of the highest expressing transgenic rice lines were about 20 fold higher than those of various transgenic plants obtained in previous studies and the protein amounts accounted for up to 6.1% of the total leaf soluble protein. Zymogram and temperature-dependent activity analyses demonstrated the thermostability of the enzyme and its substrate specificity against cellulose, and a simple heat treatment can be used to purify the protein. In addition, hydrolysis of transgenic rice straw with cultured cow gastric fluid yielded almost twice more reducing sugars than wild type straw. Taken together, these data suggest that transgenic rice can effectively serve as a bioreactor for large-scale production of active, thermostable cellulose hydrolytic enzymes. As a feedstock, direct expression of large amount of cellulases in

  1. Medicinal and nutritional importance of rice bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.; Salim, M.; Rauf, R.; Baloach, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Rice-bran is produced from the outer layer of brown rice and is stabilized through steam-heating. The rice-bran and its products are safe for human and animal consumption. The microbiological safety and rigorous quality-control practices merits its use as nutritional and dietary supplement for overall health-maintenance and as a part of a healthy diet and life-style, as it contributes to the reduction of certain diseases and health-related conditions. Stabilized rice-barn contain 15% of high nutritional- value protein, 20% of high-quality fat with Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids, and nutritional dietary fiber. In addition to several phytonutrients, rice-bran contains vitamins and minerals, while over 100 potent antioxidants have been identified to date. Several scientific papers have reported the analysis and bioavailibility of rice-bran nutrients. Various chemical studies demonstrated the biological effects of the nutrients found in rice-bran. So far, more than 250 scientific publications are available on rice-bran, establishing the striking medicinal properties of rice-bran products. The oil-fraction of rice-bran has concentrated all tire fat-soluble phytonutrient in it, making itself an excellent health-promoting edible oil, as well as message oil The fiber-fraction of rice-bran has a profound effect on the gastrointestinal health, and improves bowel function. Rice-bran fiber along with phytonutrients was found to reduce cholesterol and lipid levels and maintain cardiovascular function. It has beneficial effect on tire kidney and urinary tract health and is helpful in weight-management and fiber replacement diets. (author)

  2. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... leave schedule is a leave schedule that reduces an employee's usual number of working hours per workweek, or hours per workday. A reduced leave schedule is a change in the employee's schedule for a period of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. 825.202...

  3. OsWRKY74, a WRKY transcription factor, modulates tolerance to phosphate starvation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2016-02-01

    The WRKY transcription factor family has 109 members in the rice genome, and has been reported to be involved in the regulation of biotic and abiotic stress in plants. Here, we demonstrated that a rice OsWRKY74 belonging to group III of the WRKY transcription factor family was involved in tolerance to phosphate (Pi) starvation. OsWRKY74 was localized in the nucleus and mainly expressed in roots and leaves. Overexpression of OsWRKY74 significantly enhanced tolerance to Pi starvation, whereas transgenic lines with down-regulation of OsWRKY74 were sensitive to Pi starvation. Root and shoot biomass, and phosphorus (P) concentration in rice OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants were ~16% higher than those of wild-type (WT) plants in Pi-deficient hydroponic solution. In soil pot experiments, >24% increases in tiller number, grain weight and P concentration were observed in rice OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants compared to WT plants when grown in P-deficient medium. Furthermore, Pi starvation-induced changes in root system architecture were more profound in OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants than in WT plants. Expression patterns of a number of Pi-responsive genes were altered in the OsWRKY74-overexpressing and RNA interference lines. In addition, OsWRKY74 may also be involved in the response to deficiencies in iron (Fe) and nitrogen (N) as well as cold stress in rice. In Pi-deficient conditions, OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants exhibited greater accumulation of Fe and up-regulation of the cold-responsive genes than WT plants. These findings highlight the role of OsWRKY74 in modulation of Pi homeostasis and potential crosstalk between P starvation and Fe starvation, and cold stress in rice. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. Nicotianamine synthase overexpression positively modulates iron homeostasis-related genes in high iron rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng eWang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nearly one-third of the world population, mostly women and children, suffer from iron malnutrition and its consequences, such as anemia or impaired mental development. Biofortification of rice, which is a staple crop for nearly half of the world’s population, can significantly contribute in alleviating iron deficiency. NFP rice (transgenic rice expressing nicotianamine synthase, ferritin and phytase genes has a more than six-fold increase in iron content in polished rice grains, resulting from the synergistic action of nicotianamine synthase (NAS and ferritin transgenes. We investigated iron homeostasis in NFP plants by analyzing the expression of 28 endogenous rice genes known to be involved in the homeostasis of iron and other metals, in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient conditions. RNA was collected from different tissues (roots, flag leaves, grains and at three developmental stages during grain filling. NFP plants showed increased sensitivity to iron-deficiency conditions and changes in the expression of endogenous genes involved in nicotianamine (NA metabolism, in comparison to their non-transgenic siblings. Elevated transcript levels were detected in NFP plants for several iron transporters. In contrast, expression of OsYSL2, which encodes a member of Yellow Stripe-like protein family, and a transporter of the NA-Fe(II complex was reduced in NFP plants under low iron conditions, indicating that expression of OsYSL2 is regulated by the endogenous iron status. Expression of the transgenes did not significantly affect overall iron homeostasis in NFP plants, which establishes the engineered push-pull mechanism as a suitable strategy to increase rice endosperm iron content.

  5. Mechanisms of callose deposition in rice regulated by exogenous abscisic acid and its involvement in rice resistance to Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinglan; Du, Haitao; Ding, Xu; Zhou, Yaodong; Xie, Pengfei; Wu, Jincai

    2017-12-01

    Callose is a plant cell wall polysaccharide controlled by β-1,3-glucanase and synthase. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important plant hormone. Exogenous ABA promotes rice resistance to pests. Whether exogenous ABA could reduce the decline in rice yield after brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål; BPH) feeding is an important question, however, the mechanisms behind rice resistance induced by ABA remain obscure. Electronic penetration graph (EPG) recording indicated a significant increase in rice resistance to BPH, and the number of BPH eggs decreased significantly upon application of exogenous ABA. As the concentration of ABA increased, the reduction in rice yield decreased significantly after BPH feeding. Further studies showed that β-1,3-glucanase activity was significantly lower, but synthase activity was higher after ABA treatment than in controls. Our results demonstrated that exogenous ABA suppressed β-1,3-glucanase and induced synthase activity, and promoted callose deposition. This is an important defense mechanism that prevents BPH from ingesting phloem sap. These studies provide support for an insect-resistance mechanism after ABA treatment and provide a reference for the integrated management of other piercing-sucking pests. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Production and characterization of nanospheres of bacterial cellulose from Acetobacter xylinum from processed rice bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goelzer, F.D.E.; Faria-Tischer, P.C.S.; Vitorino, J.C.; Sierakowski, Maria-R.; Tischer, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC), biosynthesized by Acetobacter xylinum, was produced in a medium consisting of rice bark pre-treated with an enzymatic pool. Rice bark was evaluated as a carbon source by complete enzymatic hydrolysis and monosaccharide composition (GC-MS of derived alditol acetates). It was treated enzymatically and then enriched with glucose up to 4% (w/v). The BC produced by static and aerated processes was purified by immersion in 0.1 M NaOH, was characterized by FT-IR, X-ray diffraction and the biosynthetic nanostructures were evaluated by Scanning Electronic (SEM), Transmission Electronic (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The BC films arising from static fermentation with rice bark/glucose and glucose are tightly intertwined, partially crystalline, being type II cellulose produced with rice bark/glucose, and type I to the produced in a glucose medium. The nanostructurated biopolymer obtained from the rice bark/glucose medium, produced in a reactor with air flux had micro- and nanospheres linked to nanofibers of cellulose. These results indicate that the bark components, namely lignins, hemicelluloses or mineral contents, interact with the cellulose forming micro- and nanostructures with potential use to incorporate drugs

  7. Fine mapping and identification of a novel locus qGL12.2 control grain length in wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lan; Ding, Yingbin; Zheng, Xiaoming; Xu, Rui; Zhang, Lizhen; Wang, Yanyan; Wang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Lifang; Cheng, Yunlian; Qiao, Weihua; Yang, Qingwen

    2018-04-19

    A wild rice QTL qGL12.2 for grain length was fine mapped to an 82-kb interval in chromosome 12 containing six candidate genes and none was reported previously. Grain length is an important trait for yield and commercial value in rice. Wild rice seeds have a very slender shape and have many desirable genes that have been lost in cultivated rice during domestication. In this study, we identified a quantitative trait locus, qGL12.2, which controls grain length in wild rice. First, a wild rice chromosome segment substitution line, CSSL41, was selected that has longer glume and grains than does the Oryza sativa indica cultivar, 9311. Next, an F 2 population was constructed from a cross between CSSL41 and 9311. Using the next-generation sequencing combined with bulked-segregant analysis and F 3 recombinants analysis, qGL12.2 was finally fine mapped to an 82-kb interval in chromosome 12. Six candidate genes were found, and no reported grain length genes were found in this interval. Using scanning electron microscopy, we found that CSSL41 cells are significantly longer than those of 9311, but there is no difference in cell widths. These data suggest that qGL12.2 is a novel gene that controls grain cell length in wild rice. Our study provides a new genetic resource for rice breeding and a starting point for functional characterization of the wild rice GL gene.

  8. Rice breeding with induced mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-06-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture decided in 1964 to organize a co-ordinated research programme on the use of induced mutations in rice breeding. The programme was organized within the framework of activities of the International Rice Commission. This is a report of the Third Co-ordination Meeting of the participants, which was held in Taipei, 5-9 June 1967. As the projects, which together make up the co-ordinated programme, are at different stages of progress, the report contains a variety of papers including completed studies, field and progress reports, and highlights of the discussions with some additional recommendations prepared by the participants. Refs, figs and tabs.

  9. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rice straw -cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 ºC, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L-1.

  10. Response Of Lowland Rice To Soil Compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idawati; Haryanto

    2000-01-01

    Soil compaction, as a new tillage practice for paddy soil, is to substitute pudding in order to reduce land preparation cost. To study response of lowland rice to soil compaction, a pot experiment has been conducted which took place in the greenhouse of P3TIR-BATAN. Soil for experiment was taken from pusakanegara. Two factors (degree of soil compaction and rice variety) were combined. Degree of compaction was split into 3 levels (DI = normal; D215% more compact than normal; 30 % more compact than normal), and rice variety into 2 levels (IR64 and Atomita IV). KH 2 32 PO 4 solution was injected into the soil surrounding rice clump to test the root activity at blooming stage of rice plant. Data resulted from this experiment is presented together with additional data from some other experiments of fertilization in the research s erie to study soil compaction. Some information's from experiment results are as following. Both rice varieties tested gave the same response to soil compaction. Root activity, according to data of 32 P absorbed by plant, was not harmed by soil compaction at the degree tested in the experiment. This prediction is supported by the growth by rice observed at generative growth stage, in pot experiment as well as in field experiment, which showed that soil compaction tested did not decrease rice yield but in opposite in tended to increase the yield. In practising soil compaction in land preparation, fertilizers should be applied by deep placement to have higher increasing is rice yield

  11. Enzymatic hydrolsis of pretreated rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasenko, E.Y.; Shoemaker, S.P. [California Inst. of Food and Agricultural Research, Davis, CA (United States); Ding, H. [California Univ., Davis (Canada). Dept. of Food Science and Technology; Labavitch, J.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Pomology

    1997-02-01

    California rice straw is being evaluated as a feedstock for production of power and fuel. This paper examines the initial steps in the process: pretreatment of rice straw and enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides in the pretreated material to soluble sugars. Rice straw was subjected to three distinct pretreatment procedures: acid-catalyzed steam explosion (Swan Biomass Company), acid hydrolysis (U.S. DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory), and ammonia fiber explosion or AFEX (Texas A and M University). Standard conditions for each pretreatment were used, but none was optimized for rice straw specifically. Six commercial cellulases, products of Genencor International (USA), Novo (Denmark), Iogen (Canada) and Fermtech (Russia) were used for hydrolysis. The Swan- and the acid-pretreatments effectively removed hemicellulose from rice straw, providing high yields of fermentable sugars. The AFEX-pretreatment was distinctly different from other pretreatments in that it did not significantly solubilize hemicellulose. All three pretreatment procedures substantially increased enzymatic digestibility of rice straw. Three commercial Trichoderma-reesei-derived enzyme preparations: Cellulase 100L (Iogen), Spezyme CP (Genencor), and Al (Fermtech), were more active on pretreated rice straw compared than others tested. Conditions for hydrolysis of rice straw using Cellulase 100L were evaluated. The supplementation of this enzyme preparation with cellobiase (Novozyme 188) significantly improved the parameters of hydrolysis for the Swan- and the acid-pretreated materials, but did not affect the hydrolysis of the AFEX-pretreated rice straw. (Author)

  12. Compressive Load Resistance Characteristics of Rice Grain

    OpenAIRE

    Sumpun Chaitep; Chaiy R. Metha Pathawee; Pipatpong Watanawanyoo

    2008-01-01

    Investigation was made to observe the compressive load property of rice gain both rough rice and brown grain. Six rice varieties (indica and japonica) were examined with the moisture content at 10-12%. A compressive load with reference to a principal axis normal to the thickness of the grain were conducted at selected inclined angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 70°. The result showed the compressive load resistance of rice grain based on its characteristic of yield s...

  13. Consumption of Bt Rice Pollen Containing Cry1C or Cry2A Protein Poses a Low to Negligible Risk to the Silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombyxidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Liu, Yue; Cao, Fengqin; Chen, Xiuping; Cheng, Lisheng; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa

    2014-01-01

    By consuming mulberry leaves covered with pollen from nearby genetically engineered, insect-resistant rice lines producing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), larvae of the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Bombyxidae), could be exposed to insecticidal proteins. Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the potential effects of Cry1C- or Cry2A-producing transgenic rice (T1C-19, T2A-1) pollen on B. mori fitness. In a short-term assay, B. mori larvae were fed mulberry leaves covered with different densities of pollen from Bt rice lines or their corresponding near isoline (control) for the first 3 d and then were fed mulberry leaves without pollen. No effect was detected on any life table parameter, even at 1800 pollen grains/cm2 leaf, which is much higher than the mean natural density of rice pollen on leaves of mulberry trees near paddy fields. In a long-term assay, the larvae were fed Bt and control pollen in the same way but for their entire larval stage (approximately 27 d). Bt pollen densities ≥150 grains/cm2 leaf reduced 14-d larval weight, increased larval development time, and reduced adult eclosion rate. ELISA analyses showed that 72.6% of the Cry protein was still detected in the pollen grains excreted with the feces. The low exposure of silkworm larvae to Cry proteins when feeding Bt rice pollen may be the explanation for the relatively low toxicity detected in the current study. Although the results demonstrate that B. mori larvae are sensitive to Cry1C and Cry2A proteins, the exposure levels that harmed the larvae in the current study are far greater than natural exposure levels. We therefore conclude that consumption of Bt rice pollen will pose a low to negligible risk to B. mori. PMID:25014054

  14. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    OpenAIRE

    Joy, EJM; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, MR; Young, SD; Chilimba, AD; Hamilton, EM; Watts, MJ

    2016-01-01

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic...

  15. Induction and utilization of mutations in rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viado, G B [Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, Manila (Philippines); Santos, I S [Philippine Atomic Research Center, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Cada, E [Maligaya Rice Research and Training Center, Munoz, Nueva Ecija (Philippines); Escuro, P B [U.P. College of Agriculture, College, Laguna (Philippines); Soriano, J D [University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    1970-03-01

    Experiments at the Philippine Atomic Research Center with gamma-irradiated seeds of IR-8-288-3 showed a pronounced inhibition of germination at 60 and 70 kR. The LD{sub 50} was calculated to be about 54 kR at 8 days from seeding. Fertility decreased with increase in gamma radiation dose in an approximately linear fashion. Numerous types of variants have been obtained in the M{sub 2} generation of which the following may be of particular interest: (1) Plant height slightly shorter and leaves darker green, narrower and more erect than IR-8; 99 days from seeding to harvest, fertile. (2) Plant height distinctly shorter than IR-8, leaves dark green small and stiff, culms small, produced as many as 27 panicle-bearing culms, grains very narrow. (3) Typically IR-8 in early growth but at maturity exhibits long panicle exertion, longer grains than IR-8, 111 days from seeding to harvest, produced as many as 20 productive tillers. At the U.P. College of Agriculture, Los Banos 308 plants were selected from the M{sub 2} generation of BE-3 and BPI-121, and 85 from the M3 generation of Bengawan, Peta and Intan after irradiation with fast neutrons. All these selections were early to medium-early and short to medium-short. More beneficial mutants were obtained with the lower dose treatments of BE-3, BPI-121 and Bengawan and with the higher dose treatments of Peta. Plant-progeny rows of these selections, except those from the photoperiod-sensitive varieties BE-3 and BPI-121, are being grown this 1968 dry season for further evaluation. In the M{sub 4} generation of Peta a larger number of short to medium-short and early to medium-early plants were selected from the 35 to 45 kR gamma treatments and the 0.5 to 1.0% EMS treatments. A total of 2430 plant selections were harvested and are now being grown in plant-progeny rows. Seventy-three uniform lines were selected from the M 3 generation of Peta and Intan irradiated with fast neutrons and from the Ma generation of Peta treated with

  16. Gamma irradiation of rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Chatterjee, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    Rice grains of the variety, Pusa-33, at 12.0% moisture, were irradiated with doses of 0-150 kGy. The crystallinity of starch, soluble amylose and yellowness of treated grains increased with increment in the dose of radiation but water absorption and volume expansion on cooling decreased. irradiation at doses of 3-5 kGy increased imperceptibly the hardening of rice cooled after cooking, but had no effect on edibility. The off-aroma in irradiated grains was perceptible at doses higher than 5 kGy. The changes in colour and aroma persisted also on cooking. Upto a dose of 5 kGy, the sensory scores of rice, both cooked and uncooked, were at or above acceptable limit of score (5,5). The doses of 3 and 5 kGy were highly effective in reducing fungal population in irradiated grains, but in view of the changes in colour and cooking qualities, 3 kGy is the preferred dose-limit of irradiation. (author). 17 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  17. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli eHe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the development of mass spectrometry (MS technology, proteomics has been widely applied in analyzing the mechanisms of different biological processes, and proved to be very powerful. Regulation of rice seed germination is critical for rice cultivation. In recent years, a lot of proteomic studies have been conducted in exploring the gene expression regulation, reserves mobilization and metabolisms reactivation, which brings us new insights on the mechanisms of metabolism regulation during this process. Nevertheless, it also invokes a lot of questions. In this mini-review, we summarized the progress in the proteomic studies of rice seed germination. The current challenges and future perspectives were also discussed, which might be helpful for the following studies.

  18. Rice straw as a renewable energy source in India, Thailand, and the Philippines: Overall potential and limitations for energy contribution and greenhouse gas mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadde, Butchaiah; Menke, Christoph; Wassmann, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    abstract: Rice is a widely grown crop in the South and South-East Asia that leaves substantial quantity of straw in the field. The aim of this paper is to assess the quantity of rice straw produced, estimate Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions based on its current uses, and assess its possible energy potential and related GHG emissions mitigation potential. Updated statistics on rough rice production are used in this study in combination with the literature values on Straw-to-Grain Ratio (SGR) to quantify the amount of rice straw produced in the three countries of focus. It is estimated that 97.19, 21.86, and 10.68 Mt of rice straw residue are produced in India, Thailand, and the Philippines, respectively. In India, 23% of rice straw residue produced is surplus and is either left in the field as uncollected or to a large extent open-field burnt. About 48% of this residue produced is subjected to open-field burning in Thailand, and in the Philippines it is 95%. The GHG emissions contribution through open-field burning of rice straw in India, Thailand, and the Philippines are 0.05%, 0.18%, and 0.56%, and the mitigated GHG emissions when generated electricity is used would be 0.75%, 1.81%, and 4.31%, respectively, when compared to the total country GHG emissions.

  19. Development and Validation of a TaqMan Real-Time PCR Assay for the Specific Detection and Quantification of Fusarium fujikuroi in Rice Plants and Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Greice Amaral; Matić, Slavica; Ortu, Giuseppe; Garibaldi, Angelo; Spadaro, Davide; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2017-07-01

    Bakanae disease, which is caused by the seedborne pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi, is found throughout the world on rice. A TaqMan real-time PCR has been developed on the TEF 1-α gene to detect F. fujikuroi in different rice tissues. Three primer/probe sets were tested. The selected set produced an amplicon of 84 bp and was specific for F. fujikuroi with respect to eight Fusarium species of rice and six other rice common pathogens. The assay was validated for specificity, selectivity, sensitivity, repeatability, and reproducibility. The detection limit was set at 27.5 fg of DNA, which is approximately equivalent to one haploid genome of F. fujikuroi. The developed TaqMan real-time assay was able to efficiently detect and quantify F. fujikuroi from rice culms, leaves, roots, and seeds. At 1 week post-germination (wpg), the pathogen was more diffused in the green tissues, while at 3 wpg it was uniformly spread also in the roots. The highest concentration of F. fujikuroi was measured in the M6 cultivar, which showed around 1,450 fungal cells/g. The assay was sufficiently sensitive to detect a few genomic equivalents in the rice seeds, corresponding to 9.89 F. fujikuroi cells/g. The assay permitted bakanae disease to be detected in asymptomatic tissues at the early rice development stages.

  20. Equol, a Clinically Important Metabolite, Inhibits the Development and Pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae, the Causal Agent of Rice Blast Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaoyu Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Equol, a metabolite of soybean isoflavone daidzein, has been proven to have various bioactivities related to human health, but little is known on its antifungal activity to plant fungal pathogens. Magnaporthe oryzae is a phytopathogenic fungus that causes rice blast, a devastating disease on rice. Here, we demonstrated that equol influences the development and pathogenicity of M. oryzae. Equol showed a significant inhibition to the mycelial growth, conidial generation and germination, and appressorial formation of M. oryzae. As a result, equol greatly reduced the virulence of M. oryzae on rice and barley leaves. The antifungal activity of equol was also found in several other plant fungal pathogens. These findings expand our knowledge on the bioactivities of equol.

  1. Trace the exploitation of Egyptian rice straw through spectral and thermal measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raafat M. Issa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose from rice straw obtained at low sodium hydroxide solution concentration with high quality was used to obtain different cellulose derivatives through xanthation. Cellulose was then treated with carbon disulfide in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The viscose obtained was characterized with both chemical and instrumental analyses, namely, IR spectra, TGA and DTA analysis as well as SEM (scanning electron microscopy.

  2. Methane emissions from rice paddies. Experiments and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Bodegom, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes model development and experimentation on the comprehension and prediction of methane (CH4) emissions from rice paddies. The large spatial and temporal variability in CH4 emissions and the dynamic non-linear relationships between processes underlying CH4 emissions impairs the applicability of empirical relations. Mechanistic concepts are therefore starting point of analysis throughout the thesis. The process of CH4 production was investigated by soil slurry incubation experiments at different temperatures and with additions of different electron donors and acceptors. Temperature influenced conversion rates and the competitiveness of microorganisms. The experiments were used to calibrate and validate a mechanistic model on CH4 production that describes competition for acetate and H2/CO2, inhibition effects and chemolithotrophic reactions. The redox sequence leading eventually to CH4 production was well predicted by the model, calibrating only the maximum conversion rates. Gas transport through paddy soil and rice plants was quantified by experiments in which the transport of SF6 was monitored continuously by photoacoustics. A mechanistic model on gas transport in a flooded rice system based on diffusion equations was validated by these experiments and could explain why most gases are released via plant mediated transport. Variability in root distribution led to highly variable gas transport. Experiments showed that CH4 oxidation in the rice rhizosphere was oxygen (O2) limited. Rice rhizospheric O2 consumption was dominated by chemical iron oxidation, and heterotrophic and methanotrophic respiration. The most abundant methanotrophs and heterotrophs were isolated and kinetically characterised. Based upon these experiments it was hypothesised that CH4 oxidation mainly occurred at microaerophilic, low acetate conditions not very close to the root surface. A mechanistic rhizosphere model that combined production and consumption of O2, carbon and iron

  3. Clustering of 18 Local Black Rice Base on Total Anthocyanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristamtini Kristamtini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Black rice has a high anthocyanin content in the pericarp layer, which provides a dark purple color. Anthocyanin serve as an antioxidant that control cholesterol level in the blood, prevent anemia, potentially improve the body's resistance to disease, improve damage to liver cells (hepatitis and chirrosis, prevent impaired kidney function, prevent cancer/tumors, slows down antiaging, and prevent atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Exploration results at AIAT Yogyakarta, Indonesia from 2011 to 2014 obtained 18 cultivar of local black rice Indonesia. The names of the rice are related to the color (black, red or purple formed by anthocyanin deposits in the pericarp layer, seed coat or aleuron. The objective of the study was to classify several types of local black rice from explorations based on the total anthocyanin content. The study was conducted by clustering analyzing the total anthocyanin content of 18 local black rice cultivars in Indonesia. Cluster analysis of total anthocyanin content were done using SAS ver. 9.2. Clustering dendogram shows that there were 4 groups of black rice cultivars based on the total anthocyanin content. Group I consists of Melik black rice, Patalan black rice, Yunianto black rice, Muharjo black rice, Ngatijo black rice, short life of Tugiyo black rice, Andel hitam 1, Jlitheng, and Sragen black rice. Group II consists of Pari ireng, Magelang black hairy rice, Banjarnegara-Wonosobo black rice, and Banjarnegara black rice. Group III consists of NTT black rice, Magelang non hairy black rice, Sembada hitam, and longevity Tugiyo black rice. Group IV consist only one type of black rice namely Cempo ireng. The grouping result indicate the existence of duplicate names among the black rice namely Patalan with Yunianto black rice, and short life Tugiyo with Andel hitam 1 black rice.

  4. Association of Increased Grain Iron and Zinc Concentrations with Agro-morphological Traits of Biofortified Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tatiana Moreno-Moyano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biofortification of rice (Oryza sativa L. with micronutrients is widely recognized as a sustainable strategy to alleviate human iron (Fe and zinc (Zn deficiencies in developing countries where rice is the staple food. Constitutive overexpression of the rice nicotianamine synthase (OsNAS genes has been successfully implemented to increase Fe and Zn concentrations in unpolished and polished rice grain. Intensive research is now needed to couple this high-micronutrient trait with high grain yields. We investigated associations of increased grain Fe and Zn concentrations with agro-morphological traits of backcross twice second filial (BC2F2 transgenic progeny carrying OsNAS1 or OsNAS2 overexpression constructs under indica/japonica and japonica/japonica genetic backgrounds. Thirteen agro-morphological traits were evaluated in BC2F2 transgenic progeny grown under hydroponic conditions. Concentrations of 8 mineral nutrients (Fe, Zn, copper, manganese, calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus in roots, stems/sheaths, non-flag leaves, flag leaves, panicles and grain were also determined. A distance-based linear model (DistLM was utilized to extract plant tissue nutrient predictors accounting for the largest variation in agro-morphological traits differing between transgenic and non-transgenic progeny. Overall, the BC2F2 transgenic progeny contained up to 148% higher Fe and 336% higher Zn concentrations in unpolished grain compared to non-transgenic progeny. However, unpolished grain concentrations surpassing 23 µg Fe g-1 and 40 µg Zn g-1 in BC2F2 indica/japonica progeny, and 36 µg Fe g-1 and 56 µg Zn g1 in BC2F2 japonica/japonica progeny, were associated with significant reductions in grain yield. DistLM analyses identified grain-Zn and panicle-magnesium as the primary nutrient predictors associated with grain yield reductions in the indica/japonica and japonica/japonica progeny, respectively. We subsequently produced polished grain from high

  5. Optimal leaf positions for chlorophyll meter measurement in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaofeng eYuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD chlorophyll meter is one of the most commonly used diagnostic tools to measure crop nitrogen status. However, the measurement method of the meter could significantly affect the accuracy of the final estimation. Thus, this research was undertaken to develop a new methodology to optimize SPAD meter measurements in rice (Oryza sativa L.. A flatbed color scanner was used to map the dynamic chlorophyll distribution and irregular leaf shapes. Calculus algorithm was adopted to estimate the potential positions for SPAD meter measurement along the leaf blade. Data generated by the flatbed color scanner and SPAD meter were analysed simultaneously. The results suggested that a position 2/3 of the distance from the leaf base to the apex (2/3 position could represent the chlorophyll content of the entire leaf blade, as indicated by the relatively low variance of measurements at that positon. SPAD values based on di-positional leaves and the extracted chlorophyll a and b contents were compared. This comparison showed that the 2/3 position on the lower leaves tended to be more sensitive to changes in chlorophyll content. Finally, the 2/3 position and average SPAD values of the fourth fully expanded leaf from the top were compared with leaf nitrogen concentration. The results showed the 2/3 position on that leaf was most suitable for predicting the nitrogen status of rice. Based on these results, we recommend making SPAD measurements at the 2/3 position on the fourth fully expanded leaf from the top. The coupling of dynamic chlorophyll distribution and irregular leaf shapes information can provide a promising approach for the calibration of SPAD meter measurement, which can further benefit the in situ nitrogen management by providing reliable estimation of crops nitrogen nutrition status.

  6. New target for rice lodging resistance and its effect in a typhoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Ken; Togawa, Eiji; Ookawa, Taiichro; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Madoka, Yuka; Hirotsu, Naoki

    2008-02-01

    We demonstrated the new target for lodging resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by the analysis of physiological function of a locus for lodging resistance in a typhoon (lrt5) with the near isogenic line under rice "Koshihikari" genetic background (tentatively named S1). The higher lodging resistance of S1 was observed during a typhoon in September 2004 (28 days after heading), when most other plants in "Koshihikari" became lodged. Visual observations showed that bending of the upper stems triggered lodging during the typhoon; the upper stem of "Koshihikari" buckled completely, whereas that of S1 remained straight. In addition to the strong rain and winds during the typhoon, the weight of the buckled upper plant parts increased the pressure on adjacent plants and caused a domino effect in "Koshihikari". Young's modulus, an indicator of the rigidity of the culm, was significantly higher in S1 than in "Koshihikari". In the upper culm, the starch content in S1 was 4.8 times the value in "Koshihikari", and senescence was delayed in the upper leaves of S1. These results suggest that the rigidity of the upper culm by the higher starch content (as a result of delayed senescence in the upper leaves) may be responsible for the higher lodging resistance during a typhoon in rice.

  7. Leaf development of cultivated rice and weedy red rice under elevated temperature scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Streck,Nereu A.; Uhlmann,Lilian O.; Gabriel,Luana F.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to simulate leaf development of cultivated rice genotypes and weedy red rice biotypes in climate change scenarios at Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. A leaf appearance (LAR) model adapted for rice was used to simulate the accumulated leaf number, represented by the Haun Stage, from crop emergence to flag leaf appearance (EM-FL). Three cultivated rice genotypes and two weedy red rice biotypes in six emergence dates were used. The LAR model was run for each emergence dat...

  8. Differential Response of Floating and Submerged Leaves of Longleaf Pondweed to Silver Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Shabnam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have investigated variations in the potential of floating and submerged leaves of longleaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus to withstand silver ion (Ag+-toxicity. Both floating and submerged leaves changed clear colorless AgNO3 solutions to colloidal brown in the presence of light. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of distinct crystalline Ag-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs in these brown solutions. Powder X-ray diffraction pattern showed that Ag-NPs were composed of Ag0 and Ag2O. Photosystem (PS II efficiency of leaves declined upon exposure to Ag+ with a significantly higher decline in the submerged leaves than in the floating leaves. Similarly, Ag+ treatment caused a significant reduction in the carboxylase activity of the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in leaves. The reduction in this carboxylase activity was significantly higher in the submerged than in the floating leaves. Ag+ treatment also resulted in a significant decline in the levels of non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants; the decline was significantly lower in the floating than in submerged leaves. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of Ag2O in these leaves. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis revealed a three-fold higher Ag content in the submerged than in floating leaves. Our study demonstrates that floating leaves of longleaf pondweed have a superior potential to counter Ag+-toxicity compared with submerged leaves, which could be due to superior potential of floating leaves to reduce Ag+ to less/non-toxic Ag0/Ag2O-nanoparticles/nanocomplexes. We suggest that modulating the genotype of longleaf pondweed to bear higher proportion of floating leaves would help in cleaning fresh water bodies contaminated with ionic forms of heavy metals.

  9. A 52-week safety study in cynomolgus macaques for genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jie; Sun, Xing; Cheng, Jian-Hua; Shi, Yong-Jie; Wang, Xin-Zheng; Qin, Jun-Jie; Sang, Zhi-Hong; He, Kun; Xia, Qing

    2016-09-01

    A 52-week feeding study in cynomolgus macaques was carried out to evaluate the safety of Bt rice Huahui 1 (HH1), a transgenic rice line expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein. Monkeys were fed a diet with 20% or 60% HH1 rice, 20% or 60% parental rice (Minghui 63, MH63), normal diet, normal diet spiked with purified recombinant Cry1Ab/1Ac fusion protein or bovine serum albumin (BSA) respectively. During the feeding trail, clinical observations were conducted daily, and multiple parameters, including body weight, body temperature, electrocardiogram, hematology, blood biochemistry, serum metabolome and gut microbiome were examined at regular intervals. Upon sacrifice, the organs were weighted, and the macroscopic, microscopic and electron microscopic examinations were performed. The results show no adverse or toxic effects of Bt rice HH1 or Cry1Ab/1Ac fusion protein on monkeys. Therefore, the present 52-week primate feeding study suggests that the transgenic rice containing Cry 1Ab/1Ac is equivalent to its parental rice line MH63. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Micronutrient-fortified rice can increase hookworm infection risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Perignon, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    or inflammation after iron supplementation. OBJECTIVE: To study effects of micronutrient-fortified rice on hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren. METHODS: A double-blinded, cluster-randomized trial was conducted in 16 Cambodian primary schools partaking in the World Food Program school meal program....... Three types of multi-micronutrient fortified rice were tested against placebo rice within the school meal program: UltraRice_original, UltraRice_improved and NutriRice. Four schools were randomly assigned to each study group (placebo n = 492, UltraRice_original n = 479, UltraRice_improved n = 500, NutriRice.......6%, but differed considerably among schools (range 0%- 48.1%).Micronutrient-fortified rice significantly increased risk of new hookworm infection. This effect was modified by baseline hookworm prevalence at the school; hookworm infection risk was increased by all three types of fortified rice in schools where...

  11. Alleviatory effects of silicon on the foliar micromorphology and anatomy of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings under simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Shuming; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Cuiying; Yin, Tingchao; Shao, Siliang

    2017-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is a macroelement in plants. The biological effects and mitigation mechanisms of silicon under environmental stress have become hot topics. The main objectives of this study were to elucidate the roles of Si in alleviating the effects on the phenotype, micromorphology and anatomy of the leaves of rice seedlings under acid rain stress. The results indicated that the combined or single effects of Si and simulated acid rain (SAR) stress on rice roots depended on the concentration of Si and the intensity of the SAR stress. The combined or single effects of the moderate concentration of Si (2.0 mM) and light SAR (pH 4.0) enhanced the growth of the rice leaves and the development of the mesophyll cells, and the combined effects were stronger than those of the single treatments. The high concentration of Si (4.0 mM) and severe SAR (pH 3.0 or 2.0) exerted deleterious effects. The incorporation of Si (2.0 or 4.0 mM) into SAR at pH values of 3.0 or 2.0 promoted rice leaf growth, decreased necrosis spots, maintained the structure and function of the mesophyll cells, increased the epicuticular wax content and wart-like protuberance (WP) density, and improved the stomatal characteristics of the leaves of rice seedlings more than the SAR only treatments. The alleviatory effects observed with a moderate concentration of Si (2.0 mM) were better than the effects obtained with the high concentration of Si (4.0 mM). The alleviatory effects were due to the enhancement of the mechanical barriers in the leaf epidermis.

  12. Alleviatory effects of silicon on the foliar micromorphology and anatomy of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings under simulated acid rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Shuming; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Cuiying; Yin, Tingchao; Shao, Siliang

    2017-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is a macroelement in plants. The biological effects and mitigation mechanisms of silicon under environmental stress have become hot topics. The main objectives of this study were to elucidate the roles of Si in alleviating the effects on the phenotype, micromorphology and anatomy of the leaves of rice seedlings under acid rain stress. The results indicated that the combined or single effects of Si and simulated acid rain (SAR) stress on rice roots depended on the concentration of Si and the intensity of the SAR stress. The combined or single effects of the moderate concentration of Si (2.0 mM) and light SAR (pH 4.0) enhanced the growth of the rice leaves and the development of the mesophyll cells, and the combined effects were stronger than those of the single treatments. The high concentration of Si (4.0 mM) and severe SAR (pH 3.0 or 2.0) exerted deleterious effects. The incorporation of Si (2.0 or 4.0 mM) into SAR at pH values of 3.0 or 2.0 promoted rice leaf growth, decreased necrosis spots, maintained the structure and function of the mesophyll cells, increased the epicuticular wax content and wart-like protuberance (WP) density, and improved the stomatal characteristics of the leaves of rice seedlings more than the SAR only treatments. The alleviatory effects observed with a moderate concentration of Si (2.0 mM) were better than the effects obtained with the high concentration of Si (4.0 mM). The alleviatory effects were due to the enhancement of the mechanical barriers in the leaf epidermis. PMID:29065171

  13. Nutrient management for rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Chandra, D.; Nanda, P.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.; Ghorai, A.K.

    2002-06-01

    The nutrient removed by the crops far exceeds the amounts replenished through fertilizer, causing a much greater strain on the native soil reserves. The situation is further aggravated in countries like India, where sub-optimal fertilizer used by the farmers is a common phenomenon rather than an exception. The total consumption of nutrients of all crops in India, even though reached 15 million tons in 1997, remains much below the estimated nutrient removal of 25 million tons (Swarup and Goneshamurthy, 1998). The gap between nutrient removal supplied through fertilizer has widened further in 2000 to 34 million tons of plant nutrients from the soil against an estimated fertilizer availability of 18 million tons (Singh and Dwivedi, 1996). Nitrogen is the nutrient which limits the most the rice production worldwide. In Asia, where more than 90 percent of the world's rice is produced, about 60 percent of the N fertilizer consumed is used on rice (Stangel and De Dutta, 1985). Conjunctive use of organic material along with fertilizer has been proved an efficient source of nitrogen. Organic residue recycling is becoming an increasingly important aspect of environmentally sound sustainable agriculture. Returning residues like green manure to the soil is necessary for maintaining soil organic matter, which is important for favourable soil structure, soil water retention and soil microbial flora and fauna activities. Use of organic manures in conjunction or as an alternative to chemical fertilizer is receiving attention. Green manure, addition to some extent, helps not only in enhancing the yield but also in improving the physical and chemical nature of soils. The excessive application of chemical fertilizers made it imperative that a part of inorganic fertilizer may be substituted with the recycling of organic wastes. Organic manure has been recorded to enhance the efficiency and reduce the requirement of chemical fertilizers. Partial nitrogen substitution through organic

  14. Accumulation and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rice (Oryza sativa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, S.; Jiao, X.C.; Chen, S.H.; Liu, W.X.; Coveney, R.M.; Zhu, L.Z.; Luo, Y.M.

    2006-01-01

    Various tissues of rice plants were sampled from a PAH contaminated site in Tianjin, China at different growth stages of the ripening period and analyzed for PAHs. PAHs were much higher in roots than in the exposed tissues. Grains and internodes accumulated much smaller amounts of PAHs than leaves, hulls or ear axes. No specific gradient trends along roots, stem, ear axes, and grains were observed, suggesting that systematic translocation among them is unlikely. Over the ripening period, PAH concentrations were increased in rice roots and decreased in most above-ground tissues. Significant correlations between PAH and lipid contents can only be observed during full mature stage. The spectra of individual PAH compounds in rice organs including roots were similar to those in air, rather than those in soil. There was also a significant correlation between bioconcentration factor (BCF, plant over air) and octanol/air partitioning coefficient (K oa ). - PAHs in various tissues of rice plants from various growth stages were investigated

  15. Root Morphology Was Improved in a Late-Stage Vigor Super Rice Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Chen, Jiana; Cao, Fangbo; Jiang, Ligeng; Zou, Yingbin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that root morphology might be improved and consequently contributing to superior post-heading shoot growth and grain yield in late-stage vigor super rice. A pot experiment was carried out to compare yield attributes, shoot growth and physiological properties and root morphological traits between a late-stage vigor super rice cultivar (Y-liangyou 087) and an elite rice cultivar (Teyou 838). Grain yield and total shoot biomass were 7-9% higher in Y-liangyou 087 than in Teyou 838. Y-liangyou 087 had 60-64% higher post-heading shoot growth rate and biomass production than Teyou 838. Average relative chlorophyll concentration and net photosynthetic rate in flag leaves were 7-11% higher in Y-liangyou 087 than in Teyou 838 during heading to 25 days after heading. Y-liangyou 087 had 41% higher post-heading shoot N uptake but 17-25% lower root biomass and root-shoot ratio at heading and maturity than Teyou 838. Specific root length and length and surface area of fine roots were higher in Y-liangyou 087 than in Teyou 838 at heading and maturity by more than 15%. These results indicated that root-shoot relationships were well balanced during post-heading phase in the late-stage vigor super rice cultivar Y-liangyou 087 by improving root morphology including avoiding a too great root biomass and developing a large fine root system.

  16. Lead (Pb) Toxicity; Physio-Biochemical Mechanisms, Grain Yield, Quality, and Pb Distribution Proportions in Scented Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Umair; Kanu, Adam S; Deng, Quanquan; Mo, Zhaowen; Pan, Shenggang; Tian, Hua; Tang, Xiangru

    2017-01-01

    Lead (Pb) caused interruptions with normal plant metabolism, crop yield losses and quality issues are of great concern. This study assessed the physio-biochemical responses, yield and grain quality traits and Pb distribution proportions in three different fragrant rice cultivars i.e., Meixiangzhan-2, Xinagyaxiangzhan and Basmati-385. Plants were exposed to 400, 800, and 1,200 ppm of Pb while pots without Pb were taken as control (0 ppm). Our results showed that Pb toxicity significantly ( P production of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), malanodialdehyde (MDA) and leaves leachates; while such effects were more apparent in Xinagyaxiangzhan than other two rice cultivars. Pb stress differentially affected the production protein, proline and soluble sugars; however the production rates were higher at heading stage (HS) than maturity stage (MS). Furthermore, Pb stress altered superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidases (POD), catalases (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidases (APX) activities and glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) production in all rice cultivars at both HS and MS. All Pb levels reduced the yield and yield components of all rice cultivars; nonetheless such reductions were observed highest in Xinagyaxiangzhan (69.12%) than Meixiangzhan-2 (58.05%) and Basmati-385 (46.27%) and resulted in grain quality deterioration. Significant and positive correlations among rice yields with productive tillers/pot and grains per panicle while negative with sterility percentage were also observed. In addition, all rice cultivars readily taken up the Pb contents from soil to roots and transported upward in different proportions with maximum in roots followed by stemss, leaves, ears and grains. Higher proportions of Pb contents in above ground plant parts in Xinagyaxiangzhan possibly lead to maximum losses in this cultivar than other two cultivars; while less damage in Basmati-385 might be related to strong anti-oxidative defense system and lower proportions of Pb contents in

  17. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lupi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  18. Arsenic accumulation in rice: Consequences of rice genotypes and management practices to reduce human health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Shofiqul; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Islam, M R; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    Rice is an essential staple food and feeds over half of the world's population. Consumption of rice has increased from limited intake in Western countries some 50years ago to major dietary intake now. Rice consumption represents a major route for inorganic arsenic (As) exposure in many countries, especially for people with a large proportion of rice in their daily diet as much as 60%. Rice plants are more efficient in assimilating As into its grains than other cereal crops and the accumulation may also adversely affect the quality of rice and their nutrition. Rice is generally grown as a lowland crop in flooded soils under reducing conditions. Under these conditions the bioavailability of As is greatly enhanced leading to excessive As bioaccumulation compared to that under oxidizing upland conditions. Inorganic As species are carcinogenic to humans and even at low levels in the diet pose a considerable risk to humans. There is a substantial genetic variation among the rice genotypes in grain-As accumulation as well as speciation. Identifying the extent of genetic variation in grain-As concentration and speciation of As compounds are crucial to determining the rice varieties which accumulate low inorganic As. Varietal selection, irrigation water management, use of fertilizer and soil amendments, cooking practices etc. play a vital role in reducing As exposure from rice grains. In the meantime assessing the bioavailability of As from rice is crucial to understanding human health exposure and reducing the risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An overview of the sustainability of rice agroecosystem through rice-fish integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahyaudin Ali

    2002-01-01

    Rice-fish integration in the rice agroecosystem has been introduced and is expanding in Malaysia. This type of farm integration has resulted in land optimization, thus enabling farmers to grow both fish and rice in one farming system. Introducing fish into the ricefield has also increased seasonal income as well as reduced pesticide use. Although basic ecological knowledge on rice-fish integration has allowed rice-fish integration to be introduced, further research is required to allow for fine tuning of the methodologies used. Thus research on the ecology, management, production methods and the characterization of rice-fish farming system of Malaysia is needed. Further characterization and description is needed on the ecology of the rice-fish farming system of Malaysia in terms of production, food webs, nutrient flow and system diversity. To increase the sustainability efficiency and productivity of the system, implementation of management techniques formulated through research is required. (Author)

  20. Residues and accumulation of molinate in rice crops and aquatic weeds in the MUDA rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Sabri Junoh; Nuriati Nurdin; Ramli Ishak

    2002-01-01

    Plant and soil residue levels and its accumulation in rice crops and rice aquatic weed plants were studied. Molinate residue levels in rice, weeds and soil were not significantly different between the recycled and the non-recycled area, even though they were higher in the non-recycled area. In the rice plant, the residue level at 10 DAT (days after treatment) was significantly higher than 30 DAT in the recycled area. In rice aquatic weed plants, the residue level was significantly higher at 10 DAT as compared to 30 DAT in the non-recycled area. Molinate residue levels in soil at 10 DAT and 30 DAT were similar. Molinate accumulated (ratio of molinate concentration in plant over soil) more in the rice crop as compared to rice aquatic weeds at 10 DAT, in both the recycled and the non-recycled areas. (Author)

  1. Effect of drying conditions on drying kinetics and quality of aromatic Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayaguru, Kalpana; Routray, Winny

    2010-12-01

    Pandanus amaryllifolius is a plant with aromatic leaves, which impart the characteristic flavour of aromatic rice. The quality of aromatic Pandanus leaves dried at low temperature (35 °C) and low RH (27%) in a heat pump dryer was evaluated and compared with those obtained from hot air drying at 45 °C. Thin-layer drying kinetics has been studied for both the conditions. To determine the kinetic parameters, the drying data were fitted to various semi-theoretical models. The goodness of fit was determined using the coefficient of determination, reduced chi square, and root mean square error. Aroma, colour, and overall acceptability determination of fresh and dried leaves were made using sensory evaluation. Drying of leaves took place mainly under the falling-rate period. The Page equation was found to be best among the proposed models to describe the thin-layer drying of Pandanus leaves with higher coefficient of determination. The effective moisture diffusivity values were also determined. The effect of low RH was prominent during the initial drying when the product was moist. The effect of temperature was prominent in the later part of drying, which acted as a driving force for moisture diffusion and hence the total drying time was reduced. Retention of aromatic compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline content was more in low temperature dried samples with higher sensory scores.

  2. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities of the constituents isolated from Koelreuteria paniculata leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Somayeh; Alinezhad, Heshmatollah; Nematzadeh, Ghorban Ali; Ghahari, Sajjad

    2015-01-01

    Methanolic extract of Golden rain leaves was fractionated by column chromatography on silica gel and 18 fractions were obtained. Antimicrobial activities of fractions were investigated against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as quality control bacteria and fungus Pyricularia grisea which causes Blast disease in rice. Fractions showed more antibacterial activity at 0.04 g/mL concentration only on B. subtilis and S. aureus as gram positive bacteria. Also, three fractions indicated excellent antifungal effect on fungus P. grisea. Moreover, in the present study, fractions that showed very good effect on microorganisms were used for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis to identify different phytochemicals.

  3. Development of Idea leuconoe Erichson 1834 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae reared on Parsonia sp. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analyn Anzano Cabras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepidopterans are among the most ecologically and economically important insect taxon in the biosphere. However, due to habitat loss majority of these species are now threatened. Rearing and studying the life development of this insect is important in conservation especially ex-situ conservation. Idea leuconoe Erichson, 1834 which is commonly known as mangrove tree nymph, paper kite and rice paper is one of the common attractions displayed in butterfly sanctuaries and whose population in the wild is threatened due to habitat loss. This paper investigates the complete developmental life cycle (42 days of Idea leuconoe reared on the leaves of Parsonia sp. mimicking natural environmental conditions.

  4. Rice leaf hydrophobicity and gas films are conferred by a wax synthesis gene (LGF1) and contribute to flood tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurokawa, Yusuke; Nagai, Keisuke; Hung, Phung Danh

    2018-01-01

    Floods impede gas (O2and CO2) exchange between plants and the environment. A mechanism to enhance plant gas exchange under water comprises gas films on hydrophobic leaves, but the genetic regulation of this mechanism is unknown. We used a rice mutant (dripping wet leaf 7, drp7) which does...... not retain gas films on leaves, and its wild-type (Kinmaze), in gene discovery for this trait. Gene complementation was tested in transgenic lines. Functional properties of leaves as related to gas film retention and underwater photosynthesis were evaluated. Leaf Gas Film 1 (LGF1) was identified as the gene...... determining leaf gas films. LGF1 regulates C30 primary alcohol synthesis, which is necessary for abundant epicuticular wax platelets, leaf hydrophobicity and gas films on submerged leaves. This trait enhanced underwater photosynthesis 8.2-fold and contributes to submergence tolerance. Gene function...

  5. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopala Krishnan S

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. RESULTS: We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts. Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

  6. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan S, Gopala; Waters, Daniel L E; Henry, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts). Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

  7. Ultrastructural characterization of rice husk submitted to different pretreatments to optimize its fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhoneux, B de; Gerlache, L; Clemente, A; Roda-Santos, M L; Menaia, J A.G.; Fernandes, T H

    1988-01-01

    Silica distribution in rice husk was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Silica appeared as a solid structure in the outer epidermis and as a dispersed system inside the husk. Pretreatments (steam autoclaving, water autoclaving, alkaline leaching, gamma irradiation, and ultra sound) were applied in order to achieve an improvement in rice husk digestibility. Alkaline leaching removed a significant part of the silica structure, therefore allowing a larger area of exposure of the cell wall polymers to the degrading enzymes. Among the pretreatments, alkaline leaching appeared to be the most useful, while others seemed not to be very successful in attaining the desired effect.

  8. Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000867.htm Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan To use the sharing features on this page, ... once you leave. This is called a discharge plan. Your health care providers at the hospital will ...

  9. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  10. Recent advances on bioactivities of black rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Aécio L de S; Pachikian, Barbara; Larondelle, Yvan; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2017-11-01

    Black rice has been consumed for centuries in Asian countries such as China, Korea or Japan. Nowadays, extracts and derivatives are considered as beneficial functional foods because of their high content in several bioactive molecules such as anthocyanins, other phenolics and terpenoids. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss recent developments on black rice bioactivities. Some sterols and triterpenoids with potential anticancer properties already tested in vitro and in vivo have been isolated and identified from bran extracts of black rice. Protection against osteoporosis has been suggested for the first time for black rice extracts. Because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, black rice also protects liver and kidney from injuries. One clinical study reported the interest of black rice in case of alcohol withdrawal. Several advances have been recently achieved on the understanding of the potential biological effects of black rice and its derivatives. They further confirm that black rice should be considered as a promising source of health-promoting functional foods targeting a large set of noninfectious diseases. However, more clinical studies are needed to support the findings highlighted in this review.

  11. Functional genomics strategies with transposons in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greco, R.

    2003-01-01

    Rice is a major staple food crop and a recognizedmonocotylenedousmodel plant from which gene function discovery is projected to contribute to improvements in a variety of cereals like wheat and maize. The recent release of rough drafts of the rice genome sequence for public

  12. Grain Unloading Of Arsenic Species In Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dim...

  13. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  14. Soil quality assessment in rice production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, rice production is one of the most important regional activities. Farmers are concerned that the land use practices for rice production in the Camaquã region may not be sustainable because of detrimental effects on soil quality. The study presented in this

  15. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    analysis of plot level rice yields that land titles are indeed important. Only exclusively held titles have the expected positive effects, and the positive effect on yields is found in male headed households. Furthermore, a household level rice yield function reveals that exclusive user rights...

  16. Adoption of Recommended Rice Production Practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    rice production practices by women farmers in Nasarawa State. A total of 203 women rice farmers were selected for the study using multi- ... RRPPs were unavailability of credit facilities, poor marketing system and ... economy which provides employment opportunity for about 70-80 percent of the total ..... shown in Table 1.

  17. Studies on the physiological changes in the rice plants infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. of oryzae, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Minoru; Samejima, Shin-ichi; Hayashi, Nobuo; Hosokawa, Daijiro

    1980-01-01

    The translocation and accumulation of 14 C-photosynthetic assimilates in rice plants infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae were investigated. Approximately the same quantities of assimilates were detected in healthy and infected leaves 1 day after photosynthesis, but 1.7 times as much as healthy leaves assimilates were still remained in infected leaves 7 days after photosynthesis. Much more 14 C-photosynthetic assimilates were generally detected in leaf blade than in leaf sheath or in root within 1 day after photosynthesis, but detected in leaf sheath than in leaf blade later than 2 days after photosynthesis. The rates of translocation of 14 C-assimilates from leaf blade to leaf sheath were lower in inoculated rice plants than in healthy ones. In both healthy and inoculated leaves of susceptible and resistant cultivars, there was a tendency that 14 C-sugar contents decreased, but 14 C-organic acid and -amino acid contents increased gradually after photosynthesis. Incorporation of 14 C-photosynthetic assimilates into invading bacterial cells which were separated from leaf tissues by the methods of leakage and Millipore filtration was not detected immediately after photosynthesis, but became apparent 5 days after photosynthesis. The leakage of 14 C-photosynthetic assimilates from leaf tissues into bathing solution was about 4 times higher in infected leaves than in healthy ones 5 days after photosynthesis, suggesting that the permeability in infected leaf tissues would increase. (author)

  18. Childcare and the division of parental leave

    OpenAIRE

    Norén, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Despite several policies aimed at increasing fathers' participation in the caring of children, Swedish mothers still use the bulk of the paid parental leave which may have several negative consequences for the family e.g. in terms of weaker labor market attachment for the mother. Division of parental leave is likely affected by how parents value the costs associated with parental leave. I investigate whether a reduction in the care burden, or a decreased non-monetary cost, of parental leave t...

  19. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A spectral analysis of rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlvaine, M.S.; Cua, F.T.; Navarro, E.F.

    1976-06-01

    With the advent of extensive nuclear testing and the development and use of highly potent pesticides and fertilizers, the hazardous threats of radioactive contamination due to fallout and to the absorption of pesticide residues have been given due consideration. Among the many forms of life exposed to these threats are food crops and among these is rice. Several rice grain samples - Japanese rice samples ''A'' and ''B'' submitted by the National Grains Authority (NGA) for analysis, random samples of rice being sold to the public at local markets, and ''black rice'' which were picked from along the shores of a Mindoro town were subjected to spectral analysis. Results revealed the presence of trace elements normally found in plants, such as; K-42, I-124, Cl-38, Na-24, Br-82, and Mn-56. No mercury was detected in the sample specimen analyzed

  1. Rice epigenomics and epigenetics: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangsong; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2013-05-01

    During recent years rice genome-wide epigenomic information such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which are important for genome activity has been accumulated. The function of a number of rice epigenetic regulators has been studied, many of which are found to be involved in a diverse range of developmental and stress-responsive pathways. Analysis of epigenetic variations among different rice varieties indicates that epigenetic modification may lead to inheritable phenotypic variation. Characterizing phenotypic consequences of rice epigenomic variations and the underlining chromatin mechanism and identifying epialleles related to important agronomic traits may provide novel strategies to enhance agronomically favorable traits and grain productivity in rice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies on removal of NH4+-N from aqueous solution by using the activated carbons derived from rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Kairan; Fu, Hao; Zhang, Jinghui; Lv, Xiaoshu; Tang, Jie; Xu, Xinhua

    2012-01-01

    Water pollution caused by ammonia nitrogen has attracted a great attention as its toxicity affects both the environment and human health. The objective of this paper was to investigate the adsorption behavior of NH 4 + -N from aqueous solution by activated carbons prepared from rice husk. The physico-chemical properties of the activated carbon were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) test, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the NH 4 + -N adsorption on the rice husk derived carbons was dependent on adsorbent dosage and solution pH. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of NH 4 + -N by rice husk carbon were also investigated, and good correlation coefficients were obtained for the pseudo-second order kinetic equation. Dubinin-Radushkevitch (D-R) adsorption isotherm model could better describe the adsorption behavior of NH 4 + -N on the rice husk carbon. Calculated by D-R model, the adsorption course of NH 4 + -N on the rice husk carbon was favored chemical ion-exchange mechanism. Moreover, the activated carbon adsorbed NH 4 + -N was highly fertilizer conservation especially for the nitrogen element. It was proposed that the amount of removed NH 4 + -N from aqueous solutions would increase evidently treated by rice husk carbon if combined with biological method. -- Highlights: ► The dosage of rice husk carbon and pH affected the removal of NH 4 + -N from aqueous solution. ► D-R model could better describe the adsorption behavior of NH 4 + -N on the rice husk carbon. ► The removing of NH 4 + -N would be risen by rice husk carbon if combined with biological method.

  3. Isolation of stress responsive Psb A gene from rice (Oryza sativa l.) using differential display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Aruna; Chandra, Arti

    2006-08-01

    Differential display (DD) experiments were performed on drought-tolerant rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotype N22 to identify both upregulated and downregulated partial cDNAs with respect to moisture stress. DNA polymorphism was detected between drought-stressed and control leaf tissues on the DD gels. A partial cDNA showing differential expression, with respect to moisture stress was isolated from the gel. Northern blotting analysis was performed using this cDNA as a probe and it was observed that mRNA corresponding to this transcript was accumulated to high level in rice leaves under water deficit stress. At the DNA sequence level, the partial cDNA showed homology with psb A gene encoding for Dl protein.

  4. Enhanced growth, yield and physiological characteristics of rice under elevated carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzar, A.; Ahmad, Wan Juliana Wan; Said, Mohd Nizam Mohd; Doni, Febri; Zaidan, Mohd Waznul Adly Mohd; Fathurahman, Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is rapidly increasing in the atmosphere. It is an essential element for photosynthesis which attracts attention among scientists on how plants will perform in the rising CO2 level. Rice as one of the most important staple food in the world has been studied on the growth responses under elevated CO2. The present research was carried out to determine the growth and physiology of rice in elevated CO2 condition. This research was carried out using complete randomized design with elevated (800 ppm) and ambient CO2. Results showed that growth parameters such as plant height, tillers and number of leaves per plant were increased by elevated CO2. The positive changes in plant physiology when exposed to high CO2 concentration includes significant change (p<0.05) in yield parameters such as panicle number, grain number per panicle, biomass and 1000 grain weight under the elevated CO2 of 800 ppm.

  5. Lead toxicity in rice: effects, mechanisms, and mitigation strategies--a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Umair; Kanu, Adam Sheka; Mo, Zhaowen; Hussain, Saddam; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Khan, Imran; Abbas, Rana Nadeem; Tang, Xiangru

    2015-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is a major environmental pollutant that affects plant morpho-physiological and biochemical attributes. Its higher levels in the environment are not only toxic to human beings but also harmful for plants and soil microbes. We have reviewed the uptake, translocation, and accumulation mechanisms of Pb and its toxic effects on germination, growth, yield, nutrient relation, photosynthesis, respiration, oxidative damage, and antioxidant defense system of rice. Lead toxicity hampers rice germination, root/shoot length, growth, and final yield. It reduces nutrient uptake through roots, disrupts chloroplastic ultrastructure and cell membrane permeability, induces alterations in leaves respiratory activities, produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), and triggers some enzyme and non-enzymatic antioxidants (as defense to oxidative damage). In the end, biochar amendments and phytoremediation technologies have been proposed as soil remediation approaches for Pb tainted soils.

  6. The CCCTB Rules on Leaving a Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Streek, J.

    2012-01-01

    The consolidation system proposed in the draft of the CCCTB Directive puts relationships between Member States on edge. This is clearly apparent in the rules that apply when a company leaves a group. In this article the leaving rules are examined. Although the leaving rules are claimed to be

  7. Sugar beet leaves for functional ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica

    2017-01-01

    Plant leaves are recognised as a potential source for food applications based on their nutritional profile and interesting technological properties of leaf components, and based on the large availability of plant leaves in agricultural waste streams. Besides proteins, leaves have a rich

  8. Compassionate Care Leave & Benefits. CAUT Briefing Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Compassionate care leave and benefits were introduced in 2003/04 to help employees cope with this difficult work-life balance challenge. Employment Standards legislation and the Employment Insurance program (EI) were amended to provide leave without pay, with payment of EI benefits for compassionate care leave. Collective agreements have been…

  9. On the Sharing of Temporary Parental Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This paper views temporary parental leave (leave from work to take care of a sick child) as a household public good, produced with time inputs of the parents as the only input. Assuming equal productivities in the production of temporary parental leave and equal utility functions of the spouses...

  10. Fluoride levels in commercially available rice in Ethiopia | Tegegne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline fusion was used for sample preparation of six varieties for both the raw rice and rice cooked with tap water and fluoridated water. Fluoride levels ranged from 0.1-5.5 mg/kg in raw rice sample. Rice which was cooked with different fluoride levels of water showed increment depending on the method of cooking.

  11. Signatures of adaptation in the weedy rice genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedy rice is a common problem of by product of domestication that has evolved multiple times from cultivated and wild rice relatives. Here we use whole genome sequences to examine the origin and adaptation of the two major US weedy red rice strains, with a comparison to Chinese weedy red rice. We f...

  12. The economic power of the Golden Rice opposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseler, J.H.H.; Zilberman, D.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A enriched rice (Golden Rice) is a cost-efficient solution that can substantially reduce health costs. Despite Golden Rice being available since early 2000, this rice has not been introduced in any country. Governments must perceive additional costs that overcompensate the benefits of the

  13. Significance of rice sheath photosynthesis: Yield determination by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using high-yielding hybrid rice Liangyopeijiu (LYP9), its male parent 9311 and hybrid rice Shanyou 63 (SY63) as the experimental materials, the photosynthesis of rice sheath was studied by 14C radio-autography. The results showed that rice sheath could trap sunlight and produce photosynthates, and these ...

  14. Genomic diversity among Basmati rice ( Oryza sativa L) mutants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mutation breeding can be considered successful in obtaining new cultivars and broadening the genetic base of rice crop. In order to obtain new varieties of rice with improved agronomic and grain characteristics, gamma radiation (60Co) has been used to generate novel mutants of the Basmati rice. In this study rice cultivars ...

  15. 7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) from which the hulls and at...

  16. 7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which consists of 50 percent or more of paddy kernels (see...

  17. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at a...

  18. Rice field for the treatment of pond aquaculture effluents | Wang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted an experiment to evaluate the efficiency of rice fields in treating pond aquaculture effluent and its responses to different fertilizer treatments. Four treatments was considered in the experiment: no rice planted as the control (CT); rice planted and no fertilizer input (RE); rice planted and a rate of approximately ...

  19. Questioning triple rice intensification on the Vietnamese mekong delta floodplains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Dung Duc; Halsema, van Gerardo; Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Ludwig, Fulco; Wyatt, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Large areas of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta floodplains (VMDF) are protected by high dikes to facilitate three rice crops per year. While this has increased rice production, there is evidence that triple rice systems have negative long-term effects, both environmental and economic. Double rice

  20. Does African catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ) affect rice in integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted for 98 days in the Lake Victoria Basin to investigate the interactions of fish and rice growth performance in rice paddies. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design, with rice cultivar as the main plot and method of rice-fish culture as the sub-plot. Treatments consisted of two levels of ...

  1. The rare sugar D-allose acts as a triggering molecule of rice defence via ROS generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Akihito; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Ohtani, Kouhei; Yoshihara, Akihide; Ohara, Toshiaki; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Izumori, Ken; Tanaka, Keiji; Ohkouchi, Takeo; Ishida, Yutaka; Nishizawa, Yoko; Ichimura, Kazuya; Tada, Yasuomi; Gomi, Kenji; Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2013-11-01

    Only D-allose, among various rare monosaccharides tested, induced resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in susceptible rice leaves with defence responses: reactive oxygen species, lesion mimic formation, and PR-protein gene expression. These responses were suppressed by ascorbic acid or diphenylene iodonium. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsrbohC, encoding NADPH oxidase, were enhanced in sensitivity to D-allose. D-Allose-mediated defence responses were suppressed by the presence of a hexokinase inhibitor. 6-Deoxy-D-allose, a structural derivative of D-allose unable to be phosphorylated, did not confer resistance. Transgenic rice plants expressing Escherichia coli AlsK encoding D-allose kinase to increase D-allose 6-phosphate synthesis were more sensitive to D-allose, but E. coli AlsI encoding D-allose 6-phosphate isomerase expression to decrease D-allose 6-phosphate reduced sensitivity. A D-glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase-defective mutant was also less sensitive, and OsG6PDH1 complementation restored full sensitivity. These results reveal that a monosaccharide, D-allose, induces rice resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae by activating NADPH oxidase through the activity of D-glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, initiated by hexokinase-mediated conversion of D-allose to D-allose 6-phosphate, and treatment with D-allose might prove to be useful for reducing disease development in rice.

  2. Screening and Expression of a Silicon Transporter Gene (Lsi1) in Wild-Type Indica Rice Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiri, Rambod; Kalhori, Nahid; Atabaki, Narges

    2017-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is one of the most prevalent elements in the soil. It is beneficial for plant growth and development, and it contributes to plant defense against different stresses. The Lsi1 gene encodes a Si transporter that was identified in a mutant Japonica rice variety. This gene was not identified in fourteen Malaysian rice varieties during screening. Then, a mutant version of Lsi1 was substituted for the native version in the three most common Malaysian rice varieties, MR219, MR220, and MR276, to evaluate the function of the transgene. Real-time PCR was used to explore the differential expression of Lsi1 in the three transgenic rice varieties. Silicon concentrations in the roots and leaves of transgenic plants were significantly higher than in wild-type plants. Transgenic varieties showed significant increases in the activities of the enzymes SOD, POD, APX, and CAT; photosynthesis; and chlorophyll content; however, the highest chlorophyll A and B levels were observed in transgenic MR276. Transgenic varieties have shown a stronger root and leaf structure, as well as hairier roots, compared to the wild-type plants. This suggests that Lsi1 plays a key role in rice, increasing the absorption and accumulation of Si, then alters antioxidant activities, and improves morphological properties. PMID:28191468

  3. Screening and Expression of a Silicon Transporter Gene (Lsi1 in Wild-Type Indica Rice Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbod Sahebi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si is one of the most prevalent elements in the soil. It is beneficial for plant growth and development, and it contributes to plant defense against different stresses. The Lsi1 gene encodes a Si transporter that was identified in a mutant Japonica rice variety. This gene was not identified in fourteen Malaysian rice varieties during screening. Then, a mutant version of Lsi1 was substituted for the native version in the three most common Malaysian rice varieties, MR219, MR220, and MR276, to evaluate the function of the transgene. Real-time PCR was used to explore the differential expression of Lsi1 in the three transgenic rice varieties. Silicon concentrations in the roots and leaves of transgenic plants were significantly higher than in wild-type plants. Transgenic varieties showed significant increases in the activities of the enzymes SOD, POD, APX, and CAT; photosynthesis; and chlorophyll content; however, the highest chlorophyll A and B levels were observed in transgenic MR276. Transgenic varieties have shown a stronger root and leaf structure, as well as hairier roots, compared to the wild-type plants. This suggests that Lsi1 plays a key role in rice, increasing the absorption and accumulation of Si, then alters antioxidant activities, and improves morphological properties.

  4. Screening and Expression of a Silicon Transporter Gene (Lsi1) in Wild-Type Indica Rice Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebi, Mahbod; Hanafi, Mohamed M; Rafii, M Y; Azizi, Parisa; Abiri, Rambod; Kalhori, Nahid; Atabaki, Narges

    2017-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is one of the most prevalent elements in the soil. It is beneficial for plant growth and development, and it contributes to plant defense against different stresses. The Lsi1 gene encodes a Si transporter that was identified in a mutant Japonica rice variety. This gene was not identified in fourteen Malaysian rice varieties during screening. Then, a mutant version of Lsi1 was substituted for the native version in the three most common Malaysian rice varieties, MR219, MR220, and MR276, to evaluate the function of the transgene. Real-time PCR was used to explore the differential expression of Lsi1 in the three transgenic rice varieties. Silicon concentrations in the roots and leaves of transgenic plants were significantly higher than in wild-type plants. Transgenic varieties showed significant increases in the activities of the enzymes SOD, POD, APX, and CAT; photosynthesis; and chlorophyll content; however, the highest chlorophyll A and B levels were observed in transgenic MR276. Transgenic varieties have shown a stronger root and leaf structure, as well as hairier roots, compared to the wild-type plants. This suggests that Lsi1 plays a key role in rice, increasing the absorption and accumulation of Si, then alters antioxidant activities, and improves morphological properties.

  5. Uptake of 14C-carbofuran from rice plants by brown planthopper (nilaparvata lugens stal) and green leafhopper (Nephotettix virencence)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumatra, M.; Anwar, E.; Kuswadi, A.N.; Soekarna, D.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the amount of 14-C-carbofuran taken up by brown planthopper (BPH) and green leafhopper (GLH) from ride plants containing 14-C-carbofuran. The roots of 30 days old rice plants were immersed in Kimura B solution containing carbofuran (0.6ug/ml) with activity of 18600 pCi/ml. After 3 days, 20 BPH and 20 GLH released onto the rice stems and leaves. The mortalities of BPH and GLH were similar after 24 and 48 hours of the release. The average radioactivity found in living GLH was 3.5 times of those found in living GLH was 3.5 times of those found in living BPH. And in dead GLH was 3.2 times on those in dead BPH. Radioactivity in rice leaves was 3.5 times of those in stems. This layer chromatograph of extracts of Kimura B solution, stems, and leaves showed that small amounts of carbofuran had degraded to substances like 3-OH-carbofuran and 3-keto-carbofuran. The percentage of radioactivity found as carbofuran decreased with time, while the amount of 3-ket-carbofuran increased. (authors). 6 refs, 2 figs, 6 tab

  6. The effect of irradiation temperature on the non-enzymatic browning reaction in cooked rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Oh, Sang-Hee; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Eui-Hong; Ree Kim, Mee; Baek, Min; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2007-01-01

    The effect of irradiation temperature on the non-enzymatic browning reaction in a sugar-glycine solution and cooked rice generated by gamma irradiation was evaluated in the present study. When the sugar-glycine solution and cooked rice were irradiated at room temperature, the browning reaction was dramatically increased during the post-irradiation period. In the case of irradiation at below the freezing point, the browning by irradiation was retarded during not only irradiation but also a post-irradiation period. The changes of the sugar profile, such as a sugar loss or reducing power of the irradiated sugar-glycine solution and the electron spin resonance signal intensity of the irradiated cooked rice were also decreased with lower irradiation temperature. The present results may suggest that the production of free radicals and a radiolysis product is inhibited during gamma irradiation in the frozen state and it may prevent the browning reaction generated by gamma irradiation from occurring

  7. The effect of irradiation temperature on the non-enzymatic browning reaction in cooked rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Woon [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, PO Box 1266, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sang-Hee [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, PO Box 1266, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hun [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, PO Box 1266, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Eui-Hong [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, PO Box 1266, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Ree Kim, Mee [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Gung-Dong 220, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Min [Atomic Energy Policy Division, Ministry of Science and Technology, Government Complex-Gwacheon, Kyunggi 427-715 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Radiation Application Research Division, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, PO Box 1266, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2007-05-15

    The effect of irradiation temperature on the non-enzymatic browning reaction in a sugar-glycine solution and cooked rice generated by gamma irradiation was evaluated in the present study. When the sugar-glycine solution and cooked rice were irradiated at room temperature, the browning reaction was dramatically increased during the post-irradiation period. In the case of irradiation at below the freezing point, the browning by irradiation was retarded during not only irradiation but also a post-irradiation period. The changes of the sugar profile, such as a sugar loss or reducing power of the irradiated sugar-glycine solution and the electron spin resonance signal intensity of the irradiated cooked rice were also decreased with lower irradiation temperature. The present results may suggest that the production of free radicals and a radiolysis product is inhibited during gamma irradiation in the frozen state and it may prevent the browning reaction generated by gamma irradiation from occurring.

  8. Analysis of Hopi/Osr27 and Houba/Tos5/Osr13 retrotransposons in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozde Yuzbasioglu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated Hopi/Osr27 (gypsy and Houba/Tos5/Osr13 (copy retrotransposon movements in 10-day-old roots and leaves of Oryza sativa cvs. Ipsala, Beser and Osmancik-97. Seeds from these three cultivars were germinated between filter papers in Petri dishes for 10 days. Three biologically independent (nonrelated seeds were germinated for each cultivar. Then, roots and leaves grown from the same rice plant were harvested and used for genomic DNA isolation. Inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism–polymerase chain reaction with suitable primers was performed with each DNA template to analyze the movements of Hopi/Osr27 and Houba/Tos5/Osr13 retrotransposons. Polymorphism ratios were evaluated both among cultivars and among roots and leaves from the same cultivar. The polymorphism ratios ranged from 0% to 17% for Hopi/Osr27 and from 10% to 87% for Houba/Tos5/Osr13. The obtained results at retrotransposon and varietal levels indicated that the retrotransposon type and genotype dependence are responsible for the occurrence of different variations. Transposable elements are very important for understanding the relationship between cultivars and evolution. Our findings are expected to contribute to the understanding of spontaneous genomic insertion events and their effects on the genetic and epigenetic changes during rice development.

  9. RPAN: rice pan-genome browser for ∼3000 rice genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Hu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Tianqing; Lu, Kuangchen; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Wensheng; Shi, Jianxin; Wang, Chunchao; Lu, Jinyuan; Zhang, Dabing; Li, Zhikang; Wei, Chaochun

    2017-01-25

    A pan-genome is the union of the gene sets of all the individuals of a clade or a species and it provides a new dimension of genome complexity with the presence/absence variations (PAVs) of genes among these genomes. With the progress of sequencing technologies, pan-genome study is becoming affordable for eukaryotes with large-sized genomes. The Asian cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., is one of the major food sources for the world and a model organism in plant biology. Recently, the 3000 Rice Genome Project (3K RGP) sequenced more than 3000 rice genomes with a mean sequencing depth of 14.3×, which provided a tremendous resource for rice research. In this paper, we present a genome browser, Rice Pan-genome Browser (RPAN), as a tool to search and visualize the rice pan-genome derived from 3K RGP. RPAN contains a database of the basic information of 3010 rice accessions, including genomic sequences, gene annotations, PAV information and gene expression data of the rice pan-genome. At least 12 000 novel genes absent in the reference genome were included. RPAN also provides multiple search and visualization functions. RPAN can be a rich resource for rice biology and rice breeding. It is available at http://cgm.sjtu.edu.cn/3kricedb/ or http://www.rmbreeding.cn/pan3k. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice Using Different Extraction Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Singanusong, Riantong

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil (RBO) produced from the bran of three rice varities; Khao Dawk Mali 105 (white rice), Red Jasmine rice (red rice) and Hom-nin rice (black rice) using three extraction methods including cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO 2 extraction (SC-CO 2 ). Yields, color, acid value (AV), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), total phenolic compound (TPC), γ-oryzanol, α-tocopherol and fatty acid profile were analyzed. It was found that the yields obtained from SE, SC-CO 2 and CPE extractions were 17.35-20.19%, 14.76-18.16% and 3.22-6.22%, respectively. The RBO from the bran of red and black rice samples exhibited high antioxidant activities. They also contained higher amount of γ-oryzanol and α-tocopherol than those of white rice sample. In terms of extraction methods, SC-CO 2 provided better qualities of RBO as evidenced by their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. This study found that RBO produced from the bran of black rice samples using SC-CO 2 extraction method showed the best physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

  11. Isotopic tracer aided studies of fenvalerate residues in stored rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varca, L.M.; Sanchez, T.E.; Magallona, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    Following application of 14 C-fenvalerate to milled rice and paddy rice at a concentration of 0.33 mg/kg, only insignificant losses were measured after 9 months. Distribution patterns in surface, methanol extractable and bound residues were studied. Paddy rice contained less extractable residues than milled rice, with the major part being found in the husk. Bound residues in both milled and paddy rice decreased also with length of storage; as much as 30% was found as bound residues after nine months. Cooking reduced the insecticide residues in milled rice by 33-40% and residues in paddy rice by 58%. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  12. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Evaluating Sheath Blight Resistance in Rice Using Detached Tiller and Field Screening Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedanand Chaudhary

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In present study physical resistance test on 12 rice varieties against sheath blight (ShB caused by Rhizoctonia solani was examined. A detached tiller test was used to measure components of ShB physiological resistance at Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS, Tarahara, Nepal. The varieties were evaluated in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with 3 replications in year 2010-12. A sclerotium was inserted below the leaf collar of individual tillers maintained in tubes filled with water. Only the 56-day old susceptible plants were inoculated. After 7 days of inoculation, number of lesions, dead leaves, vertical sheath colonization and disease severity were measured. In 2011, field experiments were conducted with three replications to address morphological resistance in 28 rice genotypes. Disease incidence was recorded on 14, 21 and 28 days after inoculation. The number of dead leaves differed only numerically while disease variables significantly (P=0.004 varied among varieties. The other variables were highly correlated with each other. Cluster analysis of variables formed three varietal groups; Sabitri with lowest, and Jasmine-85 and Betichikon having highest values. Rice genotypes differed significantly (P=0.05 for disease incidence and area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC. Tetep and IAC-165 had the lowest and highest terminal disease incidences and AUDPC, respectively. Sabitri, MTU-1010 and IR-26 recorded lower AUDPC values. Hence, Tetep and Sabitri could be used as donors in hybridization and their plant morphology could be considered as selection guide for improving ShB resistance in rice.

  14. Engineered Dwarf Male-Sterile Rice: A Promising Genetic Tool for Facilitating Recurrent Selection in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Afsana; Wang, Chunlian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Fujun; Liu, Piqing; Gao, Ying; Tang, Yongchao; Zhao, Kaijun

    2017-01-01

    Rice is a crop feeding half of the world's population. With the continuous raise of yield potential via genetic improvement, rice breeding has entered an era where multiple genes conferring complex traits must be efficiently manipulated to increase rice yield further. Recurrent selection is a sound strategy for manipulating multiple genes and it has been successfully performed in allogamous crops. However, the difficulties in emasculation and hand pollination had obstructed efficient use of recurrent selection in autogamous rice. Here, we report development of the dwarf male-sterile rice that can facilitate recurrent selection in rice breeding. We adopted RNAi technology to synergistically regulate rice plant height and male fertility to create the dwarf male-sterile rice. The RNAi construct pTCK-EGGE, targeting the OsGA20ox2 and OsEAT1 genes, was constructed and used to transform rice via Agrobacterium -mediated transformation. The transgenic T0 plants showing largely reduced plant height and complete male-sterile phenotypes were designated as the dwarf male-sterile plants. Progenies of the dwarf male-sterile plants were obtained by pollinating them with pollens from the wild-type. In the T1 and T2 populations, half of the plants were still dwarf male-sterile; the other half displayed normal plant height and male fertility which were designated as tall and male-fertile plants. The tall and male-fertile plants are transgene-free and can be self-pollinated to generate new varieties. Since emasculation and hand pollination for dwarf male-sterile rice plants is no longer needed, the dwarf male-sterile rice can be used to perform recurrent selection in rice. A dwarf male-sterile rice-based recurrent selection model has been proposed.

  15. Thermoelectric properties and nanostructures of materials prepared from rice husk ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pukird, S.; Tipparach, U.; Kasian, P. [Ubon Ratchathani Univ., Ubon Ratchathani (Thailand). Dept. of Physics; Limsuwan, P. [King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Physics

    2009-07-01

    Thailand produces large amounts of agricultural residues such as rice husk and coconut shells. Rice husk is considered to be a potential source for solar grade silicon. Studies have shown that reasonably pure polycrystalline silicon can be prepared from rice husk white ash by a metallothermic reduction process. This paper reported on a study that investigated the thermoelectric properties of ceramic material prepared by mixing silica from rice husk ash and carbon obtained from coconut shell charcoal. The thermoelectric properties of the materials were examined along with their microstructures. The materials were made from burning rice husk ash and coconut shell at different temperatures and then doped with metal oxides. Pellets were heated at temperature of 700 degrees C for 1-3 hours. The voltage on both sides of the pellets was observed. The electromotive force was found when different temperatures were applied on both sides of the pellet specimens. The Seebeck coefficient was then calculated. The results showed that these materials can be used as thermoelectric devices. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-rays (EDX) were used to investigate the source of materials and the products on the substrates. The images of SEM and EDX showed nanostructures of materials such as nanowires, nanorods and nanoparticles of the products and sources. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  16. Characterisation of silica derived from rice husk (Muar, Johor, Malaysia) decomposition at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, M. A.; Ismail, N. A. A.; Rizamarhaiza, M.; W. M. Hasif. A. A., K.; Taib, H.

    2016-07-01

    Rice husk was thermally decomposed to yield powder composed of silica (SiO2). Temperatures of 700°C and 1000°C were chosen as the decomposition temperatures. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Florescence (XRF), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) analyses were conducted on a synthetic silica powder (SS-SiO2) and the rice husk ash as for the comparative characterisation study. XRD analyses clearly indicated that the decomposed rice husk yielded silica of different nature which are Crystalline Rice Husk Silica (C-RHSiO2) and Amorphous Rice Husk Silica (A-RHSiO2). Moreover, it was found that SS-SiO2 was of Quartz phase, C-RHSiO2 was of Trydimite and Cristobalite. Through XRF detection, the highest SiO2 purity was detected in SS-SiO2 followed by C-RHSiO2 and A-RHSiO2 with purity percentages of 99.60%, 82.30% and 86.30% respectively. FTIR results clearly indicated silica (SiO2) bonding 1056, 1064, 1047, 777, 790 and 798 cm-1) increased as the crystallinity silica increased. The Cristobalite phase was detected in C-RH SiO2 at the wavelength of 620 cm-1. Morphological features as observed by FESEM analyses confirmed that, SS-SiO2 and C-RH SiO2 showed prominent coarse granular morphology.

  17. Examining the Evolution of Paid Parental Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladek, Carol

    While the United States continues to be the only developed nation without mandated paid maternity leave, U.S. employers are blazing their own trail for new parents. This article defines parental leave, explains what's driving the increased interest in paid parental leave among employers offering it and discusses how paid parental leave can benefit employers and employees alike. Finally, the author discusses why not all employers are offering these benefits as well as considerations for employers contemplating whether paid parental leave is right for them.

  18. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs. 630.1015 Section 630.1015 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement...

  19. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104 Donations...

  20. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... intermittent leave or working a reduced leave schedule to commence or end work mid-way through a shift, such as... per week, but works only 20 hours a week under a reduced leave schedule, the employee's ten hours of... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced...

  1. Consumer Preferences and Buying Criteria in Rice: A Study to Identify Market Strategy for Thailand Jasmine Rice Export

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries decreased, but it is consumed more in non-rice-eating countries. This study aimed to investigate consumer preferences and attitudes toward Jasmine rice among consumers in target rice export countries to identify opportunities and strategic

  2. Mutant-inducing effect of γ-ray irradiation for hybrid rice F1 derived from cross of black glutinous rice x wild rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Dezhi; Tang Yilan

    1998-01-01

    The hybrid rice F 1 plant derived from the back crossing of glutinous rice x wild rice was irradiated with γ-ray. The result of investigation to the induced mutant showed that through the selection and backcross, a black glutinous rice strain with the short stem, cold tolerance and high yield was developed. The analysis of the ability of heredity variance showed that the selection was effective for the husk colour, black glutinous and black Indica rice, but ineffective for the white Indica rice and seed setting

  3. A technique system for the measurement, reconstruction and character extraction of rice plant architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xumeng Li

    Full Text Available This study developed a technique system for the measurement, reconstruction, and trait extraction of rice canopy architectures, which have challenged functional-structural plant modeling for decades and have become the foundation of the design of ideo-plant architectures. The system uses the location-separation-measurement method (LSMM for the collection of data on the canopy architecture and the analytic geometry method for the reconstruction and visualization of the three-dimensional (3D digital architecture of the rice plant. It also uses the virtual clipping method for extracting the key traits of the canopy architecture such as the leaf area, inclination, and azimuth distribution in spatial coordinates. To establish the technique system, we developed (i simple tools to measure the spatial position of the stem axis and azimuth of the leaf midrib and to capture images of tillers and leaves; (ii computer software programs for extracting data on stem diameter, leaf nodes, and leaf midrib curves from the tiller images and data on leaf length, width, and shape from the leaf images; (iii a database of digital architectures that stores the measured data and facilitates the reconstruction of the 3D visual architecture and the extraction of architectural traits; and (iv computation algorithms for virtual clipping to stratify the rice canopy, to extend the stratified surface from the horizontal plane to a general curved surface (including a cylindrical surface, and to implement in silico. Each component of the technique system was quantitatively validated and visually compared to images, and the sensitivity of the virtual clipping algorithms was analyzed. This technique is inexpensive and accurate and provides high throughput for the measurement, reconstruction, and trait extraction of rice canopy architectures. The technique provides a more practical method of data collection to serve functional-structural plant models of rice and for the

  4. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contamination from Environment to Food Matrix by TXRF: The Case of Rice and Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabjola Bilo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the chemical analysis of contaminated soils of India and the rice grown in the same area. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is a well-established technique for elemental chemical analysis of environmental samples, and it can be a useful tool to assess food safety. Metals uptake in rice crop grown in soils from different areas was studied. In this work soil, rice husk and rice samples were analyzed after complete solubilization of samples by microwave acid digestion. Heavy metals concentration detected in rice samples decreases in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr. The metal content in rice husk was higher than in rice. This study suggests, for the first time, a possible role of heavy metals filter played by rice husk. The knowledge of metals sequestration capability of rice husk may promote some new management practices for rice cultivation to preserve it from pollution.

  5. Ehd4 encodes a novel and Oryza-genus-specific regulator of photoperiodic flowering in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Gao

    Full Text Available Land plants have evolved increasingly complex regulatory modes of their flowering time (or heading date in crops. Rice (Oryza sativa L. is a short-day plant that flowers more rapidly in short-day but delays under long-day conditions. Previous studies have shown that the CO-FT module initially identified in long-day plants (Arabidopsis is evolutionary conserved in short-day plants (Hd1-Hd3a in rice. However, in rice, there is a unique Ehd1-dependent flowering pathway that is Hd1-independent. Here, we report isolation and characterization of a positive regulator of Ehd1, Early heading date 4 (Ehd4. ehd4 mutants showed a never flowering phenotype under natural long-day conditions. Map-based cloning revealed that Ehd4 encodes a novel CCCH-type zinc finger protein, which is localized to the nucleus and is able to bind to nucleic acids in vitro and transactivate transcription in yeast, suggesting that it likely functions as a transcriptional regulator. Ehd4 expression is most active in young leaves with a diurnal expression pattern similar to that of Ehd1 under both short-day and long-day conditions. We show that Ehd4 up-regulates the expression of the "florigen" genes Hd3a and RFT1 through Ehd1, but it acts independently of other known Ehd1 regulators. Strikingly, Ehd4 is highly conserved in the Oryza genus including wild and cultivated rice, but has no homologs in other species, suggesting that Ehd4 is originated along with the diversification of the Oryza genus from the grass family during evolution. We conclude that Ehd4 is a novel Oryza-genus-specific regulator of Ehd1, and it plays an essential role in photoperiodic control of flowering time in rice.

  6. Interactions among spectral components of radiation in the growth responses of rice, tomato and strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, K.; Matsuno, A.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of spectral components and their ratios of radiation on simultaneous growth responses were investigated with rice, tomato and strawberry plants exposed to lights with a high fluence rate (350 or 408 μmol m -2 s -1 , 400-700 nm) during every daytime. Both elongation growth and Ieaf area development in rice and strawberry were promoted by red (R) but inhibited by blue (B) component depending on the each fluence rate. However, leaf area in tomato responded in opposite direction to these. The elongation growth was remarkably increased with the fluence rate of far-red (FR) in tomato and strawberry, but not in rice. These responses were lineary increased, except FR and UV effects, with logarithmic R/B ratio in rice and strawberry but not in tomato. A very low R/FR ratio caused a strong promotion of both elongation and leaf area in tomato, while it promoted petiole elengation but inhibited leaf area development in strawberry. The elongation and leaf area development responded to R/FR in reverse way between rice and strawberry. Chlorophyll content of leaves was generally decreased with the increase of logarithmic R/B ratio in all the species. Areal weight of leaf and dry weight increment/leaf area were more or less increased with R/B and R/ FR ratios, Dry weight increment varied with the spectral ratios in almost the same way as leaf area, suggesting that spectral dependence of photosynthetic production was not much different between the species. Some discussions were made on the photoreceptor pigments involved in the elongation growth and leaf area development, and on the selection of light quantity to ensure a normal growth of each plant species

  7. Cloning, characterization and expression of OsFMO(t) in rice encoding a flavin monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jicai; Liu, Lanna; Cao, Youpei; Li, Jiazuo; Mei, Mantong

    2013-12-01

    Flavin monooxygenases (FMO) play a key role in tryptophan (Trp)-dependent indole-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis in plants and regulate plant growth and development. In this study, the full-length genomic DNA and cDNA of OsFMO(t), a FMO gene that was originally identified from a rolled-leaf mutant in rice, was isolated and cloned from wild type of the rolled-leaf mutant. OsFMO(t) was found to have four exons and three introns, and encode a protein with 422 amino acid residues that contains two basic conserved motifs, with a 'GxGxxG' characteristic structure. OsFMO(t) showed high amino acid sequence identity with FMO proteins from other plants, in particular with YUCCA from Arabidopsis, FLOOZY from Petunia, and OsYUCCA1 from rice. Our phylogenetic analysis showed that OsFMO(t) and the homologous FMO proteins belong to the same clade in the evolutionary tree. Overexpression of OsFMO(t) in transformed rice calli produced IAA-excessive phenotypes that showed browning and lethal effects when exogenous auxins such as naphthylacetic acid (NAA) were added to the medium. These results suggested that the OsFMO(t) protein is involved in IAA biosynthesis in rice and its overexpression could lead to the malformation of calli. Spatio-temporal expression analysis using RT-PCR and histochemical analysis for GUS activity revealed that expression of OsFMO(t) was totally absent in the rolled-leaf mutant. However, in the wild type variety, this gene was expressed at different levels temporally and spatially, with the highest expression observed in tissues with fast growth and cell division such as shoot apexes, tender leaves and root tips. Our results demonstrated that IAA biosynthesis regulated by OsFMO(t) is likely localized and might play an essential role in shaping local IAA concentrations which, in turn, is critical for regulating normal growth and development in rice.

  8. Fertilizer-n uptake and distribution in rice plants using 15N tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Juan; Shen Qirong; Yin Bin; Wan Xinjun

    2009-01-01

    Fertilizer-nitrogen (N) uptake and distribution in rice were studied using 15 N tracer technique. The results obtained were as follows. At the tillering, jointing and booting, and anthesis stages, 23.1%, 8.3% and 19.9% of N were taken from fertilizer applied in base (N1), tillering (N2) and jointing and booting (N3), respectively. The 15 N translocation from anthesis to maturity was in the order of N3>N1>N2, but the 15 N translocation efficiency was higher in N1 (base fertilizer treatment) than in the other two treatments. At maturity, the 15 N distribution in straw in the treatments of N1, N2 and N3 was only 24.3%, 26.7% and 30.4%, respectively. No matter what time the N fertilizer was applied, the 15 N uptake was mostly distributed in leaves, then in the sheath, the least in stem, and 15 N distribution in spike increased with the increased 15 N translocation from nutritional organs to spike after anthesis. The study also showed that the 15 N uptake at maturity in N1, N2 and N3 treatments was 10.3%, 5.9% and 12.4%, respectively. The results indicated that (1) when soil N content was not high, the base fertilizer application was important to rice growth, and optimal increment might help increase tillering, and improve rice quality; (2) the initiation fertilizer significantly promoted quantities during grain filling, and thus application of N fertilizer in initiation was of considerable advance in increasing N harvest index (NHI); (3) the rice plants absorbed less N applied in tillering stage due to a big N loss in that period. Therefore a little bit increase of base N fertilizer with no or very small amount of tillering fertilizer, together with some topdressing of N fertilizer during initiation could improve N uptake by rice. (authors)

  9. The influence of package and gamma radiation in the quarantine treatment of Sitophilus Orizae in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modolo, Debora M.; Oliveira, Ana Claudia S.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Arthur, Valter; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Paula B.; Lima, Roberta B.

    2009-01-01

    There are a variety of insect and pests that damage stored grains, therefore, the need for better conservation with advanced technology, high efficiency, absence of side effects, irradiation has been used as an alternative method to control these insects, being completely the opposite the chemical treatment, which leaves waste and is not always efficient enough. This study has the objective to use the gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 for the control of Sitophilus oryzae, in plastic package with previously infested rice and artificially reinfested. In this research was used 3 types of samples: 'Prato Fino' rice's package, crystal sugar's package and 'Namorado' rice's package. It were packages (bags) of 10x5cm for each type of sample, containing holes for gases exchange. Each pack contained 20g of wholemeal rice and 10 adult insects of the species S. oryzae. The samples were irradiated with dose of 1 kGy to make disinfestations under a dose rate of 0.560 Gy/hour and more the non-irradiated sample (control). After irradiation the bags were placed in a glass bottle with the volume of 3 liters and it were added 300 adult insects in the same bottle to induce reinfestation. This container was closed and after 60 days was calculated the number of living and dead insects existing in each package. The experiment was developed in a room with temperature 25 ± 5 deg C and relative humidity of 60 ± 5%. With the results obtained, it was concluded that the packages containing holes for gases exchange from inside to outside of the package showed more ease of penetration of insects, while the two packages without holes prevented the reinfestation of insects. The dose of 1 kGy was sufficient to induce disinfestations of rice. (author)

  10. Identification of Heading Date Six (Hd6 Gene Derived from Rice Mutant Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryanti Aryanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Genes which were associated with flowering time to indicate the early maturity is known as heading date (Hd. Heading date six (Hd6 gene was identified from rice mutant varieties were Atomita 2, Atomita 3, Atomita 4, Bestari, Cilosari, Diah Suci, Sidenuk, Kahayan, Mayang, Meraoke, Mira-1, Pandan Putri, Superwin, Suluttan Unsrat 1, Suluttan Unsrat 2, Winongo, Woyla, Yuwono, while the rice var. Nipponbare was used as a positive control. All of rice mutant varieties derived from mutation induction by the dose of 0.2 kGy. The aim of this experiment was to find out the data base of mutant varieties which could be used as parent material with earlier maturity trait genetically. To obtain the DNA of plants, young leaves of each variety were extracted by liquid nitrogen, and then lysis and extracted by Kit Plant Genomic DNA. The amplification of DNA with 7 primers of Hd6 conducted of 40 cycles by PCR and were continues to separated by 1 % agarose. The results were shown that the rice Mira-1 and Bestari varieties obtained from mutation of Cisantana highly different from one to another on 7 primers of Hd6 used. Mayang variety from mutation of cross breeding between Cilosari and IR64, Pandan putri from Pandan wangi and Woyla from mutation of cross breeding from Atomita 2 and IR64 were highly different with those of their parents. Identification of Hd6 gene on Sidenuk variety was shown the same bands pattern with Nipponbare as control positive toward all primers used, this variety would be better for earlier maturity parent material compared to others. The information could be useful for breeding programs aiming to develop early maturing widely adaptive and high yielding rice cultivars.

  11. [Quality of pastas supplemented with rice bran].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangronis, E; Rebolledo, M A

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the potential of using rice bran as an ingredient in pastas spaghetti type. Two of the pastas were made with semolina from durum as raw material, supplemented with 10 and 20% rice bran. The other two were made with granular flour and the same percentage of rice bran. Proximate composition of raw material was analyzed. Pastas were elaborated in a local industry. Composition, proximal, color, texture, and sensorial quality of pastas were determined. Protein content (13.9-15.0%), ash (1.47-3.09%) and dietary fiber (6.71-8.45%) of pastas increased according to the percentage of rice bran added. The hardest pastas were those elaborated with semolina from durum wheat and with a 10% of substitution. Also, they were the most yellow. The sensory panel found differences in quality among the pastas evaluated. Pastas with 10% rice bran had the best quality. The results demonstrated that is possible to elaborate pastas with 20% as maximum of rice bran resulting products with high protein, ash and dietetic fiber content, but some undesirable characteristics were given by the rice bran as white spots, wrinkles and color changes.

  12. Using rice straw to manufacture ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors offer their advanced and efficient methodologies for the recycling of the rice straw, as well as the novel approaches to the ceramic brick quality improvement through the application of the rice straw as the combustible additive and through the formation of amorphous silica in the course of the rice straw combustion. The co-authors provide characteristics of the raw materials, production techniques used to manufacture ceramic bricks, and their basic properties in the article. The co-authors describe the simulated process of formation of amorphous silica. The process in question has two independent steps (or options: 1 rice straw combustion and ash formation outside the oven (in the oxidizing medium, and further application of ash as the additive in the process of burning clay mixtures; 2 adding pre-treated rice straw as the combustible additive into the clay mixture, and its further burning in compliance with the pre-set temperature mode. The findings have proven that the most rational pre-requisite of the rice straw application in the manufacturing of ceramic bricks consists in feeding milled straw into the clay mixture to be followed by molding, drying and burning. Brick samples are highly porous, and they also demonstrate sufficient compressive strength. The co-authors have also identified optimal values of rice straw and ash content in the mixtures under research.

  13. Exploring the possibility of using digital image processing technique to detect diseases of rice leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H Peyman

    2016-04-01

    the required images were obtained from each sample.The images of infected leaves were then introduced to image processing toolbox of MATLAB software. The RGB images were converted to gray-scale. Using a suitable threshold, the leaf surface was segmented from image background and the first binary image was achieved. Leaf image with zero background pixels was obtained after multiplying the black-and-white image to original color image. The resulting image was transformed to HSV color space and the Hue color component was extracted. The final binary image was created by applying an appropriate threshold on the image that obtained from Hue color component. As there was a high color similarity between the symptoms of two diseases, it was not possible to use Hue color component to distinguish between them. Therefore the shape processing was applied. Four dimensionless morphological features such as Roundness, Aspect Ratio, Compactness and Area Ratio were extracted from stain areas and based on these features, disease type diagnosis was performed. Results and Discussion: Results showed that the proposed algorithm successfully diagnosed the diseases stains on the rice leaves. A detection accuracy of 97.4±1.4 % was achieved. Regarding the results of t-test, among the extracted shape characteristics, only in the case of Area Ratio, there was no significant difference between two disease symptoms. While in the case of Roundness, Aspect Ratio and Compactness, a highly significant difference (P<0.01 was discovered and revealed between rice blast and rice brown spot stains. The developed algorithm was capable of distinguishing between disease symptoms with an exactness of over 96.6%. This means that of the 60 samples (30 samples rice blast and 30 samples of rice brown spot; only two were placed in the wrong category. Conclusions: It was concluded from this study that image processing technique can not only accurately determine whether the rice is healthy or infected but also can

  14. A rice husk gasifier for paddy drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirani, A.A.; Kalwar, S.A.; Ahmad, M.

    2013-01-01

    Due to energy crisis and constant increase in the price of fossil fuels, the world's trend changes to renewable sources of energy like solar, wind and biomass gasification. Substantial biomass potential is available in Pakistan in the form of agriculture or forest residue (rice straw, rice husk, cotton stalks, corn cobs, wood chips, wood saw, etc.). These can be best utilised for the production of producer gas or synthetic gas that can be used for drying of agricultural crops. The drying process is an important activity of post harvest processing for long-term storage. Rice husk is nowadays commonly used for biomass gasification and its heat content value is about 15MJ/kg. It constitutes about 30 percent of rice production. A rice husk gasifier was developed and evaluated on paddy drying at Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Tsukuba International Center (TBIC), Japan. Rice husk gasifier has following major components; husk feeding system, ash chamber, burner, centrifugal fan, drying chamber, gasifier reactor, air duct and an electric motor of 0.37kW. The average drying plenum air temperature was recorded as 45 degree C during the drying process. The paddy 'IR 28' from initial moisture content of 24% was dried up to 14% moisture content for about 3.33h consuming 3kg/h of rice husk. The efficiency was found to be 58%. The rice husk gasifier can also be used for drying the fruits and vegetables, provided that heat exchanger should be attached with it. The overall performance of rice husk gasifier was satisfactory and will be beneficial for small scale farmers, food processors and millers as well. (author)

  15. Analysis of rice purchase decision on rice consumer in Bandung city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusno, K.; Imannurdin, A.; Syamsiyah, N.; Djuwendah, E.

    2018-03-01

    This study was conducted at three kinds of purchase location which were traditional market, rice kiosk, and supermarket in Bandung City, with survey data of 108 respondents which were selected by systematic random sampling. The aim of this study is to (1) identify consumer characteristics, (2) identify which atribute is considered by consumer in buying rice, and (3) analyze the relationship between purchase decision and income class. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis and Chi Square test. The results showed most consumers in the traditional market were middle-educated and lower middle-income, at the rice kiosk, the consumer were generally middle-educated and middle-income, and in the supermarkets, the majority were high-educated and upper middle-income consumers. “Kepulenan” be the first priority of most consumers, but for the lower-middle class, the main priority was price. Thus, in case of scarcity and rice price increase, the government should immediately arrange market operations which targeting to lower-middle class consumers. There was a significant relationship between (1) the quality of rice consumed, (2) the frequency of rice purchase per month, and (3) attitudes toward rice price increase; each with the income class. Although the price of rice increase, consumers of middle and upper-middle were remain loyal to the quality of rice they consumed. This indicates rice market in Bandung city is an ideal market for premium rice so that traders and producers are expected to maintain the quality of rice, such as keep using superior seeds and applying good cultivation based on Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) rules.

  16. Laboratory Screening for Resistance in Rice to Rice Stem Borer Chilo Suppressalis Walker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singgih Sutrisno

    2004-01-01

    Rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis Walker is one of the major insect pests in rice in Indonesia. The use of insect pest resistant variety of rice is one of the effective techniques against pests. Breeding of resistance to insect pests rice crops often faced difficulties in obtaining a lot of insect amounts due to the unavailability of enough number insects pests in the field so that a laboratory bioassay is needed. In this experiments five rice varieties were used: a Pelita I/1, Atomita I, Cisadane, Cisanggarung, and IR 36. Rice seedling 7 days of age were put in 1 liter plastic vials for rice resistance test against the attack of insect pest C. suppressalis. The parameters observed were larval and pupal viability, pupal weight, and eggs production. The larval and pupal viability which were reared on of Pelita I/1 and Atomita I rice seedlings were 68.5 % - 55.5 % and 57.3 % - 46.7 % respectively. The respective lowest percentages were found in IR 36 which was about 41.3 % - 29.8 % .The experiment results on the parameters of pupal weight and egg production showed similar results to that on the parameters of larval and pupal viability. Rice variety of IR 36 showed more resistance to the other varieties, while Pelita I/1 and Atomita I showed the most susceptible to the attack of insect pest C. suppressalis. (author)

  17. Understanding the evolution of rice technology in China - from traditional agriculture to GM rice today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an historical survey of the evolution of rice technology in China, from the traditional farming system to genetically modified rice today. Using sociotechnological analytical framework, it analyses rice technology as a socio-technical ensemble - a complex interaction of material and social elements, and discusses the specificity of technology development and its socio-technical outcomes. It points to two imperatives in rice variety development: wholesale transporting agricultural technology and social mechanism to developing countries are likely lead to negative consequences; indigenous innovation including deploying GM technology for seed varietal development and capturing/cultivating local knowledge will provide better solutions.

  18. PhosphoRice: a meta-predictor of rice-specific phosphorylation sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Que Shufu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of the growing body of protein phosphorylation sites data, the number of phosphoprotein databases is constantly increasing, and dozens of tools are available for predicting protein phosphorylation sites to achieve fast automatic results. However, none of the existing tools has been developed to predict protein phosphorylation sites in rice. Results In this paper, the phosphorylation site predictors, NetPhos 2.0, NetPhosK, Kinasephos, Scansite, Disphos and Predphosphos, were integrated to construct meta-predictors of rice-specific phosphorylation sites using several methods, including unweighted voting, unreduced weighted voting, reduced unweighted voting and weighted voting strategies. PhosphoRice, the meta-predictor produced by using weighted voting strategy with parameters selected by restricted grid search and conditional random search, performed the best at predicting phosphorylation sites in rice. Its Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC and Accuracy (ACC reached to 0.474 and 73.8%, respectively. Compared to the best individual element predictor (Disphos_default, PhosphoRice archieved a significant increase in MCC of 0.071 (P Conclusions PhosphoRice is a powerful tool for predicting unidentified phosphorylation sites in rice. Compared to the existing methods, we found that our tool showed greater robustness in ACC and MCC. PhosphoRice is available to the public at http://bioinformatics.fafu.edu.cn/PhosphoRice.

  19. International tourist preference of Lodok Rice Field natural elements, the cultural rice field from Manggarai - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    March Syahadat, Ray; Trie Putra, Priambudi; Nuraini; Nailufar, Balqis; Fatmala Makhmud, Desy

    2017-10-01

    Lodok Rice Field or usually known as spiderweb rice field is a system of land division. It cultural rice field only found on Manggarai, Province of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The landscape of Lodok Rice Field was aesthetic and it has big potential for tourism development. The aim of this study was to know the perception of natural elements of Lodok Rice Field landscape that could influence international tourist to visited Lodok Rice Field. If we know the elements that could influenced the international tourist, we could used the landscape image for tourism media promotion. The methods of this study used scenic beauty estimation (SBE) by 85 respondents from 34 countries and Kruskal Wallis H test. The countries grouped by five continents (Asia, America, Europe, Africa, and Oceania). The result showed that the Asian respondents liked the elements of sky, mountain, and the rice field. Then, the other respondent from another continent liked the elements of sunshine, mountain, and the rice field. Although the Asian had different perception about landscape elements of rice field’s good view, it’s not differ significantly by Kruskal Wallis H test.

  20. Creation of transgenic rice plants producing small interfering RNA of Rice tungro spherical virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dung Tien; Chu, Ha Duc; Sasaya, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV), also known as Rice waika virus, does not cause visible symptoms in infected rice plants. However, the virus plays a critical role in spreading Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV), which is the major cause of severe symptoms of rice tungro disease. Recent studies showed that RNA interference (RNAi) can be used to develop virus-resistance transgenic rice plants. In this report, we presented simple procedures and protocols needed for the creation of transgenic rice plants capable of producing small interfering RNA specific against RTSV sequences. Notably, our study showed that 60 out of 64 individual hygromycin-resistant lines (putative transgenic lines) obtained through transformation carried transgenes designed for producing hairpin double-stranded RNA. Northern blot analyses revealed the presence of small interfering RNA of 21- to 24-mer in 46 out of 56 confirmed transgenic lines. Taken together, our study indicated that transgenic rice plants carrying an inverted repeat of 500-bp fragments encoding various proteins of RTSV can produce small interfering RNA from the hairpin RNA transcribed from that transgene. In light of recent studies with other viruses, it is possible that some of these transgenic rice lines might be resistant to RTSV.

  1. Lead in rice: analysis of baseline lead levels in market and field collected rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Gareth J; Williams, Paul N; Adomako, Eureka E; Price, Adam H; Zhu, Yongguan; Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve; Deacon, Claire M; Villada, Antia; Sommella, Alessia; Lu, Ying; Ming, Lei; De Silva, P Mangala C S; Brammer, Hugh; Dasgupta, Tapash; Islam, M Rafiqul; Meharg, Andrew A

    2014-07-01

    In a large scale survey of rice grains from markets (13 countries) and fields (6 countries), a total of 1578 rice grain samples were analysed for lead. From the market collected samples, only 0.6% of the samples exceeded the Chinese and EU limit of 0.2 μg g(-1) lead in rice (when excluding samples collected from known contaminated/mine impacted regions). When evaluating the rice grain samples against the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) provisional total tolerable intake (PTTI) values for children and pregnant women, it was found that only people consuming large quantities of rice were at risk of exceeding the PTTI from rice alone. Furthermore, 6 field experiments were conducted to evaluate the proportion of the variation in lead concentration in rice grains due to genetics. A total of 4 of the 6 field experiments had significant differences between genotypes, but when the genotypes common across all six field sites were assessed, only 4% of the variation was explained by genotype, with 9.5% and 11% of the variation explained by the environment and genotype by environment interaction respectively. Further work is needed to identify the sources of lead contamination in rice, with detailed information obtained on the locations and environments where the rice is sampled, so that specific risk assessments can be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Chinese Rice Wine Fermented from Enzymatic Extruded Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Wu, Zhengzong; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2015-07-01

    Enzymatic extrusion, instead of traditional steam cooking, to treat rice is an efficient and alternative pretreatment for Chinese rice wine fermentation. In order to determine the formation of volatiles in enzymatic extrusion-processed rice wine (EE), and to confirm its characteristic flavor compounds, headspace solid-phase micro-extraction followed by GC-MS was used. A total of 66 volatile compounds were identified in EE. During fermentation, most volatiles generated from enzymatic extruded rice had the similar trends with those from steam-cooked rice, but the differences in the concentration of volatiles indicated a changed balance of flavors release caused by enzymatic extrusion. Besides, the concentrations and sorts of volatiles in EEs fermented from different rice particle sizes, were not dramatically different. By principal component analysis, EE could be distinctly separated from other traditional Chinese rice wines according to its characteristic volatiles, namely, 2-heptanol, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, methylpentyl 2-propenoate, γ-hexalactone, and 4-vinylguaiacol. Enzymatic extrusion liquefaction has been a popular thermal treatment for cereals, and gradually being applied in fermentation and liquor-making industry all over the world. The characterization of volatile flavor compounds in Chinese rice wine processed by enzymatic extrusion liquefaction pretreatment, might be made use not only for a better understanding of this new-type rice wine, but for the further utilization of enzymatic extrusion in other wine or alcohol production as well. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. RECRUITMENT FINANCED BY SAVED LEAVE (RSL PROGRAMME)

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel; Tel. 73903

    1999-01-01

    Transfer to the saved leave account and saved leave bonusStaff members participating in the RSL programme may opt to transfer up to 10 days of unused annual leave or unused compensatory leave into their saved leave account, at the end of the leave year, i.e. 30 September (as set out in the implementation procedure dated 27 August 1997).A leave transfer request form, which you should complete, sign and return, if you wish to use this possibility, has been addressed you. To allow the necessary time for the processing of your request, you should return it without delay.As foreseen in the implementation procedure, an additional day of saved leave will be granted for each full period of 20 days remaining in the saved leave account on 31 December 1999, for any staff member participating in the RSL programme until that date.For part-time staff members participating in the RSL programme, the above-mentioned days of leave (annual, compensatory and saved) are adjusted proportionally to their contractual working week as...

  4. An update on the use of co-products from the milling of rice in value added food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of the huge quantity of rice produced annually, milled-rice co-products; such as, rice bran, rice oil, rice wax, rice flour, and rice hull are plentiful and readily available. These co-products could be valuable sources of food ingredients, but they have been vastly under-utilized. Rice bra...

  5. Enhanced degradation of chlorpyrifos in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by five strains of endophytic bacteria and their plant growth promotional ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fayun; Ge, Jing; Li, Yisong; He, Shuang; Zhong, Jianfeng; Liu, Xianjing; Yu, Xiangyang

    2017-10-01

    Endophytic bacteria reside in plant tissues, such as roots, stems, leaves and seeds. Most of them can stimulate plant growth or alleviate phytotoxicity of pollutants. There are handful species with dual functions stimulating plant growth and degrading pollutants have been reported. Five endophytic bacteria were isolated from chlorpyrifos (CP) treated rice plants and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RRA, Bacillus megaterium strain RRB, Sphingobacterium siyangensis strain RSA, Stenotrophomonas pavanii strain RSB and Curtobacterium plantarum strain RSC according to morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical tests, and 16S rDNA phylogeny. All of them possessed some plant growth promotional traits, including indole acetic acid and siderophore production, secretion of phosphate solubilization and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. The bacteria were marked with the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene and successfully colonized into rice plants. All isolates were able to degrade CP in vitro and in vivo. The five isolates degraded more than 90% of CP in 24 h when the initial concentration was lower than 5 mg/L. CP degradation was significantly enhanced in the infested rice plants and rice grains. The final CP residual was reduced up to 80% in the infested rice grains compared to the controls. The results indicate that these isolates are promising bio-inoculants for the removal or detoxification of CP residues in rice plants and grains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bio-fortification and shelf-life extension of idli batter using curry leaves (Murraya koenigii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelliah, R; Ramakrishnan, S R; Premkumar, D; Antony, U

    2016-06-01

    Among several traditional foods of India, idli is one of the most popular and commonly consumed steamed products. A new method of adding Murraya koenigii (curry leaves) to idli batter as a vehicle for fortification and extension of shelf-life has been developed. Dried curry leaves powder was incorporated with other ingredients like rice and dehusked black gram in different proportions to optimize the most palatable formulation. Rate of fermentation and microbial changes in the batter; nutritional qualities, texture and sensory properties of the prepared product were assessed. Incorporation of curry leaves powder (5 %) in idli batter increased the shelf-life and also increased the flavour, texture and appearance of the idli. The calcium content of the prepared idli was 10 times more than that of the control idli, while dietary fiber content increased by 18.6 %. Anti-microbial activity of the curry leaves in idli batter extended the shelf-life from 2 to 5 days when stored at 30 °C.

  7. Silica Deposition on the Leaves of Mir- and Earth-Grown Super Dwarf Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, William F.; Bubenheim, David L.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Bingham, Gail E.; McManus, William R.; Biesinger, H. D.; Strickland, D. T.; Levinskikh, Maragarita; Sytchev, Vladimir N.; Podolsky, Igor

    2000-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis were used to investigate the nature of crystals deposited on leaves of Mir- and Earth-grown Super Dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants. Leaves from these plants exhibited dense and uniformly distributed crystals on leaf abaxial surfaces when viewed by SEM. Young leaves showed that crystals initially accumulated around the stomata on the adaxial surface, but became more dense and uniformly distributed as the leaves aged. EDX microanalyses of the Balkanine (a nutrient charged clinoptilolite zeolite) medium in which the wheat plants were grown showed an elemental pattern similar to that observed on the wheat leaves. The absence of N and P in the Balkanine suggests that they were completely utilized by the plants. Only Si and O were evident in the drying agent, Sorb-it-Silica (trademark), and perhaps could have accounted for some of the Si observed on the plant tissue.

  8. Mapping paddy rice planting area in rice-wetland coexistent areas through analysis of Landsat 8 OLI and MODIS images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuting; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Li, Xiangping

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of paddy rice fields is necessary for the studies of trace gas emissions, water source management, and food security. The phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, which identifies the unique flooding stage of paddy rice, has been widely used. However, identification and mapping of paddy rice in rice-wetland coexistent areas is still a challenging task. In this study, we found that the flooding/transplanting periods of paddy rice and natural wetlands were different. The natural wetlands flood earlier and have a shorter duration than paddy rice in the Panjin Plain, a temperate region in China. We used this asynchronous flooding stage to extract the paddy rice planting area from the rice-wetland coexistent area. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data was used to derive the temperature-defined plant growing season. Landsat 8 OLI imagery was used to detect the flooding signal and then paddy rice was extracted using the difference in flooding stages between paddy rice and natural wetlands. The resultant paddy rice map was evaluated with in-situ ground-truth data and Google Earth images. The estimated overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 95% and 0.90, respectively. The spatial pattern of OLI-derived paddy rice map agrees well with the paddy rice layer from the National Land Cover Dataset from 2010 (NLCD-2010). The differences between Rice Landsat and Rice NLCD are in the range of ±20% for most 1-km grid cell. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of the phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, via integrating MODIS and Landsat 8 OLI images, to map paddy rice fields in complex landscapes of paddy rice and natural wetland in the temperate region.

  9. Paternity leave experiences of NHS doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Hannah; Szram, Joanna

    2013-10-01

    This study assesses NHS doctors' experiences of paternity leave and evaluates whether practices have changed since the introduction of additional paternity leave (APL) in April 2011. An anonymised online survey designed to discover experiences and uptake of APL and ordinary paternity leave (OPL) was distributed to all members of the London Deanery Synapse® network. In total, 364 fathers responded. Their seniority ranged from foundation trainees to consultants. Following the formal introduction of OPL in 2003, the number of fathers taking any paternity leave increased (from 50% to 95.6%). The majority of respondents (76.7%) felt well supported by their employer. Since the introduction of APL, 3% of respondents took additional leave. Reasons for the low uptake of APL included the impracticalities of the law, poor awareness and perceived attitudes and implications for training. Problems with OPL included the inadequate provision of cover and difficulties in timing the leave appropriately.

  10. Rice saabus Euroopat taltsutama / Tõnu Prei

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prei, Tõnu, 1950-

    2005-01-01

    USA välisminister Condolezza Rice alustas ringreisi Euroopas, eesmärgiks anda vastulöök USA-d tabanud kriitikale sõjavangide kohtlemise ja teistes riikides oma luuretalituse salavanglate pidamise pärast

  11. USING RICE BRAN IN LAYING HEN DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H ERSIN SAMLI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is an energy and protein rich ingredient used in poultry feeding. To balance energy and protein requirements. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rice bran on performance and egg quality during peak production of a commercial White laying strain of 22 week of age. Dietary treatments were consisted by inclusion of rice bran at 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels. Each treatment had 6 reps in which 12 birds were randomly assigned in wired fl oor battery cages equipped with nipple drinkers and through feeders. Layers accessed to feed and water freely. Lighting regimen was adjusted to 16h light/8h dark. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. Overall results of the present experiment indicated that rice bran could be included up to 10% without any adverse affect on laying performance, egg quality and digestive organs.

  12. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of trace and major elements in rice plant (Oryza Sativa) at Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreedevi, K.R.; Rajaram, S.; Thulasi Brindha, J.; Venkataraman, S.; Hegde, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of trace and major elements in rice plant (Oryza Sativa) which is the staple diet of the public at Kalpakkam. The transfer factor from soil to various parts of plant was also studied. Trace and major elements such as Fe, Mn, Zn, Co, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb , Sr, K, Ca and Mg were selected based on their role in nutrition and also to study the behaviour of their radioactive counterparts. Among the trace elements Fe concentration was observed to be maximum in soil, the mean value of which was 18394 mg/kg dry wt. Cadmium concentration was observed to be minimum with the mean value of 2 mg/kg dry wt. The maximum and minimum concentration observed in the rice grain were due to Zn and Cd and the values were found to be 9 and 0.044 mg/kg dry wt, respectively. In the stem and leaves part the maximum and minimum concentration was due to Fe and Cd and the values were found to be 26.8 and 0.12 mg/kg dry wt. Similarly in the root part Fe and Cd concentrations were found to be maximum and minimum, respectively. Among the different parts of the rice plant, trace elements concentration in root was maximum and in stem and leaves major elements concentration was maximum. Transfer factor from soil to plant parts was computed. In general, the transfer factor was maximum in root, followed by stem and leaves and grain for trace elements. The transfer factor computed for whole rice plant was maximum for Zn and minimum for Sr which is a significant observation from radiological point of view. (author)

  13. Lower responsiveness of canopy evapotranspiration rate than of leaf stomatal conductance to open-air CO2 elevation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimono, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Okada, Masumi

    2013-08-01

    An elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]) can reduce stomatal conductance of leaves for most plant species, including rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, few studies have quantified seasonal changes in the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on canopy evapotranspiration, which integrates the response of stomatal conductance of individual leaves with other responses, such as leaf area expansion, changes in leaf surface temperature, and changes in developmental stages, in field conditions. We conducted a field experiment to measure seasonal changes in stomatal conductance of the uppermost leaves and in the evapotranspiration, transpiration, and evaporation rates using a lysimeter method. The study was conducted for flooded rice under open-air CO2 elevation. Stomatal conductance decreased by 27% under elevated [CO2 ], averaged throughout the growing season, and evapotranspiration decreased by an average of 5% during the same period. The decrease in daily evapotranspiration caused by elevated [CO2 ] was more significantly correlated with air temperature and leaf area index (LAI) rather than with other parameters of solar radiation, days after transplanting, vapor-pressure deficit and FAO reference evapotranspiration. This indicates that higher air temperatures, within the range from 16 to 27 °C, and a larger LAI, within the range from 0 to 4 m(2)  m(-2) , can increase the magnitude of the decrease in evapotranspiration rate caused by elevated [CO2 ]. The crop coefficient (i.e. the evapotranspiration rate divided by the FAO reference evapotranspiration rate) was 1.24 at ambient [CO2 ] and 1.17 at elevated [CO2 ]. This study provides the first direct measurement of the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on rice canopy evapotranspiration under open-air conditions using the lysimeter method, and the results will improve future predictions of water use in rice fields. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Structural and ultrastructural study of Capsicum annuum leaves after treatment with Uncaria tomentosa bark extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of an Uncaria tomentosa extract on the development of Capsicum plants grown in green-house conditions was examined. The effect of the treatment was investigated with microscopic techniques (light and electron microscope in leaves from three levels of control plants and plants after treatment with the extract added to the soil in doses of 0.4 and 16 mg/ml (200 ml per pot/plant. In control leaves, changes typical of the subsequent phases of normal development were observed: nuclear chromatin became slightly condensed, plastoglobuli of chloroplasts increased in number and size, intragranal thylakoids were somewhat dilatated. In addition to such commonly occurring changes, some symptoms typical of pepper were observed in the ontogenesis of the examined plant: an increased number of spherical electron-dense deposits in vacuoles, an increased number of peroxisomes, the occurrence of numerous paracrystalline structures in chloroplasts of mature leaves, and, starting in mature leaves, expulsion of plastoglobuli from chloroplasts. After the treatment, most of those changes, leading to ageing, occurred much earlier and were more distinct. Chloroplasts, already in the youngest examined leaves, showed dilatation of intergranal thylakoids, which intensified with aging of the leaves and degradation of grana in the oldest leaves. Starch grains decreased in size and number and plastoglobuli became large. Vesiculation of ground cytoplasm in all leaves was stronger than in the control. No paracrystalline structures in chloroplasts or expulsion of plastoglobuli were observed. Another unusual phenomenon was the disappearance of spherical electron-dense deposits in the central vacuoles of cells. Those observations suggested that U. tomentosa extract enhanced the natural ontogenesis of Capsicum annuum leaves, by accelerating and enhancing the typical characteristics of ageing, and, additionally, it changed the structure and physiology of cells.

  15. Anticorrosion Coating using Olea sp. Leaves Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhmal, W. M. K. W. M.; Yasmin, M. Y. N.; Fazira, M. F. M.; Rafizah, W. A. W.; Nik, W. B. Wan; Sabri, M. G. M.

    2018-04-01

    Olive leaves extract (OLE) was evaluated as green corrosion inhibitor for stainless steel grade 316L (SS316L) in several media using scanning electron microscope (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results reveals several active compound indicated by O-H stretch, C=O stretch, C-OH stretch and C-N stretch which can be attributed to oleuropein and hydroxtyrosol acting as the main inhibiting sources for corrosion. The results obtained also show the inhibition efficiency of OLE increase with the increase of OLE concen