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Sample records for rice growth electronic

  1. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  2. [Nitrogen cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during double cropping rice growth season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Sui, Peng; Gao, Wang-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Raising duck in paddy rice field is an evolution of Chinese traditional agriculture. In May-October 2010, a field experiment was conducted in a double cropping rice region of Hunan Province, South-central China to study the nitrogen (N) cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during early rice and late rice growth periods, taking a conventional paddy rice field as the control. Input-output analysis method was adopted. The N output in the early rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 239.5 kg x hm(-2), in which, 12.77 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks, and the N output in the late rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 338.7 kg x hm(-2), in which, 23.35 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks. At the present N input level, there existed soil N deficit during the growth seasons of both early rice and late rice. The N input from duck sub-system was mainly from the feed N, and the cycling rate of the duck feces N recycled within the system was 2.5% during early rice growth season and 3.5% during late rice growth season. After late rice harvested, the soil N sequestration was 178.6 kg x hm(-2).

  3. [Effects of fish on field resource utilization and rice growth in rice-fish coculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Hu, Liang Liang; Ren, Wei Zheng; Guo, Liang; Wu, Min Fang; Tang, Jian Jun; Chen, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Rice field can provide habitat for fish and other aquatic animals. Rice-fish coculture can increase rice yield and simultaneously reduce the use of chemicals through reducing rice pest occurrence and nutrient complementary use. However, how fish uses food sources (e.g. phytoplankton, weeds, duckweed, macro-algal and snail) from rice field, and whether the nutrients releasing from those food sources due to fish transforming can improve rice growth are still unknown. Here, we conducted two field experiments to address these questions. One was to investigate the pattern of fish activity in the field using the method of video recording. The other was to examine the utilization of field resources by fish using stable isotope technology. Rice growth and rice yield were also exa-mined. Results showed that fish tended to be more active and significantly expanded the activity range in the rice-fish coculture compared to fish monoculture (fish not living together with rice plants). The contributions of 3 potential aquatic organisms (duckweed, phytoplankton and snail) to fish dietary were 22.7%, 34.8% and 30.0% respectively under rice-fish coculture without feed. Under the treatment with feed, however, the contributions of these 3 aquatic organisms to the fish die-tary were 8.9%, 5.9% and 1.6% respectively. The feed contribution was 71.0%. Rice-fish coculture significantly increased the nitrogen concentration in rice leaves, prolonged tillering stage by 10-12 days and increased rice spike rate and yield. The results suggested that raising fish in paddy field may transform the nutrients contained in field resources to bioavailable for rice plants through fish feeding activity, which can improve rice growth and rice yield.

  4. Assessment of Rice Associated Bacterial Ability to Enhance Rice Seed Germination and Rice Growth Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gholamalizadeh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The application of beneficial bacteria has recently been used for sustainable agriculture. In current research, 71 bacterial isolates were obtained from rice plant and the rhizosphere soil of different paddy fields in Guilan province, Iran. After primitive investigation, 40 bacteria with typical predominant characteristics were selected. By PCR-RFLP of their 16S r-DNA gene, 8 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs totally consisted of 33 isolates were obtained. From all of them, 8 isolates were selected for rice seed germination experiment, then, effective isolates were used for pot experiment to evaluate their ability for promoting rice growth. All of them were able to increase rice growth and yield, but in different potential. These tested isolates were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis (DEp8, O1R4, Pantoea ananatis (AEn1, Bacillus vietnamensis (MR5, Bacillus idriensis (MR2 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia by partial sequencing of their 16S r-DNA gene. Among them, AEn1 and MR5 produced indole-3- acetic acid (IAA in larger amounts than the other isolates and the isolates AEn1 and O1R4 were able to solubilize phosphate in higher amounts. According to the results obtained, it can be concluded that AEn1, O1R4 and MR5 can be considered as bacterial inoculants to use as alternatives for chemical fertilizers.

  5. Effects of Soil Veterinary Antibiotics Pollution on Rice Growth

    OpenAIRE

    XU Qiu-tong; GU Guo-ping; ZHANG Ming-kui

    2016-01-01

    To understand the potential effect of soil veterinary antibiotics pollution on the growth of rice, a main food crop in China, oxytetracycline which was used widely in livestock and poultry breeding was selected to test the effects of different levels of soil antibiotics pollution on growth and yield of rice plant at both seedling and growth periods. Relationship between oxytetracycline accumulated in different organs of rice plant and oxytetracycline pollution levels in the soil was character...

  6. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-ping LIU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. direct sowing rice 10–20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting, ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting, PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting, and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting, were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002, there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003. Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments

  7. The rice growth image files - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis The rice growth image file...s Data detail Data name The rice growth image files DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00945-004 Description of data contents The rice growth ima...ge files categorized based on file size. Data file File name: image files (director...y) File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/agritogo-rice-phenome/LATEST/image...ite Policy | Contact Us The rice growth image files - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive ...

  8. DNA comet assay for rice seeds treated with low energy electrons ('soft-electrons')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Hayashi, Toru

    1999-01-01

    As rice seeds are sometimes contaminated with phytopathogenic organisms such as blast disease fungi and nematodes, a novel non-chemical disinfection method for rice seeds is highly required. In order to develop a disinfection method, the effect of low energy electron ('soft-electrons') on seed DNA was examined by using the neutral comet assay. Rice seeds (whole grain) were treated with electrons of different acceleration voltages (180 kV to 1 MV) at a dose of 5 kGy. Nucleus suspensions were prepared from whole brown rice and subjected to electrophoresis. DNA from un-irradiated (control) seeds relaxed and produced comets with a short tail, most of the comets distributed within the range of comet length between 30 μm to 70 μm. In the case of seeds treated with electrons at acceleration voltages up to 190 kV, cells without seed coats were not damaged and the frequency histograms of comet length showed almost the same pattern as that for control. At acceleration voltages higher than 200 kV, the cells were distributed into two categories; DNA comets with a short tail (with little DNA damages, less than 70 μm in the comet length) and DNA comets with long tails (with sever strand breaks, more than 130 μm in the comet length). The ratios of damaged cells increased with increasing acceleration voltage. The growths of rice seedlings were not affected by the treatment with electrons at up to 200 kV. On the contrary, the cells of gamma-irradiated seed showed small variations in the comet length, and which were depending on radiation dose. The individual cells of gamma-irradiated seeds at 1 kGy showed shorter comet than the damaged cells with soft electron, seed treated with gamma rays (1-5 kGy) did not shoot nor root. (author)

  9. Effects of Soil Veterinary Antibiotics Pollution on Rice Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Qiu-tong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the potential effect of soil veterinary antibiotics pollution on the growth of rice, a main food crop in China, oxytetracycline which was used widely in livestock and poultry breeding was selected to test the effects of different levels of soil antibiotics pollution on growth and yield of rice plant at both seedling and growth periods. Relationship between oxytetracycline accumulated in different organs of rice plant and oxytetracycline pollution levels in the soil was characterized. The results showed that the effects of soil oxytetracycline pollution on rice growth mainly occurred at the seedling stage, and the effect on the underground part was obviously greater than the above-ground part of rice. Significant negative effects on biomass of the underground part of rice, root activity, and chlorophyll content and oxidase activity of the leave at the seedling stage were found when soil oxytetracycline pollution concentrations was over 30 mg·kg-1. The consequence from the impact of soil oxytetracycline pollution on rice seedling could be extended to the whole growth period of the plant, which could reduce the number of tiller and rice yield. Oxytetracycline accumulated in various organs of rice plant was in the sequence of root> leaf> stem> grain. Rice roots had low capacity to uptake oxytetracycline from the soil, the transfer capacity of oxytetracycline from the roots to leaf, stem, and grain was also weak. Considering the low oxytetracycline pollution levels in most of current actual farmland soils (less than 10 mg·kg-1 and lower accumulation character of oxytetracycline in the grain, it is thought that the direct damage of soil oxytetracycline pollution on rice production is small.

  10. Stimulate The Growth of Rice Using Endophytic Bacteria from Lowland Rice Plant Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuni Gofar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exploration and selection of endophytic bacteria from healthy food crops grown in lowland ecosystem is important to be conducted in order to get growth-stimulating endophytic bacteria at soil with low fertility level so that capable to optimize initial growth of food crops and subsequently can increase productivity level of lowland soil.The research objective was to isolate and to test the IAA-producing endophytic bacteria isolate in stimulating the rice crop growth at lowland area. Endophytic bacteria are isolated from tissues of rice, corn and peanut crops which grown at shallow swamp land in Ogan Ilir and Ogan Komering Ilir Districts, South Sumatra, Indonesia. There was nine isolates of nitrogen-fixer endophytic bacteria that capable to contribute IAA phytohormone into their growth media. The P31 isolate from rice crop tisssue of 2 months old produce the best rice sprouts than other isolates. This isolate can contribute of about 10 mg kg-1 IAA to its growth medium and increase the crowns dry weight and the roots dry weight respectively with magnitudes of 133% and 225% compared to control treatment. Concentration and absorbtion of N for rice crops innoculated with P31 isolates had increased by 169% and 400%, recpectively. The P31 isolates had been identified as Burkholderia pseudomallei (also known as Pseudomonas pseudomallei.

  11. Effects of slag-based silicon fertilizer on rice growth and brown-spot resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Dongfeng; Song, Alin; Fan, Fenliang; Li, Zhaojun; Liang, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented that slag-based silicon fertilizers have beneficial effects on the growth and disease resistance of rice. However, their effects vary greatly with sources of slag and are closely related to availability of silicon (Si) in these materials. To date, few researches have been done to compare the differences in plant performance and disease resistance between different slag-based silicon fertilizers applied at the same rate of plant-available Si. In the present study both steel and iron slags were chosen to investigate their effects on rice growth and disease resistance under greenhouse conditions. Both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the effects of slags on ultrastructural changes in leaves of rice naturally infected by Bipolaris oryaze, the causal agent of brown spot. The results showed that both slag-based Si fertilizers tested significantly increased rice growth and yield, but decreased brown spot incidence, with steel slag showing a stronger effect than iron slag. The results of SEM analysis showed that application of slags led to more pronounced cell silicification in rice leaves, more silica cells, and more pronounced and larger papilla as well. The results of TEM analysis showed that mesophyll cells of slag-untreated rice leaf were disorganized, with colonization of the fungus (Bipolaris oryzae), including chloroplast degradation and cell wall alterations. The application of slag maintained mesophyll cells relatively intact and increased the thickness of silicon layer. It can be concluded that applying slag-based fertilizer to Si-deficient paddy soil is necessary for improving both rice productivity and brown spot resistance. The immobile silicon deposited in host cell walls and papillae sites is the first physical barrier for fungal penetration, while the soluble Si in the cytoplasm enhances physiological or induced resistance to fungal colonization.

  12. Rhizosphere of rice plants harbor bacteria with multiple plant growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhizosphere of rice plants harbor bacteria with multiple plant growth promoting features. ... 45 (39.46%) isolates were capable of producing siderophore, the range of production being 4.50 to 223.26 μg mg-1 protein. Analysis of molecular diversity was made by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and ...

  13. Enhancement of Growth and Grain Yield of Rice in Nutrient Deficient Soils by Rice Probiotic Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Mohibul Alam KHAN; Effi HAQUE; Narayan Chandra PAUL; Md Abdul KHALEQUE; Saleh M. S. AL-GARNI; Mahfuzur RAHMAN; Md Tofazzal ISLAM

    2017-01-01

    Plant associated bacteria are promising alternatives to chemical fertilizers for plant growth and yield improvement in an eco-friendly manner. In this study, rice associated bacteria were isolated and assessed for mineral phosphate solubilization and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production activity in vitro. Six promising strains, which were tentatively identified as phylotaxon Pseudochrobactrum sp. (BRRh-1), Burkholderia sp. (BRRh-2), Burkholderia sp. (BRRh-3), Burkholderia sp. (BRRh-4), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (BRRh-5 and BRRh-6) based on their 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, exhibited significant phosphate solubilizing activity in National Botanical Research Institute phosphate growth medium, and BRRh-4 displayed the highest phosphate solubilizing activity, followed by BRRh-5. The pH of the culture broth declined, resulting in increase of growth rate of bacteria at pH 7, which might be due to organic acid secretion by the strains. In presence of L-tryptophan, five isolates synthesized IAA and the maximum IAA was produced by BRRh-2, followed by BRRh-1. Application of two most efficient phosphate solubilizing isolates BRRh-4 and BRRh-5 by root dipping (colonization) of seedling and spraying at the flowering stage significantly enhanced the growth and grain yield of rice variety BRRI dhan-29. Interestingly, application of both strains with 50% of recommended nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers produced equivalent or higher grain yield of rice compared to the control grown with full recommended fertilizer doses, which suggests that these strains may have the potential to be used as bioinoculants for sustainable rice production.

  14. Effects and mechanism of UV-B radiation on rice growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xiaoxiao; Gao Zhaohua; Zu Yanqun

    2009-01-01

    The enhancement of UV-B radiation influences the growth of rice and physiology in different levels and this performances as changes in morphology destroyed photosynthetic system unstable anti-oxidation system changes of endogenous hormone content exacerbated rice diseases decreased biomass and developmental stage delay. Through the establishment of the response index we can evaluate the varietal differences in responses of the rice to UV-B radiation. Reasons for such varietal differences were differences in rice gene physiology and morphology developmental stage and environmental factors. The main mechanism in responses of the rice to UV-B radiation was induction of flavonoid compounds and accumulation of anthocyanins. Based on the analysis of the influence of enhanced UV-B radiation to rice and the varietal differences in responses to UV-B radiation and mechanism of rice the direction of the further research about the relationship between the rice and UV-B was put forward

  15. Growth inhibition and effect on photosystem by three imidazolium chloride ionic liquids in rice seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Huijun, E-mail: lhj@mail.zjgsu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Zhang, Shuxian [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China); Jiaxing University, Jiaxing 314001, Zhejiang Province (China); Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Caidong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • The three ILs have phytotoxic on rice growth. • The antioxidant enzyme activities increased first and then declined with ILs concentration increased. • The Hill reaction activity decreased and the PS II of leaves was damaged by ILs. • The toxicity of ILs increased as the alkyl chain length increased as the order: [OMIM]Cl < [DMIM]Cl < [C{sub 12}MIM]Cl. - Abstract: The effects of three imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs) including 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid ([OMIM]Cl), 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid ([DMIM]Cl) and 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid ([C{sub 12}MIM]Cl) were studied in hydroponically grown rice seedlings. The growth inhibition rate increased and the Hill reaction activity of isolated rice chloroplasts decreased with increasing ILs concentrations. The IC{sub 50,5d} for stem length was 0.70 mg/L of [OMIM]Cl, 0.15 mg/L of [DMIM]Cl, and 0.055 mg/L of [C{sub 12}MIM]Cl, respectively. The SOD, POD and CAT activities of chloroplast exhibited initial increases followed by decreases in activity with increasing ILs concentrations. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters such as the maximum effective quantum yield of PSII(F{sub v}/F{sub m}), the potential activity of PSII(F{sub v}/F{sub 0}), the yield of photochemical quantum [Y(II)], the photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), the non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) and the relative electron transport ratio (rETR) were affected, showing that ILs will damage the PSII. The results demonstrated that imidazolium chloride ILs are phytotoxic to rice growth and their photosystem, the toxicity increased as the alkyl chain length increased with the following order: [OMIM]Cl < [DMIM]Cl < [C{sub 12}MIM]Cl. The results will help to better understand the possible role of the defense mechanism in rice caused by ILs exposure.

  16. Evaluation of rice genotypes to salt stress in different growth stages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... 40 rice genotypes were screened in saline soil of electrical conductivity (EC) of 4, 8 and 12 ds/m in vegetative ... Plant growth, plant height or shoot biomass, were reported to .... biomass had positive effect on rice salinity tolerance. The .... Stem dry weight .... genotypes have more Na+ concentration in cells.

  17. Graph of growth data - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis Graph of growth data Data ...detail Data name Graph of growth data DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00945-003 Description of data contents The grap...h of chronological changes in root, coleoptile, the first leaf, and the second leaf. Data file File name: growth..._data_graph.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/agritogo-rice-phenome/LATEST/data/growth...e Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Graph of growth data -

  18. Estimating the effect of urease inhibitor on rice yield based on NDVI at key growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailou LIU,Yazhen LI,Huiwen HU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the urease inhibitor, N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT at a range of application rates on rice production was examined in a field experiment at Jinxian County, Jiangxi Province, China. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI was measured at key growth stages in both early and late rice. The results showed that the grain yield increased significantly when urea was applied with NBPT, with the highest yield observed at 1.00% NBPT (wt/wt. NDVI differed with the growth stage of rice; it remained steady from the heading to the filling stage. Rice yield could be predicted from the NDVI taken at key rice growing stages, with R2 ranging from 0.34 to 0.69 in early rice and 0.49 to 0.70 in late rice. The validation test showed that RMSE (t·hm-2 values were 0.77 and 0.87 in early and late rice, respectively. Therefore, it was feasible to estimate rice yield for different amounts of urease inhibitor using NDVI.

  19. Competitive and Allelopathic Effects of Wild Rice Accessions (Oryza longistaminata) at Different Growth Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shicai; Xu, Gaofeng; Clements, David Roy; Jin, Guimei; Zhang, Fudou; Tao, Dayun; Xu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The competitive and allelopathic effects of wild rice (Oryza longistaminata) accessions on barnyard grass at different growth stages determined by days after sowing (0, 30, 60 and 90 days) were studied in greenhouse pot experiments. Wild rice accession RL159 exhibited the greatest height and tillering. The weed suppression rates of wild rice accessions OL and F1 on barnyard grass were significantly higher than for other rice accessions, with the lowest being O. sativa cultivar RD23. The highest suppression rates of OL and F1 were 80.23 and 73.96% at barnyard grass growth stages of 90 days and 60 days. At a 90 growth stage, wild rice accessions RL159 and RL169 caused 61.33 and 54.51% inhibition in barnyard grass growth, respectively. Under the same conditions, the competitive inhibition rates of OL, F1, RL159, RL169 and RL219 against barnyard grass were markedly lower than their weed suppressive effects, but were relatively similar for RD23. The allelopathic inhibition of OL and F1 on barnyard grass was significantly higher than other rice accessions. The highest allelopathic rates of OL and F1 were 60.61 and 56.87% at the 0 day growth stage. It is concluded that wild rice accessions OL and F1 exhibited the highest allelopathic activity along with moderate competitive ability against barnyard grass; wild rice accession RL159 had the highest competitive ability and moderate allelopathic activity on barnyard grass. Thus, the three wild rice accessions OL, F1 and RL159 could be used as ideal breeding materials for cultivated rice improvement.

  20. Rice LTG1 is involved in adaptive growth and fitness under low ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guangwen; Wu, Fu-Qing; Wu, Weixun; Wang, Hong-Jun; Zheng, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Yunhui; Chen, Xiuling; Zhou, Kunneng; Jin, Mingna; Cheng, Zhijun; Li, Xueyong; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Haiyang; Wan, Jianmin

    2014-05-01

    Low temperature (LT) is one of the most prevalent factors limiting the productivity and geographical distribution of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Although significant progress has been made in elucidating the effect of LT on seed germination and reproductive development in rice, the genetic component affecting vegetative growth under LT remains poorly understood. Here, we report that rice cultivars harboring the dominant LTG1 (Low Temperature Growth 1) allele are more tolerant to LT (15-25°C, a temperature range prevalent in high-altitude, temperate zones and high-latitude areas), than those with the ltg1 allele. Using a map-based cloning strategy, we show that LTG1 encodes a casein kinase I. A functional nucleotide polymorphism was identified in the coding region of LTG1, causing a single amino acid substitution (I357K) that is associated with the growth rate, heading date and yield of rice plants grown at LT. We present evidence that LTG1 affects rice growth at LT via an auxin-dependent process(es). Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of this locus suggests that the ltg1 haplotype arose before the domestication of rice in tropical climates. Together, our data demonstrate that LTG1 plays an important role in the adaptive growth and fitness of rice cultivars under conditions of low ambient temperature. © 2014 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. AN INTERACTION MODEL BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND BLACK RICE GROWTH IN IRRIGATED ORGANIC PADDY FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Black rice production in organic farming system does not meet the demand of local customers because of its low productivity. This research aimed to set an interaction model using multivariate analysis via smartPLS to identify environmental factors which simultaneously affects the growth of black rice. The growth of black rice in two irrigated organic paddy field in Malang, Indonesia was observed during planting period from November 2011 to March 2012. In each rice field, the growth was periodically recorded during planting periods: 19-29 days after planting (dap, 41-45 dap, 62-66 dap, 77-81 dap, 90-94 dap and 104-106 dap. Environmental factors such as water quantities, soil conditions, weed communities and cultivation system around the black rice population were also measured. Black rice growth was influenced simultaneously by water quantities, soil, weed communities and cultivating systems with predictive-relevance value reaching 92.83%. Based on the model, water quantities in paddy field is a key factor which directly and indirectly determined the growth and productivity of black rice.

  2. Untapped Endophytic Colonization and Plant Growth-Promoting Potential of the Genus Novosphingobium to Optimize Rice Cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Rangjaroen, Chakrapong; Sungthong, Rungroch; Rerkasem, Benjavan; Teaumroong, Neung; Noisangiam, Rujirek; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of searching for potent diazotrophic bacteria that are free of public health concerns and optimize rice cultivation, the endophytic colonization and plant growth-promoting activities of some endophytic diazotrophic bacteria isolated from rice were evaluated. Among these bacteria, the emerging diazotrophic strains of the genus Novosphingobium effectively associated with rice plant interiors and consequently promoted the growth of rice, even with the lack of a nitrogen source. Thes...

  3. Effect of growth enhancement agro-input support on rice output ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of growth enhancement agro-input support on rice output: emerging issues for the green economy in Nigeria. ... Journal Home > Vol 14, No 1 (2015) > ... integrating sustainable organic and affordable more environmentally friendly ...

  4. Proposal of a growth chamber for growing Super-Dwarf Rice in Space Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Tsukamoto, Koya; Yamashita, Youichirou; Hirai, Takehiro

    Space agriculture needs to be considered to supply food for space crew who stay in space over an extended time period. So far crops such as wheat, onion, oat, pea and lettuce grew to explore the possibility of space agriculture. Although rice is a staple food for most of the world, research on rice cultivation in space has not been done much. Rice grains are nutrient-rich with carbohydrate, protein and dietary fiber. Moreover, rice is a high yield crop and harvested grains have a long shelf life. However, the plant height of standard rice cultivars is relatively long, requiring much space. In addition, rice plants require higher light intensities for greater yield. For these reasons, it is difficult to establish facilities for rice culture in a limited space with a low cost. We propose to employee a super-dwarf cultivar and a small growth chamber with a new type of LEDs. The super-dwarf rice is a short-grain japonica variety and the plant height is approximately 20 cm that is one-fifth as tall as standard cultivars. The LED light used as a light source for this study can provide full spectrum of 380 nm to 750 nm. Air temperature and humidity were controlled by a Peltier device equipped in the chamber. The characteristics of the new type of LEDs and other equipments of the chamber and the ground based performance of super-dwarf rice plants grown in the chamber will be reported.

  5. Comparison of Effect of Brassinosteroid and Gibberellin Biosynthesis Inhibitors on Growth of Rice Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Matusmoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroid (BR and gibberellin (GA are two predominant plant hormones that regulate plant cell elongation. Mutants disrupt the biosynthesis of these hormones and display different degrees of dwarf phenotypes in rice. Although the role of each plant hormone in promoting the longitudinal growth of plants has been extensively studied using genetic methods, their relationship is still poorly understood. In this study, we used two specific inhibitors targeting BR and GA biosynthesis to investigate the roles of BR and GA in growth of rice seedlings. Yucaizol, a specific inhibitor of BR biosynthesis, and Trinexapac-ethyl, a commercially available inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, were used. The effect of Yucaizol on rice seedlings indicated that Yucaizol significantly retarded stem elongation. The IC50 value was found to be approximately 0.8 μmol/L. Yucaizol also induced small leaf angle phenocopy in rice seedlings, similarly to BR-deficient rice, while Trinexapac-ethyl did not. When Yucaizol combined with Trinexapac-ethyl was applied to the rice plants, the mixture of these two inhibitors retarded stem elongation of rice at lower doses. Our results suggest that the use of a BR biosynthesis inhibitor combined with a GA biosynthesis inhibitor may be useful in the development of new technologies for controlling rice plant height.

  6. [Impacts of climate warming on growth period and yield of rice in Northeast China during recent two decades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-jia; Geng, Ting; Chen, Qun; Chen, Chang-qing

    2015-01-01

    By using rice growth period, yield and climate observation data during the recent two decades, the impact of climate warming on rice in Northeast China was investigated by mathematical statistics methods. The results indicated that in the three provinces of Northeast China, the average, maximum and minimum temperatures in rice growing season were on the. rise, and the rainfall presented a downward trend during 1989-2009. Compared to 1990s, the rice whole growth periods of Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces in 2000s were prolonged 14 d, 4.5 d and 5.1 d, respectively. The increase of temperature in May, June and September could extend the rice growth period, while that in July would shorten the growth duration. The rice growth duration of registered varieties and experiment sites had a similar increasing trend in Northeast China except for the Heilongjiang Province, and the extension of registered varieties growth period was the main factor causing the prolonged growth period of rice at experiment sites. The change in daily average, minimum and maximum temperatures all could affect the rice yield in Northeast China. The increasing temperature significantly increased the rice yield in Heilongjiang Province, especially in the west region of Sanjiang Plain. Except for the south of Liaoning Province, rice yields in other regions of Northeast China were promoted by increasing temperature. Proper measures for breeding, cultivation and farming, could be adopted to fully improve the adaptation of rice to climate warming in Northeast China.

  7. Solophos fertilizer improved rice plant growth in aerobic soil

    OpenAIRE

    NIE, Lixiao; PENG, Shaobing; BOUMAN, Bas A.M.; HUANG, Jianliang; CUI, Kehui; VISPERAS, Romeo M.; PARK, Hong-Kyu

    2007-01-01

    Yield decline of continuous monocropping of aerobic rice is the major constraint to the wide adoption of aerobic rice technology. This study was conducted to determine if solophos fertilizer could be used to reverse the yield decline of this cropping system using pot and micro-plot experiments. The soil for the pot experiment was collected from a field where aerobic rice has been grown continuously for 11 seasons at the IRRI farm. Four rates (4, 6, 8, and 10gpot^) of solophos application were...

  8. Alterations in growth, oxidative damage, and metal uptake of five aromatic rice cultivars under lead toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Umair; Hussain, Saddam; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Abbas, Farhat; Tanveer, Mohsin; Noor, Mehmood Ali; Tang, Xiangru

    2017-06-01

    Lead (Pb) affects plant growth and its related physio-biochemical functions negatively. The present study investigated the responses of five different fragrant rice cultivars viz., Meixiangzhan (MXZ-2), Xiangyaxiangzhan (XYXZ), Guixiangzhan (GXZ), Basmati-385 (B-385), and Nongxiang-18 (NX-18) to four different Pb concentrations viz., 0, 400, 800 and 1200 μM. Results depicted that Pb toxicity significantly (P rice plants; nonetheless, a significant variation was found in the sensitivity of rice cultivars to Pb toxicity. Soluble sugars increased significantly only at 1200 μM in GXZ and 800 μM in B-385, whilst the maximum reductions in protein contents were observed at 1200 μM Pb for all rice cultivars. Proline contents were reduced for XYXZ and NX-18 at Pb1200 μM. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) showed differential behavior among Pb treatments and rice cultivars. Among rice cultivars, GXZ showed better antioxidative defense system under Pb toxicity compared with all other cultivars. For all rice cultivars, the trend for Pb accumulation was recorded as: roots > stems > leaves. Furthermore, significant but negative correlations among Pb uptake and plant height (r = -0.79), tillers per plant (r = -0.91) and plant dry biomass (r = -0.81) were recorded for all rice cultivars whereas the values of translocation factor (TF) from stems to leaves were higher than roots to stems. In sum, Pb reduced the early growth and caused physio-biochemical changes in all rice cultivars, nonetheless, GXZ proved better able to tolerate Pb stress than all other rice cultivars under study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiobiological response of fast neutrons on seedling growth of rice varieties with different amylose content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baradjanegara, A.A.; Sugiyanto, T.; Rahayu, S.

    1978-01-01

    Many studies are reported on radiation effects and on factors modifying the biological response of radiation in rice. However, little attention was directed towards studying effects of fast neutrons on seedling growth response of rice as a function of chemical constituents (e.g. amylose content). Experiments were conducted to investigate the dependency of amylose content in 4 rice cultivars on radiosensitivity to fast neutrons. From the results obtained a clear relationship between amylose content and sensitivity to fast neutrons could be shown. (author)

  10. Manganese-induced regulations in growth, yield formation, quality characters, rice aroma and enzyme involved in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline biosynthesis in fragrant rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meijuan; Ashraf, Umair; Tian, Hua; Mo, Zhaowen; Pan, Shenggang; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Duan, Meiyang; Tang, Xiangru

    2016-06-01

    Micro-nutrient application is essential for normal plant growth while a little is known about manganese (Mn)-induced regulations in morpho-physiological attributes, aroma formation and enzyme involved in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) biosynthesis in aromatic rice. Present study aimed to examine the influence of four levels of Mn i.e., Mn1 (100 mg MnSO4 pot(-1)), Mn2 (150 mg MnSO4 pot(-1)), Mn3 (200 mg MnSO4 pot(-1)), and Mn4 (250 mg MnSO4 pot(-1)) on the growth, yield formation, quality characters, rice aroma and enzyme involved in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline biosynthesis in two fragrant rice cultivars i.e., Meixiangzhan and Nongxiang 18. Pots without Mn application were served as control (Ck). Each pot contained 15 kg of soil. Effects on agronomic characters, quality attributes, 2-AP contents and enzymes involved in 2-AP biosynthesis have been studied in early and late season rice. Results depicted that Mn improved rice growth, yield and related characters, and some quality attributes significantly. It further up-regulated proline, pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid (P5C) (precursors of 2-AP), soluble proteins and activities of proline dehydrogenase (ProDH), Δ(1) pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid synthetase (P5CS) ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) that led to enhanced 2-AP production in rice grains. Moreover, higher Mn levels resulted in increased grain Mn contents in both rice cultivars. Along with growth and yield improvement, Mn application significantly improved rice aromatic contents. Overall, Nongxiang 18 accumulated more 2-AP contents than Meixiangzhan in both seasons under Mn application. This study further explored the importance of Mn in rice aroma formation and signifies that micro-nutrients can play significant roles in rice aroma synthesis; however, intensive studies at molecular levels are still needed to understand the exact mechanisms of Mn to improve rice aroma formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Rhizobial Inoculation, Alone or Coinoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, Promotes Growth of Wetland Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Hahn

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rhizobia and associative bacteria promote growth in rice plants (Oryza sativa L. through a series of mechanisms, but most studies on inoculation have been performed based on inoculation with these bacteria in a separate or singular manner. The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of single/isolated inoculation and inoculation combined with symbiotic rhizobia from forage legume and with Azospirillum brasilense on promoting growth and the root colonization process in wetland rice. Two rhizobia among four isolates from a greenhouse and a laboratory experiment were selected that efficiently promoted seed germination and rice plant growth in a sterilized substrate and in soil. The two most efficient isolates (UFRGS Vp16 and UFRGS Lc348 were inoculated alone or in combination with a commercial product containing A. brasilense in two field experiments using two wetland rice cultivars over two growing seasons. In the field experiments, these isolates coinoculated with A. brasilense promoted larger increases in the agronomic variables of wetland rice compared to the control without inoculation. Confocal laser microscopy confirmed the presence of inoculated bacteria tagged with gfp (UFRGS Vp16, UFRGS Lc348, and A. brasilense colonizing the root surface of the rice seedlings, mainly in the root hairs and lateral roots.

  12. Effect Of Shade Organic Materials And Varieties On Growth And Production Of Upland Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Ginting

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is a shade factor and low organic matter content of the soil is a problem that needs to be addressed in the development of upland rice cultivation as intercrops in the plantation area. Based on these considerations then one study that needs to be done is to conduct experiments on the effect of shade factor combined with the the provision of the organic material to the some varieties of upland rice that has been recommended nationally. The objective of experiment is to study the influence of shade organic materials and varieties on the growth and production of upland rice. This research using experimental design of Split - Split Plot Design with 3 treatment factors and 3 replications or blocks. The first factor is the treatment of shade with 3 levels shade percentage 0 20 and 40. The second factor is the dosage of organic material consists of 3 levels 0 g polybag 25 g polybag 50 g polybag and 75 g polybag. The third factor is the treatment of varieties consists of 4 types of upland rice varieties Si Kembiri Situ Patengggang Situ Bagendit and Tuwoti. The research results showed that the effect of shade on upland rice varieties decrease number of tillers number of panicles number of productive grains grain production per hill of uplnd rice plants and total sugar content of upland rice plants. Effect of organic matter increases number of panicles number of productive grains grain production per hill of upland rice plants and total sugar content of upland rice plants. It is known that the the variety of Situ Patenggang provides better growth and production compared with three other varieties Si Kembiri Situ Bagendit and Tuwoti in shaded conditions.

  13. Exogenously applied plant growth regulators enhance the morpho-physiological growth and yield of rice under high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Fahad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A two-year experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of exogenously applied plant growth regulators (PGR on rice growth and yield attributes under high day (HDT and high night temperature (HNT. Two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan were subjected to temperature treatments in controlled growth chambers and four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc, alpha-tocopherol (Ve, brassinosteroids (Br, methyl jasmonates (MeJA and triazoles (Tr were applied. High temperature severely affected rice morphology, and also reduced leaf area, above- and below-ground biomass, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency, while increased the leaf water potential of both rice cultivars. Grain yield and its related attributes except number of panicles, were reduced under high temperature. The HDT posed more negative effects on rice physiological attributes, while HNT was more detrimental for grain formation and yield. The Huanghuazhan performed better than IR-64 under high temperature stress with better growth and higher grain yield. Exogenous application of PGRs was helpful in alleviating the adverse effects of high temperature. Among PGR combinations, the Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the most effective treatment for both cultivars under high temperature stress. The highest grain production by Vc+Ve+MejA+Br treated plants was due to enhanced photosynthesis, spikelet fertility and grain filling, which compensated the adversities of high temperature stress. Taken together, these results will be of worth for further understanding the adaptation and survival mechanisms of rice to high temperature and will assist in developing heat-resistant rice germplasm in future.

  14. Infuences of Rice Husk Biochar (RHB on Rice Growth Performance and Fertilizer Nitrogen Recovery up to Maximum Tillering Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniel Anak Sang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A pot study was carried out to investigate the effects of rice husk biochar addition on rice growth performance and fertilizer nitrogen recovery. The biochar effect was studied by using 15N labelled fertilizer urea (10 atom% 15N, as isotopic tracer, until maximum tillering stage (75 days after sowing. Rice husk biochar (RHB was applied at rates of 0, 5, 10 and 20 Mg ha-1 and laid in randomized complete block design with four replications. The result showed that biochar application significantly improved soil chemical properties (pH, total C, total N, and available P compared to control treatment. Biochar addition increased number of tiller and root dry matter weight up to 4% and 35%, respectively, compared to un-amended pot. Likewise, application of biochar significantly increased N, P and K uptake by 3%, 19% and 33%, respectively, as compared to the nutrient uptake from the control treatment. Biochar treatment had no significant impact on fertilizer nitrogen recovery in aboveground biomass, in the range of 41% and 42%, in comparison to the control. However, nitrogen fertilizer recovery in soil significantly increased by 47% over the control at application rate of 20 Mg ha-1 RHB.  Increased fertilizer N recovery in soil possibly reduced N losses to the environment from volatilization and denitrification processes. Total 15N fertilizer recovery also found increase at highest application of RHB biochar with an increment of 16%. In general, addition of biochar appeared to enhance crop growth performance but its effect on fertilizer N recovery in plant requires further study up to maturity of rice plant.

  15. Effect of straw application on nitrogen uptake and growth of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haryanto; Idawati.

    1990-01-01

    A pot experiment has been conducted to know the effect of straw application on the efficiency of nitrogen uptake and growth rice plant. The rice straw was applied at different time i.e. 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks before tranplanting. Soil without rice straw was used as control. Thirty gram of rice straw having 3.61 percent of N-15 atom excess was incorporated into 6 kg of latosol soil originated from Pasar jumat, in which Atomoita I, a lowland rice variety, was planted. Urea was given once at the tranplanting time. The result showed that the longer the time of the rice straw application prior to the transplanting time, the higher the N-straw uptake efficiency in the rice plant at any different stages. The highest efficiency was 6.14 percent, reached with straw applicaions at 4 weeks before tranplanting. Compared to the control, straw applications 2 weeks or more before tranplanting resulted in higher grain production, while application at or before 2 weeks of tranplanting produced lower production. (authors). 9 refs.; 5 tabs

  16. Temperatures and the growth and development of maize and rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez, Berta; Rasmussen, Anton; Porter, John Roy

    2014-01-01

    and maize crop responses to temperature in different, but consistent, phenological phases and development stages. A literature review and data compilation of around 140 scientific articles have determined the key temperature thresholds and response to extreme temperature effects for rice and maize...... defined in all three crops. Anthesis and ripening are the most sensitive temperature stages in rice as well as in wheat and maize. We call for further experimental studies of the effects of transgressing threshold temperatures so such responses can be included into crop impact and adaptation models....

  17. Utilization of organic fertilizer to increase paddy growth and productivity using System of Rice Intensification (SRI method in saline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V . O . Subardja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity has negative effect on soil biodiversity as well as microbial activities. Hence, rice growth also effected by salinity. Application of organic fertilizer and adoption of System of Rice Intensification (SRI cultivation might improve the (biological soil properties and increase rice yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different rice cultivation methods namely conventional rice cultivation method and System of Rice Intensification (SRI rice cultivation method and two kinds organic fertilizer on improvement of soil biological properties and rice yield. In this study, a split plot experimental design was applied where rice cultivation method (conventional and SRI was the main plot and two kinds of organic fertilizer (market waste and rice straw was the sub plot. The treatments had four replicates. The results showed that SRI cultivation with market waste organic fertilizer could increase soil biological properties (population of microbe, fungi and soil respiration. The same treatment also increased rice growth and production. Combination of SRI and market waste organic fertilizer yielded the highest rice production (7.21 t/ha.

  18. Growth promotion and inhibition of the Amazonian wild rice species Oryza grandiglumis to survive flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okishio, Takuma; Sasayama, Daisuke; Hirano, Tatsuya; Akimoto, Masahiro; Itoh, Kazuyuki; Azuma, Tetsushi

    2014-09-01

    In Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), distinct mechanisms to survive flooding are activated in two groups of varieties. Submergence-tolerant rice varieties possessing the SUBMERGENCE1A (SUB1A) gene display reduced growth during flash floods at the seedling stage and resume growth after the flood recedes, whereas deepwater rice varieties possessing the SNORKEL1 (SK1) and SNORKEL2 (SK2) genes display enhanced growth based on internodal elongation during prolonged submergence at the mature stage. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of these growth responses to submergence in the wild rice species Oryza grandiglumis, which is native to the Amazon floodplains. When subjected to gradual submergence, adult plants of O. grandiglumis accessions showed enhanced internodal elongation with rising water level and their growth response closely resembled that of deepwater varieties of O. sativa with high floating capacity. On the other hand, when subjected to complete submergence, seedlings of O. grandiglumis accessions displayed reduced shoot growth and resumed normal growth after desubmergence, similar to the response of submergence-tolerant varieties of O. sativa. Neither SUB1A nor the SK genes were detected in the O. grandiglumis accessions. These results indicate that the O. grandiglumis accessions are capable of adapting successfully to flooding by activating two contrasting mechanisms as the situation demands and that each mechanism of adaptation to flooding is not mediated by SUB1A or the SK genes.

  19. Cyanobacteria-mediated phenylpropanoids and phytohormones in rice (Oryza sativa) enhance plant growth and stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dhananjaya P; Prabha, Ratna; Yandigeri, Mahesh S; Arora, Dilip K

    2011-11-01

    Phenylpropanoids, flavonoids and plant growth regulators in rice (Oryza sativa) variety (UPR 1823) inoculated with different cyanobacterial strains namely Anabaena oryzae, Anabaena doliolum, Phormidium fragile, Calothrix geitonos, Hapalosiphon intricatus, Aulosira fertilissima, Tolypothrix tenuis, Oscillatoria acuta and Plectonema boryanum were quantified using HPLC in pot conditions after 15 and 30 days. Qualitative analysis of the induced compounds using reverse phase HPLC and further confirmation with LC-MS/MS showed consistent accumulation of phenolic acids (gallic, gentisic, caffeic, chlorogenic and ferulic acids), flavonoids (rutin and quercetin) and phytohormones (indole acetic acid and indole butyric acid) in rice leaves. Plant growth promotion (shoot, root length and biomass) was positively correlated with total protein and chlorophyll content of leaves. Enzyme activity of peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase and total phenolic content was fairly high in rice leaves inoculated with O. acuta and P. boryanum after 30 days. Differential systemic accumulation of phenylpropanoids in plant leaves led us to conclude that cyanobacterial inoculation correlates positively with plant growth promotion and stress tolerance in rice. Furthermore, the study helped in deciphering possible mechanisms underlying plant growth promotion and stress tolerance in rice following cyanobacterial inoculation and indicated the less explored avenue of cyanobacterial colonization in stress tolerance against abiotic stress.

  20. Effect of microcystins on root growth, oxidative response, and exudation of rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Rediske, Richard R; Yao, Lei; Xie, Liqiang

    2018-03-01

    A 30 days indoor hydroponic experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of microcystins (MCs) on rice root morphology and exudation, as well as bioaccumulation of MCs in rice. MCs were bioaccumulated in rice with the greatest concentrations being observed in the leaves (113.68μgg -1 Fresh weight (FW)) when exposed to 500μgL -1 MCs. Root activity at 500μgL -1 decreased 37%, compared to the control. MCs also induced disruption of the antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation in rice roots. Root growth was significantly inhibited by MCs. Root weight, length; surface area and volume were significantly decreased, as well as crown root number and lateral root number. After 30 days exposure to MCs, an increase was found in tartaric acid and malic acid while the other organic acids were not affected. Glycine, tyrosine, and glutamate were the only amino acids stimulated at MCs concentrations of 500μgL -1 . Similarly, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and carbohydrate at 50 and 500μgL -1 treatments were significantly increased. The increase of DOC and carbohydrate in root exudates was due to rice root membrane permeability changes induced by MCs. Overall, this study indicated that MCs significantly inhibited rice root growth and affected root exudation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Utilizing Bacillus to inhibit the growth and infection by sheath blight pathogen, Rhizoctoniasolani in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margani, R.; Hadiwiyono; Widadi, S.

    2018-03-01

    Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn is a common pathogen of rice. The pathogen causes sheath blight of rice. The pathogen can cause loss in the production of rice up to 45%. So far, the disease however is still poorly taken care of by the farmers and researchers, so the control measures is nearly never practiced by the farmers in the fields. It due to the unavailability of effective control method of the disease. Therefore, development to control the disease is important. Bacillus is one of popular bacteria which is effective as biological control agent of a lot of pathogens in plants, but it has not been used for control sheath blight in rice yet. The current researches were aimed to study the potential of Bacillus collected from healthy rice as candidates of biological control agent of the disease. The results showed that some isolates showed indications to inhibit significantly the growth and infection of the pathogen. We obtained at least five isolates of Bacillus collected from leaves, sheath, and stem of healthy rice fields. All of the isolates could effectively inhibit the growth of R. solani in vitro on potato dextrose medium at range 30.33-58.00%, whereas in vivo B05 isolate was the most effective in inhibiting the infection of pathogen at 30.43%. It was not significantly different (P≥0.05) to application of hexaconazol with dosage of 2 ml L-1.

  2. Boron Application Improves Growth, Yield and Net Economic Return of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubshar HUSSAIN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was conducted to evaluate the role of boron (B application at different growth stages in improving the growth, yield and net economic return of rice at farmer's fields during summer season, 2009. Boron was soil applied (1.5 kg/hm2 at the transplanting, tillering, flowering and grain formation stages of rice; foliar applied (1.5% B solution at the tillering, flowering and grain formation stages of rice, and dipped seedling roots in 1.5% B solution before transplanting; while control plots did not apply any B. Boron application (except dipping of seedling roots in B solution, which caused toxicity and reduced the number of tillers and straw yield than control substantially improved the rice growth and yield. However, soil application was better in improving the number of grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, harvest index, net economic income and ratio of benefit to cost compared with the rest of treatments. Overall, for improving rice performance and maximizing the net economic returns, B might be applied as soil application at flowering.

  3. Effects of Different Biochar Application Patterns on Rice Growth and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yue-man

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has positive effect on carbon sequestration and soil improvement, consequently biochar application has been attracted more and more attention in recent years. However, so far, few investigations about the effects of biochar application patterns on crop growth, which may have a direct impact on biochar's application and comprehensive environmental effects have been reported. Herein, soil column study was conducted using four biochars, i.e., wheat straw(WBC and wood sawdust(SBC that pyrolyzed at 500℃ and 700℃, respectively, to study the effects of two different biochar application patterns on rice growth. These two typical biochar application patterns were:generally mixed application(mixed treatment and surface application(surface treatment. The results showed that:(1In comparison with CK, all biochar application treatments promoted the growth of rice in terms of plant height and SPAD(Soil Plant Analysis Development value. Plant height of surface treatment was higher than that of mixed treatments at the heading, filling and maturation stages. SPAD and NDVI(Normalized Different Vegetation Index value of surface treatments were slightly lower than mixed treatment.(2Biochar significantly increased rice seeding setting rate by 4.88%~8.39%, moreover, surface treatments were observed higher rice seeding setting rate than mixed treatments. However, no significant difference was observed in the number of effective panicles, grains per spike and 1 000-grain weight between surface and mixed treatment. (3Application of biochar promoted rice yield, and surface treatments were more likely to increase rice yield compared with the conventional mixed treatments. (4All biochar treatments increased rice harvest index by 2.58%~10.56%, and no significant difference was found between surface and mixed treatment.(5All applications of biochar promoted nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium partial productivity, which was 9.81%~36.25% higher than that of CK.

  4. Fenton process-affected transformation of roxarsone in paddy rice soils: Effects on plant growth and arsenic accumulation in rice grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Junhao; Li, Huashou; Lin, Chuxia

    2016-08-01

    Batch and greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the effects of Fenton process on transformation of roxarsone in soils and its resulting impacts on the growth of and As uptake by a rice plant cultivar. The results show that addition of Fenton reagent markedly accelerated the degradation of roxarsone and produced arsenite, which was otherwise absent in the soil without added Fenton reagent. Methylation of arsenate was also enhanced by Fenton process in the earlier part of the experiment due to abundant supply of arsenate from Roxarsone degradation. Overall, addition of Fenton reagent resulted in the predominant presence of arsenate in the soils. Fenton process significantly improved the growth of rice in the maturity stage of the first crop, The concentration of methylated As species in the rice plant tissues among the different growth stages was highly variable. Addition of Fenton reagent into the soils led to reduced uptake of soil-borne As by the rice plants and this had a significant effect on reducing the accumulation of As in rice grains. The findings have implications for understanding As biogeochemistry in paddy rice field receiving rainwater-borne H2O2 and for development of mitigation strategies to reduce accumulation of As in rice grains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamic Mapping of Rice Growth Parameters Using HJ-1 CCD Time Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The high temporal resolution (4-day charge-coupled device (CCD cameras onboard small environment and disaster monitoring and forecasting satellites (HJ-1A/B with 30 m spatial resolution and large swath (700 km have substantially increased the availability of regional clear sky optical remote sensing data. For the application of dynamic mapping of rice growth parameters, leaf area index (LAI and aboveground biomass (AGB were considered as plant growth indicators. The HJ-1 CCD-derived vegetation indices (VIs showed robust relationships with rice growth parameters. Cumulative VIs showed strong performance for the estimation of total dry AGB. The cross-validation coefficient of determination ( R C V 2 was increased by using two machine learning methods, i.e., a back propagation neural network (BPNN and a support vector machine (SVM compared with traditional regression equations of LAI retrieval. The LAI inversion accuracy was further improved by dividing the rice growth period into before and after heading stages. This study demonstrated that continuous rice growth monitoring over time and space at field level can be implemented effectively with HJ-1 CCD 10-day composite data using a combination of proper VIs and regression models.

  6. Effects of gamma-rays and neutrons on the seedling and callus growth in rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baradjanegara, A.A.; Fujii, Taro; Amano, Etsuo

    1976-01-01

    Seeds of rice c.v. Norin-8 and two radiation induced dwarf mutants MGS-46 and -96 were used to investigate the effects of gamma- and 14 MeV neutron-radiations in different culture systems. Seedling growth of irradiated seeds in soil, and in two types of synthetic media, modified White's (M-W) or modified Eriksson's (M-E), as well as the callus growth on 2.4-D supplemented media were measured as an index of radiation damage. Comparing the seedling height about two types of media, the M-E promoted the plant growth than the M-W in irradiated as well as non-irradiated lots of the three strains studied. The callus growth on M-E surpassed by more 10 times that obrained on the M-W in all the lots. The M-E medium seem to be appropriate for both the seedling and callus growth of rice. (auth.)

  7. Effects of gamma rays and neutrons on the seedling and callus growth in rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baradjanegara, A.A.; Fujii, T.; Amano, E.

    1976-01-01

    Seeds of rice c.v. Norin-8 and two radiation induced dwarf mutants MGS-46 and -96 were used to investigate the effects of gamma and 14 MeV neutron-radiations in different culture systems. Seeding growth of irradiated seeds in soil, and in two types of synthetic media, modified White's (M-W) or modified Erickson's (M-E), as well as the callus growth on 2,4-D supplemented media were measured as an index radiation damage. Comparing the seeding height about two types of media, the M-E promoted the plant growth than the M-W in irradiated as well as non irradiated lots of the three strains studied. The callus growth on M-E surpassed by more 10 times that obtained on the M-W in all the lots. The M-E medium seems to be appropriate for both the seeding and callus growth of rice. (author)

  8. Culturable bacterial endophytes isolated from Mangrove tree (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) enhance seedling growth in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deivanai, Subramanian; Bindusara, Amitraghata Santhanam; Prabhakaran, Guruswamy; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

    2014-07-01

    Endophytic bacteria do have several potential applications in medicine and in other various sectors of biotechnology including agriculture. Bacterial endophytes need to be explored for their potential applications in agricultural biotechnology. One of the potential applications of bacterial endophytes in agricultural is to enhance the growth of the agricultural crops. Hence, this study was undertaken to explore the plant growth promoting potential application of bacterial endophytes. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of endophytic bacteria from mangrove tree (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) for their efficacy in promoting seedling growth in rice. Eight endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) isolated from twig and petiole tissues of the mangrove were identified based on their 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequence homology. Separately, surface sterilized paddy seeds were treated with cell-free broth and cell suspension of the EBIs. Rice seedlings were analyzed by various bioassays and data was recorded. The gene sequences of the isolates were closely related to two genera namely, Bacillus and Pantoea. Inoculation of EBIs from R. apiculata with rice seeds resulted in accelerated root and shoot growth with significant increase in chlorophyll content. Among the isolates, Pantoea ananatis (1MSE1) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (3MPE1) had shown predominance of activity. Endophytic invasion was recognized by the non-host by rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and was counteracted by the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxide. The results demonstrated that EBIs from mangrove tree can increase the fitness of the rice seedlings under controlled conditions. These research findings could be useful to enhance the seedling growth and could serve as foundation in further research on enhancing the growth of the rice crop using endophytic bacteria.

  9. Growth responses of NaCl stressed rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... Growth responses of NaCl stressed rice (Oryza sativa. L.) plants ... 2008), which is a real threat to human's food security. Existed situation may ..... content and composition of essential oil and minerals in black cumin. (Nigella ...

  10. The effects of nitrogen fixation and plant growth-promoting in rice-diazotroph association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Fan; Wang Lu

    1999-05-01

    This is a review of studies on applications of the genetic engineered ammonium-tolerant diazotroph as an inoculum with the effects of nitrogen-fixation, plant growth-promoting and yield-increasing on rice and some crops by using 15 N tracer in mini-plot and field experiments in resent years

  11. Gibberellin regulates pollen viability and pollen tube growth in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhun, Tory; Aya, Koichiro; Asano, Kenji; Yamamoto, Eiji; Morinaka, Yoichi; Watanabe, Masao; Kitano, Hidemi; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako

    2007-12-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) play many biological roles in higher plants. We collected and performed genetic analysis on rice (Oryza sativa) GA-related mutants, including GA-deficient and GA-insensitive mutants. Genetic analysis of the mutants revealed that rice GA-deficient mutations are not transmitted as Mendelian traits to the next generation following self-pollination of F1 heterozygous plants, although GA-insensitive mutations are transmitted normally. To understand these differences in transmission, we examined the effect of GA on microsporogenesis and pollen tube elongation in rice using new GA-deficient and GA-insensitive mutants that produce semifertile flowers. Phenotypic analysis revealed that the GA-deficient mutant reduced pollen elongation1 is defective in pollen tube elongation, resulting in a low fertilization frequency, whereas the GA-insensitive semidominant mutant Slr1-d3 is mainly defective in viable pollen production. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that GA biosynthesis genes tested whose mutations are transmitted to the next generation at a lower frequency are preferentially expressed after meiosis during pollen development, but expression is absent or very low before the meiosis stage, whereas GA signal-related genes are actively expressed before meiosis. Based on these observations, we predict that the transmission of GA-signaling genes occurs in a sporophytic manner, since the protein products and/or mRNA transcripts of these genes may be introduced into pollen-carrying mutant alleles, whereas GA synthesis genes are transmitted in a gametophytic manner, since these genes are preferentially expressed after meiosis.

  12. Interactions among spectral components of radiation in the growth responses of rice, tomato and strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, K.; Matsuno, A.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of spectral components and their ratios of radiation on simultaneous growth responses were investigated with rice, tomato and strawberry plants exposed to lights with a high fluence rate (350 or 408 μmol m -2 s -1 , 400-700 nm) during every daytime. Both elongation growth and Ieaf area development in rice and strawberry were promoted by red (R) but inhibited by blue (B) component depending on the each fluence rate. However, leaf area in tomato responded in opposite direction to these. The elongation growth was remarkably increased with the fluence rate of far-red (FR) in tomato and strawberry, but not in rice. These responses were lineary increased, except FR and UV effects, with logarithmic R/B ratio in rice and strawberry but not in tomato. A very low R/FR ratio caused a strong promotion of both elongation and leaf area in tomato, while it promoted petiole elengation but inhibited leaf area development in strawberry. The elongation and leaf area development responded to R/FR in reverse way between rice and strawberry. Chlorophyll content of leaves was generally decreased with the increase of logarithmic R/B ratio in all the species. Areal weight of leaf and dry weight increment/leaf area were more or less increased with R/B and R/ FR ratios, Dry weight increment varied with the spectral ratios in almost the same way as leaf area, suggesting that spectral dependence of photosynthetic production was not much different between the species. Some discussions were made on the photoreceptor pigments involved in the elongation growth and leaf area development, and on the selection of light quantity to ensure a normal growth of each plant species

  13. The list of strains and growth conditions - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis The list of strains and growth... conditions Data detail Data name The list of strains and growth conditions DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00945...-001 Description of data contents The list of strains and growth conditions for respective samples. Data fil...servation Intervals of imaging Intervals of imaging Growth data Graph of chronological changes in growth Ima...History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us The list of strains and growth conditions - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive ...

  14. Effects of triazole derivatives on strigolactone levels and growth retardation in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsaku Ito

    Full Text Available We previously discovered a lead compound for strigolactone (SL biosynthesis inhibitors, TIS13 (2,2-dimethyl-7-phenoxy-4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylheptan-3-ol. Here, we carried out a structure-activity relationship study of TIS13 to discover more potent and specific SL biosynthesis inhibitor because TIS13 has a severe side effect at high concentrations, including retardation of the growth of rice seedlings. TIS108, a new TIS13 derivative, was found to be a more specific SL biosynthesis inhibitor than TIS13. Treatment of rice seedlings with TIS108 reduced SL levels in both roots and root exudates in a concentration-dependent manner and did not reduce plant height. In addition, root exudates of TIS108-treated rice seedlings stimulated Striga germination less than those of control plants. These results suggest that TIS108 has a potential to be applied in the control of root parasitic weeds germination.

  15. Discrimination of Rice with Different Pretreatment Methods by Using a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an application of a voltammetric electronic tongue for discrimination and prediction of different varieties of rice was investigated. Different pretreatment methods were selected, which were subsequently used for the discrimination of different varieties of rice and prediction of unknown rice samples. To this aim, a voltammetric array of sensors based on metallic electrodes was used as the sensing part. The different samples were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry with two sample-pretreatment methods. Discriminant Factorial Analysis was used to visualize the different categories of rice samples; however, radial basis function (RBF artificial neural network with leave-one-out cross-validation method was employed for prediction modeling. The collected signal data were first compressed employing fast Fourier transform (FFT and then significant features were extracted from the voltammetric signals. The experimental results indicated that the sample solutions obtained by the non-crushed pretreatment method could efficiently meet the effect of discrimination and recognition. The satisfactory prediction results of voltammetric electronic tongue based on RBF artificial neural network were obtained with less than five-fold dilution of the sample solution. The main objective of this study was to develop primary research on the application of an electronic tongue system for the discrimination and prediction of solid foods and provide an objective assessment tool for the food industry.

  16. Quantifying the effects of land conditions on rice growth : a case study in the Ebro Delta (Spain) using remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casanova, D.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis represents detailed research on the "rice-soils-weather" system of the Ebro Delta (Spain) providing knowledge on how temperature, radiation, soil properties and farm management determine rice growth. After an introductory chapter, the findings are developed step-by-step. (i)

  17. Electronic growth charts: watching our patients grow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cynthia A; Carstens, Kimberly; Villamayor, Precy

    2005-01-01

    Pediatric Growth Charts have been used in the pediatric community since 1977. The first growth charts were developed by the National Center for Health Statistics as a clinical tool for health care professionals. The growth charts, revised in 2000, by the Center for Disease Control consists of a series of percentile curves for selected body measurements in children [1]. Capitalizing on the benefits of our Electronic Medical Record (EMR), and as a byproduct of nursing electronic documentation of routine heights, weights, and frontal occipital circumferences, our system plots the routine measurements without additional intervention by the staff. Clinicians can view the graphs online or generate printed reports as needed during routine examination for outpatient or hospitalized care. This abstract outlines the background, design process, programming rules utilized to plot growth curves, and the evaluation of the electronic CDC growth charts in our organization.

  18. Enhanced growth, yield and physiological characteristics of rice under elevated carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzar, A.; Ahmad, Wan Juliana Wan; Said, Mohd Nizam Mohd; Doni, Febri; Zaidan, Mohd Waznul Adly Mohd; Fathurahman, Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is rapidly increasing in the atmosphere. It is an essential element for photosynthesis which attracts attention among scientists on how plants will perform in the rising CO2 level. Rice as one of the most important staple food in the world has been studied on the growth responses under elevated CO2. The present research was carried out to determine the growth and physiology of rice in elevated CO2 condition. This research was carried out using complete randomized design with elevated (800 ppm) and ambient CO2. Results showed that growth parameters such as plant height, tillers and number of leaves per plant were increased by elevated CO2. The positive changes in plant physiology when exposed to high CO2 concentration includes significant change (p<0.05) in yield parameters such as panicle number, grain number per panicle, biomass and 1000 grain weight under the elevated CO2 of 800 ppm.

  19. [Rice endogenous nitrogen fixing and growth promoting bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae DX35].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiucheng; Cao, Yanhua; Tang, Xue; Ma, Xiaotong; Gao, Jusheng; Zhang, Xiaoxia

    2014-03-04

    To screen efficient nitrogen fixation endophytes from rice and to analyze their growth-promoting properties. We isolated strains from the roots of rice in the field where it has a rice-rice-green manure rotation system for 30 years. Efficient strains were screened by acetylene reduction assay. Phylogenetic analysis is based on 16S rRNA gene, nifH gene and the composition of fatty acid. In addition, we also detected the ability of indole acetic acid secretion through the Salkowski colorimetric method, measured the production of siderophore through the blue plate assay and detected phosphate solubilization, to analyze the growth-promoting properties. A total of 48 strains were isolated, in which DX35 has the highest nitrogenase activity. It belongs to Herbaspirillum seropedicae after identification. Its nitrogenase activity (181.21 nmol C2H4/(mg protein x h)) was 10 times as much as the reference strain Azotobacter chroococcum ACCC10006. In addition, it also can secrete siderophore and solubilize phosphorus. Strain DX35, belonging to Herbaspirillum seropedicae, is an efficient nitrogen fixation endophytes.

  20. Influence of azolla on rice growth treated with and without N fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, E.L.; Sisworo, W.H.; Hendratno; Rasyid, H.; Solahuddin, S.; Partohardjono, S.

    1987-01-01

    Influence of azolla on rice growth treated with and without fertilizer. An experiment to investigate the influence of azolla on growth of rice treated with and without N fertilizer has been carried out in the rainy season 1984/1985 at the Muara Experimental Station, Bogota. Rice variety used in this experiment was Atomita I. Eight treatments employed in this experiment were treatments without azolla and N fertilizer, with azolla alone, with N fertilizer alone, and a combination of azolla and N fertilizer used was urea labelled with 5% 15 N atom excess. Parameters observed were: dry weight, total-N and N-derived from fertilizer in rough grain, straw and plant. Data from this experiment indicated that azolla was able to produce similar yield of rough grain, straw and plant with those produced by N fertilizer applied at a rate of 90 kg N/ha. These data were much higher compared to N fertilizer applied at a rate of 30 and 60 kg N/ha. The same trend was found in yield of N. It turned out that apparently azolla is effective to increase rice production. (author). 3 figs., 8 refs

  1. ACC deaminase and IAA producing growth promoting bacteria from the rhizosphere soil of tropical rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Himadri Bhusan; Das, Subhasis; Dangar, Tushar K; Adhya, Tapan K

    2013-12-01

    Beneficial plant-associated bacteria play a key role in supporting and/or promoting plant growth and health. Plant growth promoting bacteria present in the rhizosphere of crop plants can directly affect plant metabolism or modulate phytohormone production or degradation. We isolated 355 bacteria from the rhizosphere of rice plants grown in the farmers' fields in the coastal rice field soil from five different locations of the Ganjam district of Odisha, India. Six bacteria producing both ACC deaminase (ranging from 603.94 to 1350.02 nmol α-ketobutyrate mg(-1)  h(-1) ) and indole acetic acid (IAA; ranging from 10.54 to 37.65 μM ml(-1) ) in pure cultures were further identified using polyphasic taxonomy including BIOLOG((R)) , FAME analysis and the 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses of the isolates resulted into five major clusters to include members of the genera Bacillus, Microbacterium, Methylophaga, Agromyces, and Paenibacillus. Seed inoculation of rice (cv. Naveen) by the six individual PGPR isolates had a considerable impact on different growth parameters including root elongation that was positively correlated with ACC deaminase activity and IAA production. The cultures also had other plant growth attributes including ammonia production and at least two isolates produced siderophores. Study indicates that presence of diverse rhizobacteria with effective growth-promoting traits, in the rice rhizosphere, may be exploited for a sustainable crop management under field conditions. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Growth and production of new superior rice varieties in the shade intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alridiwirsah; Harahap, E. M.; Akoeb, E. N.; Hanum, H.

    2018-02-01

    Shade intensity is one of the most important requirements for plant growth, affecting growth, development, survival, and crop productivity. This study aims to evaluate the growth and productiom of New Superior Rice Varieties In The shade Intensity. This study was conducted in Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian, Pagar Merbau, Deli Serdang, North Sumatra. The research used completely randomized design with twofactors. The shade intensity (N) were 25%, 50% and no shade intensity as a control. Whereas new superior rice varieties were V1: Inpara 2, V2: Suluttan Unsrat 2, V3: Inpari Mugibat, V4: Inpari Sidenuk, V5: Mekongga, V6: Ciherang, V7:Inpari 10, V8: Inpari 3, V9: Inpari 4, V10: Inpari 30, dan V11: Cibogo. The result indicated that new superior rice varietiesshowedsignificant effectonthe growth and productionvariablesuch as leaf area, where Inpari Sidenuk variety was the highest among the varieties. Total chorophyll, the highest was found on Inpari variety. Number of tillers and plant height where the highest was found on Ciherang variety. The shade intensity showed significant effect on leaf area, where 25% shade intensity was the highest. Total chlorophyll, the highest was found on 50% shade intensity, number of tillers, the highest was found on no shade intensity.

  3. The effect of biofertilizer fungi on Ciherang rice growth at some level of soil salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y B Subowo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A research about the effect of fungus contained biofertilizer on Ciherang rice that was growth on different level of soil salinity was conducted. One of the effect of global climate changes is the increase of sea water level. It leads to the expansion of sea water submerged land for agriculture. Salt intrution to the agriculture area considerably decrease soil fertility because of the high salinity. Some of microbes especially soil fungi such as Aspergillus sp and Penicillium sp. are able to grow at high salinity environment. Those fungi were also able to degrade lignocellulose, sollubilize in organic phosphate and provide organic phosphat and produce plant growth hormon especially IAA. Such activities benefit to improve soil fertility in high salinity land as a bio-fertilizer.The objective of this research was to know the growth of rice plant that treated with fungus contained bio-fertilizer on land with different level of salinity. The rice were planted in Green house of Cibinong Science Centre, Cibinong.The research was set up as complete random design with five replication. The rice were watered by 5 conditions: 50% of sea water, 100% of sea water, 100% sea water + 2 % NaCl , fresh water + 5 % NaCl and 100% fresh water as the control. Fertilizer was added to the medium twice. Ten grams of fertilizer were used per polybag (10g/7 Kg, 2 weeks after planting and before flowering subsequently. The observed parameters were plant height, number of tiller, leaves colour, biomass dry weight, soil organic carbon content, cellulosic and lignin degrading activities of the fungus, fungus phosphate-solubilizing potency and fungus production of IAA.The watering treatment lead to 5 level of salinity i.e. : 5,93 dS/m (50% sea water, 9,15 dS/m (100% sea water, 10,42 dS/m (sea water + 2% NaCl, 12,43 dS/m (fresh water + 5% NaCl and 0,74 dS/m (fresh water. The result showed that among those 5 watering condition, the rice grew best on 5,93 dS/m (watering 50% of

  4. Growth in rice cells requires de novo purine biosynthesis by the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Jessie; Yang, Kuan Ting; Cornwell, Kathryn M.; Wright, Janet D.; Wilson, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing incidences of human disease, crop destruction and ecosystem perturbations are attributable to fungi and threaten socioeconomic progress and food security on a global scale. The blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is the most devastating pathogen of cultivated rice, but its metabolic requirements in the host are unclear. Here we report that a purine-requiring mutant of M. oryzae could develop functional appressoria, penetrate host cells and undergo the morphogenetic transition to elaborate bulbous invasive hyphae from primary hyphae, but further in planta growth was aborted. Invasive hyphal growth following rice cell ingress is thus dependent on de novo purine biosynthesis by the pathogen and, moreover, plant sources of purines are neither available to the mutant nor required by the wild type during the early biotrophic phase of infection. This work provides new knowledge about the metabolic interface between fungus and host that might be applicable to other important intracellular fungal pathogens. PMID:23928947

  5. Effect of water management and silicon on germination, growth, phosphorus and arsenic uptake in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Zahida; Bakhat, Hafiz Faiq; Saqib, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Fahad, Shah; Ashraf, Muhammad Rizwan; Hammad, Hafiz Mohkum; Naseem, Wajid; Shahid, Muhammad

    2017-10-01

    Silicon (Si) is the 2nd most abundant element in soil which is known to enhance stress tolerance in wide variety of crops. Arsenic (As), a toxic metalloid enters into the human food chain through contaminated water and food or feed. To alleviate the deleterious effect of As on human health, it is a need of time to find out an effective strategy to reduce the As accumulation in the food chain. The experiments were conducted during September-December 2014, and 2016 to optimize Si concentration for rice (Oryza sativa L.) exposed to As stress. Further experiment were carried out to evaluate the effect of optimum Si on rice seed germination, seedling growth, phosphorus and As uptake in rice plant. During laboratory experiment, rice seeds were exposed to 150 and 300µM As with and without 3mM Si supplementation. Results revealed that As application, decreased the germination up to 40-50% as compared to control treatment. Arsenic stress also significantly (P management, significantly (P˂0.05) affected the plant growth, Si and As concentrations in the plant. Arsenic uptake was relatively less under aerobic conditions. The maximum As concentration (9.34 and 27.70mgkg DW -1 in shoot and root, respectively) was found in plant treated with 300µM As in absence of Si under anaerobic condition. Similarly, anaerobic condition resulted in higher As uptake in the plants. The study demonstrated that aerobic cultivation is suitable to decrease the As uptake and in rice exogenous Si supply is beneficial to decrease As uptake under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of Effect of Brassinosteroid and Gibberellin Biosynthesis Inhibitors on Growth of Rice Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Matusmoto, Tadashi; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Yoshizawa, Yuko; Oh, Keimei

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) are two predominant plant hormones that regulate plant cell elongation. Mutants disrupt the biosynthesis of these hormones and display different degrees of dwarf phenotypes in rice. Although the role of each plant hormone in promoting the longitudinal growth of plants has been extensively studied using genetic methods, their relationship is still poorly understood. In this study, we used two specific inhibitors targeting BR and GA biosynthesis to inve...

  7. Comparison of NH4+-N and NO3--N nutrition in hybrid and conventional rice at the late growth stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoe; Sun Xi

    1990-01-01

    The difference of NH 4 + -N/NO 3 - -N nutrition between hybrid and conventional rice varieties at the late growth stage was studied by using 15 N-tracer technique. The results showed that the nitrate fertilizer utilization efficiency by the hybrid rice after anthesis was 7.8% higher than that by the ordinary rice variety, and the nitrate fertilizer recovery fraction by the former was 13.2% greater than that by the latter. The varietal difference in NO 3 - -N uptake and utilization was almost twice as that in NH 4 + -N. It was also showed that 15 N distribution in ear of the hybrid rice was about 20% greater than that of the conventional variety, but there were no obvious differences between NO 3 - -N and NH 4 + -N. However, 15 N distribution in the lower node leaves and root was found to be significant higher with NO 3 - -N than that with NH 4 + -N in both rice varieties, particularly in the hybrid rice. Compared with NH 4 + -N, NO 3 - -N top-dressing before anthesis was observed to have much greater positive effects on the uptake of calcium and magnesium and the growth of the superficial root and the grain yield of the tested rice varieties, especially of the hybrid rice

  8. Visualized attribute analysis approach for characterization and quantification of rice taste flavor using electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lin; Hu, Xianqiao [Rice Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, Ministry of Agriculture, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Tian, Shiyi; Deng, Shaoping [College of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035 (China); Zhu, Zhiwei, E-mail: 615834652@qq.com [Rice Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Center, Ministry of Agriculture, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China)

    2016-05-05

    This paper deals with a novel visualized attributive analysis approach for characterization and quantification of rice taste flavor attributes (softness, stickiness, sweetness and aroma) employing a multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue. Data preprocessing methods including Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) were provided. An attribute characterization graph was represented for visualization of the interactive response in which each attribute responded by specific electrodes and frequencies. The model was trained using signal data from electronic tongue and attribute scores from artificial evaluation. The correlation coefficients for all attributes were over 0.9, resulting in good predictive ability of attributive analysis model preprocessed by FFT. This approach extracted more effective information about linear relationship between electronic tongue and taste flavor attribute. Results indicated that this approach can accurately quantify taste flavor attributes, and can be an efficient tool for data processing in a voltammetric electronic tongue system. - Graphical abstract: Schematic process for visualized attributive analysis approach using multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue for determination of rice taste flavor attribute. (a) sample; (b) sensors in electronic tongue; (c) excitation voltage program and response current signal from MLAPS; (d) similarity data matrix by data preprocessing and similarity extraction; (e) feature data matrix of attribute; (f) attribute characterization graph; (g) attribute scores predicted by the model. - Highlights: • Multifrequency large-amplitude pulse voltammetric electronic tongue was used. • A visualized attributive analysis approach was created as an efficient tool for data processing. • Rice taste flavor attribute was determined and predicted. • The attribute characterization graph was represented for visualization of the

  9. Alteration of rice growth and development via antisense expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    OsGA20ox2 in regulating plant growth and development, we used reverse genomic approach to ... pathways. Similarly, Carmen et al. (2007) suggested that. Carrizo citrange plants have produced antisense ... universal SP6 and T7 primers to conform their reality (Sangon, ..... Optimising the tissue culture conditions for.

  10. Phosphate uptake and growth characteristics of transgenic rice with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-03

    Apr 3, 2012 ... In this study, we investigated phosphate uptake pat- terns and growth ... at 50°C OsPT1 and actin amplication, second strand cDNA synthesis for 2 min at .... weight of the stem in wild-type plants increased signifi- cantly under ...

  11. Assessment of water sources to plant growth in rice based cropping systems by stable water isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahindawansha, Amani; Kraft, Philipp; Racela, Heathcliff; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Rice is one of the most water-consuming crops in the world. Understanding water source utilization of rice will help us to improve water use efficiency (WUE) in paddy management. The objectives of our study are to evaluate the isotopic compositions of surface ponded water, soil water, irrigation water, groundwater, rain water and plant water and based on stable water isotope signatures to evaluate the contributions of various water sources to plant growth (wet rice, aerobic rice and maize) together with investigating the contribution of water from different soil horizons for plant growth in different maturity periods during wet and dry seasons. Finally we will compare the water balances and crop yields in both crops during both seasons and calculate the water use efficiencies. This will help to identify the most efficient water management systems in rice based cropping ecosystems using stable water isotopes. Soil samples are collected from 9 different depths at up to 60 cm in vegetative, reproductive and matured periods of plant growth together with stem samples. Soil and plant samples are extracted by cryogenic vacuum extraction. Root samples are collected up to 60 cm depth from 10 cm intercepts leading calculation of root length density and dry weight. Groundwater, surface water, rain water and irrigation water are sampled weekly. All water samples are analyzed for hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios (d18O and dD) using Los Gatos Research DLT100. Rainfall records, ground water level, surface water level fluctuations and the amount of water irrigated in each field will be measured during the sampling period. The direct inference approach which is based on comparing isotopic compositions (dD and d18O) between plant stem water and soil water will be used to determine water sources taken up by plant. Multiple-source mass balance assessment can provide the estimated range of potential contributions of water from each soil depth to root water uptake of a crop. These

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF FERTILIZER SRF-N D AND H ON RICE GROWTH AND RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasruddin Razak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Study aims are to know effectiveness level of SRF-N (D & H on growth and yield of lowland rice, and gets fertilizer dosage that gave highest yield of lowland rice. Twelve 12 treatments added with recommendation dosage and farmer treatment. Experiment arranged in RCBD three replications. Result: SRF-N significantly effect growth and yield of lowland rice. Applied SRF-N type H with dosage 350 kg per ha which combined SP-36 and KCl gave higher dry grind grain compared to other treatments of SRF. Proposes SRF-H 280 kg and SRF-D 500 kg per ha. Treatment of farmer way with dosage Urea 300 kg, SP-36 100 kg, and KCl 50 kg per ha, gave higher dry grind grain (8.14 t DGG per ha compared to other treatments including recommendation dosage (7.65 t DGG per ha. Effectiveness of SRF-N type H with dosage 350 kg (two times applications on produce of grain, is 0.97 times compared to recommendation. Need to study more of SRF-H 350 kg and 280 kg per ha, and SRF-H 500 kg per ha (two times application which combined with P and K recommendation on different location and planting season to obtain accurate data in order to obtain locationspecific fertilizer recommendation

  13. Interaction of genotype x management on vegetative growth and weed suppression of aerobic rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, D.L.; Bastiaans, L.; Atlin, G.N.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Water shortage in drought-prone rice-growing areas of the world is threatening conventional irrigated rice production systems, in which rice is transplanted into fields where standing water is maintained until harvest. Aerobic rice production systems, in which rice is grown as a direct-seeded upland

  14. Rice Seed Priming with Picomolar Rutin Enhances Rhizospheric Bacillus subtilis CIM Colonization and Plant Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Singh

    Full Text Available The effect of rutin, a bioflavonoid on the growth and biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis strain CIM was investigated. In addition to swimming, swarming, and twitching potentials of B. subtilis CIM (BS, one picomolar (1 pM of rutin was also observed to boost the biofilm forming ability of the bacterium. Bio-priming of rice seeds with BS and rutin not only augmented root and shoot lengths but also the photosynthetic pigments like chlorophyll and carotenoid. Similarly, high accumulation of phenolic and flavonoid contents was observed in the leaves. Fluorescent microscopic images revealed that BS plus rutin enhanced callose deposition in the leaves. It was also established that the least formation of reactive oxygen species in BS plus rutin treated rice plants was due to higher free radicals scavenging activity and total antioxidant potential. The results highlight chemo attractant nature of BS towards rutin, which by enhancing biofilm formation and root colonization indirectly strengthened the plants' defensive state.

  15. Ammonia Volatilization from Urea-Application Influenced Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Dry Direct-Seeded Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor seed germination and early seedling growth associated with urea-induced soil ammonia volatilization are major constraints in the adoption of dry direct-seeded rice. To directly examine soil ammonia volatilization and its damage to seed germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seeded rice when urea is applied at seeding, two Petri-dish incubation experiments and a field experiment were conducted. Ammonia volatilization due to urea application significantly reduced seed germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seedling rice. NBPT significantly reduced ammonia volatilization following urea application. The application of ammonium sulfate, instead of urea at seeding, may mitigate poor crop establishment of dry direct-seeded rice. Root growth of dry direct-seeded rice was more seriously inhibited by soil ammonia volatilization than that of shoot. Results suggest that roots are more sensitive to soil ammonia toxicity than shoots in dry direct-seeded rice system when N is applied as urea at seeding.

  16. Plant Growth Promotion and Suppression of Bacterial Leaf Blight in Rice by Inoculated Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumera Yasmin

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of rice rhizosphere associated antagonistic bacteria for growth promotion and disease suppression of bacterial leaf blight (BLB. A total of 811 rhizospheric bacteria were isolated and screened against 3 prevalent strains of BLB pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo of which five antagonistic bacteria, i.e., Pseudomonas spp. E227, E233, Rh323, Serratia sp. Rh269 and Bacillus sp. Rh219 showed antagonistic potential (zone of inhibition 1-19 mm. Production of siderophores was found to be the common biocontrol determinant and all the strains solubilized inorganic phosphate (82-116 μg mL-1 and produced indole acetic acid (0.48-1.85 mg L-1 in vitro. All antagonistic bacteria were non-pathogenic to rice, and their co-inoculation significantly improved plant health in terms of reduced diseased leaf area (80%, improved shoot length (31%, root length (41% and plant dry weight (60% as compared to infected control plants. Furthermore, under pathogen pressure, bacterial inoculation resulted in increased activity of defense related enzymes including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and polyphenol oxidase, along with 86% increase in peroxidase and 53% increase in catalase enzyme activities in plants inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. Rh323 as well as co-inoculated plants. Bacterial strains showed good colonization potential in the rice rhizosphere up to 21 days after seed inoculation. Application of bacterial consortia in the field resulted in an increase of 31% in grain yield and 10% in straw yield over non-inoculated plots. Although, yield increase was statistically non-significant but was accomplished with overall saving of 20% chemical fertilizers. The study showed that Pseudomonas sp. Rh323 can be used to develop dual-purpose inoculum which can serve not only to suppress BLB but also to promote plant growth in rice.

  17. Toxic action of zinc on growth and enzyme activities of rice Oryza sativa L. seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nag, P.; Nag, P.; Paul, A.K.; Mukherji, S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper provides information on the effects of toxic concentrations of zinc sulfate (ZnSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O) on the growth and metabolism of rice Oryza sativa L. seedlings. Root growth inhibition was always more pronounced than was shoot growth inhibition. Root growth was completely inhibited at 40 m M concentration, whereas the magnitude of reduction of shoot length was only 56% at this concentration. Gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) was partially capable of relieving zinc inhibition. The activities of peroxidase, IAA oxidase and ascorbic acid oxidase of seedlings increased in response to zinc addition, whereas catalase and IAA synthetase decreased. All the hydrolyzing enzymes, viz., ..cap alpha..-amylase and phytase of endosperm together with RNase and ATPase of the embryo, showed distinct inhibition from the control, the exception being endosperm RNase which was stimulated under zinc treatment. 50 references, 6 figures.

  18. Effect of combined treatments of neutron radiation and plant growth regulator (GA) on seed germination and growth of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Chonghua; Wang Dan; Chen Yongjun; Wang Ying; Luo Jie; Liao Wei; Zheng Chun

    2007-01-01

    Rice seeds were irradiated with fast-neutron impulse pile and then were treated with different concentration of GA 3 . The effect of combined treatments on seeds germination and seedling growth were studied. The results showed that lethal pouring dose of neutron radiation on Hongai B and CB was 486 x 10 10 /cm 2 , Mianhui 2009 was 900 x 10 10 /cm 2 and Mianhui 2095 and Minghui 63 were 1350 x 10 10 /cm 2 . Semi-lethal pouring dose (LD 50 ) of neutron radiation on Hongai Band CB was 198-486 x 10 10 /cm 2 , Mianhui 2009 was about 486 x 10 10 /cm 2 , Minghui 63 was 629.49 x 10 10 /cm 2 and Mianhui 2095 is 774.69 x 10 10 /cm 2 . Radiation sensitivity of rice is Hongai B, CB>Mianhui 2009>Minghui 63>Mianhui 2095. GA 3 is a kind of efficient chemical radiation protection. 40 and 80 mg/L are the proper GA 3 concentrations of neutron irradiated rice seeds. (authors)

  19. Isolation and characterization of plant growth promoting endophytic diazotrophic bacteria from Korean rice cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Sang Hye; Gururani, Mayank Anand; Chun, Se-Chul

    2014-01-20

    We have isolated 576 endophytic bacteria from the leaves, stems, and roots of 10 rice cultivars and identified 12 of them as diazotrophic bacteria using a specific primer set of nif gene. Through 16S rDNA sequence analysis, nifH genes were confirmed in the two species of Penibacillus, three species of Microbacterium, three Bacillus species, and four species of Klebsiella. Rice seeds treated with these plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) showed improved plant growth, increased height and dry weight and antagonistic effects against fungal pathogens. In addition, auxin and siderophore producing ability, and phosphate solubilizing activity were studied for the possible mechanisms of plant growth promotion. Among 12 isolates tested, 10 strains have shown higher auxin producing activity, 6 isolates were confirmed as strains with high siderophore producing activity while 4 isolates turned out to have high phosphate-solubilizing activity. These results strongly suggest that the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria characterized in this study could be successfully used to promote plant growth and inducing fungal resistance in plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Cerium enhances germination and shoot growth, and alters mineral nutrient concentration in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Soledad; Pérez-Sato, Juan Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Cerium (Ce) belongs to the rare earth elements (REEs), and although it is not essential for plants, it can stimulate growth and other physiological processes. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of Ce on seed germination, initial seedling growth, and vegetative growth in rice (Oryza sativa L.) cv. Morelos A-98. During the germination process, the seeds were treated with Ce concentrations of 0, 4, 8, and 12 μM; after 5 d, germination percentage was recorded and after 10 d seedling growth was measured. For vegetative growth, a hydroponic system was established where 14-d-old plants without previous Ce treatment were transferred into nutrient solution. After two weeks of acclimatizing, 0, 25, 50, and 100 μM Ce were added to the nutrient solution for 28 d. Ce significantly increased germination and the initial growth variables of the seedlings. During vegetative growth, Ce increased plant height, number of tillers, root volume, and shoot fresh and dry biomass, without affecting root biomass weight. With low Ce concentrations (25 and 50 μM), the concentrations of chlorophylls and amino acids in the shoots were similar to those in the control, like amino acid concentration in the roots at a concentration of 25 μM Ce. Conversely, the concentration of total sugars increased in the shoot with the application of 25, 50, and 100 μM Ce, and in the roots with the application of 50 μM Ce. Also, Ce did not affect the concentration of macro or micronutrients in the shoots. However, in the roots, the high Ce concentration decreased the concentrations of Ca, Fe, Mn, and Zn, while the Mg concentration increased. Our results indicate that Ce, at the right concentrations, can function as a biostimulant in rice germination and growth. PMID:29579100

  1. Characterization of Nitrogen Uptake Pattern in Malaysian Rice MR219 at Different Growth Stages Using 15N Isotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mu’az Hashim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N use efficiency is usually less than 50%, and it remains a major problem in rice cultivation. Controlled release fertilizer (CRF technology is one of the well-known efforts to overcome this problem. The efficiency of CRF, however, is very much dependent on the timing of nutrient release. This study was conducted to determine the precise time of N uptake by rice as a guideline to develop efficient CRF. Fertilizer N uptake by rice at different growth stages was investigated by using 15N isotopic technique. Rice was planted in pots, with 15N urea as N source at the rate of 120 kg/hm2. Potassium and phosphorus were applied at the same rate of 50 kg/hm2. Standard agronomic practices were employed throughout the growing periods. Rice plants were harvested every two weeks until maturation at the 14th week and analyzed for total N and 15N content. Nitrogen derived from fertilizer was calculated. Total N uptake in plants consistently increased until the 11th week. After that, it started to plateau and finally declined. Moreover, N utilization by rice plants peaked at 50%, which occurred during the 11th week after transplanting. N derived from fertilizer in rice plants were in the range of 18.7% to 40.0% in all plant tissues. The remaining N was derived from soil. Based on this study, N release from CRF should complete by the 11th week after planting to ensure the maximum fertilizer N uptake by rice plants. Efficient CRF should contribute to higher N derived from fertilizer which also resultedin a higher total N uptake by rice plants, increasing the potential of rice to produce higher yield while at the same time of reducing loss.

  2. Single rice growth period was prolonged by cultivars shifts, but yield was damaged by climate change during 1981-2009 in China, and late rice was just opposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Fulu; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Wenjiao; Liu, Yujie; Xiao, Dengpan; Zhang, Shuai; Zhu, Zhu; Wang, Meng; Liu, Fengshan

    2013-10-01

    Based on the crop trial data during 1981-2009 at 57 agricultural experimental stations across the North Eastern China Plain (NECP) and the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (MLRYR), we investigated how major climate variables had changed and how the climate change had affected crop growth and yield in a setting in which agronomic management practices were taken based on actual weather. We found a significant warming trend during rice growing season, and a general decreasing trend in solar radiation (SRD) in the MLRYR during 1981-2009. Rice transplanting, heading, and maturity dates were generally advanced, but the heading and maturity dates of single rice in the MLRYR (YZ_SR) and NECP (NE_SR) were delayed. Climate warming had a negative impact on growth period lengths at about 80% of the investigated stations. Nevertheless, the actual growth period lengths of YZ_SR and NE_SR, as well as the actual length of reproductive growth period (RGP) of early rice in the MLRYR (YZ_ER), were generally prolonged due to adoption of cultivars with longer growth period to obtain higher yield. In contrast, the actual growth period length of late rice in the MLRYR (YZ_LR) was shortened by both climate warming and adoption of early mature cultivars to prevent cold damage and obtain higher yield. During 1981-2009, climate warming and decrease in SRD changed the yield of YZ_ER by -0.59 to 2.4%; climate warming during RGP increased the yield of YZ_LR by 8.38-9.56%; climate warming and decrease in SRD jointly reduced yield of YZ_SR by 7.14-9.68%; climate warming and increase in SRD jointly increased the yield of NE_SR by 1.01-3.29%. Our study suggests that rice production in China has been affected by climate change, yet at the same time changes in varieties continue to be the major factor driving yield and growing period trends. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Does growth under elevated CO{sub 2} moderate photoacclimation in rice?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbart, S.; Murchie, E.H.; Lake, J.A. [Univ. of Nottingham. School of Bioscience, Sutton Bonington (United Kingdom); Bird, S. [Univ. of York. Centre for Novel Agricultural Products, Dept. of Biology, York (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-01

    Acclimation of plant photosynthesis to light irradiance (photoacclimation) involves adjustments in levels of pigments and proteins and larger scale changes in leaf morphology. To investigate the impact of rising atmospheric CO{sub 2} on crop physiology, we hypothesize that elevated CO{sub 2} interacts with photoacclimation in rice (Oryza sativa). Rice was grown under high light (HL: 700 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}), low light (LL: 200 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}), ambient CO{sub 2} (400 {mu}l l{sup -1}) and elevated CO{sub 2} (1000 {mu}l l{sup -1}). Leaf six was measured throughout. Obscuring meristem tissue during development did not alter leaf thickness indicating that mature leaves are responsible for sensing light during photoacclimation. Elevated CO{sub 2} raised growth chamber photosynthesis and increased tiller formation at both light levels, while it increased leaf length under LL but not under HL. Elevated CO{sub 2} always resulted in increased leaf growth rate and tiller production. Changes in leaf thickness, leaf area, Rubisco content, stem and leaf starch, sucrose and fructose content were all dominated by irradiance and unaffected by CO{sub 2}. However, stomata responded differently; they were significantly smaller in LL grown plants compared to HL but this effect was significantly suppressed under elevated CO{sub 2}. Stomatal density was lower under LL, but this required elevated CO{sub 2} and the magnitude was adaxial or abaxial surface-dependent. We conclude that photoacclimation in rice involves a systemic signal. Furthermore, extra carbohydrate produced under elevated CO{sub 2} is utilized in enhancing leaf and tiller growth and does not enhance or inhibit any feature of photoacclimation with the exception of stomatal morphology. (Author)

  4. Characterization of Chinese rice wine taste attributes using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, HaiYan; Zhao, Jie; Li, Fenghua; Tian, Huaixiang; Ma, Xia

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese rice wine, wine samples sourced from different vintage years were analyzed using liquid chromatographic analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue. Six organic acids and seventeen amino acids were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five monosaccharides were measured using anion-exchange chromatography. The global taste attributes were analyzed using an electronic tongue (E-tongue). The correlations between the 28 taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes, and the correlations between the E-tongue response and the sensory attributes were established via partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA). E-tongue response data combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to discriminate the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from different vintage years. Sensory evaluation indicated significant differences in the Chinese rice wine samples sourced from 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 vintage years in the sensory attributes of harmony and mellow. The PLSDA model for the taste-active compounds and the sensory attributes showed that proline, fucose, arabinose, lactic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, isoleucine, valine, threonine, and lysine had an influence on the taste characteristic of Chinese rice wine. The Chinese rice wine samples were all correctly classified using the E-tongue and LDA. The electronic tongue was an effective tool for rapid discrimination of Chinese rice wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Phosphorus utilization by three rice varieties at different stages of growth in a vertisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, A.K.; Mahajan, J.P.; Sinha, S.B.

    1981-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted using labelled superphosphate to study the utilization of applied fertilizer phosphorus by three rice varieties, viz., Jaya, Ratna and Sona at tillering, flowering and harvesting stages. Total phosphorus uptake and phosphorus derived from fertilizer increased significantly with increasing level of phosphorus, but per cent utilization of applied phosphorus showed a reverse trend in all the three varieties at all the growth stages. Dry matter yield in general, increased significantly with increasing P levels in all the three varieties. Average soil-p uptake decreased with increasing levels of phosphorus at all the stages. (author)

  6. Effect of exogenous IAA on radiation-induced seedling growth in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Shakuntala; Shama Rao, H.K.

    1978-01-01

    Rice seeds of var. D-6-2-2 were used to ascertain the interaction between exogenous IAA and low and high dose of γ-rays on seedling growth. Low doses of radiation (1,2 kR) and low concentrations of IAA(5,10 ppm) stimulated growth when applied independently. However, they proved inhibitory in combination, indicating the possibility of native IAA involvement at optimum level in radiation-induced stimulation. At a higher dose (5 kR), higher concentrations of exogenous IAA (50,100 ppm) resulted in a significant growth recovery over control. These results suggest that low doses of ionizing radiations probably accelerate the IAA synthesizing system leading to stimulation. (author)

  7. Effects of ozone on growth, yield and leaf gas exchange rates of four Bangladeshi cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, Nahid; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Inada, Hidetoshi; Hoshino, Daiki; Kondo, Taisuke; Fukami, Motohiro; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effects of tropospheric O 3 on rice cultivated in Bangladesh, four Bangladeshi cultivars (BR11, BR14, BR28 and BR29) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) were exposed daily to charcoal-filtered air or O 3 at 60 and 100 nl l -1 (10:00-17:00) from 1 July to 28 November 2008. The whole-plant dry mass and grain yield per plant of the four cultivars were significantly reduced by the exposure to O 3 . The exposure to O 3 significantly reduced net photosynthetic rate of the 12th and flag leaves of the four cultivars. The sensitivity to O 3 of growth, yield and leaf gas exchange rates was not significantly different among the four cultivars. The present study suggests that the sensitivity to O 3 of yield of the four Bangladeshi rice cultivars is greater than that of American rice cultivars and is similar to that of Japanese rice cultivars and that O 3 may detrimentally affect rice production in Bangladesh. - Bangladeshi cultivars of rice are sensitive to O 3 below 100 ppb.

  8. Factors Affecting the Growth and Production of Milk-Clotting Enzyme by Amylomyces rouxii in Rice Liquid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Jing Yu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Amylomyces rouxii is one of the main fungi usually coexisting with yeasts in Chinese yeast ball, the starter of chiu-niang, a traditional Chinese fermented product from rice. In the present study, growth and production of milk-clotting enzyme (MCE in gelatinous rice liquid culture of A. rouxii as influenced by waxy (gelatinous rice content in the medium (5–20 %, temperature (25–40 °C, cultivation time (1–6 days, shaking speeds (0–150 rpm and metal ions (Na+, K+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Ca2+, Fe3+ and Al3+ were investigated. Results revealed that rice content in the medium, shaking speed, temperature and cultivation time all affected the mycelial propagation and the production of milk-clotting enzyme by A. rouxii in the rice liquid culture. The maximum milk-clotting enzyme activity of ca. 1.22 unit/mL of medium was observed in the 3-day static culture of test organism grown at 30 °C in the medium containing 20 % of gelatinous rice, while mycelial propagation increased with the increase of cultivation time and shaking speed. Furthermore, a significant increase (p<0.05 in the milk-clotting enzyme activity of ca. 1.90 unit/mL of medium, which was about 1.55-fold of the control, was observed when Al3+ was added to the rice liquid medium.

  9. [CH4 emission features of leading super-rice varieties and their relationships with the varieties growth characteristics in Yangtze Delta of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Li-Li; Jiang, Yu; Deng, Ai-Xing; Tian, Yun-Lu; Zhang, Wei-Jian

    2013-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the CH4 emission features of fourteen leading super-rice varieties (six Japonica rice varieties and eight Indica hybrid rice varieties) and their relationships with the varieties growth characteristics in Yangtze Delta. Two distinct peaks of CH4 emission were detected during the entire growth period of the varieties, one peak occurred at full-tillering stage, and the other appeared at booting stage. The average total CH4 emission of Japonica rice varieties was 37.6% higher than that of the Indica hybrid rice varieties (Price types occurred at the post-anthesis phase. For all the varieties, there was a significant positive correlation between the total CH4 emission and the maximum leaf area, but the correlations between the CH4 emission and the other growth characteristics varied with variety type. The total CH4 emission of Japonica rice varieties had a significant positive correlation with plant height, while the correlations between the total CH4 emission of Indica hybrid rice varieties and their plant height were not significant. The total CH4 emission of Indica hybrid rice varieties had significant negative correlations with the total aboveground biomass, grain yield, and harvest index, but the correlations were not significant for Japonica rice varieties. The lower CH4 emission of Indica hybrid rice varieties was likely due to their significantly higher root biomass, as compared with Japonica rice varieties.

  10. Understanding the molecular basis of plant growth promotional effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens on rice through protein profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Saveetha; Loganathan, Karthiba; Muthuraj, Raveendran; Duraisamy, Saravanakumar; Seetharaman, Suresh; Thiruvengadam, Raguchander; Ponnusamy, Balasubramanian; Ramasamy, Samiyappan

    2009-12-24

    Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KH-1 was found to exhibit plant growth promotional activity in rice under both in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. But the mechanism underlying such promotional activity of P. fluorescens is not yet understood clearly. In this study, efforts were made to elucidate the molecular responses of rice plants to P. fluorescens treatment through protein profiling. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis strategy was adopted to identify the PGPR responsive proteins and the differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Priming of P. fluorescens, 23 different proteins found to be differentially expressed in rice leaf sheaths and MS analysis revealed the differential expression of some important proteins namely putative p23 co-chaperone, Thioredoxin h- rice, Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase large chain precursor, Nucleotide diPhosphate kinase, Proteosome sub unit protein and putative glutathione S-transferase protein. Functional analyses of the differential proteins were reported to be directly or indirectly involved in growth promotion in plants. Thus, this study confirms the primary role of PGPR strain KH-1 in rice plant growth promotion.

  11. Understanding the molecular basis of plant growth promotional effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens on rice through protein profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiruvengadam Raguchander

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR, Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KH-1 was found to exhibit plant growth promotional activity in rice under both in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. But the mechanism underlying such promotional activity of P. fluorescens is not yet understood clearly. In this study, efforts were made to elucidate the molecular responses of rice plants to P. fluorescens treatment through protein profiling. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis strategy was adopted to identify the PGPR responsive proteins and the differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Results Priming of P. fluorescens, 23 different proteins found to be differentially expressed in rice leaf sheaths and MS analysis revealed the differential expression of some important proteins namely putative p23 co-chaperone, Thioredoxin h- rice, Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase large chain precursor, Nucleotide diPhosphate kinase, Proteosome sub unit protein and putative glutathione S-transferase protein. Conclusion Functional analyses of the differential proteins were reported to be directly or indirectly involved in growth promotion in plants. Thus, this study confirms the primary role of PGPR strain KH-1 in rice plant growth promotion.

  12. Impact of industrial effluent on growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in silty clay loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar Hossain, Mohammad; Rahman, Golum Kibria Muhammad Mustafizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mizanur; Molla, Abul Hossain; Mostafizur Rahman, Mohammad; Khabir Uddin, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    Degradation of soil and water from discharge of untreated industrial effluent is alarming in Bangladesh. Therefore, buildup of heavy metals in soil from contaminated effluent, their entry into the food chain and effects on rice yield were quantified in a pot experiment. The treatments were comprised of 0, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% industrial effluents applied as irrigation water. Effluents, initial soil, different parts of rice plants and post-harvest pot soil were analyzed for various elements, including heavy metals. Application of elevated levels of effluent contributed to increased heavy metals in pot soils and rice roots due to translocation effects, which were transferred to rice straw and grain. The results indicated that heavy metal toxicity may develop in soil because of contaminated effluent application. Heavy metals are not biodegradable, rather they accumulate in soils, and transfer of these metals from effluent to soil and plant cells was found to reduce the growth and development of rice plants and thereby contributed to lower yield. Moreover, a higher concentration of effluent caused heavy metal toxicity as well as reduction of growth and yield of rice, and in the long run a more aggravated situation may threaten human lives, which emphasizes the obligatory adoption of effluent treatment before its release to the environment, and regular monitoring by government agencies needs to be ensured. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Response of rice to inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in control lab environment and field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of bacterial inoculation on different growth parameters of rice variety JP-5. Three bacterial strains (Azospirillum brasilense R1, Azospirillum lipoferum RSWT1 and Pseudomonas Ky1) were used to inoculate rice varietyJP-5 at control lab environment and field. Plant growth promotion was observed in all inoculated treatments over non-inoculated, which was evident from increase in root area, root length, number of tillers, straw and grain yields and total weight of plant. Azospirillum brasilense R1 was more effective in plant growth promotion than other strains and showed 19% increase in the straw weight and 39.5% increase in grain weight. Inoculation with Azospirillum lipoferum RSWT1 and Pseudomonas Ky1 increased grain weight by 18.5% and 13.8% respectively. The study revealed that beneficial strains of PGPR can be used as biofertilizer for rice. (author)

  14. Application of perennial legume green manures to improve growth and yield of organic lowland rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Winarni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment in green house was done to study the effect of the dosage and speciesof perennial legume green manures to the physiological traits, growth and yield of organic lowland rice (Oryza sativaL., and to obtain the optimal dosage as well.  The research was arranged in a factorial randomized block design consistedof two factors with three replications.The first factor was the species of perennial legume thatconsisted of threespecies: Turi (Sesbaniagrandiflora, Glirisidia (Gliricidiasepium, and Lamtoro (Leucaenaleucocephala and cow manure as control treatment. The second factor was the dosage of green manure thatconsisted of four levels: 5, 10, 20 and 40 t/ha.  The results showed that application ofperennial legumesinto the soil significantly improved the growth and yield of rice.  The application of  20 t Glirisidia leaves/haproduced the highest grain yield, followed by 20 t Lamtoro leaves/ha and 20 t Turi leaves/ha.  The optimal dosages of S. grandiflora, G. sepium and L. leucochepala leaves that could yield 58.03 g/hill (equivalent to14.51 t/ha, 53.67 g/hill (equivalent to 13.42 t/ha, and 49.67 g/hill (equivalent to 12.42 t/ha were 28.05, 25.46 and 26.41 t/ha, respectively.

  15. Dietary rice bran component γ-oryzanol inhibits tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Kang, Mi Young; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the effects of rice bran and components on tumor growth in mice. Mice fed standard diets supplemented with rice bran, γ-oryzanol, Ricetrienol®, ferulic acid, or phytic acid for 2 weeks were inoculated with CT-26 colon cancer cells and fed the same diet for two additional weeks. Tumor mass was significantly lower in the γ-oryzanol and less so in the phytic acid group. Tumor inhibition was associated with the following biomarkers: increases in cytolytic activity of splenic natural killer (NK) cells; partial restoration of nitric oxide production and phagocytosis in peritoneal macrophages increases in released the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 from macrophages; and reductions in the number of blood vessels inside the tumor. Pro-angiogenic biomarkers vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and 5-lipoxygenase-5 (5-LOX) were also significantly reduced in mRNA and protein expression by tumor genes. ELISA of tumor cells confirmed reduced expression of COX-2 and 5-LOX up to 30%. Reduced COX-2 and 5-LOX expression downregulated VEGF and inhibited neoangiogenesis inside the tumors. Induction of NK activity, activation of macrophages, and inhibition of angiogenesis seem to contribute to the inhibitory mechanism of tumor regression by γ-oryzanol. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The role of phosphorus sources in the growth of lowland rice plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, Widjang Herry

    1975-01-01

    The role of phosphorus sources in the growth of lowland rice plant was studied using P 32 -labelled superphosphate. The experiment was carried out in the glass house. Three high yielding rice varieties used in the experiment were PB 5, IR 22 and Pelita I/1. Results obtained from the experiment showed that, during early growth, seedlings in the nursery did not require any phosphorus from outside. The phosphorus needed was apparently supplied by the seeds themselves. After 10 days seedlings started using phosphorus from outside the plants. Phosphorus in the plants derived from fertilizer reached 5-12% at 16 days old and 25-40% at transplanting time depending on the varieties. Higher response to phosphorus application in the nursery was given by Pelita I/1, the phosphorus in the plants derived from fertilizer was 40% at transplanting time. The phosphorus requirement was mostly supplied by the application of phosphorus fertilizer till 20 days after transplanting but after 40 days soil-phosphorus became the main source for the plants. (author)

  17. A halotolerant Enterobacter sp. displaying ACC deaminase activity promotes rice seedling growth under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Anumita; Ghosh, Pallab Kumar; Pramanik, Krishnendu; Mitra, Soumik; Soren, Tithi; Pandey, Sanjeev; Mondal, Monohar Hossain; Maiti, Tushar Kanti

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural productivity is proven to be hampered by the synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and production of stress-induced ethylene under salinity stress. One-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is the direct precursor of ethylene synthesized by plants. Bacteria possessing ACC deaminase activity can use ACC as a nitrogen source preventing ethylene production. Several salt-tolerant bacterial strains displaying ACC deaminase activity were isolated from rice fields, and their plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties were determined. Among them, strain P23, identified as an Enterobacter sp. based on phenotypic characteristics, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry data and the 16S rDNA sequence, was selected as the best-performing isolate for several PGP traits, including phosphate solubilization, IAA production, siderophore production, HCN production, etc. Enterobacter sp. P23 was shown to promote rice seedling growth under salt stress, and this effect was correlated with a decrease in antioxidant enzymes and stress-induced ethylene. Isolation of an acdS mutant strain enabled concluding that the reduction in stress-induced ethylene content after inoculation of strain P23 was linked to ACC deaminase activity. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. [Effects of intercropping Sedum plumbizincicola in wheat growth season under wheat-rice rotation on the crops growth and their heavy metals uptake from different soil types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Shen, Li-bo; Cheng, Miao-miao; Wang, Song-feng; Wu, Long-hua; Zhou, Shou-biao; Luo, Yong-ming

    2011-10-01

    A pot experiment with heavy metals- contaminated black soil from Heilongjiang Province, alluvial soil from Henan Province, and paddy soil from Zhejiang Province was conducted to study the effects of intercropping Sedum plumbizincicola in wheat growth season under wheat (Triticum aestivum) - rice (Oryza sativa) rotation on the growth of the crops and their heavy metals uptake, aimed to explore the feasibility of simultaneous grain production and heavy metals-contaminated soil phytoremediation in main food crop production areas of this country. Comparing with monoculture T. aestivum, intercropping S. plumbizincicola increased the soil NaNO3 -extractable Zn and Cd significantly, with the increment of extractable Zn in test paddy soil, alluvial soil, and black soil being 55%, 32% and 110%, and that of extractable Cd in test paddy soil and black soil being 38% and 110%, respectively. The heavy metals concentration in T. aestivum shoots under intercropping S. plumbizincicola was 0.1-0.9 times higher than that under monoculture T. aestivum, but the intercropping had little effects on the rice growth and its heavy metals uptake. Though the Cd concentration in rice grain after S. plumbizincicola planting was still higher than 0.2 mg kg(-1) (the limit of Cd in food standard), it presented a decreasing trend, as compared with that after monoculture T. aestivum. Therefore, intercropping S. plumbizincicola in wheat growth season under wheat-rice rota- tion could benefit the phytoremediation of heavy metals-contaminated soil, and decrease the food-chain risk of rotated rice.

  19. Effects of different treatments of fly ash and mining soil on growth and antioxidant protection of Indian wild rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisoi, Sidhanta Sekhar; Mishra, Swati S; Barik, Jijnasa; Panda, Debabrata

    2017-05-04

    The aim of the present study was investigation of the effects of fly ash and mining soil on growth and antioxidant protection of two cultivars of Indian wild rice (Oryza nivara and Oryza rufipogon) for possible phytoremediation and restoration of metal-contaminated site. In this study, Indian wild rice showed significant changes in germination, growth, and biochemical parameters after exposure to different ratio of fly ash and mining soil with garden soil. There was significant reduction of germination, fresh weight, dry weight, leaf chlorophyll content, leaf area, Special Analysis Device Chlorophyll (SPAD) Index, proteins, and activities of antioxidant enzymes in both cultivars of the wild rice grown in 100% fly ash and mining soil compared to the plants grown in 100% garden soil. Results from this study showed that in both cultivars of wild rice, all growth and antioxidant parameters increased when grown in 50% fly ash and mining soil. Taken together, Indian wild rice has the capacity to tolerate 50% of fly ash and mining soil, and can be considered as a good candidate for possible phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

  20. Effects of shifting growth stage and regulating temperature on seasonal variation of CH4 emission from rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Yamada, Hiromi; Kimura, Makoto

    2001-09-01

    Seasonal variations in CH4 emission rates from rice paddies have been reported to have one or more maxima during the middle and late periods of rice growth. The factor affecting an appearance of CH4 emission maxima was examined in three types of pot experiments. In the experiment 1, four rice cultivars with difference in length of the period from transplanting to heading were transplanted on the same days. For the experiment 2, a cultivar was transplanted 4 times with interval of two weeks. In these experiments, the heading differed about a month between the earliest and latest treatments, respectively. However, shifting growth stage of rice plants did not shift the CH4 emission maxima, and the CH4 emission maxima often matched the maxima of daily mean air temperature. The effect of variation in temperature on CH4 emission rate was further investigated in the experiment 3 by placing the rice-planted pots under regulated temperature. Besides the first emission peak of CH4 attributable to rice straw (RS) carbon, three emission peaks corresponding to the peaks of air temperature were detected for the RS-applied pots placed outdoors. These three peaks were not observed or much less conspicuous for the RS-applied pots in a phytotron at 30°C. Temporal decreases in CH4 emission were detected both for the pots placed in the phytotron and outdoors just after the topdressing of (NH4)2SO4, which was considered to be a major cause of irregular disagreement between the variations in CH4 emission rates and in air temperature during the middle period of rice growth.

  1. Silicon treatment to rice (oryza sativa l. cv 'gopumbyeo') plants during different growth periods and its effects on growth and grain yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.H.; Waqas, M.; Kamran, M.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon (Si) has been considered a beneficial element for plant growth. We have assessed the effects of Si application on rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth and its grain yield at field level. For this, we performed two experiments. In experiment 1, we applied Si of three different concentrations (liquid Si-10, 25 and 36%) to the seedbed of rice before transplantation into paddy field. The results of this experiment showed that Si application to rice seedbeds did not affected the rice plant height and shoot fresh weight but its application significantly increased the pushing resistance of rice plants from 12.2-16.7% as compared with water applied control plants. The lodging index of Si treated rice plants significantly decreased (13.7% on LS-25) as compared with control. Similarly, Si treated plants had significantly higher yield. Upon Si treatment (LS-36), the grain yield per 10 acre and panicles per plant were 15.1% and 6. 3% higher than the water treated control plants respectively. The best concentration (LS-36%) revealed in the first experiment was foliar applied at 10 days before heading stage, initial tilling stage and panicle initiation stage to the rice leaves and we observed that shoot biomass was not significantly different between control and Si treated plants. However, significantly higher pushing resistance (10.5%-13.8%) and plant height (12.2%-16.7%) were observed while lower lodging index (7.6-7.8%) was recorded for Si treated plants as compared to control plants. Similarly, Si application increased the number of panicles per plant as well as the grain yield per 10 acre as compared to control. In conclusion, the Si application can significantly regulate plant growth and yield if applied at proper time with feasible concentration. (author)

  2. [Effects of silicon supply on rice growth and methane emission from paddy soil under elevated UV-B radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yan; Lou, Yun-sheng; Wu, Lei; Cui, He-yang; Wang, Wei-qing

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of silicon supply on rice growth and methane (CH4) emission in paddy field under elevated UV-B radiation. The experiment was designed with two UV-B radiation levels, i.e. ambient UV-B (ambient, A) and elevated UV-B radiation (elevated by 20%, E) ; with four silicon supply levels, i.e., Si0 (control, without silicon), Si2 (as sodium silicate, 100 kg SiO2 . hm-2), Si2 (as sodium silicate, 200 kg SiO2 hm-2) and Si3 (as slag fertilizer, 200 kg SiO2 . hm-2). The results indicated that, silicon supply obviously alleviated the depressive effect of elevated UV-B radiation on rice growth, and increased the tiller numbers, chlorophyll content, and shoot and root dry masses. Silicon supply promoted rice growth, which increased with the silicon supply level (sodium silicate). Slag fertilizer was better than*sodium silicate in promoting rice growth. CH4 flux and accumulated CH4emission were obviously increased by elevated UV-B radiation, but significantly decreased by silicon application. CH4 emission was reduced with increasing the silicon supply level. Under the same silicon supply level, slag fertilizer was better than sodium silicate in inhibiting CH4 flux and accumulated CH4 emission. This research suggested that fertilizing slag in rice production was helpful not only in utilizing industrial wastes, but also in significantly mitigating CH4 emissions in rice paddy under elevated UV-B radiation.

  3. Evidence for a transketolase-mediated metabolic checkpoint governing biotrophic growth in rice cells by the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Fernandez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae threatens global food security through the widespread destruction of cultivated rice. Foliar infection requires a specialized cell called an appressorium that generates turgor to force a thin penetration hypha through the rice cuticle and into the underlying epidermal cells, where the fungus grows for the first days of infection as a symptomless biotroph. Understanding what controls biotrophic growth could open new avenues for developing sustainable blast intervention programs. Here, using molecular genetics and live-cell imaging, we dismantled M. oryzae glucose-metabolizing pathways to reveal that the transketolase enzyme, encoded by TKL1, plays an essential role in facilitating host colonization during rice blast disease. In the absence of transketolase, Δtkl1 mutant strains formed functional appressoria that penetrated rice cuticles successfully and developed invasive hyphae (IH in rice cells from primary hyphae. However, Δtkl1 could not undertake sustained biotrophic growth or cell-to-cell movement. Transcript data and observations using fluorescently labeled histone H1:RFP fusion proteins indicated Δtkl1 mutant strains were alive in host cells but were delayed in mitosis. Mitotic delay could be reversed and IH growth restored by the addition of exogenous ATP, a metabolite depleted in Δtkl1 mutant strains. We show that ATP might act via the TOR signaling pathway, and TOR is likely a downstream target of activation for TKL1. TKL1 is also involved in controlling the migration of appressorial nuclei into primary hyphae in host cells. When taken together, our results indicate transketolase has a novel role in mediating--via ATP and TOR signaling--an in planta-specific metabolic checkpoint that controls nuclear migration from appressoria into primary hyphae, prevents mitotic delay in early IH and promotes biotrophic growth. This work thus provides new information about the metabolic strategies employed by M

  4. Cow dung extract: a medium for the growth of pseudomonads enhancing their efficiency as biofertilizer and biocontrol agent in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rashmi; Aragno, Michel; Sharma, A K

    2010-09-01

    Some pseudomands are being utilized as biofertilizers and biopesticides because of their role in plant growth promotion and plant protection against root parasites, respectively. Two strains of Pseudomonas, P. jessenii LHRE62 and P. synxantha HHRE81, recovered from wheat rhizosphere, have shown their potential in field bioinoculation tests under rice-wheat and pulse-wheat rotation systems. Normally, pseudomonads are cultivated on synthetic media-like King's B and used for inoculation on seeds/soil drench with talcum or charcoal as carrier material. Cow dung is being used for different purposes from the ancient time and has a significant role in crop growth because of the content in humic compounds and fertilizing bioelements available in it. Here, cow dung extract was tested as a growth medium for strains LHRE62 and HHRE81, in comparison with growth in King's B medium. The log phase was delayed by 2 h as compared to growth in King's B medium. The bacterial growth yield, lower in plain cow dung extract as compared to King's B medium, was improved upon addition of different carbon substrates. Growth of rice var. Pant Dhan 4 in pot cultures was increased using liquid formulation of cow dung extract and bacteria as foliar spray, compared to their respective controls. Biocontrol efficacy of the bioagents was assessed by challenging rice crop with Rhizoctonia solani, a sheath blight pathogen. The growth promotion and biocontrol efficiencies were more pronounced in the case of mixed inocula of strains LHRE62 and HHRE81.

  5. Growth and Cd uptake by rice (Oryza sativa) in acidic and Cd-contaminated paddy soils amended with steel slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huaidong; Tam, Nora F Y; Yao, Aijun; Qiu, Rongliang; Li, Wai Chin; Ye, Zhihong

    2017-12-01

    Contamination of rice (Oryza sativa) by Cd is of great concern. Steel slag could be used to amend Cd-contaminated soils and make them safe for cereal production. This work was conducted to study the effects of steel slag on Cd uptake and growth of rice plants in acidic and Cd-contaminated paddy soils and to determine the possible mechanisms behind these effects. Pot (rhizobag) experiments were conducted using rice plants grown on two acidic and Cd-contaminated paddy soils with or without steel slag amendment. Steel slag amendment significantly increased grain yield by 36-45% and root catalase activity, and decreased Cd concentrations in brown rice by 66-77% compared with the control, in both soils. Steel slag amendment also markedly decreased extractable soil Cd, Cd concentrations in pore-water and Cd translocation from roots to above-ground parts. It also significantly increased soil pH, extractable Si and Ca in soils and Ca concentrations in roots. Significant positive correlations were found between extractable soil Cd and Cd concentrations in rice tissues, but it was negatively correlated with soil pH and extractable Si. Calcium in root tissues significantly and negatively correlated with Cd translocation factors from roots to straw. Overall, steel slag amendment not only significantly promoted rice growth but decreased Cd accumulation in brown rice. These benefits appear to be related to improvements in soil conditions (e.g. increasing pH, extractable Si and Ca), a reduction in extractable soil Cd, and suppression of Cd translocation from roots to above-ground parts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. GROWTH AND YIELD OF ORGANIC RICE WITH COW MANURE APPLICATION IN THE FIRST CROPPING SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Arif Sudarsono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was addressed to investigating the effect of cow manure application rate on organic rice growth and yield in the first cropping season. The study was conducted from January to April 2012 in Blora, Central Java, Indonesia. The experiment was arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design, consisting of four treatments and four replications. There were two types of control treatments i.e. organic fertilizer treatments (statistically analyzed and conventional fertilizer (not statistically analyzed. The treatments were corn biomass, corn biomass+cow manure (7.5 tons ha-1, corn biomass+cow manure (10 tons ha-1 and cow manure (10 tons ha-1 with square spacing of 20 cm x 20 cm. The organic control treatments were corn biomass+sheep manure (7.5 tons ha-1 with spacing of 20 cm x 20 cm and corn biomass+cow manure (7.5 tons ha-1 with double-row spacing of 40 cm x 25 cm x 15 cm. For every treatment, the rate of corn biomass was 3 tons ha-1. All organic treatments were also added with 3 tons rice hull ash ha-1. The application of cow manure (10 tons ha-1 with square spacing or corn biomass+cow manure (7.5 tons ha-1 with double-row spacing resulted in better performance than those of other treatments.

  7. Interactive effects of rice residue and water stress on growth and metabolism of wheat seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimisha Amist

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study effects of rice residue with and without water stress were studied on Triticum aestivum L. cv. Shatabadi. The mixture of residue and garden soil in 1:1 ratio was considered as 50% (R1 and only decomposed residue as 100% (R2. Garden soil was taken as control. Twenty five seeds were sown in each experimental trays filled with soil mixture according to the treatments. Trays were arranged in two groups. After 15 days one set was subjected to water stress (WS by withholding water supply for 3 days. Morphological and biochemical parameters of 18 days old seedlings were recorded. Seedling height decreased in all treatments. A gradual decrease in relative water content, pigment and protein contents of wheat seedlings were observed. Sugar and proline contents increased in treatments. An increase in malondialdehyde (MDA content and antioxidative enzyme activities was recorded. Elevation in catalase activity was observed in all treatments except in plants with water deficit. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX activities increased when residue mixed with soil but decreased in seedlings under the combined influence of the residue and water stress. Higher amount of MDA and lower activities of APX and GPX reflected the oxidative damage in seedlings under combined treatments. Rice residue inhibited growth of wheat seedlings. Water stress intensified the effects of residue.

  8. Plant growth-promoting activities of Streptomyces spp. in sorghum and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Srinivas, Vadlamudi; Sree Vidya, Meesala; Rathore, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    Five strains of Streptomyces (CAI-24, CAI-121, CAI-127, KAI-32 and KAI-90) were earlier reported by us as biological control agents against Fusarium wilt of chickpea caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (FOC). In the present study, the Streptomyces were characterized for enzymatic activities, physiological traits and further evaluated in greenhouse and field for their plant growth promotion (PGP) of sorghum and rice. All the Streptomyces produced lipase, β-1-3-glucanase and chitinase (except CAI-121 and CAI-127), grew in NaCl concentrations of up to 6%, at pH values between 5 and 13 and temperatures between 20 and 40°C and were highly sensitive to Thiram, Benlate, Captan, Benomyl and Radonil at field application level. When the Streptomyces were evaluated in the greenhouse on sorghum all the isolates significantly enhanced all the agronomic traits over the control. In the field, on rice, the Streptomyces significantly enhanced stover yield (up to 25%; except CAI-24), grain yield (up to 10%), total dry matter (up to 18%; except CAI-24) and root length, volume and dry weight (up to 15%, 36% and 55%, respectively, except CAI-24) over the control. In the rhizosphere soil, the Streptomyces significantly enhanced microbial biomass carbon (except CAI-24), nitrogen, dehydrogenase (except CAI-24), total N, available P and organic carbon (up to 41%, 52%, 75%, 122%, 53% and 13%, respectively) over the control. This study demonstrates that the selected Streptomyces which were antagonistic to FOC also have PGP properties.

  9. Effects of Two Soil Amendments from Steel Slag on Rice Growth and Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Lu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of two soil amendments(W and Y derived from steel slag and their application rates(0.74, 1.47, 2.94, 5.88 g·kg-1 and 11.76 g·kg-1 for W; 1.47, 2.94, 5.88, 11.76 g·kg-1 and 23.52 g·kg-1 for Y on rice growth. The results showed that no significant change in rice yield was found following W amendments; conversely, a 20% increase in rice yield was observed following Y amendments at rates of 11.76 g·kg-1 and 23.52 g·kg-1 as compared with NPK treatments. Y amendment at rates of 5.88~23.52 g·kg-1 increased straw mass by 24.02%~35.23% when compared with NPK treatments. Combined application of Y amendments and NPK fertilizers increased subsequent N, P and K uptake by rice by 12.61%~21.55%, 7.63%~38.31% and 11.89%~54.13%, respectively. The results indicated Y amendments could effectively accelerate subsequent rice growth at high application rates by increasing nutrient uptake in the soil studied(pH 6.51; Conversely, we observed no significant effects with W amendments.

  10. [Transformation and mobility of arsenic in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils at different growth stages of rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Tao; Wang, Ying-Jie; Zhou, Hang; Yi, Kai-Xin; Zeng, Min; Peng, Pei-Qin; Liao, Bo-Han

    2015-02-01

    Speciation and bioavailability of arsenic in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils at different growth stages (tillering stage, jointing stage, booting stage, filling stage and maturing stage) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) were studied using toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and arsenic speciation analysis. Pot experiments were conducted and the soil samples were taken from a certain paddy soil in Hunan Province contaminated by mining industry. The results showed that: (1) With the extension of rice growth period, pH values and TCLP extractable arsenic levels in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils increased gradually. Soil pH and TCLP extractable arsenic levels in non-rhizosphere soils were higher than those in the rhizosphere soils at the same growth stage. (2) At the different growth stages of rice, contents of exchangeable arsenic (AE-As) in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils were lower than those before the rice planting, and increased gradually with the extension of the rice growing period. Contents of Al-bound arsenic (Al-As), Fe-bound arsenic (Fe-As) and Ca-bound arsenic (Ca-As) increased gradually after rice planting, but not significantly. Residual arsenic (O-As) and total arsenic (T-As) decreased gradually after rice planting, by 37.30% and 14.69% in the rhizosphere soils and by 31.38% and 8.67% in the non-rhizosphere soils, respectively. (3) At the different growth stages of rice, contents of various forms of arsenic in the soils were in the following order: residual arsenic (O-As) > Fe-bound arsenic ( Fe-As) > Al-bound arsenic (Al-As) > Ca-bound arsenic (Ca-As) > exchangeable arsenic (AE-As). In the pH range of 5.0- 5.8, significant positive linear correlations were found between most forms of arsenic or TCLP extractable arsenic levels and pH values, while the Ca-bound arsenic was poorly correlated with pH values in the rhizosphere soils.

  11. An integrative genetic study of rice metabolism, growth and stochastic variation reveals potential C/N partitioning loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Baohua; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Mohammadi, Seyed Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    metabolites suggesting that they may influence carbon and nitrogen partitioning, with one locus co-localizing with SUSIBA2 (WRKY78). Comparing QTLs for metabolomic and a variety of growth related traits identified few overlaps. Interestingly, the rice population displayed fewer loci controlling stochastic...

  12. Application of Radiation Degraded Chitosan as Plant Growth Promoter. A Pilot Scale Production and Field Trial Study of Radiation Processed Chitosan as Plant Growth Promoter for Rice Crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd; Hashim, Kamaruddin; Bahari, Kamarudin

    2010-01-01

    The application of radiation processed chitosan as plant growth promoter has been carried out in the 24 hectares of rice crops. For the field trial, a pilot scale production of oligochitosan was established using gamma irradiation for partial degradation of chitosan powder of DDA 90% and followed by gamma irradiation of aqueous solution of 3% irradiated chitosan powder in 2% lactic acids (3CL2). Radiation dose of 50 kGy was selected for initial degradation of chitosan powder and followed by 12 kGy irradiation of 3CL2. A viscosity average molecular weight of ~10,000 of oligochitosan was obtained and subsequently used in the field trial of MR219 type of rice seeds on 24 hectares of rice plots. The seedlings were carried out after the rice seeds were soaked 24hrs in water and 30 minutes in 200ppm oligochitosan. The rice plots that were sprayed with oligochitosan were found to have higher resistant towards blast diseases. Oligochitosan of 40ppm was found to be effective as fungicides and resulted in the increase of yield of rice seeds of about 5%. (author)

  13. Microemulsion Formulation of Combination of Virgin Coconut Oil and Rice Bran Oil for Hair Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wira Noviana Suhery

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on micro emulsion formulation of combination of virgin coconut oil (VCO and rice bran oil (RBO as a hair growth promoter has been done. The purpose of this study was to formulate and produce the best formula that is physically stable and optimally promoting the hair growth by varying the content of VCO and RBO in the form of micro emulsions. These dosage formulations were prepared in three formulas using 45% tween 80 as surfactants and 20% glycerin as co surfactant i.e.: F,I containing a combination of VCO and RBO 1:1; FII (1:2 and FIII (2:1. Physical evaluation of the preparation was carried out for 8 weeks of storage which included organoleptic examination, pH, homogeneity, density, globule particle size, phase freeze thaw, and rabbit hair growth activity test for 18 days. Based on the results of the evaluation, it was found that the FI, FII and FIII micro emulsion formulations were physically stable for 8 weeks of storage with a pH ranging from 6.7 to 7.0, density of 1.085-1.088 g/mL, average globul particle size of FI (34.6 nm , FII (54 nm and FIII (68.8 nm. The best formulas is FIII for hair growth length of 1.26 cm for 18 days.

  14. Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Different Ferromagnetic Alloys Affect the Growth and Development of Rice Seedlings by Changing the C:N Ratio and Plant Hormones Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yi; Yu, Feifan; Lv, Ruitao; Ma, Chuanxin; Zhang, Zetian; Rui, Yukui; Liu, Liming; Cao, Weidong; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phytotoxicity of thin-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings. Three different CNTs, including hollow multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), Fe-filled carbon nanotubes (Fe-CNTs), and Fe-Co-filled carbon nanotubes (FeCo-CNTs), were evaluated. The CNTs significantly inhibited rice growth by decreasing the concentrations of endogenous plant hormones. The carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N ratio) significantly increased in rice roots after treatments with CNTs, and all three types of CNTs had the same effects on the C:N ratio. Interestingly, the increase in the C:N ratio in roots was largely because of decreased N content, indicating that the CNTs significantly decreased N assimilation. Analyses of the Fe and Co contents in plant tissues, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis proved that the CNTs could penetrate the cell wall and the cell membrane, and then enter the root cells. According to the author's knowledge, this is the first time to study the relationship between carbon nanotubes and carbon nitrogen ratio and plant hormones.

  15. The Mitochondrion-Located Protein OsB12D1 Enhances Flooding Tolerance during Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli He

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available B12D belongs to a function unknown subgroup of the Balem (Barley aleurone and embryo proteins. In our previous work on rice seed germination, we identified a B12D-like protein encoded by LOC_Os7g41350 (named OsB12D1. OsB12D1 pertains to an ancient protein family with an amino acid sequence highly conserved from moss to angiosperms. Among the six OsB12Ds, OsB12D1 is one of the major transcripts and is primarily expressed in germinating seed and root. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that OsB12D1 is an anoxic or submergence resistance-related gene. RT-PCR results showed OsB12D1 is induced remarkably in the coleoptiles or roots by flooding during seed germination and early seedling growth. The OsB12D1-overexpressed rice seeds could protrude radicles in 8 cm deep water, further exhibiting significant flooding tolerance compared to the wild type. Moreover, this tolerance was not affected by the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. OsB12D1 was identified in the mitochondrion by subcellular localization analysis and possibly enhances electron transport through mediating Fe and oxygen availability under flooded conditions. This work indicated that OsB12D1 is a promising gene that can help to enhance rice seedling establishment in farming practices, especially for direct seeding.

  16. The use of 32P Method to Evaluate the Growth of Lowland Rice Cultivated in a System of Rice Intensification (SRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Citraresmini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment has been conducted to evaluate the growth of the Dyah Suci, a lowland rice variety, in an SRI (System of Rice Intensification planting system. The phosphorus-32 (32P isotope technique was used to evaluate the growth of plants in relation with their phosphorus uptake. The uptake was assumed to vary in the same direction as the growth of the plant. The 32P uptake is assumed to vary in the opposite direction to the plant’s total phosphorus uptake. Here the 32P uptake is expressed in count per minutes (cpm which is then transformed to disintegration per minute (dpm. The results show that, in terms of promoting the plant’s uptake of phosphorus, the SRI planting system is superior to the conventional planting system, and it is manifested in the higher dry weight of straw and grain. From this experiment it is concluded that the 32P method can be used satisfactorily as a tool for explaining the relation between P-uptake and plant growth

  17. Effect of Drought Stress at Different Growth Stages on Yield and Yield Components of Six Rice (Oryza sativa L. Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifunnessa Moonmoon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress affects plant growth and development and ultimately, reduced grain yield of rice. But stress at different growth stages may respond differently which is still unclear. Therefore, a pot experiment was carried out with six rice genotypes to determine the critical growth stage where drought stress effect on yield reduction and to find stress tolerance mechanism in rice genotypes. Drought stress (control i.e. no stress and 40% field capacity, FC was imposed on Binadhan-13, Kalizira, BRRI dhan34, Ukunimodhu, RM-100-16 and NERICA mutant rice genotypes at maximum tillering, panicle initiation and grain filling stages and discontinued when the specific stage was over. The experiment was laid out in a complete randomized design with three replications. Drought stress affected number of effective tiller hill-1, number of spikelets panicle-1, filled grains hill-1, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Binadhan-13 produced the highest grain yield and the lowest sterility under drought stress at grain filling stage. Percentage of spikelet sterility increased under drought stress (40% FC especially at the panicle initiation stage resulting low grain yield. Among the tested genotypes Binadhan-13 performed well by reducing spikelet sterility under drought stress condition. For 1000-grain weight and grain yield, grain filling stage was found more crucial. From the current research, drought tolerance mechanism was found in genotypes Binadhan-13 and NERICA mutant. [Fundam Appl Agric 2017; 2(3.000: 285-289

  18. Genotypic Differences in Growth and Physiological Responses to Transplanting and Direct Seeding Cultivation in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Chen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The field experiments were conducted to investigate the growth and physiological responses of six super hybrid rice combinations to two planting methods, transplanting (TP and direct seeding (DS during 2006–2007 and 2007–2008. The 1000-grain weight and number of tillers per plant at the early growth stage, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm and transpiration rate (Tr were higher in DS plants than in TP ones, whereas the grain yield, number of panicles per square meter, seed setting rate, net photosynthetic rate (Pn and stomatal conductance were lower in DS plants. However, little difference was detected in number of grains per panicle, stem (shoot and leaf weight between the combinations in the two planting methods. The responses of plant growth and physiological traits to planting method differed greatly among the six combinations. In both planting methods, Chouyou 58 and Yongyou 6 had the highest and lowest panicle biomass and Pn, respectively. The higher yield of Chunyou 58 was associated with more numbers of panicles per square meter and grains per panicle in both planting methods. The results indicate that lower grain yield in DS relative to TP is attributed to more excessive tillers at the early stage, lower leaf biomass and photosynthetic rate at the late stage.

  19. Spatial Rice Yield Estimation Based on MODIS and Sentinel-1 SAR Data and ORYZA Crop Growth Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri D. Setiyono

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Crop insurance is a viable solution to reduce the vulnerability of smallholder farmers to risks from pest and disease outbreaks, extreme weather events, and market shocks that threaten their household food and income security. In developing and emerging countries, the implementation of area yield-based insurance, the form of crop insurance preferred by clients and industry, is constrained by the limited availability of detailed historical yield records. Remote-sensing technology can help to fill this gap by providing an unbiased and replicable source of the needed data. This study is dedicated to demonstrating and validating the methodology of remote sensing and crop growth model-based rice yield estimation with the intention of historical yield data generation for application in crop insurance. The developed system combines MODIS and SAR-based remote-sensing data to generate spatially explicit inputs for rice using a crop growth model. MODIS reflectance data were used to generate multitemporal LAI maps using the inverted Radiative Transfer Model (RTM. SAR data were used to generate rice area maps using MAPScape-RICE to mask LAI map products for further processing, including smoothing with logistic function and running yield simulation using the ORYZA crop growth model facilitated by the Rice Yield Estimation System (Rice-YES. Results from this study indicate that the approach of assimilating MODIS and SAR data into a crop growth model can generate well-adjusted yield estimates that adequately describe spatial yield distribution in the study area while reliably replicating official yield data with root mean square error, RMSE, of 0.30 and 0.46 t ha−1 (normalized root mean square error, NRMSE of 5% and 8% for the 2016 spring and summer seasons, respectively, in the Red River Delta of Vietnam, as evaluated at district level aggregation. The information from remote-sensing technology was also useful for identifying geographic locations with

  20. Growth-inhibition patterns and transfer-factor profiles in arsenic-stressed rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ha-Il; Lee, Jinwook; Chae, Mi-Jin; Kong, Myung-Suk; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Kang, Seong-Soo; Kim, Yoo-Hak

    2017-11-16

    Arsenic (As) accumulation in rice owing to uptake from the soil is a critical human health issue. Here, we studied the chemical properties of As-treated soils, growth inhibition patterns of As-stressed rice plants, changes in the As content of soil and soil solutions, and the relationship between As accumulation and As transfer factor from the soil to the rice organs. Rice plants were cultivated in a greenhouse under four concentrations of As: 0 (control), 25, 50, and 75 mg kg -1 . A significant positive correlation was found between available P 2 O 5 and exchangeable K and between As concentration and available P 2 O 5 or exchangeable K. The As concentration for 50% shoot growth inhibition was 50 mg kg -1 . As levels in roots and shoots were positively correlated with the growth stages of rice. The transfer factor (TF) root/soil increased with As concentration at the tillering stage but decreased at the heading stage. TF root/soil and TF shoot/soil were higher at the heading stage than at the tillering stage. As accumulation in the 25 mg kg -1 treatment was higher during the heading stage, whereas no difference was found at the tillering stage. As accumulation was related to plant biomass and soil As concentration. We found that As accumulation was greater at As concentrations that allowed for plant growth and development. Thus, species-specific threshold concentrations must be determined based on As phytotoxicity for the phytoremediation of As-contaminated soils. Hence, developing practical approaches for managing safe crop production in farmlands with an As contamination of 25 mg kg -1 or less is necessary.

  1. EFFECT OF ALUMINUM ON PLANT GROWTH, PHOSPORUS AND CALCIUM UPTAKE OF TROPICAL RICE (Oryza sativa, MAIZE (Zea mays, AND SOYBEAN (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nursyamsi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum toxicity is the most limiting factor to plant growth on acid soils. Structural and functional damages in the root system by Al decrease nutrient uptake and lead to reduce plant growth and mineral deficiency in shoot. Greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of Al on plant growth, and P and Ca uptake of rice, maize, and soybean. The plants were grown in hydroponic solution added with 0, 5, 10, and 30 ppm Al, at pH 4.0. The results showed that relative growth of shoots and roots of upland rice, lowland rice, maize, and soybean decreased with an increase of Al level. However, sometimes the low Al level (5 ppm stimulated shoot and root growth of some varieties in these species. According to total AlRG30 values, which is Al concentration in solution when relative growth decreased to 50%, Al tolerance of species was in order of barley < maize < soybean < lowland rice < upland rice. For maize, Al tolerance was in the order of Arjuna < Kalingga < P 3540 < SA 5 < SA 4 < PM 95 A < SA 3 < Antasena; for soybean was Wilis < INPS < Galunggung < Kerinci < Kitamusume; for lowland rice was RD 23 < Kapuas < Cisadane < KDML 105 < IR 66 < RD 13, and for upland rice was Dodokan < JAC165 < Cirata < Orizyca sabana 6 < Danau Tempe < Laut Tawar. Based on the rank of Al tolerance, rice was the useful crop to be planted in acid soils. Antasena (maize, Kitamusume ( soybean , RD 13 (lowland rice, and Laut Tawar (upland rice were also recommended for acid soils. P and Ca concentration in shoots and roots commonly decreased with an increase of Al level. However, the low Al level stimulated absorption of P and Ca concentrations in shoots and roots.

  2. Screen, Identification and Analysis on the Growth-Promoting Ability for the Rice Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Ze-ping

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria(PGPRcan secrete the growth hormone and promote soil nutrient cycling, thus, is an important germplasm resource of bio -fertilizer. In this study, the PGPR was isolated from the rice rhizosphere. According to 16S rDNA sequences, 10 strains were identifed, including 4 organic phosphorus bacteria (Bacillus pumilus LZP02, Bacillus aryabhattai LZP08, Staphylococcus epidermidis LZP10, Bacillus ginsengisoli LZP05, 3 inorganic phosphorus bacteria(Bacillus megaterium LZP03, Bacillus oryzaecorticis LZP04, Bacillus ginsengisoli LZP07and 3 potassium bacteria(Bacillus aryabhattai LZP01, Bacillus subtilis LZP06, Bacillus licheniformis LZP09. The results from nutrient conversion analysis showed that Bacillus aryabhattai LZP01 and Bacillus subtilis LZP06 performed better on the potassium releasing ability. Bacillus pumilus LZP02 and Bacillus huizhouensis LZP05 performed better on the function of organic phosphorus. Bacillus megaterium LZP03 and Bacillus ginsengisoli LZP07 performed better on the function of inorganic phosphorus. Further, the hormone secretion capacity was measured for these 6 strains. The results showed that all 6 strains could produce auxin and gibberellin, and had the ability to synthesize iron carrier. Moreover, the results showed that Bacillus megaterium LZP03, Bacillus huizhouensis LZP05 and Bacillus subtilis LZP06 had stronger ability to promote the nutrient conversion and hormone secretion. Systematically, we believe that these three strains have great potential application on microbial fertilizer.

  3. The growth and uptake of Ga and In of rice (Oryza sative L.) seedlings as affected by Ga and In concentrations in hydroponic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syu, Chien-Hui; Chien, Po-Hsuan; Huang, Chia-Chen; Jiang, Pei-Yu; Juang, Kai-Wei; Lee, Dar-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Limited information is available on the effects of gallium (Ga) and indium (In) on the growth of paddy rice. The Ga and In are emerging contaminants and widely used in high-tech industries nowadays. Understanding the toxicity and accumulation of Ga and In by rice plants is important for reducing the effect on rice production and exposure risk to human by rice consumption. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of Ga and In on the growth of rice seedlings and examines the accumulation and distribution of those elements in plant tissues. Hydroponic cultures were conducted in phytotron glasshouse with controlled temperature and relative humidity conditions, and the rice seedlings were treated with different levels of Ga and In in the nutrient solutions. The growth index and the concentrations of Ga and In in roots and shoots of rice seedlings were measured after harvesting. A significant increase in growth index with increasing Ga concentrations in culture solutions (<10mgGaL -1 ) was observed. In addition, the uptake of N, K, Mg, Ca, Mn by rice plants was also enhanced by Ga. However, the growth inhibition were observed while the In concentrations higher than 0.08mgL -1 , and the nutrients accumulated in rice plants were also significant decreased after In treatments. Based on the dose-response curve, we observed that the EC 10 (effective concentration resulting in 10% growth inhibition) value for In treatment was 0.17mgL -1 . The results of plant analysis indicated that the roots were the dominant sink of Ga and In in rice seedlings, and it was also found that the capability of translocation of Ga from roots to shoots were higher than In. In addition, it was also found that the PT 10 (threshold concentration of phytotoxicity resulting in 10% growth retardation) values based on shoot height and total biomass for In were 15.4 and 10.6μgplant -1 , respectively. The beneficial effects on the plant growth of rice seedlings were found by the addition of Ga in

  4. The rice YABBY4 gene regulates plant growth and development through modulating the gibberellin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Ma, Yamei; Li, Jianxiong

    2016-10-01

    YABBY genes encode seed plant-specific transcription factors that play pivotal roles in diverse aspects of leaf, shoot, and flower development. Members of the YABBY gene family are primarily expressed in lateral organs in a polar manner and function to specify abaxial cell fate in dicotyledons, but this polar expression is not conserved in monocotyledons. The function of YABBY genes is therefore not well understood in monocotyledons. Here we show that overexpression of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) YABBY4 gene (OsYABBY4) leads to a semi-dwarf phenotype, abnormal development in the uppermost internode, an increased number of floral organs, and insensitivity to gibberellin (GA) treatment. We report on an important role for OsYABBY4 in negative control of the expression of a GA biosynthetic gene by binding to the promoter region of the gibberellin 20-oxidase 2 gene (GA20ox2), which is a direct target of SLR1 (the sole DELLA protein negatively controlling GA responses in rice). OsYABBY4 also suppresses the expression level of SLR1 and interacts with SLR1 protein. The interaction inhibits GA-dependent degradation of SLR1 and therefore leads to GA insensitivity. These data together suggest that OsYABBY4 serves as a DNA-binding intermediate protein for SLR1 and is associated with the GA signaling pathway regulating gene expression during plant growth and development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Determination of urea utilization of rice at different growth stages by 15N tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, A.; Halitligil, M.B.; Torun, M.

    1991-01-01

    This study reported here examines the percent utilization of 15 N labelled urea by rice when it is broadcasted over the soil surface or mixed within 10 cm soil at different vegetative stages. The experimental plots were arranged in randomized block design and replicated 3 times. N was applied at a rate of 120 kg N/ha as single or split applications at four different times during the growing season. Labelled urea was applied to 0.5x0.5 m plots only in 1988, however in 1989 unlabelled urea was applied to all plots. Stover and seed samples from each plot were harvested, dried at 65 0 C, weighed and kilogram per hectare were calculated in 1988. Also, the yield surplus per kilogram N was calculated for each treatment and this was indicated as urea fertilizer efficiency coefficient. Total N and 15 N analysis for stover and seed were done. Significant differences (at 0.05 level) were observed in stover and seed yields, when 120 kg/ha urea was split applied at different growth stages. Similar yield responses were obtained in 1988 and 1989. Highest seed yields were obtained when half of urea was applied at planting and the other half was applied at one week before heading. The results also showed that the highest utilization of urea for seed plus stover was obtained from the second half of urea (60 kg N/ha) applied one week before heading. Percent utilization of urea by rice also differed according to the rate applied at each stage

  6. High day- and night-time temperatures affect grain growth dynamics in contrasting rice genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wanju; Yin, Xinyou; Struik, Paul C; Solis, Celymar; Xie, Fangming; Schmidt, Ralf C; Huang, Min; Zou, Yingbin; Ye, Changrong; Jagadish, S V Krishna

    2017-11-02

    Rice grain yield and quality are predicted to be highly vulnerable to global warming. Five genotypes including heat-tolerant and susceptible checks, a heat-tolerant near-isogenic line and two hybrids were exposed to control (31 °C/23 °C, day/night), high night-time temperature (HNT; 31 °C/30 °C), high day-time temperature (HDT; 38 °C/23 °C) and high day- and night-time temperature (HNDT; 38 °C/30 °C) treatments for 20 consecutive days during the grain-filling stage. Grain-filling dynamics, starch metabolism enzymes, temporal starch accumulation patterns and the process of chalk formation were quantified. Compensation between the rate and duration of grain filling minimized the impact of HNT, but irreversible impacts on seed-set, grain filling and ultimately grain weight were recorded with HDT and HNDT. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated irregular and smaller starch granule formation affecting amyloplast build-up with HDT and HNDT, while a quicker but normal amylopast build-up was recorded with HNT. Our findings revealed temporal variation in the starch metabolism enzymes in all three stress treatments. Changes in the enzymatic activity did not derail starch accumulation under HNT when assimilates were sufficiently available, while both sucrose supply and the conversion of sucrose into starch were affected by HDT and HNDT. The findings indicate differential mechanisms leading to high day and high night temperature stress-induced loss in yield and quality. Additional genetic improvement is needed to sustain rice productivity and quality under future climates. © Society for Experimental Biology 2017.

  7. Salicylic acid antagonizes abscisic acid inhibition of shoot growth and cell cycle progression in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Ayano; Sato, Yutaka

    2014-04-01

    We analysed effects of abscisic acid (ABA, a negative regulatory hormone), alone and in combination with positive or neutral hormones, including salicylic acid (SA), on rice growth and expression of cell cycle-related genes. ABA significantly inhibited shoot growth and induced expression of OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6. A yeast two-hybrid assay showed that OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6 interacted with OsCDKA;1 and/or OsCDKA;2. When SA was simultaneously supplied with ABA, the antagonistic effect of SA completely blocked ABA inhibition. SA also blocked ABA inhibition of DNA replication and thymidine incorporation in the shoot apical meristem. These results suggest that ABA arrests cell cycle progression by inducing expression of OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6, which inhibit the G1/S transition, and that SA antagonizes ABA by blocking expression of OsKRP genes.

  8. Growth and Carcass Physical Components of Thin Tail Rams Fed on Different Levels of Rice Bran

    OpenAIRE

    Rianto, E; Lindasari, E; Purbowati, E

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was aimed to investigate the effect of rice bran supplementation on live weight gain (LWG), the proportion of carcass meat, bone and fat of Thin Tail Rams. Twelve thin tail rams, aged about 12 months, weighed 20.95 ± 1.52 kg (CV = 7.26%) were allocated into a Randomized Block Design with 2 blocks and 3 treatments. The treatments applied were levels of rice bran supplementation, i.e. Napier grass ad libitum without rice bran (T1), Napier grass ad libitum and 200 g rice bran (T2...

  9. Growth Performance of Lambs Fed Diet Supplemented with Rice Bran Oil as Such or as Calcium Soap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Bhatt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty two Malpura lambs (21 d old were divided into three groups of 14 each consisting of 8 females and 6 males. Lambs were allowed to suckle their respective dams twice daily up to weaning (13 wks and offered free choice concentrate and roughage in a cafeteria system. The lambs in control group were fed conventional concentrate mixture, in RBO group concentrate mixture fortified with 4% industrial grade rice bran oil and in Ca-soap rice bran oil (as in RBO group was supplemented in the form of calcium soap. The concentrate intake decreased(p≤0.05 in RBO group as a result total dry matter, crude protein and metabolizable energy intake decreased compared to control whereas Ca-soap prepared from the same rice bran oil stimulated the concentrate intake leading to higher total dry matter, crude protein and energy intakes. The digestibility of dry matter (p≤0.05, organic matter (p≤0.05 and crude protein (p≤0.05 was higher in RBO group followed by Ca-soap and control whereas no effect was observed for ether extract digestibility. Higher cholesterol (p≤0.05 content was recorded in serum of oil supplemented groups (RBO and Ca-soap while no effect was recorded for other blood parameters. Rice bran oil as such adversely affected and reduced the body weight gain (p≤0.001 of lambs in comparison to control whereas the Ca-soap of rice bran oil improved body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency in lambs. Fat supplementation decreased total volatile fatty acids (p≤0.05 and individual volatile fatty acid concentration which increased at 4 h post feeding. Fat supplementation also reduced (p≤0.05 total protozoa count. Ca-soap of rice bran oil improved pre slaughter weight (p≤0.05 and hot carcass weight (p≤0.05. It is concluded from the study that rice bran oil in the form of calcium soap at 40 g/kg of concentrate improved growth, feed conversion efficiency and carcass quality as compared to rice bran oil as such and control groups.

  10. Influence of Cooling Rate on Growth of Bacillus cereus from Spore Inocula in Cooked Rice, Beans, Pasta, and Combination Products Containing Meat or Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Mohr, Tim B; Silverman, Meryl; Snyder, O Peter

    2018-02-23

    The objective of this study was to assess the ability of Bacillus cereus spores to germinate and grow in order to determine a safe cooling rate for cooked rice, beans, and pasta, rice-chicken (4:1), rice-chicken-vegetables (3:1:1), rice-beef (4:1), and rice-beef-vegetables (3:1:1). Samples were inoculated with a cocktail of four strains of heat-shocked (80°C for 10 min) B. cereus spores (NCTC 11143, 935A/74, Brad 1, and Mac 1) to obtain a final spore concentration of approximately 2 log CFU/g. Thereafter, samples were exponentially cooled through the temperature range of 54.5 to 7.2°C in 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 h. At the end of the cooling period, samples were removed and plated on mannitol egg yolk polymyxin agar. The plates were incubated at 30°C for 24 h. The net B. cereus growth from spores in beans was beans, pasta, rice-chicken, rice-chicken-vegetables, rice-beef, and rice-beef-vegetables to guard against the hazards associated with B. cereus.

  11. Evaluation of rice genotypes to salt stress in different growth stages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper. Evaluation of rice genotypes .... study (Table 2). Result in this step showed that the tolerant genotypes belonged to traditional land races (tall) compared to other genotypes (medium and dwarf). Salinity effect on ..... associated abiotic stresses in rice. Field Crop Res. 76: 91-101.

  12. Effect of methyl salicylate (MeSA), an elicitor on growth, physiology and pathology of resistant and susceptible rice varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Kalaiselvi, Marimuthu Maruthi; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan

    2016-10-11

    Methyl salicylate (MeSA) is a volatile organic compound synthesized from salicylic acid (SA) a plant hormone that helps to fight against plant disease. Seed treatment with MeSA, is an encouraging method to the seed industry to produce more growth and yield. The aim of our study is to find out the growth, development and disease tolerance of rice seed treated with different concentrations of MeSA. Also the seed treatments were studied to determine whether they directly influenced seedling emergence and growth in rice (Oryza sativa L) cultivars 'IR 20, IR 50, IR 64, ASD 16, ASD 19 and ADT 46' under greenhouse condition. MeSA seed treatments at 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/L significantly increased seedling emergence. Effects were stronger in IR 50, and IR 64 and the effects were dose dependent, although the relationship between dose and effect was not always linear. MeSA seed treated rice plant against bacterial blight were analyzed. Bacterial blight was more effectively controlled by the seed treated with 100 mg/L than others. These results suggest that seed treatment with MeSA alters plant physiology in ways that may be useful for crop production as well as protection.

  13. Advanced Backcross QTL Analysis for the Whole Plant Growth Duration Salt Tolerance in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Lu; LI Zhi-kang; ZHANG Jian; PAN Xiao-biao; ZHANG Fan; ZHENG Tian-qing; ZHAO Xiu-qing; WANG Wen-sheng; Ali Jauhar; XU Jian-long

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is a major factor limiting rice yield in coastal areas of Asia. To facilitate breeding salt tolerant rice varieties, the whole-plant growth duration salt tolerance (ST) was genetically dissected by phenotyping two sets of BC2F5 introgression lines (ILs) for four yield traits under severe natural salt stress and non-stress ifled conditions using SSR markers and the methods of advanced backcross QTL (AB-QTL) analysis and selective introgression. Many QTLs affecting four yield traits under salt stress and non-stress conditions were identiifed, most (>90%) of which were clustered in 13 genomic regions of the rice genome and involved in complex epistasis. Most QTLs affecting yield traits were differentially expressed under salt stress and non-stress conditions. Our results suggested that genetics complementarily provides an adequate explanation for the hidden genetic diversity for ST observed in both IL populations. Some promising Huanghuazhan (HHZ) ILs with favorable donor alleles at multiple QTLs and signiifcantly improved yield traits under salt stress and non-stress conditions were identiifed, providing excellent materials and relevant genetic information for improving rice ST by marker-assisted selection (MAS) or genome selection.

  14. Evaluation of putative allelochemicals in rice root exudates for their role in the suppression of arrowhead root growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Alexa N; Haig, Terry; Pratley, James E

    2004-08-01

    In previous studies, 15 putative allelopathic compounds detected in rice root exudates were quantified by GC/MS/MS. In this study, multiple regression analysis on these compounds determined that five selected phenolics, namely caffeic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, and p-coumaric acids, from rice exudates were best correlated with the observed allelopathic effect on arrowhead (Sagittaria montevidensis) root growth. Despite this positive association, determination of the phenolic acid dose-response curve established that the amount quantified in the exudates was much lower than the required threshold concentration for arrowhead inhibition. A similar dose-response curve resulted from a combination of all 15 quantified compounds. Significant differences between the amounts of trans-ferulic acid, abietic acid, and an indole also existed between allelopathic and non-allelopathic rice cultivars. The potential roles of these three compounds in rice allelopathy were examined by chemoassay. Overall, neither the addition of trans-ferulic acid nor 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid to the phenolic mix significantly contributed to phytotoxicity, although at higher concentrations, trans-ferulic acid appeared to act antagonistically to the phytotoxic effects of the phenolic mix. The addition of abietic acid also decreased the inhibitory effect of the phenolic mix. These studies indicate that the compounds quantified are not directly responsible for the observed allelopathic response. It is possible that the amount of phenolic acids may be indirectly related to the chemicals finally responsible for the observed allelopathic effect.

  15. The Contribution of Azolla and Urea in Lowland Rice Growth Production for Three Consecutive Seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E-L-Sisworo; H-Rasjid; Haryanto; Idawati

    2008-01-01

    Three field experiments have been carried out in three consecutive seasons namely wet season (120 days), dry season (120 days), wet season (120 days) at Pusakanegara. The purpose of this experiment is to test whether urea combined with Azolla could increase lowland rice production and soil quality. The experimental plots have a size of 20 m 2 and in each experimental plot an isotope plot was placed with a size of 1 m 2 . The isotope plots were used to apply labeled 15 N urea. Treatments conducted were lowland varieties: Atomita I (V1) and IR-64 (V2); several levels of urea and Azolla : Pu1 urea-tablets + an Azolla cover (Azc), Pu2 = urea-tablets + Azolla incorporated (Azi ), Pu3 = urea-prill + Azc , Pu4 = urea-prill + Azi; seasons : Ss 1 = wet season, Ss2 = dry season, Ss3 = wet season. The experimental design used was a factorial experiment in a Randomized Block Design, where each treatment was replicated four times. Parameters used were, dry weight of straw (St), grain (G), plant (P1 = St + G) in kg/ha; N-total percentage (% N-to) of St and G, percentage N-derived from urea + Az (% N-Pu) of St and G; percentage N-derived from soil (% N-S) of St and G; uptake of N-Pu and N-S in St, G and P1. Some results of these experiment were, N-Pu play a less important role in growth of lowland crop expressed in several parameters compared to N-soil. The form of N-urea in tablets are superior to that the form of urea in prills. For the last product of lowland rice which is grain obviously V1 (Atomita-1) is better than V2 (IR-64) expressed in t/ha. The progress of seasons showed clearly that there is an N accumulation which might be the increase of soil organic matter (SOM) and that means there is an increase in soil quality in the view point of N. (author)

  16. The Contribution of Azolla and Urea in Lowland Rice Growth Production for Three Consecutive Seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL. Sisworo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments have been carried out in three consecutive seasons namely wet season (120 days, dry season (120 days, wet season (120 days at Pusakanegara. The purpose of this experiment is to test whether urea combined with Azolla could increase lowland rice production and soil quality. The experimental plots have a size of 20 m2 and in each experimental plot an isotope plot was placed with a size of 1 m2. The isotope plots were used to apply labeled 15N urea. Treatments conducted were lowland varieties: Atomita I (V1 and IR-64 (V2; several levels of urea and Azolla : Pu1 = urea-tablets + an Azolla cover (Azc, Pu2 = urea-tablets + Azolla incorporated (Azi , Pu3 = urea-prill + Azc , Pu4 = urea-prill + Azi; seasons : Ss 1 = wet season, Ss2 = dry season, Ss3 = wet season. The experimental design used was a factorial experiment in a Randomized Block Design, where each treatment was replicated four times. Parameters used were, dry weight of straw (St, grain (G, plant (P1 = St + G in kg/ha; N-total percentage (% N-to of St and G, percentage N-derived from urea + Az (% N-Pu of St and G; percentage N-derived from soil (% N-S of St and G; uptake of N-Pu and N-S in St, G and P1. Some results of these experiment were, N-Pu play a less important role in growth of lowland crop expressed in several parameters compared to N-soil. The form of N-urea in tablets are superior to that the form of urea in prills. For the last product of lowland rice which is grain obviously V1 (Atomita-1 is better than V2 (IR-64 expressed in t/ha. The progress of seasons showed clearly that there is an N accumulation which might be the increase of soil organic matter (SOM and that means there is an increase in soil quality in the view point of N

  17. Effects of Exposion to Fine Particles of Pb and Cd on Early Growth of Rice and Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Fan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal-containing particles in the atmosphere have negative impacts on the seedling growth and early stage growth of terrestrial plants. Exposure scenarios were established to simulate the ambient conditions with different pollution levels of airborne heavy metals. Under these scenarios, hazardous impacts of fine particles containing lead(Pb and cadmium(Cd on the emergence, seedling growth, and fresh weight(including both above ground stem leaf of rice and underground stem tuber of potato were evaluated. The results showed that, for exposure treatment groups, the concentrations of Pb and Cd in the artificial soil increased at the end of the test. Compared with the background value in soil, the Cd level elevated about 8.8 times while no significant increase was observed for Pb concentration. The accumulation values of Pb and Cd were 0.002 0, 0.054 mg·kg-1 in the stem leaf of rice and 0.185 0, 0.074 mg·kg-1 in the stem tuber of potato. The exposure had no significant inhibition effect on all the biomass endpoints of rice, but had an inhibition rate of 27% on the fresh weight of potato underground stem tuber. Thus, under the simulation exposure, larger impact was projected to the Cd concentration in the artificial soil, and the Cd accumulative effect was more obvious in the underground stem tuber of potatoes. Compared with the control groups, the combined pollution of Pb and Cd in the exposure treatment groups indicated remarkable inhibition and stress effects. Moreover, aboveground stem leaf of rice showed better adaption and low sensitivity when exposed to pollutants at certain concentrations.

  18. Increasing Growth and Yield of Upland Rice by Application of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae and Potassium Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Natawijaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment with a split plot design has been carried out in order to assess the growth characteristics andyields, and effectiveness of MVA upland rice which were given potassium fertilizer in two growing seasons. MVAinoculation consisted of three treatments (without MVA, Glomus sp. and Gigaspora sp. while potassium fertilizerconsisted of five levels (0, 12.5, 25, 37.5, and 50 kg ha-1 K. The results showed that plant growth variable which wasinoculated by MVA at any levels of K fertilizer was higher in the dry season than that in the wet season, whereas theopposite occurred for net assimilation rate. Potassium content of leaf tissue, shoot/root ratio, and grain weight perhill was determined and mutually dependent on genus MVA, dosages of K fertilizer, and growing season. Harvestindex and grain dry weight per hill were influenced by the growing season and the genus MVA but the effect did notdepend on each other. At all dosages of K fertilizer and any MVA genera, Gigaspora sp. inoculation was better thanthat of Glomus sp. Dry weight of grains per hill was affected by the contribution of grain content per hill, weight of1000 grains and number of productive seedlings per hill. The optimum dosage of K fertilizer in the dry season was32.4 kg ha-1 K with grain yield 3.12 Mg ha-1 for inoculation of Gigaspora sp., whereas the optimum dosage in the wetseason was 34.2 kg ha-1 K for the treatment Glomus sp. inoculation with Gigaspora sp. in the wet season did notreach dosages of optimum K fertilizer.

  19. Arsenic mobility and bioavailability in paddy soil under iron compound amendments at different growth stages of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Wang, Xiangqin; Li, Fangbai; Li, Bin; Liu, Chuanping; Wang, Qi; Lei, Jing

    2017-05-01

    Iron (Fe)-based solids can reduce arsenic (As) mobility and bioavailability in soils, which has been well recognized. However, to our knowledge, there are few studies on As uptake at different growth stages of rice under Fe compound amendments. In addition, the formation of Fe plaques at different growth stages of rice has also been rarely reported. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate As mobility and bioavailability in paddy soil under Fe compound amendments throughout the whole growth stage of rice plants. Amendments of poorly crystalline Fe oxides (PC-Fe), FeCl 2 +NaNO 3 and FeCl 2 reduced grain As by 54% ± 3.0%, 52% ± 3.0% and 46% ± 17%, respectively, compared with that of the non-amended control. The filling stage was suggested to be the key stage to take measures to reduce As uptake. At this stage, all soil amendments significantly reduced As accumulation in rice plants. At the maturation stage, PC-Fe amendment significantly reduced mobile pools and increased immobile pools of soil As. Besides, PC-Fe treatment promoted the transformation of Fe fractions from dissolved Fe to adsorbed, poorly crystalline and free Fe oxides. Moreover, significant positive correlations between soil Fe fractions and As fractions were found. Accordingly, we hypothesized that Fe compound amendments might affect the concentration distribution of Fe fractions first and then affect As fractionation in soil and its bioavailability to rice plants indirectly. The formation of Fe plaques varied with growth stages and different treatments. Significantly negative correlations between mobile pools of As and Fe or As in Fe plaques indicated that Fe plaques could immobilize mobile As in soils and thus affect As bioavailability. Overall, the effect of the soil amendments on reduction of As uptake varied with growth stages and different treatments, and further research on the key stage for reducing As uptake is still required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  20. Improved algorithms for the classification of rough rice using a bionic electronic nose based on PCA and the Wilks distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sai; Zhou, Zhiyan; Lu, Huazhong; Luo, Xiwen; Lan, Yubin

    2014-03-19

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is one of the main methods used for electronic nose pattern recognition. However, poor classification performance is common in classification and recognition when using regular PCA. This paper aims to improve the classification performance of regular PCA based on the existing Wilks Λ-statistic (i.e., combined PCA with the Wilks distribution). The improved algorithms, which combine regular PCA with the Wilks Λ-statistic, were developed after analysing the functionality and defects of PCA. Verification tests were conducted using a PEN3 electronic nose. The collected samples consisted of the volatiles of six varieties of rough rice (Zhongxiang1, Xiangwan13, Yaopingxiang, WufengyouT025, Pin 36, and Youyou122), grown in same area and season. The first two principal components used as analysis vectors cannot perform the rough rice varieties classification task based on a regular PCA. Using the improved algorithms, which combine the regular PCA with the Wilks Λ-statistic, many different principal components were selected as analysis vectors. The set of data points of the Mahalanobis distance between each of the varieties of rough rice was selected to estimate the performance of the classification. The result illustrates that the rough rice varieties classification task is achieved well using the improved algorithm. A Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN) was also established to test the effectiveness of the improved algorithms. The first two principal components (namely PC1 and PC2) and the first and fifth principal component (namely PC1 and PC5) were selected as the inputs of PNN for the classification of the six rough rice varieties. The results indicate that the classification accuracy based on the improved algorithm was improved by 6.67% compared to the results of the regular method. These results prove the effectiveness of using the Wilks Λ-statistic to improve the classification accuracy of the regular PCA approach. The results

  1. Effect of fluoride on photosynthesis, growth and accumulation of four widely cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Naba Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Long-term use of fluoride contaminated groundwater to irrigate crops; especially paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) has resulted in elevated soil fluoride levels in Eastern India. There is, therefore, growing concern regarding accumulation of fluoride in rice grown on these soils. A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of F on germination and phytotoxicity of four varieties of rice (Orzya sativa L.) (MTU-1010; IET-4094; IET-4786 and GB-1) grown in petri dish in a green house with inorganic sodium fluoride (NaF). Three different levels (0, 5, 10 and 20mg/L) of NaF solution were applied. At the end of the experiment (28 days), biochemical analysis (pigment, sugar, protein, amino acid and phenol), lipid peroxidation, root ion leakage and catalase activity along with fluoride accumulation and fresh and dry weight of roots and shoots of four cultivars were measured. The results revealed that all the four studied varieties exhibited gradual decrease of germination pattern with increasing concentration of F. Pigment and growth morphological study clearly demonstrated that the variety IET-4094 was the least influenced by F compare to the other three varieties of rice. The translocation factor (TF) was recorded to be the highest for variety IET-4786 (0.215 ± 0.03) at 5mg/L F concentration. All the four varieties showed higher level of fluoride accumulation in root than in shoot. Variable results were recorded for biochemical parameters and lipid peroxidation. Catalase activity and relative conductivity (root ion leakage) gradually increased with increasing F concentration for all the four varieties. It is speculated that fluoride accumulation in rice straw at very high levels will affect the feeding cattle and such contaminated straw could be a direct threat to their health and also, indirectly, to human health via presumably contaminated meat and milk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Constitutive expression of CaPLA1 conferred enhanced growth and grain yield in transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Youl; Kim, Eun Yu; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipids are not only important components of cell membranes, but participate in diverse processes in higher plants. In this study, we generated Capsicum annuum phospholipiase A1 (CaPLA1) overexpressing transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants under the control of the maize ubiquitin promoter. The T4 CaPLA1-overexpressing rice plants (Ubi:CaPLA1) had a higher root:shoot mass ratio than the wild-type plants in the vegetative stage. Leaf epidermal cells from transgenic plants had more cells than wild-type plants. Genes that code for cyclin and lipid metabolic enzymes were up-regulated in the transgenic lines. When grown under typical paddy field conditions, the transgenic plants produced more tillers, longer panicles and more branches per panicle than the wild-type plants, all of which resulted in greater grain yield. Microarray analysis suggests that gene expressions that are related with cell proliferation, lipid metabolism, and redox state were widely altered in CaPLA1-overexpressing transgenic rice plants. Ubi:CaPLA1 plants had a reduced membrane peroxidation state, as determined by malondialdehyde and conjugated diene levels and higher peroxidase activity than wild-type rice plants. Furthermore, three isoprenoid synthetic genes encoding terpenoid synthase, hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase were up-regulated in CaPLA1-overexpressing plants. We suggest that constitutive expression of CaPLA1 conferred increased grain yield with enhanced growth in transgenic rice plants by alteration of gene activities related with cell proliferation, lipid metabolism, membrane peroxidation state and isoprenoid biosynthesis.

  3. Effects of Salt Stress on Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Some Kenyan Rice Cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochieng, C.A.; Onkware, A.O.

    1999-01-01

    Four rice cultivars (Basmati-217, BW-196, Sindano and Ita-310) were subjected to increasing substrate salinity (0-1.5 Sm -1 ECe), under both laboratory and soil experiments. The salt stress significantly (P -1 ECe) completely inhibited germination in potted soil, but not petri dish tests in the laboratory.It was concluded that the three rice cultivars are susceptible to even mild substrate salinity, and cannot be relied upon for cultivation in saline soils. There is a need to assess the response many of the rice cvv for resistance to salt stress, and, if possible isolate and develop high yielding, resistant cultivars

  4. Growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant responses of endophyte infected and non-infected rice under lead stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuemei; Bu, Ning; Li, Yueying; Ma, Lianju; Xin, Shigang; Zhang, Lihong

    2012-04-30

    An endophytic fungus was tested in rice (Oryza sativa L.) exposed to four levels of lead (Pb) stress (0, 50, 100 and 200 μM) to assess effects on plant growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activity. Under Pb stress conditions, endophyte-infected seedlings had greater shoot length but lower root length compared to non-infected controls, and endophyte-infected seedlings had greater dry weight in the 50 and 100 μM Pb treatments. Under Pb stress conditions, chlorophyll and carotenoid levels were significantly higher in the endophyte-infected seedlings. Net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were significantly higher in endophyte-infected seedlings in the 50 and 100 μM Pb treatments. In addition, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo were higher in the infected seedlings compared to the non-infected seedlings under Pb stress. Malondialdehyde accumulation was induced by Pb stress, and it was present in higher concentration in non-infected seedlings under higher concentrations of Pb (100 and 200 μM). Antioxidant activity was either higher or unchanged in the infected seedlings due to responses to the different Pb concentrations. These results suggest that the endophytic fungus improved rice growth under moderate Pb levels by enhancing photosynthesis and antioxidant activity relative to non-infected rice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of salt stress on germination and early seedling growth of rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-29

    Mar 29, 2010 ... planting in saline soil or in areas inundated by sea water or irrigated with brackish ... Nutritional imbalance caused by such ions leads to reduction in ... rice varieties showed a great variation in germination due to salinity effect.

  6. The mitochondrial gene orfH79 plays a critical role in impairing both male gametophyte development and root growth in CMS-Honglian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaojue; Wang, Kun; Hu, Chaofeng; Zhu, Youlin; Wang, Ting; Yang, Jing; Tong, Jiping; Li, Shaoqing; Zhu, Yingguo

    2010-06-24

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has often been associated with abnormal mitochondrial open reading frames. The mitochondrial gene orfH79 is a candidate gene for causing the CMS trait in CMS-Honglian (CMS-HL) rice. However, whether the orfH79 expression can actually induce CMS in rice remains unclear. Western blot analysis revealed that the ORFH79 protein is mainly present in mitochondria of CMS-HL rice and is absent in the fertile line. To investigate the function of ORFH79 protein in mitochondria, this gene was fused to a mitochondrial transit peptide sequence and used to transform wild type rice, where its expression induced the gametophytic male sterile phenotype. In addition, excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the microspore, a reduced ATP/ADP ratio, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and a lower respiration rate in the transgenic plants were found to be similar to those in CMS-HL rice. Moreover, retarded growth of primary and lateral roots accompanied by abnormal accumulation of ROS in the root tip was observed in both transgenic rice and CMS-HL rice (YTA). These results suggest that the expression of orfH79 in mitochondria impairs mitochondrial function, which affects the development of both male gametophytes and the roots of CMS-HL rice.

  7. The overexpression of insect endogenous small RNAs in transgenic rice inhibits growth and delays pupation of striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Wu, Hao; Liu, Haoju; Zheng, Jie; Lin, Yongjun; Chen, Hao

    2017-07-01

    The striped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis Walker, is a major rice insect pest worldwide. RNA interference (RNAi) has become a promising strategy for developing insect-resistant crops. In a previous study, five double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeting important SSB housekeeping genes were overexpressed in rice, but none of the acquired dsRNA-transgenic rice plants showed significant effects on SSB. Thirteen selected SSB endogenous small RNAs, predicted as SSB novel microRNAs (miRNAs), were overexpressed in rice using artificial miRNA (amiRNA) expression technology. Feeding tests showed that two out of 13 selected SSB novel miRNAs caused significant growth inhibition for feeding SSB larvae based on transgenic rice expression. Pupation was delayed 4 days when SSB larvae consecutively fed on transgenic rice expressing the SSB novel miRNA candidate csu-novel-miR15 (csu-15 rice). Gene expression analysis confirmed that the expression levels of at least six SSB unigenes significantly changed (i.e., were up- or down-regulated) after feeding on csu-15 rice. Our research demonstrated a novel RNAi strategy using SSB endogenous small RNAs to develop RNAi crops for pest management; this strategy is different from the common RNAi resulting from transgenic dsRNAs or amiRNAs targeting certain insect endogenous genes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Dwarf Tiller1, a Wuschel-related homeobox transcription factor, is required for tiller growth in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfei Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike many wild grasses, domesticated rice cultivars have uniform culm height and panicle size among tillers and the main shoot, which is an important trait for grain yield. However, the genetic basis of this trait remains unknown. Here, we report that Dwarf Tiller1 (DWT1 controls the developmental uniformity of the main shoot and tillers in rice (Oryza sativa. Most dwt1 mutant plants develop main shoots with normal height and larger panicles, but dwarf tillers bearing smaller panicles compared with those of the wild type. In addition, dwt1 tillers have shorter internodes with fewer and un-elongated cells compared with the wild type, indicating that DWT1 affects cell division and cell elongation. Map-based cloning revealed that DWT1 encodes a Wuschel-related homeobox (WOX transcription factor homologous to the Arabidopsis WOX8 and WOX9. The DWT1 gene is highly expressed in young panicles, but undetectable in the internodes, suggesting that DWT1 expression is spatially or temporally separated from its effect on the internode growth. Transcriptomic analysis revealed altered expression of genes involved in cell division and cell elongation, cytokinin/gibberellin homeostasis and signaling in dwt1 shorter internodes. Moreover, the non-elongating internodes of dwt1 are insensitive to exogenous gibberellin (GA treatment, and some of the slender rice1 (slr1 dwt1 double mutant exhibits defective internodes similar to the dwt1 single mutant, suggesting that the DWT1 activity in the internode elongation is directly or indirectly associated with GA signaling. This study reveals a genetic pathway synchronizing the development of tillers and the main shoot, and a new function of WOX genes in balancing branch growth in rice.

  9. DWARF TILLER1, a WUSCHEL-Related Homeobox Transcription Factor, Is Required for Tiller Growth in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenfei; Li, Gang; Zhao, Jun; Chu, Huangwei; Lin, Wenhui; Zhang, Dabing; Wang, Zhiyong; Liang, Wanqi

    2014-01-01

    Unlike many wild grasses, domesticated rice cultivars have uniform culm height and panicle size among tillers and the main shoot, which is an important trait for grain yield. However, the genetic basis of this trait remains unknown. Here, we report that DWARF TILLER1 (DWT1) controls the developmental uniformity of the main shoot and tillers in rice (Oryza sativa). Most dwt1 mutant plants develop main shoots with normal height and larger panicles, but dwarf tillers bearing smaller panicles compared with those of the wild type. In addition, dwt1 tillers have shorter internodes with fewer and un-elongated cells compared with the wild type, indicating that DWT1 affects cell division and cell elongation. Map-based cloning revealed that DWT1 encodes a WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) transcription factor homologous to the Arabidopsis WOX8 and WOX9. The DWT1 gene is highly expressed in young panicles, but undetectable in the internodes, suggesting that DWT1 expression is spatially or temporally separated from its effect on the internode growth. Transcriptomic analysis revealed altered expression of genes involved in cell division and cell elongation, cytokinin/gibberellin homeostasis and signaling in dwt1 shorter internodes. Moreover, the non-elongating internodes of dwt1 are insensitive to exogenous gibberellin (GA) treatment, and some of the slender rice1 (slr1) dwt1 double mutant exhibits defective internodes similar to the dwt1 single mutant, suggesting that the DWT1 activity in the internode elongation is directly or indirectly associated with GA signaling. This study reveals a genetic pathway synchronizing the development of tillers and the main shoot, and a new function of WOX genes in balancing branch growth in rice. PMID:24625559

  10. Growth, Metabolism and Yield of Rice Cultivated in Soils Amended with Fly Ash and Cyanobacteria and Metal Loads in Plant Parts

    OpenAIRE

    Rabindra N. Padhy; Nabakishore Nayak; Rajesh R. Dash-Mohini; Shakti Rath; Rajani K. Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Soil amendment with fly ash (FA) and combined supplementation with N2-fixing cyanobacteria masses as biofertilizer were done in field experiments with rice. Amendments with FA levels, 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kg/m2, caused increase in growth and yield of rice up to 8.0 kg/m2, monitored with several parameters. Pigment contents and enzyme activities of leaves were enhanced by FA, with the maximum level of FA at 10.0 kg/m2. Protein content of rice seeds was the highest in plants grow...

  11. Effects of Furrow Irrigation on the Growth, Production, and Water Use Efficiency of Direct Sowing Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin He

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice farming is the major crop production in Asia and is predicted to increase significantly in the near future in order to meet the demands for the increasing human population. Traditional irrigation methods used in rice farming often result in great water loss. New water-saving methods are urgently needed to reduce water consumption. Three field and pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the furrow irrigation (FI system to improve water use efficiency (WUE and production of direct sowing rice in southern China. Compared to the conventional irrigation (CI system (continuous flooding irrigation, for every square hectometer of rice field, the FI system reduced water use by 3130 m3, or 48.1%, and increased grain production by 13.9% for an early cultivar. For a late cultivar, the FI system reduced water use by 2655 m3, or 40.6%, and an increase of grain production by 12.1%. The improved WUE in the FI system is attributed to (1 a significant reduction of irrigation rate, seepage, evaporation, and evapotranspiration; (2 a significant reduction in the reduced materials, such as ferrous ion (Fe2+, and therefore an increase in the vitality of the root system, evident by the increases in the number of white roots by 32.62%, and decreases in the number of black roots by 20.04% and yellow roots by 12.58%; the use of the FI system may also reduce humidity of the rice field and enhance gas transport in the soil and light penetration, which led to reduced rice diseases and increased leaf vitality; and (3 increases in tiller and effective spikes by 11.53% and the weight per thousand grains by 1.0 g. These findings suggest that the shallow FI system is a promising means for rice farming in areas with increasing water shortages.

  12. Effects of furrow irrigation on the growth, production, and water use efficiency of direct sowing rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunlin

    2010-08-03

    Rice farming is the major crop production in Asia and is predicted to increase significantly in the near future in order to meet the demands for the increasing human population. Traditional irrigation methods used in rice farming often result in great water loss. New water-saving methods are urgently needed to reduce water consumption. Three field and pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the furrow irrigation (FI) system to improve water use efficiency (WUE) and production of direct sowing rice in southern China. Compared to the conventional irrigation (CI) system (continuous flooding irrigation), for every square hectometer of rice field, the FI system reduced water use by 3130 m3, or 48.1%, and increased grain production by 13.9% for an early cultivar. For a late cultivar, the FI system reduced water use by 2655 m3, or 40.6%, and an increase of grain production by 12.1%. The improved WUE in the FI system is attributed to (1) a significant reduction of irrigation rate, seepage, evaporation, and evapotranspiration; (2) a significant reduction in the reduced materials, such as ferrous ion (Fe2+), and therefore an increase in the vitality of the root system, evident by the increases in the number of white roots by 32.62%, and decreases in the number of black roots by 20.04% and yellow roots by 12.58%; the use of the FI system may also reduce humidity of the rice field and enhance gas transport in the soil and light penetration, which led to reduced rice diseases and increased leaf vitality; and (3) increases in tiller and effective spikes by 11.53% and the weight per thousand grains by 1.0 g. These findings suggest that the shallow FI system is a promising means for rice farming in areas with increasing water shortages.

  13. Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219 Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Palanivell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot−1. Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot−1 significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot−1 and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials.

  14. Enhanced degradation of chlorpyrifos in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by five strains of endophytic bacteria and their plant growth promotional ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Fayun; Ge, Jing; Li, Yisong; He, Shuang; Zhong, Jianfeng; Liu, Xianjing; Yu, Xiangyang

    2017-10-01

    Endophytic bacteria reside in plant tissues, such as roots, stems, leaves and seeds. Most of them can stimulate plant growth or alleviate phytotoxicity of pollutants. There are handful species with dual functions stimulating plant growth and degrading pollutants have been reported. Five endophytic bacteria were isolated from chlorpyrifos (CP) treated rice plants and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RRA, Bacillus megaterium strain RRB, Sphingobacterium siyangensis strain RSA, Stenotrophomonas pavanii strain RSB and Curtobacterium plantarum strain RSC according to morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical tests, and 16S rDNA phylogeny. All of them possessed some plant growth promotional traits, including indole acetic acid and siderophore production, secretion of phosphate solubilization and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. The bacteria were marked with the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene and successfully colonized into rice plants. All isolates were able to degrade CP in vitro and in vivo. The five isolates degraded more than 90% of CP in 24 h when the initial concentration was lower than 5 mg/L. CP degradation was significantly enhanced in the infested rice plants and rice grains. The final CP residual was reduced up to 80% in the infested rice grains compared to the controls. The results indicate that these isolates are promising bio-inoculants for the removal or detoxification of CP residues in rice plants and grains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219) Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivell, Perumal; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Ab Majid, Nik Muhamad; Jalloh, Mohamadu Boyie; Susilawati, Kasim

    2015-01-01

    High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot(-1)). Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot(-1)) significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot(-1)) and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials.

  16. Effects of ferrous sulfate amendment and water management on rice growth and metal(loid) accumulation in arsenic and lead co-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lina; Zhang, Shu; Duan, Dechao; Liang, Xinqiang; Shi, Jiyan; Xu, Jianming; Tang, Xianjin

    2018-03-01

    Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) commonly co-exist with high concentrations in paddy soil mainly due to human activities in south of China. This study investigates the effect of ferrous sulfate (FeSO 4 ) amendment and water management on rice growth and arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) accumulation in rice plants. A paddy soil co-contaminated with As and Pb was chosen for the pot experiment with three FeSO 4 levels (0, 0.25, and 1%, on a dry weight basis) and two water managements (flooded, non-flooded). The concentrations of As and Pb in iron plaques and rice plants were determined. Application of FeSO 4 and non-flooded conditions significantly accelerated the growth of rice plants. With the addition of FeSO 4 , iron plaques were significantly promoted and most of the As and Pb were sequestered in the iron plaques. The addition of 0.25% FeSO 4 and non-flooded conditions did not significantly change the accumulation of As and Pb in rice grains. The practice also significantly decreased the translocation factor (TF) of As and Pb from roots to above-ground parts which might have been aided by the reduction of As and Pb availability in soil, the preventing effect of rice roots, and the formation of more reduced glutathione (GSH). Flooded conditions decreased the Pb concentration in rice plants, but increased As accumulation. Moreover, rice grew thin and weak and even died under flooded conditions. Overall, an appropriate FeSO 4 dose and non-flooded conditions might be feasible for rice cultivation, especially addressing the As issue in the co-contaminated soil. However, further detailed studies to decrease the accumulation of Pb in edible parts and the field application in As and Pb co-contaminated soil are recommended.

  17. Ethylene-Induced Inhibition of Root Growth Requires Abscisic Acid Function in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Si-Jie; Lu, Xiang; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Lu, Tie-Gang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) have a complicated interplay in many developmental processes. Their interaction in rice is largely unclear. Here, we characterized a rice ethylene-response mutant mhz4, which exhibited reduced ethylene-response in roots but enhanced ethylene-response in coleoptiles of etiolated seedlings. MHZ4 was identified through map-based cloning and encoded a chloroplast-localized membrane protein homologous to Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) ABA4, which is responsible for a branch of ABA biosynthesis. MHZ4 mutation reduced ABA level, but promoted ethylene production. Ethylene induced MHZ4 expression and promoted ABA accumulation in roots. MHZ4 overexpression resulted in enhanced and reduced ethylene response in roots and coleoptiles, respectively. In root, MHZ4-dependent ABA pathway acts at or downstream of ethylene receptors and positively regulates root ethylene response. This ethylene-ABA interaction mode is different from that reported in Arabidopsis, where ethylene-mediated root inhibition is independent of ABA function. In coleoptile, MHZ4-dependent ABA pathway acts at or upstream of OsEIN2 to negatively regulate coleoptile ethylene response, possibly by affecting OsEIN2 expression. At mature stage, mhz4 mutation affects branching and adventitious root formation on stem nodes of higher positions, as well as yield-related traits. Together, our findings reveal a novel mode of interplay between ethylene and ABA in control of rice growth and development. PMID:25330236

  18. The impact of software growth on the electronics industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genuchten, van M.J.I.M.

    2007-01-01

    Software growth has significantly impacted the computer industry and is changing many other electronics industries. It is not a question of whether intellectual property will be sold in the form of software, but which companies will do it successfully. The actions electronics companies take today

  19. (PGMS) rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... tics, led us to predict that pollen cell abortion in this type of rice when ... averages of natural day-light-lengths and temperatures were used. A natural long ... blocks were allowed to grow under natural growth conditions (which.

  20. Field transcriptome revealed critical developmental and physiological transitions involved in the expression of growth potential in japonica rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamatsuki Kaori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant growth depends on synergistic interactions between internal and external signals, and yield potential of crops is a manifestation of how these complex factors interact, particularly at critical stages of development. As an initial step towards developing a systems-level understanding of the biological processes underlying the expression of overall agronomic potential in cereal crops, a high-resolution transcriptome analysis of rice was conducted throughout life cycle of rice grown under natural field conditions. Results A wide range of gene expression profiles based on 48 organs and tissues at various developmental stages identified 731 organ/tissue specific genes as well as 215 growth stage-specific expressed genes universally in leaf blade, leaf sheath, and root. Continuous transcriptome profiling of leaf from transplanting until harvesting further elucidated the growth-stage specificity of gene expression and uncovered two major drastic changes in the leaf transcriptional program. The first major change occurred before the panicle differentiation, accompanied by the expression of RFT1, a putative florigen gene in long day conditions, and the downregulation of the precursors of two microRNAs. This transcriptome change was also associated with physiological alterations including phosphate-homeostasis state as evident from the behavior of several key regulators such as miR399. The second major transcriptome change occurred just after flowering, and based on analysis of sterile mutant lines, we further revealed that the formation of strong sink, i.e., a developing grain, is not the major cause but is rather a promoter of this change. Conclusions Our study provides not only the genetic basis for functional genomics in rice but also new insight into understanding the critical physiological processes involved in flowering and seed development, that could lead to novel strategies for optimizing crop productivity.

  1. Radiation utilization efficiency, nitrogen uptake and modeling crop growth and yield of rainfed rice under different nitrogen rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouranga, Kar; Ashwani Kumar; Mohapatra, Sucharita

    2014-01-01

    Optimum utilization of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) along with proper nitrogen (N) management for sustainable rice production is still a promising management recommendation for sustainable rainfed rice cultivation in eastern India. The objective of this investigation was to study radiation utilization efficiency (RUE), N uptake and modeling growth and productivity of wet/rainy season rice (cv. Lalat and Gayatri) under 0, 50, 90, 120 and 150 kg ha -1 N application. Results showed that N rates significantly affected plant biomass, leaf area index (LAI), biological yield (straw and grain yield) and N uptake for both the varieties. The intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR) and spectral reflectance based vegetation indices (IR/R, NDVI) were also different between two varieties and among N rates. Higher rate of N increased the RUE significantly; averaged over years and varieties, mean values of RUE were 1.35, 1.70, 2.01, 2.15 and 2.17 g MJ -1 under 0, 50, 90, 120 and 150 kg N ha -1 , respectively. Though crop growth, yield, N uptake and RUE were higher at 150 kg N ha -1 but the results were at par with 120 kg N ha -1 . Agronomic N use efficiency (ANUE) was also low at 150 kg N ha -1 . The DSSAT v 4.5 model was applied to simulate crop growth, yield and phenology of the crop under different N rates. Model performance was found to be poor at low N rates (0, 50 kg N ha -1 ), but the model performed fairly well at higher N rates (90 kg ha -1 and above). (author)

  2. License - The Rice Growth Monitoring for The Phenotypic Functional Analysis | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s Database Last updated : 2011/11/08 You may use this database in compliance with the terms and conditions o...f the license described below. The license specifies the license terms regarding the use of this database an...d the requirements you must follow in using this database. The license for this database... is specified in the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database..., please be sure attribute this database as follows: The Rice Growth Monitoring for the Phenotypic Fu

  3. Effects of Cadmium Stress on Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Seed Amylase Activities in Rice (Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-yu HE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two rice varieties, Xiushui 110 with high cadmium (Cd tolerance and Xiushui 11 with low Cd tolerance were used to study the effects of Cd stress on seed germination, seedling growth and amylase activities. The low cadmium concentration had little effect on seed germination rate. However, cadmium stress could significantly inhibit plumule and radicle growth, especially for radicle growth. Germination index, vigour index, radicle length and amylase activities of Xiushui 11 decreased more significantly with the increasing cadmium level compared with Xiushui 110. The cadmium content in seedlings of Xiushui 11 was higher than that in Xiushui 110 when the cadmium concentration exceeded 5 μmol/L, which caused lower mitotic index in root tips and amylase activities, and more serious cadmium toxicity in Xiushui 11.

  4. Effects of Rice Husk Modification with Liquid Natural Rubber and Exposure to Electron Beam Radiation on the Mechanical Properties of NR/ HDPE/ Rice Husk Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, C.E.; Ishak Ahmad; Ibrahim Abdullah; Dahlan Mohd

    2011-01-01

    Rice husk (RH) powder is a natural fibre capable of reinforcing natural rubber thermoplastic (TPNR) NR/ HDPE composites on specific modification of the particle surface. In this study the modification of RH powder involved pre-treatment with 5 % sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, soaking in LNR solution and exposure of LNR coated RH to electron beam (EB) irradiation. Preparation of NR/ HDPE/ RH composites was via melt-mixing in an internal mixer at predetermined conditions. Morphology study of the composites using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed a homogeneous distribution of modified RH particles and particle-matrix interaction in the composite. Modified RH filled composites exhibited a significant change in mechanical properties. The maximum stress and impact strength were 6.7 MPa and 13.2 kJ/ m 2 , respectively at 20 kGy radiation, while the tensile modulus was 79 MPa at 30 kGy dose. The interfacial RH-TPNR interaction for the LNR-EB treated RH particles had improved in the EB dosage range of 20-30 kGy. However, over exposure to radiation caused degradation of rubber coat and interaction between particles to increase. Agglomeration of filler particles would occur and caused inhomogeneous distribution of filler in the composite. (author)

  5. Growth and Physiological Performance of Aerobic and Lowland Rice as Affected by Water Stress at Selected Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadzariah Kamarul Zaman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic rice technology is still new in Malaysia, and information regarding MARDI Aerob 1 (MA1, the first local aerobic rice variety, is still lacking. Therefore, comparative studies were carried out to determine the physiological performance of aerobic rice variety MA1 and lowland rice variety MR253 under water stress given at the panicle initiation, flowering and ripening stages. This experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design. Stomatal conductance (gs, chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fv/Fm, leaf relative water content (leaf RWC, and soil moisture content (SMC as well as yield component parameters such as panicle number, grain yield and 100-grain weight were measured. Results revealed that gs and leaf RWC for both varieties decreased with depletion of SMC. The correlation study between the physiological parameters and SMC indicated that Fv/Fm was not affected by water stress, regardless of varieties. The yield components (panicle number, grain yield and 100-grain weight for both varieties greatly decreased when water stress was imposed at the panicle initiation stage. This study showed that the panicle initiation period was the most sensitive stage to water stress that contributed to a substantial reduction in yield for both varieties. Under the aerobic condition (control, MR253 produced higher panicle number, 100-grain weight and yield than MA1. Although MR253 is bred for lowland, it is well adapted to aerobic condition.

  6. Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics in Flag Leaves of the C Liangyou Series of Hybrid Rice Combinations at Late Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-bang TANG

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The contents of chlorophyll, soluble sugars, soluble proteins and thiobarbituric acid reaction substance (TBARS, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, net photosynthetic rate as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD of flag leaves at the late growth stages were studied by using C Liangyou series of hybrid rice combinitions as material and Shanyou 63 as control. The C Liangyou series of hybrid rice combinations used in the experiment included C Liangyou 396, C Liangyou 87, C Liangyou 755 and C Liangyou 34, which all used C815S as male sterile line. The contents of chlorophyll, soluble sugars and soluble proteins in flag leaves of the C Liangyou series combinations at the late growth stages were higher than those of the control, whereas the TBARS content was lower than that of the control. The activities of SOD and POD were significantly higher than those of the control on the 7th day after heading, and then decreased slowly. FPSII value and qP value of flag leaves decreased at the late growth stages, and these two parameters in flag leaves of the C Liangyou series combinations were higher than those of the control, while the qN value increased at the late growth stages and was lower than that of the control. The net photosynthetic rate of flag leaves at the late growth stage was higher compared with the control. These results suggest that slow senescence and strong photosynthetic capability in flag leaves at the late growth stages are the physiological basis of the C Liangyou series combinations.

  7. Detecting free radicals in biochars and determining their ability to inhibit the germination and growth of corn, wheat and rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Shaohua; Pan, Bo; Li, Hao; Zhang, Di; Xing, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    Biochar can benefit human society as a carbon-negative material and soil amendment. However, negative biochar impacts on plant germination and growth have been observed, and they have not been fully explained. Therefore, protocols to avoid these risks cannot be proposed. We hypothesized that the free radicals generated during charring may inhibit plant germination and growth. Significant electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals were observed in the biochars derived from several types of common biomass (corn stalk, rice, and wheat straws) and the major biopolymer components of biomass (cellulose and lignin), but not in the original materials, suggesting the ubiquitous presence of free radicals in biochars. EPR signal intensity increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature, and it was dominantly contributed by oxygen centered in the mixture of oxygen- and carbon-centered free radicals as the temperature increased. The free radicals in biochars induced strong ·OH radicals in the aqueous phase. Significant germination inhibition, root and shoot growth retardation and plasma membrane damage were observed for biochars with abundant free radicals. Germination inhibition and plasma membrane damage were not obvious for biochars containing low free radicals, but they were apparent at comparable concentrations of conventional contaminants, such as heavy metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The potential risk and harm of relatively persistent free radicals in biochars must be addressed to apply them safely.

  8. Preparation and characterization of electron-beam treated HDPE composites reinforced with rice husk ash and Brazilian clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, A.V., E-mail: angelortiz@ipen.br [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Teixeira, J.G.; Gomes, M.G.; Oliveira, R.R. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Díaz, F.R.V. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, University of São Paulo Av. Prof. Mello de Morais 2463, São Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Moura, E.A.B. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We examine changes in HDPE properties when waste and clay are used as reinforcement. • The addition of only 3% of clay leads to important gains in HDPE properties. • The use of electron-beam contributes to greater improvements in material properties. • We observe 85% of cross-linking degree for the HDPE when treated with e-beam. - Abstract: This work evaluates the morphology, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. HDPE reinforced with rice husk ashes (80:20 wt%), HDPE reinforced with clay (97:3 wt%) and HDPE reinforced with both rice husk ashes and clay(77:20:3 wt%) were obtained. The Brazilian bentonite chocolate clay was used in this study. This Brazilian smectitic clay is commonly used to produce nanocomposites. The composites were produced by melting extrusion process and then irradiation was carried out in a 1.5 MeV electron-beam accelerator (room temperature, presence of air). Comparisons using the irradiated and non-irradiated neat polymer, and the irradiated and non-irradiated composites were made. The materials obtained were submitted to tensile, flexural and impact tests. Additionally HDT, SEM and XRD analyses were carried out along with the sol–gel analysis which aimed to assess the cross-linking degree of the irradiated materials. Results showed great improvement in most HDPE properties and a high cross-linking degree of 85% as a result of electron-beam irradiation of the material.

  9. Gasified rice hull biochar affects nutrition and growth of five horticulture crops in container culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphate fertilizers used in the production of greenhouse crops can be problematic if released into the environment. Furthermore, the price of phosphate is increasing as demand increases and world supplies decrease. The objective of this research was to determine if gasified rice hull biochar (GR...

  10. High day- and night-time temperatures affect grain growth dynamics in contrasting rice genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Wanju; Yin, Xinyou; Struik, Paul C.; Solis, Celymar; Xie, Fangming; Schmidt, Ralf C.; Huang, Min; Zou, Yingbin; Ye, Changrong; Jagadish, S.V.K.

    2017-01-01

    Rice grain yield and quality are predicted to be highly vulnerable to global warming. Five genotypes including heat-tolerant and susceptible checks, a heat-tolerant near-isogenic line and two hybrids were exposed to control (31 °C/23 °C, day/night), high night-time temperature (HNT; 31 °C/30 °C),

  11. Parboiled rice hull mulch in containers reduces liverwort and bittercress growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of preemergence herbicides for weed control is not always possible; some crops and many enclosed production sites are not labeled for herbicide applications. The objective of this research was to determine the utility of parboiled rice hull mulch for controlling two of the most common weeds in ...

  12. Effects of salt stress on germination and early seedling growth of rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... the relationship between speed of germination and seed vigor, salt stress decreased seed vigor of rice cultivars LD a superior ... Key words: Salinity, seed germination, seedling property, seed vigor. INTRODUCTION ... The salt solutions were prepared based on the methods by. (Rhoades et al., 1992) with ...

  13. Effect of Weed Management and Seed Rate on Crop Growth under Direct Dry Seeded Rice Systems in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sharif; Salim, Muhammad; Chauhan, Bhagirath S.

    2014-01-01

    Weeds are a major constraint to the success of dry-seeded rice (DSR). The main means of managing these in a DSR system is through chemical weed control using herbicides. However, the use of herbicides alone may not be sustainable in the long term. Approaches that aim for high crop competitiveness therefore need to be exploited. One such approach is the use of high rice seeding rates. Experiments were conducted in the aman (wet) seasons of 2012 and 2013 in Bangladesh to evaluate the effect of weed infestation level (partially-weedy and weed-free) and rice seeding rate (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 kg ha−1) on weed and crop growth in DSR. Under weed-free conditions, higher crop yields (5.1 and 5.2 t ha−1 in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively) were obtained at the seeding rate of 40 kg ha−1 and thereafter, yield decreased slightly beyond 40 kg seed ha−1. Under partially-weedy conditions, yield increased by 30 to 33% (2.0–2.2 and 2.9–3.2 t ha−1 in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively) with increase in seeding rate from 20 to 100 kg ha−1. In the partially-weedy plots, weed biomass decreased by 41–60% and 54–56% at 35 days after sowing and at crop anthesis, respectively, when seeding rate increased from 20 to 100 kg ha−1. Results from our study suggest that increasing seeding rates in DSR can suppress weed growth and reduce grain yield losses from weed competition. PMID:25000520

  14. Effect of weed management and seed rate on crop growth under direct dry seeded rice systems in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Ahmed

    Full Text Available Weeds are a major constraint to the success of dry-seeded rice (DSR. The main means of managing these in a DSR system is through chemical weed control using herbicides. However, the use of herbicides alone may not be sustainable in the long term. Approaches that aim for high crop competitiveness therefore need to be exploited. One such approach is the use of high rice seeding rates. Experiments were conducted in the aman (wet seasons of 2012 and 2013 in Bangladesh to evaluate the effect of weed infestation level (partially-weedy and weed-free and rice seeding rate (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 kg ha(-1 on weed and crop growth in DSR. Under weed-free conditions, higher crop yields (5.1 and 5.2 t ha(-1 in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively were obtained at the seeding rate of 40 kg ha(-1 and thereafter, yield decreased slightly beyond 40 kg seed ha(-1. Under partially-weedy conditions, yield increased by 30 to 33% (2.0-2.2 and 2.9-3.2 t ha(-1 in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively with increase in seeding rate from 20 to 100 kg ha(-1. In the partially-weedy plots, weed biomass decreased by 41-60% and 54-56% at 35 days after sowing and at crop anthesis, respectively, when seeding rate increased from 20 to 100 kg ha(-1. Results from our study suggest that increasing seeding rates in DSR can suppress weed growth and reduce grain yield losses from weed competition.

  15. Effect of weed management and seed rate on crop growth under direct dry seeded rice systems in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sharif; Salim, Muhammad; Chauhan, Bhagirath S

    2014-01-01

    Weeds are a major constraint to the success of dry-seeded rice (DSR). The main means of managing these in a DSR system is through chemical weed control using herbicides. However, the use of herbicides alone may not be sustainable in the long term. Approaches that aim for high crop competitiveness therefore need to be exploited. One such approach is the use of high rice seeding rates. Experiments were conducted in the aman (wet) seasons of 2012 and 2013 in Bangladesh to evaluate the effect of weed infestation level (partially-weedy and weed-free) and rice seeding rate (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 kg ha(-1)) on weed and crop growth in DSR. Under weed-free conditions, higher crop yields (5.1 and 5.2 t ha(-1) in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively) were obtained at the seeding rate of 40 kg ha(-1) and thereafter, yield decreased slightly beyond 40 kg seed ha(-1). Under partially-weedy conditions, yield increased by 30 to 33% (2.0-2.2 and 2.9-3.2 t ha(-1) in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively) with increase in seeding rate from 20 to 100 kg ha(-1). In the partially-weedy plots, weed biomass decreased by 41-60% and 54-56% at 35 days after sowing and at crop anthesis, respectively, when seeding rate increased from 20 to 100 kg ha(-1). Results from our study suggest that increasing seeding rates in DSR can suppress weed growth and reduce grain yield losses from weed competition.

  16. Patatin-related phospholipase A, pPLAIIIα, modulates the longitudinal growth of vegetative tissues and seeds in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangmeng; Zhang, Ke; Ai, Jun; Deng, Xianjun; Hong, Yueyun; Wang, Xuemin

    2015-11-01

    Patatin-related phospholipase A (pPLA) hydrolyses glycerolipids to produce fatty acids and lysoglycerolipids. The Oryza sativa genome has 21 putative pPLAs that are grouped into five subfamilies. Overexpression of OspPLAIIIα resulted in a dwarf phenotype with decreased length of rice stems, roots, leaves, seeds, panicles, and seeds, whereas OspPLAIIIα-knockout plants had longer panicles and seeds. OspPLAIIIα-overexpressing plants were less sensitive than wild-type and knockout plants to gibberellin-promoted seedling elongation. OspPLAIIIα overexpression and knockout had an opposite effect on the expression of the growth repressor SLENDER1 in the gibberellin signalling process. OspPLAIIIα-overexpressing plants had decreased mechanical strength and cellulose content, but exhibited increases in the expression of several cellulose synthase genes. These results indicate that OspPLAIIIα plays a role in rice vegetative and reproductive growth and that the constitutive, high activity of OspPLAIIIα suppresses cell elongation. The decreased gibberellin response in overexpressing plants is probably a result of the decreased ability to make cellulose for anisotropic cell expansion. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Effect of gamma-irradiated sludge on the growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L. var. GR-3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandya, G.A.; Prakash, L.; Devasia, Preston; Modi, V.V.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiated sludge on the growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L. var. GR-3) in pot cultures have been studied. Compared to plants grown only in soil, shoot length, root length, fresh weight, dry weight, total proteins, total soluble sugars, starch and chlorophyll content of plants grown in soil supplemented with unirradiated or gamma-irradiated sludge were found to be significantly increased. Irradiation of sludge significantly stimulated the linear growth of shoot and root systems as well as fresh and dry weights of plants, compared to those grown in soil containing unirradiated sludge. There was also an improvement in the grain yield (weight of seed) when plants were grown in soil supplemented with irradiated sludge. The results obtained suggest that the gamma-irradiated sewage sludge can be beneficially recycled for agricultural uses. (author)

  18. Biocontrol and plant growth promoting activities of a Streptomyces corchorusii strain UCR3-16 and preparation of powder formulation for application as biofertilizer agents for rice plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamreihao, K; Ningthoujam, Debananda S; Nimaichand, Salam; Singh, Elangbam Shanta; Reena, Pascal; Singh, Salam Herojeet; Nongthomba, Upendra

    2016-11-01

    Streptomyces corchorusii strain UCR3-16, obtained from rice rhizospheric soils showed antifungal activities against 6 major rice fungal pathogens by diffusible and volatile compounds production. The strain was found positive for production of fungal cell wall degrading enzymes such as chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, β-1,4-glucanase, lipase and protease. The strain was also positive for plant growth promoting traits. It produced up to 30.5μg/ml of IAA and solubilized a significant amount of inorganic phosphate (up to 102μg/ml). It also produced 69% siderophore units. The strain also produced ammonia and gave positive result for ACC deaminase activity. Highest vigor index of inoculated seedlings was observed when rice seeds were treated with cell suspension of UCR3-16 corresponding to 4.5×10(8)cfu/ml. Bioinoculant-treated seeds also showed similar results under pathogen challenged conditions. In pot trial experiments, UCR3-16-treated rice plants showed significantly increased growth and grain yield production. Powder formulation of the strain was developed using talcum and corn starch as carriers and the shelf-lives were monitored. Talcum formulation showed higher cell-count than corn starch even after 6 months of storage, and optimum condition for storage of the powder formulation were found to be at 4°C. Pot trial experiments using talcum powder formulation also showed significant positive effects on growth of rice plants. Field trial using talcum powder formulation also exhibited significant enhancement in shoot length and weight of shoot and root, and total grain yield and weight of grains in rice plants. Talcum formulation also significantly reduced the sheath blight disease in rice leaves. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Effects of full fat rice bran and defatted rice bran on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Gloria A; Overholt, Martin F; Dilger, Anna C; Boler, Dustin D; Stein, Hans H

    2018-06-04

    The objective was to test the hypothesis that increasing inclusion levels of full fat rice bran (FFRB) or defatted rice bran (DFRB) are not detrimental to growth or carcass characteristics, longissimus muscle (LM) quality, or fat quality when fed to growing-finishing pigs. A total of 224 barrows and gilts were randomly allotted to 7 treatments, with 4 pigs per pen and 8 pen replicates per treatment. Pigs had an average initial BW of 28.2 ± 4.1 kg and a 3-phase feeding program was used. A basal diet containing corn and soybean meal, 3 diets containing corn, soybean meal, and 10, 20, or 30% FFRB, and 3 diets containing corn, soybean meal, and 10, 20, or 30% DFRB were formulated within each phase. Daily feed allotments and pig BW at the start of the experiment and at the conclusion of each phase were recorded. On the last day of the experiment, 1 pig per pen was harvested and carcass characteristics, LM quality, and fat quality were determined. For the overall experimental period, no effects of dietary treatments were observed for average daily gain. However, average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased (linear, P < 0.05) and gain to feed ratio (G:F) increased (linear, P < 0.05) for pigs fed diets with increasing concentrations of FFRB. In contrast, ADFI increased linearly (P < 0.05) and G:F decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as DFRB was included in the diets. There were no effects of dietary treatments on LM quality. The length of the bellies decreased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) as the inclusion of FFRB or DFRB increased in the diets. The concentration of crude fat in the adipose tissue of pigs increased linearly (P < 0.05) as the concentration of FFRB or DFRB increased in the diets. The concentration of saturated fatty acids in the adipose tissue of pigs fed diets containing FFRB decreased (linear, P < 0.05), whereas the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (linear, P < 0.05). In contrast, addition of DFRB did not affect the concentration of

  20. Combined effects of plant extracts in inhibiting the growth of Bacillus cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hyejung; Kim, Jinsol; Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    A study was done to determine the potential use of plant extracts to inhibit the growth of Bacillus cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal. A total of 2116 extracts were screened for inhibitory activity against B. cereus using an agar well diffusion assay. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal lethal concentrations (MLC) of 14 promising extracts in tryptic soy broth (TSB) were determined. Dryopteris erythrosora (autumn fern) root extract showed the lowest MIC (0.0156 mg/ml), followed by Siegesbeckia glabrescens (Siegesbeckia herb) leaf (0.0313 mg/ml), Morus alba (white mulberry) cortex (0.0313 mg/ml), Carex pumila (sand sedge) root (0.0625 mg/ml), and Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seed (0.0625 mg/ml) extracts. The order of MLCs of extracts was D. erythrosora root (0.0156 mg/ml)extracts against B. cereus in TSB were determined using a checkerboard assay. A combination of D. erythrosora and C. pumila extracts showed a partial synergistic inhibition, with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of 0.75. Single and combined inhibitory activities of selected plant extracts against B. cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal were investigated. The MICs of S. glabrescens, M. alba, D. erythrosora, and C. pumila extracts against B. cereus were 1.0, 2.0, 2.0, and 8.0mg/ml, respectively. A combination of D. erythrosora (1.00 mg/ml) and C. pumila (1.00 mg/ml) extracts showed a partial synergistic effect (FICI 0.63) in inhibiting the growth of B. cereus. Results indicate that by combining extracts, the amounts of D. erythrosora and C. pumila extracts can be reduced by 50% and 87.5%, respectively, compared with individual extracts, and give similar inhibitory activity in reconstituted infant rice cereal. Sensory evaluation showed that supplementing reconstituted infant rice cereal with plant extracts reduces sensorial quality. These observations will be useful when developing and applying interventions using natural plant extracts to inhibit B

  1. Growth inhibition of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings in Ga- and In-contaminated acidic soils is respectively caused by Al and Al+In toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jeng-Yan; Syu, Chien-Hui; Lee, Dar-Yuan

    2018-02-15

    Limited information exists on the effects of emerging contaminants gallium (Ga) and indium (In) on rice plant growth. This study investigated the effects on growth and uptake of Ga and In by rice plants grown in soils with different properties. Pot experiment was conducted and the rice seedlings were grown in two soils of different pH (Pc and Cf) spiked with various Ga and In concentrations. The results showed concentrations of Ga, In, and Al in soil pore water increased with Ga- or In-spiking in acidic Pc soils, significantly decreasing growth indices. According to the dose-response curve, we observed that the EC 50 value for Ga and In treatments were 271 and 390mgkg -1 in Pc soils, respectively. The context of previous hydroponic studies suggests that growth inhibition of rice seedlings in Ga-spiked Pc soils is mainly due to Al toxicity resulting from enhanced Al release through competitive adsorption of Ga, rather than from Ga toxicity. In-spiked Pc soils, both In and Al toxicity resulted in growth inhibition, while no such effect was found in Cf soils due to the low availability of Ga, In and Al under neutral pH conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Responses of Rapid Viscoanalyzer Profile and Other Rice Grain Qualities to Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators under High Day and High Night Temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Fahad

    Full Text Available High-temperature stress degrades the grain quality of rice; nevertheless, the exogenous application of plant growth regulators (PGRs might alleviate the negative effects of high temperatures. In the present study, we investigated the responses of rice grain quality to exogenously applied PGRs under high day temperatures (HDT and high night temperatures (HNT under controlled conditions. Four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc, alpha-tocopherol (Ve, brassinosteroids (Br, methyl jasmonates (MeJA and triazoles (Tr were exogenously applied to two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan prior to the high-temperature treatment. A Nothing applied Control (NAC was included for comparison. The results demonstrated that high-temperature stress was detrimental for grain appearance and milling qualities and that both HDT and HNT reduced the grain length, grain width, grain area, head rice percentage and milled rice percentage but increased the chalkiness percentage and percent area of endosperm chalkiness in both cultivars compared with ambient temperature (AT. Significantly higher grain breakdown, set back, consistence viscosity and gelatinization temperature, and significantly lower peak, trough and final viscosities were observed under high-temperature stress compared with AT. Thus, HNT was more devastating for grain quality than HDT. The exogenous application of PGRs ameliorated the adverse effects of high temperature in both rice cultivars, and Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the best combination for both cultivars under high temperature stress.

  3. Root Associated Bacillus sp. Improves Growth, Yield and Zinc Translocation for Basmati Rice (Oryza sativa) Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Rais, Afroz; Hassan, Muhammad Nadeem; Hafeez, Fauzia Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Plant associated rhizobacteria prevailing in different agro-ecosystems exhibit multiple traits which could be utilized in various aspect of sustainable agriculture. Two hundred thirty four isolates were obtained from the roots of basmati-385 and basmati super rice varieties growing in clay loam and saline soil at different locations of Punjab (Pakistan). Out of 234 isolates, 27 were able to solubilize zinc (Zn) from different Zn ores like zinc phosphate [Zn3 (PO4)2], zinc carbonate (ZnCO3) and zinc oxide (ZnO). The strain SH-10 with maximum Zn solubilization zone of 24 mm on Zn3 (PO4)2ore and strain SH-17 with maximum Zn solubilization zone of 14–15 mm on ZnO and ZnCO3ores were selected for further studies. These two strains solubilized phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) in vitro with a solubilization zone of 38–46 mm and 47–55 mm respectively. The strains also suppressed economically important rice pathogens Pyricularia oryzae and Fusarium moniliforme by 22–29% and produced various biocontrol determinants in vitro. The strains enhanced Zn translocation toward grains and increased yield of basmati-385 and super basmati rice varieties by 22–49% and 18–47% respectively. The Zn solubilizing strains were identified as Bacillus sp. and Bacillus cereus by 16S rRNA gene analysis. PMID:26635754

  4. Modulation of ethylene responses by OsRTH1 overexpression reveals the biological significance of ethylene in rice seedling growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Xin; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of Arabidopsis Reversion-To-ethylene Sensitivity1 (RTE1) results in whole-plant ethylene insensitivity dependent on the ethylene receptor gene Ethylene Response1 (ETR1). However, overexpression of the tomato RTE1 homologue Green Ripe (GR) delays fruit ripening but does not confer whole-plant ethylene insensitivity. It was decided to investigate whether aspects of ethylene-induced growth and development of the monocotyledonous model plant rice could be modulated by rice RTE1 homologues (OsRTH genes). Results from a cross-species complementation test in Arabidopsis showed that OsRTH1 overexpression complemented the rte1-2 loss-of-function mutation and conferred whole-plant ethylene insensitivity in an ETR1-dependent manner. In contrast, OsRTH2 and OsRTH3 overexpression did not complement rte1-2 or confer ethylene insensitivity. In rice, OsRTH1 overexpression substantially prevented ethylene-induced alterations in growth and development, including leaf senescence, seedling leaf elongation and development, coleoptile elongation or curvature, and adventitious root development. Results of subcellular localizations of OsRTHs, each fused with the green fluorescent protein, in onion epidermal cells suggested that the three OsRTHs were predominantly localized to the Golgi. OsRTH1 may be an RTE1 orthologue of rice and modulate rice ethylene responses. The possible roles of auxins and gibberellins in the ethylene-induced alterations in growth were evaluated and the biological significance of ethylene in the early stage of rice seedling growth is discussed. PMID:22451723

  5. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Feizabadi, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  6. Emittance growth induced by electron cloud in proton storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, Elena; Coppa, G

    2006-01-01

    In proton and positron storage rings with many closely spaced bunches, a large number of electrons can accumulate in the beam pipe due to various mechanisms (photoemission, residual gas ionization, beam-induced multipacting). The so-formed electron cloud interacts with the positively charged bunches, giving rise to instabilities, emittance growth and losses. This phenomenon has been observed in several existing machines such as the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), whose operation has been constrained by the electron-cloud problem, and it is a concern for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), under construction at CERN. The interaction between the beam and the electron cloud has features which cannot be fully taken into account by the conventional and known theories from accelerators and plasma physics. Computer simulations are indispensable for a proper prediction and understanding of the instability dynamics. The main feature which renders the beam-cloud interactions so peculiar is that the the electron cloud...

  7. Surviving floods: leaf gas films improve O₂ and CO₂ exchange, root aeration, and growth of completely submerged rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ole; Rich, Sarah Meghan; Colmer, Timothy David

    2009-04-01

    When completely submerged, the leaves of some species retain a surface gas film. Leaf gas films on submerged plants have recently been termed 'plant plastrons', analogous with the plastrons of aquatic insects. In aquatic insects, surface gas layers (i.e. plastrons) enlarge the gas-water interface to promote O₂ uptake when under water; however, the function of leaf gas films has rarely been considered. The present study demonstrates that gas films on leaves of completely submerged rice facilitate entry of O₂ from floodwaters when in darkness and CO₂ entry when in light. O₂ microprofiles showed that the improved gas exchange was not caused by differences in diffusive boundary layers adjacent to submerged leaves with or without gas films; instead, reduced resistance to gas exchange was probably due to the enlarged water-gas interface (cf. aquatic insects). When gas films were removed artificially, underwater net photosynthesis declined to only 20% of the rate with gas films present, such that, after 7 days of complete submergence, tissue sugar levels declined, and both shoot and root growth were reduced. Internal aeration of roots in anoxic medium, when shoots were in aerobic floodwater in darkness or when in light, was improved considerably when leaf gas films were present. Thus, leaf gas films contribute to the submergence tolerance of rice, in addition to those traits already recognized, such as the shoot-elongation response, aerenchyma and metabolic adjustments to O₂ deficiency and oxidative stress. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Growth and Yield of Rice Plant by the Applications of River Sand, Coconut and Banana Coir in Ustic Endoaquert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to study effect the application of river sand (RS, coconut coir (CC, and banana coir (BC on growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L. in Ustic Endoaquert. The research was carried out in a green house using 3 × 3 × 3 factorial design. The RS factor consists of three treatment levels which were 0% RS, 25% RS, and 50% RS. Meanwhile, the CC and BC consist of three treatment levels, where each level were 0 Mg ha-1, 10 Mg ha-1 and 20 Mg ha-1. The results showed that RS, CC and BC applications did not have significant effect on plant height. On the other hand, all ameliorant applications had significantly increase leaf length and the highest percentage increasing was in BC (13.49%. The leaf numbers and tiller numbers had relatively similar pattern, except BC that had significantly increased leaf numbers by 77.69% and amount of tiller numbers by 49.45%. Furthermore, for yield components, RS, CC and BC applications had significant increased panicle numbers by 37.76%. It was only RS and BC that increased panicle lenght and the best increasing of 26.82% on RS. Meanwhile, the BC application only increased the rice grain numbers.

  9. Nitrogen and azolla response on growth of rice plant of Mitra-I variety with SRI method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmayulis; Putra Utama; Dewi Firnia; Hasnan Yani; Ania Citraresmini

    2011-01-01

    The research was conducted in Cisadap, Bunter Village, District of Sukadana, Ciamis Regency, West Java Province from January to May 2011. This study was carried out to know the response of growth of rice plant which was fertilized by nitrogen fertilizer and Azolla michrophylla using the system of rice intensification. This research used five dozes of nitrogen fertilizer (0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 %, 100 %) from N 92 kg ha -1 as a recommended nitrogen fertilizer (urea 200 kg ha -1 ), and also 1,13 ton ha -1 Azolla michrophylla. The result obtained from this research showed that the application of N fertilizer at 50 % of the recommend dose (100 kg ha -1 ) with adding Azolla at a rate of 1.13 t ha -1 gave good result in the terms of plant height at 2-6 weeks after planting and number of tillers at 2-7 weeks after planting. Interaction of the 50 % N fertilizer from the recommended dose planting 1,13 t ha -1 give the highest dry weight of Azolla of plants at seven weeks after planting. (author)

  10. Growth of electron plasma waves above and below f/sub p/ in the electron foreshock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, I.H.; Fung, S.F.

    1988-01-01

    With increasing penetration into the electron foreshock the characteristics of the electrostatic waves driven by streaming electrons change continuously from the familiar intense waves near the electron plasma frequency f/sub p/ to weak bursts of broadband waves initially significantly above f/sub p/ and then well below f/sub p/. Growth well below f/sub p/ has been demonstrated theoretically for slow, cold electron beams, and the broadband waves below f/sub p/ in the foreshock have been interpreted in terms of the very cold or sharp ''cutoff'' feature of a cutoff distribution for small cutoff speeds. However, an approximate theoretical criterion indicates that the electron beams studied hitherto are unstable to reactive rather than kinetic growth, thereby favoring very narrow-band growth contrary to the observed broadband growth. In this paper we determine conditions for kinetic growth well above and below f/sub p/ for both cold and warm beams over a wide range of beam densities and speeds. We verify that kinetic growth below f/sub p/ is possible for cold, slow beams and for warm, dense beams (over wide range of beam velocities)

  11. Chinese Milk Vetch Improves Plant Growth, Development and 15N Recovery in the Rice-Based Rotation System of South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhijian; He, Yaqin; Tu, Shuxin; Xu, Changxu; Liu, Guangrong; Wang, Huimin; Cao, Weidong; Liu, Hui

    2017-06-15

    Chinese milk vetch (CMV) is vital for agriculture and environment in China. A pot experiment combined with 15 N labeling (including three treatments: control, no fertilizer N and CMV; 15 N-labeled urea alone, 15 NU; substituting partial 15 NU with CMV, 15 NU-M) was conducted to evaluate the impact of CMV on plant growth, development and 15 NU recovery in rice-based rotation system. The 15 NU-M mitigated oxidative damage by increasing antioxidant enzymes activities and chlorophyll content while decreased malondialdehyde content in rice root and shoot, increased the biomass, total N and 15 N uptake of plant shoots by 8%, 12% and 39% respectively, thus inducing a noticeable increase of annual 15 N recovery by 77% versus 15 NU alone. Remarkable increases in soil NH 4 + and populations of bacteria, actinomycetes and azotobacter were obtained in legume-rice rotation system while an adverse result was observed in soil NO 3 - content versus fallow-rice. CMV as green manure significantly increased the fungal population which was decreased with cultivating CMV as cover crop. Therefore, including legume cover crop in rice-based rotation system improves plant growth and development, annual N conservation and recovery probably by altering soil nitrogen forms plus ameliorating soil microbial communities and antioxidant system which alleviates oxidative damages in plants.

  12. Growth of electron plasma waves above and below f(p) in the electron foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Fung, Shing F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates the conditions required for electron beams to drive wave growth significantly above and below the electron plasma frequency, f(p), by numerically solving the linear dispersion equation. It is shown that kinetic growth well below f(p) may occur over a broad range of frequencies due to the beam instability, when the electron beam is slow, dilute, and relatively cold. Alternatively, a cold or sharp feature at low parallel velocities in the distribution function may drive kinetic growth significantly below f(p). Kinetic broadband growth significantly above f(p) is explained in terms of faster warmer beams. A unified qualitative theory for the narrow-band and broad-band waves is proposed.

  13. Syntrophic Growth via Quinone-Mediated Interspecies Electron Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Smith

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which microbial species exchange electrons are of interest because interspecies electron transfer can expand the metabolic capabilities of microbial communities. Previous studies with the humic substance analog anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS suggested that quinone-mediated interspecies electron transfer (QUIET is feasible, but it was not determined if sufficient energy is available from QUIET to support the growth of both species. Furthermore, there have been no previous studies on the mechanisms for the oxidation of anthrahydroquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AHQDS. A co-culture of Geobacter metallireducens and Geobacter sulfurreducens metabolized ethanol with the reduction of fumarate much faster in the presence of AQDS, and there was an increase in cell protein. G. sulfurreducens was more abundant, consistent with G. sulfurreducens obtaining electrons from acetate that G. metallireducens produced from ethanol, as well as from AHQDS. Cocultures initiated with a citrate synthase-deficient strain of G. sulfurreducens that was unable to use acetate as an electron donor also metabolized ethanol with the reduction of fumarate and cell growth, but acetate accumulated over time. G. sulfurreducens and G. metallireducens were equally abundant in these co-cultures reflecting the inability of the citrate synthase-deficient strain of G. sulfurreducens to metabolize acetate. Evaluation of the mechanisms by which G. sulfurreducens accepts electrons from AHQDS demonstrated that a strain deficient in outer-surface c-type cytochromes that are required for AQDS reduction was as effective at QUIET as the wild-type strain. Deletion of additional genes previously implicated in extracellular electron transfer also had no impact on QUIET. These results demonstrate that QUIET can yield sufficient energy to support the growth of both syntrophic partners, but that the mechanisms by which electrons are derived from extracellular hydroquinones require

  14. Identification of the Rice Wines with Different Marked Ages by Electronic Nose Coupled with Smartphone and Cloud Storage Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhebo; Xiao, Xize; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hui

    2017-10-31

    In this study, a portable electronic nose (E-nose) was self-developed to identify rice wines with different marked ages-all the operations of the E-nose were controlled by a special Smartphone Application. The sensor array of the E-nose was comprised of 12 MOS sensors and the obtained response values were transmitted to the Smartphone thorough a wireless communication module. Then, Aliyun worked as a cloud storage platform for the storage of responses and identification models. The measurement of the E-nose was composed of the taste information obtained phase (TIOP) and the aftertaste information obtained phase (AIOP). The area feature data obtained from the TIOP and the feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP were applied to identify rice wines by using pattern recognition methods. Principal component analysis (PCA), locally linear embedding (LLE) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were applied for the classification of those wine samples. LDA based on the area feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP proved a powerful tool and showed the best classification results. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) and support vector machine (SVM) were applied for the predictions of marked ages and SVM (R² = 0.9942) worked much better than PLSR.

  15. Identification of the Rice Wines with Different Marked Ages by Electronic Nose Coupled with Smartphone and Cloud Storage Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhebo Wei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a portable electronic nose (E-nose was self-developed to identify rice wines with different marked ages—all the operations of the E-nose were controlled by a special Smartphone Application. The sensor array of the E-nose was comprised of 12 MOS sensors and the obtained response values were transmitted to the Smartphone thorough a wireless communication module. Then, Aliyun worked as a cloud storage platform for the storage of responses and identification models. The measurement of the E-nose was composed of the taste information obtained phase (TIOP and the aftertaste information obtained phase (AIOP. The area feature data obtained from the TIOP and the feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP were applied to identify rice wines by using pattern recognition methods. Principal component analysis (PCA, locally linear embedding (LLE and linear discriminant analysis (LDA were applied for the classification of those wine samples. LDA based on the area feature data obtained from the TIOP-AIOP proved a powerful tool and showed the best classification results. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR and support vector machine (SVM were applied for the predictions of marked ages and SVM (R2 = 0.9942 worked much better than PLSR.

  16. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Omar, O.

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC–MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties

  17. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A. [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kampus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Omar, O. [Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Persiaran MARDI-UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC–MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties.

  18. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Omar, O.

    2015-05-01

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC-MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties.

  19. Evaluating non-aromatic rice varieties for growth and yield different rates of soil applied boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J.A.; Abbas, M.; Memon, M.Y.; Raid, N.

    2016-01-01

    Balanced boron (B) fertilization has prime importance to obtain maximum paddy yield. The range between B deficiency and toxicity is smaller than most plant nutrients, though B requirement among different crops varies widely. The adequate dose of B for one genotype can either be insufficient or toxic to other. Hence, without knowing the actual requirements of crop varieties, B application can be risky due to the toxicity hazards. A field experiment was undertaken at experimental farm of Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA), Tandojam during 2013, to evaluate the B requirement of two non-aromatic rice varieties.The experiment was arranged in split plot design with three repeats. Two rice varieties Sarshar and Shandar were grown in main plots with four rates of B: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg ha/sup -1/ and control (0 kg ha/sup -1/) in sub plots. Both the varieties responded differently to B rates. Sarshar produced the highest paddy yield (5691 kg ha/sup -1/) at a rate of 1.5 kg B ha/sup -1/ and was 18% greater than control, Shandar produced the highest yield (6075 kg ha/sup -1/) at a rate of 1.0 kg B ha/sup -1/ and was 5% greater than control. B accumulation in paddy and straw of both varieties increased with the increasing B rates. Both varieties were also significantly (p<0.05) varied in B accumulations. Comparatively, rice variety Sarshar accumulated 9% and 22% more B in straw and paddy than the Shandar. Thus, the B requirement of Sarshar was relatively higher than the Shandar. Shandar can be grown without the additional B application, whereas, Sarshar requires additional B for its maximum harvest in B deficient soils. (author)

  20. Biochemical and molecular characterization of potential phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in acid sulfate soils and their beneficial effects on rice growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurban Ali Panhwar

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the total microbial population, the occurrence of growth promoting bacteria and their beneficial traits in acid sulfate soils. The mechanisms by which the bacteria enhance rice seedlings grown under high Al and low pH stress were investigated. Soils and rice root samples were randomly collected from four sites in the study area (Kelantan, Malaysia. The topsoil pH and exchangeable Al ranged from 3.3 to 4.7 and 1.24 to 4.25 cmol(c kg(-1, respectively, which are considered unsuitable for rice production. Total bacterial and actinomycetes population in the acidic soils were found to be higher than fungal populations. A total of 21 phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB including 19 N2-fixing strains were isolated from the acid sulfate soil. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three potential PSB strains based on their beneficial characteristics were identified (Burkholderia thailandensis, Sphingomonas pituitosa and Burkholderia seminalis. The isolated strains were capable of producing indoleacetic acid (IAA and organic acids that were able to reduce Al availability via a chelation process. These PSB isolates solubilized P (43.65% existing in the growth media within 72 hours of incubation. Seedling of rice variety, MR 219, grown at pH 4, and with different concentrations of Al (0, 50 and 100 µM was inoculated with these PSB strains. Results showed that the bacteria increased the pH with a concomitant reduction in Al concentration, which translated into better rice growth. The improved root volume and seedling dry weight of the inoculated plants indicated the potential of these isolates to be used in a bio-fertilizer formulation for rice cultivation on acid sulfate soils.

  1. A gibberellin-stimulated transcript, OsGASR1, controls seedling growth and α-amylase expression in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Choon; Kim, Soo-Jin; Han, Soon-Ki; An, Gynheung; Kim, Seong-Ryong

    2017-07-01

    From a T-DNA-tagging population in rice, we identified OsGASR1 (LOC_Os03g55290), a member of the GAST (gibberellin (GA)-Stimulated Transcript) family that is induced by salt stress and ABA treatment. This gene was highly expressed in the regions of cell proliferation and panicle development, as revealed by a GUS assay of the mutant line. In the osgasr1 mutants, the second leaf blades were much longer than those of the segregating wild type due to an increase in cell length. In addition, five α-amylase genes were up-regulated in the mutants, implying that OsGASR1 is a negative regulator of those genes. These results suggest that OsGASR1 plays important roles in seedling growth and α-amylase gene expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Seasonal CH4 and N2O emissions and plant growth characteristics of several cultivars in direct seeded rice systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, M.; Anders, M. M.; Adviento-Borbe, M. A.; Van Kessel, C.; McClung, A.; Linquist, B.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding cultivar effects on field greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in rice (Oryza sativa L.) systems is needed to improve the accuracy of predictive models used for estimating GHG emissions, and to determine to what extent choice of cultivar may have on GHG mitigation. We compared CH4 and N2O emissions, global warming potential (GWP = N2O + CH4), yield-scaled GWP (GWPY = GWP Mg-1 grain), and plant growth characteristics of 8 cultivars within 4 study sites in California and Arkansas. Seasonal CH4 emissions differed between cultivars by a factor of 2.1 and 1.3 at one California and one Arkansas site, respectively. Nitrous oxide emissions were negligible, comprised food security.

  3. Knock-down of a tonoplast localized low-affinity nitrate transporter OsNPF7.2 affects rice growth under high nitrate ssupply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Hu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The large nitrate transporter 1/peptide transporter family (NPF has been shown to transport diverse substrates, including nitrate, amino acids, peptides, phytohormones, and glucosinolates. However, the rice (Oryza sativa root-specific expressed member OsNPF7.2 has not been characterized. Here, our data show that OsNPF7.2 is a tonoplast localized low-affinity nitrate transporter, and affects rice growth under high nitrate supply. The expression analysis showed that OsNPF7.2 was mainly expressed in the elongation and maturation zones of roots, especially in the root sclerenchyma, cortex and stele. It was also induced by high concentrations of nitrate. Subcellular localization analysis showed that OsNPF7.2 was localized on the tonoplast of large and small vacuoles. Heterogenous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes suggested that OsNPF7.2 was a low-affinity nitrate transporter. Knock-down of OsNPF7.2 retarded rice growth under high concentrations of nitrate. Therefore, we deduce that OsNPF7.2 plays a role in intracellular allocation of nitrate in roots, and thus influences rice growth under high nitrate supply.

  4. The application dosage of Azolla pinnata in fresh and powder form as organic fertilizer on soil chemical properties, growth and yield of rice plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawati, Mieke Rochimi; Damayani, Maya; Herdiyantoro, Diyan; Suryatmana, Pujawati; Anggraini, Derisfha; Khumairah, Fiqriah Hanum

    2018-02-01

    The yield of rice plants is strongly influenced by N fertilizer. Nitrogen in rice plants has roles in vegetative growth, tiller formation and increasing yield through rice protein formation. Nitrogen supplied from organic fertilizers is better than inorganic fertilizers that may have environmental problem effects. Organic fertilizers from Azolla pinnata water fern contain higher N than other organic fertilizers. Symbiosis between A. pinnata and the N-fixing cyanobacteria results in high content of nitrogen, 3 to 5%. A. pinnata can be added to the rice field as organic fertilizer in form of fresh biomass or composted. Composted form can be ground into powder which passes through 100 mesh sieve. Preparation of compost powder of A. pinnata is done to reduce the constraints of voluminous application of organic fertilizers and to improve the efficiency of its use. The objective of this research was to compare the effect of the use of fresh A. pinnata and compost powder of A. pinnata on some soil and plant chemical properties and rice yield. The treatments applied were fresh A. pinnata at the dose of 0, 10 and 20 ton ha-1 and A. pinnata compost powder at 12.5 and 25 kg ha-1. The results showed that incorporation of fresh A. pinnata at 20 tons ha-1 and its compost powder at 25 kg ha-1 increased the available P of soil, plant P content and tiller number, but did not affect the content of organic-C, total soil N, plant N content and rice yield. This study suggested the benefits of A. pinnata compost powder technology in organic fertilization of soil to increase the nutrient content of soil and rice plants.

  5. Isolation and identification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from maize (Zea mays L. rhizosphere and their plant growth promoting effect on rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnwal Arun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria is increasing in agriculture and gives an appealing manner to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and dietary supplements. The objective of our research was to access the plant growth promotion traits of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis isolated from the maize (Zea mays L. rhizosphere. In vitro studies showed that isolates have the potential to produce indole acetic acid (IAA, hydrogen cyanide, phosphate solubilisation, and siderophore. RNA analysis revealed that two isolates were 97% identical to P. aeruginosa strain DSM 50071 and P. aeruginosa strain NBRC 12689 (AK20 and AK31, while two others were 98% identical to P. fluorescens strain ATCC 13525, P. fluorescens strain IAM 12022 (AK18 and AK45 and one other was 99% identical to B. subtilis strain NCDO 1769 (AK38. Our gnotobiotic study showed significant differences in plant growth variables under control and inoculated conditions. In the present research, it was observed that the isolated strains had good plant growth promoting effects on rice.

  6. A Novel Gibberellin-Induced Gene from Rice and Its Potential Regulatory Role in Stem Growth1

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Knaap, Esther; Kim, Jeong Hoe; Kende, Hans

    2000-01-01

    Os-GRF1 (Oryza sativa-GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR1) was identified in a search for genes that are differentially expressed in the intercalary meristem of deepwater rice (Oryza sativa L.) internodes in response to gibberellin (GA). Os-GRF1 displays general features of transcription factors, contains a functional nuclear localization signal, and has three regions with similarities to sequences in the database. One of these regions is similar to a protein interaction domain of SWI2/SNF2, which is a subunit of a chromatin-remodeling complex in yeast. The two other domains are novel and found only in plant proteins of unknown function. To study its role in plant growth, Os-GRF1 was expressed in Arabidopsis. Stem elongation of transformed plants was severely inhibited, and normal growth could not be recovered by the application of GA. Our results indicate that Os-GRF1 belongs to a novel class of plant proteins and may play a regulatory role in GA-induced stem elongation. PMID:10712532

  7. Characterization of N2-fixing plant growth promoting endophytic and epiphytic bacterial community of Indian cultivated and wild rice (Oryza spp.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Avishek; Mukhopadhaya, Subhra Kanti; Dangar, Tushar Kanti

    2016-03-01

    The diversity of endophytic and epiphytic diazotrophs in different parts of rice plants has specificity to the niche (i.e. leaf, stem and root) of different genotypes and nutrient availability of the organ. Inoculation of the indigenous, polyvalent diazotrophs can facilitate and sustain production of non-leguminous crops like rice. Therefore, N2-fixing plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) were isolated from different parts of three Indian cultivated [Oryza sativa L. var. Sabita (semi deep/deep water)/Swarna (rain fed shallow lowland)/Swarna-Sub1(submergence tolerant)] and a wild (O. eichingeri) rice genotypes which respond differentially to nitrogenous fertilizers. Thirty-five isolates from four rice genotypes were categorized based on acetylene reduction assay on nitrogenase activity, biochemical tests, BIOLOG and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The bacteria produced 9.36-155.83 nmole C2H4 mg(-1) dry bacteria h(-1) and among them nitrogenase activity of 11 potent isolates was complemented by nifH-sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequencing divided them into five groups (shared 95-100 % sequence homology with type strains) belonging to five classes-alpha (Ancylobacter, Azorhizobium, Azospirillum, Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Novosphingobium, spp.), beta (Burkholderia sp.), gamma (Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Azotobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas spp.) Proteobacteria, Bacilli (Bacillus, Paenibacillus spp.) and Actinobacteria (Microbacterium sp.). Besides, all bacterial strains possessed the intrinsic PGP traits of like indole (0.44-7.4 µg ml(-1)), ammonia (0.18-6 mmol ml(-1)), nitrite (0.01-3.4 mol ml(-1)), and siderophore (from 0.16-0.57 μmol ml(-1)) production. Inoculation of rice (cv. Swarna) seedlings with selected isolates had a positive impact on plant growth parameters like shoot and root elongation which was correlated with in vitro PGP attributes. The results indicated that the

  8. Reinforcement of natural rubber/high density polyethylene blends with electron beam irradiated liquid natural rubber-coated rice husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, E.L.; Ahmad, Ishak [Polymer Research Center (PORCE), School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 4, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Dahlan, H.M. [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Abdullah, Ibrahim, E-mail: dia@ukm.m [Polymer Research Center (PORCE), School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 4, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2010-08-15

    Coating of rice husk (RH) surface with liquid natural rubber (LNR) and exposure to electron beam irradiation in air were studied. FTIR analysis on the LNR-coated RH (RHR) exposed to electron beam (EB) showed a decrease in the double bonds and an increase in hydroxyl and hydrogen bonded carbonyl groups arising from the chemical interaction between the active groups on RH surface with LNR. The scanning electron micrograph showed that the LNR formed a coating on the RH particles which transformed to a fine and clear fibrous layer at 20 kGy irradiation. The LNR film appeared as patches at 50 kGy irradiation due to degradation of rubber. Composites of natural rubber (NR)/high density polyethylene (HDPE)/RHR showed an optimum at 20-30 kGy dosage with the maximum stress, tensile modulus and impact strength of 6.5, 79 and 13.2 kJ/m{sup 2}, respectively. The interfacial interaction between the modified RH and TPNR matrix had improved on exposure of RHR to e-beam at 20-30 kGy dosage.

  9. Polymer-Coated Urea Delays Growth and Accumulation of Key Nutrients in Aerobic Rice but Does Not Affect Grain Mineral Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry J. Rose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced efficiency nitrogen (N fertilizers (EEFs may improve crop recovery of fertilizer-N, but there is evidence that some EEFs cause a lag in crop growth compared to growth with standard urea. Biomass and mineral nutrient accumulation was investigated in rice fertilized with urea, urea-3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP and polymer-coated urea (PCU to determine whether any delays in biomass production alter the accumulation patterns, and subsequent grain concentrations, of key mineral nutrients. Plant growth and mineral accumulation and partitioning to grains did not differ significantly between plants fertilized with urea or urea-DMPP. In contrast, biomass accumulation and the accumulation of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc and manganese were delayed during the early growth phase of plants fertilized with PCU. However, plants in the PCU treatment ultimately compensated for this by increasing growth and nutrient uptake during the latter vegetative stages so that no differences in biomass or nutrient accumulation generally existed among N fertilizer treatments at anthesis. Delayed biomass accumulation in rice fertilized with PCU does not appear to reduce the total accumulation of mineral nutrients, nor to have any impact on grain mineral nutrition when biomass and grain yields are equal to those of rice grown with urea or urea-DMPP.

  10. Plant growth enhancing effects by a siderophore-producing endophytic streptomycete isolated from a Thai jasmine rice plant (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML105).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungin, Siriwan; Indananda, Chantra; Suttiviriya, Pavinee; Kruasuwan, Worarat; Jaemsaeng, Ratchaniwan; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip

    2012-10-01

    An endophytic Streptomyces sp. GMKU 3100 isolated from roots of a Thai jasmine rice plant (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML105) showed the highest siderophore production on CAS agar while phosphate solubilization and IAA production were not detected. A mutant of Streptomyces sp. GMKU 3100 deficient in just one of the plant growth promoting traits, siderophore production, was generated by inactivation of a desD-like gene encoding a key enzyme controlling the final step of siderophore biosynthesis. Pot culture experiments revealed that rice and mungbean plants inoculated with the wild type gave the best enhancement of plant growth and significantly increased root and shoot biomass and lengths compared with untreated controls and siderophore-deficient mutant treatments. Application of the wild type in the presence or absence of ferric citrate significantly promoted plant growth of both plants. The siderophore-deficient mutant clearly showed the effect of this important trait involved in plant-microbe interaction in enhancement of growth in rice and mungbean plants supplied with sequestered iron. Our results highlight the value of a substantial understanding of the relationship of the plant growth promoting properties of endophytic actinomycetes to the plants. Endophytic actinomycetes, therefore, can be applied as potentially safe and environmentally friendly biofertilizers in agriculture.

  11. The implementation of electronic services: planned or organic growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cole

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The literature on innovation suggests that projects are successful when rigorous project management is mixed judiciously with 'organic' development. This paper argues that organic growth can play a substantial role in the implementation of electronic services in healthcare settings. Evidence for organic growth is presented, based on a study of email use. Methods are presented for investigating email use in health service settings in the National Health Service (NHS in Bradford, England. Geographical information systems (GIS outputs and social network analyses are presented. The results demonstrate a fivefold increase in the use of email over a 13-month period, which is shown to be largely independent of the growth in the number of organisations using the network. They also demonstrate a marked increase in the complexity of the patterns of email use over the period.

  12. Growth and Cadmium Phytoextraction by Swiss Chard, Maize, Rice, Noccaea caerulescens, and Alyssum murale in Ph Adjusted Biosolids Amended Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, C Leigh; Chaney, Rufus L; Davis, Allen P; Cox, Albert; Kumar, Kuldip; Reeves, Roger D; Green, Carrie E

    2015-01-01

    Past applications of biosolids to soils at some locations added higher Cd levels than presently permitted. Cadmium phytoextraction would alleviate current land use constraints. Unamended farm soil, and biosolids amended farm and mine soils were obtained from a Fulton Co., IL biosolids management facility. Soils contained 0.16, 22.8, 45.3 mg Cd kg(-1) and 43.1, 482, 812 mg Zn kg(-1) respectively with initial pH 6.0, 6.1, 6.4. In greenhouse studies, Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla), a Cd-accumulator maize (inbred B37 Zea mays) and a southern France Cd-hyperaccumulator genotype of Noccaea caerulescens were tested for Cd accumulation and phytoextraction. Soil pH was adjusted from ∼5.5-7.0. Additionally 100 rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes and the Ni-hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale were screened for potential phytoextraction use. Chard suffered phytotoxicity at low pH and accumulated up to 90 mg Cd kg(-1) on the biosolids amended mine soil. The maize inbred accumulated up to 45 mg Cd kg(-1) with only mild phytotoxicity symptoms during early growth at pH>6.0. N. caerulescens did not exhibit phytotoxicity symptoms at any pH, and accumulated up to 235 mg Cd kg(-1) in 3 months. Reharvested N. caerulescens accumulated up to 900 mg Cd kg(-1) after 10 months. Neither Alyssum nor 90% of rice genotypes survived acceptably. Both N. caerulescens and B37 maize show promise for Cd phytoextraction in IL and require field evaluation; both plants could be utilized for nearly continuous Cd removal. Other maize inbreds may offer higher Cd phytoextraction at lower pH, and mono-cross hybrids higher shoot biomass yields. Further, maize grown only for biomass Cd maximum removal could be double-cropped.

  13. Cyclic electron flow may provide some protection against PSII photoinhibition in rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaves under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essemine, Jemaa; Xiao, Yi; Qu, Mingnan; Mi, Hualing; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2017-04-01

    Previously we have shown that a quick down-regulation in PSI activity compares to that of PSII following short-term heat stress for two rice groups including C4023 and Q4149, studied herein. These accessions were identified to have different natural capacities in driving cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI; i.e., low CEF (lcef) and high CEF (hcef) for C4023 and Q4149, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these two lines have different mechanisms of protecting photosystem II from photodamage under heat stress. We observed a stepwise alteration in the shape of Chl a fluorescence induction (OJIP) with increasing temperature treatment. The effect of 44°C treatment on the damping in Chl a fluorescence was more pronounced in C4023 than in Q4149. Likewise, we noted a disruption in the I-step, a decline in the F v due to a strong damping in the F m , and a slight increase in the F 0 . Normalized data demonstrated that the I-step seems more susceptible to 44°C in C4023 than in Q4149. We also measured the redox states of plastocyanin (PC) and P 700 by monitoring the transmission changes at 820nm (I 820 ), and observed a disturbance in the oxidation/reduction kinetics of PC and P 700 . The decline in the amplitude of their oxidation was shown to be about 29% and 13% for C4023 and Q4149, respectively. The electropotential component (Δφ) of ms-DLE appeared more sensitive to temperature stress than the chemical component (ΔpH), and the impact of heat was more evident and drastic in C4023 than in Q4149. Under heat stress, we noticed a concomitant decline in the primary photochemistry of PSII as well as in both the membrane energization process and the lumen protonation for both accessions, and it is evident that heat affects these parameters more in C4023 than in Q4149. All these data suggest that higher CET can confer higher photoprotection to PSII in rice lines, which can be a desirable trait during rice breeding, especially in the context of a

  14. Molybdenum Sulfide Induce Growth Enhancement Effect of Rice ( Oryza sativa L.) through Regulating the Synthesis of Chlorophyll and the Expression of Aquaporin Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yadong; Jin, Qian; Yang, Desong; Cui, Jianghu

    2018-04-25

    Molybdenum sulfide (MoS 2 ) has been applied widely in industrial and environmental application, leading to increasing release into environment. So far, no studies have been investigated with regard to the potential effect of MoS 2 on plants. Herein, we studied the impact of MoS 2 on the growth, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation, antioxidase system, and aquaporins of rice for the first time. Results showed that MoS 2 did not significantly affect the germination of rice seeds, malonaldehyde (MDA) content, and the antioxidant enzyme activity. While the length and biomass of rice root and shoot, chlorophyll content index (CCI), and expression of aquaporin genes were significantly increased. Based on these results, we concluded that MoS 2 promoted rice growth through (i) the promotion of nitrogen source assimilation, (ii) the enhancement of photosynthesis, enzymatic-related biochemical reactions, and metabolic processes, subsequently, (iii) the acceleration of cell division and expansion, furthermore (iv) no abiotic stress and favorable condition of antioxidant enzyme system. These results provided an important insight into the further application of MoS 2 on agriculture and environment.

  15. Glucose lowering effect of transgenic human insulin-like growth factor-I from rice: in vitro and in vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Samuel SM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human insulin-like growth factor-I (hIGF-I is a growth factor which is highly resemble to insulin. It is essential for cell proliferation and has been proposed for treatment of various endocrine-associated diseases including growth hormone insensitivity syndrome and diabetes mellitus. In the present study, an efficient plant expression system was developed to produce biologically active recombinant hIGF-I (rhIGF-I in transgenic rice grains. Results The plant-codon-optimized hIGF-I was introduced into rice via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. To enhance the stability and yield of rhIGF-I, the endoplasmic reticulum-retention signal and glutelin signal peptide were used to deliver rhIGF-I to endoplasmic reticulum for stable accumulation. We found that only glutelin signal peptide could lead to successful expression of hIGF-I and one gram of hIGF-I rice grain possessed the maximum activity level equivalent to 3.2 micro molar of commercial rhIGF-I. In vitro functional analysis showed that the rice-derived rhIGF-I was effective in inducing membrane ruffling and glucose uptake on rat skeletal muscle cells. Oral meal test with rice-containing rhIGF-I acutely reduced blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced and Zucker diabetic rats, whereas it had no effect in normal rats. Conclusion Our findings provided an alternative expression system to produce large quantities of biologically active rhIGF-I. The provision of large quantity of recombinant proteins will promote further research on the therapeutic potential of rhIGF-I.

  16. Do Si/As ratios in growth medium affect arsenic uptake, arsenite efflux and translocation of arsenite in rice (Oryza sativa)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Zhao, Quanli; Xue, Peiying; Zhang, Shijie; Li, Bowen; Liu, Wenju

    2017-10-01

    Silicon (Si) may decrease the uptake and accumulation of arsenic (As) in rice. However, the effects of Si/As ratios in growth medium on arsenic uptake, arsenite efflux to the external medium and translocation of arsenite in rice are currently unclear. Rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.) were exposed to nutrient solutions with 10 μM arsenite [As(III)] or 10 μM arsenate [As(V)] to explore the influence of different silicic acid concentrations (0, 10, 100, 1000 μM) on arsenic uptake and translocation of arsenite with or without 91 μM phosphate for 24 h. Arsenic speciation was determined in nutrient solutions, roots, and shoots. In the arsenite treatments, different Si/As ratios (1:1, 10:1, 100:1) did not affect As(III) uptake by rice roots, however they did inhibit translocation of As(III) from roots to shoots significantly (P rice roots and shoots. A Si/As ratio of 100:1 reduced As(III) translocation from roots to shoots markedly without phosphate. When phosphate was supplied, As(III) translocation from roots to shoots was significantly inhibited by Si/As ratios of 10:1 and 100:1. The results indicated that in the presence of P, different silicic acid concentrations did not impact arsenite uptake and transport in rice when arsenite was supplied. However, a Si/As ratio of 100:1 inhibited As(V) uptake, as well as As(III) efflux and translocation from roots to shoots when arsenate was supplied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of nano-silica fertilizer concentration and rice hull ash doses on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) growth and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciaty, T.; Purnomo, D.; Sakya, A. T.; Supriyadi

    2018-03-01

    Agriculture is facing a number of challenges included limited water supply, low nutrient use efficiency, etc affected by climate change. Nano-silica is a product of nanotechnology, the frontier technologies to enhance crop productivity under climate change threats. The purpose of the research was to investigate the effects of nano silica concentration and rice hull ash on growth and yield of soybean. The experiment was conducted at Gagasari village, Cirebon, West Java from March until June 2017. The treatments were arranged by using factorial completely randomized block design with two factors. The first factor was a concentration of nano silica fertilizer consisted of four levels i.e., 0, 1.75, 2.5, and 3.75 ml.l‑1. The second factor was doses of rice hull ash consisted of four levels i.e., 0, 1, 2, and 3 ton.ha‑1. Each treatment combinations was repeated three times. The result showed that concentration of nano silica individually affected the number of leaves and number of branches, NAR and RGR, productive branches at 21, 30-45, and 35 daps, respectively. It also affected the seed dry weight plant‑1 and plot‑1. Meanwhile, doses of rice hull ash affected LAI, NAR, and RGR, 15-30, and 30-45 dap, respectively. Dry seed weight plot‑1 was also affected by doses of rice hull ash. There was an interaction effect between nano-silica concentration and doses of rice hull ash on number pods.plant‑1. Combinations of 2.5 ml.l‑1 nano-silica and 3 ton.ha‑1 of rice hull ash gave the highest number pods.plant‑1.

  18. Effect of Growth Parameters on SnO2 Nanowires Growth by Electron Beam Evaporation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Kumar, R.; Manjula, Y.; Narasimha Rao, K.

    2018-02-01

    Tin oxide (SnO2) nanowires were synthesized via catalyst assisted VLS growth mechanism by the electron beam evaporation method at a growth temperature of 450 °C. The effects of growth parameters such as evaporation rate of Tin, catalyst film thickness, and different types of substrates on the growth of SnO2 nanowires were studied. Nanowires (NWs) growth was completely seized at higher tin evaporation rates due to the inability of the catalyst particle to initiate the NWs growth. Nanowires diameters were able to tune with catalyst film thickness. Nanowires growth was completely absent at higher catalyst film thickness due to agglomeration of the catalyst film. Optimum growth parameters for SnO2 NWs were presented. Nanocomposites such as Zinc oxide - SnO2, Graphene oxide sheets- SnO2 and Graphene nanosheets-SnO2 were able to synthesize at a lower substrate temperature of 450 °C. These nanocompsoites will be useful in enhancing the capacity of Li-ion batteries, the gas sensing response and also useful in increasing the photo catalytic activity.

  19. Evaluation of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria on the growth and grain yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cropped in northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshandeh, E; Rahimian, H; Pirdashti, H; Nematzadeh, G A

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of four phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) on the growth and yield of rice under different soil conditions. Bacterial strains were Rahnella aquatillis (KM977991), Enterobacter sp. (KM977992), Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida. These studies were conducted on different rice cultivars ('Shiroodi', 'Tarom' and 'Tarom Hashemi') in both pot and field experiments. Measurements started from transplanting and continued throughout the growing season in field experiments. Single PSB inoculations in field trials increased grain yield, biological yield, total number of stems hill(-1) , number of panicles hill(-1) and plant height by 8·50-26·9%, 12·4-30·9%, 20·3-38·7%, 22·1-36·1% and 0·85-3·35% in experiment 1, by 7·74-14·7%, 4·22-12·6%, 6·67-16·7%, 4·0-15·4% and 3·15-4·20% in experiment 2 and by 23·4-37%, 16·1-36·4%, 30·2-39·1%, 28·8-34% and 2·11-4·55% in experiment 3, respectively, compared to the control. Our results indicate that the application of triple super phosphate together with PSB inoculations resulted in reducing the use of chemical fertilizers (about 67%) and increasing fertilizer use efficiency. This study clearly indicates that these PSBs can be used as biofertilizers in ecological rice agricultural systems. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report on the association of Rahnella aquatilis with rice and also the application of a mathematical model to evaluate the effect of PSBs on rice growth. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. The Interaction between Auxin and Nitric Oxide Regulates Root Growth in Response to Iron Deficiency in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huwei Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fe deficiency (-Fe is a common abiotic stress that affects the root development of plants. Auxin and nitric oxide (NO are key regulator of root growth under -Fe. However, the interactions between auxin and NO regulate root growth in response to Fe deficiency are complex and unclear. In this study, the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and NO levels in roots, and the responses of root growth in rice to different levels of Fe supply were investigated using wild type (WT, ospin1b and osnia2 mutants. -Fe promoted LR formation but inhibited seminal root elongation. IAA levels, [3H] IAA transport, and expression levels of PIN1a-c genes in roots were reduced under -Fe, suggesting that polar auxin transport from shoots to roots was decreased. Application of IAA to -Fe seedlings restored seminal root length, but not LR density, to levels similar to those under normal Fe (+Fe, and the seminal root length was shorter in two ospin1b mutants relative to WT under +Fe, but not under -Fe, confirming that auxin transport participates in -Fe-inhibited seminal root elongation. Moreover, -Fe-induced LR density and -Fe-inhibited seminal root elongation paralleled NO production in roots. Interestingly, similar NO accumulation and responses of LR density and root elongation were observed in osnia2 mutants compared to WT, and the higher expression of NOA gene under -Fe, suggesting that -Fe-induced NO was generated via the NO synthase-like pathway rather than the nitrate reductase pathway. However, IAA could restore the functions of NO in inhibiting seminal root elongation, but did not replace the role of NO-induced LR formation under -Fe. Overall, our findings suggested that NO functions downstream of auxin in regulating LR formation; NO-inhibited seminal root elongation by decreasing meristem activity in root tips under -Fe, with the involvement of auxin.

  1. Culturable bacterial endophytes isolated from Mangrove tree (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) enhance seedling growth in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Deivanai, Subramanian; Bindusara, Amitraghata Santhanam; Prabhakaran, Guruswamy; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endophytic bacteria do have several potential applications in medicine and in other various sectors of biotechnology including agriculture. Bacterial endophytes need to be explored for their potential applications in agricultural biotechnology. One of the potential applications of bacterial endophytes in agricultural is to enhance the growth of the agricultural crops. Hence, this study was undertaken to explore the plant growth promoting potential application of bacterial endophyt...

  2. Environmental Response and Genomic Regions Correlated with Rice Root Growth and Yield under Drought in the OryzaSNP Panel across Multiple Study Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Len J Wade

    Full Text Available The rapid progress in rice genotyping must be matched by advances in phenotyping. A better understanding of genetic variation in rice for drought response, root traits, and practical methods for studying them are needed. In this study, the OryzaSNP set (20 diverse genotypes that have been genotyped for SNP markers was phenotyped in a range of field and container studies to study the diversity of rice root growth and response to drought. Of the root traits measured across more than 20 root experiments, root dry weight showed the most stable genotypic performance across studies. The environment (E component had the strongest effect on yield and root traits. We identified genomic regions correlated with root dry weight, percent deep roots, maximum root depth, and grain yield based on a correlation analysis with the phenotypes and aus, indica, or japonica introgression regions using the SNP data. Two genomic regions were identified as hot spots in which root traits and grain yield were co-located; on chromosome 1 (39.7-40.7 Mb and on chromosome 8 (20.3-21.9 Mb. Across experiments, the soil type/ growth medium showed more correlations with plant growth than the container dimensions. Although the correlations among studies and genetic co-location of root traits from a range of study systems points to their potential utility to represent responses in field studies, the best correlations were observed when the two setups had some similar properties. Due to the co-location of the identified genomic regions (from introgression block analysis with QTL for a number of previously reported root and drought traits, these regions are good candidates for detailed characterization to contribute to understanding rice improvement for response to drought. This study also highlights the utility of characterizing a small set of 20 genotypes for root growth, drought response, and related genomic regions.

  3. Expressing OsMPK4 Impairs Plant Growth but Enhances the Resistance of Rice to the Striped Stem Borer Chilo suppressalis

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Liu; Jiancai Li; Liping Xu; Qi Wang; Yonggen Lou

    2018-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MPKs) play a central role not only in plant growth and development, but also in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, including pathogens. Yet, their role in herbivore-induced plant defenses and their underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we cloned a rice MPK gene, OsMPK4, whose expression was induced by mechanical wounding, infestation of the striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis, and treatment with jasmonic acid (JA), but not ...

  4. Lazy gene (la) responsible for both an agravitropism of seedlings and lazy habit of tiller growth in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Takahashi, H; Suge, H

    1996-12-01

    Using an isogenic line of rice having lazy gene (la), we studied the correlation between the agravitropic response at the young seedling stage and the lazy habit (prostrate growth of tillers) at the more advanced stage of growth. In this study, it was found that both agravitropism and lazy habit were controlled by the single recessive la gene. That is, F2 segregants of Kamenoo x lazy-Kamenoo, which had an agravitropic response at their young seedling stage, showed a lazy habit of growth in the more advanced stage of vegetative growth. On the other hand, seedlings that showed normal gravitropic curvature at their early stage of growth had an upright growth in the mature stage.

  5. Comparative Effects of Salt Stress and Extreme pH Stress Combined on Glycinebetaine Accumulation, Photosynthetic Abilities and Growth Characters of Two Rice Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriyan CHA-UM

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycinebetaine (Glybet accumulation, photosynthetic efficiency and growth performance in indica rice cultivated under salt stress and extreme pH stress were investigated. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH activity and Glybet accumulation in the seedlings of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive rice varieties grown under saline and acidic conditions peaked after treatment for 72 h and 96 h, respectively, and were higher than those grown under neutral pH and alkaline salt stress. A positive correlation was found between BADH activity and Glybet content in both salt-tolerant (r2 = 0.71 and salt-sensitive (r2 = 0.86 genotypes. The chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and total carotenoids contents in the stressed seedlings significantly decreased under both acidic and alkaline stresses, especially in the salt-sensitive genotype. Similarly, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm, photon yield of PSII (ΦPSII, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ and net photosynthetic rate (Pn in the stressed seedlings were inhibited, leading to overall growth reduction. The positive correlations between chlorophyll a content and Fv/Fm, total chlorophyll content and ΦPSII, ΦPSII and Pn as well as Pn and leaf area in both salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive genotypes were found. Saline acidic and saline alkaline soils may play a key role affecting vegetative growth prior to the reproductive stage in rice plants.

  6. Expressing OsMPK4 Impairs Plant Growth but Enhances the Resistance of Rice to the Striped Stem Borer Chilo suppressalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MPKs play a central role not only in plant growth and development, but also in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses, including pathogens. Yet, their role in herbivore-induced plant defenses and their underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we cloned a rice MPK gene, OsMPK4, whose expression was induced by mechanical wounding, infestation of the striped stem borer (SSB Chilo suppressalis, and treatment with jasmonic acid (JA, but not by treatment with salicylic acid (SA. The overexpression of OsMPK4 (oe-MPK4 enhanced constitutive and/or SSB-induced levels of JA, jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile, ethylene (ET, and SA, as well as the activity of elicited trypsin proteinase inhibitors (TrypPIs, and reduced SSB performance. On the other hand, compared to wild-type plants, oe-MPK4 lines in the greenhouse showed growth retardation. These findings suggest that OsMPK4, by regulating JA-, ET-, and SA-mediated signaling pathways, functions as a positive regulator of rice resistance to the SSB and a negative regulator of rice growth.

  7. Effect of Cadmium, Copper and Lead on the Growth of Rice in the Coal Mining Region of Quang Ninh, Cam-Pha (Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Eduardo Marquez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to quantify the mobility and partitioning of trace elements originating from mine waste rocks derived from open pit coal extraction activities. The results showed that native rice plants were adapted to growing in metal contaminated soils, posing a severe health risk to local population. Sequential extraction procedures and bulk soil chemical analyses both suggest enrichment of Cd, Pb and Cu in rice paddy soils. Lead was shown to be evenly partitioned among all mineral and organic phases. Copper was associated with carbonates and organic matter. Smaller fractions of Pb and Cu were also bound to Fe and Mn oxides. Only 25% of Cd, 9% of Pb and 48% of Cu were associated with the exchangeable fraction, considered mobile and thus bioavailable for plant uptake. Effects of Cd, Cu and Pb on local Cam Pha Nep cai Hoa vang, and control Asia Italian rice, showed marked differences in growth. The local Vietnamese variety grew close to control values, even upon exposure to higher trace metal concentrations. Whereas the development of the control rice species was significantly affected by increasing trace metal concentrations. This result suggests toxic trace elements accumulation in the edible parts of crops.

  8. A QTL for root growth angle on rice chromosome 7 is involved in the genetic pathway of DEEPER ROOTING 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uga, Yusaku; Kitomi, Yuka; Yamamoto, Eiji; Kanno, Noriko; Kawai, Sawako; Mizubayashi, Tatsumi; Fukuoka, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    Root growth angle (RGA) is an important trait that influences the ability of rice to avoid drought stress. DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1), which is a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for RGA, is responsible for the difference in RGA between the shallow-rooting cultivar IR64 and the deep-rooting cultivar Kinandang Patong. However, the RGA differences between these cultivars cannot be fully explained by DRO1. The objective of this study was to identify new QTLs for RGA explaining the difference in RGA between these cultivars. By crossing IR64 (which has a non-functional allele of DRO1) with Kinandang Patong (which has a functional allele of DRO1), we developed 26 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) that carried a particular chromosome segment from Kinandang Patong in the IR64 genetic background. Using these CSSLs, we found only one chromosomal region that was related to RGA: on chromosome 9, which includes DRO1. Using an F2 population derived from a cross between Kinandang Patong and the Dro1-NIL (near isogenic line), which had a functional DRO1 allele in the IR64 genetic background, we identified a new QTL for RGA (DRO3) on the long arm of chromosome 7. DRO3 may only affect RGA in plants with a functional DRO1 allele, suggesting that DRO3 is involved in the DRO1 genetic pathway.

  9. Evaluation of rice genotypes to salt stress in different growth stages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tolerant genotypes were tested in young seedling stage in hydroponic system and then reproductive stage in 2010. Results show that vegetative growth was less affected by salt stress comparison to reproductive stage. Na and Na-K ratio in tolerant genotypes were lower than suspectible genotypes in salt condition in ...

  10. Assessing the impact of ambient ozone on growth and yield of a rice (Oryza sativa L.) and a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar grown in the Yangtze Delta, China, using three rates of application of ethylenediurea (EDU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoke; Zheng Qiwei; Yao Fangfang; Chen Zhan; Feng Zhaozhong; Manning, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Foliar applications of ethylenediurea (abbreviated as EDU) were made at 0, 150, 300 or 450 ppm to field-grown rice and wheat in the Yangtze Delta in China. Rice and wheat responded differently to ambient ozone and EDU applications. For wheat, some growth characteristics, such as yield, seed number per plant, seed set rate and harvest index, increased significantly at 300 ppm EDU treatment, while for rice no parameters measured were statistically different regarding EDU application. The reason may be that the wheat cultivar used may be more sensitive to ozone than the rice cultivar. EDU was effective in demonstrating ozone effects on the wheat cultivar, but not on the rice cultivar. Cultivar sensitivity might be an important consideration when assessing the effects of ambient ozone on plants. - Cultivar sensitivity should be considered when using protective chemical to assess the effects of ambient ozone on plants

  11. Inheritance and gene expression of a root-growth inhibiting mutant in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, H.; Futsuhara, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: A root-growth inhibiting mutant was induced in the dwarf mutant line, 'Fukei 71', through ethylene-imine. The mutant is characterised by the excessive inhibition of both seminal and crown roots elongation just after germination, although its shoots grow nearly normal. To study the genetics, the mutant was crossed with its original line 'Fukei 71' and some other normal cultivars. Results show that the root-growth inhibition is controlled by a recessive gene (rt), independent of the dwarf gene, d-50(t) locus in Fukei 71. For elucidating the gene action on root morphogenesis, histological and cytological experiments were carried out using a longitudinal and transverse thin section of seminal and/or crown root tips. Observations suggest that the rt gene affects the normal formation of the epidermal system which is differentiated from the protoderm of the root apical meristem. (author)

  12. Influence of cooling rate on growth of Bacillus cereus from spore inocula in cooked rice, beans, pasta, and combination products containing meat or poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to assess the ability of B. cereus spores to germinate and grow in order to determine a safe cooling rate for cooked rice, beans, and pasta, rice/chicken (4:1), rice/chicken/vegetables (3:1:1), rice/beef (4:1), and rice/beef/vegetables (3:1:1). Samples were inoculate...

  13. A cytochrome P450, OsDSS1, is involved in growth and drought stress responses in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiru, Muluneh; Undan, Jerwin R; Takagi, Hiroki; Abe, Akira; Yoshida, Kakoto; Undan, Jesusa Q; Natsume, Satoshi; Uemura, Aiko; Saitoh, Hiromasa; Matsumura, Hideo; Urasaki, Naoya; Yokota, Takao; Terauchi, Ryohei

    2015-05-01

    Cytochrome P450s are among the largest protein coding gene families in plant genomes. However, majority of the genes remain uncharacterized. Here, we report the characterization of dss1, a rice mutant showing dwarfism and reduced grain size. The dss1 phenotype is caused by a non-synonymous point mutation we identified in DSS1, which is member of a P450 gene cluster located on rice chromosome 3 and corresponds to the previously reported CYP96B4/SD37 gene. Phenotypes of several dwarf mutants characterized in rice are associated with defects in the biosynthesis or perception of the phytohormones gibberellins (GAs) and brassinosteroids (BRs). However, both GA and BR failed to rescue the dss1 phenotype. Hormone profiling revealed the accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA metabolites, as well as significant reductions in GA19 and GA53 levels, precursors of the bioactive GA1, in the mutant. The dss1 contents of cytokinin and auxins were not significantly different from wild-type plants. Consistent with the accumulation of ABA and metabolites, germination and early growth was delayed in dss1, which also exhibited an enhanced tolerance to drought. Additionally, expressions of members of the DSS1/CYP96B gene cluster were regulated by drought stress and exogenous ABA. RNA-seq-based transcriptome profiling revealed, among others, that cell wall-related genes and genes involved in lipid metabolism were up- and down-regulated in dss1, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that DSS1 mediates growth and stress responses in rice by fine-tuning GA-to-ABA balance, and might as well play a role in lipid metabolism.

  14. AMT1;1 transgenic rice plants with enhanced NH4(+) permeability show superior growth and higher yield under optimal and suboptimal NH4(+) conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunge, Kosala; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Gidda, Satinder; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2014-03-01

    The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4(+)). The NH4(+) uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4(+) transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4(+) uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4(+) assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4(+) permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4(+) content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4(+) fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4(+) contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4(+) levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions.

  15. AMT1;1 transgenic rice plants with enhanced NH4 + permeability show superior growth and higher yield under optimal and suboptimal NH4 + conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4 +). The NH4 + uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4 + transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4 + uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4 + assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4 + permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4 + content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4 + fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4 + contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4 + levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions. PMID:24420570

  16. Dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser: Finite axial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheiri, Golshad; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented for dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser with finite axial magnetic field. It is shown that the growth rate and the resonance frequency of Cherenkov free electron laser increase with increasing axial magnetic field for low axial magnetic fields, while for high axial magnetic fields, they go to a saturation value. The growth rate and resonance frequency saturation values are exactly the same as those for infinite axial magnetic field approximation. The effects of electron beam self-fields on growth rate are investigated, and it is shown that the growth rate decreases in the presence of self-fields. It is found that there is an optimum value for electron beam density and Lorentz relativistic factor at which the maximum growth rate can take place. Also, the effects of velocity spread of electron beam are studied and it is found that the growth rate decreases due to the electron velocity spread

  17. Enhanced UV-B radiation has little effect on growth, delta13C values and pigments of pot-grown rice (Oryza sativa) in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Nouchi, I.; Yoneyama, T.

    1996-01-01

    Predicted increase in ultraviolet-B (UV-B: 280–320 mn) radiation may have adverse impacts on growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.), as has been found in studies hitherto. However, most of the studies were conducted in growth chambers or greenhouses where the plants are generally more sensitive to UV-B than in the field, presumably because of the distorted balance between UV-B and ultraviolet-A as well as PAR. This study was conducted to address the effects of enhanced UV-B on growth and yield of rice under a realistic spectral balance in the field. Three cultivars, “Koshihikari”,‘IR 45’and‘IR 74’were pot-grown and irradiated with enhanced UV-B for most of the growing season in the field at Tsukuba, Japan (36°01′N, 140°07′E). The UV-B enhancement simulated ca 38% depletion of stratospheric ozone at Tsukuba. The results showed no UV-B effects on plant height, numbers of tillers and panicles, dry weight of the plant parts or the grain yield for any of the 3 cultivars. Natural abundance of 13 C in the flag leaves was not altered by the UV-B enhancement either. While UV-absorbing compounds showed no response to the UV-B enhancement, chlorophyll contents decreased with enhanced UV-B. However, the decrease of chlorophyll was limited to an early growth stage with no effect later. We thus found no extraordinary impact of the nearly doubled UV-B radiation on rice in the field, and it would appear that a reliable prediction of the effects of UV-B will require experiments carried out over a number of years under various climatic and solar UV-B regimes. (author)

  18. Altered Expression of the Malate-Permeable Anion Channel OsALMT4 Reduces the Growth of Rice Under Low Radiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the function of OsALMT4 in rice (Oryza sativa L. which is a member of the aluminum-activated malate transporter family. Previous studies showed that OsALMT4 localizes to the plasma membrane and that expression in transgenic rice lines results in a constitutive release of malate from the roots. Here, we show that OsALMT4 is expressed widely in roots, shoots, flowers, and grain but not guard cells. Expression was also affected by ionic and osmotic stress, light and to the hormones ABA, IAA, and salicylic acid. Malate efflux from the transgenic plants over-expressing OsALMT4 was inhibited by niflumate and salicylic acid. Growth of transgenic lines with either increased OsALMT4 expression or reduced expression was measured in different environments. Light intensity caused significant differences in growth between the transgenic lines and controls. When day-time light was reduced from 700 to 300 μmol m-2s-1 independent transgenic lines with either increased or decreased OsALMT4 expression accumulated less biomass compared to their null controls. This response was not associated with differences in photosynthetic capacity, stomatal conductance or sugar concentrations in tissues. We propose that by disrupting malate fluxes across the plasma membrane carbon partitioning and perhaps signaling are affected which compromises growth under low light. We conclude that OsALMT4 is expressed widely in rice and facilitates malate efflux from different cell types. Altering OsALMT4 expression compromises growth in low-light environments.

  19. Metastable State Diamond Growth and its Applications to Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, David Guang-Kai

    Diamond which consists of a dense array of carbon atoms joined by strong covalent bonds and formed into a tetrahedral crystal structure has remarkable mechanical, thermal, optical and electrical properties suitable for many industrial applications. With a proper type of doping, diamond is also an ideal semiconductor for high performance electronic devices. Unfortunately, natural diamond is rare and limited by its size and cost, it is not surprising that people continuously look for a synthetic replacement. It was believed for long time that graphite, another form of carbon, may be converted into diamond under high pressure and temperature. However, the exact condition of conversion was not clear. In 1939, O. I. Leipunsky developed an equilibrium phase diagram between graphite and diamond based on thermodynamic considerations. In the phase diagram, there is a low temperature (below 1000^ circC) and low pressure (below 1 atm) region in which diamond is metastable and graphite is stable, therefore establishes the conditions for the coexistence of the two species. Leipunsky's pioneer work opened the door for diamond synthesis. In 1955, the General Electric company (GE) was able to produce artificial diamond at 55k atm pressure and a temperature of 2000^ circC. Contrary to GE, B. Derjaguin and B. V. Spitzyn in Soviet Union, developed a method of growing diamonds at 1000^circC and at a much lower pressure in 1956. Since then, researchers, particularly in Soviet Union, are continuously looking for methods to grow diamond and diamond film at lower temperatures and pressures with slow but steady progress. It was only in the early 80's that the importance of growing diamond films had attracted the attentions of researchers in the Western world and in Japan. Recent progress in plasma physics and chemical vapor deposition techniques in integrated electronics technology have pushed the diamond growth in its metastable states into a new era. In this research, a microwave plasma

  20. GROWTH AND ELECTRONIC-STRUCTURE OF SOME MONOVALENT METALS ON TIS2(001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEITERING, HH; HIBMA, T

    1991-01-01

    The epitaxial growth of Ag on TiS2(001) is characterized using reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Ag grows in the (111) orientation epitaxially on TiS2(001) with Ag[110BAR]parallel-toTiS2[100]. The growth

  1. Allelopathic Effect of Echinochloa colona L. and Cyperus iria L. Weed Extracts on the Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Rice and Soyabean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Chopra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the allelopathic effect of Echinochloa colona L. and Cyperus iria L. in relation to the germination and primary growth of Oryza sativa L. (rice and Glycine max L. (soyabean. Effects of dichloromethane (DCM and double distilled water soluble (DDW fractions of E. colona L. and C. iria L. root and aerial part extracts reduced germination and suppressed early seedling growth of rice and soyabean. With increase in extract concentration from 1 to 100 mg/mL, a gradual decrease in seed germination and seedling length occurred. The highest growth of G. max seedling was recorded in DDW fraction of E. colona aerial part extract at 1 mg/mL concentration with 94% germination and the lowest length was found in DCM fraction of C. iria root extract at 100 mg/mL concentration with 65% germination. In O. sativa, the highest length was noted at 1 mg/mL concentration in DDW fraction of E. colona aerial part extract with 82% germination and the lowest length was found in DCM fraction of C. iria and E. colona root extracts with germination 57% and 62%, respectively, at 100 mg/mL concentration. The results suggested that these weeds had good allelopathic potential which reduces germination and plant growth.

  2. A dominant mutation of TWISTED DWARF 1 encoding an alpha-tubulin protein causes severe dwarfism and right helical growth in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunohara, Hidehiko; Kawai, Takayuki; Shimizu-Sato, Sae; Sato, Yutaka; Sato, Kanna; Kitano, Hidemi

    2009-06-01

    Dwarfism is a common type of mutation in many plant species. The pathways and factors regulating biosynthesis and signaling of several plant growth regulators have been clarified through analyses of dwarf mutants in rice, Arabidopsis, pea, and maize. However, the genetic mechanisms controlling dwarfism are not well characterized, and the causal genes underlying most dwarf mutants are still uncovered. Here, we report a dominant mutant, Twisted dwarf 1-1 (Tid1-1), showing dwarfism and twisted growth in rice. Tid1-1 exhibit right helical growth of the leaves and stem and shortening of the roots. They also show an increased number of cells in the shoot apical meristem. Cells in the leaves of Tid1-1 are often ill-shapen, possibly owing to irregular cell division. Cell elongation in roots is suppressed in the elongation zone, and cells in the root apical meristem are enlarged. Map-based cloning of TID1 revealed that it encodes an alpha-tubulin protein comprising microtubules and is an ortholog of Arabidopsis LEFTY genes. Our analysis of the Tid1-1 mutant revealed that the dynamics of microtubules affects not only anisotropic growth in both dicots and monocots, but also meristematic activity and gross plant morphology.

  3. Transcriptional profiling of rice treated with MoHrip1 reveal the function of protein elicitor in enhancement of disease resistance and plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Lv

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available MoHrip1 is a protein elicitor isolated from Magnaporthe oryzae and was found to induce blast-resistance in rice. To investigate the comprehensive functions of MoHrip1, next-generation sequencing (NGS-based digital gene expression (DGE profiling was performed to collect the transcriptional data of differentially expressed genes induced by MoHrip1. A total of 308 genes were identified with differential expression, and 80 genes were predicted to be induced specifically by MoHrip1. Among these 308 genes, a series of genes associated with the salicylic acid (SA pathway, phytoalexin, transcription factors and pathogen-related proteins were identified. Both the SA signaling pathway and the gibberellin (GA pathway were activated, while the jasmonic acid (JA signaling pathway was repressed. The contents of endogenous SA and GA and the morphological characteristics of the rice after treatment were measured to provide evidence supporting the predictions made based on the DGE data. The 80 genes mentioned above might be candidate genes for studying interactions with MoHrip1. The transcriptional data provided global effect information in rice induced by MoHrip1, and all the results demonstrated that MoHrip1 could induce pathogen resistance and promote plant growth by regulating the contents of SA and GA directly or indirectly.

  4. Transcriptional Profiling of Rice Treated with MoHrip1 Reveal the Function of Protein Elicitor in Enhancement of Disease Resistance and Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shun; Wang, Zhenzhen; Yang, Xiufen; Guo, Lihua; Qiu, Dewen; Zeng, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    MoHrip1 is a protein elicitor isolated from Magnaporthe oryzae and was found to induce blast-resistance in rice. To investigate the comprehensive functions of MoHrip1, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based digital gene expression (DGE) profiling was performed to collect the transcriptional data of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) induced by MoHrip1. A total of 308 genes were identified with differential expression, and 80 genes were predicted to be induced specifically by MoHrip1. Among these 308 genes, a series of genes associated with the salicylic acid (SA) pathway, phytoalexin, transcription factors, and pathogen-related proteins were identified. Both the SA signaling pathway and the gibberellin (GA) pathway were activated, while the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway was repressed. The contents of endogenous SA and GA and the morphological characteristics of the rice after treatment were measured to provide evidence supporting the predictions made based on the DGE data. The 80 genes mentioned above might be candidate genes for studying interactions with MoHrip1. The transcriptional data provided global effect information in rice induced by MoHrip1, and all the results demonstrated that MoHrip1 could induce pathogen resistance and promote plant growth by regulating the contents of SA and GA directly or indirectly.

  5. Effects of temperature on growth and photosynthesis in the seedling stage of the sheath blight-resistant rice genotype 32R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huynh Van Kiet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The 32R rice genotype is resistant to sheath blight disease (ShB, with a high-yield potential. We examined effects of temperature on the plant responses of 32R in comparison with those of the ShB-susceptible rice genotype (29S and Nipponbare (Nb, a Japonica standard cultivar. The seedlings at the 4th leaf stage of rice genotypes were exposed to 14/14, 19/14, 25/20, 31/26, 37/32 and 37/37 °C (day/night for 5, 10 and 15 days. The dry weight, leaf area, photosynthesis, contents of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco and chlorophyll contents were examined. The dry weight showed lower in 32R than in 29S and Nb at a low temperature, and total dry weight correlated strongly with root dry weight and leaf area. The relative growth rate (RGR correlated strongly with the net assimilation rate (NAR. Rubisco, chlorophyll contents and the photosynthetic rates were limited at a low temperature and showed lower in 32R than in 29S and Nb. The strong correlations between Rubisco and the rates of maximum photosynthesis and initial slope were found in 32R, but not found in 29S and Nb. In addition, RGR and NAR of 32R correlated positively with Rubisco. These suggest that 32R contains traits of cold-sensitive genotypes that are related to limiting Rubisco at a low temperature, thus diminishing photosynthesis and limiting plant growth. Differences of growth among 32R, 29S and Nb were discussed in the relation of genotypes.

  6. Growth of fullerene on Ag and hydrogen-passivated Si substrates: Effect of electron beam exposure on growth modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundhe, M.V.; Dev, B.N.

    2008-01-01

    We have used Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) to investigate the effect of electron beam exposure on growth modes of fullerene (C 60 ) on substrates like Ag and hydrogen-passivated Si(1 1 1). The electron beam comprises of 3.4 keV electrons, which are used in the AES study. To investigate the effect, Auger signal (AS) vs. deposition time (t) measurements were conducted in a sequential mode, i.e., alternating deposition of C 60 and analysis using the electron beam. Duration of AES data collection after each deposition was the duration of exposure to electron beam in this experiment. For the growth study of C 60 on Ag, three AS-t plots were recorded for three different durations of exposure to electron beam. Changes in the AS-t plot, depending on the duration of exposure to the electron beam, reflect the electron beam-induced damage. Electron beam-induced damages of C 60 produce carbon materials of different densities and consequently transmission coefficient (α) of Auger electron through this material changes. In order to fit the AES (AS vs. t) data a model has been used which simultaneously provides the growth mode and the transmission coefficient. Observation of an increasing transmission coefficient with the increasing duration of exposure to the electron beam from α=0.34 to 0.60 indicates the change of the nature of the carbon material due to the partial damage of C 60

  7. Growth, Metabolism and Yield of Rice Cultivated in Soils Amended with Fly Ash and Cyanobacteria and Metal Loads in Plant Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindra N. Padhy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil amendment with fly ash (FA and combined supplementation with N2-fixing cyanobacteria masses as biofertilizer were done in field experiments with rice. Amendments with FA levels, 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kg/m2, caused increase in growth and yield of rice up to 8.0 kg/m2, monitored with several parameters. Pigment contents and enzyme activities of leaves were enhanced by FA, with the maximum level of FA at 10.0 kg/m2. Protein content of rice seeds was the highest in plants grown at FA level 4.0 kg/m2. Basic soil properties, pH value, percentage of silt, percentage of clay, water-holding capacity, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and organic carbon content increased due to the FA amendment. Parallel supplementation of FA amended plots with 1.0 kg/m2 N2-fixing cyanobacteria mass caused further significant increments of the most soil properties, and rice growth and yield parameters. 1000-grain weight of rice plants grown at FA level 4.0 kg/m2 along with cyanobacteria supplementation was the maximum. Cyanobacteria supplementation caused increase of important basic properties of soil including the total N-content. Estimations of elemental content in soils and plant parts (root and seed were done by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Accumulations of K, P, Fe and several plant micronutrients (Mn, Ni, Co, Zn and Cu and toxic elements (Pb, Cr and Cd increased in soils and plant parts as a function of the FA gradation, but Na content remained almost unchanged in soils and seeds. Supplementation of cyanobacteria had ameliorating effect on toxic metal contents of soils and plant parts. The FA level 4.0 kg/m2, with 1.0 kg/m2 cyanobacteria mass supplementation, could be taken ideal, since there would be recharging of the soil with essential micronutrients as well as toxic chemicals in comparative lesser proportions, and cyanobacteria mass would cause lessening toxic metal loads with usual N2-fixation.

  8. Experimental investigation of ash deposits characteristics of co-combustion of coal and rice hull using a digital image technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Kunzan; Zhang, Hailong; Zhou, Hao; Zhou, Bin; Li, Letian; Cen, Kefa

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated the ash deposit characteristics during the co-firing Da Tong (DA) coal with different proportions of rice hull (0%, 5%, 10%, and 20%, based on weight) in a pilot-scale furnace. The growth of ash deposit with a four-stage mode was presented. The stable thickness values of DA coal, 5% rice hull, 10% rice hull, and 20% rice hull were 0.5, 1.4, 2.9, 5.7 cm, with stable heat flux values of 230, 200, 175, and 125 kW/m 2 , respectively. According to the results of scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), the amount of Si in the deposits increased with the increasing proportion of rice hull rich in SiO 2 . The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis results indicated that most elements except Si were in the amorphous state because of the formation of eutectics. The stable thicknesses of deposits increased exponentially with the proportion of rice hull. The deposit was loose, easy removable but it reduced the heat transfer significantly. Consequently, sootblowing timely was necessary when co-firing DA coal with rice hull. - Highlights: • Digital image technique was used to monitor deposits growth process. • A type of four stages mode of ash deposit growth was presented. • The heat flux of ash deposits fit a three-stage mode. • The addition of rice hull increased the porosity of deposits

  9. Rice microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of plant structure is desirable to obtain a clear idea of the overall impact of a crop. A mature rice plant consists of leafy components (left in the field post-harvest) and paddy rice (collected). The rice plant is supported by a hollow stem (culm) with leaf sheaths attached to nod...

  10. Growth and Productivity of Response of Hybrid Rice to Application of Animal Manures, Plant Residues and Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Amanullah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of organic sources (animal manures vs. plant residues at the rate of 10 t ha-1 each on the productivity profitability of small land rice (Oryza sativa L. grower under different levels of phosphorus (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg P ha-1 fertilization. Two separate field experiments were conducted. In experiment (1, impact of three animal manures sources (cattle, sheep & poultry manures and P levels was studied along with one control plot (no animal manure and P applied as check was investigated. In experiment (2, three plant residues sources (peach leaves, garlic residues & wheat straw and P levels was studied along with one control plot (no plant residues and P applied as check. Both the experiments were carried out on small land farmer field at District Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (Northwest Pakistan during summer 2015. The results revealed that in both experiments the control plot had significantly (p≤0.05 less productivity than the average of all treated plots with organic sources and P level. The increase in P levels in both experiments (animal manure vs. plant residues had resulted in higher rice productivity (90 = 60 > 30 > 0 kg P ha-1. In the experiment under animal manures, application of poultry manure increased rice productivity as compared with sheep and cattle manures (poultry > sheep > cattle manures. In the experiment under plant residues, application of peach leaves or garlic resides had higher rice productivity over wheat straw (peach leaves = garlic residues > wheat straw. On the average, the rice grown under animal manures produced about 20% higher grain yield than the rice grown under crop residues. We concluded from this study that application of 90 kg P ha-1 along with combined application of animal manures especially poultry manure could increase rice productivity. We conclude from this study that application of 90 kg P ha-1 along with combined application of animal

  11. A comparative study of competitiveness between different genotypes of weedy rice (Oryza sativa) and cultivated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Lu, Baorong; Qiang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Competition from weedy rice can cause serious yield losses to cultivated rice. However, key traits that facilitate competitiveness are still not well understood. To explore the mechanisms behind the strong growth and competitive ability, replacement series experiments were established with six genotypes of weedy rice from different regions and one cultivated rice cultivar. (1) Weedy rice from southern China had the greatest impact on growth and yield of cultivated rice throughout the entire growing season. Weedy rice from the northeast was very competitive during the early vegetative stage while the competitive effects of eastern weedy rice were more detrimental at later crop-growth stages. (2) As the proportion of weedy rice increased, plant height, tillers, above-ground biomass, and yield of cultivated rice significantly declined; the crop always being at disadvantage regardless of proportion. (3) Weedy biotypes with greater diversity as estimated by their Shannon indexes were more detrimental to the growth and yield of cultivated rice. Geographic origin (latitude) of weedy rice biotype, its mixture proportion under competition with the crop and its genetic diversity are determinant factors of the outcome of competition and the associated decline in the rice crop yield. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Does African catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ) affect rice in integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted for 98 days in the Lake Victoria Basin to investigate the interactions of fish and rice growth performance in rice paddies. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design, with rice cultivar as the main plot and method of rice-fish culture as the sub-plot. Treatments consisted of two levels of ...

  13. IMPROVEMENT OF RICE GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH BALANCE APPLICATION OF INORGANIC FERTILIZER AND BIOFERTILIZER IN INCEPTISOL SOIL OF LOWLAND SWAMP AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Marlina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to obtain a proper balance dose between biofertilizer and inorganic fertilizer in order to increase the growth and yield of rice in Inceptisol soil of lowland swamp origin. Biofertilizer was made by enriching straw compost with N2 interceptor bacteria, phosphate solvent bacteria and growth stimulator bacteria isolated from swamp lowland in South Sumatra. This study was conducted from November 2012 to March 2013 in a greenhouse. The design used was completely randomized design (CRD factorial, with two treatment factors consisting of inorganic fertilizer (0,25, 50, 75 and 100% recommended dosage and biofertilizer (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg.ha-1. The results showed that the best treatment in term of plant height at 8 weeks after planting (WAP, the maximum number of tillers, number of productive tillers, number of grains per panicle and weight of milled dry rice were obtained in combination of 75% inorganic fertilizer and 300 - 400 kg.ha-1biofertilizer.

  14. Resistance and tolerance to the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), in rice infested at different growth stages across a gradient of nitrogen applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Finbarr G; Peñalver Cruz, Ainara; Bernal, Carmencita C; Ramal, Angelee Fame; Almazan, Maria Liberty P; Wilby, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    High resource availability can reduce anti-herbivore resistance (a plant's ability to defend against herbivores and reduce damage) in rice, Oryza sativa L, but may also increase tolerance (a plant's ability to withstand damage by, for example, compensatory growth). Through a series of greenhouse, screenhouse and field experiments, this study examines fitness (survival and development × reproduction) of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), on resistant (IR62) and susceptible (IR22) rice varieties and age-related rice tolerance to planthopper damage under varying resource (nitrogenous fertilizer) availability. Planthoppers reared on IR62 in the greenhouse had lower fitness than planthoppers on IR22. IR62 became increasingly resistant as plants aged. IR22 was generally more tolerant of planthopper damage, and tolerance increased in IR22, but declined in IR62, as the plants aged. Rice plants infested at pre-tillering stages (3-4 leaf stage) in the screenhouse had greater losses to root, shoot and grain yield per unit weight of planthopper than plants infested at tillering stages, particularly in IR22. These trends were mainly due to the impact of planthoppers during pre-tillering stages and the length of exposure to the planthoppers. High nitrogen compromised IR62 resistance, particularly in tillering plants in the greenhouse study; however, high nitrogen did not increase planthopper biomass-density on IR62 in greenhouse or field cages. Tolerance to damage in IR62 at mid-tillering stages declined under increasing levels of nitrogen, but nitrogen increased tolerance during late-tillering stages. Planthopper damage to IR22 in field cages was severe and hopperburn (plant death) occurred in 83% of IR22 plants under high nitrogen (60-150 kg N ha -1 ). In contrast, despite planthopper infestations, damage to IR62 was low in field-grown plants and productivity (tillers, roots, shoots and grain) increased in IR62 under increasing nitrogen. Our results

  15. Development of a real-time hydrological cycle - rice growth coupled simulation system as a tool for farmers' decision making in an ungauged basin in Cambodia for the better agricultural water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Ohta, T.; Yasukawa, M.; Koike, T.; Kitsuregawa, M.; Homma, K.

    2013-12-01

    The entire country of Cambodia depends on agriculture for its economy. Rice is the staple food, making it the major agricultural product (roughly 80% of total national production). The target area of this study is western Cambodia, where rice production is the greatest in the country and most land is rainfed. Since most farmers rely only on their (non-science-based) experience, they would not adjust to changing rainfall and degraded water resources under climate change, so food security in the region would be seriously threatened (Monichoth et al., 2013). Under this condition, irrigation master plans are being considered by several ODA projects. This study aims to contribute to the design of such irrigation plans through the development of a real-time hydrological cycle - rice growth coupled simulation system. The purpose of the development of this system is to support decision making 1) for determining the necessary agricultural water resources and 2) for allocating limited water resources to various sectors. Rice growing condition as affected by water stress due to the water shortage is supposed to be shown for both of the cases with and without irrigation for several rainfall patterns. A dynamically coupled model of a distributed hydrological model (WEB-DHM., Wang et al., 2009) and a rice growth model (SIMRIW-rainfed, Homma et al., 2009) has been developed with a simple irrigation model. The target basin, a small basin in western Cambodia, is basically an ungauged basin and the model was validated by soil moisture, LAI, dry matter production of the rice crop, and rice yield, using both intensive field observation and satellite observations. Calibrating hourly satellite precipitation dataset (GSMaP/NRT) using ground rain gauges, hydrological cycle (soil moisture at three layers, river discharge, irrigatable water amount, water level of each paddy field, water demand of each paddy field, etc.) and rice growth (LAI, developmental index of the rice crop, dry matter

  16. Methylobacterium Species Promoting Rice and Barley Growth and Interaction Specificity Revealed with Whole-Cell Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Tani

    Full Text Available Methylobacterium species frequently inhabit plant surfaces and are able to utilize the methanol emitted from plants as carbon and energy sources. As some of the Methylobacterium species are known to promote plant growth, significant attention has been paid to the mechanism of growth promotion and the specificity of plant-microbe interactions. By screening our Methylobacterium isolate collection for the high growth promotion effect in vitro, we selected some candidates for field and pot growth tests for rice and barley, respectively. We found that inoculation resulted in better ripening of rice seeds, and increased the size of barley grains but not the total yield. In addition, using whole-cell matrix-assister laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS analysis, we identified and classified Methylobacterium isolates from Methylobacterium-inoculated rice plants. The inoculated species could not be recovered from the rice plants, and in some cases, the Methylobacterium community structure was affected by the inoculation, but not with predomination of the inoculated species. The isolates from non-inoculated barley of various cultivars grown in the same field fell into just two species. These results suggest that there is a strong selection pressure at the species level of Methylobacterium residing on a given plant species, and that selection of appropriate species that can persist on the plant is important to achieve growth promotion.

  17. JcDREB2, a Physic Nut AP2/ERF Gene, Alters Plant Growth and Salinity Stress Responses in Transgenic Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuehui; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Ju; Li, Xiaoli; Xu, Kedong; Zhang, Yi; Qi, Jing; Yu, Deshui; Wang, Jian; Li, Chengwei

    2017-01-01

    Transcription factors of the AP2/ERF family play important roles in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, a physic nut AP2/ERF gene, JcDREB2 , was functionally characterized. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that JcDREB2 was expressed mainly in the leaf and could be induced by abscisic acid but suppressed by gibberellin (GA) and salt. Transient expression of a JcDREB2-YFP fusion protein in Arabidopsis protoplasts cells suggested that JcDREB2 is localized in the nucleus. Rice plants overexpressing JcDREB2 exhibited dwarf and GA-deficient phenotypes with shorter shoots and roots than those of wild-type plants. The dwarfism phenotype could be rescued by the application of exogenous GA 3 . The expression levels of GA biosynthetic genes including OsGA20ox1 , OsGA20ox2 , OsGA20ox4 , OsGA3ox2, OsCPS1 , OsKO2 , and OsKAO were significantly reduced in plants overexpressing JcDREB2 . Overexpression of JcDREB2 in rice increased sensitivity to salt stress. Increases in the expression levels of several salt-tolerance-related genes in response to salt stress were impaired in JcDREB2 -overexpressing plants. These results demonstrated not only that JcDREB2 influences GA metabolism, but also that it can participate in the regulation of the salt stress response in rice.

  18. Whole-plant growth and N utilization in transgenic rice plants with increased or decreased Rubisco content under different CO2 partial pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Emi; Suzuki, Yuji; Makino, Amane

    2014-11-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) strongly limits photosynthesis at lower CO2 concentration [CO2] whereas [corrected] Rubisco limitation is cancelled by elevated [CO2]. Therefore, increase or reduction in Rubisco content by transformation with a sense or an antisense RBCS construct are expected to alter the biomass production under different CO2 levels. RBCS-sense (125% Rubisco of wild-type) and -antisense (35% Rubisco of wild-type) rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants were grown for 63 days at three different CO2 levels: low [CO2] (28 Pa), normal [CO2] (40 Pa) and elevated [CO2] (120 Pa). The biomass of RBCS-sense plants was 32% and 15% greater at low [CO2] and normal [CO2] than that of the wild-type plants, respectively, but did not differ at elevated [CO2]. Conversely, the biomass of RBCS-antisense plants was the smallest at low [CO2]. Thus, overproduction of Rubisco was effective for biomass production at low [CO2]. Greater biomass production at low [CO2] in RBCS-sense plants was caused by an increase in the net assimilation rate, and associated with an increase in the amount of N uptake. Furthermore, Rubisco overproduction in RBCS-sense plants was also promoted at low [CO2]. Although it seems that low [CO2]-growth additionally stimulates the effect of RBCS overexpression, such a phenomenon observed at low [CO2] was mediated through an increase in total leaf N content. Thus, the dependence of the growth improvement in RBCS-sense rice on growth [CO2] was closely related to the degree of Rubisco overproduction which was accompanied not only by leaf N content but also by whole plant N content. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase TUD1 functions with a heterotrimeric G α subunit to regulate Brassinosteroid-mediated growth in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingming Hu

    Full Text Available Heterotrimeric G proteins are an important group of signaling molecules found in eukaryotes. They function with G-protein-coupled-receptors (GPCRs to transduce various signals such as steroid hormones in animals. Nevertheless, their functions in plants are not well-defined. Previous studies suggested that the heterotrimeric G protein α subunit known as D1/RGA1 in rice is involved in a phytohormone gibberellin-mediated signaling pathway. Evidence also implicates D1 in the action of a second phytohormone Brassinosteroid (BR and its pathway. However, it is unclear how D1 functions in this pathway, because so far no partner has been identified to act with D1. In this study, we report a D1 genetic interactor Taihu Dwarf1 (TUD1 that encodes a functional U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase. Genetic, phenotypic, and physiological analyses have shown that tud1 is epistatic to d1 and is less sensitive to BR treatment. Histological observations showed that the dwarf phenotype of tud1 is mainly due to decreased cell proliferation and disorganized cell files in aerial organs. Furthermore, we found that D1 directly interacts with TUD1. Taken together, these results demonstrate that D1 and TUD1 act together to mediate a BR-signaling pathway. This supports the idea that a D1-mediated BR signaling pathway occurs in rice to affect plant growth and development.

  20. The U-Box E3 Ubiquitin Ligase TUD1 Functions with a Heterotrimeric G α Subunit to Regulate Brassinosteroid-Mediated Growth in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingming; Qian, Qian; Xu, Ting; Zhang, Yu'e; Dong, Guojun; Gao, Ting; Xie, Qi; Xue, Yongbiao

    2013-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are an important group of signaling molecules found in eukaryotes. They function with G-protein-coupled-receptors (GPCRs) to transduce various signals such as steroid hormones in animals. Nevertheless, their functions in plants are not well-defined. Previous studies suggested that the heterotrimeric G protein α subunit known as D1/RGA1 in rice is involved in a phytohormone gibberellin-mediated signaling pathway. Evidence also implicates D1 in the action of a second phytohormone Brassinosteroid (BR) and its pathway. However, it is unclear how D1 functions in this pathway, because so far no partner has been identified to act with D1. In this study, we report a D1 genetic interactor Taihu Dwarf1 (TUD1) that encodes a functional U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase. Genetic, phenotypic, and physiological analyses have shown that tud1 is epistatic to d1 and is less sensitive to BR treatment. Histological observations showed that the dwarf phenotype of tud1 is mainly due to decreased cell proliferation and disorganized cell files in aerial organs. Furthermore, we found that D1 directly interacts with TUD1. Taken together, these results demonstrate that D1 and TUD1 act together to mediate a BR-signaling pathway. This supports the idea that a D1-mediated BR signaling pathway occurs in rice to affect plant growth and development. PMID:23526892

  1. The Growth Periods Responses of Double-season Paddy Rice to Climate Change in Hunan Province, China over the Past Two Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Li, Y.; Yi, M.; Ye, T.

    2015-12-01

    The shifts of timing and length of the growing season (TLGS) are important indicators of crop response to climate change. With the help of satellite image data, it becomes feasible to retrieve the TLGS in a spatially continuous manner, which also accommodates local variation of TGSs. In this article, the TGSs of paddy rice in Hunan Province, China since 1995 was retrieved using times-series curves of MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI). The change in TLGS and its connection to regional climate change was discussed. The results showed the advance of TGSs of double-season paddy rice and the reduction of GSL in the past 20 years, which is believed to be linked to the rise in the temperature and precipitation in the growth periods. Understanding the local variation and trend of TLGS influenced by climate change is essential for making agricultural adaptive policies to reduce the risk of crop damaged, also can provide key information for studying how multi-hazards affect crop exposure.

  2. Effect Application of Sea Sand, Coconut and Banana Coir on the Growth and Yield of Rice Planted at Ustic Endoaquert Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to study effect application of sea sand (SS, coconut coir (CC and banana coir (BC on the growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L. planted at Ustic Endoaquert soil. The pot experiment was carried out using a factorial design with 3 factors. The first factor was SS consisted of three levels i.e.: 0%, 25%, and 50%. The second and third factors were CC and BC, each consisted of three levels i.e.: 0, 10, and 20 Mg ha-1. Application of SS and BC significantly increased leaf length where the highest increasing percentage was 16.47% which was achieved at 25% SS application. Their effect on leaf numbers and tiller numbers were relatively not similar pattern where leaf number only increased about 65.52% by BC application, while tiller numbers only increased about 10.77% by SS application. Furthermore, the application of CC and BC significantly increased panicle numbers to 29.53% and 29.05%, respectively compared to control. All ameliorants significantly increased panicle numbers, but the best was CC with the increasing up to 46.49% at 20 Mg ha-1 CC compared to SS or BC application. However, only coconut coir significantly increased the rice grain numbers.

  3. A late embryogenesis abundant protein HVA1 regulated by an inducible promoter enhances root growth and abiotic stress tolerance in rice without yield penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Shih; Lo, Shuen-Fang; Sun, Peng-Kai; Lu, Chung-An; Ho, Tuan-Hua D; Yu, Su-May

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of root architecture is essential for maintaining plant growth under adverse environment. A synthetic abscisic acid (ABA)/stress-inducible promoter was designed to control the expression of a late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1) in transgenic rice. The background of HVA1 is low but highly inducible by ABA, salt, dehydration and cold. HVA1 was highly accumulated in root apical meristem (RAM) and lateral root primordia (LRP) after ABA/stress treatments, leading to enhanced root system expansion. Water-use efficiency (WUE) and biomass also increased in transgenic rice, likely due to the maintenance of normal cell functions and metabolic activities conferred by HVA1 which is capable of stabilizing proteins, under osmotic stress. HVA1 promotes lateral root (LR) initiation, elongation and emergence and primary root (PR) elongation via an auxin-dependent process, particularly by intensifying asymmetrical accumulation of auxin in LRP founder cells and RAM, even under ABA/stress-suppressive conditions. We demonstrate a successful application of an inducible promoter in regulating the spatial and temporal expression of HVA1 for improving root architecture and multiple stress tolerance without yield penalty. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Constitutive over-expression of rice chymotrypsin protease inhibitor gene OCPI2 results in enhanced growth, salinity and osmotic stress tolerance of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Lalit Dev; Mittal, Dheeraj; Chandra Mishra, Ratnesh; Grover, Anil

    2015-07-01

    Protease inhibitors are involved primarily in defense against pathogens. In recent years, these proteins have also been widely implicated in response of plants to diverse abiotic stresses. Rice chymotrypsin protease inhibitor gene OCPI2 is highly induced under salt and osmotic stresses. The construct containing the complete coding sequence of OCPI2 cloned downstream to CaMV35S promoter was transformed in Arabidopsis and single copy, homozygous transgenic lines were produced. The transgenic plants exhibited significantly enhanced tolerance to NaCl, PEG and mannitol stress as compared to wild type plants. Importantly, the vegetative and reproductive growth of transgenic plants under unstressed, control conditions was also enhanced: transgenic plants were more vigorous than wild type, resulting into higher yield in terms of silique number. The RWC values and membrane stability index of transgenic in comparison to wild type plants was higher. Higher proline content was observed in the AtOCPI2 lines, which was associated with higher transcript expression of pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase and lowered levels of proline dehydrogenase genes. The chymotrypsin protease activities were lower in the transgenic as against wild type plants, under both unstressed, control as well as stressed conditions. It thus appears that rice chymotrypsin protease inhibitor gene OCPI2 is a useful candidate gene for genetic improvement of plants against salt and osmotic stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Transfer pathways of {sup 54}Mn, {sup 57}Co, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 103}Ru and {sup 134}Cs in rice and radish plants directly contaminated at different growth stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Y.H. E-mail: yhchoi1@kaeri.re.kr; Lim, K.M.; Yu, D.; Park, H.G.; Choi, Y.G.; Lee, C.M

    2002-03-01

    In order to study radionuclide transfer pathways related to direct contamination of plants, the above-ground parts of rice and radish plants were sprayed with a solution containing {sup 54}Mn, {sup 57}Co, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 103}Ru and {sup 134}Cs in a greenhouse at 5 or 6 different times. Showing little difference among radionuclides, the interception factor increased as plants grew to maturity. Its highest observed value was 0.94 in rice and 0.83 in radish. Weathering losses of the intercepted activity by harvest were 32-89% in rice and 32-85% in radish depending on application time and radionuclide. Half lives for weathering loss were estimated to be longer on the whole for earlier applications. The translocation factor varied with application time by factors of 6-110 for hulled rice seeds and 2-23 for radish roots depending on the radionuclide. It varied with radionuclides by factors of 6-800 depending on application time and plant species. It was highest in the plants sprayed during active seed growth for rice and during early plant growth for radish. In general, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 57}Co had the highest translocation factors followed by {sup 54}Mn, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 103}Ru. Based on the experimental results, radionuclide concentrations in the edible parts of mature plants were predicted for unit deposition.

  6. Evaluating Non-Aromatic Rice Varieties for Growth and Yield under Different Rates of Soil Applied Boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Ahmed Shah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Balanced boron (B fertilization has prime importance to obtain maximum paddy yield. The range between B deficiency and toxicity is smaller than most plant nutrients, though B requirement among different crops varies widely. The adequate dose of B for one genotype can either be insufficient or toxic to other. Hence, without knowing the actual requirements of crop varieties, B application can be risky due to the toxicity hazards. A field experiment was undertaken at experimental farm of Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA Tandojam during 2013, to evaluate the B requirement of two non-aromatic rice varieties. The experiment was arranged in split plot design with three repeats. Two rice varieties Sarshar and Shandar were grown in main plots with four rates of B: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg ha-1 and control (0 kg ha-1 in sub plots. Both the varieties responded differently to B rates. Sarshar produced the highest paddy yield (5691 kg ha-1 at a rate of 1.5 kg B ha-1 and was 18% greater than control, Shandar produced the highest yield (6075 kg ha-1 at a rate of 1.0 kg B ha-1and was 5% greater than control. B accumulation in paddy and straw of both varieties increased with the increasing B rates. Both varieties were also significantly (p<0.05 varied in B accumulations. Comparatively, rice variety Sarshar accumulated 9% and 22% more B in straw and paddy than the Shandar. Thus, the B requirement of Sarshar was relatively higher than the Shandar. Shandar can be grown without the additional B application, whereas, Sarshar requires additional B for its maximum harvest in B deficient soils.

  7. Genetic Variability Studies on Twelve Genotypes of Rice (Oryza sativa L. for Growth and Yield Performance in South Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent N. ONYIA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Twelve genotypes of rice collected from the National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI, Badeggi, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria were evaluated to estimate the magnitude of genetic variability and relationship of some agronomic traits of rice and their contributions to yield. The results obtained showed a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 among the genotypes in all the traits studied. Genotype ‘WAB 35-1-FX2’ produced a significantly higher grain yield of 3.40 t/ha compared with all the other genotypes in the two years combined. Genotypes ‘WAB 33-25’, ‘WAB 56-1-FX2’, ‘WAB 56-39’, ‘WAB 56-125’, ‘ITA 150’ and ‘FAROX 16 (LC’ were the most stable grain yielding genotypes across the two years of the experiment. High broad sense heritability (h2bs was associated with grain yield (h2bs = 98.63%, number of spikelets/panicle (98.78%, plant height (98.34% for the first year planting, whereas in the second year planting, days to 50% flowering (96.72%, days to maturity (94.14% and grain yield (83.33% were among the traits that showed high broad sense heritability. The two years combined correlation analysis showed that grain yield correlated significantly and positively with number of spikelets/panicle (r = 0.2358*, number of panicles/m2 (r = 0.1895*, number of fertile spikelets/panicle (r = 0.1672* and 1,000 grain weight (r = 0.1247*, indicating that these traits can be phenotypic basis for improving grain yield of rice. Conversely, grain yield exhibited negative correlation with days to 50% flowering (-0.3009 and days to maturity (-0.2650, though not significant. This suggests that rice grain yield can be improved by selecting early flowering and maturing genotypes especially under heat and drought prone conditions.

  8. Response of Chloroplast NAD(PH Dehydrogenase-Mediated Cyclic Electron Flow to a Shortage or Lack in Ferredoxin-Quinone Oxidoreductase-Dependent Pathway in Rice Following Short-Term Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemaa eEssemine

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic electron flow around PSI can protect photosynthetic electron carriers under conditions of stromal over-reduction. The goal of the research reported in this paper was to investigate the responses of both PSI and PSII to a short-term heat stress in two rice lines with different capacities of cyclic electron transfer, i.e. Q4149 with a high capacity (hcef and C4023 with a low capacity (lcef. The absorbance change at 820 nm (ΔA820 was used here to assess the charge separation in the photosystem I (PSI reaction center (P700. The results obtained show that short-term heat stress abolishes the FQR-dependent CEF in rice and accelerates the initial rate of P700+ re-reduction. The P700+ amplitude was slightly increased at a moderate heat-stress (35°C because of a partial restriction of FQR but it was decreased following high heat-stress (42°C. Assessment of PSI and PSII activities shows that PSI is more susceptible to heat stress than photosystem II (PSII. Under high temperature, FQR-dependent CEF was completely removed and NDH-dependent CEF was up-regulated and strengthened to a higher extent in C4023 than in Q4149. Specifically, under normal growth temperature, hcef (Q4149 was characterized by higher FQR- and NDH-dependent CEF rates than lcef (C4023. Following thermal stress, the activation of NDH-pathway was 130% and 10% for C4023 and Q4149, respectively. Thus, the NDH-dependent CEF may constitute the second layer of plant protection and defence against heat stress after the main route, i.e. FQR-dependent CEF, reaches its capacity. We discuss the possibility that under high heat stress, the NDH pathway serves as a safety valve to dissipate excess energy by cyclic photophosphorylation and overcome the stroma over-reduction following inhibition of CO2 assimilation and any shortage or lack in the FQR pathway. The potential role of the NDH-dependent pathway during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis is briefly discussed.

  9. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P < 0.01) between rice plant parameters, rice yield and soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal

  10. Effects of long-term individual and combined water and temperature stress on the growth of rice, wheat and maize: relationship with morphological and physiological acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdomo, Juan Alejandro; Conesa, Miquel À; Medrano, Hipólito; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Galmés, Jeroni

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluates the long-term individual and combined effects of high temperature (HT) and water deficit (WD) stress on plant growth, leaf gas-exchange and water use efficiency in cultivars of the three most important crops worldwide, rice, wheat and maize. Total plant biomass (B t ) accumulation decreased under all treatments, being the combined HT-WD treatment the most detrimental in all three species. Although decreases in B t correlated with adjustments in biomass allocation patterns (i.e. the leaf area ratio), most of the variation observed in B t was explained by changes in leaf gas exchange parameters. Thus, integrated values of leaf carbon balance obtained from daily course measurements of photosynthesis and respiration were better predictors of plant growth than the instantaneous measurements of leaf gas exchange. Leaf water use efficiency, assessed both by gas exchange and carbon isotope measurements, was negatively correlated with B t under WD, but not under the combined WD and HT treatment. A comparative analysis of the negative effects of single and combined stresses on the main parameters showed an additive component for WD and HT in rice and maize, in contrast to wheat. Overall, the results of the specific cultivars included in the study suggest that the species native climate plays a role shaping the species acclimation potential to the applied stresses. In this regard, wheat, originated in a cold climate, was the most affected species, which foretells a higher affectation of this crop due to climate change. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  11. Glomus mosseae enhances root growth and Cu and Pb acquisition of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Aijun; Zhang, Xuhong; Yang, Xiaojin

    2014-12-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to investigate the roles of Glomus mosseae in Cu and Pb acquisition by upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) and the interactions between Cu and Pb. The soil was treated with three Cu levels (0, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1)) and three Pb levels (0, 300, and 600 mg kg(-1)). All treatments were designed with (+M) or without (-M) G. mosseae inoculation in a randomized block design. The addition of Cu and Pb significantly decreased root mycorrhizal colonization. Compared with -M, +M significantly increased root biomass in almost all treatments, and also significantly increased shoot biomass in the Pb(0)Cu(200), Pb(300)Cu(0), and all Pb(600) treatments. AM fungi enhanced plant Cu acquisition, but decreased plant Cu concentrations with all Cu plus Pb treatments, except for shoot in the Cu(200)Pb(600) treatment. Irrespective of Cu and Pb levels, +M plants had higher Pb uptakes than -M plants, but had lower root Pb and higher shoot Pb concentrations than those of -M plants. Another interpretation for the higher shoot Pb concentration in +M plants relied on Cu-Pb interactions. The study provided further evidences for the protective effects of AM fungi on upland rice against Cu and Pb contamination, and uncovered the phenomenon that Cu addition could promote Pb uptake and Pb partitioning to shoot. The possible mechanisms by which AM fungi can alleviate the toxicity induced by Cu and Pb are also discussed.

  12. Interactive electronic storybooks for kindergartners to promote vocabulary growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Daisy J. H.; Bus, Adriana G

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine (a) whether extratextual vocabulary instructions embedded in electronic storybooks facilitated word learning over reading alone and (b) whether instructional formats that required children to invest more effort were more effective than formats that required

  13. Emittance growth in laser-driven RF electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    A simple analysis for the evolution of the electron-beam phase space distribution in laser-driven rf guns is presented. In particular, formulas are derived for the transverse and longitudinal emittances at the exit of the gun. The results are compared and found to agree well with those from simulation. (Author). 9 refs.; 4 figs

  14. Characteristics of silica rice husk ash from Mojogedang Karanganyar Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryana, R.; Iriani, Y.; Nurosyid, F.; Fasquelle, D.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia is one of the countries in the world as the most abundant rice producer. Many researchers have demonstrated that the highest composition in the rice husk ash (RHA) is silica. Some of the advantages in utilizing silica as the raw material is the manufacture of ceramics, zeolite synthesis, fabrication of glass, electronic insulator materials, and as a catalyst. The amount of silica from rice husk ash is different for each region. Therefore, the study of silica from RHA is still promising, especially rice organic fertilizers. In this study, the rice came from Mojogedang Karanganyar Indonesia. Rice husk was dried under the solar radiation. Then the rice husk was heated in two steps: the first step at a temperature of 300°C and the second step at a temperature of 1200°C with a holding time at 2 h and 1 h, respectively. Furthermore, the temperature of the second step was varied at 1400 °C and 1600 °C. This heating process produced RHA. The content of RHA was observed on the EDAX spectrums while the morphology was observed from SEM images. The crystal structure of RHA was determined from XRD spectrums. The EDAX spectrums showed that RHA composition was dominated by elements Si and O for all the heating temperature. SEM images showed an agglomeration towards larger domains as heating temperatures increase. Analysis of XRD spectra is polycrystalline silica formed with the significant crystal orientation at 101, 102 and 200. The intensity of 101 increases significantly with increasing temperature. It is concluded that the crystal growth in the direction of 101 is preferred.

  15. Smooth Growth of Organic Semiconductor Films on Graphene for High-Efficiency Electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hlawacek, G.; Khokhar, F.S.; van Gastel, Raoul; Poelsema, Bene; Teichert, Christian

    2011-01-01

    High-quality thin films of conjugated molecules with smooth interfaces are important to assist the advent of organic electronics. Here, we report on the layer-by-layer growth of the organic semiconductor molecule p-sexiphenyl (6P) on the transparent electrode material graphene. Low energy electron

  16. Electron irradiation effect on bubble formation and growth in a sodium borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.; Birtcher, R. C.; Donnelly, S. E.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the authors studied simultaneous and intermittent electron irradiation effects on bubble growth in a simple sodium borosilicate glass during Xe ion implantation at 200 C. Simultaneous electron irradiation increases the average bubble size in the glass. This enhanced diffusion is also shown by the migration of Xe from bubbles into the matrix when the sample is irradiated by an electron beam after the Xe implantation

  17. The use of induced mutation combined with crossing in high quality rice breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do Huu At; Bui Huy Thuy; Nguyen Van Bich; Tran Duy Quy [Agricultural Genetics Institute, Division of Genetics and Hybrid Rice Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen Minh Cong [Hanoi No. 1 Teacher Training Univ., Department of Genetics (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    The high quality rice varieties: Tam thom mutant rice Var., DT17 rice Var, DT21 glutinous rice Var were formed by induced mutation combined with crossing. Tam thom mutant rice Var. lost photosensitivity, could be planted 2 crops/year. DT17 rice Var with high yielding capacity, suitable for growth on lowland in summer crop, is replacing step-by-step Moctuyen rice Var. in North Vietnam. DT21 glutinous rice Var. could be planted 2 crops/year and had short growth duration, average yield was 4.0-4.5 tons/ha. These three ones had good quality, soft and scent cooked rice, suitable for customers and export requirements. Tam thom mutant rice Var. DT17 rice Var., DT21 and glutinous rice Var. were adopted for regional production by Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and allowed to be in trial production. (author)

  18. The use of induced mutation combined with crossing in high quality rice breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do Huu At; Bui Huy Thuy; Nguyen Van Bich; Tran Duy Quy; Nguyen Minh Cong

    2001-01-01

    The high quality rice varieties: Tam thom mutant rice Var., DT17 rice Var, DT21 glutinous rice Var were formed by induced mutation combined with crossing. Tam thom mutant rice Var. lost photosensitivity, could be planted 2 crops/year. DT17 rice Var with high yielding capacity, suitable for growth on lowland in summer crop, is replacing step-by-step Moctuyen rice Var. in North Vietnam. DT21 glutinous rice Var. could be planted 2 crops/year and had short growth duration, average yield was 4.0-4.5 tons/ha. These three ones had good quality, soft and scent cooked rice, suitable for customers and export requirements. Tam thom mutant rice Var. DT17 rice Var., DT21 and glutinous rice Var. were adopted for regional production by Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and allowed to be in trial production. (author)

  19. Silicon induced Fe deficiency affects Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn distribution in rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth in calcareous conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Rodríguez-Menéndez, Sara; Fernández, Beatriz; Pereiro, Rosario; de la Fuente, Vicenta; Hernandez-Apaolaza, Lourdes

    2018-04-01

    A protective effect by silicon in the amelioration of iron chlorosis has recently been proved for Strategy 1 species, at acidic pH. However in calcareous conditions, the Si effect on Fe acquisition and distribution is still unknown. In this work, the effect of Si on Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn distribution was studied in rice (Strategy 2 species) under Fe sufficiency and deficiency. Plants (+Si or-Si) were grown initially with Fe, and then Fe was removed from the nutrient solution. The plants were then analysed using a combined approach including LA-ICP-MS images for each element of interest, the analysis of the Fe and Si concentration at different cell layers of root and leaf cross sections by SEM-EDX, and determining the apoplastic Fe, total micronutrient concentration and oxidative stress indexes. A different Si effect was observed depending on plant Fe status. Under Fe sufficiency, Si supply increased Fe root plaque formation, decreasing Fe concentration inside the root and increasing the oxidative stress in the plants. Therefore, Fe acquisition strategies were activated, and Fe translocation rate to the aerial parts was increased, even under an optimal Fe supply. Under Fe deficiency, +Si plants absorbed Fe from the plaque more rapidly than -Si plants, due to the previous activation of Fe deficiency strategies during the growing period (+Fe + Si). Higher Fe plaque formation due to Si supply during the growing period reduced Fe uptake and could activate Fe deficiency strategies in rice, making it more efficient against Fe chlorosis alterations. Silicon influenced Mn and Cu distribution in root. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Growth responses of native chicken Sentul G-3 on diet containing high rice-bran supplemented with phytase enzyme and ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Hidayat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of phytase enzymes and ZnO supplementation on the performance of native chicken Sentul-G3 fed high rice-bran diet. Two hundred and seventy day old chicks (DOC native chicken Sentul-G3 from three different hatcheries were used in this study. Factorial randomized block design (3 x 3 was applied in this study. The first factor was the enzyme phytase supplementation levels (0; 1000; 2000 U/kg, the second factor was the level of supplementation of ZnO (0; 1.5; 3.2 g/kg, so that there are nine treatment given, namely R1 = 50% commercial diet : 50% rice bran; R2 = R1 + 1.5 g ZnO/kg; R3 = R1 + 3.2 g ZnO/kg; R4 = R1 + phytase enzyme 1000 U/kg; R5 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 1000 U/kg + 1.5 g ZnO/kg; R6 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 1000 U/kg + 3.2 g ZnO/kg; R7 = R1 + phytase enzyme 2000 U/kg; R8 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 2000 U/kg + 1.5 g ZnO/kg; R9 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 2000 U/kg + 3.2 g ZnO/kg. Each experimental unit consisted of 6 head unsexed native chicken Sentul-G3. The experimental diet was fed for 10 weeks. The variables measured were body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality, mineral deposition of Ca, P, Zn in the tibia bone, alkaline phosfatase enzyme activity in serum. Results showed that there was significant interaction (P 0.05 between phytase enzyme and ZnO supplementation on feed intake, mortality, alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in serum, and deposition of calcium and phosphorus in the tibia bone. It was concluded that supplementation of phytase enzyme and ZnO were not able to increase the growth of native chicken Sentul-G3 on fed diet containing high rice bran.

  1. Damage by Tibraca limbativentris Stål (Pentatomidae) to Upland Rice Cultivated in Amazon Rainforest Region (Brazil) at Different Growth Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinski, D; Foerster, L A

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the damage caused in the field by Tibraca limbativentris Stål adults at different levels of infestation (0, 1, 2, and 4 stink bugs) per three rice plants during three growth stages (V8, V13, and R4 stages) of upland rice cultivated in southwestern of Pará State, Amazon Rainforest region, Brazil. Heading time (panicle exertion) was affected by T. limbativentris infestations mainly in the vegetative stage and the whiteheads percentage in treatments ranged from 18.2 to 38%. The dead hearts percentages varied between 0 and 21.5%, and the mean number of primary branches (ramifications) ranged from 5.9 ± 0.4 to 12.3 ± 0.2. The number of empty spikelets was only affected in infestations with four insects/three plants, while the quantity of filled grains per panicle was affected only when infestations occurred during the vegetative stage. The total number of spikelets (filled + empty) per panicle decreased significantly in all phenological stages, and the percentage of damage ranged from 17 to 44% among treatments. Based on the proportion of damage observed, we suggest doubling the number of insects presently used as action threshold to 2 and 4 stink bugs per 15 stalks sampled for the vegetative stage, and of 1 or 2 stink bugs per 15 stalks sampled at the beginning of reproductive stage (R3/R4). Also, the field should be monitored during the entire vegetative stage, since most damage was observed in this phenological stage.

  2. Realistic Simulation of Rice Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-long DING

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The existing research results of virtual modeling of rice plant, however, is far from perfect compared to that of other crops due to its complex structure and growth process. Techniques to visually simulate the architecture of rice plant and its growth process are presented based on the analysis of the morphological characteristics at different stages. Firstly, the simulations of geometrical shape, the bending status and the structural distortion of rice leaves are conducted. Then, by using an improved model for bending deformation, the curved patterns of panicle axis and various types of panicle branches are generated, and the spatial shape of rice panicle is therefore created. Parametric L-system is employed to generate its topological structures, and finite-state automaton is adopted to describe the development of geometrical structures. Finally, the computer visualization of three-dimensional morphologies of rice plant at both organ and individual levels is achieved. The experimental results showed that the proposed methods of modeling the three-dimensional shapes of organs and simulating the growth of rice plant are feasible and effective, and the generated three-dimensional images are realistic.

  3. Fungal disease prevention in seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa) and other grasses by growth-promoting seed-associated endophytic bacteria from invasive Phragmites australis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Satish K.; Kingsley, Kathryn L.; Bergen, Marshall S.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; White, James F.

    2018-01-01

    Non-cultivated plants carry microbial endophytes that may be used to enhance development and disease resistance of crop species where growth-promoting and protective microbes may have been lost. During seedling establishment, seedlings may be infected by several fungal pathogens that are seed or soil borne. Several species of Fusarium, Pythium and other water moulds cause seed rots during germination. Fusariumblights of seedlings are also very common and significantly affect seedling development. In the present study we screened nine endophytic bacteria isolated from the seeds of invasive Phragmites australis by inoculating onto rice, Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), or annual bluegrass (Poa annua) seeds to evaluate plant growth promotion and protection from disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. We found that three bacteria belonging to genus Pseudomonas spp. (SLB4-P. fluorescens, SLB6-Pseudomonas sp. and SY1-Pseudomonassp.) promoted seedling development, including enhancement of root and shoot growth, and stimulation of root hair formation. These bacteria were also found to increase phosphate solubilization in in vitro experiments. Pseudomonas sp. (SY1) significantly protected grass seedlings from Fusarium infection. In co-culture experiments, strain SY1 strongly inhibited fungal pathogens with 85.71% growth inhibition of F. oxysporum, 86.33% growth inhibition of Curvularia sp. and 82.14% growth inhibition of Alternaria sp. Seedlings previously treated with bacteria were found much less infected by F. oxysporum in comparison to non-treated controls. On microscopic observation we found that bacteria appeared to degrade fungal mycelia actively. Metabolite products of strain SY1 in agar were also found to inhibit fungal growth on nutrient media. Pseudomonas sp. (SY1) was found to produce antifungal volatiles. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using specific primers for pyrrolnitirin synthesis and HCN (hydrogen cyanide) production

  4. Growth, characterisation and electronic applications of amorphous hydrogenated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S.

    2000-11-01

    My thesis proposes solutions to a number of riddles associated with the material, hydrogenated amorphous carbon, (a-C:H). This material has lately generated interest in the electronic engineering community, owing to some remarkable properties. The characterisation of amorphous carbon films, grown by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition has been reported. The coexistence of multiple phases in the same a-C:H film manifests itself in the inconsistent electrical behaviour of different parts of the film, thus rendering it difficult to predict the nature of films. For the first time, in this thesis, a reliable prediction of Schottky contact formation on a-C:H films is reported. A novel and simple development on a Scanning Electron Microscope, configured to study the electrical properties of the grown a-C:H films, has been reported. Since device performance is crucially linked to the density of states in the film, a study of the same was undertaken in my doctoral research. I present a mathematical formalism to estimate the density of states in a-C:H. The most commonly used metal, (aluminium), for contact formation on a-C:H films, has been concluded to be the least suitable. On the basis of the study presented in this thesis, copper and chromium are judged to be the best alternatives. The resilience of a-C:H/Si heterostructures under high voltages (upto 900 V) has been reported in this thesis for the first time. The performance of a-C:H grown at room temperature on GaAs, has been studied and concluded to be satisfactory on the basis of good adherence and low leakage currents. Such a structure was motivated by the applicability in Metal Insulator Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MISFET). (author)

  5. Inhibition of human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and HT-29 colon cancer cells by rice-produced recombinant human insulin-like growth binding protein-3 (rhIGFBP-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley C K Cheung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 is a multifunctional molecule which is closely related to cell growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis, metabolism and senescence. It combines with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I to form a complex (IGF-I/IGFBP-3 that can treat growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (GHIS and reduce insulin requirement in patients with diabetes. IGFBP-3 alone has been shown to have anti-proliferation effect on numerous cancer cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reported here an expression method to produce functional recombinant human IGFBP-3 (rhIGFBP-3 in transgenic rice grains. Protein sorting sequences, signal peptide and endoplasmic reticulum retention tetrapeptide (KDEL were included in constructs for enhancing rhIGFBP-3 expression. Western blot analysis showed that only the constructs with signal peptide were successfully expressed in transgenic rice grains. Both rhIGFBP-3 proteins, with or without KDEL sorting sequence inhibited the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells (65.76 ± 1.72% vs 45.00 ± 0.86%, p < 0.05; 50.84 ± 1.97% vs 45.00 ± 0.86%, p < 0.01 respectively and HT-29 colon cancer cells (65.14 ± 3.84% vs 18.01 ± 13.81%, p < 0.05 and 54.7 ± 9.44% vs 18.01 ± 13.81%, p < 0.05 respectively when compared with wild type rice. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrated the feasibility of producing biological active rhIGFBP-3 in rice using a transgenic approach, which will definitely encourage more research on the therapeutic use of hIGFBP-3 in future.

  6. Resposta do arroz irrigado ao suprimento de amônio e nitrato Rice growth as affected by combined ammonium and nitrate supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquel Jonas Holzschuh

    2009-10-01

    , conclui-se que o NH4+ é tóxico para o arroz em concentrações elevadas. A presença de NO3- é imprescindível para aumentar a absorção de N, melhorando o crescimento e desenvolvimento da planta e a absorção de cátions.In rice cultivated under flooded conditions, the anaerobic condition favors the formation of NH4+ in the soil, and is therefore considered the main available N source for this crop. However, the process of O2 transport through the aerenchyma and its release by roots, create a favorable environment for nitrification in the plant rizosphere. Nitrification intensity determines the proportions between available NH4+ and NO3- . In this case, it is believed that the presence of NO3- can favor rice growth and simultaneously avoid NH4+ toxicity. This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different proportions between NH4+ and NO3- in nutrient solution on rice growth. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse, from September to November 2007, in a nutrient solution with the following NH4+ and NO3- proportions: 100:0, 75:25 and 25:75, in a 10.0 mmol L-1 N concentration. The plots were fulfilled with a inert substrate to create conditions to root growth. The genotypes IRGA 417 and Sasanishiki were compared and the biomass production, root length, root distribution and the N, Ca, Mg and K uptake were evaluated. The presence of NH4+ in the 100:0, 75:25 proportions resulted in plant toxicity, however, as the NO3- proportion increased, toxicity was reduced. The combined supply of NH4+ and NO3- increased biomass production compared to solely NH4+ supply. The rice root system of the two cultivars developed mainly in the 0-10 cm layer and the - greatest root length was observed in the treatment NH4+ 75:25 NO3- for IRGA 417. The presence of NH4+ in soil solution affected negatively calcium absorption, whereas no affect was observed on N, Mg or K absorption. The total absorbed N, K, and Ca indicated a higher absorption efficiency with the combined

  7. Electronic structure of EuN: Growth, spectroscopy, and theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, J. H.; Ruck, B.J.; Simpson, M.

    2011-01-01

    and the lowest-lying 8S multiplet. The Hubbard-I model is also in good agreement with purely atomic multiplet calculations for the Eu M-edge XAS. LSDA+U and DMFT calculations find a metallic ground state, while QSGW results predict a direct band gap at X for EuN of about 0.9 eV that matches closely an absorption...... and QSGW models capture the density of conduction band states better than does LSDA+U. Only the Hubbard-I model contains a correct description of the Eu 4f atomic multiplets and locates their energies relative to the band states, and we see some evidence in XAS for hybridization between the conduction band...... edge seen in optical transmittance at 0.9 eV, and a smaller indirect gap. Overall, the combination of theoretical methods and spectroscopies provides insights into the complex nature of the electronic structure of this material. The results imply that EuN is a narrow-band-gap semiconductor that lies...

  8. Infection and colonization of rice seedlings by the plant growth-promoting bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Euan K; Gyaneshwar, Prasad; Mathan, Natarajan; Barraquio, Wilfredo L; Reddy, Pallavolu M; Iannetta, Pietro P M; Olivares, Fabio L; Ladha, Jagdish K

    2002-09-01

    A beta-glucoronidase (GUS)-marked strain of Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67 was inoculated onto rice seedling cvs. IR42 and IR72. Internal populations peaked at over 10(6) log CFU per gram of fresh weight by 5 to 7 days after inoculation (DAI) but declined to 10(3) to 10(4) log CFU per gram of fresh weight by 28 DAI. GUS staining was most intense on coleoptiles, lateral roots, and at the junctions of some of the main and lateral roots. Bacteria entered the roots via cracks at the points of lateral root emergence, with cv. IR72 appearing to be more aggressively infected than cv. IR42. H. seropedicae subsequently colonized the root intercellular spaces, aerenchyma, and cortical cells, with a few penetrating the stele to enter the vascular tissue. Xylem vessels in leaves and stems were extensively colonized at 2 DAI but, in later harvests (7 and 13 DAI), a host defense reaction was often observed. Dense colonies of H. seropedicae with some bacteria expressing nitrogenase Fe-protein were seen within leaf and stem epidermal cells, intercellular spaces, and substomatal cavities up until 28 DAI. Epiphytic bacteria were also seen. Both varieties showed nitrogenase activity but only with added C, and the dry weights of the inoculated plants were significantly increased. Only cv. IR42 showed a significant (approximately 30%) increase in N content above that of the uninoculated controls, and it also incorporated a significant amount of 15N2.

  9. [Double-ambient CO2 concentration affects the growth, development and sucking behavior of non-target brown plant hopper Nilaparvata lugens fed on transgenic Bt rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong Qing; Dai, Yang; Yu, Xiu Ying; Yu, Fu-Lan; Jiang, Shou Lin; Zhou, Zong Yuan; Chen, Fa Jun

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, the two issues of climate change including elevated CO 2 etc., and resistance of transgenic Bt crops against non-target insect pests have received widespread attention. Elevated CO 2 can affect the herbivorous insects. To date, there is no consensus about the effect of elevated CO 2 on the suck-feeding insect pests (non-target insect pests of transgenic Bt crops). Its effects on the suck-feeding behavior have rarely been reported. In this study, CO 2 levels were set up in artificial climate chamber to examined the effects of ambient (400 μL·L -1 ) and double-ambient (800 μL·L -1 ) CO 2 levels on the suck-feeding behavior, growth, development, and reproduction of the non-target insect pest of transgenic Bt rice, brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. The results showed that CO 2 level significantly affected the egg and nymph duration, longevity and body mass of adults, and feeding behavior of the 4th and 5th instar nymphs, while had no effect on the fecundity of N. lugens. The duration of eggs and nymphs, and the longevity of female adults were significantly shortened by 4.0%, 4.2% and 6.6% respectively, the proportion of the macropterous adults was significantly increased by 11.6%, and the body mass of newly hatched female adults was significantly decreased by 2.2% by elevated CO 2 . In addition, elevated CO 2 significantly enhanced the stylet puncturing efficiency of the 4th and 5th instar nymphs of N. lugens. The duration ofphloem ingestion of the N4b waveform was significantly prolonged by 60.0% and 50.1%, and the frequency significantly was increased by 230.0% and 155.9% for the 4th and 5th instar nymphs of N. lugens by elevated CO 2 , respectively. It was concluded that double-ambient CO 2 could promote the growth and development of N. lugens through enhancing its suck-feeding, shorten the generation life-span and increase the macropertous adults' proportion of N. lugens. Thus, it could result in the occurrence of non-target rice

  10. Electron molecular beam epitaxy: Layer-by-layer growth of complex oxides via pulsed electron-beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comes, Ryan; Liu Hongxue; Lu Jiwei; Gu, Man; Khokhlov, Mikhail; Wolf, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    Complex oxide epitaxial film growth is a rich and exciting field, owing to the wide variety of physical properties present in oxides. These properties include ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, spin-polarization, and a variety of other correlated phenomena. Traditionally, high quality epitaxial oxide films have been grown via oxide molecular beam epitaxy or pulsed laser deposition. Here, we present the growth of high quality epitaxial films using an alternative approach, the pulsed electron-beam deposition technique. We demonstrate all three epitaxial growth modes in different oxide systems: Frank-van der Merwe (layer-by-layer); Stranski-Krastanov (layer-then-island); and Volmer-Weber (island). Analysis of film quality and morphology is presented and techniques to optimize the morphology of films are discussed.

  11. Interface engineering for oxide electronics: tuning electronic properties by atomically controlled growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijben, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is to develop a controlled growth with atomic precision for the realization of artificial perovskite structures, to exploit the exceptional physical properties of complex oxide materials such as high-temperature superconductors and conducting interfaces between band

  12. Growth and intercalation of graphene on silicon carbide studied by low-energy electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speck, Florian; Ostler, Markus; Wanke, Martina; Seyller, Thomas [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Physik, Erlangen (Germany); Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Besendoerfer, Sven [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Physik, Erlangen (Germany); Krone, Julia [Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Based on its electronic, structural, chemical, and mechanical properties, many potential applications have been proposed for graphene. In order to realize these visions, graphene has to be synthesized, grown, or exfoliated with properties that are determined by the targeted application. Growth of so-called epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide by sublimation of silicon in an argon atmosphere is one particular method that could potentially lead to electronic applications. In this contribution we summarize our recent work on different aspects of epitaxial graphene growth and interface manipulation by intercalation, which was performed by a combination of low-energy electron microscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. The growth and electronic structure of azobenzene-based functional molecules on layered crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwicki, J; Ludwig, E; Buck, J; Kalläne, M; Kipp, L; Rossnagel, K; Köhler, F; Herges, R

    2012-01-01

    In situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy is used to study the growth of ultrathin films of azobenzene-based functional molecules (azobenzene, Disperse Orange 3 and a triazatriangulenium platform with an attached functional azo-group) on the layered metal TiTe 2 and on the layered semiconductor HfS 2 at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Effects of intermolecular interactions, of the substrate electronic structure, and of the thermal energy of the sublimated molecules on the growth process and on the adsorbate electronic structure are identified and discussed. A weak adsorbate-substrate interaction is particularly observed for the layered semiconducting substrate, holding the promise of efficient molecular photoswitching.

  14. Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation under high-temperature conditions affects growth of rice (cv. Koshihikari) after a young panicle formation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, K.

    2005-01-01

    A japonica rice (cv. Koshihikari) was used to test the effects on blooming and ripening of UV-B radiation treatment combined with high temperature treatments (day/night, 35 / 30 deg C). Strong UV-B radiation (60.4 kJ/m(2) . day) slightly increased sterility. High temperatures and weak UV-B radiation (18.1 kJ/m(2) . day) applied together from two weeks before heading and from the heading day increased sterility and those applied from two weeks after heading decreased sterility. High temperature combined with strong UV-B radiation applied from two weeks before heading increased sterility and decreased the size of unhulled grain and anther length. The same treatment given from the heading stage greatly increased sterility and decreased anther length and pollen production, and that given two weeks after heading decreased unhulled grain weight. It also decreased photosynthetic rate in Flag leaves. A high temperature applied together with strong UV-B radiation had a synergistic effect causing poor growth; it increased the harmful effects of a high temperature and strong UV-B given separately, on the sterility and pollen formation

  15. Response Of Lowland Rice To Soil Compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idawati; Haryanto

    2000-01-01

    Soil compaction, as a new tillage practice for paddy soil, is to substitute pudding in order to reduce land preparation cost. To study response of lowland rice to soil compaction, a pot experiment has been conducted which took place in the greenhouse of P3TIR-BATAN. Soil for experiment was taken from pusakanegara. Two factors (degree of soil compaction and rice variety) were combined. Degree of compaction was split into 3 levels (DI = normal; D215% more compact than normal; 30 % more compact than normal), and rice variety into 2 levels (IR64 and Atomita IV). KH 2 32 PO 4 solution was injected into the soil surrounding rice clump to test the root activity at blooming stage of rice plant. Data resulted from this experiment is presented together with additional data from some other experiments of fertilization in the research s erie to study soil compaction. Some information's from experiment results are as following. Both rice varieties tested gave the same response to soil compaction. Root activity, according to data of 32 P absorbed by plant, was not harmed by soil compaction at the degree tested in the experiment. This prediction is supported by the growth by rice observed at generative growth stage, in pot experiment as well as in field experiment, which showed that soil compaction tested did not decrease rice yield but in opposite in tended to increase the yield. In practising soil compaction in land preparation, fertilizers should be applied by deep placement to have higher increasing is rice yield

  16. Electronic and structural characterizations of unreconstructed {0001} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emtsev, Konstantin

    2009-01-01

    The present work is focused on the characterization of the clean unreconstructed SiC{0001} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers thereon. Electronic properties of SiC surfaces and their interfaces with graphene and few layer graphene films were investigated by means of angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction. Structural characterizations of the epitaxial graphene films grown on SiC were carried out by atomic force microscopy and low energy electron microscopy. Supplementary data was obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy. (orig.)

  17. Tolerance to zinc deficiency in rice correlates with zinc uptake and translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Zou, C.Q.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Hoffland, E.

    2005-01-01

    To study variation in zinc efficiency (ZE) among current Chinese rice genotypes, a pot experiment was conducted with 15 aerobic and 8 lowland rice genotypes. Aerobic rice is currently bred by crossing lowland with upland rice genotypes, for growth in an aerobic cultivation system, which is saving

  18. Roles of NlAKTIP in the Growth and Eclosion of the Rice Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, as Revealed by RNA Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Peiying; Lu, Chaofeng; Ma, Yan; Xu, Lingbo; Zhu, Jiajun; Yu, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    AKT-interacting protein (AKTIP) interacts with serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB)/AKT. AKTIP modulates AKT’s activity by enhancing the phosphorylation of the regulatory site and plays a crucial role in multiple biological processes. In this study, the full length cDNA of NlAKTIP, a novel AKTIP gene in the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, was cloned. The reverse transcription quantitive PCR (RT-qPCR) results showed that the NlAKTIP gene was strongly expressed in gravid female adults, but was relatively weakly expressed in nymphs and male adult BPH. In female BPH, treatment with dsAKTIP resulted in the efficient silencing of NlAKTIP, leading to a significant reduction of mRNA levels, about 50% of those of the untreated control group at day 7 of the study. BPH fed with dsAKTIP had reduced growth with lower body weights and smaller sizes, and the body weight of BPH treated with dsAKTIP at day 7 decreased to about 30% of that of the untreated control. Treatment of dsAKTIP significantly delayed the eclosion for over 7 days relative to the control group and restricted ovarian development to Grade I (transparent stage), whereas the controls developed to Grade IV (matured stage). These results indicated that NlAKTIP is crucial to the growth and development of female BPH. This study provided a valuable clue of a potential target NlAKTIP for inhibiting the BPH, and also provided a new point of view on the interaction between BPH and resistant rice. PMID:26402675

  19. Growth and Electronic Structure of Heusler Compounds for Use in Electron Spin Based Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    this procedure seemed to succeed, with the successful growth of PtLuSb films on GdSb. However, upon examination of x-ray diffrac- 55 tion data, it was...0.33, 0.66, and 1 were all grown as a series, in immediate succession without changing the Co or Si source temperatures so as to eliminate any...39(1):1–50, May 2011. doi:10.1016/j.progsolidstchem.2011.02.001. [3] F. Heusler, W. Starck, and E. Haupt. Uber magnetische manganlegierun- gen

  20. Growth rate enhancement of free-electron laser by two consecutive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-06-03

    Jun 3, 2014 ... been the subject of many papers published by different groups all around the world. The radiation is generated by relativistic electron beam passing through a wiggler. ..... Shown in figure 2 are plots of growth rate, Im ¯k, vs.

  1. Growth rate of non-thermodynamic emittance of intense electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, B.E.

    1998-01-01

    The nonlinear free-energy concept has been particularly useful in estimating the emittance growth resulting from any excess energy of electron beams in periodic and uniform channels. However, additional emittance growth, that is geometrical rather than thermodynamic in origin, is induced if the particles have different kinetic energies and axial velocities, which is common for mildly relativistic, very intense electron beams. This effect is especially strong if particles lose or gain significant kinetic energy due to the beam's potential depression, as the beam converges and diverges. In this paper we analyze these geometric emittance growth mechanisms for a uniform, continuous, intense electron beam in a focusing transport channel consisting of discrete solenoidal magnets, over distances short enough that the beam does not reach equilibrium. These emittance growth mechanisms are based on the effects of (1) energy variations leading to nonlinearities in the space-charge force even if the current density is uniform, (2) an axial velocity shear radially along the beam due to the beam's azimuthal motion in the solenoids, and (3) an energy redistribution of the beam as the beam compresses or expands. The geometric emittance growth is compared in magnitude with that resulting from the nonlinear free energy, for the case of a mismatched beam in a uniform channel, and is shown to dominate for certain experimental conditions. Rules for minimizing the emittance along a beamline are outlined. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  2. Pengaruh pemberian abu sekam padi sebagai bahan desikan pada penyimpanan benih terhadap daya tumbuh dan pertumbuhan bibit kakao (The effects of rice husk ash as desiccation material of seed storage on viability and cocoa seedling growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji Rahardjo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice husk ash as desiccation material can be used to maintain seed viability in storage through its ability to absorb humidity during its storage. High relative humidity caused seed moisture content to increase so the respiration rate of seed increases and uses faster food stock. Finally the viability of seed is lost. A research on use of rice husk ash as desiccation material of cocoa seed storage was conducted in Agronomy Laboratory and Kaliwining Experimental Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. Completely Randomized Design was used in this research with treatment of rice husk ash application on cocoa seed as follows: 0 g/100 seeds (A, 5 g/100 seeds (B, 10 g/100 seeds (C, 15 g/100 seeds (D, and 20 g/100 seeds (E. This experiment used four replications. Cocoa seeds were stored in plastic bag within carton box in ambient temperature. The storage periods were 1, 2, and 3 weeks, and parameters of observation consisted of electrical conductivity of dipped water of cocoa seeds, percentage of seed germination, percentage of seed emergence, early growth parameters at one month old including seedlings height of seedling, diameter, leaf number, root length, and dry weight. The result of the experiment showed that the use of rice husk ash at 5-10 g/100 seeds could maintain electrical conductivity of dipped water at low level, percentage of seed germination at 99-100 % and percentage of seed emergence at 79-91% after two weeks storage. The use of rice husk ash at 5-10 g/100 seeds after two weeks storage affected height of cacao seedling, but did not affected stem diameters, leaf numbers, root lengths, and dry weights

  3. Effect of irradiation ad incubation of palm oil empty fruit bunch medium on the Growth of rice mushroom (volvariella volvaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmawi; Suwadji, E.

    1998-01-01

    Study on the effect of irradiation and time incubation of composted palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) were conducted in growth chamber in the plastic bag as growth medium. Treatments were consisted of sterilization of composted EFB growth medium by autoclave heating were conducted at 2.0 kg/cm 2 for 40 minutes and gamma irradiation at the dose of 0, 15, 30, and 45kGy. After sterilization, EFB medium were inoculated using mushroom seed of V. volvaceae. The time of incubation of EFB medium after inoculation was 2 and 4 weeks before mushroom harvesting. Growth chamber was maintained at 28-35 0 C room temperature and humidity > 80%. Parameters of the experiment were determined on mushroom analysis i.e. fat, protein, and content and weight of mushroom. analysis od EFB medium after incubation were determined i.e. total fiber and percentage of rendement. Results of the experiment showed that dose of 45 kGy effected on mushroom fat content 0.52% which was decreasing regards to the delay of incubation period. Irradiation treatment did not effect EFB fat content compared to non irradiated EFB (0.82%). Irradiation treatment and one.variety produced number of plaincreasing on mushroom protein content. Mushroom starch content was obtained on the dose of 15 kGy and 4 weeks of incubation period 3.09 and 3.13% respectively. The dose of 45 kGy and autoclave heating were decreasing total fiber of EFB medium 29.29 and 28.02% respectively. The dose of 45 kGy on EFB medium with 2 weeks of incubation period produced weight of mushroom 30.92 and 27.73 g/bag respectively. (author)

  4. In Situ Room Temperature Electron-Beam Driven Graphene Growth from Hydrocarbon Contamination in a Transmission Electron Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark H Rummeli

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The excitement of graphene (as well as 2D materials in general has generated numerous procedures for the fabrication of graphene. Here we present a mini-review on a rather less known, but attractive, in situ means to fabricate graphene inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM. This is achieved in a conventional TEM (viz. no sophisticated specimen holders or microscopes are required and takes advantage of inherent hydrocarbon contamination as a carbon source. Both catalyst free and single atom catalyst approaches are reviewed. An advantage of this technique is that not only can the growth process be imaged in situ, but this can also be achieved with atomic resolution. Moreover, in the future, one can anticipate such approaches enabling the growth of nano-materials with atomic precision.

  5. Study on growth kinetics of hexadecylamine capped CdSe nanoparticles using its electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oluwafemi, S.O., E-mail: tobi_55@yahoo.co [Department of Chemistry, University of Zululand, Private Bag X1001, Kwadlangezwa 3886 (South Africa); Revaprasadu, N. [Department of Chemistry, University of Zululand, Private Bag X1001, Kwadlangezwa 3886 (South Africa)

    2009-05-01

    The growth kinetics of hexadecylamine (HDA) capped CdSe synthesised via a novel, mild, effective, and facile non-organometallic route was studied using its electronic properties. The emission and optical maxima of all the nanoparticles synthesised are blue-shifted as the reaction time increases indicating decrease in particle size. The UV spectra show distinct excitonic features which can be attributed to the first electronic transition [1S{sub 3/2}(h)-1S(e)] occurring in CdSe nanoparticles with band-edge luminescence in their emission spectra. The extinction coefficient was determined for convenient and accurate measurements of the concentration of the nanocrystals. Nucleation is very fast and well separated from particle growth under this reaction condition. Two distinguishable stages of growth were observed: an early stage 0-10 min characterised by fast growth, with narrow size distribution and the late stage characterised by slow growth with slight defocusing of size distribution and large particle sizes. The diameter of the size ranges from 2.2 to 3.0 nm. About 94% of the available monomer concentration was consumed during the growth and the solubility of 3.0 nm CdSe in hexadecylamine is measured to be 9.216x10{sup -7} M{sup 2} at 433 deg. K.

  6. Long branch-chains of amylopectin with B-type crystallinity in rice seed with inhibition of starch branching enzyme I and IIb resist in situ degradation and inhibit plant growth during seedling development : Degradation of rice starch with inhibition of SBEI/IIb during seedling development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ting; Lin, Lingshang; Wang, Juan; Liu, Qiaoquan; Wei, Cunxu

    2018-01-08

    Endosperm starch provides prime energy for cereal seedling growth. Cereal endosperm with repression of starch branching enzyme (SBE) has been widely studied for its high resistant starch content and health benefit. However, in barley and maize, the repression of SBE changes starch component and amylopectin structure which affects grain germination and seedling establishment. A high resistant starch rice line (TRS) has been developed through inhibiting SBEI/IIb, and its starch has very high resistance to in vitro hydrolysis and digestion. However, it is unclear whether the starch resists in situ degradation in seed and influences seedling growth after grain germination. In this study, TRS and its wild-type rice cultivar Te-qing (TQ) were used to investigate the seedling growth, starch property changes, and in situ starch degradation during seedling growth. The slow degradation of starch in TRS seed restrained the seedling growth. The starch components including amylose and amylopectin were simultaneously degraded in TQ seeds during seedling growth, but in TRS seeds, the amylose was degraded faster than amylopectin and the amylopectin long branch-chains with B-type crystallinity had high resistance to in situ degradation. TQ starch was gradually degraded from the proximal to distal region of embryo and from the outer to inner in endosperm. However, TRS endosperm contained polygonal, aggregate, elongated and hollow starch from inner to outer. The polygonal starch similar to TQ starch was completely degraded, and the other starches with long branch-chains of amylopectin and B-type crystallinity were degraded faster at the early stage of seedling growth but had high resistance to in situ degradation during TRS seedling growth. The B-type crystallinity and long branch-chains of amylopectin in TRS seed had high resistance to in situ degradation, which inhibited TRS seedling growth.

  7. Kinetics of Si and Ge nanowires growth through electron beam evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artoni Pietro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Si and Ge have the same crystalline structure, and although Si-Au and Ge-Au binary alloys are thermodynamically similar (same phase diagram, with the eutectic temperature of about 360°C, in this study, it is proved that Si and Ge nanowires (NWs growth by electron beam evaporation occurs in very different temperature ranges and fluence regimes. In particular, it is demonstrated that Ge growth occurs just above the eutectic temperature, while Si NWs growth occurs at temperature higher than the eutectic temperature, at about 450°C. Moreover, Si NWs growth requires a higher evaporated fluence before the NWs become to be visible. These differences arise in the different kinetics behaviors of these systems. The authors investigate the microscopic growth mechanisms elucidating the contribution of the adatoms diffusion as a function of the evaporated atoms direct impingement, demonstrating that adatoms play a key role in physical vapor deposition (PVD NWs growth. The concept of incubation fluence, which is necessary for an interpretation of NWs growth in PVD growth conditions, is highlighted.

  8. Kinetics of Si and Ge nanowires growth through electron beam evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artoni, Pietro; Pecora, Emanuele Francesco; Irrera, Alessia; Priolo, Francesco

    2011-02-21

    Si and Ge have the same crystalline structure, and although Si-Au and Ge-Au binary alloys are thermodynamically similar (same phase diagram, with the eutectic temperature of about 360°C), in this study, it is proved that Si and Ge nanowires (NWs) growth by electron beam evaporation occurs in very different temperature ranges and fluence regimes. In particular, it is demonstrated that Ge growth occurs just above the eutectic temperature, while Si NWs growth occurs at temperature higher than the eutectic temperature, at about 450°C. Moreover, Si NWs growth requires a higher evaporated fluence before the NWs become to be visible. These differences arise in the different kinetics behaviors of these systems. The authors investigate the microscopic growth mechanisms elucidating the contribution of the adatoms diffusion as a function of the evaporated atoms direct impingement, demonstrating that adatoms play a key role in physical vapor deposition (PVD) NWs growth. The concept of incubation fluence, which is necessary for an interpretation of NWs growth in PVD growth conditions, is highlighted.

  9. Big-data reflection high energy electron diffraction analysis for understanding epitaxial film growth processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Rama K; Tselev, Alexander; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2014-10-28

    Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) has by now become a standard tool for in situ monitoring of film growth by pulsed laser deposition and molecular beam epitaxy. Yet despite the widespread adoption and wealth of information in RHEED images, most applications are limited to observing intensity oscillations of the specular spot, and much additional information on growth is discarded. With ease of data acquisition and increased computation speeds, statistical methods to rapidly mine the data set are now feasible. Here, we develop such an approach to the analysis of the fundamental growth processes through multivariate statistical analysis of a RHEED image sequence. This approach is illustrated for growth of La(x)Ca(1-x)MnO(3) films grown on etched (001) SrTiO(3) substrates, but is universal. The multivariate methods including principal component analysis and k-means clustering provide insight into the relevant behaviors, the timing and nature of a disordered to ordered growth change, and highlight statistically significant patterns. Fourier analysis yields the harmonic components of the signal and allows separation of the relevant components and baselines, isolating the asymmetric nature of the step density function and the transmission spots from the imperfect layer-by-layer (LBL) growth. These studies show the promise of big data approaches to obtaining more insight into film properties during and after epitaxial film growth. Furthermore, these studies open the pathway to use forward prediction methods to potentially allow significantly more control over growth process and hence final film quality.

  10. Scanning electron microscope studies of adsorption and crystal growth on tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, P.

    1980-03-01

    An ultra high vacuum scanning electron microscope (UHV-SEM), equipped with additional surface science techniques (AES, RHEED, work function), has been used to study the adsorption and growth of Cs and Ag on polycrystalline and (110) single crystal of W. These are used to study the layer plus island, or Stranski-Krastanov growth mode. The technique and apparatus are described. In the temperature range of 15 0 C, a whole variety of growth phenomena in the system Ag/W(110) has been seen by SEM. Two intermediate layers are followed by island growth, except at T > approximately equal to 500 0 C where island growth starts at a lower coverage. At T 0 C, layer-like growth is deduced from both AES and SEM measurements. The forms, crystallographic orientations and nucleation densities of islands have been explored in detail using a combination of SEM, AES and EBSP techniques. AES results at room temperature and at 500 0 C have been analysed and the results fit very well with SEM observations. A growth model for Ag/W(110) has been presented and atomistic nucleation theory has been extended, to understand the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode in general and the Ag/W(110) results in particular. (author)

  11. Dispersion relation and growth rate of a relativistic electron beam propagating through a Langmuir wave wiggler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, H.; Jafari, S.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a theory of free-electron laser (FEL) with a Langmuir wave wiggler in the presence of an axial magnetic field has been presented. The small wavelength of the plasma wave (in the sub-mm range) allows obtaining higher frequency than conventional wiggler FELs. Electron trajectories have been obtained by solving the equations of motion for a single electron. In addition, a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method has been used to simulate the electron trajectories. Employing a perturbation analysis, the dispersion relation for an electromagnetic and space-charge waves has been derived by solving the momentum transfer, continuity, and wave equations. Numerical calculations show that the growth rate increases with increasing the e-beam energy and e-beam density, while it decreases with increasing the strength of the axial guide magnetic field.

  12. Ionizing radiation changes the electronic properties of melanin and enhances the growth of melanized fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadachova, Ekaterina; Bryan, Ruth A; Huang, Xianchun; Moadel, Tiffany; Schweitzer, Andrew D; Aisen, Philip; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Casadevall, Arturo

    2007-05-23

    Melanin pigments are ubiquitous in nature. Melanized microorganisms are often the dominating species in certain extreme environments, such as soils contaminated with radionuclides, suggesting that the presence of melanin is beneficial in their life cycle. We hypothesized that ionizing radiation could change the electronic properties of melanin and might enhance the growth of melanized microorganisms. Ionizing irradiation changed the electron spin resonance (ESR) signal of melanin, consistent with changes in electronic structure. Irradiated melanin manifested a 4-fold increase in its capacity to reduce NADH relative to non-irradiated melanin. HPLC analysis of melanin from fungi grown on different substrates revealed chemical complexity, dependence of melanin composition on the growth substrate and possible influence of melanin composition on its interaction with ionizing radiation. XTT/MTT assays showed increased metabolic activity of melanized C. neoformans cells relative to non-melanized cells, and exposure to ionizing radiation enhanced the electron-transfer properties of melanin in melanized cells. Melanized Wangiella dermatitidis and Cryptococcus neoformans cells exposed to ionizing radiation approximately 500 times higher than background grew significantly faster as indicated by higher CFUs, more dry weight biomass and 3-fold greater incorporation of (14)C-acetate than non-irradiated melanized cells or irradiated albino mutants. In addition, radiation enhanced the growth of melanized Cladosporium sphaerospermum cells under limited nutrients conditions. Exposure of melanin to ionizing radiation, and possibly other forms of electromagnetic radiation, changes its electronic properties. Melanized fungal cells manifested increased growth relative to non-melanized cells after exposure to ionizing radiation, raising intriguing questions about a potential role for melanin in energy capture and utilization.

  13. Influence of an azolla layer on growth, production and efficiency and use of 15N Labelled urea fertilizer of lowland rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrarti, Etty; Sopandie, Didy; Komarudin Idris; Sisworo, Elsje L

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of an Azolla mat on rice growth, percentage of N-total, N derived from fertilizer and urea efficiency. The experiment used a factorial design which consists of 2 factors : the using of an Azolla mat and the doses of N fertilizer. The first factor comprised 2 levels, with (A1) and without an azolla mat (A0). The second factor comprised 4 levels, 0(N0), 30 (N1), 60(N2) and 90 kg N/ha(N3).Application of 15 N labeled Urea done to determine percentage N-derived from Urea efficiency , which was divided in 2 experiment series as follows : application Urea at planting (experiment I) and one month after planting (experiment II). The experiments were carried out in the green house of Agricultural Faculty of IPB and continued in the laboratory of BATAN. Parameters observed were plant height, number of tillers, number of panicles, number of grains/panicle, dry weight of grain, straw and percentage of empty grain. Result of the experiment showed that an Azolla mat, the doses of N fertilizer and interaction of both increased all the parameters observed yield, except for percentage of empathy grain, up to the dose of N fertilizer at 60 kg N/ha and decreased at the dose of N fertilizer at 90 kg N/ha. The treatment of Urea fertilizer doses resulted in a significant difference on the percentage of N- derived from Urea for both experiment, but not for the treatment of an Azolla mat and the interaction of both treatment. An azolla mat, N fertilizer and interaction of both did not result in a significantly difference on the percentage of total-N and Urea efficiency. The best treatment combination was treatment of an azolla mat and dose of Urea fertilizer of 60 kg N/ha. (author)

  14. Effect of vanadium application on the paddy rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, T F

    1953-01-01

    The height, the root length and the weight of rice seedlings were increased by the application of ammonium vanadate. The nitrogen contents of seedlings were generally increased in proportion to the amounts of vanadate applied. Carbon contents of seedlings, however, show little difference. The best result was obtained when V/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 150 ppm was applied, but more than 500 ppm was toxic to rice seedlings, and at 1000 ppm all rice seedlings were killed. N, P, and K fertilizers were added to the rice after transplantation from the nursery, but vanadium was omitted. Little difference was found in growth and yield of the rice plants. Vanadium absorbed by younger rice seedlings has little influence on the latter growth and yields of rice plants.

  15. Effect of impurities on the growth of {113} interstitial clusters in silicon under electron irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Nakai, K.; Hamada, K.; Satoh, Y.; Yoshiie, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth and shrinkage of interstitial clusters on {113} planes were investigated in electron irradiated Czochralski grown silicon (Cz-Si), floating-zone silicon (Fz-Si), and impurity-doped Fz-Si (HT-Fz-Si) using a high voltage electron microscope. In Fz-Si, {113} interstitial clusters were formed only near the beam incident surface after a long incubation period, and shrank on subsequent irradiation from the backside of the specimen. In Cz-Si and HT-Fz-Si, {113} interstitial clusters nucle...

  16. Mechanisms of UVB-resistance in rice: Cultivar differences in the sensitivity to UVB radiation in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidema, J.

    2001-01-01

    In a study on the sensitivity to UVB radiation of rice cultivars of 5 Asian rice ecotypes, results showed that the rice cultivars widely varied in UVB sensitivity; among the Japanese rice cultivars, Sasanishiki was more resistant to UVB, while Norin 1 was less resistant; UV-sensitive Norin 1 was deficient in photorepair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (UV-induced DNA damage), and the sensitivity to UVB radiation significantly correlated with deficient CPD photorepair; and that this deficiency in Norin 1 resulted from a functionally altered photolyase. The results suggest that photorepair capacity is a principal factor in determining UVB sensitivity in rice. The effects of supplemental UVB radiation on the growth and yield of Japanese rice cultivars under field conditions were also studied in Japan since 1993. The results indicate that supplemental UVB radiation had inhibitory effects on the growth and yield of rice. Furthermore, grain size was smaller with supplemental UVB radiation

  17. Effect of exogenous electron shuttles on growth and fermentative metabolism in Clostridium sp. BC1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarlagadda V. N.; Francis A.; Gupta, A.; Dodge, C. J.

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the influence exogenous electron shuttles on the growth and glucose fermentative metabolism of Clostridium sp. BC1 was investigated. Bicarbonate addition to mineral salts (MS) medium accelerated growth and glucose fermentation which shifted acidogenesis (acetic- and butyric-acids) towards solventogenesis (ethanol and butanol). Addition of ferrihydrite, anthraquinone disulfonate, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in bicarbonate to growing culture showed no significant influence on fermentative metabolism. In contrast, methyl viologen (MV) enhanced ethanol- and butanol-production by 28- and 12-fold, respectively with concomitant decrease in hydrogen, acetic- and butyric-acids compared to MS medium. The results show that MV addition affects hydrogenase activity with a significant reduction in hydrogen production and a shift in the direction of electron flow towards enhanced production of ethanol and butanol.

  18. Rapid solidification growth mode transitions in Al-Si alloys by dynamic transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehling, John D.; Coughlin, Daniel R.; Gibbs, John W.; Baldwin, J. Kevin; Mertens, James C.E.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.; Clarke, Amy J.; McKeown, Joseph T.

    2017-01-01

    In situ dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) imaging of Al-Si thin-film alloys was performed to investigate rapid solidification behavior. Solidification of alloys with compositions from 1 to 15 atomic percent Si was imaged during pulsed laser melting and subsequent solidification. Solely α-Al solidification was observed in Al-1Si and Al-3Si alloys, and solely kinetically modified eutectic growth was observed in Al-6Si and Al-9Si alloys. A transition in the solidification mode in eutectic and hypereutectic alloys (Al-12Si and Al-15Si) from nucleated α-Al dendrites at lower solidification velocities to planar eutectic growth at higher solidification velocities was observed, departing from trends previously seen in laser-track melting experiments. Comparisons of the growth modes and corresponding velocities are compared with previous solidification models, and implications regarding the models are discussed.

  19. Deciphering the factors associated with the colonization of rice plants by cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidyarani, Ngangom; Prasanna, Radha; Chawla, Gautam; Babu, Santosh; Singh, Rajendra

    2015-04-01

    Cyanobacteria-rice plant interactions were analyzed using a hydroponics experiment. The activity of plant defense and pathogenesis-related enzymes, scanning electron microscopy, growth, nitrogen fixation (measured as ARA), and DNA fingerprinting assays proved useful in illustrating the nature of associations of cyanobacteria with rice plants. Microscopic analyses revealed the presence of short filaments and coiled masses of filaments of cyanobacteria near the epidermis and cortex of roots and shoot tissues. Among the six cyanobacterial strains employed, Calothrix sp. (RPC1), Anabaena laxa (RPAN8), and Anabaena azollae (C16) were the best performing strains, in terms of colonization in roots and stem. These strains also enhanced nitrogen fixation and stimulated the activity of plant defense/cell wall-degrading enzymes. A significantly high correlation was also recorded between the elicited plant enzymes, growth, and ARA. DNA fingerprinting using highly iterated palindromic sequences (HIP-TG) further helped in proving the establishment of inoculated organisms in the roots/shoots of rice plants. This study illustrated that the colonization of cyanobacteria in the plant tissues is facilitated by increased elicitation of plant enzymes, leading to improved plant growth, nutrient mobilization, and enhanced plant fitness. Such strains can be promising candidates for developing "cyanobacteria colonized-nitrogen-fixing rice plants" in the future. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Effect of impurities on the growth of {113} interstitial clusters in silicon under electron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, K.; Hamada, K.; Satoh, Y.; Yoshiie, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth and shrinkage of interstitial clusters on {113} planes were investigated in electron irradiated Czochralski grown silicon (Cz-Si), floating-zone silicon (Fz-Si), and impurity-doped Fz-Si (HT-Fz-Si) using a high voltage electron microscope. In Fz-Si, {113} interstitial clusters were formed only near the beam incident surface after a long incubation period, and shrank on subsequent irradiation from the backside of the specimen. In Cz-Si and HT-Fz-Si, {113} interstitial clusters nucleated uniformly throughout the specimen without incubation, and began to shrink under prolonged irradiation at higher electron beam intensity. At lower beam intensity, however, the {113} interstitial cluster grew stably. These results demonstrate that the {113} interstitial cluster cannot grow without a continuous supply of impurities during electron irradiation. Detailed kinetics of {113} interstitial cluster growth and shrinkage in silicon, including the effects of impurities, are proposed. Then, experimental results are analyzed using rate equations based on these kinetics.

  1. Rice yield prediction from yield components and limiting factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casanova, D.; Goudriaan, J.; Catala Former, M.M.; Withagen, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    This article aims to quantify growth at field level in relation to crop status and soil properties in irrigated direct-seeded rice. Forty fields were selected in the Ebro Delta (Spain). Rice growth was monitored and soil properties measured. Yield was related to soil properties by a deductive

  2. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals a dynamic pollen plasma membrane protein map and the membrane landscape of receptor-like kinases and transporters important for pollen tube growth and interaction with pistils in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning; Wang, Tai

    2017-01-05

    The coordination of pollen tube (PT) growth, guidance and timely growth arrest and rupture mediated by PT-pistil interaction is crucial for the PT to transport sperm cells into ovules for double fertilization. The plasma membrane (PM) represents an important interface for cell-cell interaction, and PM proteins of PTs are pioneers for mediating PT integrity and interaction with pistils. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying these events is important for proteomics. Using the efficient aqueous polymer two-phase system and alkali buffer treatment, we prepared high-purity PM from mature and germinated pollen of rice. We used iTRAQ quantitative proteomic methods and identified 1,121 PM-related proteins (PMrPs) (matched to 899 loci); 192 showed differential expression in the two pollen cell types, 119 increased and 73 decreased in abundance during germination. The PMrP and differentially expressed PMrP sets all showed a functional skew toward signal transduction, transporters, wall remodeling/metabolism and membrane trafficking. Their genomic loci had strong chromosome bias. We found 37 receptor-like kinases (RLKs) from 8 kinase subfamilies and 209 transporters involved in flux of diversified ions and metabolites. In combination with the rice pollen transcriptome data, we revealed that in general, the protein expression of these PMrPs disagreed with their mRNA expression, with inconsistent mRNA expression for 74% of differentially expressed PMrPs. This study identified genome-wide pollen PMrPs, and provided insights into the membrane profile of receptor-like kinases and transporters important for pollen tube growth and interaction with pistils. These pollen PMrPs and their mRNAs showed discordant expression. This work provides resource and knowledge to further dissect mechanisms by which pollen or the PT controls PMrP abundance and monitors interactions and ion and metabolite exchanges with female cells in rice.

  3. Overlayer growth and electronic properties of the Bi/GaSb(110) interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavioli, Luca; Betti, Maria Grazia; Casarini, Paolo; Mariani, Carlo

    1995-06-01

    The overlayer growth and electronic properties of the Bi/GaSb(110) interface and of the two-dimensional ordered (1×1)- and (1×2)-Bi layers have been investigated by complementary spectroscopic techniques (high-resolution electron-energy-loss, photoemission, and Auger spectroscopy). Bismuth forms an epitaxial monolayer, followed by island formation (Stranski-Krastanov growth mode) covering an average surface area of 40% at a nominal coverage of 4 ML. The (1×2)-symmetry stable structural phase, obtained after annealing at ~220 °C, corresponds to an average nominal Bi coverage of about 0.7 ML, suggesting an atomic geometry different from the epitaxial-continued layer structure. The disposal of Bi atoms in the (1×2) structure should build up an ``open'' layer, as the Ga-related surface exciton quenched in the (1×1) epitaxial monolayer is present in the (1×2) stable phase. The two symmetry phases are characterized by strong absorption features at 1 eV [(1×1)-Bi] and 0.54 eV [(1×2)-Bi], related to interband electronic transitions between Bi-induced electronic states. The major Bi-related occupied electronic levels, present in the valence band of the (1×1)- and (1×2)-Bi layer, have been detected by angle-integrated ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. Both the (1×1) and (1×2) phases show a metallic nature, with a low density of electronic states at the Fermi level. Schottky barrier heights of 0.20 and 0.14 eV are estimated for the epitaxial (1×1)- and (1×2)-symmetry stage, respectively, by analyzing the space-charge layer conditions through the study of the dopant-induced free-carrier plasmon in the GaSb substrate.

  4. Isotope studies on rice fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the report is to provide practical information on the efficient utilization of nitrogen fertilizers in rice production. Results obtained from field investigations during the years 1970 to 1974 in ten countries (Bangladesh, Burma, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Philippines), using 15 N-labelled nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, urea) are given. The experiments, which were conducted both during the dry and wet seasons, included comparison of varieties, effect of placement, source and time of nitrogen fertilizer application on the yield and quality of rice. The data from the project is presented in table form. In most of the experiments, the addition of nitrogen increased the rice grain yield. The role of soil nitrogen vs. fertilizer nitrogen is compared, and it is concluded that the physiological growth stage at which fertilizer-derived nitrogen is absorbed is of great importance

  5. Low Temperature Graphene Growth and Its Applications in Electronic and Optical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Sunny

    Graphene, a two dimensional allotrope of carbon in a honeycomb lattice, has gathered wide attention due to its excellent electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical properties. It has extremely high electron/hole mobility, very high thermal conductivity and fascinating optical properties, and combined with its mechanical strength and elasticity, graphene is believed to find commercial applications in existing as well as novel technologies. One of the biggest reasons behind the rapid development in graphene research during the last decade is the fact that laboratory procedures to obtain high quality graphene are rather cheap and simple. However, any new material market is essentially driven by the progress in its large scale commercial production with minimal costs, with properties that are suited for different applications. And it is in this aspect that graphene is still required to make a huge progress before its commercial benefits can be derived. Laboratory graphene synthesis techniques such as mechanical exfoliation, liquid phase exfoliation and SiC graphene growth pose several challenges in terms of cost, reliability and scalability. To this end, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) growth of graphene has emerged as a widely used synthesis method that overcomes these problems. Unfortunately, conventional thermal CVD requires a high temperature of growth and a catalytic metal substrate, making the undesirable step of graphene transfer a necessity. Besides requiring a catalyst, the high temperature of growth also limits the range of growth substrates. In this work, I have successfully demonstrated low temperature ( 550 °C) growth of graphene directly on dielectric materials using a Plasma-Enhanced CVD (PECVD) process. The PECVD technique described here solves the issues faced by conventional CVD methods and provides a direct route for graphene synthesis on arbitrary materials at relatively low temperatures. Detailed growth studies, as described here, illustrate the

  6. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu cattle finished on molasses or maize grain with rice or maize by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asimwe, I.; Kimambo, A. E.; Laswai, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Forty five steers (2.5–3.0 years of age and 200±5 (SEM) kg body weight) were allotted randomly into five diets to assess the effects of finishing Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu (TSZ) cattle in feedlot using diets based on either molasses or maize grain combined with maize or rice by-products. The diets...... were hay and concentrate mixtures of hominy feed with molasses (HFMO), rice polishing with molasses (RPMO), hominy feed with maize meal (HFMM), rice polishing with maize meal (RPMM) and a control of maize meal with molasses (MMMO). All concentrate mixtures contained cotton seed cake, mineral mixture.......35 for HFMO) than in maize grain based diets (6.94, 6.73 and 6.19 for RPMM, MMMO and HFMM, respectively). Energy intake was highest (P

  7. Effect of chemically processed bonemeal alone and in combination with organic materials on plant growth. [Part] I : Rice-wheat rotation in an alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasami, S.; Vimal, O.P.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of chemically processed bonemeal added 60 kg P 2 O /ha alone and in combination with various organic materials viz., wheat straw and rice straw 3 tons/hs, starch 500 kg/ha and EDTA 250 kg/ha was studied on rice in an alluvial soil. The residual effect was studied on wheat using 32 P as a tracer. The results showed that in the first crop(rice) bonemeal organic matter combination had a significant effect both on dry matter yield and nutrient uptake. In the second crop (wheat) except chemically processed honemeal in combination with EDTA, all other combinations showed a marked positive effect on yield, total P-uptake and 'A' values. Comparison of P-uptake from soil and fertilizer indicated that there was a marked residual effect on the subsequent wheat crop. (author)

  8. Impact of Membrane-Induced Particle Immobilization on Seeded Growth Monitored by In Situ Liquid Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Rebecca G; Chen, Dennis P; Unocic, Raymond R; Skrabalak, Sara E

    2016-05-01

    In situ liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy probes seeded growth in real time. The growth of Pd on Au nanocubes is monitored as a model system to compare growth within a liquid cell and traditional colloidal synthesis. Different growth patterns are observed due to seed immobilization and the highly reducing environment within the liquid cell. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Image-based phenotyping for non-destructive screening of different salinity tolerance traits in rice

    KAUST Repository

    Hairmansis, Aris; Berger, Bettina; Tester, Mark A.; Roy, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity is an abiotic stress wide spread in rice producing areas, limiting both plant growth and yield. The development of salt-tolerant rice requires efficient and high-throughput screening techniques to identify promising lines

  10. Altered Expression of the Malate-Permeable Anion Channel OsALMT4 Reduces the Growth of Rice Under Low Radiance

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Liu; Jie Liu; Muyun Xu; Gonzalo M. Estavillo; Emmanuel Delhaize; Rosemary G. White; Meixue Zhou; Peter R. Ryan

    2018-01-01

    We examined the function of OsALMT4 in rice (Oryza sativa L.) which is a member of the aluminum-activated malate transporter family. Previous studies showed that OsALMT4 localizes to the plasma membrane and that expression in transgenic rice lines results in a constitutive release of malate from the roots. Here, we show that OsALMT4 is expressed widely in roots, shoots, flowers, and grain but not guard cells. Expression was also affected by ionic and osmotic stress, light and to the hormones ...

  11. Ectopic Expression of Hrf1 Enhances Bacterial Resistance via Regulation of Diterpene Phytoalexins, Silicon and Reactive Oxygen Species Burst in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weigong; Yang, Jie; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Guang; Wang, Dong; Xiao, Shanshan; Chang, Shanshan; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan

    2012-01-01

    Harpin proteins as elicitor derived from plant gram negative bacteria such as Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), Erwinia amylovora induce disease resistance in plants by activating multiple defense responses. However, it is unclear whether phytoalexin production and ROS burst are involved in the disease resistance conferred by the expression of the harpinXoo protein in rice. In this article, ectopic expression of hrf1 in rice enhanced resistance to bacterial blight. Accompanying with the activation of genes related to the phytoalexin biosynthesis pathway in hrf1-transformed rice, phytoalexins quickly and consistently accumulated concurrent with the limitation of bacterial growth rate. Moreover, the hrf1-transformed rice showed an increased ability for ROS scavenging and decreased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration. Furthermore, the localization and relative quantification of silicon deposition in rice leaves was detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Finally, the transcript levels of defense response genes increased in transformed rice. These results show a correlation between Xoo resistance and phytoalexin production, H2O2, silicon deposition and defense gene expression in hrf1-transformed rice. These data are significant because they provide evidence for a better understanding the role of defense responses in the incompatible interaction between bacterial disease and hrf1-transformed plants. These data also supply an opportunity for generating nonspecific resistance to pathogens. PMID:22970151

  12. Ectopic expression of Hrf1 enhances bacterial resistance via regulation of diterpene phytoalexins, silicon and reactive oxygen species burst in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqi Li

    Full Text Available Harpin proteins as elicitor derived from plant gram negative bacteria such as Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo, Erwinia amylovora induce disease resistance in plants by activating multiple defense responses. However, it is unclear whether phytoalexin production and ROS burst are involved in the disease resistance conferred by the expression of the harpin(Xoo protein in rice. In this article, ectopic expression of hrf1 in rice enhanced resistance to bacterial blight. Accompanying with the activation of genes related to the phytoalexin biosynthesis pathway in hrf1-transformed rice, phytoalexins quickly and consistently accumulated concurrent with the limitation of bacterial growth rate. Moreover, the hrf1-transformed rice showed an increased ability for ROS scavenging and decreased hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 concentration. Furthermore, the localization and relative quantification of silicon deposition in rice leaves was detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS. Finally, the transcript levels of defense response genes increased in transformed rice. These results show a correlation between Xoo resistance and phytoalexin production, H(2O(2, silicon deposition and defense gene expression in hrf1-transformed rice. These data are significant because they provide evidence for a better understanding the role of defense responses in the incompatible interaction between bacterial disease and hrf1-transformed plants. These data also supply an opportunity for generating nonspecific resistance to pathogens.

  13. Lead enrichment in different genotypes of rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Sun, Guo-rong; Liu, Ai-ping; Zhou, Wei-dong

    2008-03-01

    Using environmental scanning electron microscopy and X-ray electron probe microanalysis, the lead content was studied in inner and outer surface of rice glume, surface of caryopsis, center of caryopsis, near aleuronic layer and aleuronic layer in 21 genotypes of rice grains. The results showed that the lead content in different part of 21 genotypes of rice grains changed as inner surface of rice glume > aleuronic layer > near aleuronic layer > surface of caryopsis > outer surface of rice glume > center of caryopsis. There were genetic differences in lead enrichment in different genotypes of rice grains, which reflected as the differences of lead content in the same part and different part of rice grains. In different genotypes of rice grains, there were significant non-linear correlations between lead content in the inner surface of rice glume, center of caryopsis, aleuronic layer and that in the other parts of rice grain. The results also indicated that the lead enrichment in the center of caryopsis regulated by glume and aleuronic layer. In addition, in different genotypes of rice grains, there were differences in regulation of lead enrichment among different parts, which changed non-linearly.

  14. The Haitian Rice Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundahl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se ha argumentado que los problemas agríco-las de Haití derivan de la tarifa del arroz de a mediados de los años noventa. Antes, supues-tamente, Haití fue autosuficiente, abastecida por su producción doméstica. Después de la reducción, el mercado haitiano se inundó en importaciones de arroz barato de los EEUU, lo cual despojó a los campesinos de sus fincas, convirtiendolos en migrantes internos, hacia los empleos de bajo pago de las ciudades. El artículo rechaza ese argumento y demuestra que es falso. La malnutrición fue un fenómeno extendido en Haití mucho antes de la reducción de la tarifa del arroz, la cual tampoco tuvo un gran impacto en la importación y la producción doméstica del arroz. Lo que sí impulsó el aumento de las importaciones fue el crecimiento de la población. También el artículo argumenta que un aumento de la tarifa del arroz no solucionará el problema de la alimentación que sufre Haití. English: It has been argued that Haiti’s agricultural problems derive from the reduction of the rice tariff in the mid-1990s. Before that Haiti was allegedly able to meet its food needs by domestic production. After the reduction the Haitian market was swamped by imports of cheap American rice which drove the farmers off their lands and forced them to migrate to low-wage industrial jobs in the cities. The article demonstrates that the argument is false. Malnutrition was widespread in Haiti long before the rice tariff reduction, and the latter did not have much of an impact on rice imports and domestic production. Instead, the main driving force behind imports appears to be population growth. It is also shown that an increase of the rice tariff will not solve Haiti’s food problem.

  15. Dependence of electron beam instability growth rates on the beam-plasma system parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strangeway, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Electron beam instabilites are studied by using a simple model for an electron beam streaming through a cold plasma, the beam being of finite width perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. Through considerations of finite geometry and the coldness of the beam and background plasma, an instability similar to the two stream instability is assumed to be the means for wave growth in the system. Having found the maximum growth rate for one set of beam-plasma system parameters, this maximum growth rate is traced as these parameters are varied. The parameters that describe the system are the beam velocity (v/sub b/), electron gyrofrequency to ambient electron plasma frequency ratio (Ω/sub e//ω/sub p/e), the beam to background number density ratio (n/sub b//n/sub a/), and the beam width (a). When Ω/sub e//ω/sub p/e>1, a mode with Ω/sub e/<ω<ω/sub u/hr is found to be unstable, where Ω is the wave frequency and ω/sub u/hr is the upper hybrid resonance frequency. For low values of n/sub b//n/sub a/ and Ω/sub e/<ω/sub p/e, this mode is still present with ω/sub p/e<ω<ω/sub u/hr. If the beam density is large, n/sub b//n/sub a/approx. =1, the instability occures for frequencies just above the electron gyrofrequency. This mode may well be that observed in laboratory plasma before the system undergoes the beam-plasma discharge. There is another instability present, which occurs for ωapprox. =ω/sub p/e. The growth rates for this mode, which are generally larger than those found for the ωapprox. =ωuhr mode, are only weakly dependent on Ω/sub d//ω/sub p/e. That this mode is not always observed in the laboratory implies that some factors not considered in the present theory suppress this mode, specifically, finite beam length

  16. Growth of group III nitride films by pulsed electron beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, J.; Sakurada, K.; Shih, F.-Y.; Kobayashi, A.; Fujioka, H.

    2009-01-01

    We have grown group III nitride films on Al 2 O 3 (0 0 0 1), 6H-SiC (0 0 0 1), and ZnO (0001-bar) substrates by pulsed electron beam deposition (PED) for the first time and investigated their characteristics. We found that c-plane AlN and GaN grow epitaxially on these substrates. It has been revealed that the growth of GaN on atomically flat 6H-SiC substrates starts with the three-dimensional mode and eventually changes into the two-dimensional mode. The GaN films exhibited strong near-band-edge emission in their room temperature photoluminescence spectra. We also found that the use of PED allows us to reduce the epitaxial growth temperature for GaN down to 200 deg. C. - Graphical abstract: We have grown group III nitride films by pulsed electron beam deposition (PED) and found that the films of group III nitrides grow epitaxially on 6H-SiC and Al 2 O 3 substrates. We also found that the use of PED allows us to reduce the epitaxial growth temperature for GaN down to 200 deg. C.

  17. Follicle and oocyte growth in early postnatal calves: cytochemical, autoradiographical and electron microscopical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhawi, A.J.; Kaňka, J.; Motlík, J.

    1991-01-01

    The initiation of oocyte and follicle growth was studied in 1- and 3-d-old calf ovaries using cytochemical, autoradiographical and electron microscopical approaches. Attention was only paid to unilaminar ovarian follicles that were classified into 3 categories: unilaminar flattened (UF), unilaminar flatto-cuboidal (UFC) and unilaminar cuboidal (UC) ovarian follicles when the oocyte was surrounded by 1 layer of flattened, a mixture of flattened and cuboidal and entirely cuboidal follicle cells, respectively. Our findings suggested that oocytes within each of these follicle categories were in different developmental stages. Furthermore, electron microscopic observations revealed that early after birth, oocyte nuclei characteristic of diplotene configuration (aggregation of the nuclear chromatin into moderately electron-dense small patches and fibrillo-granular texture of the nucleolus) were encountered in 41% of the UF follicles. The rest of the UF as well as all of the UFC and UC follicles were found to contain dictyate oocytes in which the chromatin was highly decondensed and the nucleolus differentiated into fibrillar, fibrillo-granular and granular components. The present results also indicated that the complete transition of the surrounding follicle cells from flattened to cuboidal shape and the morphological changes of the oocyte endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria were 2 complementary events essential for initiation of oocyte growth

  18. Growth rate of dislocation loop in Fe-Ni-Cr alloy under Kr+ ion and electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimoto, T.; Allen, C.W.; Rehn, L.E.

    1991-10-01

    In order to examine the effect of irradiating particle species on the growth rate of radiation-induced dislocation loops, a solution-annealed Fe-25Ni-15Cr-0.02C alloy was irradiated at 723 K first by 1.5 MeV Kr + ions for 2520 sec, then by 1.5 MeV Kr + ions and 1.0 MeV electrons simultaneously for 780 sec, and finally by 1.0 MeV electrons for 780 sec with the HVEM-Tandem Facility in Argonne National Laboratory. The calculated damage rate by 1.5 MeV Kr + ions was 5.8 x 10 -4 dpa/s, and that by 1.0 MeV electrons was 1 x 10 -4 dpa/s. The growth rate of a dislocation loop located at the center of the specimen was 7 x 10 -3 nm/s for the Kr + ion irradiation, 4 x 10 -2 nm/s for the simultaneous Kr + and electron irradiation, and (2--3) x 10 -2 nm/s for the electron irradiation. This implies that the electron irradiation is about 19 times more effective in the growth of radiation-induced dislocation loops than the Kr + ion irradiation. The dislocation loop growth rate under the simultaneous Kr + and electron irradiation is higher than the sum of the growth rates under the individual Kr + and electron irradiations. 5 refs., 4 figs

  19. Growth and decay of runaway electrons above the critical electric field under quiescent conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz-Soldan, C.; Eidietis, N. W.; Wesley, J. C.; Granetz, R.; Hollmann, E. M.; Moyer, R. A.; Zhang, J.; Crocker, N. A.; Austin, M. E.; Wingen, A.; Zhu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Extremely low density operation free of error field penetration supports the excitation of trace-level quiescent runaway electron (RE) populations during the flat-top of DIII-D Ohmic discharges. Operation in the quiescent regime allows accurate measurement of all key parameters important to RE excitation, including the internal broadband magnetic fluctuation level. RE onset is characterized and found to be consistent with primary (Dreicer) generation rates. Impurity-free collisional suppression of the RE population is investigated by stepping the late-time main-ion density, until RE decay is observed. The transition from growth to decay is found to occur 3–5 times above the theoretical critical electric field for avalanche growth and is thus indicative of anomalous RE loss. This suggests that suppression of tokamak RE avalanches can be achieved at lower density than previously expected, though extrapolation requires predictive understanding of the RE loss mechanism and magnitude

  20. Integrating nanotubes into microsystems with electron beam lithography and in situ catalytically activated growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerde, Kjetil; Fornés-Mora, Marc; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    Integration of freestanding wire-like structures such as multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) into microsystems has many potential applications. Devices such as AFM tips or improved electrodes for conductivity measurements are obvious candidates. Catalytically activated growth opens up the possi......Integration of freestanding wire-like structures such as multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) into microsystems has many potential applications. Devices such as AFM tips or improved electrodes for conductivity measurements are obvious candidates. Catalytically activated growth opens up...... the possibility of waferscale fabrication of such devices. We combine conventional microfabrication techniques with state of the art electron beam lithography (EBL) to precisely position catalyst nanoparticles with sub 100 nm diameter into the microsystems. In particular, we have explored two main approaches...

  1. Onset temperature for Si nanostructure growth on Si substrate during high vacuum electron beam annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, F; Markwitz, A

    2009-05-01

    Silicon nanostructures, called Si nanowhiskers, are successfully synthesized on Si(100) substrate by high vacuum electron beam annealing. The onset temperature and duration needed for the Si nanowhiskers to grow was investigated. It was found that the onset and growth morphology of Si nanowhiskers strongly depend on the annealing temperature and duration applied in the annealing cycle. The onset temperature for nanowhisker growth was determined as 680 degrees C using an annealing duration of 90 min and temperature ramps of +5 degrees C s(-1) for heating and -100 degrees C s(-1) for cooling. Decreasing the annealing time at peak temperature to 5 min required an increase in peak temperature to 800 degrees C to initiate the nanowhisker growth. At 900 degrees C the duration for annealing at peak temperature can be set to 0 s to grow silicon nanowhiskers. A correlation was found between the variation in annealing temperature and duration and the nanowhisker height and density. Annealing at 900 degrees C for 0 s, only 2-3 nanowhiskers (average height 2.4 nm) grow on a surface area of 5 x 5 microm, whereas more than 500 nanowhiskers with an important average height of 4.6 nm for field emission applications grow on the same surface area for a sample annealed at 970 degrees C for 0 s. Selected results are presented showing the possibility of controlling the density and height of Si nanowhisker growth for field emission applications by applying different annealing temperature and duration.

  2. Growth optimization and electronic structure of ultrathin CoO films on Ag(001): A LEED and photoemission study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sukanta; Menon, Krishnakumar S. R.

    2018-04-01

    We present here a detailed growth optimization of CoO thin film on Ag(001) involving the effects of different growth parameters on the electronic structure. A well-ordered stoichiometric growth of 5 ML CoO film has been observed at 473 K substrate temperature and 1 × 10-6 mbar oxygen partial pressure. The growth at lower substrate temperature and oxygen partial pressure show non-stoichiometric impurity phases which have been investigated further to correlate the growth parameters with surface electronic structure. The coverage dependent valence band electronic structure of the films grown at optimized condition reveals the presence of interfacial states near the Fermi edge (EF) for lower film coverages. Presence of interfacial states in the stoichiometric films rules out their defect-induced origin. We argue that this is an intrinsic feature of transition metal monoxides like NiO, CoO, MnO in the low coverage regime.

  3. Growth of ZnO layers for transparent and flexible electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mofor, A.C.; Bakin, A.S.; Postels, B.; Suleiman, M.; Elshaer, A.; Waag, A.

    2008-01-01

    We have deposited and characterised ZnO on flexible and transparent plastic polymer. We employed a specially designed vapour phase growth system with elemental sources for zinc and oxygen and deposited thin ZnO films at temperatures below 400 deg. C. Basic photoluminescence characterisation confirms ZnO. Ohmic contacts were fabricated on these layers and the layers exhibit significantly high electron concentration with carrier mobility μ of up to 10.78 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . Furthermore, we show how these layers can be processed with conventional device processing techniques

  4. Growth of ZnO layers for transparent and flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mofor, A.C.; Bakin, A.S.; Postels, B.; Suleiman, M.; Elshaer, A.; Waag, A. [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Str. 66, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    We have deposited and characterised ZnO on flexible and transparent plastic polymer. We employed a specially designed vapour phase growth system with elemental sources for zinc and oxygen and deposited thin ZnO films at temperatures below 400 deg. C. Basic photoluminescence characterisation confirms ZnO. Ohmic contacts were fabricated on these layers and the layers exhibit significantly high electron concentration with carrier mobility {mu} of up to 10.78 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Furthermore, we show how these layers can be processed with conventional device processing techniques.

  5. Influence of electron beam irradiation on growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi and its control in substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MigdaŁ, Wojciech; Orlikowski, Leszek B.; Ptaszek, Magdalena; Gryczka, Urszula

    2012-01-01

    Very extensive production procedure, especially in plants growing under covering, require methods, which would allow quick elimination or substantial reduction of populations of specific pathogens without affecting the growth and development of the cultivated plants. Among soil-borne pathogens, the Phytophthora species are especially dangerous for horticultural plants. In this study, irradiation with electron beam was applied to control Phytophthora cinnamomi. The influence of irradiation dose on the reduction of in vitro growth and the population density of the pathogen in treated peat and its mixture with composted pine bark (1:1), as well as the health of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana and Lavandula angustifolia plants were evaluated. Application of irradiation at a dose of 1.5 kGy completely inhibited the in vitro development of P. cinnamomi. This irradiation effect was connected with the disintegration of the hyphae and spores of the species. Irradiation of peat and its mixture with composted pine bark with 10 kGy resulted in the inhibition of stem base rot development in Ch. lawsoniana. Symptoms of the disease were not observed when the substrates were treated with 15 kGy. In the case of L. angustifolia, stem root rot was not observed on cuttings transplanted to infected peat irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy. Irradiation of the horticultural substrates did not affect plant growth. - Highlights: ► Electron beam irradiation is effective against soil-borne pathogens. ► Application of irradiation at dose 1.5 kGy completely inhibited in vitro development of Phytophthora cinnamomi. ► Irradiation of horticultural substrata did not influence the growth of plants.

  6. Growth and electronic properties of two-dimensional systems on (110) oriented GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, F.

    2005-07-01

    As the only non-polar plane the (110) surface has a unique role in GaAs. Together with Silicon as a dopant it is an important substrate orientation for the growth of n-type or p-type heterostructures. As a consequence, this thesis will concentrate on growth and research on that surface. In the course of this work we were able to realize two-dimensional electron systems with the highest mobilities reported so far on this orientation. Therefore, we review the necessary growth conditions and the accompanying molecular process. The two-dimensional electron systems allowed the study of a new, intriguing transport anisotropy not explained by current theory. Moreover, we were the first growing a two-dimensional hole gas on (110) GaAs with Si as dopant. For this purpose we invented a new growth modulation technique necessary to retrieve high mobility systems. In addition, we discovered and studied the metal-insulator transition in thin bulk p-type layers on (110) GaAs. Besides we investigated the activation process related to the conduction in the valence band and a parallelly conducting hopping band. The new two-dimensional hole gases revealed interesting physics. We studied the zero B-field spin splitting in these systems and compared it with the known theory. Furthermore, we investigated the anisotropy of the mobility. As opposed to the expectations we observed a strong persistent photoconductivity in our samples. Landau levels for two dimensional hole systems are non-linear and can show anticrossings. For the first time we were able to resolve anticrossings in a transport experiment and study the corresponding activation process. Finally, we compared these striking results with theoretical calculations. (orig.)

  7. Doses de boro e crescimento radicular e da parte aérea de cultivares de arroz de terras altas Influence of boron addition on growth of roots and shoot of upland rice crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Corulli Corrêa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento radicular é favorecido em condições adequadas de disponibilidade de boro no solo e, por isto, a aplicação da dose correta desse micronutriente é de grande importância, para que não ocorra prejuízo no desenvolvimento e na produtividade da cultura de arroz de terras altas, de acordo com a variedade e tipo de solo. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência das doses de boro no crescimento radicular e da parte aérea, em três cultivares de arroz de terras altas. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, em vaso com capacidade de 10 L, que continha 8 dm³ de solo Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, sendo o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 3, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de três cultivares (Caiapó, Primavera e Maravilha e três doses de boro (0, 3 e 6 mg dm-3, usando, como fonte, o bórax. A dose de 6 mg dm-3 foi prejudicial tanto à produção de matéria seca da parte aérea como de raiz para o arroz de terras altas. Além de apresentar maior capacidade de absorção de boro, o cultivar Maravilha apresentou-se mais tolerante à elevação da disponibilidade de B no solo, não ocorrendo alterações de comprimento, diâmetro e superfície radicular.Appropriate boron (B availability in soils favors root growth, and a sufficient supply of this micronutrient is very important for adequate rice development and yield in upland fields, depending on the cultivars and soil type. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of B addition on growth of roots and shoot of three upland rice cultivars. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in 10 L pots containing 8 kg of an Hapludox; the experiment was in a completely random 3 x 3 factorial design, with four replications. The treatments consisted of three rice cultivars (Caiapó, Primavera, and Maravilha and three B rates (0, 3 and 6 mg dm-3, as borax. The B rate of 6 mg dm-3 boron was

  8. Rice Hulls as a Renewable Complex Material Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Glushankova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of rice grain processing, a big amount of waste (up to 20% is produced. It is mainly rice hulls. The main components of rice hulls are cellulose, lignin and mineral ash. The mineral ash quantity in rice hulls varies from 15 up to 20%, by weight of the rice hulls. The mineral ash consists of amorphous silica (opal-type. Due to the high content of silica in rice hulls, the material burns with difficulty under natural conditions, and it is biodegradably destroyed only with difficulty, when composted. Utilization of rice hulls then becomes an ecological problem due to huge rice production and its continuous growth. At the same time, the annual quantity of silica content in rice hulls is comparable with the quantity of amorphous silica produced as a mineral resource. The issue of manufacturing cellular glass silica construction materials from rice hulls as a renewable resource is discussed in this paper. The utilization technology is based on an amorphous silicon oxide with the use of energy from the combustion of the organic component of rice hulls.

  9. Glufosinate herbicide-tolerant (LibertyLink) rice vs. conventional rice in diets for growing-finishing swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, G L; Henry, B J; Scott, A L; Gerngross, M F; Dusek, D L; Fletcher, D W

    2005-05-01

    Genetically modified (GM) rice (LibertyLink, event LLRICE62) that is tolerant to glufosinate ammonium (Liberty) herbicide was compared with a near-isogenic (NI) conventional medium-grain brown rice (cultivar, Bengal) and a commercially milled long-grain brown rice in diets for growing-finishing pigs. The GM and NI rice were grown in 2000. The GM rice was from fields treated (GM+) or not treated (GM-) with glufosinate herbicide. The GM- and NI rice were grown using herbicide regimens typical of southern United States rice production practices. The four rice grains were similar in composition. Growing-finishing pigs (n = 96) were fed fortified rice-soybean meal diets containing the four different rice grains from 25 to 106 kg BW. Diets contained 0.99% lysine initially (growing phase), with lysine decreased to 0.80% (early finishing phase) and 0.65% (late finishing phase), when pigs reached 51 and 77 kg, respectively. The percentage of rice in the four diets was constant during each of the three phases (72.8, 80.0, and 85.8% for the growing, early-finishing, and late-finishing phases, respectively). There were six pen replicates (three pens of barrows and three pens of gilts) and four pigs per pen for each dietary treatment. All pigs were slaughtered at the termination of the study to collect carcass data. At the end of the 98-d experiment, BW gain, feed intake (as-fed basis), and feed:gain ratio did not differ (P > 0.05) for pigs fed the GM+ vs. conventional rice diets, but growth performance traits of pigs fed the GM+ rice diets were superior (P glufosinate herbicide-tolerant rice was similar in composition and nutritional value to conventional rice for growing-finishing pigs.

  10. Facile synthesis of high-temperature (1000 °C) phase-stable rice-like anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Lizhen [Capital Normal University, Beijing Key Laboratory for Optical Materials and Photonic Devices, Department of Chemistry (China); Chen, Qirong [Beijing Center for Physical and Chemical Analysis (BCPCA) (China); Liu, Xiuyun; Wang, Miaomiao; Meng, Xiangfu, E-mail: xfmeng@cnu.edu.cn [Capital Normal University, Beijing Key Laboratory for Optical Materials and Photonic Devices, Department of Chemistry (China)

    2015-05-15

    High-temperature phase-stable rice-like anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals were synthesized by one-pot solvothermal method using soluble titania xerogel and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) as the precursor and the solvent, respectively. Sample characterization was carried out by powder X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms. The results showed that TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals had rice-like shapes with an average size of 5 nm in width and 35 nm in length. The BET surface area was 153 m{sup 2}/g. Unexpectedly, the rice-like TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals exhibited high-temperature phase stability, which could remain as pure anatase phase after calcinations at 1000 °C. Growth mechanism investigation revealed that the IPA solvent played a key role in nucleation and growth of rice-like anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals. The photodegradation of rhodamine B demonstrated that rice-like anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation.

  11. Facile synthesis of high-temperature (1000 °C) phase-stable rice-like anatase TiO2 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Lizhen; Chen, Qirong; Liu, Xiuyun; Wang, Miaomiao; Meng, Xiangfu

    2015-05-01

    High-temperature phase-stable rice-like anatase TiO2 nanocrystals were synthesized by one-pot solvothermal method using soluble titania xerogel and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) as the precursor and the solvent, respectively. Sample characterization was carried out by powder X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The results showed that TiO2 nanocrystals had rice-like shapes with an average size of 5 nm in width and 35 nm in length. The BET surface area was 153 m2/g. Unexpectedly, the rice-like TiO2 nanocrystals exhibited high-temperature phase stability, which could remain as pure anatase phase after calcinations at 1000 °C. Growth mechanism investigation revealed that the IPA solvent played a key role in nucleation and growth of rice-like anatase TiO2 nanocrystals. The photodegradation of rhodamine B demonstrated that rice-like anatase TiO2 nanocrystals exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation.

  12. Effect of chemically processed bonemeal in comparison to other phosphatic sources on plant growth - [Part]1 : rice wheat rotation in an alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vimal, O.P.; Ramasami, S.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of chemically processed bonemeal was studied in comparison to other phosphatic sources viz., superphosphate, steamed bonemeal and raw bonemeal at the rate of 60 and 120 kg P 2 O 5 /ha on rice in alluvial soil. The residual effect was studied with wheat using 32 P as a tracer. The results showed that in the first crop (rice), superphosphate at the rate of 120 kg/ha had a significant effect both on dry matter yield and nutrient uptake. In the second crop (wheat), chemically processed bonemeal at the rate of 120 kg/ha showed a marked positive effect on yield, total P uptake and 'A' values. The effects of steamed bonemeal and raw bonemeal were significantly lower compared to above effects. (author)

  13. Labelling of rice seedlings and rice plants with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Nasroh, K.

    1989-01-01

    Labelling of rice seedlings and rice plants with 32 P. Labelled rice seedlings can be used to tag insect pests that feed on. Radioactivity counting of 32 P in the endosperm and in the shoot of rice seeds that soaked for 72 hours in KH 2 32 PO 4 solution of 1 μCi/ml were 29,300 and 9,500 cpm respectively. When these labelled seedlings were grown in unlabelled medium the radioactivity in the shoot increased. It was due to the 32 P that was translocated to the shoot from the endosperm. The 32 P translocation reached maximum about one week after the seedling were grown in the unlabelled medium. Labelled seedlings could also be produced by growing 5, 10 and 15 days old seedlings hydroponically in Kimura B solution containing 32 P. Ten days after growing, the radioactivity concentration of the seedlings stem reached about 115,000; 85,000 and 170,000 cpm/mg dry weight for the 5, 10 and 15 days old seedlings respectively. For the implementation of this method, 20 ml labelled Kimura B was needed for labelling of one seedling. The seedlings should be prepared in tap water. During the growth the 32 P in the labelled seedlings was distributed throughout the plant, so that new leaves and tillers became also radioactive. (author). 5 refs

  14. Diversity and population dynamics of pests and predators in irrigated rice fields with treated and untreated pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanapun, W

    2012-01-01

    The monitoring of rice pests and their predators in pesticide untreated and treated rice fields was conducted at the southern of Thailand. Twenty-two species in 15 families and 6 orders of rice pests were sampled from untreated rice field. For treated rice field, 22 species in 14 families and 5 orders of rice pest were collected. Regardless of treatment type, dominant species and individual number of rice pest varied to physiological stage of rice. Lepidopteran pests had highest infestation during the vegetative stage of rice growth, while hemipteran pests composed of hopper species (Hemipetra: Auchenorrhyncha) and heteropteran species (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) were dominant groups during the reproductive stage and grain formation and ripening stage of rice growth. In contrast, dominant species of predator did not change throughout rice growing season. There were 35 species in 25 families and seven orders and 40 species in 29 families and seven orders of predators collected from untreated and treated rice field, respectively. Major predators of both rice fields were Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Tetragnatha sp. (Araneae: Tetragnathidae) and Agriocnemis pygmaea Rambur (Odonata: Agrionidae). The population dynamic of predators were not related with rice pest population in both treatments. However, the fluctuation of population pattern of rice pests in the untreated treatment were more distinctly synchronized with their predators than that of the treated treatment. There were no significant differences in the total number of rice pest and predator between two treatments at vegetative and reproductive stages of rice growth. Untreated rice field had a higher population number of predator and a lower population number of rice pest than that of treated rice field during grain formation and ripening stages. These results indicated the ago-ecosystem balance in rice fields could be produced through minimal pesticide application, in order to allow

  15. Theoretical studies of growth processes and electronic properties of nanostructures on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yina

    Low dimensional nanostructures have been of particular interest because of their potential applications in both theoretical studies and industrial use. Although great efforts have been put into obtaining better understanding of the formation and properties of these materials, many questions still remain unanswered. This thesis work has focused on theoretical studies of (1) the growth processes of magnetic nanowires on transition-metal surfaces, (2) the dynamics of pentacene thin-film growth and island structures on inert surfaces, and (3) our proposal of a new type of semiconducting nanotube. In the first study, we elucidated a novel and intriguing kinetic pathway for the formation of Fe nanowires on the upper edge of a monatomic-layer-high step on Cu(111) using first-principles calculations. The identification of a hidden fundamental Fe basal line within the Cu steps prior to the formation of the apparent upper step edge Fe wire produces a totally different view of step-decorating wire structures and offers new possibilities for the study of the properties of these wires. Subsequent experiments with scanning tunneling microscopy unambiguously established the essential role of embedded Fe atoms as precursors to monatomic wire growth. A more general study of adatom behavior near transition-metal step edges illustrated a systematic trend in the adatom energetics and kinetics, resulted from the electronic interactions between the adatom and the surfaces. This work opens the possibility of controlled manufacturing of one-dimensional nanowires. In the second study, we investigated pentacene thin-films on H-diamond, H-silica and OH-silica surfaces via force field molecular dynamics simulations. Pentacene island structures on these surfaces were identified and found to have a 90-degree rotation relative to the structure proposed by some experimental groups. Our work may facilitate the design and control of experimental pentacene thin-film growth, and thus the development

  16. Germination, growth rates, and electron microscope analysis of tomato seeds flown on the LDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Bridgers, Kevin; Brown, Cecelia Wright

    1995-01-01

    The tomato seeds were flown in orbit aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for nearly six years. During this time, the tomato seeds received an abundant exposure to cosmic radiation and solar wind. Upon the return of the LDEF to earth, the seeds were distributed throughout the United States and 30 foreign countries for analysis. The purpose of the experiment was to determine the long term effect of cosmic rays on living tissue. Our university analysis included germination and growth rates as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray analysis of the control as well as Space-exposed tomato seeds. In analyzing the seeds under the Electron Microscope, usual observations were performed on the nutritional and epidermis layer of the seed. These layers appeared to be more porous in the Space-exposed seeds than on the Earth-based control seeds. This unusual characteristic may explain the increases in the space seeds growth pattern. (Several test results show that the Space-exposed seeds germinate sooner than the Earth-Based seeds. Also, the Space-exposed seeds grew at a faster rate). The porous nutritional region may allow the seeds to receive necessary nutrients and liquids more readily, thus enabling the plant to grow at a faster rate. Roots, leaves and stems were cut into small sections and mounted. After sputter coating the specimens with Argon/Gold Palladium Plasma, they were ready to be viewed under the Electron Microscope. Many micrographs were taken. The X-ray analysis displayed possible identifications of calcium, potassium, chlorine, copper, aluminum, silicon, phosphate, carbon, and sometimes sulfur and iron. The highest concentrations were shown in potassium and calcium. The Space-exposed specimens displayed a high concentration of copper and calcium in the two specimens. There was a significantly high concentration of copper in the Earth-based specimens, whereas there was no copper in the Space-exposed specimens.

  17. Influence of electron beam irradiation on growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi and its control in substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    MigdaŁ, Wojciech; Orlikowski, Leszek B.; Ptaszek, Magdalena; Gryczka, Urszula

    2012-08-01

    Very extensive production procedure, especially in plants growing under covering, require methods, which would allow quick elimination or substantial reduction of populations of specific pathogens without affecting the growth and development of the cultivated plants. Among soil-borne pathogens, the Phytophthora species are especially dangerous for horticultural plants. In this study, irradiation with electron beam was applied to control Phytophthora cinnamomi. The influence of irradiation dose on the reduction of in vitro growth and the population density of the pathogen in treated peat and its mixture with composted pine bark (1:1), as well as the health of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana and Lavandula angustifolia plants were evaluated. Application of irradiation at a dose of 1.5 kGy completely inhibited the in vitro development of P. cinnamomi. This irradiation effect was connected with the disintegration of the hyphae and spores of the species. Irradiation of peat and its mixture with composted pine bark with 10 kGy resulted in the inhibition of stem base rot development in Ch. lawsoniana. Symptoms of the disease were not observed when the substrates were treated with 15 kGy. In the case of L. angustifolia, stem root rot was not observed on cuttings transplanted to infected peat irradiated at a dose of 10 kGy. Irradiation of the horticultural substrates did not affect plant growth.

  18. Causes of variation among rice models in yield response to CO2 examined with Free-Air CO2 Enrichment and growth chamber experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Li, Tao; Yin, Xinyou; Zhu, Yan; Boote, Kenneth; Baker, Jeffrey; Bregaglio, Simone; Buis, Samuel; Confalonieri, Roberto; Fugice, Job; Fumoto, Tamon; Gaydon, Donald; Kumar, Soora Naresh; Lafarge, Tanguy; Marcaida Iii, Manuel; Masutomi, Yuji; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Oriol, Philippe; Ruget, Françoise; Singh, Upendra; Tang, Liang; Tao, Fulu; Wakatsuki, Hitomi; Wallach, Daniel; Wang, Yulong; Wilson, Lloyd Ted; Yang, Lianxin; Yang, Yubin; Yoshida, Hiroe; Zhang, Zhao; Zhu, Jianguo

    2017-11-01

    The CO 2 fertilization effect is a major source of uncertainty in crop models for future yield forecasts, but coordinated efforts to determine the mechanisms of this uncertainty have been lacking. Here, we studied causes of uncertainty among 16 crop models in predicting rice yield in response to elevated [CO 2 ] (E-[CO 2 ]) by comparison to free-air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) and chamber experiments. The model ensemble reproduced the experimental results well. However, yield prediction in response to E-[CO 2 ] varied significantly among the rice models. The variation was not random: models that overestimated at one experiment simulated greater yield enhancements at the others. The variation was not associated with model structure or magnitude of photosynthetic response to E-[CO 2 ] but was significantly associated with the predictions of leaf area. This suggests that modelled secondary effects of E-[CO 2 ] on morphological development, primarily leaf area, are the sources of model uncertainty. Rice morphological development is conservative to carbon acquisition. Uncertainty will be reduced by incorporating this conservative nature of the morphological response to E-[CO 2 ] into the models. Nitrogen levels, particularly under limited situations, make the prediction more uncertain. Improving models to account for [CO 2 ] × N interactions is necessary to better evaluate management practices under climate change.

  19. Effect of Alfvén waves on the growth rate of the electron-cyclotron maser emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, D. J., E-mail: djwu@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-06-15

    By using the non-relativistic approximation for the calculation of growth rates, but taking account of the weakly relativistic modification for the electron-cyclotron resonance condition, it is shown that the effect of Alfvén waves (AWs) on the electron-cyclotron maser emission leads to the significant increase of the O-mode growth rate, but has little effect on the X-mode growth rate. We propose that this is because the O-mode wave has the field-aligned polarization sense in the same as the field-aligned oscillatory current, which is created by the field-aligned oscillatory motion of the energetic electrons caused via the presence of AWs. It is this field-aligned oscillatory current that contributes a novel growth rate to the O-mode wave but has little effect on the X-mode wave.

  20. Emittance growth due to static and radiative space charge forces in an electron bunch compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, Richard; Malitsky, Nikolay; Stulle, Frank

    2009-01-01

    -21, MOCOS05, available at http://www.JACoW.org], a code with similar capabilities. For this comparison an appropriately new, 50 MeV, “standard chicane” is introduced. Unlike CSRTrack (which neglects vertical forces) the present simulation shows substantial growth of vertical emittance. But “turning off” vertical forces in the UAL code (to match the CSRTrack treatment) brings the two codes into excellent agreement. (iii) Results are also obtained for 5 GeV electrons passing through a previously introduced “standard chicane” [Coherent Synchrotron Radiation, CSR Workshop, Berlin 2002, http://www.desy.de/csr] [of the sort needed for linear colliders and free electron lasers (FEL’s) currently under design or construction]. Relatively little emittance growth is predicted for typical bunch parameters at such high electron energy. Results are obtained for both round beams and ribbon beams (like those actually needed in practice). Little or no excess emittance growth is found for ribbon bunches compared to round bunches of the same charge and bunch width. The UAL string space charge formulation (like TraFic4 and CSRTrack) avoids the regularization step (subtracting the free-space space charge force) which is required (to remove divergence) in some methods. Also, by avoiding the need to calculate a retarded-time, four-dimensional field history, the computation time needed for realistic bunch evolution calculations is modest. Some theories of bunch dilution, because they ascribe emittance growth entirely to CSR, break down at low energy. In the present treatment, as well as CSR, all free-space Coulomb and magnetic space charge forces (but not image forces), and also the centrifugal space charge force (CSCF) are included. Charge-dependent beam steering due to CSCF, as observed recently by Beutner et al. [B. Beutner , in Proceedings of FEL Conference, BESSY, Berlin, Germany, 2006, MOPPH009], is also investigated.

  1. Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-Wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-Hua; Jiang, Ming-Xing; Cheng, Jia-An

    2008-07-01

    The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice.

  2. Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-hua; Jiang, Ming-xing; Cheng, Jia-an

    2008-01-01

    The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice. PMID:18600788

  3. Chemometric classification of pigmented rice varieties based on antioxidative properties in relation to color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaiwan Pramai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The pigmented Thai rice varieties including red and black color and non-pigmented rice (white collected from different growth sites in the north of Thailand and were determined for color and antioxidant properties. Anthocyanins were the major compound in group of black rice (21.15-441.96 mg/100 g rice. Total phenolic, flavonoid, and -tocopherol contents were highest in the black rice followed by red rice and antioxidant capacities were predominant in pigmented varieties. Black rice grown in mountainous area presented the highest antioxidant activity compared to the other growing locations. The color parameters, especially L* value presented the negative correlations with antioxidant parameters, while the antioxidant contents, excepted -oryzanol content had significant correlation with antioxidant capacities. Pigmented rice varieties could be clearly classified into 4 groups using PCA and HCA, which provided a good indicator to classify pigmented rice varieties based on color and antioxidative properties.

  4. Effects of Rice Bran, Flax Seed, and Sunflower Seed on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Fatty Acid Composition, Free Amino Acid and Peptide Contents, and Sensory Evaluations of Native Korean Cattle (Hanwoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Bon Choi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with rice bran, flax seed, or sunflower seed to finishing native Korean cattle (Hanwoo on growth performances, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, free amino acid and peptide contents, and sensory evaluations of Longissimus muscle (LM. A total of 39 Hanwoo steers (average age of 22.2 mo and average body weight (BW of 552.2 kg were randomly divided into Control, rice bran (RB, flax seed (FS, or Sunflower seed (SS groups. The steers were group fed for 273 d until they reached an average age of 31.2 mo. Final BW was 768.2, 785.8, 786.2, and 789.0 kg, and average daily gain was 0.79, 0.85, 0.82, and 0.84 kg for the Control, RS, FS, and SS groups, respectively (p>0.05. Fat thickness of the FS group (19.8 mm was greater (p0.05 scores for flavor, umami, and overall palatability in sensory evaluations. In conclusion, supplementation of flax seed to diets of finishing Hanwoo steers improved sensory evaluations which might have been caused by increases in flavor related amino acids such as methionine, glutamic acid and α-AAA and peptides, anserine and carnosine, and their complex reactions.

  5. Reproducible and expedient rice regeneration system using in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inevitable prerequisite for expedient regeneration in rice is the selection of totipotent explant and developing an apposite combination of growth hormones. Here, we reported a reproducible regeneration protocol in which basal segments of the stem of the in vitro grown rice plants were used as ex-plant. Using the protocol ...

  6. Antifungal activity of rice straw extract on some phytopathogenic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifungal activity of allelochemicals extracted from rice straw on the radial growth rate and the activity of some hydrolyzing enzymes of Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata and Botrytis cinerea were studied in vitro. Five different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%, w/v) of water, methanol and acetone extracts of rice ...

  7. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp

  8. Study on rice absorption and distribution of Cd in applying Zn fertilizer with 65Zn, 115Cdm tracing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Nianxin; Shen Jinxiong

    1994-01-01

    Results of study by using 65 Zn and 115 Cd m tracers show that, along with the increase of the amount of Cd in applying Zn fertilizer to soil, rice has the phenomena of growth retard and tiller delay in the earlier growing stage. The inhibiting phenomenon is lightened along with the progress of rice growth. Very small quantity of Cd might be helpful to the growth of rice. It would cause serious inhibition to rice growth when the amount of Cd reaches to a definite limitation (64 x 10 -6 ). The distribution of Cd in a rice plant follows the following order in content: root>stem and leaves>brown rice>ear stalk>rice shell. Cd is mainly accumulated in rice root, taking 90% of the total amount of Cd contained in whole rice plant. The amount of Cd absorbed by rice increases with the amount of Cd applied to soil, though the total absorption extremely low, for example, only about 0.1% of the applied amount could be absorbed by two crops of rice, most of the applied Cd still retains in soil. Less and less Zn could be absorbed and utilized by rice along with the increase of the amount of the applied Cd. Application of Mn fertilizer affects negatively the absorption of Cd by rice, especially in brown rice

  9. Electron and photon-beam induced reactions of adsorbed disilane: Low-temperature thin-film growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozso, F.; Avouris, Ph.

    1991-01-01

    Electrons and photons of sufficient energy can cause fragmentation and desorption of adsorbed molecules or fragments of them, by inducing electronic excitations to dissociative states. The surface species after such excitations are mostly of highly reactive radical character, which readily react with the substrate and with other molecular or radical species in the adsorbed layer. This paper discusses the adsorption, thermal and electron/photon-beam induced reactions of disilane, oxygen and ammonia on Si(111)-7x7, and the electron/photon-induced growth of silicon, silicon dioxide and silicon nitride films at 100K

  10. Emittance growth caused by bends in the Los Alamos free-electron laser energy recovery experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    Experimentally transporting the beam from the wiggler to the decelerators in the energy recovery experiment (ERX) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory free-electron laser was more difficult than expected because of the large initial emittance in the beam. This emittance was apparently caused in an early 60 0 achromatic bend. To get this beam through subsequent bends without wall interception, the quadrupole focusing had to be changed from the design amount; as a result, the emittance grew further. This paper discusses various mechanisms for this emittance growth in the 60 0 bend, including effects caused by path changes in the bend resulting from wake-field-induced energy changes of particles in the beam and examines emittance filters, ranging from a simple aperture near a beam crossover to more complicated telescope schemes designed to regain the original emittance before the 60 0 bend

  11. Acetylated starch of Ofada rice as a sustained polymer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To formulate and evaluate repaglinide microspheres using acetylated starch of the indigenous rice species Oryza glaberrima Steud (Ofada) as polymer. Materials and Methods: Ofada rice starch was acetylated with acetic anhydride in pyridine (DS 2.68) and characterized for morphology (Scanning electron ...

  12. Understanding the formation and growth of Ag nanoparticles on silver chromate induced by electron irradiation in electron microscope: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbro, Maria T.; Gracia, Lourdes; Silva, Gabriela S.; Santos, Luís P.S.; Andrés, Juan; Cordoncillo, Eloisa; Longo, E.

    2016-01-01

    Ag 2 CrO 4 microcrystals were synthesized using the co-precipitation method. These microcrystals were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) with Rietveld analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), micro-Raman (MR). XRD patterns and Rietveld refinement data showed that the material exhibits an orthorhombic structure without any deleterious phases. FE-SEM and TEM micrographs revealed the morphology and the growth of Ag nanoparticles on Ag 2 CrO 4 microcrystals during electron beam irradiation. These events were directly monitored in real-time. Their optical properties were investigated using ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy that allowed the calculation of the optical band gap energy. Theoretical analyses based on the density functional theory level indicate that the incorporation of electrons is responsible for structural modifications and formation of defects on the [AgO 6 ] and [AgO 4 ] clusters, generating ideal conditions for the growth of Ag nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: Theoretical representation of the Ag 2 CrO 4 orthorhombic structure. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The Ag 2 CrO 4 microcrystals indicate an orthorhombic structure. • The formation of Ag 0 promotes Ag-nanoparticle growth on the surface of the Ag 2 CrO 4 . • Electron irradiation of the material induces the formation of Ag vacancies.

  13. De-mercurization of wastewater by Bacillus cereus (JUBT1): Growth kinetics, biofilm reactor study and field emission scanning electron microscopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoshal, Sanjukta; Bhattacharya, Pinaki; Chowdhury, Ranjana

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The assembly of biofilm reactor, based on attached growth of Bacillus cereus (JUBT1) on rice husk packing, and an activated carbon filter has been able to ensure the removal of mercury up to near-zero level. Highlights: → A new mercury resistant bacterial strain, Bacillus cereus (JUBT1), has been isolated. → Growth kinetics has been determined. → Biofilm reactor using attached growth of bacteria ensures near-zero level of mercury. → Confinement of mercury is confirmed through energy dispersive spectrometric analysis. - Abstract: Removal of mercuric ions by a mercury resistant bacteria, called Bacillus cereus (JUBT1), isolated from the sludge of a local chlor-alkali industry, has been investigated. Growth kinetics of the bacteria have been determined. A multiplicative, non-competitive relationship between sucrose and mercury ions has been observed with respect to bacterial growth. A combination of biofilm reactor, using attached growth of Bacillus cereus (JUBT1) on rice husk packing, and an activated carbon filter has been able to ensure the removal of mercury up to near-zero level. Energy dispersive spectrometry analysis of biofilm and the activated carbon has proved the transformation of Hg 2+ to Hg 0 and its confinement in the system.

  14. Single crystalline electronic structure and growth mechanism of aligned square graphene sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, commercially available copper foil has become an efficient and inexpensive catalytic substrate for scalable growth of large-area graphene films for fundamental research and applications. Interestingly, despite its hexagonal honeycomb lattice, graphene can be grown into large aligned square-shaped sheets on copper foils. Here, by applying angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with submicron spatial resolution (micro-ARPES to study the three-dimensional electronic structures of square graphene sheets grown on copper foils, we verified the high quality of individual square graphene sheets as well as their merged regions (with aligned orientation. Furthermore, by simultaneously measuring the graphene sheets and their substrate copper foil, we not only established the (001 copper surface structure but also discovered that the square graphene sheets’ sides align with the ⟨110⟩ copper direction, suggesting an important role of copper substrate in the growth of square graphene sheets—which will help the development of effective methods to synthesize high-quality large-size regularly shaped graphene sheets for future applications. This work also demonstrates the effectiveness of micro-ARPES in exploring low-dimensional materials down to atomic thickness and sub-micron lateral size (e.g., besides graphene, it can also be applied to transition metal dichalcogenides and various van der Waals heterostructures

  15. In situ studies of oxide nucleation, growth, and transformation using slow electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flege, Jan Ingo; Grinter, David C.

    2018-05-01

    Surface processes such as metal oxidation and metal oxide growth invariably influence the physical and chemical properties of materials and determine their interaction with their surroundings and hence their functionality in many technical applications. On a fundamental level, these processes are found to be governed by a complex interplay of thermodynamic variables and kinetic constraints, resulting in a rich variety of material-specific phenomena. In this review article, we discuss recent results and insights on transition metal oxidation and rare-earth oxide growth acquired by low-energy electron microscopy and related techniques. We demonstrate that the use of in situ surface sensitive methods is a prerequisite to gaining a deeper understanding of the underlying concepts and the mechanisms responsible for the emerging oxide structure and morphology. Furthermore, examples will be provided on how structural and chemical modifications of the oxide films and nanostructures can be followed in real-time and analyzed in terms of local reactivity and cooperative effects relevant for heterogeneous model catalysis.

  16. Single crystalline electronic structure and growth mechanism of aligned square graphene sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H. F.; Chen, C.; Wang, H.; Liu, Z. K.; Zhang, T.; Peng, H.; Schröter, N. B. M.; Ekahana, S. A.; Jiang, J.; Yang, L. X.; Kandyba, V.; Barinov, A.; Chen, C. Y.; Avila, J.; Asensio, M. C.; Peng, H. L.; Liu, Z. F.; Chen, Y. L.

    2018-03-01

    Recently, commercially available copper foil has become an efficient and inexpensive catalytic substrate for scalable growth of large-area graphene films for fundamental research and applications. Interestingly, despite its hexagonal honeycomb lattice, graphene can be grown into large aligned square-shaped sheets on copper foils. Here, by applying angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with submicron spatial resolution (micro-ARPES) to study the three-dimensional electronic structures of square graphene sheets grown on copper foils, we verified the high quality of individual square graphene sheets as well as their merged regions (with aligned orientation). Furthermore, by simultaneously measuring the graphene sheets and their substrate copper foil, we not only established the (001) copper surface structure but also discovered that the square graphene sheets' sides align with the ⟨110⟩ copper direction, suggesting an important role of copper substrate in the growth of square graphene sheets—which will help the development of effective methods to synthesize high-quality large-size regularly shaped graphene sheets for future applications. This work also demonstrates the effectiveness of micro-ARPES in exploring low-dimensional materials down to atomic thickness and sub-micron lateral size (e.g., besides graphene, it can also be applied to transition metal dichalcogenides and various van der Waals heterostructures)

  17. An Electron Microscopy Study of Graphite Growth in Nodular Cast Irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffont, L.; Jday, R.; Lacaze, J.

    2018-04-01

    Growth of graphite during solidification and high-temperature solid-state transformation has been investigated in samples cut out from a thin-wall casting which solidified partly in the stable (iron-graphite) and partly in the metastable (iron-cementite) systems. Transmission electron microscopy has been used to characterize graphite nodules in as-cast state and in samples having been fully graphitized at various temperatures in the austenite field. Nodules in the as-cast material show a twofold structure characterized by an inner zone where graphite is disoriented and an outer zone where it is well crystallized. In heat-treated samples, graphite nodules consist of well-crystallized sectors radiating from the nucleus. These observations suggest that the disoriented zone appears because of mechanical deformation when the liquid contracts during its solidification in the metastable system. During heat-treatment, the graphite in this zone recrystallizes. In turn, it can be concluded that nodular graphite growth mechanism is the same during solidification and solid-state transformation.

  18. Evaluation of Epicoccum nigrum for growth, morphology and production of natural colorants in liquid media and on a solid rice medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Meyer, Anne S.; Thrane, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    in M1 medium (unoptimized) containing 5 g/l yeast autolysate. The color hue of the crude pigment extracts ranged from 74 to 102 exhibiting dark orange to green-yellow color. Pelleted morphology was shown to have a positive influence on the pigment production by E. nigrum strain IBT 41028 in the liquid...... genera preferred rice but E. nigrum produced 4.6 folds higher pigment in the liquid unoptimized fermentation medium compared to M. ruber. Solid phase extraction and subsequently HPLC-DAD analysis of the crude pigment extracts showed qualitative as well as quantitative variation in the pigment composition...

  19. Surviving floods: leaf gas films improve O2 and CO2 exchange, root aeration, and growth of completely submerged rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Rich, Sarah Meghan; Colmer, Timothy David

    2009-01-01

    When completely submerged, the leaves of some species retain a surface gas film. Leaf gas films on submerged plants have recently been termed 'plant plastrons', analogous with the plastrons of aquatic insects. In aquatic insects, surface gas layers (i.e. plastrons) enlarge the gas–water interface...... or when in light, was improved considerably when leaf gas films were present. Thus, leaf gas films contribute to the submergence tolerance of rice, in addition to those traits already recognized, such as the shoot-elongation response, aerenchyma and metabolic adjustments to O2 deficiency and oxidative...... stress....

  20. Scenarios for Demand Growth of Metals in Electricity Generation Technologies, Cars, and Electronic Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This study provides scenarios toward 2050 for the demand of five metals in electricity production, cars, and electronic appliances. The metals considered are copper, tantalum, neodymium, cobalt, and lithium. The study shows how highly technology-specific data on products and material flows can be used in integrated assessment models to assess global resource and metal demand. We use the Shared Socio-economic Pathways as implemented by the IMAGE integrated assessment model as a starting point. This allows us to translate information on the use of electronic appliances, cars, and renewable energy technologies into quantitative data on metal flows, through application of metal content estimates in combination with a dynamic stock model. Results show that total demand for copper, neodymium, and tantalum might increase by a factor of roughly 2 to 3.2, mostly as a result of population and GDP growth. The demand for lithium and cobalt is expected to increase much more, by a factor 10 to more than 20, as a result of future (hybrid) electric car purchases. This means that not just demographics, but also climate policies can strongly increase metal demand. This shows the importance of studying the issues of climate change and resource depletion together, in one modeling framework. PMID:29533657

  1. Scenarios for Demand Growth of Metals in Electricity Generation Technologies, Cars, and Electronic Appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetman, Sebastiaan; Pauliuk, Stefan; van Vuuren, Detlef P; van der Voet, Ester; Tukker, Arnold

    2018-04-17

    This study provides scenarios toward 2050 for the demand of five metals in electricity production, cars, and electronic appliances. The metals considered are copper, tantalum, neodymium, cobalt, and lithium. The study shows how highly technology-specific data on products and material flows can be used in integrated assessment models to assess global resource and metal demand. We use the Shared Socio-economic Pathways as implemented by the IMAGE integrated assessment model as a starting point. This allows us to translate information on the use of electronic appliances, cars, and renewable energy technologies into quantitative data on metal flows, through application of metal content estimates in combination with a dynamic stock model. Results show that total demand for copper, neodymium, and tantalum might increase by a factor of roughly 2 to 3.2, mostly as a result of population and GDP growth. The demand for lithium and cobalt is expected to increase much more, by a factor 10 to more than 20, as a result of future (hybrid) electric car purchases. This means that not just demographics, but also climate policies can strongly increase metal demand. This shows the importance of studying the issues of climate change and resource depletion together, in one modeling framework.

  2. Directly Observing Micelle Fusion and Growth in Solution by Liquid-Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parent, Lucas R. [Department; amp, Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, United States; Bakalis, Evangelos [Dipartimento; Ramírez-Hernández, Abelardo [Materials; Institute; Kammeyer, Jacquelin K. [Department; amp, Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, United States; Park, Chiwoo [Department; de Pablo, Juan [Materials; Institute; Zerbetto, Francesco [Dipartimento; Patterson, Joseph P. [Department; amp, Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, United States; Laboratory; Gianneschi, Nathan C. [Department; amp, Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, United States

    2017-11-16

    Amphiphilic small molecules and polymers form commonplace nanoscale macromolecular compartments and bilayers, and as such are truly essential components in all cells and in many cellular processes. The nature of these architectures, including their formation, phase changes, and stimuli-response behaviors, is necessary for the most basic functions of life, and over the past half-century, these natural micellar structures have inspired a vast diversity of industrial products, from biomedicines to detergents, lubricants, and coatings. The importance of these materials and their ubiquity have made them the subject of intense investigation regarding their nanoscale dynamics with increasing interest in obtaining sufficient temporal and spatial resolution to directly observe nanoscale processes. However, the vast majority of experimental methods involve either bulk-averaging techniques including light, neutron, and X-ray scattering, or are static in nature including even the most advanced cryogenic transmission electron microscopy techniques. Here, we employ in situ liquid-cell transmission electron microscopy (LCTEM) to directly observe the evolution of individual amphiphilic block copolymer micellar nanoparticles in solution, in real time with nanometer spatial resolution. These observations, made on a proof-of-concept bioconjugate polymer amphiphile, revealed growth and evolution occurring by unimer addition processes and by particle-particle collision-and-fusion events. The experimental approach, combining direct LCTEM observation, quantitative analysis of LCTEM data, and correlated in silico simulations, provides a unique view of solvated soft matter nanoassemblies as they morph and evolve in time and space, enabling us to capture these phenomena in solution.

  3. Induced Mutations in Thai Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klakhaeng, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Rice is the primary source of food for more than half of the world's population. It benefits greatly from technological inputs in the area of breeding such as induced mutation. Induced mutation can produce mutants with significant improvement in plant type, maturity, yields and protein ratio when compared to the parent. These improved traits enable the mutants to fit into farming systems with either shorter or longer growing seasons. Three induced mutant rice varieties, including RD6, RD10 and RD15, are well accepted by farmers and consumers in Thailand. RD6 and RD15 were aromatic, photosensitive varieties which were derived from KDML105 by acute irradiation of 20 and 15 kilorad gamma ray, respectively. After induced mutation, pedigree selection was applied. RD6 showed drought tolerance and also good grain quality including softness and good aroma with a higher average yield than the famous glutinous variety, San-Pah-Tong. Additionally, it was resistant to blast and brown spot diseases with an average yield of 4.19 tons/ha. RD15 showed drought tolerance and resistance to brown spot disease with the highest yield of 3.5 tons/ha. These two mutant varieties are currently the most famous aromatic rice varieties in Thailand. On the other hand, RD10 is a glutinous, photoperiod insensitive rice variety which was derived from RD1 by irradiation of 1 kilorad fast neutrons. RD10 showed good grain quality such as softness and stickiness with the yield of 4.25 tons/ha. As an on-going project, recommended rice varieties were irradiated with electron beam for anaerobic germination ability, submergence tolerance, stagnant-flood tolerance and also internode elongation.

  4. Obtaining high purity silica from rice hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José da Silva Júnior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many routes for extracting silica from rice hulls are based on direct calcining. These methods, though, often produce silica contaminated with inorganic impurities. This work presents the study of a strategy for obtaining silica from rice hulls with a purity level adequate for applications in electronics. The technique is based on two leaching steps, using respectively aqua regia and Piranha solutions, which extract the organic matrix and inorganic impurities. The material was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, powder x-ray diffraction (XRD, x-ray fluorescence (XRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, particle size analysis by laser diffraction (LPSA and thermal analysis.

  5. Methane emissions from rice paddies. Experiments and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Bodegom, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes model development and experimentation on the comprehension and prediction of methane (CH4) emissions from rice paddies. The large spatial and temporal variability in CH4 emissions and the dynamic non-linear relationships between processes underlying CH4 emissions impairs the applicability of empirical relations. Mechanistic concepts are therefore starting point of analysis throughout the thesis. The process of CH4 production was investigated by soil slurry incubation experiments at different temperatures and with additions of different electron donors and acceptors. Temperature influenced conversion rates and the competitiveness of microorganisms. The experiments were used to calibrate and validate a mechanistic model on CH4 production that describes competition for acetate and H2/CO2, inhibition effects and chemolithotrophic reactions. The redox sequence leading eventually to CH4 production was well predicted by the model, calibrating only the maximum conversion rates. Gas transport through paddy soil and rice plants was quantified by experiments in which the transport of SF6 was monitored continuously by photoacoustics. A mechanistic model on gas transport in a flooded rice system based on diffusion equations was validated by these experiments and could explain why most gases are released via plant mediated transport. Variability in root distribution led to highly variable gas transport. Experiments showed that CH4 oxidation in the rice rhizosphere was oxygen (O2) limited. Rice rhizospheric O2 consumption was dominated by chemical iron oxidation, and heterotrophic and methanotrophic respiration. The most abundant methanotrophs and heterotrophs were isolated and kinetically characterised. Based upon these experiments it was hypothesised that CH4 oxidation mainly occurred at microaerophilic, low acetate conditions not very close to the root surface. A mechanistic rhizosphere model that combined production and consumption of O2, carbon and iron

  6. Radiation disinfection of rice-straw products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao; Ohki, Yumi.

    1991-01-01

    For the quarantine treatment of rice-straw products from foreign countries, irradiation effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on plant pathogenic microorganisms especially on fungi were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria in rice-straw was determined to be 3x10 7 - 3x10 8 per gram which consisted mainly of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Erwinia. The principal bacteria in rice-straw could be eliminated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Deinococcus proteolyticus and Pseudomonas radiora were the main survivors at 5 to 12 kGy of irradiation. Saprophytic fungus which belongs to Dimorphospora also survived up to 8 kGy of irradiation. The D 10 values of 26 strains of fungi isolated from rice-straw were 1.1 to 2.5 times higher in the dry condition compared to the values when irradiated in 0.067 M phosphate buffer solution. The induction dose in the dry condition also increased from 1.5 to 10 times than that in the wet condition. In the case of electron beam irradiation of fungi under dry conditions, D 10 values were about 1.3 times higher than that of gamma irradiation. From this study, the dose necessary to reduce the plant pathogenic fungi in rice-straw at a level below 10 -4 per gram was estimated to be as 7-8 kGy for gamma-irradiation and 10 kGy for electron beam irradiation. (author)

  7. Growth and decay of surface voltage on silver diffused polyimide exposed to 3-15 keV electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, S K; Dhole, S D; Bhoraskar, V N [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune-411007 (India)

    2007-02-21

    During electron irradiation, the growth in the surface voltage on virgin and silver diffused polyimide sample was studied by varying electron energy from 3 to 15 keV and beam diameter from 3 to 15 mm. At a constant beam current, the surface voltage increased nonlinearly with electron energy but decreased slowly with beam diameter at fixed electron energy. At a surface voltage around saturation or beyond 3 kV, the electron beam was switched off and the decay in the surface voltage was studied for a period of 9 x 10{sup 4} s. The surface analysis revealed that the relative concentrations of carbon increased and that of the oxygen and the nitrogen decreased in the electron irradiated virgin and silver diffused polyimide sample, however in different proportions. Under the identical conditions of electron irradiation, the growth rate of the surface voltage, the post irradiated surface resistivity and the voltage decay constant of the silver diffused polyimide were lower than that of the virgin polyimide. The results of the present study reveal that the resistance of the silver diffused polyimide to keV electrons is higher than that of the virgin polyimide.

  8. Effect of salt stress on growth, inorganic ion and proline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inhibitory effect of salt stress in rice is complex and is one of the main reasons for reduction of plant growth and crop productivity. In the present study, the response of rice callus cultivar Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML105), commonly known as Thai jasmine rice, to salt stress was examined. Callus cultures of KDML105 rice ...

  9. Dispersion relation and growth in a two-stream free electron laser with helical wiggler and ion channel guiding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdian, Hassan; Abbasi, Negar

    2008-01-01

    A linear theory of two-stream free electron laser (FEL) with helical wiggler and ion channel guiding is presented. The dispersion relation is obtained with the help of fluid theory and the growth rate is analyzed through the numerical solutions. The considerable enhancement of the growth rate is demonstrated due to the two-stream instability and continuous tuning of peak growth rate ratio, two-stream FEL compared to single-stream FEL, in terms of varying the ion channel frequency is illustrated

  10. IMPACT OF MARKET-DETERMINED EXCHANGE RATES ON RICE PRODUCTION AND IMPORT IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Aishat Ammani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice is an economically important food security crop, cultivated in almost all of Nigeria’s 36 States. Nigeria spends more than 356 billion naira (2.24 billion US dollars annually on rice import. This paper set out to analyze the trend in rice production, productivity, import, value of import and consumption that follows the adoption of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP in Nigeria, with emphasis on the effects of exchange rate (ER deregulation on domestic rice production and rice imports over the period 1986-2010. Relevant time series data were collected and used. A semi-log growth rate model and 2simple linear regression models were developed and estimated. Highlights of the findings include (i accelerated rate of growth in rice production (Instantaneous Growth Rate (IGR 2.2%; Cumulative Growth Rate (CGR 2.2%; rice hectarage (IGR 3.7%; CGR 3.8%; rice importation (IGR 8.5%; CGR8.9%; expenditure on rice importation (IGR 10.6%; CGR 11.2% and rice consumption (IGR 3.4%; CGR 3.5% alongside a significant deceleration in rice yield (IGR -1.4%; CGR -201.4% (ii The observed significant increase in domestic rice production cannot be confidently attributed to ER deregulation alone because it does not lead to a decrease in rice importation into Nigeria. (iii The significant increase in domestic rice importation as observed contradicts a priori expectation that ER deregulation will lead to significant decrease in rice importation. The study concluded that free market approach alone cannot stimulate local agricultural production in countries where farmers producing under low-technology-agriculture are put in direct competition with farmers from advancedtechnology-agriculture; hence governments need to restrict importation to protect local producers.

  11. Emittance growth due to static and radiative space charge forces in an electron bunch compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Talman

    2009-01-01

    2004 FEL Conference, pp. 18–21, MOCOS05, available at http://www.JACoW.org], a code with similar capabilities. For this comparison an appropriately new, 50 MeV, “standard chicane” is introduced. Unlike CSRTrack (which neglects vertical forces the present simulation shows substantial growth of vertical emittance. But “turning off” vertical forces in the UAL code (to match the CSRTrack treatment brings the two codes into excellent agreement. (iii Results are also obtained for 5 GeV electrons passing through a previously introduced “standard chicane” [Coherent Synchrotron Radiation, CSR Workshop, Berlin 2002, http://www.desy.de/csr] [of the sort needed for linear colliders and free electron lasers (FEL’s currently under design or construction]. Relatively little emittance growth is predicted for typical bunch parameters at such high electron energy. Results are obtained for both round beams and ribbon beams (like those actually needed in practice. Little or no excess emittance growth is found for ribbon bunches compared to round bunches of the same charge and bunch width. The UAL string space charge formulation (like TraFic4 and CSRTrack avoids the regularization step (subtracting the free-space space charge force which is required (to remove divergence in some methods. Also, by avoiding the need to calculate a retarded-time, four-dimensional field history, the computation time needed for realistic bunch evolution calculations is modest. Some theories of bunch dilution, because they ascribe emittance growth entirely to CSR, break down at low energy. In the present treatment, as well as CSR, all free-space Coulomb and magnetic space charge forces (but not image forces, and also the centrifugal space charge force (CSCF are included. Charge-dependent beam steering due to CSCF, as observed recently by Beutner et al. [B. Beutner et al., in Proceedings of FEL Conference, BESSY, Berlin, Germany, 2006, MOPPH009], is also investigated.

  12. Electronic and structural characterizations of unreconstructed {l_brace}0001{r_brace} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emtsev, Konstantin

    2009-06-03

    The present work is focused on the characterization of the clean unreconstructed SiC{l_brace}0001{r_brace} surfaces and the growth of graphene overlayers thereon. Electronic properties of SiC surfaces and their interfaces with graphene and few layer graphene films were investigated by means of angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction. Structural characterizations of the epitaxial graphene films grown on SiC were carried out by atomic force microscopy and low energy electron microscopy. Supplementary data was obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy. (orig.)

  13. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  14. Germanium growth on electron beam lithography patterned Si3N4/Si(001) substrate using molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Subhendu Sinha; Katiyar, Ajit K.; Sarkar, Arijit; Dhar, Achintya; Rudra, Arun; Khatri, Ravinder K.; Ray, Samit Kumar

    2018-04-01

    It is important to investigate the growth dynamics of Ge adatoms under different surface stress regimes of the patterned dielectric to control the selective growth of self-assembled Ge nanostructures on silicon. In the present work, we have studied the growth of Ge by molecular beam epitaxy on nanometer scale patterned Si3N4/Si(001) substrates generated using electron beam lithography. The pitch of the patterns has been varied to investigate its effect on the growth of Ge in comparison to un-patterned Si3N4. For the patterned Si3N4 film, Ge did not desorbed completely from the Si3N4 film and hence no site selective growth pattern is observed. Instead, depending upon the pitch, Ge growth has occurred in different growth modes around the openings in the Si3N4. For the un-patterned substrate, the morphology exhibits the occurrence of uniform 3D clustering of Ge adatoms on Si3N4 film. This variation in the growth modes of Ge is attributed to the variation of residual stress in the Si3N4 film for different pitch of holes, which has been confirmed theoretically through Comsol Multiphysics simulation. The variation in stress for different pitches resulted in modulation of surface energy of the Si3N4 film leading to the different growth modes of Ge.

  15. Transpiration rates of rice plants treated with Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Anizan, I.; Che Radziah C. M., Z.; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2014-09-01

    Trichoderma spp. are considered as successful plant growth promoting fungi and have positive role in habitat engineering. In this study, the potential for Trichoderma spp. to regulate transpiration process in rice plant was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. The study revealed that Trichoderma spp. have potential to enhance growth of rice plant through transpirational processes. The results of the study add to the advancement of the understanding as to the role of Trichoderma spp. in improving rice physiological process.

  16. Growth Termination and Multiple Nucleation of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Evidenced by in Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lili; He, Maoshuai; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2017-01-01

    and successive growth of additional SWCNTs on Co catalyst particles supported on MgO by means of environmental transmission electron microscopy. Such in situ observations reveal the plethora of solid carbon formations at the local scale while it is happening and thereby elucidate the multitude of configurations...

  17. Effects of lead and cadmium exposure from electronic waste on child physical growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Huo, Xia; Yekeen, Taofeek Akangbe; Zheng, Qiujian; Zheng, Minghao; Xu, Xijin

    2013-07-01

    Many studies indicate that lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) exposure may alter bone development through both direct and indirect mechanisms, increasing the risk of osteoporosis later in life. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Pb and Cd exposure, physical growth, and bone and calcium metabolism in children of an electronic waste (e-waste) processing area. We recruited 246 children (3-8 years) in a kindergarten located in Guiyu, China. Blood lead levels (BLLs) and blood cadmium levels (BCLs) of recruited children were measured as biomarkers for exposure. Serum calcium, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and urinary deoxypyridinoline were used as biomarkers for bone and calcium metabolism. Physical indexes such as height, weight, and head and chest circumference were also measured. The mean values of BLLs and BCLs obtained were 7.30 μg/dL and 0.69 μg/L, respectively. The average of BCLs increased with age. In multiple linear regression analysis, BLLs were negatively correlated with both height and weight, and positively correlated with bone resorption biomarkers. Neither bone nor calcium metabolic biomarkers showed significant correlation with cadmium. Childhood lead exposure affected both physical development and increased bone resorption of children in Guiyu. Primitive e-waste recycling may threaten the health of children with elevated BLL which may eventually cause adult osteoporosis.

  18. Effect of Stewing in Cooking Step on Textural and Morphological Properties of Cooked Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. GHASEMI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Stewing of rice grains by steam after boiling in excess water can be used for cooking rice perfectly. The effects of this procedure in cooking of three varieties of Iranian rice (Sang Tarom, Domsiyah and Fajr on textural and morphological properties of cooked rice grains were investigated. The results showed that this step in rice cooking reduced the hardness and increased the adhesiveness of rice grains significantly. By the use of the scanning electron microscopy, it was shown that the outer surface of cooked rice stewed by steam had less porosity and closer pores due to the modification during cooking, and better gelatinization and more expansion of starch granules compared to non-stewed samples. The use of this procedure in rice cooking to provide a fully cooked and gelatinized, softer and stickier final product is recommended.

  19. Effects of the components in rice flour on thermal radical generation under microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lufen; Huang, Luelue; Fan, Daming; Hu, Bo; Gao, Yishu; Lian, Huizhang; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-12-01

    The relationships between radical generation under microwave irradiation and the components of various types of rice flour were investigated. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to characterize the radicals found in rice flour samples. The EPR spectra revealed that several types of radical (carbon-centered, tyrosyl and semiquinone) were localized in the starch and protein fractions of the rice flour. The signal intensity of the free radicals was observed to increase exponentially with increasing microwave power and residence time. The rice bran samples exhibited the greatest free radical signal intensity, followed by the brown rice samples and the white rice samples. This finding was consistent for both the native and the microwaved samples. The ratio of rice starch to rice protein also played an important role in the generation of radicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Studies on the Ecological Adaptability of Growing Rice with Floating Bed on the Dilute Biogas Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qi; Cheng, Bowen; Liao, Zhiqi; Sun, Chengcheng

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the ecological adaptability and the possibility of growing rice with floating bed on the dilute biogas slurry. The results of the experiments show that the growth stage, rice plant height, and rice yield and quality were significantly affected by multiple dilutions; rice plants cultivated with 45 multiple dilutions had better ecological adaptability than others. In the 45 multiple dilutions' group, the yield of rice was 13.3 g/bucket (8 rice plants), milled rice rate was 63.1%, and the content of crude protein in the rice was 6.3%. The concentrations of heavy metals in the rice cultivated with 30 multiple dilutions' slurry, such as total lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic, were all below the national standard. The study shows that it is possible and safe to cultivate rice plants with no soil but diluted biogas slurry. In the experiments, the yield, milled rice rate, and crude protein of the rice cultivated with slurry were not as much as those of rice cultivated with regular way in soil. This study provides the basic theoretical support for the development of biogas projects and the potential achievement of organic farming in special agricultural facilities and circular economy. PMID:27882324

  1. Studies on the Ecological Adaptability of Growing Rice with Floating Bed on the Dilute Biogas Slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qun; Li, Rui; Du, Qi; Cheng, Bowen; Liao, Zhiqi; Sun, Chengcheng; Li, Zhaohua

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the ecological adaptability and the possibility of growing rice with floating bed on the dilute biogas slurry. The results of the experiments show that the growth stage, rice plant height, and rice yield and quality were significantly affected by multiple dilutions; rice plants cultivated with 45 multiple dilutions had better ecological adaptability than others. In the 45 multiple dilutions' group, the yield of rice was 13.3 g/bucket (8 rice plants), milled rice rate was 63.1%, and the content of crude protein in the rice was 6.3%. The concentrations of heavy metals in the rice cultivated with 30 multiple dilutions' slurry, such as total lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic, were all below the national standard. The study shows that it is possible and safe to cultivate rice plants with no soil but diluted biogas slurry. In the experiments, the yield, milled rice rate, and crude protein of the rice cultivated with slurry were not as much as those of rice cultivated with regular way in soil. This study provides the basic theoretical support for the development of biogas projects and the potential achievement of organic farming in special agricultural facilities and circular economy.

  2. Allelopathic potential of selected rice varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl10

    2012-11-01

    Nov 1, 2012 ... 1Faculty of Agro Based Industry, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, 17600 Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia. ... experiment was laid out in completely randomized design. ..... Mixed-Cultures. PLoS ONE 7(5):e37201. Islam M (2010). Allelopathic effects of rice varieties on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce.

  3. Simulation study of electron cloud induced instabilities and emittance growth for the CERN Large Hadron Collider proton beam

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, Elena; Schulte, Daniel; Rumolo, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    The electron cloud may cause transverse single-bunch instabilities of proton beams such as those in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). We simulate these instabilities and the consequent emittance growth with the code HEADTAIL, which models the turn-by-turn interaction between the cloud and the beam. Recently some new features were added to the code, in particular, electric conducting boundary conditions at the chamber wall, transverse feedback, and variable beta functions. The sensitivity to several numerical parameters has been studied by varying the number of interaction points between the bunch and the cloud, the phase advance between them, and the number of macroparticles used to represent the protons and the electrons. We present simulation results for both LHC at injection and SPS with LHC-type beam, for different electron-cloud density levels, chromaticities, and bunch intensities. Two regimes with qualitatively different emittance growth are observed: above th...

  4. Open-pit coal-mining effects on rice paddy soil composition and metal bioavailability to Oryza sativa L. plants in Cam Pha, northeastern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raul E; Marquez, J Eduardo; Hòa, Hoàng Thị Bích; Gieré, Reto

    2013-11-01

    This study quantified Cd, Pb, and Cu content, and the soil-plant transfer factors of these elements in rice paddies within Cam Pha, Quang Ninh province, northeastern Vietnam. The rice paddies are located at a distance of 2 km from the large Coc Sau open-pit coal mine. Electron microprobe analysis combined with backscattered electron imaging and energy-dispersive spectroscopy revealed a relatively high proportion of carbon particles rimmed by an iron sulfide mineral (probably pyrite) in the quartz-clay matrix of rice paddy soils at 20-30 cm depth. Bulk chemical analysis of these soils revealed the presence of Cd, Cu, and Pb at concentrations of 0.146±0.004, 23.3±0.1, and 23.5±0.1 mg/kg which exceeded calculated background concentrations of 0.006±0.004, 1.9±0.5, and 2.4±1.5 mg/kg respectively at one of the sites. Metals and metalloids in Cam Pha rice paddy soils, including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, were found in concentrations ranging from 0.2±0.1 to 140±3 mg/kg, which were in close agreement with toxic metal contents in mine tailings and Coc Sau coal samples, suggesting mining operations as a major cause of paddy soil contamination. Native and model Oryza sativa L. rice plants were grown in the laboratory in a growth medium to which up to 1.5 mg/kg of paddy soil from Cam Pha was added to investigate the effects on plant growth. A decrease in growth by up to 60% with respect to a control sample was found for model plants, whereas a decrease of only 10% was observed for native (Nep cai hoa vang variety) rice plants. This result suggests an adaptation of native Cam Pha rice plants to toxic metals in the agricultural lands. The Cd, Cu, and Pb contents of the native rice plants from Cam Pha paddies exceeded permitted levels in foods. Cadmium and Pb were highest in the rice plant roots with concentrations of 0.84±0.02 and 7.7±0.3 mg/kg, suggesting an intake of these metals into the rice plant as shown, for example, by Cd and Pb concentrations of 0

  5. Syntrophic growth with direct interspecies electron transfer as the primary mechanism for energy exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Aklujkar, Muktak

    2013-01-01

    Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) through biological electrical connections is an alternative to interspecies H2 transfer as a mechanism for electron exchange in syntrophic cultures. However, it has not previously been determined whether electrons received via DIET yield energy...... dehydrogenase, the pilus-associated c-type cytochrome OmcS and pili consistent with electron transfer via DIET. These results suggest that electrons transferred via DIET can serve as the sole energy source to support anaerobic respiration....

  6. Efeito de extratos aquosos de estruturas de grama-seda no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de arroz, milho e trigo Effects of aqueous extracts of bermudagrass structures on initial growth of rice, corn and wheat seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo de Salvo Soares Novo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar os efeitos de extratos aquosos de estruturas de grama-seda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers e de exsudatos radiculares presentes no solo no qual a planta se desenvolveu, sobre a germinação e o crescimento inicial de arroz, trigo e milho. O extrato aquoso das estruturas da parte aérea, subterrâneas e da planta inteira, assim como do estolão, da folha + colmo, estolão + folha + colmo, rizoma, raiz e de rizoma + raiz de grama-seda foi elaborado a partir de 100 g L-1 de material seco. Foram avaliados a protrusão da radícula e os crescimentos da radícula e da plúmula de cada espécie. A inibição ou o estímulo do desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas foi dependente da espécie avaliada e da estrutura vegetal empregada na elaboração do extrato. A protrusão da radícula foi mais inibida que os crescimentos da radícula e da plúmula. O estímulo do desenvolvimento da radícula e da plúmula foi mais evidente quando o extrato foi elaborado a partir das estruturas do sistema radicular, da parte aérea e da planta inteira que de estruturas individualizadas de grama-seda. De modo geral, o arroz e o milho foram mais inibidos por extratos elaborados a partir da parte aérea e subterrânea, respectivamente. Para o trigo, a inibição ou o estímulo foi dependente da variável analisada. O desenvolvimento da radícula e da plúmula de arroz, milho e trigo foi estimulado por extrato elaborado a partir da planta inteira. O extrato produzido a partir da fração argila + silte estimulou o desenvolvimento da radícula do milho e da plúmula do trigo.The objective of this work was to study the effects of aqueous extracts of Bermudagrass structures (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers and soil exudates, on the germination and initial growth of rice, corn and wheat seedlings. The aqueous extracts of above-ground and subterranean parts and of the whole plant, as well as of stolons, leaves + culm, stolons + leaves + culm, rhizome, root and rhizome

  7. [Mechanisms for the increased fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency of rice in wheat-rice rotation system under combined application of inorganic and organic fertilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Ren; Li, Xiang; Yu, Jie; Shen, Qi-Rong; Xu, Yang-Chun

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the nitrogen uptake by rice and the nitrogen supply by soil in a wheat-rice rotation system, and approach the mechanisms for the increased fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency of rice under the combined fertilization from the viewpoint of microbiology. Comparing with applying inorganic fertilizers, combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers decreased the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and soil mineral nitrogen contents before tillering stage, but increased them significantly from heading to filling stage. Under the combined fertilization, the dynamics of soil nitrogen supply matched best the dynamics of rice nitrogen uptake and utilization, which promoted the nitrogen accumulation in rice plant and the increase of rice yield and biomass, and increased the fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency of rice significantly. Combined application of inorganic and organic fertilizers also promoted the propagation of soil microbes, and consequently, more mineral nitrogen in soil was immobilized by the microbes at rice early growth stage, and the immobilized nitrogen was gradually released at the mid and late growth stages of rice, being able to better satisfy the nitrogen demand of rice in its various growth and development stages.

  8. Growth parameter optimization and interface treatment for enhanced electron mobility in heavily strained GaInAs/AlInAs high electron mobility transistor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedoryshyn, Yuriy; Ostinelli, Olivier; Alt, Andreas; Pallin, Angel; Bolognesi, Colombo R.

    2014-01-01

    The optimization of heavily strained Ga 0.25 In 0.75 As/Al 0.48 In 0.52 As high electron mobility transistor structures is discussed in detail. The growth parameters and the channel layer interfaces were optimized in order to maximize the mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas. Structures composed of an 11 nm thick channel layer and a 4 nm thick spacer layer exhibited electron mobilities as high as 15 100 cm 2 /Vs and 70 000 cm 2 /Vs at 300 and 77 K, respectively, for channels including InAs strained layers. The sheet carrier density was kept above 2.5 × 10 12  cm −2 throughout the entire study

  9. In situ growth of Ag nanoparticles on α-Ag2WO4 under electron irradiation: probing the physical principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Miguel, Miguel A.; da Silva, Edison Z.; Zannetti, Sonia M.; Cilense, Mario; Fabbro, Maria T.; Gracia, Lourdes; Andrés, Juan; Longo, Elson

    2016-06-01

    Exploiting the plasmonic behavior of Ag nanoparticles grown on α-Ag2WO4 is a widely employed strategy to produce efficient photocatalysts, ozone sensors, and bactericides. However, a description of the atomic and electronic structure of the semiconductor sites irradiated by electrons is still not available. Such a description is of great importance to understand the mechanisms underlying these physical processes and to improve the design of silver nanoparticles to enhance their activities. Motivated by this, we studied the growth of silver nanoparticles to investigate this novel class of phenomena using both transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. A theoretical framework based on density functional theory calculations (DFT), together with experimental analysis and measurements, were developed to examine the changes in the local geometrical and electronic structure of the materials. The physical principles for the formation of Ag nanoparticles on α-Ag2WO4 by electron beam irradiation are described. Quantum mechanical calculations based on DFT show that the (001) of α-Ag2WO4 displays Ag atoms with different coordination numbers. Some of them are able to diffuse out of the surface with a very low energy barrier (less than 0.1 eV), thus, initiating the growth of metallic Ag nanostructures and leaving Ag vacancies in the bulk material. These processes increase the structural disorder of α-Ag2WO4 as well as its electrical resistance as observed in the experimental measurements.

  10. Determination of redox reaction rates and orders by in situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Pd and Au solution growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Eli A; Sutter, Peter W

    2014-12-03

    In-situ liquid cell transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) experiments are important, as they provide direct insight into processes in liquids, such as solution growth of nanoparticles, among others. In liquid cell TEM/STEM redox reaction experiments, the hydrated electrons e(-)aq created by the electron beam are responsible for the reduction of metal-ion complexes. Here we investigate the rate equation of redox reactions involving reduction by e(-)aq generated by the electron beam during in situ liquid TEM/STEM. Specifically we consider the growth of Pd on Au seeds in aqueous solutions containing Pd-chloro complexes. From the quantification of the rate of Pd deposition at different electron beam currents and as a function of distance from a stationary, nanometer-sized exciting beam, we determine that the reaction is first order with respect to the concentration of hydrated electrons, [e(-)aq]. By comparing Pd- and Au-deposition, we further demonstrate that measurements of the local deposition rate on nanoparticles in the solution via real-time imaging can be used to measure not only [e(-)aq] but also the rate of reduction of a metal-ion complex to zerovalent metal atoms in solution.

  11. Combined Effects of Nutrient and Pesticide Management on Soil Microbial Activity in Hybrid Rice Double Annual Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-mei; LIAO Min; LIU Wei-ping; Susanne KLOSE

    2004-01-01

    Combined effects on soil microbial activity of nutrient and pesticide management in hybrid rice double annual cropping system were studied. Results of field experiment demonstrated significant changes in soil microbial biomass phospholipid contents,abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria, electron transport system (ETS)/dehydrogenase activity, soil protein contents under different management practices and at various growth stages. Marked depletions in the soil microbial biomass phospholipid contents were found with the advancement of crop growth stages, while the incorporation of fertilizers and/or pesticides also induced slight changes, and the lowest microbial biomass phospholipid content was found with pesticides application alone. A decline in the bacterial abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria was observed during the continuance of crop growth, while the lowest abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria was found with pesticides application alone, which coincided with the decline of soil microbial biomass. A consistent increase in the electron transport system activity was measured during the different crop growth stages of rice. The use of fertilizers (NPK) alone or combined with pesticides increased it, while a decline was noticed with pesticides application alone as compared with the control.The soil protein content was found to be relatively stable with fertilizers and/or pesticides application at various growth stages in both crops undertaken, but notable changes were detected at different growth stages.

  12. Application of SAR remote sensing and crop modeling for operational rice crop monitoring in South and South East Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyono, T. D.; Holecz, F.; Khan, N. I.; Barbieri, M.; Maunahan, A. A.; Gatti, L.; Quicho, E. D.; Pazhanivelan, S.; Campos-Taberner, M.; Collivignarelli, F.; Haro, J. G.; Intrman, A.; Phuong, D.; Boschetti, M.; Prasadini, P.; Busetto, L.; Minh, V. Q.; Tuan, V. Q.

    2017-12-01

    This study uses multi-temporal SAR imagery, automated image processing, rule-based classification and field observations to classify rice in multiple locations in South and South Asian countries and assimilate the information into ORYZA Crop Growth Simulation Model (CGSM) to monitor rice yield. The study demonstrates examples of operational application of this rice monitoring system in: (1) detecting drought impact on rice planting in Central Thailand and Tamil Nadu, India, (2) mapping heat stress impact on rice yield in Andhra Pradesh, India, and (3) generating historical rice yield data for districts in Red River Delta, Vietnam.

  13. Uso do regulador de crescimento etil-trinexapac em arroz de terras altas Use of trinexapac-ethyl growth regulator in upland rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Do Nascimento

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o uso de doses de etil-trinexapac (0; 75; 150; 225 e 300 g ha-1 de i.a. e épocas de aplicação (perfilhamento ativo, entre o perfilhamento ativo e a diferenciação floral e na diferenciação floral no desenvolvimento e na produtividade da cultura do arroz de terras altas. O experimento foi desenvolvido no município de Selvíria (MS, durante o ano agrícola de 2006/2007. Concluiu-se que a aplicação de 150 g ha-1 de etil-trinexapac na fase da diferenciação floral do arroz cultivar Primavera reduz a altura de plantas, em média 0,40 m, em relação à aplicação nas fases do perfilhamento ativo e, entre o perfilhamento ativo e a diferenciação floral, com ausência de acamamento; o etil-trinexapac, em doses acima 150 g ha-1, promove maior número de grãos chochos, reduzindo a produtividade de grãos, quando aplicado na fase da diferenciação floral e, a dose de 150 g ha-1 de etil-trinexapac em qualquer época de aplicação não interfere na produtividade da cultura.This work was developed with the objective of evaluating the use of trinexapac-ethyl doses (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 g of the a.i. ha-1 and application times (active tillering, between active tillering and floral differentiation and at floral differentiation in upland rice crop development and yield. The experiment was carried out in Selvíria-MS, during the agricultural year of 2006/07. Application of 150 g ha-1 of trinexapac-ethyl in Primavera rice cultivar at panicle initiation differentiation reduces plants height, 0.40 m on average comparing to other times, with lodging absence. Trinexapac-ethyl promotes lange number of abnormal grains, reduction of grain yields in doses above 150 g ha-1, when applied in panicle initiation differentiation stadium. Application of 150 g ha-1 of trinexapac-ethyl at any time does not interfere in crop yield.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens EBL11, a New Strain of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Isolated from Rice Rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinghuan; Greenfield, Paul; Jin, Decai

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain EBL11 is a bacterium that can promote plant growth by inhibiting the growth of fungi on plant surfaces and providing nutrients as a nonchemical biofertilizer. The estimated genome of this strain is 4.05 Mb in size and harbors 3,683 coding genes (CDSs). PMID:25059875

  15. Seasonal variation of carbon dioxide and methane exchange between rice paddy fields and atmosphere in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, R.

    2017-12-01

    Rice paddy fields spread throughout Asia and play an important role in terms of regulating greenhouse gases on the ground. Rice paddies have the potential to either increase or decrease the net balance of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In the rice growth period, rice paddy fields are sources of CH4, whereas they generally act as a sink of CO2. However, the behavior of greenhouse gases during fallow periods has not been well understood. A field experiment was conducted at a rice paddy field in Fuchu, central Japan in 2014. We evaluated CO2 and CH4 fluxes in the rice paddy field using the eddy covariance method. Except for 20 days after transplanting (DAT), temporal CO2 fluxes showed negative values during a rice growth period whereas they showed positive values throughout a fallow period. The positive CO2 fluxes at 2 emissions by respiration of rice plants and soil microorganisms than CO2 uptake by photosynthesis of rice plants. In the middle of the growing season at around DAT=50, CO2 emission became dominant again because flooded water was temporarily drained in the rice paddy field. Seasonal CH4 fluxes during a growth period were regulated by water management and plant growth stages. During a fallow period, however, the field was kept a non-flooded condition that resulted in an aerobic soil condition and thus very low CH4 emission.

  16. Simulation and modeling of whistler-mode wave growth through cyclotron resonance with energetic electrons in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    New models and simulations of wave growth experienced by electromagnetic waves propagating through the magnetosphere in the whistler mode are presented. For these waves, which have frequencies below the electron gyro and plasma frequencies, the magnetospheric plasma acts like a natural amplifier often amplifying the waves by ∼ 30 dB. The mechanism for growth is cyclotron resonance between the circularly polarized waves and the gyrating energetic electrons which make up the Van Allen radiation belts. The main emphasis is to simulate single-frequency wave pulses, in the 2-6 kHz range, that have been injected into the magnetosphere, near L ∼ 4, by the Stanford transmitting facility at Siple station, Antarctica. However, the results can also be applied to naturally occurring signals, signals from other transmitters, non-CW signals, and signals in other parts of the magnetosphere not probed by the Siple Station transmitter. Results show the importance of the transient aspects in the wave-growth process. The wave growth established as the wave propagates toward the equator, is given a spatially advancing wave phase structure by the geomagnetic inhomogeneity. Through the feedback of this radiation upon other electrons, conditions are set up that results in the linearly increasing output frequency with time

  17. In situ observation of low temperature growth of Ge on Si(1 1 1) by reflection high energy electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, Andreas; Fissel, Andreas; Bugiel, Eberhard; Wietler, Tobias F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation of the initial stages of epitaxial growth of Ge on Si(1 1 1) in situ by RHEED. • Impact of growth temperature on strain evolution for temperatures between 200 °C and 400 °C. • Epitaxy with a high degree of structural perfection already at growth temperature of 200 °C. • Ordered interfacial dislocation networks already at 200 °C. • Tensile strain contribution of Si(1 1 1) 7 × 7-surface reconstruction to strain relaxation process for epitaxial growth of Ge. - Abstract: In this paper we investigate the initial stages of epitaxial growth of Ge on Si(1 1 1) and the impact of growth temperature on strain evolution in situ by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) for temperatures between 200 °C and 400 °C. The change in surface morphology from a flat wetting layer to subsequent islanding that is characteristic for Stranski–Krastanov growth is monitored by spot intensity analysis. The corresponding critical layer thickness is determined to 3.1 < d c < 3.4 ML. In situ monitoring of the strain relaxation process reveals a contribution of the Si(1 1 1) 7 × 7-surface reconstruction to the strain relaxation process. High resolution transmission electron microscopy confirms that the Ge islands exhibit a high degree of structural perfection and an ordered interfacial misfit dislocation network already at a growth temperature of 200 °C is established. The temperature dependency of island shape, density and height is characterized by atomic force microscopy and compared to the RHEED investigations.

  18. In situ electron beam irradiated rapid growth of bismuth nanoparticles in bismuth-based glass dielectrics at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shiv Prakash; Karmakar, Basudeb

    2011-01-01

    In this study, in situ control growth of bismuth nanoparticles (Bi 0 NPs) was demonstrated in bismuth-based glass dielectrics under an electron beam (EB) irradiation at room temperature. The effects of EB irradiation were investigated in situ using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The EB irradiation for 2–8 min enhanced the construction of bismuth nanoparticles with a rhombohedral structure and diameter of 4–9 nm. The average particle size was found to increase with the irradiation time. Bismuth metal has a melting point of 271 °C and this low melting temperature makes easy the progress of energy induced structural changes during in situ TEM observations. This is a very useful technique in nano-patterning for integrated optics and other applications.

  19. Thermo-mechanical modelling of high temperature crack growth in electron beam welding of a CuCrZr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisniewski, J.

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this research thesis is to find out which crack initiation criteria can be applied in the case of electron beam welding of CuCrZr alloy components. After a literature survey on the high temperature cracking phenomenon, the author describes its microscopic origins and presents the main high temperature crack growth criteria. He reports metallurgical, thermal and mechanical characterizations of the studied alloy performed by optical, scanning electronic and transmission electronic microscopy, crystallographic analysis, residual stress determination using the hole method, mechanical testing at room and high temperature (from room temperature to 1000 C), determination of solidification route and of thermal conductivity, and thermal expansion measurements. He describes electron beam weldability tests performed on the alloy. As these tests are performed on simple geometry samples, they allow the high temperature crack growth to be observed. These experiments are then modelled using two finite element codes, Castem and Calcosoft. Then, after a presentation of the main hypotheses used in these numerical models, the author applies the high temperature crack growth criteria. Results obtained for theses criteria are then analysed and discussed

  20. Thermoplastic starch materials prepared from rice starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontes, Barbara R.B.; Curvelo, Antonio A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Rice starch is a source still little studied for the preparation of thermoplastic materials. However, its characteristics, such as the presence of proteins, fats and fibers may turn into thermoplastics with a better performance. The present study intends the evaluation of the viability of making starch thermoplastic from rice starch and glycerol as plasticizer. The results of X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy demonstrate the thermoplastic acquisition. The increase of plasticizer content brings on more hydrophilic thermoplastics with less resistance to tension and elongation at break. (author)

  1. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  2. Contribution of rice straw carbon to CH4 emission from rice paddies using 13C-enriched rice straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Yoshida, Mariko; Kimura, Makoto

    1998-04-01

    It is generally recognized that the application of rice straw (RS) increases CH4 emission from rice paddies. To estimate the contribution of RS carbon to CH4 emission, a pot experiment was conducted using 13C-enriched RS. The percentage contributions of RS carbon to CH4 emission throughout the rice growth period were 10±1, 32±3, and 43±3% for the treatments with RS applied at the rates of 2, 4, and 6 g kg-1 soil, respectively. The increase in the rate of application of RS increased CH4 emission derived from both RS carbon and other carbon sources. The percentage contribution of RS carbon to CH4 emission was larger in the earlier period (maximum 96%) when the decomposition rate of RS was larger. After RS decomposition had slowed, CH4 emission derived from RS carbon decreased. However, the δ13C values of CH4 emitted from the pots with 13C-enriched RS applied at rates of 4 and 6 g kg-1 soil were significantly higher than those from the pots with natural RS until the harvesting stage. An increased atom-13C% of roots of rice plants growing in the pots with 6 g kg-1 of 13C-enriched RS at around the maximum tiller number stage and a decrease during the following 2 months suggested that rice plants assimilated RS carbon once and then released a portion of it. This supply of RS carbon from roots may be one of the sources of CH4 in the late period of rice growth.

  3. Thermal instability and the growth of the InGaAs/AlGaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrino, Joseph G.; Qadri, Syed B.; Mahadik, Nadeemullah A.; Rao, Mulpuri V.; Tseng, Wen F.; Thurber, Robert; Gajewski, Donald; Guyer, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The effects of temperature overshoot during molecular beam epitaxy growth on the transport properties of conventionally and delta-doped pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (pHEMT) structures have been examined. A diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS)-controlled versus a thermocouple (TC)-controlled, growth scheme is compared. Several advantages of the DRS-grown pHEMTs over the TC-controlled version were observed. Modest improvements in mobility, on the order of 2%-3%, were observed in addition to a 20% reduction in carrier freeze-out for the DRS-grown pHEMTs at 77 K

  4. Global Information Resources on Rice for Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shri RAM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Various issues concerning the progress of rice research are related to ambiguous germplasm identification, difficulty in tracing pedigree information, and lack of integration between genetic resources, characterization, breeding, evaluation and utilization data. These issues are the constraints in developing knowledge-intensive crop improvement programs. The rapid growth, development and the global spread of modern information and communication technology allow quick adoption in fundamental research. Thus, there is a need to provide an opportunity for the establishment of services which describe the rice information for better accessibility to information resources used by researchers to enhance the competitiveness. This work reviews some of available resources on rice bioinformatics and their roles in elucidating and propagating biological and genomic information in rice research. These reviews will also enable stakeholders to understand and adopt the change in research and development and share knowledge with the global community of agricultural scientists. The establishment like International Rice Information System, Rice Genome Research Project and Integrated Rice Genome Explorer are major initiatives for the improvement of rice. Creation of databases for comparative studies of rice and other cereals are major steps in further improvement of genetic compositions. This paper will also highlight some of the initiatives and organizations working in the field of rice improvement and explore the availability of the various web resources for the purpose of research and development of rice. We are developing a meta web server for integration of online resources such as databases, web servers and journals in the area of bioinformatics. This integrated platform, with acronym iBIRA, is available online at ibiranet.in. The resources reviewed here are the excerpts from the resources integrated in iBIRA.

  5. Making Rice Production More Environmentally-Friendly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated rice production is one of the most essential agricultural activities for sustaining our global population, and at the same time, one of the agricultural sectors considered most eco-unfriendly. This is because it consumes a larger share of available freshwater resources, competing with varied ecosystems as well as other economic sectors; its paddy fields are responsible for significant emission of greenhouse gases; and the reliance on chemical fertilizers and various agrochemicals contributes to pollution of soils and water systems. These stresses on soils, hydrology and atmosphere are actually not necessary for rice production, which can be increased by modifying agronomic practices though more agroecologically-sound management practices. These, combined under the rubric of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI, can reduce requirements of irrigation water, chemical fertilizer and agrochemicals while increasing paddy yields and farmer’s net incomes. Here we discuss how irrigated rice production can be made more eco-friendly for the benefit of farmers, consumers and the environment. This is achieved by introducing practices that improve the growth and functioning of rice plants’ root systems and enhance the abundance, diversity and activity of beneficial soil organisms that live around plant roots and within the plants themselves as symbiotic endophytes.

  6. Effects of Three Inhibitors on the Accumulation of Cadmium in Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LONG Si-si

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available How to control cadmium (Cd pollution in rice grain has become a hot research issue. The effects of the three amendments such as lime, silicon fertilizer and zinc foliar fertilizer from local market on the accumulation Cd in rice grain including early rice and later rice growth in one Cd-contaminated field in Hengyang County, Hunan Province were studied. Among the three treatments, the silicon fertilizer and lime were applied into soil, and the zinc fertilizer was sprayed on the leaf of rice plant. The results showed that, except lime and zinc fertilizer(late rice, in comparison to nonamendment, the output of early rice and late rice increased with increasing of the other types of resistances. Among three kinds of resistances, the zinc foliar fertilizer had significant impacts on decreasing Cd in edible grains, in which Cd concentrations of early rice(Y-liangyou 792 and late rice(Nongxiang130 reduced by 51.28% and 50.92%, respectively, followed by silicon fertilizer. The present study demonstrated that the silicon fertilizer and zinc foliar fertilizer would be used as resistances for remediation Cd-polluted rice plant, moreover, the relationship between Zn and Cd in rice-soil would need further studied.

  7. Enhanced disease resistance and drought tolerance in transgenic rice plants overexpressing protein elicitors from Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Han, Qiang; Zi, Qian; Lv, Shun; Qiu, Dewen; Zeng, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    Exogenous application of the protein elicitors MoHrip1 and MoHrip2, which were isolated from the pathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae), was previously shown to induce a hypersensitive response in tobacco and to enhance resistance to rice blast. In this work, we successfully transformed rice with the mohrip1 and mohrip2 genes separately. The MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 transgenic rice plants displayed higher resistance to rice blast and stronger tolerance to drought stress than wild-type (WT) rice and the vector-control pCXUN rice. The expression of salicylic acid (SA)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-related genes was also increased, suggesting that these two elicitors may trigger SA signaling to protect the rice from damage during pathogen infection and regulate the ABA content to increase drought tolerance in transgenic rice. Trypan blue staining indicated that expressing MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 in rice plants inhibited hyphal growth of the rice blast fungus. Relative water content (RWC), water usage efficiency (WUE) and water loss rate (WLR) were measured to confirm the high capacity for water retention in transgenic rice. The MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 transgenic rice also exhibited enhanced agronomic traits such as increased plant height and tiller number.

  8. Nuclear analytical methods on ancient Thai rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won-in, K.; Thongleurm, C.; Dararutana, P.

    2013-01-01

    For more than half of humanity, rice is life. Rice is a grain which has shaped the history, culture, diet and economy of billions of people in Asia. In Thailand, it is the essence of life. Archaeological evidence revealed that rice had been planted in northeastern area of Thailand more than 5,500 years ago which is earlier than in China and India. The ancient rice grains were found in various archaeological sites in Thailand such as Nakhon Nayok, Suphan Buri and Prachin Buri Provinces. In this work, the ancient black rice from Nakhon Nayok Province was elementally analyzed using scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy and micro-beam energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy was also used to study the chemical composition and bio-molecular structure. The grains were oblique in shape with a rough surface. Three major elements (Si, Ca and Al) and other trace elements were detected. The IR spectra provided some information about the presence of molecular bonds. (author)

  9. Dynamics of pH, Ferrum and Mangan, and Phosphorus on Newly Opened Paddy Soil having High Soil Organic Matter on Rice Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukristyonubowo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research had been carried out at the Research and Soil Testing Laboratory and Greenhouse of Soil ResearchInstitute, Bogor using newly opened paddy soil from Pesisir Selatan districts, West Sumatra (one year old. Totaltreatments tested were 12 which were combination of farmer rate, NPK recommendation (½×; ¾×; 1½×, strawcompost (½×; ¾×; 1½×, and dolomite. The trial was conducted using a completely randomized design with threereplications. This research had been prepared in two units, one unit for observing plant response to nutrientmanagement and another unit for incubation trial with the same treatment placed in the greenhouse. Rice cultivarused was IR-42 in accordance to the preferred varieties of local farmers. The sampling method for measuring thesolubility of Fe2+ and Mn2+, as well as the availability of PO43- was by centrifuge 50 g mud samples from theincubation pots then separated clear extract using filter paper. The observation results on dynamics of pH, Fe2+,Mn2+ and PO4-3 mainly occured in 1 to 14 days after submerging (incubation. After 14 days soil reaction had reachedthermodynamic sequence of oxidation-reduction processes, the PO43- more available and pH of the soil reached thepeak. The optimum dose of NPK fertilizer obtained 0.875 NPK or equal to 175 kg of urea, 87.5 kg of SP-36 and 87.5 kgKCl ha-1. The highest number of hills achieved from straw compost treatment 1½ organic matter (OM or 3 tons withan increase of 20%. Application of ameliorant dolomite increased the number of tillers about 2-3%, but insignificantlydifferent with no dolomite treatment.

  10. Growth Mechanism of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Iron–Copper Catalyst and Chirality Studies by Electron Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Maoshuai; Liu, Bilu; Chernov, Alexander I.

    2012-01-01

    Chiralities of single-walled carbon nanotubes grown on an atomic layer deposition prepared bimetallic FeCu/MgO catalyst were evaluated quantitatively using nanobeam electron diffraction. The results reveal that the growth yields nearly 90% semiconducting tubes, 45% of which are of the (6,5) type...... by impregnation, showing similar catalytic performance as the atomic layer deposition-prepared catalyst, yielding single-walled carbon nanotubes with a similar narrow chirality distribution....

  11. Combined Effects of Nutrient and Pesticide Management on Soil Microbial Activity in Hybrid Rice Double Annual Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIEXiao-mei; LIAOMin; LIUWei-ping; SusanneKLOSE

    2004-01-01

    Combined effects on soil microbial activity of nutrient and pesticide management in hybrid rice double annual cropping system were studied. Results of field experiment demonstrated significant changes in soil microbial biomass phospholipid contents,abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria, electron transport system (ETS)/dehydrogenase activity, soil protein contents under different management practices and at various growth stages. Marked depletions in the soil microbial biomass phospholipid contents were found with the advancement of crop growth stages, while the incorporation of fertilizers and/or pesticides also induced slight changes, and the lowest microbial biomass phospholipid content was found with pesticides application alone. A decline in the bacterial abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolytic bacteria was observed during the continuance of crop growth, while the lowest abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and proteolyrJc bacteria was found with pesticides application alone, which coincided with the decline of soil microbial biomass. A consistent increase in the electron transport svstem activit), was measured during the different crop growth stages of rice. The use of fertilizers (NPK) alone or combined with pesticides increased it, while a decline was noticed with pesticides application alone as compared with the control.The soil protein content was found to be relatively stable with fertilizers and/or pesticides application at various growth stages in both crops undertaken, but notable changes were detected at different growrh stages

  12. Effect of saline irrigation water on yield and yield components of rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vaio

    2013-05-29

    May 29, 2013 ... levels at different growth stages of rice on yield and its components. Treatments included ... Therefore, irrigation with saline water at the early growth stages has more negative effect on ...... diversification. Land Degrad. Dev.

  13. UV-B effects on crops: response of the irrigated rice ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszyk, D.; Dai, Q.; Teng, P.; Leung, H.; Luo, Y.; Peng, S.

    1996-01-01

    Increasing ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation resulting from depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer could have damaging effects on crops. This paper reviews recent findings on direct effects of UV-B on rice growth and yield as well as indirect effects via impacts on other organisms in the rice (Oryza sativa) agroecosystem. The findings are based on research by scientists at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in Los Baños, the Philippines, and their collaborators in China and the United States; with comparison to research by scientists in other countries. Current results indicate that while enhanced UV-B directly impacts many aspects of rice growth, physiology, and biochemistry under controlled phytotron conditions; in general rice growth and yield are not affected under natural field conditions. The difference in response may be related both to the levels of UV-B exposure used in phytotron vs. field studies and the lower ratio of UV-A to UV-B in the phytotron compared to field. In terms of indirect effects on rice blast disease, enhanced UV-B affected both the fungus itself (Pyricularia grisea) and the susceptibility of the rice plant to the fungus. Based on these data, simulation models estimated potential impacts of higher UV-B levels on blast severity and rice yield in different countries of southeast and east Asia. Ultimately, results from rice studies can be used to identify strategies to minimize any negative effects of UV-B on rice productivity

  14. Measurements of electron cloud growth and mitigation in dipole, quadrupole, and wiggler magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvey, J.R., E-mail: jrc97@cornell.edu; Hartung, W.; Li, Y.; Livezey, J.A.; Makita, J.; Palmer, M.A.; Rubin, D.

    2015-01-11

    Retarding field analyzers (RFAs), which provide a localized measurement of the electron cloud, have been installed throughout the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR), in different magnetic field environments. This paper describes the RFA designs developed for dipole, quadrupole, and wiggler field regions, and provides an overview of measurements made in each environment. The effectiveness of electron cloud mitigations, including coatings, grooves, and clearing electrodes, are assessed with the RFA measurements.

  15. Study of sticky rice-lime mortar technology for the restoration of historical masonry construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuwei; Zhang, Bingjian; Ma, Qinglin

    2010-06-15

    Replacing or repairing masonry mortar is usually necessary in the restoration of historical constructions, but the selection of a proper mortar is often problematic. An inappropriate choice can lead to failure of the restoration work, and perhaps even further damage. Thus, a thorough understanding of the original mortar technology and the fabrication of appropriate replacement materials are important research goals. Many kinds of materials have been used over the years in masonry mortars, and the technology has gradually evolved from the single-component mortar of ancient times to hybrid versions containing several ingredients. Beginning in 2450 BCE, lime was used as masonry mortar in Europe. In the Roman era, ground volcanic ash, brick powder, and ceramic chip were added to lime mortar, greatly improving performance. Because of its superior properties, the use of this hydraulic (that is, capable of setting underwater) mortar spread, and it was adopted throughout Europe and western Asia. Perhaps because of the absence of natural materials such as volcanic ash, hydraulic mortar technology was not developed in ancient China. However, a special inorganic-organic composite building material, sticky rice-lime mortar, was developed. This technology was extensively used in important buildings, such as tombs, in urban constructions, and even in water conservancy facilities. It may be the first widespread inorganic-organic composite mortar technology in China, or even in the world. In this Account, we discuss the origins, analysis, performance, and utility in historic preservation of sticky rice-lime mortar. Mortar samples from ancient constructions were analyzed by both chemical methods (including the iodine starch test and the acid attack experiment) and instrumental methods (including thermogravimetric differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and scanning electron microscopy). These analytical results show that the ancient masonry

  16. Application of Coherent Tune Shift Measurements to the Characterization of Electron Cloud Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreinick, D.L.; Crittenden, J.A.; Dugan, G.; Holtzapple, R.L.; Randazzo, M.; Furman, M.A.; Venturini, M.; Palmer, M.A.; Ramirez, G.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of coherent tune shifts at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring Test Accelerator (CesrTA) have been made for electron and positron beams under a wide variety of beam energies, bunch charge, and bunch train configurations. Comparing the observed tunes with the predictions of several electron cloud simulation programs allows the evaluation of important parameters in these models. These simulations will be used to predict the behavior of the electron cloud in damping rings for future linear colliders. We outline recent improvements to the analysis techniques that should improve the fidelity of the modeling.

  17. Cadmium and lead interactive effects on oxidative stress and antioxidative responses in rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rajneesh Kumar; Pandey, Poonam; Rajpoot, Ritika; Rani, Anjana; Dubey, R S

    2014-09-01

    Interactive effects of two heavy metal pollutants Cd and Pb in the growth medium were examined on their uptake, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), induction of oxidative stress and antioxidative defence responses in Indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings. When rice seedlings in sand culture were exposed to 150 μM Cd (NO3)2 or 600 μM Pb (CH3COO)2 individually or in combination for 8-16 days, a significant reduction in root/shoot length, fresh weight, relative water content, photosynthetic pigments and increased production of ROS (O2˙- and H2O2) was observed. Both Cd and Pb were readily taken up by rice roots and localisation of absorbed metals was greater in roots than in shoots. When present together in the growth medium, uptake of both the metals Cd and Pb declined by 25-40%. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging of leaf stomata revealed that Pb caused more distortion in the shape of guard cells than Cd. Dithizone staining of roots showed localisation of absorbed Cd on root hairs and epidermal cells. Both Cd and Pb caused increased lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, decline in protein thiol and increase in non-protein thiol. The level of reduced forms of non-enzymic antioxidants glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (AsA) and their redox ratios (GSH/AsA) declined, whereas the activities of antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) increased in metal treated seedlings compared to controls. In-gel activity staining also revealed increased intensities of SOD and GPX isoforms with metal treatments. Catalase (CAT) activity increased during early days (8 days) of metal exposure and declined by 16 days. Results suggest that oxidative stress is an important component in expression of Cd and Pb toxicities in rice, though uptake of both metals gets reduced considerably when present together in the medium.

  18. Glycoside Hydrolase MoGls2 Controls Asexual/Sexual Development, Cell Wall Integrity and Infectious Growth in the Rice Blast Fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengying Li

    Full Text Available N-linked glycosylation is a way of glycosylation for newly synthesized protein, which plays a key role in the maturation and transport of proteins. Glycoside hydrolases (GHs are essential in this process, and are involved in processing of N-linked glycoproteins or degradation of carbohydrate structures. Here, we identified and characterized MoGls2 in Magnaporthe oryzae, which is a yeast glucosidase II homolog Gls2 and is required for trimming the final glucose in N-linked glycans and normal cell wall synthesis. Target deletion of MoGLS2 in M. oryzae resulted in a reduced mycelial growth, an increased conidial production, delayed conidial germination and loss the ability of sexual reproduction. Pathogenicity assays revealed that the ΔMogls2 mutant showed significantly decreased in virulence and infectious growth. Further studies showed that the mutant was less sensitive to salt and osmotic stress, and increased sensitivity to cell wall stresses. Additionally, the ΔMogls2 mutant showed a defect in cell wall integrity. Our results indicate that MoGls2 is a key protein for the growth and development of M. oryzae, involving in the regulation of asexual/sexual development, stress response, cell wall integrity and infectious growth.

  19. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of rice kernels and flours: Measurement of surface chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Malik A; Gaiani, Claire; Fukai, Shu; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the ability of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to differentiate rice macromolecules and to calculate the surface composition of rice kernels and flours. The uncooked kernels and flours surface composition of the two selected rice varieties, Thadokkham-11 (TDK11) and Doongara (DG) demonstrated an over-expression of lipids and proteins and an under-expression of starch compared to the bulk composition. The results of the study showed that XPS was able to differentiate rice polysaccharides (mainly starch), proteins and lipids in uncooked rice kernels and flours. Nevertheless, it was unable to distinguish components in cooked rice samples possibly due to complex interactions between gelatinized starch, denatured proteins and lipids. High resolution imaging methods (Scanning Electron Microscopy and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy) were employed to obtain complementary information about the properties and location of starch, proteins and lipids in rice kernels and flours. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Radiation disinfection of rice-straw products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Ohki, Yumi

    1991-11-01

    For the quarantine treatment of rice-straw products from foreign countries, irradiation effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on plant pathogenic microorganisms especially on fungi were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria in rice-straw was determined to be 3x10{sup 7} - 3x10{sup 8} per gram which consisted mainly of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Erwinia. The principal bacteria in rice-straw could be eliminated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Deinococcus proteolyticus and Pseudomonas radiora were the main survivors at 5 to 12 kGy of irradiation. Saprophytic fungus which belongs to Dimorphospora also survived up to 8 kGy of irradiation. The D{sub 10} values of 26 strains of fungi isolated from rice-straw were 1.1 to 2.5 times higher in the dry condition compared to the values when irradiated in 0.067 M phosphate buffer solution. The induction dose in the dry condition also increased from 1.5 to 10 times than that in the wet condition. In the case of electron beam irradiation of fungi under dry conditions, D{sub 10} values were about 1.3 times higher than that of gamma irradiation. From this study, the dose necessary to reduce the plant pathogenic fungi in rice-straw at a level below 10{sup -4} per gram was estimated to be as 7-8 kGy for gamma-irradiation and 10 kGy for electron beam irradiation. (author).

  1. Recent advances in imaging of properties and growth of low dimensional structures for photonics and electronics by XPEEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, A.A.; Mikkelsen, A.; Andersen, J.N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► 3d electronic band mapping is made using XPEEM. ► Free-standing graphene on SiC can be made by atomic intercalation. ► XPEEM gives a deeper insight into growth of self-seeded III–V nanowires. ► Presents controlled self-propelled droplet dynamics on GaP surface. ► Presents punp-probe experiments in the attosecond time range. -- Abstract: Spectroscopic Photoemission and Low Energy Electron Microscopy (SPELEEM) is a very powerful and diverse microscopy technique for the investigation of surfaces, interfaces, buried layers and nanoscale objects like nanoparticles and nanowires. The many significant results from photoemission Electron microscopy (PEEM) in recent years are linked with the exploitation of advanced light sources such as synchrotrons and new advanced laser systems. Combined also with low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) it allows a complementary chemical and structural analysis making LEEM/PEEM a versatile multitechnique instrument. To illustrate the extreme diversity, we give a summary of the recent studies with the SPELEEM installed at the soft X-ray beamline I311 at the MAXII synchrotron storage ring and a portable electrostatic PEEM used with ultra-fast XUV laser technology. The examples cover topics such as full-cone 3D band mapping by using the photoelectron diffraction mode of the microscope, growth mechanism and detailed doping profile of III–V nanowires, growth and intercalation of graphene on SiC substrates, droplet dynamics on GaP(1 1 1) surface, surface chemistry and control of nanostructure fabrication. Moreover, the first results of PEEM experiments using extreme ultraviolet attosecond pulse trains are discussed.

  2. Void formation and growth in copper-nickel alloys during irradiation in the high voltage electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leffers, T.; Singh, B.N.; Barlow, P.

    1977-05-01

    The formation and growth of voids during irradiation in a high-voltage electron microscope were studied in copper and Cu-Ni alloys. For each composition, the range of irradiation temperatures from 250 deg C to 550 deg C was covered. The development of the irradiation-induced dislocation structure was also studied. At irradiation temperatures up to 450 deg C, the void swelling decreased rapidly with increasing Ni content and became practically zero for Cu-10%Ni. The decrease in swelling was produced mainly by decreased void growth (and not by decreased void number density). At 550 deg C the void swelling increased with increasing Ni content up to 5%, whereas for Cu-10%Ni the swelling became practically zero; again the changes in swelling with Ni content were mainly determined by changes in void growth. The reduction in void swelling and growth due to alloying is ascribed to vacancy or interstitial trapping at submicroscopic Ni precipitates, i.e. to the precipitates acting as recombination centres. The increase in void swelling and growth with increasing Ni content, on the other hand, is ascribed to dislocation climb sources that emit loops, and hence produce a fairly high dislocation density at a temperature where there are only few dislocations in pure copper or Cu-Ni with lower Ni content. (author)

  3. Resposta de cultivares de arroz a doses de nitrogênio e do regulador de crescimento cloreto de clormequat Response of rice cultivars to nitrogen and growth regulator chlormequat chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salatiér Buzetti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de doses de nitrogênio (0, 50, 100 e 150 kg ha-1 e do regulador de crescimento cloreto de clormequat (0, 1 e 2 L ha-1, em algumas características agronômicas de cultivares de arroz IAC 201 e IAC 202. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O N foi aplicado em cobertura, no estádio da diferenciação floral, e o regulador de crescimento foi aplicado parceladamente, aos 20 e 30 dias após a emergência das plântulas de arroz (perfilhamento. Na safra 2001/2002, houve efeito significativo de N para altura de plantas, comprimento da panícula, espiguetas por panícula, massa de 100 grãos e produtividade de grãos. Houve efeito do regulador de crescimento sobre o comprimento da panícula e espiguetas por panícula. A maior produtividade foi a da cultivar IAC 202. Na safra 2002/2003, houve efeito de N para altura de plantas, massa de 100 grãos, fertilidade das espiguetas e produtividade de grãos. O regulador de crescimento não exerceu efeito nas características testadas, e a cultivar IAC 202 foi novamente a mais produtiva.The objective of this work was to evaluate N rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 and the growth regulator chlormequat chloride effect (0, 1 e 2 L ha-1 on some agronomic characteristics of rice cultivars IAC 201 and IAC 202. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Nitrogen was applied as side-dressing at flower differentiation and the growth regulator was split in two times and applied at 20 and 30 days after seedlings emergency (tillering. In the harvests of 2001/2002, there was no significant effect of N rates on plant height, panicle length, spikelet per panicle, 100-grain mass and grain yield. The growth regulator rates were significant for panicle length and spikelet per panicle. IAC 202 presented higher grain yield. In the harvest of 2002/2003 there was no effect of N rates on plant height, spikelet

  4. Demethylation of methylmercury in growing rice plants: An evidence of self-detoxification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiaohan; Zhao, Jiating; Li, Yunyun; Fan, Yuqin; Zhu, Nali; Gao, Yuxi; Li, Bai; Liu, Hanyu; Li, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that poses a serious threat to human and the environment. Rice was found as an important source for human exposure to Hg in some areas. In this study, the transportation and transformation of IHg and MeHg in rice plants exposed to IHg or MeHg were investigated. The IHg and MeHg concentrations in rice roots and shoots collected every five days were analyzed by HPLC-ICP-MS and SR-XANES. When exposed to MeHg, the percent of IHg in rice roots and shoots increased while MeHg decreased significantly, suggesting prominent demethylation of MeHg occurred. However no notable MeHg was found in both roots and shoots of rice plant when exposed to IHg. SR-XANES analysis further confirmed the demethylation of MeHg with rice. This study provides a new finding that demethylation of MeHg could occur in growing rice, which may be a self-defense process of rice plant. - Graphical abstract: Inorganic mercury in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants exposed to methylmercury was detected: An evidence of rice plant against methylmercury phytotoxicity. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Demethylation of MeHg in rice plant was found in rice root. • Hg in rice roots mainly present as MeHg-SR or RS-Hg-SR form. • MeHg-SR in roots can be gradually transformed to RS-Hg-SR with rice growth. - Demethylation of MeHg in growing rice.

  5. Allelopathic Responses of Rice Seedlings under Some Different Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Dang Khanh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic responses of rice seedlings under submergence stress at different temperatures (10, 25, 32, and 37 °C. The results showed that a wide range of allelopathic responses of rice seedlings depended on varieties and stress conditions, with temperature was being a key factor. It showed that the extracts of rice seedlings induced significant suppression on lettuce and radish seedling germination, but had negligible allelopathic effects on growth of barnyardgrass, whilst the emergence and growth of natural weeds was stimulated. In contrast, the root exudates of Koshihikari rice seedlings (K32 at 32 °C reduced the number of total weeds by ≈60.0% and the total dry weight of weeds by 93.0%; i.e., to a greater extent than other root exudates. Among the 13 identified phenolic acids, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, sinapic and benzoic acids—at concentrations of 0.360, 0.045, 3.052, 1.309 and 5.543 μg/mL might be involved in allelopathic responses of K32, inhibiting the growth of barnyardgrass and natural weeds. Findings of the present study may provide useful information on allelopathic responses of rice under environmental stresses and thus further understand of the competitive relationships between rice and weeds under natural conditions.

  6. Microbial growth and sensory quality of dried potato slices irradiated by electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Song, Hyeon-Jeong; Song, Kyung-Bin

    2011-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation was applied to secure the microbial safety of dried purple sweet potato. After purple sweet potato slices had been dehydrated with 20% (w/w) maltodextrin solution, the samples were irradiated at doses 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 kGy and then stored at 20 o C for 60 days. Microbiological data indicated that the populations of total aerobic bacteria and of yeast and molds significantly decreased with increase in irradiation dosage. Specifically, microbial load was reduced by about three log cycles at 6 kGy compared to those of the control. Based on the color measurement of the potato slices, electron beam irradiation treatment did not affect the color quality. Sensory evaluation results also showed that electron beam irradiation did not affect overall sensory scores during storage. These results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be useful for improving microbial safety without impairing the quality of the potato slices during storage.

  7. Electricity Generation in Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) by Bacterium Isolated from Rice Paddy Field Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhirruddin, Fakhriah; Amid, Azura; Salim, Wan Wardatul Amani Wan; Suhaida Azmi, Azlin

    2018-03-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an alternative approach in generating renewable energy by utilising bacteria that will oxidize organic or inorganic substrates, producing electrons yielded as electrical energy. Different species of exoelectrogenic bacteria capable of generating significant amount of electricity in MFC has been identified, using various organic compounds for fuel. Soil sample taken from rice paddy field is proven to contain exoelectrogenic bacteria, thus electricity generation using mixed culture originally found in the soil, and pure culture isolated from the soil is studied. This research will isolate the exoelectrogenic bacterial species in the rice paddy field soil responsible for energy generation. Growth of bacteria isolated from the MFC is observed by measuring the optical density (OD), cell density weight (CDW) and viable cell count. Mixed bacterial species found in paddy field soil generates maximum power of 77.62 μW and 0.70 mA of current. In addition, the research also shows that the pure bacterium in rice paddy field soil can produce maximum power and current at 51.32 μW and 0.28 mA respectively.

  8. The Rice Mitochondria Proteome and its Response During Development and to the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobai eHuang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is both a major crop species and the key model grass for molecular and physiological research. Mitochondria are important in rice, as in all crops, as the main source of ATP for cell maintenance and growth. However, the practical significance of understanding the function of mitochondria in rice is increased by the widespread farming practice of using hybrids to boost rice production. This relies on cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS lines with abortive pollen caused by dysfunctional mitochondria. We provide an overview of what is known about the mitochondrial proteome of rice seedlings. To date, more than 320 proteins have been identified in purified rice mitochondria using mass spectrometry. The insights from this work include a broad understanding of the major subunits of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and TCA cycle enzymes, carbon and nitrogen metabolism enzymes as well as details of the supporting machinery for biogenesis and the subset of stress-responsive mitochondrial proteins. Many proteins with unknown functions have also been found in rice mitochondria. Proteomic analysis has also revealed the features of rice mitochondrial protein presequences required for mitochondrial targeting, as well as cleavage site features for processing of precursors after import. Changes in the abundance of rice mitochondrial proteins in response to different stresses, especially anoxia and light, are summarized. Future research on quantitative analysis of the rice mitochondrial proteomes at the spatial and developmental level, its response to environmental stresses and recent advances in understanding of basis of rice CMS systems are highlighted.

  9. Monitoring non-pseudomorphic epitaxial growth of spinel/perovskite oxide heterostructures by reflection high-energy electron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schütz, P.; Pfaff, F.; Scheiderer, P.; Sing, M.; Claessen, R. [Physikalisches Institut and Röntgen Center for Complex Material Systems (RCCM), Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany)

    2015-02-09

    Pulsed laser deposition of spinel γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films on bulk perovskite SrTiO{sub 3} is monitored by high-pressure reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). The heteroepitaxial combination of two materials with different crystal structures is found to be inherently accompanied by a strong intensity modulation of bulk diffraction patterns from inelastically scattered electrons, which impedes the observation of RHEED intensity oscillations. Avoiding such electron surface-wave resonance enhancement by de-tuning the RHEED geometry allows for the separate observation of the surface-diffracted specular RHEED signal and thus the real-time monitoring of sub-unit cell two-dimensional layer-by-layer growth. Since these challenges are essentially rooted in the difference between film and substrate crystal structure, our findings are of relevance for the growth of any heterostructure combining oxides with different crystal symmetry and may thus facilitate the search for novel oxide heterointerfaces.

  10. Transfer of gaseous iodine from atmosphere to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiya, Misako; Uchida, Shigeo; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohmomo, Yoichiro; Yamaguchi, Shuho; Obata, Hitoshi.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in order to obtain information required for establishing transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine (I 2 ) to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice. The gaseous iodine deposited on young rice plants before the heading period was scarcely found in the rough rice harvested at the full ripe stage. The biological half life of iodine in hull, however, was much slower than that in leaves of 14 days. The translocation of iodine from leaves and stalks to rough rice was not clearly recognized. Therefore, it was deduced that iodine found in brown rice mainly should originate from that deposited on the hull. The distribution ratios of iodine between rough rice and brown rice, and between brown rice and polished rice were 100:4 and 100:30 on 100 grains basis, respectively. If average normalized deposition velocity (V d(m) ) or derived deposition velocity (V s ) are given, the transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine to rough rice (TF r ), brown rice (TF b ) and polished rice (TF p ) could be calculated. (author)

  11. Endophytic Colonization and In Planta Nitrogen Fixation by a Herbaspirillum sp. Isolated from Wild Rice Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbeltagy, Adel; Nishioka, Kiyo; Sato, Tadashi; Suzuki, Hisa; Ye, Bin; Hamada, Toru; Isawa, Tsuyoshi; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria were isolated from the stems of wild and cultivated rice on a modified Rennie medium. Based on 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, the diazotrophic isolates were phylogenetically close to four genera: Herbaspirillum, Ideonella, Enterobacter, and Azospirillum. Phenotypic properties and signature sequences of 16S rDNA indicated that three isolates (B65, B501, and B512) belong to the Herbaspirillum genus. To examine whether Herbaspirillum sp. strain B501 isolated from wild rice, Oryza officinalis, endophytically colonizes rice plants, the gfp gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was introduced into the bacteria. Observations by fluorescence stereomicroscopy showed that the GFP-tagged bacteria colonized shoots and seeds of aseptically grown seedlings of the original wild rice after inoculation of the seeds. Conversely, for cultivated rice Oryza sativa, no GFP fluorescence was observed for shoots and only weak signals were observed for seeds. Observations by fluorescence and electron microscopy revealed that Herbaspirillum sp. strain B501 colonized mainly intercellular spaces in the leaves of wild rice. Colony counts of surface-sterilized rice seedlings inoculated with the GFP-tagged bacteria indicated significantly more bacterial populations inside the original wild rice than in cultivated rice varieties. Moreover, after bacterial inoculation, in planta nitrogen fixation in young seedlings of wild rice, O. officinalis, was detected by the acetylene reduction and 15N2 gas incorporation assays. Therefore, we conclude that Herbaspirillum sp. strain B501 is a diazotrophic endophyte compatible with wild rice, particularly O. officinalis. PMID:11679357

  12. Rice Cluster I, an Important Group of Archaea Producing Methane in Rice Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, R.

    2006-12-01

    Rice fields are an important source for the greenhouse gas methane. Methane is a major degradation product of organic matter in the anoxic soil, is partially oxidized in the rhizosphere and is emitted into the atmosphere through the aerenchyma system of the plants. Anaerobic degradation of organic matter by fermenting bacteria eventually results in the production of acetate and hydrogen, the two major substrates for microbial methanogenesis. The community of methanogenic archaea consists of several major orders or families including hydrogen-utilizing Rice Cluster-I (RC-I). Environmental conditions affect the methanogenic degradation process and the community structure of the methanogenic archaea in soil and rhizosphere. For example, populations of acetoclastic Methanosaetaceae and Methanosarcinaceae are enhanced by low and high acetate concentrations, respectively. Stable isotope probing of 16S rRNA showed that RC-I methanogens are mainly active on rice roots and at low H2 concentrations. Growth and population size is largely consistent with energetic conditions. RC-I methanogens on roots seem to be responsible for methane production from plant photosynthates that account for a major part of the emitted methane. Populations of RC-I methanogens in rice field soil are also enhanced at elevated temperatures (40-50°C). Moderately thermophilic members of RC-I methanogens or other methanogenic families were found to be ubiquitously present in soils from rice fields and river marshes. The genome of a RC-I methanogen was completely sequenced out of an enrichment culture using a metagenome approach. Genes found are consistent with life in the rhizosphere and in temporarily drained, oxic soil. We found that the methanogenic community structure on the rice roots is mainly determined by the respective community structure of the soil, but is in addition affected by the rice cultivar. Rice microcosms in which soil and rice roots are mainly colonized by RC-I methanogens produce

  13. Gene expression analysis in rice plants after external radiation exposure in Iitate village

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, G.; Fukumoto, M. [Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University (Japan); Imanaka, T. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (Japan); Shibato, J. [Department of Anatomy I, School of Medicine, Showa University (Japan); Kubo, A. [Center for Environmental Biology and Ecosystem Studies, National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); Kikuchi, S. [Plant Genome Research Unit, Agrogenomics Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences (Japan); Rakwal, R. [Organization for Educational Initiatives, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Rice plants exposed to radiation respond to the stress by activating self-defense mechanisms. A well-established molecular approach to measure stress is by cataloging global gene expression profiles. Here, we examined the effect of radiation exposure in a cereal crop model plant - rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Nipponbare - in the village of Iitate of Fukushima prefecture. Iitate village is a highly radio-contaminated site due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake. The experimental approach comprised of five steps. First, healthy rice seedlings were grown in the greenhouse facility at National Institute for Environmental Sciences. Post-germination at 30 deg. C similarly germinated seeds were placed in neat rows in seedling pots having commercial soil (JA Zen-Noh, Japan; http//www.zennoh.or.jp/) with recommended NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash) doses at a controlled (25 deg. C, 70% relative humidity and natural light condition) greenhouse. Second, the seedlings were transported from a controlled greenhouse in Tsukuba to Iitate Farm (ITF) and placed, with no direct contact with soil, in a low-level gamma field where the rate of Cs-137 was 700 kBq/m{sup 2}. Third, exposure periods were set at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after arrival at ITF, and rice leaves at the 3. position (from the base) from 6 to 10 seedlings were sampled in dry ice. As control, rice leaves were sampled at the start in Tsukuba and immediately at arrival upon ITF; to know the radiation levels during growth and transport of the rice to ITF, accumulated radiation dose was calculated using a MYDOSE mini electronic pocket dosimeter (model PDM-222-52, ALOKA, Japan). A sample set was also taken at 72 h from healthy rice seedlings in the greenhouse at Tsukuba. All samples were stored at -80 deg. C. Accumulated total dose for exposed rice seedlings at 72 h was 200 mSv. Fourth, gene expression analysis was initiated by grinding the leaves to a

  14. In-situ transmission electron microscopy growth of nanoparticles under extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, F. P.; Azevedo, G. de M.; Baptista, D. L.; Zawislak, F. C.; Oliviero, E.; Fichtner, P. F. P.

    2016-01-01

    The formation and time resolved behavior of individual Pb nanoparticles embedded in silica have been studied by in-situ transmission electron microscopy observations at high temperatures (400–1100 °C) and under 200 keV electron irradiation. It is shown that under such extreme conditions, nanoparticles can migrate at long distances presenting a Brownian-like behavior and eventually coalesce. The particle migration phenomenon is discussed considering the influence of the thermal energy and the electron irradiation effects on the atomic diffusion process which is shown to control particle migration. These results and comparison with ex-situ experiments tackle the stability and the microstructure evolution of nanoparticles systems under extreme conditions. It elucidates on the effects of energetic particle irradiation-annealing treatments either as a tool or as a detrimental issue that could hamper their long-term applications in radiation-harsh environments such as in space or nuclear sectors

  15. Whole-plant dynamic system of nitrogen use for vegetative growth and grain filling in rice plants (Oryza sativa L. as revealed through the production of 350 grains from a germinated seed over 150 days: a review and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadakatsu Yoneyama

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A single germinated rice (Oryza sativa L seed can produce 350 grains with the sequential development of 15 leaves on the main stem and 7 ‒ 10 leaves on 4 productive tillers (forming 5 panicles in total, using nitrogen (N taken up from the environment over a 150-day growing season. Nitrogen travels from uptake sites to the grain through growing organ-directed cycling among sequentially developed organs. Over the past 40 years, the dynamic system for N allocation during vegetative growth and grain filling has been elucidated through studies on N and 15N transport as well as enzymes and transporters involved. In this review, we synthesize the information obtained in these studies along the following main points: (1 During vegetative growth before grain-filling, about half of the total N in the growing organs, including young leaves, tillers, root tips and differentiating panicles is supplied via phloem from mature source organs such as leaves and roots, after turnover and remobilization of proteins, whereas the other half is newly taken up and supplied via xylem, with an efficient xylem-to-phloem transfer at stem nodes. Thus, the growth of new organs depends equally on both N sources. (2 A large fraction (as much as 80% of the grain N is derived largely from mature organs such as leaves and stems by degradation, including the autophagy pathway of chloroplast proteins (e.g., Rubisco. (3 Mobilized proteinogenic amino acids, including arginine, lysine, proline and valine, are derived mainly from protein degradation, with amino acid transporters playing a role in transferring these amino acids across cell membranes of source and sink organs, and enabling their efficient reutilization in the latter. On the other hand, amino acids such as glutamine, glutamic acid, γ-amino butyric acid, aspartic acid, and alanine are produced by assimilation of newly taken up N by roots and transported via xylem and phloem. The formation of 350 filled grains over 50

  16. Effective Suppression of Methane Emission by 2-Bromoethanesulfonate during Rice Cultivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatoba R Waghmode

    Full Text Available 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES is a structural analogue of coenzyme M (Co-M and potent inhibitor of methanogenesis. Several studies confirmed, BES can inhibit CH4 prodcution in rice soil, but the suppressing effectiveness of BES application on CH4 emission under rice cultivation has not been studied. In this pot experiment, different levels of BES (0, 20, 40 and 80 mg kg-1 were applied to study its effect on CH4 emission and plant growth during rice cultivation. Application of BES effectively suppressed CH4 emission when compared with control soil during rice cultivation. The CH4 emission rates were significantly (P<0.001 decreased by BES application possibly due to significant (P<0.001 reduction of methnaogenic biomarkers like Co-M concentration and mcrA gene copy number (i.e. methanogenic abunadance. BES significantly (P<0.001 reduced methanogen activity, while it did not affect soil dehydrogenase activity during rice cultivation. A rice plant growth and yield parameters were not affected by BES application. The maximum CH4 reduction (49% reduction over control was found at 80 mg kg-1 BES application during rice cultivation. It is, therefore, concluded that BES could be a suitable soil amendment for reducing CH4 emission without affecting rice plant growth and productivity during rice cultivation.

  17. Auger electron spectroscopy analysis for growth interface of cubic boron nitride single crystals synthesized under high pressure and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Meizhe; Xu, Bin; Cai, Lichao; Guo, Xiaofei; Yuan, Xingdong

    2018-05-01

    After rapid cooling, cubic boron nitride (c-BN) single crystals synthesized under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) are wrapped in the white film powders which are defined as growth interface. In order to make clear that the transition mechanism of c-BN single crystals, the variation of B and N atomic hybrid states in the growth interface is analyzed with the help of auger electron spectroscopy in the Li-based system. It is found that the sp2 fractions of B and N atoms decreases, and their sp3 fractions increases from the outer to the inner in the growth interface. In addition, Lithium nitride (Li3N) are not found in the growth interface by X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiment. It is suggested that lithium boron nitride (Li3BN2) is produced by the reaction of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and Li3N at the first step, and then B and N atoms transform from sp2 into sp3 state with the catalysis of Li3BN2 in c-BN single crystals synthesis process.

  18. Comparação de parâmetros de crescimento e de desenvolvimento de dois biótipos de arroz vermelho com genótipos de arroz irrigado Growth and developmental of red and pad rice genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereu Augusto Streck

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizar o crescimento e desenvolvimento de biótipos de arroz vermelho pode ajudar no seu controle e no melhoramento para aumentar a competitividade do arroz cultivado com esta planta daninha. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar parâmetros de crescimento e desenvolvimento de dois biótipos de arroz vermelho e compará-los com genótipos de arroz irrigado. Desenvolveu-se um experimento de campo em Santa Maria (RS, durante o ano agrícola 2004/2005 com cinco épocas de semeadura. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições no esquema bifatorial (genótipos e épocas de semeadura. A unidade experimental foi um balde de 12 litros com dez plantas. Os genótipos utilizados foram: IRGA 421, IRGA 416, IRGA 417, IRGA 420, BR-IRGA 409, BRS 7 TAIM e EPAGRI 109 (tipo moderno, EEA 406 (tipo tradicional, um híbrido, arroz vermelho casca amarela com arista (AVCAA e arroz vermelho casca preta com arista (AVCPA. A data dos principais estágios de desenvolvimento da escala de COUNCE, área foliar, comprimento de panícula, estatura de planta, filocrono, número final de folhas no colmo principal e perfilhamento foram avaliados em cinco plantas por balde. Nos biótipos de arroz vermelho geralmente observa-se ciclo de desenvolvimento médio em relação aos genótipos cultivados, sendo o biótipo AVCAA de ciclo mais longo que o biótipo AVCPA. Os biótipos de arroz vermelho tiveram área foliar, estatura, panícula e filocrono maiores que os genótipos modernos de arroz. O perfilhamento dos biótipos de arroz vermelho foi variável e dependente da época de semeadura.The characterization growth and development of red rice biotypes may help controll strategies, the enhancement of competitiveness of cultivated rice with this weed and breeding programs. The objective of this is study was to quantity some growth and development parameters of two red rice biotypes as compared to irrigated genotypes. A field

  19. The role of electronic assessment of adherence in the education and counseling of children taking growth hormone: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Fritz; Norgren, Svante; Horne, Rob; Gasteyger, Christoph

    There are numerous issues surrounding adherence in children taking recombinant human growth hormone (rh-GH). New technologies capable of accurately recording/monitoring may highlight some of these issues, and have value in optimizing adherence levels through education and counseling. The intention of this review is to guide healthcare professionals (HCPs). PubMed, Google Scholar and citations in published papers were used to substantiate the views expressed by the authors. Both perceptional and practical factors influence the adherence levels of children taking rh-GH. Understanding such factors may help to identify the characteristics of ideal rh-GH devices and their potential impact on adherence. New technologies, such as electronic monitors, may facilitate patient-provider discussions on adherence, and help identify barriers that are amenable to change. Monitoring adherence may also help differentiate nonadherence from biological low response to rh-GH therapy. However, the medical, psychological, social and ethical aspects of electronic assessment require further investigation.

  20. A study of growth and thermal dewetting behavior of ultra-thin gold films using transmission electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth and solid-state dewetting behavior of Au thin films (0.7 to 8.4 nm deposited on the formvar film (substrate by sputtering technique have been studied using transmission electron microscopy. The size and number density of the Au nanoparticles (NPs change with an increase in the film thickness (0.7 to 2.8 nm. Nearly spherical Au NPs are obtained for 6 nm show capability to be used as an irreversible temperature sensor with a sensitivity of ∼0.1 CAF/°C. It is observed that annealing affects the crystallinity of the Au grains in the films. The electron diffraction measurement also shows annealing induced morphological evolution in the percolated Au thin films (≥3 nm during solid-state dewetting and recrystallization of the grains.

  1. Quantitative investigation of precipitate growth during ageing of Al-(Mg,Si) alloys by energy-filtered electron diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollgarten, M.; Chang, C. S. T.; Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard

    2011-01-01

    Besides other application fields, light-weight Al-(Mg, Si) (6XXX series) alloys are of substantial importance in automotive industries where they are used for the production of car body panels. The material gains its strength by precipitation of metastable Mg-Si-based phases. Though the general...... accepted that the early stages of precipitate growth are important for the understanding of this peculiar behaviour. During these stages, electron diffraction patterns of Al-(Mg, Si) alloys show diffuse features (Figure 1 (a) and (b)) which can be traced back to originate from β'' Mg5Si6 precipitates [5......-7]. In this paper, we use energy-filtered electron diffraction to determine dimensions of the β'' Mg5Si6 precipitates along their a, b and c-axes as a function of ageing time and alloy composition. In our contribution, we first derive that there is an optimal zone axis - - from the view point of practicability. We...

  2. Growth and trends in Auger-electron spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    A perspective is given of the development and use of surface analysis, primarily by Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), for solving scientific and technological problems. Information is presented on growth and trends in instrumental capabilities, instrumental measurements with reduced uncertainties, knowledge of surface sensitivity, and knowledge and effects of sample morphology. Available analytical resources are described for AES, XPS, and secondary-ion mass spectrometry. Finally, the role of the American Vacuum Society in stimulating improved surface analyses is discussed

  3. Novel microstructural growth in the surface of Inconel 625 by the addition of SiC under electron beam melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M., E-mail: maqomer@yahoo.com [Physics Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, G.; Ahmed, Ejaz; Haq, M.A.; Akhter, J.I. [Physics Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-06-15

    Electron beam melting is being used to modify the microstructure of the surfaces of materials due to its ability to cause localized melting and supercooling of the melt. This article presents an experimental study on the surface modification of Ni-based superalloy (Inconel 625) reinforced with SiC ceramic particles under electron beam melting. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques have been applied to characterize the resulted microstructure. The results revealed growth of novel structures like wire, rod, tubular, pyramid, bamboo and tweezers type morphologies in the modified surface. In addition to that fibrous like structure was also observed. Formation of thin carbon sheet has been found at the regions of decomposed SiC. Electron beam modified surface of Inconel 625 alloy has been hardened twice as compared to the as-received samples. Surface hardening effect may be attributed to both the formation of the novel structures as well as the introduction of Si and C atom in the lattice of Inconel 625 alloy.

  4. Novel microstructural growth in the surface of Inconel 625 by the addition of SiC under electron beam melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, M.; Ali, G.; Ahmed, Ejaz; Haq, M. A.; Akhter, J. I.

    2011-06-01

    Electron beam melting is being used to modify the microstructure of the surfaces of materials due to its ability to cause localized melting and supercooling of the melt. This article presents an experimental study on the surface modification of Ni-based superalloy (Inconel 625) reinforced with SiC ceramic particles under electron beam melting. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques have been applied to characterize the resulted microstructure. The results revealed growth of novel structures like wire, rod, tubular, pyramid, bamboo and tweezers type morphologies in the modified surface. In addition to that fibrous like structure was also observed. Formation of thin carbon sheet has been found at the regions of decomposed SiC. Electron beam modified surface of Inconel 625 alloy has been hardened twice as compared to the as-received samples. Surface hardening effect may be attributed to both the formation of the novel structures as well as the introduction of Si and C atom in the lattice of Inconel 625 alloy.

  5. Novel microstructural growth in the surface of Inconel 625 by the addition of SiC under electron beam melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Ali, G.; Ahmed, Ejaz; Haq, M.A.; Akhter, J.I.

    2011-01-01

    Electron beam melting is being used to modify the microstructure of the surfaces of materials due to its ability to cause localized melting and supercooling of the melt. This article presents an experimental study on the surface modification of Ni-based superalloy (Inconel 625) reinforced with SiC ceramic particles under electron beam melting. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques have been applied to characterize the resulted microstructure. The results revealed growth of novel structures like wire, rod, tubular, pyramid, bamboo and tweezers type morphologies in the modified surface. In addition to that fibrous like structure was also observed. Formation of thin carbon sheet has been found at the regions of decomposed SiC. Electron beam modified surface of Inconel 625 alloy has been hardened twice as compared to the as-received samples. Surface hardening effect may be attributed to both the formation of the novel structures as well as the introduction of Si and C atom in the lattice of Inconel 625 alloy.

  6. Prevalence of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) on Rice Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Incidence of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) on rice plants (ofada) grown in two local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State had been evaluated during a two year field survey. Six month old rice plants were observed for symptom expression and leaf samples collected for serological indexing. Of the 60 leaf ...

  7. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiaolin; Luo, Ju; Qiu, Wen; Cai, Li; Anjum, Syed Ishtiaq; Li, Bin; Hou, Mingsheng; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2016-07-27

    Camptothecin (CPT) has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice.

  8. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaolin Dong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Camptothecin (CPT has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice.

  9. Curation-Based Network Marketing: Strategies for Network Growth and Electronic Word-of-Mouth Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Earnie Mitchell, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    In the last couple of years, a new aspect of online social networking has emerged, in which the strength of soci