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Sample records for rice growing village

  1. Indigenous utilization of termite mounds and their sustainability in a rice growing village of the central plain of Laos

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    Sivilay Sengdeaune

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to investigate the indigenous utilization of termite mounds and termites in a rain-fed rice growing village in the central plain of Laos, where rice production is low and varies year-to-year, and to assess the possibility of sustainable termite mound utilization in the future. This research was carried out from 2007 to 2009. Methods The termites were collected from their mounds and surrounding areas and identified. Twenty villagers were interviewed on their use of termites and their mounds in the village. Sixty-three mounds were measured to determine their dimensions in early March, early July and middle to late November, 2009. Results Eleven species of Termitidae were recorded during the survey period. It was found that the villagers use termite mounds as fertilizer for growing rice, vegetable beds and charcoal kilns. The villagers collected termites for food and as feed for breeding fish. Over the survey period, 81% of the mounds surveyed increased in volume; however, the volume was estimated to decrease by 0.114 m3 mound-1 year-1 on average due to several mounds being completely cut out. Conclusion It was concluded that current mound utilization by villagers is not sustainable. To ensure sustainable termite utilization in the future, studies should be conducted to enhance factors that promote mound restoration by termites. Furthermore, it will be necessary to improve mound conservation methods used by the villagers after changes in the soil mass of mounds in paddy fields and forests has been measured accurately. The socio-economic factors that affect mound utilization should also be studied.

  2. Indigenous utilization of termite mounds and their sustainability in a rice growing village of the central plain of Laos.

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    Miyagawa, Shuichi; Koyama, Yusaku; Kokubo, Mika; Matsushita, Yuichi; Adachi, Yoshinao; Sivilay, Sengdeaune; Kawakubo, Nobumitsu; Oba, Shinya

    2011-08-18

    The objective of this study was to investigate the indigenous utilization of termite mounds and termites in a rain-fed rice growing village in the central plain of Laos, where rice production is low and varies year-to-year, and to assess the possibility of sustainable termite mound utilization in the future. This research was carried out from 2007 to 2009. The termites were collected from their mounds and surrounding areas and identified. Twenty villagers were interviewed on their use of termites and their mounds in the village. Sixty-three mounds were measured to determine their dimensions in early March, early July and middle to late November, 2009. Eleven species of Termitidae were recorded during the survey period. It was found that the villagers use termite mounds as fertilizer for growing rice, vegetable beds and charcoal kilns. The villagers collected termites for food and as feed for breeding fish. Over the survey period, 81% of the mounds surveyed increased in volume; however, the volume was estimated to decrease by 0.114 m3 mound(-1) year(-1) on average due to several mounds being completely cut out. It was concluded that current mound utilization by villagers is not sustainable. To ensure sustainable termite utilization in the future, studies should be conducted to enhance factors that promote mound restoration by termites. Furthermore, it will be necessary to improve mound conservation methods used by the villagers after changes in the soil mass of mounds in paddy fields and forests has been measured accurately. The socio-economic factors that affect mound utilization should also be studied.

  3. Changing cultural landscape in post-productivism of rice field in Nyuh Kuning Village Bali

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    Maulidi, C.; Wulandari, L. D.

    2017-06-01

    Natural landscape in developing countries is facing a challenge due to economic growth, a cultural shift, and population dynamics. Farm land where is close to urban areas tending to be converted into more economically valuable spaces. Watershed Pakerisan listed as World Heritage of UNESCO, rich of cultural value on its landscape, especially the Subak, a traditional irrigation system, has a close relationship to the philosophy of Hindu-Bali culture. Nyuh Kuning, a village (local terms is Banjar) located adjacent to the Pakerisan Watershed, and has a spatial pattern in synergic ally connected with tradition, culture, and their religion. Rice field not only for economical but also its place to worship the Goddess (Dewi Sri). Rice Field in Nyuh Kuning declined significantly along past 10 years. The changing landscape of Nyuh Kuning traced through serial of aerial photographs from 2005 until 2015. Along with the broad decline of rice field, villager’s attachment on their cultural space is also changing. An economic motive pronounces a winner in the bargaining between the motives of economic value and cultural value in the Nyuh Kuning. Villagers revealed arguments that necessities nowadays prosecute high consumption, both for household and for education. Therefore conversion of rice fields to become more economical is understandable among communities. Villagers rent the rice fields to foreigners (migrants), and then foreigners take rice-fields as personal assets, not for the villagers (ritual activities and the cultural traditions) any longer. In theoritical term, villager’s emotional bond to the cultural landscape in post—productivism of rice field, is weakened. Wawedangan Desa and its complex cultural values are not part of their identity anymore. However, place dependence become the reason why the shifting place attachment is happening. Functional economic bond is mentioned as place dependence dominats in villager’s attachment. Certainly it’s not a

  4. Schistosomiasis mansoni and paddy-rice growing in Uganda: an emerging new problem.

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    Bukenya, G B; Nsungwa, J L; Makanga, B; Salvator, A

    1994-08-01

    In Eastern Uganda, paddy-rice growing, which has only become popular in recent years, seems to be associated with the emergence of schistosomiasis mansoni as a new problem in public health. To estimate the magnitude of this problem, a cross-sectional, baseline survey was carried out in six villages of the Kibimba Rice Scheme. The overall prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection was found to be 20%. The highest prevalences and intensities of infection were seen in those aged 5-29 years, with more males infected than females. An attempt was then made to identify the important factors in the aetiology of S. mansoni in this area. Odds ratios indicated that working regularly in the rice paddies, fishing with baskets, and being male were statistically associated with an increased risk of S. mansoni infection. It is clear that schistosomiasis mansoni which is emerging as a new health problem in the study area is closely linked to working in the rice paddies. Encouraging the rice farmers to wear knee-high, waterproof boots while in the fields may help control the disease.

  5. Knowledge Management at the Village Level: How Thai Rice Farmers Incorporate Technologies to Improve Production Systems

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    Jude William R. Genilo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The shift from agricultural to industrial and from industrial to knowledge societies has affected the ways farmers run their small-scale field activitiesin Central Thailand. To remain competitive, rice farmers need to continuously incorporate innovations and upgrade their technologies to sustain operations. These innovations and technologies may be seen in practically all aspects of the rice production process – from seed selection to fertilization, from seed raising and growth to irrigation, from crop protection to harvesting, threshing and drying. The study basically aims to explore the plausibility of rice farming villages as “learning organizations” and within these villages, the viability of forming “communities of practice.” In so doing, it investigates how the rice farming village under study organizes, shares, moves and gains information on rice farming. The study was conducted in Baan Sap Som Boon, Nonglue Subdistrict, Muang District, Chainat Province. The study uses a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive design. It uses both primary and secondary data and an ethnographic study approach. Research method and techniques consist of review of materials, interview with key persons and farmers in the community, interview with government personnel and field observations. Data generation was conducted from October 2004 to July 2005 in Chainat Province, Thailand.

  6. Glufosinate herbicide-tolerant (LibertyLink) rice vs. conventional rice in diets for growing-finishing swine.

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    Cromwell, G L; Henry, B J; Scott, A L; Gerngross, M F; Dusek, D L; Fletcher, D W

    2005-05-01

    Genetically modified (GM) rice (LibertyLink, event LLRICE62) that is tolerant to glufosinate ammonium (Liberty) herbicide was compared with a near-isogenic (NI) conventional medium-grain brown rice (cultivar, Bengal) and a commercially milled long-grain brown rice in diets for growing-finishing pigs. The GM and NI rice were grown in 2000. The GM rice was from fields treated (GM+) or not treated (GM-) with glufosinate herbicide. The GM- and NI rice were grown using herbicide regimens typical of southern United States rice production practices. The four rice grains were similar in composition. Growing-finishing pigs (n = 96) were fed fortified rice-soybean meal diets containing the four different rice grains from 25 to 106 kg BW. Diets contained 0.99% lysine initially (growing phase), with lysine decreased to 0.80% (early finishing phase) and 0.65% (late finishing phase), when pigs reached 51 and 77 kg, respectively. The percentage of rice in the four diets was constant during each of the three phases (72.8, 80.0, and 85.8% for the growing, early-finishing, and late-finishing phases, respectively). There were six pen replicates (three pens of barrows and three pens of gilts) and four pigs per pen for each dietary treatment. All pigs were slaughtered at the termination of the study to collect carcass data. At the end of the 98-d experiment, BW gain, feed intake (as-fed basis), and feed:gain ratio did not differ (P > 0.05) for pigs fed the GM+ vs. conventional rice diets, but growth performance traits of pigs fed the GM+ rice diets were superior (P glufosinate herbicide-tolerant rice was similar in composition and nutritional value to conventional rice for growing-finishing pigs.

  7. Morphological Variation of Six Pigmented Rice Local Varieties Grown in Organic Rice Field in Sengguruh Village, Kepanjen District, Malang Regency

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    Shinta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the third richest country for pigmented rice source such as Wojalaka black rice of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT, Manggarai of NTT, Toraja of South Sulawesi, Cempo Ireng of Central Java and red rice of Aek Sibundong (leading variety and Baubau of Southeast Sulawesi. However, the morphological character of pigmented rice in Indonesia is less reported. The objective of research was to compare the morphological variation of root, stem, leaf, panicle, floret and the colour of milk mature grain and mature grain by observing the vegetative and generative parts of six local rice varieties. Research had been conducted from February 2012 to February 2014 in Sengguruh Village, Kepanjen District, Malang Regency. This study type was quasi-experiment with eleven replications. Group Random Design was used. The observation was given upon vegetative, reproductive and maturity phases as groups. Independent variables in this study were six rice varieties, while the dependent variable was morphological variation (root, stem, leaf, panicle, floret, milk mature grain and mature grain. The analysis of multivariate data in cluster and bip lot was carried out with PAST. The result of the study indicated that there was morphological difference on stem, leaf, panicle, floret, milk mature grain and mature grain. The colour of the stem in Aek Sibundong variety was purple, while that of other varieties was green. Toraja and Manggarai varieties had the highest height with 163-168 cm, followed by Cempo Ireng with 139 cm, Wojalaka and Baubau with 110-112 cm. Aek Sibundong Variety had the lowest height with 99 cm. Aek Sibundong and Wojalaka varieties had 6-7 internodes which were the greatest number of internode, while other varieties only had 4-5 internodes. Some varieties, such as Aek Sibundong, Wojalaka and Baubau had short and small leaf. The leaflet angle of Aek Sibundong and Baubau were 14o and it might be said as upright, while that of Wojalaka was 43o or moderate

  8. Gene expression analysis in rice plants after external radiation exposure in Iitate village

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    Hayashi, G.; Fukumoto, M. [Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University (Japan); Imanaka, T. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (Japan); Shibato, J. [Department of Anatomy I, School of Medicine, Showa University (Japan); Kubo, A. [Center for Environmental Biology and Ecosystem Studies, National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); Kikuchi, S. [Plant Genome Research Unit, Agrogenomics Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences (Japan); Rakwal, R. [Organization for Educational Initiatives, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Rice plants exposed to radiation respond to the stress by activating self-defense mechanisms. A well-established molecular approach to measure stress is by cataloging global gene expression profiles. Here, we examined the effect of radiation exposure in a cereal crop model plant - rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Nipponbare - in the village of Iitate of Fukushima prefecture. Iitate village is a highly radio-contaminated site due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake. The experimental approach comprised of five steps. First, healthy rice seedlings were grown in the greenhouse facility at National Institute for Environmental Sciences. Post-germination at 30 deg. C similarly germinated seeds were placed in neat rows in seedling pots having commercial soil (JA Zen-Noh, Japan; http//www.zennoh.or.jp/) with recommended NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash) doses at a controlled (25 deg. C, 70% relative humidity and natural light condition) greenhouse. Second, the seedlings were transported from a controlled greenhouse in Tsukuba to Iitate Farm (ITF) and placed, with no direct contact with soil, in a low-level gamma field where the rate of Cs-137 was 700 kBq/m{sup 2}. Third, exposure periods were set at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after arrival at ITF, and rice leaves at the 3. position (from the base) from 6 to 10 seedlings were sampled in dry ice. As control, rice leaves were sampled at the start in Tsukuba and immediately at arrival upon ITF; to know the radiation levels during growth and transport of the rice to ITF, accumulated radiation dose was calculated using a MYDOSE mini electronic pocket dosimeter (model PDM-222-52, ALOKA, Japan). A sample set was also taken at 72 h from healthy rice seedlings in the greenhouse at Tsukuba. All samples were stored at -80 deg. C. Accumulated total dose for exposed rice seedlings at 72 h was 200 mSv. Fourth, gene expression analysis was initiated by grinding the leaves to a

  9. YIELD PERFORMANCE AND ADAPTATION OF PROMISING AMPHIBIOUS RED RICE LINES ON SIX GROWING ENVIRONMENTS IN LOMBOK, INDONESIA

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    I.G.P. Muliarta Aryana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to examine yield performance of promising amphibious red rice lines, and to evaluate their adaptability to six growing environments in Lombok, Indonesia. Ten promising amphibious red rice lines were tested together with their three parents and one national cultivar (Aek Sibundong, during the rainy extended to dry season 2014 (JanuaryJune 2014. The ten promising lines were obtained from two population sources, while the three parents were AKBC52, AKBC86, and a local cultivar, i.e. Kala Isi Tolo (KIT. The testing environments were lowland in Mambalan village (West Lombok, medium highland in Mantang village (Central Lombok, and highland in East Sembalun village (East Lombok, and each location consisted of two systems, i.e. flooded and dry (upland systems. The experiment in each environment was designed according to Randomized Complete Block Design, with three replications and 14 genotypes as the treatments. Adaptation analysis was based on ANOVA using AMMI and Biplot. The results indicated that among the 14 genotypes, G10(F2BC4A52-42 showed the highest yield, with an average of 7.8 t ha-1 dry seeds. There was a significant Genotype x Environment interaction on the dry seed yield. Biplot analysis indicated that G2(F2BC4A52-44 and G8(F2BC4A52-37 were stable genotypes across locations.

  10. UTILIZATION OF AMINO ACIDS OF BROKEN RICE IN GROWING PIGS

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    Matej Brestenský

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The six cannulated gilts (initial body weight 35.8 ± 0.5 kg fitted with a T-cannula in terminal ileum, were used to determine the apparent (AID and standardized (SID ileal digestibility of nitrogen (N and amino acids (AA in broken rice. Animals were fed twice daily in a two equal doses at a daily rate of 80 g.kg - 0.75. Water was offered ad libitum. The tested feed was the sole source of protein in the diet. The N-free diet was used to determine the ileal endogenous flow of AA and N. Chromium oxide (Cr2O3 was added to the diets as an indigestible marker in an amount of 0.3 % per kg of diet. After a 14 d postoperative period a 6 d adaptation period followed during which the animals were fed with an experimental diet. On d 7 ileal digesta was collected continuously for 24 h. The AID and SID of AA and N were calculated using analytically determined values of N, Cr2O3 and AA. The SID of AA was in a range from 81.6 % (tyrosine to 112.6 % (proline (P 0.05, respectively. There were no differences between standardized ileal digestibility of essential amino acids (94.3 % and nonessential amino acids (95.3 %. Regarding the ileal digestibility of AA, broken rice, a by-product from the food industry, is an appropriate source of digestible AA for growing pigs.

  11. Studies on the Ecological Adaptability of Growing Rice with Floating Bed on the Dilute Biogas Slurry

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    Du, Qi; Cheng, Bowen; Liao, Zhiqi; Sun, Chengcheng

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the ecological adaptability and the possibility of growing rice with floating bed on the dilute biogas slurry. The results of the experiments show that the growth stage, rice plant height, and rice yield and quality were significantly affected by multiple dilutions; rice plants cultivated with 45 multiple dilutions had better ecological adaptability than others. In the 45 multiple dilutions' group, the yield of rice was 13.3 g/bucket (8 rice plants), milled rice rate was 63.1%, and the content of crude protein in the rice was 6.3%. The concentrations of heavy metals in the rice cultivated with 30 multiple dilutions' slurry, such as total lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic, were all below the national standard. The study shows that it is possible and safe to cultivate rice plants with no soil but diluted biogas slurry. In the experiments, the yield, milled rice rate, and crude protein of the rice cultivated with slurry were not as much as those of rice cultivated with regular way in soil. This study provides the basic theoretical support for the development of biogas projects and the potential achievement of organic farming in special agricultural facilities and circular economy. PMID:27882324

  12. Studies on the Ecological Adaptability of Growing Rice with Floating Bed on the Dilute Biogas Slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qun; Li, Rui; Du, Qi; Cheng, Bowen; Liao, Zhiqi; Sun, Chengcheng; Li, Zhaohua

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the ecological adaptability and the possibility of growing rice with floating bed on the dilute biogas slurry. The results of the experiments show that the growth stage, rice plant height, and rice yield and quality were significantly affected by multiple dilutions; rice plants cultivated with 45 multiple dilutions had better ecological adaptability than others. In the 45 multiple dilutions' group, the yield of rice was 13.3 g/bucket (8 rice plants), milled rice rate was 63.1%, and the content of crude protein in the rice was 6.3%. The concentrations of heavy metals in the rice cultivated with 30 multiple dilutions' slurry, such as total lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic, were all below the national standard. The study shows that it is possible and safe to cultivate rice plants with no soil but diluted biogas slurry. In the experiments, the yield, milled rice rate, and crude protein of the rice cultivated with slurry were not as much as those of rice cultivated with regular way in soil. This study provides the basic theoretical support for the development of biogas projects and the potential achievement of organic farming in special agricultural facilities and circular economy.

  13. Demethylation of methylmercury in growing rice plants: An evidence of self-detoxification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiaohan; Zhao, Jiating; Li, Yunyun; Fan, Yuqin; Zhu, Nali; Gao, Yuxi; Li, Bai; Liu, Hanyu; Li, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that poses a serious threat to human and the environment. Rice was found as an important source for human exposure to Hg in some areas. In this study, the transportation and transformation of IHg and MeHg in rice plants exposed to IHg or MeHg were investigated. The IHg and MeHg concentrations in rice roots and shoots collected every five days were analyzed by HPLC-ICP-MS and SR-XANES. When exposed to MeHg, the percent of IHg in rice roots and shoots increased while MeHg decreased significantly, suggesting prominent demethylation of MeHg occurred. However no notable MeHg was found in both roots and shoots of rice plant when exposed to IHg. SR-XANES analysis further confirmed the demethylation of MeHg with rice. This study provides a new finding that demethylation of MeHg could occur in growing rice, which may be a self-defense process of rice plant. - Graphical abstract: Inorganic mercury in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants exposed to methylmercury was detected: An evidence of rice plant against methylmercury phytotoxicity. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Demethylation of MeHg in rice plant was found in rice root. • Hg in rice roots mainly present as MeHg-SR or RS-Hg-SR form. • MeHg-SR in roots can be gradually transformed to RS-Hg-SR with rice growth. - Demethylation of MeHg in growing rice.

  14. Anopheles larval abundance and diversity in three rice agro-village complexes Mwea irrigation scheme, central Kenya

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    Mwangangi Joseph M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diversity and abundance of Anopheles larvae has significant influence on the resulting adult mosquito population and hence the dynamics of malaria transmission. Studies were conducted to examine larval habitat dynamics and ecological factors affecting survivorship of aquatic stages of malaria vectors in three agro-ecological settings in Mwea, Kenya. Methods Three villages were selected based on rice husbandry and water management practices. Aquatic habitats in the 3 villages representing planned rice cultivation (Mbui Njeru, unplanned rice cultivation (Kiamachiri and non-irrigated (Murinduko agro-ecosystems were sampled every 2 weeks to generate stage-specific estimates of mosquito larval densities, relative abundance and diversity. Records of distance to the nearest homestead, vegetation coverage, surface debris, turbidity, habitat stability, habitat type, rice growth stage, number of rice tillers and percent Azolla cover were taken for each habitat. Results Captures of early, late instars and pupae accounted for 78.2%, 10.9% and 10.8% of the total Anopheles immatures sampled (n = 29,252, respectively. There were significant differences in larval abundance between 3 agro-ecosystems. The village with 'planned' rice cultivation had relatively lower Anopheles larval densities compared to the villages where 'unplanned' or non-irrigated. Similarly, species composition and richness was higher in the two villages with either 'unplanned' or limited rice cultivation, an indication of the importance of land use patterns on diversity of larval habitat types. Rice fields and associated canals were the most productive habitat types while water pools and puddles were important for short periods during the rainy season. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that presence of other invertebrates, percentage Azolla cover, distance to nearest homestead, depth and water turbidity were the best predictors for Anopheles mosquito larval

  15. Application of biochar to soil reduces cancer risk via rice consumption: a case study in Miaoqian village, Longyan, China.

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    Khan, Sardar; Reid, Brian J; Li, Gang; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2014-07-01

    Consumption of rice contaminated with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is a major pathway for human exposure to PTEs. This is particularly true in China's so called "Cancer Villages". In this study, sewage sludge biochar (SSBC) was applied to soil (at 5% and 10%) to suppress PTE phytoavailability and as a consequence to reduce PTE levels in rice grown in mining impacted paddy soils. Risk assessment indicated that SSBC addition (10%) markedly (P≤0.05) decreased the daily intake, associated with the consumption of rice, of PTEs (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn by: 68, 42, 55, 29, 43, 38 and 22%, respectively). In treatments containing SSBC (10%) the health quotient (HQ) indices for PTEs (except for As, Cu and Mn) were iAs (AsIII+AsV) associated with the consumption of rice was significantly (P≤0.01) reduced by 66%. These findings suggest that SSBC could be a useful soil amendment to mitigating PTE exposure, through rice consumption, in China's "Cancer Villages". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Growing together or growing apart? : a Village-Level Study of the Impact of the Doha Round on Rural China

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    Kuiper, M.H.; Tongeren, van F.W.

    2006-01-01

    Most studies of the opening of the Chinese economy focus at the national level. The few existing disaggregated analyses are limited to analyzing changes in agricultural production. In this paper we employ an innovative village equilibrium model that accounts for nonseparability of household

  17. Partitioning of etofenprox under simulated California rice-growing conditions.

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    Vasquez, Martice E; Gunasekara, Amrith S; Cahill, Thomas M; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2010-01-01

    The pyrethroid insecticide etofenprox is of current interest to rice farmers in the Sacramento Valley owing to its effectiveness against the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel. This study aimed to describe the partitioning of etofenprox under simulated rice field conditions by determining its Henry's law constant (H) (an estimate of volatilization) and organic carbon-normalized soil-water distribution coefficient (K(oc)) at representative field temperatures. A comparison of etofenprox and lambda-cyhalothrin is presented using a level-1 fugacity model. Experimental determination of H revealed that etofenprox partitioned onto the apparatus walls and did not significantly volatilize; the maximum value of H was estimated to be 6.81 x 10(-1) Pa m(3) mol(-1) at 25 degrees C, based on its air and water method detection limits. Calculated values for H ranged from 5.6 x 10(-3) Pa m(3) mol(-1) at 5 degrees C to 2.9 x 10(-1) Pa m(3) mol(-1) at 40 degrees C, based on estimated solubility and vapor pressure values at various temperatures. Log K(oc) values (at 25 degrees C) were experimentally determined to be 6.0 and 6.4 for Princeton and Richvale rice field soils, respectively, and were very similar to the values for other pyrethroids. Finally, temperature appears to have little influence on etofenprox sorption, as the log K(oc) for the Princeton soil at 35 degrees C was 6.1. High sorption coefficients and relatively insignificant desorption and volatilization of etofenprox suggest that its insolubility drives it to partition from water by sorbing to soils with high affinity. Offsite movement is unlikely unless transported in a bound state on suspended sediments.

  18. Effects of compost on soil fertility in irrigated rice growing at Kou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of compost on soil fertility in irrigated rice growing at Kou Valley (Burkina Faso) : Amélioration de la fertilité du sol par utilisation du compost en riziculture irriguée dans la Vallée du Kou au Burkina Faso.

  19. Prediction of Digestible and Metabolizable Energy Content of Rice Bran Fed to Growing Pigs

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    C. X. Shi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME content of 19 rice bran samples and to develop prediction equations for DE and ME based on their chemical composition. The 19 rice bran samples came from different rice varieties, processing methods and regions. The basal diet was formulated using corn and soybean meal (74.43% corn and 22.91% soybean meal and 2.66% vitamins and minerals. The 19 experimental diets based on a mixture of corn, soybean meal and 29.2% of each source of rice bran, respectively. In Exp. 1, 108 growing barrows (32.1±4.2 kg were allotted to 1 of 18 treatments according to a completely randomized design with 6 pigs per treatment. The treatment 1 was the control group which was fed with basal diet. The treatments 2 to 18 were fed with experimental diets. In Exp. 2, two additional rice bran samples were measured to verify the prediction equations developed in Exp. 1. A control diet and two rice bran diets were fed to 18 growing barrows (34.6±3.5 kg. The control and experimental diets formulations were the same as diets in Exp. 1. The results showed that the DE ranged from 14.48 to 16.85 (mean 15.84 MJ/kg of dry matter while the ME ranged from 12.49 to 15.84 (mean 14.31 MJ/kg of dry matter. The predicted values of DE and ME of the two additional samples in Exp. 2 were very close to the measured values.

  20. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Growing Rats Fed Irradiated Full-Fat Rice Bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Niely, H.F.G.

    2006-01-01

    Raw and irradiated full-fat rice bran at dose levels of 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy were used in the diets of growing rats to evaluate their effect on plasma and liver lipid profile. Comparison was also done with the use of a standard casein diet. After 49 days of feeding trail, food intake and wt gain were found to be highest with rats received casein diet in comparison with those fed on rice bran diets. Raw and irradiated full-fat rice bran diets, fed to rats caused a significant reduction in the level of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), while a significant elevation in the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in plasma was recorded compared to those fed on casein diet. Also, similar changes were observed in liver. There was a significant increase in plasma and liver HDL-c/ TC ratio and LDL-c/ HDL-c ratio. Relative liver wt of rats fed on raw and irradiated full-fat rice brain up to 25 kGy was lower compared to those fed on control diet (casein diet). The casein group had the highest total plasma and liver total protein (TP) compared to the other experimental groups. Among the experimental groups, raw and processed full-fat rice brain up to 25 kGy, induced no significant effect on TP content of plasma and liver

  1. Towards a smart automated surface irrigation management in rice-growing areas in Italy

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    Daniele Masseroni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Italy is the leading rice producer in Europe, accounting for more than half of the total high-quality production of this crop. Rice is traditionally grown in fields that remain flooded starting with crop establishment until close to harvest, and this traditional irrigation technique (i.e., continuous submergence is recognised as an important water resource sink (almost 40% of the irrigation water available worldwide is used for paddy areas. Meanwhile, the water management in rice areas requires a high level of labour because it is based on maintaining a predetermined water height in paddy fields and because the regulation of input and output flow is typically operated manually by the farmer. This study reveals the hardware and software characteristics of an automated and remote controlled technology tested for the first time in a rice farm near Pavia (Italy, during the 2016 growing season, aiming at a more efficient and less burdensome irrigation management system for rice fields. A water level sensor in the field provides the data required to govern the inflow regulation gate in real-time, according to the precise time to cut off the flow rate. Using a dedicated web page, the farmer can control flows, volumes and water levels in the fields by operating directly on the gate if necessary or setting the irrigation program according to his agronomic practices.

  2. Development Planning of Tourist Village Using Participatory Mapping (Case study: Mambal Village, Badung Regency, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arida, I. N. S.; Wiguna, P. P. K.; Narka, I. W.; Febrianti, N. K. O.

    2017-12-01

    Tourism sector is the highest source of income in Badung Regency so it is interesting to see the development of tourist village as one of the alternative tourist destinations in Badung Regency. Most of the village areas in Badung Regency do not have policies, vision and mission as an effort to develop the village into a tourist village. As a result the role of tourist village does not grow in terms of economic and social community. The purpose of this research is to determine and to map the tourism development plan using participatory mapping. The methodology used in this research is field surveys and interviews for data collection and participatory mapping to map the development plan to support tourism. Mambal village is located in Sub-district of Abiansemal, Badung Regency, Indonesia. Mambal village has the potential to become a tourism village because it is supported by the uniqueness of nature and tradition. Mambal village passed by Ayung river, where along the river there are beautiful cliffs which potential to develop as adventure tourism. There is also Senaung Pengibul Cave with a length of more than 15 meters and is wide enough to pass. Mambal village also has a spiritual tour of Pura Demung and Pancoran Pitu, which has a magical story. Currently farmers in Mambal Village are focusing on developing organic farming, of which 38% of the rice fields present in Mambal are pure organic that produces organic rice. Around the rice field area is also created a jogging track for visitors while enjoying the natural beauty of rice fields. Farmers also cultivate oyster mushrooms. In addition, Mambal Village Community also produces handicraft products that are woven in the form of symmetrical Endek (traditional fabrics) and processed products from used goods such as bags, wallets, pencil boxes and others.

  3. 137Cs absorption by growing rice planted in pot soil from Qinshan and Daya Bay area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Zhaorong; Yu Fengyi; Lu Zixian

    1999-01-01

    The pot experiment of growing rice contaminated with 137 Cs solution was designed as follows. (1) The same volume of 137 Cs solution was irrigated into rice soil from Guantang District around Qinshan NPP in seedling stage, booting stage and milk stage respectively with the same Specific Activity (SA) of 370 Bq/g soil , and the rice was sampled after maturity. (2) In the seedling stage, the rice cultured in the soil from Guantang District was irrigated by four different SA of 0.37, 3.7, 37 and 370 Bq/g soil respectively, and sampled after 30, 60 and 90 d. (3) Transfer Factors (TF) of edible parts of rice on five different soils were calculated for three different stage and four different 137 Cs levels. The results show that: 1) TF of Shenzhen soil is the highest with 1.86 in seed and 2.22 in stem and 4.05 in leaf, Changchuanba soil is the lowest with 0.09 in seed and 0.20 in stem and 0.20 in leaf, among the five different soils. 2) TF in milk stage is the highest with 0.46 in seed and 2.29 in stem and 2.87 in leaf, and booting stem is lowest with 0.09 in seed and 0.17 in stem and 0.17 in leaf, among the three different stage. 3) TF of soil with contamination in 0.37 Bq/g soil is the highest with 1.08 in seed and 3.70 in stem and 4.32 in leaf, and the contamination in 37 Bq/g soil is the lowest with 0.06 in seed and 0.10 in stem and 0.14 in leaf, among four different contamination levels

  4. Impact of land fragmentation on rice producers' technical efficiency in South-East China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, S.; Heerink, N.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Qu Futian, F.

    2010-01-01

    Rice farming is important for income generation in large parts of China and Asia. This paper uses detailed household, crop- and plot-level data to investigate the levels and determinants of rice producers’ technical efficiency for three villages with different characteristics in a major rice-growing

  5. The performance of growing goats fed urea treated rice straw supplemented with Incum (Klienhovia hospita foliage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusoh, S

    2017-06-01

    and T2 diets were significantly higher than that of diet T4. Thus the study indicated that feeding goats with urea treated rice straw supplemented with KH foliage gave a positive effect on growing goats replacing concentrate fed with rice straw basal diet. It is concluded that the inclusion of KH foliage in the diet of goats has improved their growth performance and feed intake.

  6. Rice gluten meal as an alternative by-product feed for growing dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Thakur, Sudarshan Singh; Mahesh, M S

    2016-03-01

    This experiment aimed at studying the nutritional characteristics and feeding value of rice gluten meal (RGM, a wet-milling by-product of rice) in growing dairy calves. RGM contained 464 g/kg of crude protein with 821 and 196 g/kg nitrogen (N) of borate-phosphate insoluble N and acid detergent insoluble N, respectively, which were higher (P calves (6-12 months) were randomly assigned into three groups based on comparable body weight and age. The first group (GP-I) was fed concentrate mixture containing mainly GNC as protein source, whilst it was replaced by RGM up to 50 and 75 % on N basis, in second (GP-II) and third (GP-III) groups, respectively. Thus, RGM constituted 140 and 210 g/kg of concentrate mixture of GP-II and GP-III, respectively. In addition, all animals were offered chopped green maize and wheat straw for the whole experimental period of 90 days. Results revealed that there was no difference in intake and digestibility of nutrients, N balance, average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency among three groups. Nevertheless, RGM-based diets produced cost-effective ADG than GP-I. Furthermore, experimental calves did not differ in haematological variables like glucose, blood urea N, plasma proteins and non-esterified fatty acids. This study demonstrated that RGM could be incorporated successfully in the concentrate mixture, replacing 75 % of GNC without any discernable compromise in the performance of growing calves.

  7. Replacing groundnut cake with gluten meals of rice and maize in diets for growing Sahiwal cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Tariq A; Thakur, S S; Mahesh, M S; Yogi, R K

    2017-10-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of isonitrogenous replacement of groundnut cake (GNC) by rice gluten meal (RGM) and maize gluten meal (MGM) at 75% level on nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, growth performance and related blood constituents in growing Sahiwal cattle. Eighteen Sahiwal calves were divided into three groups, based on average body weight (87.24 kg) and age (6 to 12 mo), and treatments were assigned to the different groups randomly. The first group (GP-I) was kept as control and received GNC-based concentrate mixture. In second (GP-II) and third (GP-III) groups, 750 g/kg nitrogen (N) of GNC was substituted by RGM and MGM respectively, with similar forage:concentrate ratio (56:44). The 90 days of experimental feeding revealed that intake of dry matter, crude protein and digestibility coefficients for all nutrients did not differ among groups. Furthermore, although N balance was greater (p≤0.05) for GP-III than GP-I and GP-II, average daily gain was similar between GP-I and GP-II but greater (p≤0.05) for GP-III. In addition, feed efficiency and related haematological variables did not differ due to treatments. Nutritional worth of GNC and RGM was highly comparable in terms of intake, digestibility and growth in growing calves. However, MGM was found to be more efficacious in improving growth rate than RGM at 75% replacement level of GNC protein.

  8. Replacing groundnut cake with gluten meals of rice and maize in diets for growing Sahiwal cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq A. Malik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment investigated the effect of isonitrogenous replacement of groundnut cake (GNC by rice gluten meal (RGM and maize gluten meal (MGM at 75% level on nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, growth performance and related blood constituents in growing Sahiwal cattle. Methods Eighteen Sahiwal calves were divided into three groups, based on average body weight (87.24 kg and age (6 to 12 mo, and treatments were assigned to the different groups randomly. The first group (GP-I was kept as control and received GNC-based concentrate mixture. In second (GP-II and third (GP-III groups, 750 g/kg nitrogen (N of GNC was substituted by RGM and MGM respectively, with similar forage:concentrate ratio (56:44. Results The 90 days of experimental feeding revealed that intake of dry matter, crude protein and digestibility coefficients for all nutrients did not differ among groups. Furthermore, although N balance was greater (p≤0.05 for GP-III than GP-I and GP-II, average daily gain was similar between GP-I and GP-II but greater (p≤0.05 for GP-III. In addition, feed efficiency and related haematological variables did not differ due to treatments. Conclusion Nutritional worth of GNC and RGM was highly comparable in terms of intake, digestibility and growth in growing calves. However, MGM was found to be more efficacious in improving growth rate than RGM at 75% replacement level of GNC protein.

  9. Suitability analysis for rice growing sites using a multicriteria evaluation and GIS approach in great Mwea region, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihoro, Joseph; Bosco, Njoroge J; Murage, Hunja

    2013-12-01

    Land suitability analysis is a prerequisite to achieving optimum utilization of the available land resources. Lack of knowledge on best combination of factors that suit production of rice has contributed to the low production. The aim of this study was to develop a suitability map for rice crop based on physical and climatic factors of production using a Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) & GIS approach. The study was carried out in Kirinyaga, Embu and Mberee counties in Kenya. Biophysical variables of soil, climate and topography were considered for suitability analysis. All data were stored in ArcGIS 9.3 environment and the factor maps were generated. For MCE, Pairwise Comparison Matrix was applied and the suitable areas for rice crop were generated and graduated. The current land cover map of the area was developed from a scanned survey map of the rice growing areas. According to the present land cover map, the rice cultivated area was 13,369 ha. Finally, we overlaid the land cover map with the suitability map to identify variances between the present and potential land use. The crop-land evaluation results of the present study showed that, 75% of total area currently being used was under highly suitable areas and 25% was under moderately suitable areas. The results showed that the potential area for rice growing is 86,364 ha and out of this only 12% is under rice cultivation. This research provided information at local level that could be used by farmers to select cropping patterns and suitability.

  10. Proposal of a growth chamber for growing Super-Dwarf Rice in Space Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Tsukamoto, Koya; Yamashita, Youichirou; Hirai, Takehiro

    Space agriculture needs to be considered to supply food for space crew who stay in space over an extended time period. So far crops such as wheat, onion, oat, pea and lettuce grew to explore the possibility of space agriculture. Although rice is a staple food for most of the world, research on rice cultivation in space has not been done much. Rice grains are nutrient-rich with carbohydrate, protein and dietary fiber. Moreover, rice is a high yield crop and harvested grains have a long shelf life. However, the plant height of standard rice cultivars is relatively long, requiring much space. In addition, rice plants require higher light intensities for greater yield. For these reasons, it is difficult to establish facilities for rice culture in a limited space with a low cost. We propose to employee a super-dwarf cultivar and a small growth chamber with a new type of LEDs. The super-dwarf rice is a short-grain japonica variety and the plant height is approximately 20 cm that is one-fifth as tall as standard cultivars. The LED light used as a light source for this study can provide full spectrum of 380 nm to 750 nm. Air temperature and humidity were controlled by a Peltier device equipped in the chamber. The characteristics of the new type of LEDs and other equipments of the chamber and the ground based performance of super-dwarf rice plants grown in the chamber will be reported.

  11. Influence of sulfur on the accumulation of mercury in rice plant (Oryza sativa L.) growing in mercury contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunyun; Zhao, Jiating; Guo, Jingxia; Liu, Mengjiao; Xu, Qinlei; Li, Hong; Li, Yu-Feng; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Gao, Yuxi

    2017-09-01

    Sulfur (S) is an essential element for plant growth and its biogeochemical cycling is strongly linked to the species of heavy metals in soil. In this work, the effects of S (sulfate and elemental sulfur) treatment on the accumulation, distribution and chemical forms of Hg in rice growing in Hg contaminated soil were investigated. It was found that S could promote the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and decrease total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice grains, straw, and roots. Hg in the root was dominated in the form of RS-Hg-SR. Sulfate treatment increased the percentage of RS-Hg-SR to T-Hg in the rice root and changed the Hg species in soil. The dominant Hg species (70%) in soil was organic substance bound fractions. Sulfur treatment decreased Hg motility in the rhizosphere soils by promoting the conversion of RS-Hg-SR to HgS. This study is significant since it suggests that low dose sulfur treatment in Hg-containing water irrigated soil can decrease both T-Hg and MeHg accumulation in rice via inactivating Hg in the soil and promoting the formation of iron plaque in rice root, which may reduce health risk for people consuming those crops. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. How smallholder farmers in Uttarakhand reworked the system of rice intensification: innovations from sociotechnical interactions in fields and villages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, D.

    2015-01-01

    The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is presented in Asia and other parts of the world as an alternative ‘agro-ecological’ and ‘farm-based’ innovation in rice production. SRI calls for modifications in crop-management practices without relying on external inputs, which makes it different from

  13. 32P tracer studies on the efficiency of ammonium nitrate phosphates and polyphosphates for growing rice on different soil types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadanandan, A.K.; Mohanty, S.K.; Patnaik, S.; Mistry, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted with 32 P tagged phosphates to evaluate the efficiency of ammonium nitrate phosphate containing 30, 50 and 70 percent of P in the water soluble form, tri- and tetra-ammonium pyrophosphate, as compared with mono-ammonium ortho-phosphate (MAP) for growing rice on red, laterite and black soils, with regard to recovery of applied P in soil, dry matter production and utilization of applied P by crop at flowering and grain and straw yield at harvest. Ammonium nitrate phosphates containing 50 percent or more of P in the water soluble form could be used for growing rice on all soil types. The pyrophosphates were as efficient as MAP on soils having pH 6.2 and above but less efficient in soils of lower pH. (author)

  14. Studies on the application of gamma rays and chemical substances to rice growing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gi, Ha Byong

    1985-01-10

    It was suggested that highly salt-resistant strains can be primarily selected among plenty of strains by constrasting the coefficient of biological salt-resistance in the early developing stage of the rice plant, and high-yielding strains can be firmly selected among these salt-resistant strains in the early developing stage, by transplanting these strains into the rice-field and by contrasting the coefficient of biological salt-resistance of them. It was confirmed that the salt-resistant character of the rice strains are differently manifested according to each developmental stage.

  15. Gravimorphism in rice and barley: promotion of leaf elongation by vertical inversion in agravitropically growing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Takahashi, H; Suge, H

    1998-12-01

    We have compared shoot responses of agravitropic rice and barley plants to vertical inversion with those of normal ones. When rice plants were vertically inverted, the main stems of a japonica type of rice, cv. Kamenoo, showed negative gravitropism at nodes 2-15 of both elongated and non-elongated internodes. However, shoots of lazy line of rice, lazy-Kamenoo, bent gravitropically at nodes 11-15 only elongated internodes but not at nodes 2-10 of non-elongated ones. Thus, shoots of Kamenoo responded gravitropically at all stages of growth, whereas shoots of lazy-Kamenoo did not show gravitropic response before heading. In Kamenoo plants, lengths of both leaf-sheath and leaf-blade were shortened by vertical inversion, but those of the vertically inverted plants of lazy-Kamenoo were significantly longer than the plants in an upright position. When agravitropic and normal plants of barley were vertically inverted, the same results as in rice were obtained; elongation of both leaf-sheath and leaf-blade was inhibited in normal barley plants, Chikurin-Ibaragi No. 1, but significantly stimulated in agravitropic plants of serpentina barley. These results suggest that vertical inversion of rice and barley plants enhances the elongation growth of leaves in the absence of tropistic response.

  16. Use of the rice husk as an alternative substrate for growing media on green walls drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrey Rivas-Sánchez, Yair; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María; Roldán Cañas, José

    2017-04-01

    In the last years, we have been looking for alternatives to traditional growing mediums for green walls. Commercially available systems for green walls are commonly made with Sphagnum, rock wool or polymers that are unsustainable materials. In the design of the green wall, local components such as agricultural by-products should be considered more often. The objective of this research is to use alternative materials available in Andalusia that are suitable for use as a growing medium in green walls, using organic residues generated by agriculture as in this case the rice husk, compared to conventional and used materials as a growing media in green walls such as coconut fiber and rock wool. The physical-chemical characteristics of the water were analyzed through the collection of excess irrigation water, after passing through the prototypes of green walls, installed in the Rabanales Campus of the University of Córdoba between April and July 2016 and thus observe the feasibility of using rice husk as an alternative material. The 16 mm diameter irrigation pipes are at the top and middle of each module, with 12 adjustable drippers of 4 l / h for each module, 72 drippers in the whole experimental green wall prototype installed at every 15 centimeters of tube. Two different species of plant material (Lampranthus spectabilis) and (Lavandula stoechas), were selected, taking into account the solar exposition of the place of establishment of the prototype of the green wall and the easy acquisition of these plants in the region. Water samples were collected every day twice a day for 10 weeks of the experiment, taking a sample of the surplus runoff water from six green wall prototypes.PH 40 - pH - conductivity - TDS - temperature, CRISON. Differences in pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity and total solids of the treatments were examined by ANOVA with the test of normality and homogeneity of variances. It was observed that the substrates used in the prototypes of the

  17. Solid-state fermentation of rice straw residues for its use as growing medium in ornamental nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belal, Elsayed B.; El-Mahrouk, M. E.

    2010-11-01

    This work was conducted at a private nursery in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate to investigate the bioconversion of rice straw into a soil-like substrate (SLS) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trichoderma hazianum and the possibility of using rice straw compost in ornamental nurseries as a partial or total replacement of coconut peat (CP) and vermiculite (V) in the growing medium. The results showed that rice straw could be treated better by aerobic fermentation. The authors used five mixtures as follows: (1) Control (CP+V at 1:1 v/v), (2) SLS (100%), (3) SLS+CP (1:1 v/v), (4) SLS+V (1:1 v/v), and (5) SLS+CP+V (1:1:1 v/v/v). Data were recorded as seedling height, no. of leaves, shoot fresh and dry weights, root length and root fresh and dry weights in order to assess the quality of both transplants of Althea rosea (hollyhock) and Calendula officinalis (scotch marigold). Hollyhock seedlings grown in medium containing a mixture of SLS+CP+V displayed quality traits similar to those recorded from the control treatment, while scotch marigold seedlings in the same medium followed the control medium in quality.

  18. Capability and quality assessment of rice growing hydric soils in majuli river island, assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskara Phaneendra Bhaskar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The  wetland soils in  majuli island is a unique in maintaining rice ecology and geoenvironment in Brahmaputra valley of Assam  due to increasing  rate of  bankline erosion in southern bank  and expansion of channel bars on northern banks. These hydric soils in the subgroups of aquents and aquepts are  saturated throughout year as assessed from depleted matrix with hue 10YR, 2.5Y and 5Y, chroma less than 2, stratified textures, neutral to slightly alkaline reaction, low cation exchange capacity  and poor exchangeable base status. The  assessment of land capability and soil quality  for rice production in   hydric soils  was conducted on twenty four soil mapping units derived from reconnaissance soil survey done on 1:50000 scale.  As per  land capability  assessment, these soils are  good(classII to fairly good(IV for arable use with limitations of low fertility status, moderate to severe wetness and moderate to rapid permeability. The soil quality rating with  multiple variable indicator transform(MVIT technique  of  twenty hydric soil units in active and old floodplains was  medium (35 to 65per cent with six indicators(pH, organic carbon, base saturation, effective rooting depth , structure and texture meeting the thresh hold value  above 65 per cent.  Thirty five  per cent of total area is suitable for rice cultivation as against the current cropped area of 7.2 per cent with potassium and zinc deficiency. The determination of soil quality in relation to land capability was found useful to design best management practices for wetlands in the region that ensure sustainable land use.

  19. Enhanced DEA model with undesirable output and interval data for rice growing farmers performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sahubar Ali Mohd. Nadhar, E-mail: sahubar@uum.edu.my; Ramli, Razamin, E-mail: razamin@uum.edu.my; Baten, M. D. Azizul, E-mail: baten-math@yahoo.com [School of Quantitative Sciences, UUM College of Arts and Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah (Malaysia)

    2015-12-11

    Agricultural production process typically produces two types of outputs which are economic desirable as well as environmentally undesirable outputs (such as greenhouse gas emission, nitrate leaching, effects to human and organisms and water pollution). In efficiency analysis, this undesirable outputs cannot be ignored and need to be included in order to obtain the actual estimation of firms efficiency. Additionally, climatic factors as well as data uncertainty can significantly affect the efficiency analysis. There are a number of approaches that has been proposed in DEA literature to account for undesirable outputs. Many researchers has pointed that directional distance function (DDF) approach is the best as it allows for simultaneous increase in desirable outputs and reduction of undesirable outputs. Additionally, it has been found that interval data approach is the most suitable to account for data uncertainty as it is much simpler to model and need less information regarding its distribution and membership function. In this paper, an enhanced DEA model based on DDF approach that considers undesirable outputs as well as climatic factors and interval data is proposed. This model will be used to determine the efficiency of rice farmers who produces undesirable outputs and operates under uncertainty. It is hoped that the proposed model will provide a better estimate of rice farmers’ efficiency.

  20. Enhanced DEA model with undesirable output and interval data for rice growing farmers performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Sahubar Ali Mohd. Nadhar; Ramli, Razamin; Baten, M. D. Azizul

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural production process typically produces two types of outputs which are economic desirable as well as environmentally undesirable outputs (such as greenhouse gas emission, nitrate leaching, effects to human and organisms and water pollution). In efficiency analysis, this undesirable outputs cannot be ignored and need to be included in order to obtain the actual estimation of firms efficiency. Additionally, climatic factors as well as data uncertainty can significantly affect the efficiency analysis. There are a number of approaches that has been proposed in DEA literature to account for undesirable outputs. Many researchers has pointed that directional distance function (DDF) approach is the best as it allows for simultaneous increase in desirable outputs and reduction of undesirable outputs. Additionally, it has been found that interval data approach is the most suitable to account for data uncertainty as it is much simpler to model and need less information regarding its distribution and membership function. In this paper, an enhanced DEA model based on DDF approach that considers undesirable outputs as well as climatic factors and interval data is proposed. This model will be used to determine the efficiency of rice farmers who produces undesirable outputs and operates under uncertainty. It is hoped that the proposed model will provide a better estimate of rice farmers’ efficiency

  1. Enhanced DEA model with undesirable output and interval data for rice growing farmers performance assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sahubar Ali Mohd. Nadhar; Ramli, Razamin; Baten, M. D. Azizul

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural production process typically produces two types of outputs which are economic desirable as well as environmentally undesirable outputs (such as greenhouse gas emission, nitrate leaching, effects to human and organisms and water pollution). In efficiency analysis, this undesirable outputs cannot be ignored and need to be included in order to obtain the actual estimation of firms efficiency. Additionally, climatic factors as well as data uncertainty can significantly affect the efficiency analysis. There are a number of approaches that has been proposed in DEA literature to account for undesirable outputs. Many researchers has pointed that directional distance function (DDF) approach is the best as it allows for simultaneous increase in desirable outputs and reduction of undesirable outputs. Additionally, it has been found that interval data approach is the most suitable to account for data uncertainty as it is much simpler to model and need less information regarding its distribution and membership function. In this paper, an enhanced DEA model based on DDF approach that considers undesirable outputs as well as climatic factors and interval data is proposed. This model will be used to determine the efficiency of rice farmers who produces undesirable outputs and operates under uncertainty. It is hoped that the proposed model will provide a better estimate of rice farmers' efficiency.

  2. Effects of full fat rice bran and defatted rice bran on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Gloria A; Overholt, Martin F; Dilger, Anna C; Boler, Dustin D; Stein, Hans H

    2018-06-04

    The objective was to test the hypothesis that increasing inclusion levels of full fat rice bran (FFRB) or defatted rice bran (DFRB) are not detrimental to growth or carcass characteristics, longissimus muscle (LM) quality, or fat quality when fed to growing-finishing pigs. A total of 224 barrows and gilts were randomly allotted to 7 treatments, with 4 pigs per pen and 8 pen replicates per treatment. Pigs had an average initial BW of 28.2 ± 4.1 kg and a 3-phase feeding program was used. A basal diet containing corn and soybean meal, 3 diets containing corn, soybean meal, and 10, 20, or 30% FFRB, and 3 diets containing corn, soybean meal, and 10, 20, or 30% DFRB were formulated within each phase. Daily feed allotments and pig BW at the start of the experiment and at the conclusion of each phase were recorded. On the last day of the experiment, 1 pig per pen was harvested and carcass characteristics, LM quality, and fat quality were determined. For the overall experimental period, no effects of dietary treatments were observed for average daily gain. However, average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased (linear, P < 0.05) and gain to feed ratio (G:F) increased (linear, P < 0.05) for pigs fed diets with increasing concentrations of FFRB. In contrast, ADFI increased linearly (P < 0.05) and G:F decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as DFRB was included in the diets. There were no effects of dietary treatments on LM quality. The length of the bellies decreased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) as the inclusion of FFRB or DFRB increased in the diets. The concentration of crude fat in the adipose tissue of pigs increased linearly (P < 0.05) as the concentration of FFRB or DFRB increased in the diets. The concentration of saturated fatty acids in the adipose tissue of pigs fed diets containing FFRB decreased (linear, P < 0.05), whereas the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (linear, P < 0.05). In contrast, addition of DFRB did not affect the concentration of

  3. Land Use Alters the Plant-Derived Carbon and Nitrogen Pools in Terraced Rice Paddies in a Mountain Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Shimoda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, terraced paddies in mountain villages are symbolic of the traditional landscape, but they are gradually being abandoned. To compare plant-derived C and N among land uses, we compared adjacent forest floor (FF, agricultural paddy (AP, and post-agricultural paddy (PP sites. Long-term litter accumulation could explain the significantly higher litter C and belowground biomass C in FF than in AP and PP. The low-density-fraction (LF soil C was significantly higher in FF than in PP and better reflected land use than the whole-soil C. The AP soil held more N than FF and PP at 20–30 cm, associated with higher LF soil N. Periodic tillage in AP maintains the LF soil N, but N supplied to the surface soil reduced with depth following abandonment. Differences in recycling of organic matter and nutrients among land uses are crucial to plant-derived C and N contents of soil.

  4. Rice growing farmers efficiency measurement using a slack based interval DEA model with undesirable outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sahubar Ali Mohd. Nadhar; Ramli, Razamin; Baten, M. D. Azizul

    2017-11-01

    In recent years eco-efficiency which considers the effect of production process on environment in determining the efficiency of firms have gained traction and a lot of attention. Rice farming is one of such production processes which typically produces two types of outputs which are economic desirable as well as environmentally undesirable. In efficiency analysis, these undesirable outputs cannot be ignored and need to be included in the model to obtain the actual estimation of firm's efficiency. There are numerous approaches that have been used in data envelopment analysis (DEA) literature to account for undesirable outputs of which directional distance function (DDF) approach is the most widely used as it allows for simultaneous increase in desirable outputs and reduction of undesirable outputs. Additionally, slack based DDF DEA approaches considers the output shortfalls and input excess in determining efficiency. In situations when data uncertainty is present, the deterministic DEA model is not suitable to be used as the effects of uncertain data will not be considered. In this case, it has been found that interval data approach is suitable to account for data uncertainty as it is much simpler to model and need less information regarding the underlying data distribution and membership function. The proposed model uses an enhanced DEA model which is based on DDF approach and incorporates slack based measure to determine efficiency in the presence of undesirable factors and data uncertainty. Interval data approach was used to estimate the values of inputs, undesirable outputs and desirable outputs. Two separate slack based interval DEA models were constructed for optimistic and pessimistic scenarios. The developed model was used to determine rice farmers efficiency from Kepala Batas, Kedah. The obtained results were later compared to the results obtained using a deterministic DDF DEA model. The study found that 15 out of 30 farmers are efficient in all cases. It

  5. Isotopic tracer studies to evaluate relative efficiency of different forms of P for growing rice on different soil types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, R N; Mohanty, S K; Patnaik, S [Central Rice Research Inst., Cuttack (India)

    1977-12-01

    The relative efficiency of different forms of P in relation to their time of application for growing rice on different soil types has been studied by using /sup 32/P tagged mono-, di-, and tri-calcium phosphate, ammonium nitrate phosphate containing all the P in the citrate-soluble form and potassium meta-phosphate. P-deficient acid laterite soil from Burdwan, red loam soil from Peramanpur and calcareous black soil from Hyderabad were used in the study. The different P forms were found to be compatible in the acid, red and laterite soils when the phosphorus forms were primed to moist acid soils 2 weeks prior to flooding. On application at flooding, fertilizers containing citrate-soluble phosphate were found to be less effective as compared to those containing water-soluble phosphate. In the calcareous black soil, however, the fertilizers, containing insoluble or citrate-soluble phosphates were not as efficient as the water-soluble forms, possibly because of lack of dissolution process. Potassium meta-phosphate was found to be effective in all the soil types whether applied at flooding or primed to the moist soil.

  6. Isotopic tracer studies to evaluate relative efficiency of different forms of P for growing rice on different soil types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, R.N.; Mohanty, S.K.; Patnaik, S.

    1977-01-01

    The relative efficiency of different forms of P in relation to their time of application for growing rice on different soil types has been studied by using 32 P tagged mono-, di-, and tri-calcium phosphate, ammonium nitrate phosphate containing all the P in the citrate-soluble form and potassium meta-phosphate. P-deficient acid laterite soil from Burdwan, red loam soil from Peramanpur and calcareous black soil from Hyderabad were used in the study. The different P forms were found to be compatible in the acid, red and laterite soils when the phosphorus forms were primed to moist acid soils 2 weeks prior to flooding. On application at flooding, fertilizers containing citrate-soluble phosphate were found to be less effective as compared to those containing water-soluble phosphate. In the calcareous black soil, however, the fertilizers, containing insoluble or citrate-soluble phosphates were not as efficient as the water-soluble forms, possibly because of lack of dissolution process. Potassium meta-phosphate was found to be effective in all the soil types whether applied at flooding or primed to the moist soil. (M.G.B.)

  7. Studies on the abnormality of embryo sac and pollen fertility in aurotetraploid rice during different growing seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.; Jilanfan, S.; Changmin, W.; Peng, Z.; Xiang-dong, X.

    2010-01-01

    Auto tetraploid rice has a great genetic potential but low seed setting rate is the major encumbrance in its use. Embryo sac fertility and pollen fertility are the most important factors which affect the seed setting rate in auto tetraploid rice. Whole mount eosin B-staining confocal laser scanning microscopy (WE-CLSM) was used to study the fertility and abnormalities in embryo sacs of diploid and auto tetraploid rice during different seasons. The results indicated that the embryo sac fertility (64.5%) was much low in auto tetraploid than that in diploid rice (86%), and five main types of abnormal embryo sac were found in all 10 auto tetraploid rice. Moreover, some other type abnormal embryo sacs were also observed in auto tetraploid rice. Embryo sac without female germ unit and embryo sac degeneration were the most frequent types of abnormalities in auto tetraploid rice. Embryo sac fertility ranged from 49.3% to 79.3%, pollen fertility ranged from 56.2 to 85.9%, and seed setting rate varied from 12.5 to 69.01% in various genotypes of auto tetraploid rice. Embryo sac and pollen fertility were found to have a significant correlation with seed setting rate. Seasons have significant effect on pollen and embryo sac fertility in both type of rice. All the auto tetraploid lines exhibited different types of embryo sac abnormalities which indicated that these might be related to different genotypes. (author)

  8. Mapping and characterizing mangrove rice growing environments in West-Africa using remote sensing and secondary data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adefurin, O.; Hamdy, M; Zwart, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Rice is one of the major staple foods consumed in Africa and its demand continues to increase as a result of population growth, urbanization and changing diets. Mangrove rice cultivation is of importance along the West-African Atlantic coast from Senegal and Gambia down to Guinea-Bissau,

  9. /sup 32/P tracer studies on the efficiency of ammonium nitrate phosphates and polyphosphates for growing rice on different soil types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadanandan, A K; Mohanty, S K; Patnaik, S [Central Rice Research Inst., Cuttack (India); Mistry, K B [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biology and Agriculture Div.

    1980-12-01

    A pot experiment was conducted with /sup 32/P tagged phosphates to evaluate the efficiency of ammonium nitrate phosphate containing 30, 50 and 70 percent of P in the water soluble form, tri- and tetra-ammonium pyrophosphate, as compared with mono-ammonium ortho-phosphate (MAP) for growing rice on red, laterite and black soils, with regard to recovery of applied P in soil, dry matter production and utilization of applied P by crop at flowering and grain and straw yield at harvest. Ammonium nitrate phosphates containing 50 percent or more of P in the water soluble form could be used for growing rice on all soil types. The pyrophosphates were as efficient as MAP on soils having pH 6.2 and above but less efficient in soils of lower pH.

  10. Influence of irradiated chitosan on rice plants growing in hydroponic medium contaminated with salt and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, N.D.; Diep, T.B.; Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-01-01

    Effect of chitosan and radiation-degraded chitosan on rice seedlings of a Vietnam's original variety was investigated. Potential of irradiated chitosan in plant tolerance for several stress factors (salt, zinc, and vanadium) also was studied as well. Chitosan represented in hydroponic medium clearly inhibited the growth of rice seedlings at concentrations arranging from 50 ppm. Radiation processing of chitosan with dose higher than 100 kGy reduced toxicity of chitosan and the efficacy was of dose proportion. Rice plant of 203 origin was almost normally grown in hydroponic solution containing chitosan that has been irradiated with dose of 150 and 200 kGy. Irradiated chitosan increased plant resistance to environmental stress caused by vanadium (V); thereby the seedlings could be recovered completely, even gained in biomass. This effect was not appeared when applied chitosan to rice in media contaminated by zinc (Zn) and salt (NaCl). The selectness of irradiated chitosan on various stress factors partly clarified the assistant action of chitosan in the vanadium intoxication because chelating with metal ions could not be evaluated as main mechanism. (author)

  11. Trace gas fluxes from intensively managed rice and soybean fields across three growing seasons in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Oliveira Junior; Michael Keller; P. Crill; T. Beldini; J. Van Haren; P. Camargo

    2015-01-01

    The emission of gases that may potentially intensify the greenhouse effect has received special attention due to their ability to raise global temperatures and possibly modify conditions for life on earth. The objectives of this study were the quantification of trace gas flux (N2O, CO2 and CH4) in soils of the lower Amazon basin that are planted with rice and soybean,...

  12. In Situ Biodiesel Production from Fast-Growing and High Oil Content Chlorella pyrenoidosa in Rice Straw Hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Penglin; Miao, Xiaoling; Li, Rongxiu; Zhong, Jianjiang

    2011-01-01

    Rice straw hydrolysate was used as lignocellulose-based carbon source for Chlorella pyrenoidosa cultivation and the feasibility of in situ biodiesel production was investigated. 13.7 g/L sugar was obtained by enzymatic hydrolyzation of rice straw. Chlorella pyrenoidosa showed a rapid growth in the rice straw hydrolysate medium, the maximum biomass concentration of 2.83 g/L was obtained in only 48 hours. The lipid content of the cells reached as high as 56.3%. In situ transesterification was performed for biodiesel production. The optimized condition was 1 g algal powder, 6 mL n-hexane, and 4 mL methanol with 0.5 M sulfuric acid at the temperature of 90°C in 2-hour reaction time, under which over 99% methyl ester content and about 95% biodiesel yield were obtained. The results suggested that the method has great potential in the production of biofuels with lignocellulose as an alternative carbon source for microalgae cultivation. PMID:21318171

  13. Rice herbicide monitoring in two Brazilian rivers during the rice growing season Monitoramento de herbicidas em dois rios brasileiros durante o período de cultivo do arroz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Marchesan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated rice production can involve environmental contamination with pesticides due to the proximity of the fields to rivers and to management problems. During three years (2000 to 2003 the rice herbicides clomazone, propanil and quinclorac were quantified in water during the rice growing season, in the Vacacaí and Vacacaí-Mirim Rivers, located in Rio Grande do Sul (RS State, Brazil. Water samples were taken at several locations in each river, selected by their importance in terms of rice drainage area. The samples were analyzed by HPLC-UV. At least one herbicide was detected in 41% of the samples from the Vacacaí River and 33% from the Vacacaí-Mirim River. The most frequent herbicide in both rivers and in each year was clomazone. The amount of herbicides in the river water was dependent on the rainfall regime. River water contamination by rice herbicides is probably caused by the rice water management used in the fields. The maintenance of flooded areas makes herbicides prone to contaminate the environment. To reduce the environmental contamination risk it is necessary to adopt measures to avoid overflow of flooded rice fields, keeping paddy water in the field for time enough to reduce the herbicide concentration before its release and enhancing the quality of the levees to reduce the probability of paddy rice overflow.No cultivo de arroz irrigado a possibilidade de contaminação dos mananciais hídricos é ampliada pelas características peculiares das áreas e do sistema de produção. Um estudo de monitoramento foi conduzido durante três anos (2000 a 2003, nos rios Vacacaí e Vacacaí-Mirim, localizados no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, buscando quantificar os herbicidas clomazone, propanil e quinclorac durante o período de cultivo do arroz. As amostras de água foram coletadas em vários locais em cada rio. Os locais de coleta foram selecionados pela importância em termos da captação da água de drenagem. As amostras foram

  14. Study of Starch and Sugar Degradation and Transformation During Biotreatment Process of Wastewater from Rice Vermicelli Production at Craft Villages in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Minh Sang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available All steps in the rice vermicelli production discharged a big volume of wastewater containing significant amount of starch and sugar, except rice soaking. During the microbiological treatment, its known that starch, sugar or other carbon hydrates were disintegrated and transformed into finally simple molecular such as methane, carbon dioxide and water. But how is it happened is a question need to be further investigated. The result of this work partly showed out that, in the aerobic biotreatment process, starch and sugar concentration was continuously decreased in unchanged pH value during the treatment process. This counted that there was the biodegradation overwhelmed. The concentration of starch and sugar in biomass was sharply increased at the beginning hours was determined as a result of adsorption of organic matter on the biomass. However, in the anaerobic process, the variation of starch and sugar concentration was more complicated. The increase of sugar concentration in acidic phase was considered as a result of the chemical hydrolysis beside biodegradation of the starch. In this very work, in the different stages of treatment processes, the disintegration rates of starch and sugar were determined and their distribution in the solution and in the biomass during the treatment processes was discussed.

  15. Effect of different N fertilizer forms on antioxidant capacity and grain yield of rice growing under Cd stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalloh, Mohamed Alpha; Chen Jinghong; Zhen Fanrong; Zhang Guoping

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium contamination in soil has become a serious issue in sustainable agriculture production and food safety. A pot experiment was conducted to study the influence of four N fertilizer forms on grain yield, Cd concentration in plant tissues and oxidative stress under two Cd levels (0 and 100 mg Cd kg -1 soil). The results showed that both N form and Cd stress affected grain yield, with urea-N and NH 4 + -N treatments having significantly higher grain yields, and Cd addition reducing yield. NO 3 - -N and NH 4 + -N treated plants had the highest and lowest Cd concentration in plant tissues, respectively. Urea-N and NH 4 + -N treatments had significantly higher N accumulation in plant tissues than other two N treatments. Cd addition caused a significant increase in leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities for all N treatments, except for NO 3 - -N treatment, with urea-N and NH 4 + -N treated plants having more increase than organic-N treated ones. The results indicated that growth inhibition, yield reduction and Cd uptake of rice plants in response to Cd addition varied with the N fertilizer form

  16. Effect of different N fertilizer forms on antioxidant capacity and grain yield of rice growing under Cd stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalloh, Mohamed Alpha; Chen, Jinghong; Zhen, Fanrong; Zhang, Guoping

    2009-03-15

    Cadmium contamination in soil has become a serious issue in sustainable agriculture production and food safety. A pot experiment was conducted to study the influence of four N fertilizer forms on grain yield, Cd concentration in plant tissues and oxidative stress under two Cd levels (0 and 100 mg Cd kg(-1)soil). The results showed that both N form and Cd stress affected grain yield, with urea-N and NH(4)(+)-N treatments having significantly higher grain yields, and Cd addition reducing yield. NO(3)(-)-N and NH(4)(+)-N treated plants had the highest and lowest Cd concentration in plant tissues, respectively. Urea-N and NH(4)(+)-N treatments had significantly higher N accumulation in plant tissues than other two N treatments. Cd addition caused a significant increase in leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities for all N treatments, except for NO(3)(-)-N treatment, with urea-N and NH(4)(+)-N treated plants having more increase than organic-N treated ones. The results indicated that growth inhibition, yield reduction and Cd uptake of rice plants in response to Cd addition varied with the N fertilizer form.

  17. Effect of different N fertilizer forms on antioxidant capacity and grain yield of rice growing under Cd stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalloh, Mohamed Alpha; Chen Jinghong; Zhen Fanrong [Department of Agronomy, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhang Guoping [Department of Agronomy, Huajiachi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)], E-mail: zhanggp@zju.edu.cn

    2009-03-15

    Cadmium contamination in soil has become a serious issue in sustainable agriculture production and food safety. A pot experiment was conducted to study the influence of four N fertilizer forms on grain yield, Cd concentration in plant tissues and oxidative stress under two Cd levels (0 and 100 mg Cd kg{sup -1} soil). The results showed that both N form and Cd stress affected grain yield, with urea-N and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N treatments having significantly higher grain yields, and Cd addition reducing yield. NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N treated plants had the highest and lowest Cd concentration in plant tissues, respectively. Urea-N and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N treatments had significantly higher N accumulation in plant tissues than other two N treatments. Cd addition caused a significant increase in leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities for all N treatments, except for NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N treatment, with urea-N and NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N treated plants having more increase than organic-N treated ones. The results indicated that growth inhibition, yield reduction and Cd uptake of rice plants in response to Cd addition varied with the N fertilizer form.

  18. Modification of working conditions based on ergo THK reducing workload, muscle tension, and fatigue of rice milling workers in J village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruliati, L. P.; Adiputra, N.; Sutjana, I. D. P.; Sutajaya, I. M.

    2017-11-01

    Rice mill is one of the businesses in informal sector. From the rice milling process, ergonomic problems arise when employees work with bent position that done repeatedly to lift grain sacks to be transferred to peeler machine. This situation will affect the comfort of work, thus increasing the workload, muscle tension, and fatigue. The consequence will certainly affect the health and productivity of workers. In this study introduces ergo Tri Hita Karana (ergo THK) as an ergonomics intervention model which solves ergonomics problems of the cultural aspects of THK. The study aim is to determine the modification of working conditions based Ergo THK to reduce workload, muscle tension and fatigue. This research uses Randomized Pretest and Posttest Control Group Design experimental design. The subjects were 30 male rice mill workers with an age range of 16 until 56 years, and then divided into 15 subjects in the control group and 15 subjects in the treatment group. The results showed that the average posttest workloads in the control group are 136.950 more less 0.297 and in the treatment group are 107.60 more less 0.396. Significance analysis showed that after the two groups done their activities, the average workload significantly different p less than 0.005. The amount of reduction in the workload between the two groups was 21.43 percent. In muscle tension posttest showed that the mean score of the muscle tension in the control group was 62.67 more less 7.31 and the treatment group was 20.96 more less 2.96. Significance analysis showed that both groups mean muscle-tension results were significantly different p less than 0.005. The amount of reduction in tension between the control group and the treatment group while working was 66.55 percent. At fatigue posttest showed that the mean score of fatigue in the control group was 76.40 more less 13.51 and the treatment group was 55.53 more less 9.51. Significant analysis showed that the mean fatigue of both groups

  19. Prevalence and effect of schistosome and soil-transmitted helminth infection on labour input in rice-growing communities of Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Olufemi Sam-Wobo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH are public health problems in communities which lack basic social amenities with poor hygienic conditions. Studies were carried out to determine the prevalence and effect of schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths infection on labour input on rice production in 9 rice-growing communities of Ogun State. Parasitological examinations of urine and faecal samples, and structured questionnaires were conducted on 243 consented individuals from May 2009 to March 2010. The results showed an overall prevalence of 17% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 12% for hookworms, 2% for Trichuris trichiura, 1% for Schistosoma haematobium and 1% for Schistosoma mansoni. A. lumbricoides and hookworms were more prevalent in Agbajege (25%, and varied in the other 8 communities. T. trichiura was prevalent in three communities, Agbajege (5%, Akodu (4.2%, and Moloko-Asipa (4.8 %; S. haematobium was prevalent only in Ayedere (2.6% and Lufoko (8%, while S. mansoni was prevalent only in Moloko-Asipa (9.5%. Infections among the gender were varied as 26.3 % of males and 33.8 % of females had an overall prevalence of: A. lumbricoides (16.8%, hookworms (11.8%, T. trichiura (1.6%, S. haematobium (1.1% and S. mansoni (1.1%. On frequency of infection to incapacitation per year, 45% of respondents were incapacitated 1-2 times, 27% 3-4 times and 19% were incapacitated more than 4 times. Understanding the effect of these two diseases will not only improve the health status of residents but also increase their productivity and ensure food security.

  20. Dynamics of multiple insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in a rice growing area in South-Western Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouédraogo Jean-Bosco

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide resistance of the main malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, has been reported in south-western Burkina Faso, West Africa. Cross-resistance to DDT and pyrethroids was conferred by alterations at site of action in the sodium channel, the Leu-Phe kdr mutation; resistance to organophosphates and carbamates resulted from a single point mutation in the oxyanion hole of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme designed as ace-1R. Methods An entomological survey was carried out during the rainy season of 2005 at Vallée du Kou, a rice growing area in south-western Burkina Faso. At the Vallée du Kou, both insecticide resistance mechanisms have been previously described in the M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae. This survey aimed i to update the temporal dynamics and the circumsporozoite infection rate of the two molecular forms M and S of An. gambiae ii to update the frequency of the Leu-Phe kdr mutation within these forms and finally iii to investigate the occurrence of the ace-1R mutation. Mosquitoes collected by indoor residual collection and by human landing catches were counted and morphologically identified. Species and molecular forms of An. gambiae, ace-1R and Leu-Phe kdr mutations were determined using PCR techniques. The presence of the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum was determined using ELISA. Results Anopheles gambiae populations were dominated by the M form. However the S form occurred in relative important proportion towards the end of the rainy season with a maximum peak in October at 51%. Sporozoite rates were similar in both forms. The frequency of the Leu-Phe kdr mutation in the S form reached a fixation level while it is still spreading in the M form. Furthermore, the ace-1R mutation prevailed predominately in the S form and has just started spreading in the M form. The two mutations occurred concomitantly both in M and S populations. Conclusion These results showed that the Vallée du Kou

  1. Compositional analyses of white, brown and germinated forms of popular Malaysian rice to offer insight into the growing diet-related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Bilyaminu Abubakar; Hafeez Muhammad Yakasai; Norhasnida Zawawi; Maznah Ismail

    2018-01-01

    Diet-related metabolic diseases, and especially obesity, are metabolic disorders with multifactorial aetiologies. Diet has been a cornerstone in both the aetiology and management of this metabolic disorders. Rice, a staple food for over half of the world's population, could be exploited as part of the solution to check this menace which has been skyrocketing in the last decade. The present study investigated nine forms of rice from three widely grown Malaysian rice cultivars for in vitro and ...

  2. Compositional analyses of white, brown and germinated forms of popular Malaysian rice to offer insight into the growing diet-related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilyaminu Abubakar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Diet-related metabolic diseases, and especially obesity, are metabolic disorders with multifactorial aetiologies. Diet has been a cornerstone in both the aetiology and management of this metabolic disorders. Rice, a staple food for over half of the world's population, could be exploited as part of the solution to check this menace which has been skyrocketing in the last decade. The present study investigated nine forms of rice from three widely grown Malaysian rice cultivars for in vitro and in vivo (glycaemic index and load properties that could translate clinically into a lower predisposition to diet-related diseases. The germinated brown forms of MRQ 74 and MR 84 rice cultivars had high amylose content percentages (25.7% and 25.0%, high relative percentage antioxidant scavenging abilities of 85.0% and 91.7%, relatively low glycaemic indices (67.6 and 64.3 and glycaemic load (32.3 and 30.1 values, and modest glucose uptake capabilities of 33.69% and 31.25%, respectively. The results show that all things being equal, rice cultivars that are germinated and high in amylose content when compared to their white and low amylose counterparts could translate into a lower predisposition to diet-related diseases from the dietary point of view in individuals who consume this cereal as a staple food. Keywords: Brown rice, Diet-related metabolic diseases, Germinated brown rice, White rice

  3. The feasibility of crop diversification in rice based cropping systems in haor ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Shopan, J.; Bhuiya, M.S.U.; Kader, M.A.; Hasan, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in five farmers’ field in Dingaputa haor of Purba Tetulia village, Mohangonj Upazila in Netrakona district during the period from 20 July 2010 to 15 May 2011. The objective of the study was to determine the feasibility of growing short duration vegetable and oil crops in seasonal fallow of Boro rice-Fallow-Fallow cropping patterns in terms of both combined yields and economic performance. Six short duration vegetables such as potato, red amaranth, stem amaranth, sp...

  4. (PGMS) rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... tics, led us to predict that pollen cell abortion in this type of rice when ... averages of natural day-light-lengths and temperatures were used. A natural long ... blocks were allowed to grow under natural growth conditions (which.

  5. Compositional analyses of white, brown and germinated forms of popular Malaysian rice to offer insight into the growing diet-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Bilyaminu; Yakasai, Hafeez Muhammad; Zawawi, Norhasnida; Ismail, Maznah

    2018-04-01

    Diet-related metabolic diseases, and especially obesity, are metabolic disorders with multifactorial aetiologies. Diet has been a cornerstone in both the aetiology and management of this metabolic disorders. Rice, a staple food for over half of the world's population, could be exploited as part of the solution to check this menace which has been skyrocketing in the last decade. The present study investigated nine forms of rice from three widely grown Malaysian rice cultivars for in vitro and in vivo (glycaemic index and load) properties that could translate clinically into a lower predisposition to diet-related diseases. The germinated brown forms of MRQ 74 and MR 84 rice cultivars had high amylose content percentages (25.7% and 25.0%), high relative percentage antioxidant scavenging abilities of 85.0% and 91.7%, relatively low glycaemic indices (67.6 and 64.3) and glycaemic load (32.3 and 30.1) values, and modest glucose uptake capabilities of 33.69% and 31.25%, respectively. The results show that all things being equal, rice cultivars that are germinated and high in amylose content when compared to their white and low amylose counterparts could translate into a lower predisposition to diet-related diseases from the dietary point of view in individuals who consume this cereal as a staple food. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Barns Society as a Buffer Stock (Case in Nglaris Village Bener District Purworejo Regency)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riptanti, E. W.; Qonita, A.; Suprapti

    2017-04-01

    Nglaris village is a mountainous area with most of its agricultural lands are used for growing annual crops, while only small agricultural areas are for growing rice. However, the post-harvest storage, in the form of barn society, can supply the people’s needs of rice. Article describes the function of barn society as a buffer for foods supply. Research design was exploratory research, aims to generate in-depth qualitative and contextual data. The technique applied in this research was a case study. The cost for barn society maintenance was collected from the joint venture between farmers united in the barn society group. The barn society has 20 tons capacity for unhulled rice. The farmers obtained the income from working during the harvest time and become a labour harvester to outside Nglaris or called “boro”. The farmer (field owner) gave natura wages (“bawon”). Bawon calculated based on the result of total harvested unhulled. Supply for buffer of foods in the dry season was at least 50% of the capacity barn society’s, so that it can secure the supplies of staple foods. The barn society is specifically advantageous during the dry season because each farmer could lend and should be returned within one year.

  7. Phytase enzyme in diets containing defatted rice bran for growing swine Enzima fitase dietas com farelo de arroz desengordurado para suínos em crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Moreira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic phosphorus is poorly utilized by monogastric animals because they lack phytase, the enzyme that cleaves the ortho-phosphate groups from the phytate molecule. Diets fed to pigs are supplemented with inorganic P, and this can increase environmental pollution and diet costs. Sixty mixed sex, half-breed pigs, were used to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary levels of phytase (253, 759, 1265 and 1748 PU kg-1 feed on animal performance as compared to a control without phytase but supplemented with dicalcium phosphate. Enzyme levels did not affect daily feed intake, food conversion, average daily weight gain, plasma P and Ca, calcium and phosphorus in bone ash, and the calcium/phosphorus ratio in the plasma and bones. A quadratic relationship between phytase levels and the percentages of P and Ca in bone ash was observed, reaching a maximum at the 880 and 879 PU levels, respectively. Animals fed diets containing phytase presented low plasma P values when compared to the control, but no effects were observed for the regression analysis. Using 759 PU phytase in rations containing corn, soybean bran and defatted rice bran for growing pigs can eliminate the use of traditional sources of P.Os animais monogástricos não aproveitam eficientemente o P orgânico das dietas, pois não sintetizam a enzima fitase, sendo necessária a suplementação das rações com P inorgânico, podendo elevar o custo das dietas e a poluição ambiental. Foram utilizados 60 leitões mestiços (machos castrados e fêmeas para avaliar a eficácia dos níveis dietéticos crescentes da enzima fitase (253, 759, 1265 e 1748 UF kg-1 de ração sobre os parâmetros de desempenho e comparar com o tratamento testemunha que diferia dos demais por não conter fitase e por conter fosfato bicálcico. Os níveis da enzima fitase não afetaram o consumo diário de ração, conversão alimentar, ganho diário de peso, P e Ca no plasma, cinzas no osso e relação cálcio e f

  8. VT Boundaries - village polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The BNDHASH dataset depicts Vermont villages, towns, counties, Regional Planning Commissions (RPC), and LEPC (Local Emergency Planning Committee)...

  9. A village group, Trashibiola

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, John, 1837-1921, photographer

    2003-01-01

    158 x 111 mm. Woodburytype. A view showing a group of villagers seated in a paved courtyard in front of a stonewalled house (the principal house in the village). The village is near the town of Paphos. The photograph appears in Thomson's 'Through Cyprus with the camera, in the autumn of 1878' (vol.2, London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington, 1879). Thomson states that the purpose of the gathering was twofold: to welcome strangers to the village and to discuss a point of law c...

  10. KWAKIUTL VILLAGE AND SCHOOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WOLCOTT, HARRY F.

    THE AUTHOR'S ONE-YEAR RESIDENCY AS TEACHER IN A KWAKIUTL INDIAN VILLAGE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FORMS THE BASIS OF THIS CASE STUDY. WITH EMPHASIS ON THE LIVES AND FAMILIES OF 5 SCHOOL CHILDREN, THE STUDY DEALS WITH THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND OF THE VILLAGE, DISINTEGRATION OF THE INDIAN CULTURE AND THE TRANSITION TOWARD THE…

  11. It Takes a Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuharic, Pam

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an art project that allows students to create a joint community on paper. Through this project, students create imaginary villages by looking first at various architectural styles and then look at the different ways contemporary artists portray communities or architecture focusing on village scenes. The inspiration for this…

  12. Floristic diversity of the soil weed seed bank in a rice-growing area of Brazil: in situ and ex situ evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Luiz Ribeiro Mesquita

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the ex situ and in situ floristic diversity of the soil weed seed bank of a rice field in northeastern Brazil. In a rice field in the county of Bacabal, located in the state of Maranhão, thirty 25-m² plots were laid out. From 15 plots, soil samples (6/plot; n = 90 were taken with a soil probe (25 × 16 × 3 cm and placed in aluminum trays in the greenhouse. From the remaining 15 plots, weed samples (6/plot; n = 90 were taken with the same soil probe. The number of seeds was estimated by germination. We evaluated the numbers of species and individuals, as well as the density, frequency, abundance and importance value (IV for each species. Diversity was computed by the Shannon index (H'. We recorded 13,892 individuals (among 20 families, 40 genera and 60 species, of which 11,530 (among 50 species germinated ex situ and 2,362 (among 34 species germinated in situ. The family Cyperaceae had the highest number of species (16, followed by Poaceae (10. The dominant species, in situ and ex situ, were Schoenoplectus juncoides (IV=47.4% and Ludwigia octovalvis (IV=34.8%, respectively. Floristic diversity was higher ex situ (H'=2.66. The information obtained here could help determine the infestation potential of these species, which could lead to improved management strategies.

  13. Towards an agro-ecological village at the Flora Community : reducing greenhouse gas emissions through organic based farming and energy self reliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, R.; Mulkins, L. [Resource Efficient Agricultural Production-Canada, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, PQ (Canada); Amongo, L.; Yap, E. [MASIPAG, Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines); Mendoza, T. [Univ. of the Philippines Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines). Dept of Agronomy

    2000-07-01

    A former haciendero owned sugarcane plantation in Negros Occidental, Philippines was transformed into a diversified, self-reliant, agro-ecological village, and its transition is documented in this paper. In 1995, through the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program, the Philippine Government awarded 87 hectares of land to 76 hacienda workers. Community organizing, farm planning, training in organic farming, and loan support from a number of social welfare agencies were all areas where the community received assistance. The sugarcane production has been reduced at Flora since the land transition, and the community diversified into the growing of organic rice, corn and vegetables. Through its transition into an agro-ecological village, the Flora community has become more self-reliant in the areas of food and energy. Most individual farms and communally farmed areas have adopted organic based farming practices. The main products sold off the farm are sugarcane and high value vegetables. The MASIPAG rice farming system is being adhered to in the production of rice, the community's staple food. Nitrogen fixed during straw decomposition and the use of azolla, a nitrogen-fixing plant, represent some of the sources of nitrogen for the rice production. Other nutrient sources used are the mudpress from sugarcane processing and rice hull ash. To encourage nitrogen fixation and soil carbon accumulation from cane litter, a system of continuous trash farming was implemented for the production of sugarcane. In excess of 140 water buffaloes (carabaos) are employed for tillage and on-farm hauling, which minimizes the requirements for fossil fuels. Liquid propane gas (LPG), kerosene and wood fuel use in home cooking are being minimized by the efficient rice hull cookers. The local environmental impacts and greenhouse gas emissions are minimized, and the Flora community largely meets its requirements in terms of food security, on-farm energy and income. refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  14. Visiting 'J' Village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomek, J.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to entrance into twenty km evacuated zone of Fukushima Daiichi, there is so called 'J' Village. Until now, it was a centre used by the Japan football representation. Today, employees working at this locality as well as all visits pass this village. They can only enter the evacuated area in a bus, equipped with an electronic dosimeter, with a face mask, gloves, and shoe covers. (author)

  15. Rice production model based on the concept of ecological footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, S. A.; Wicaksono, A. D.; Dinanti, D.

    2017-06-01

    Pursuant to what had been stated in Region Spatial Planning (RTRW) of Malang Regency for period 2010-2030, Malang Regency was considered as the center of agricultural development, including districts bordered with Malang City. To protect the region functioning as the provider of rice production, then the policy of sustainable food farming-land (LP2B) was made which its implementation aims to protect rice-land. In the existing condition, LP2B system was not maximally executed, and it caused a limited extend of rice-land to deliver rice production output. One cause related with the development of settlements and industries due to the effect of Malang City that converted land-function. Location of research focused on 30 villages with direct border with Malang City. Review was conducted to develop a model of relation between farming production output and ecological footprint variables. These variables include rice-land area (X1), built land percentage (X2), and number of farmers (X3). Analysis technique was regression. Result of regression indicated that the model of rice production output Y=-207,983 + 10.246X1. Rice-land area (X1) was the most influential independent variable. It was concluded that of villages directly bordered with Malang City, there were 11 villages with higher production potential because their rice production yield was more than 1,000 tons/year, while 12 villages were threatened with low production output because its rice production yield only attained 500 tons/year. Based on the model and the spatial direction of RTRW, it can be said that the direction for the farming development policy must be redesigned to maintain rice-land area on the regions on which agricultural activity was still dominant. Because rice-land area was the most influential factor to farming production. Therefore, the wider the rice-land is, the higher rice production output is on each village.

  16. Grow, Baby, Grow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybe you quit smoking during your pregnancy. Or maybe you struggled and weren’t able to stay quit. Now that your baby is here, trying to stay away from smoking is still important. That’s because the chemicals in smoke can make it harder for your baby to grow like he or she should.

  17. Village Power `97. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardinal, J.; Flowers, L.; Taylor, R.; Weingart, J. [eds.

    1997-09-01

    It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services. In addition, there is a sizable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel gen-sets or partial electrification (local school or community center and several nearby houses). For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy (RE) technologies. The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. These four attributes foster sustainability; therefore, the program is entitled Renewables for Sustainable Village Power (RSVP). The RSVP program is a multi-disciplinary, multi-technology, multi-application program composed of six key activities, including village application development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and an Internet-based village power project database. The current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel gen-sets. NREL`s RSVP team is currently involved in rural electricity projects in thirteen countries, with U.S., foreign, and internationally based agencies and institutions. This document contains reports presented at the Proceedings of Village Power, 1997. Individual projects have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  18. Spatio-temporal reconstruction of air temperature maps and their application to estimate rice growing season heat accumulation using multi-temporal MODIS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-wen; Huang, Jing-feng; Guo, Rui-fang; Li, Xin-xing; Sun, Wen-bo; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2013-02-01

    The accumulation of thermal time usually represents the local heat resources to drive crop growth. Maps of temperature-based agro-meteorological indices are commonly generated by the spatial interpolation of data collected from meteorological stations with coarse geographic continuity. To solve the critical problems of estimating air temperature (T(a)) and filling in missing pixels due to cloudy and low-quality images in growing degree days (GDDs) calculation from remotely sensed data, a novel spatio-temporal algorithm for T(a) estimation from Terra and Aqua moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was proposed. This is a preliminary study to calculate heat accumulation, expressed in accumulative growing degree days (AGDDs) above 10 °C, from reconstructed T(a) based on MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data. The verification results of maximum T(a), minimum T(a), GDD, and AGDD from MODIS-derived data to meteorological calculation were all satisfied with high correlations over 0.01 significant levels. Overall, MODIS-derived AGDD was slightly underestimated with almost 10% relative error. However, the feasibility of employing AGDD anomaly maps to characterize the 2001-2010 spatio-temporal variability of heat accumulation and estimating the 2011 heat accumulation distribution using only MODIS data was finally demonstrated in the current paper. Our study may supply a novel way to calculate AGDD in heat-related study concerning crop growth monitoring, agricultural climatic regionalization, and agro-meteorological disaster detection at the regional scale.

  19. Yield and Quality Traits of some Rice Mutant Lines as Affected by Different Nitrogen Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobieh, S.El-S.S.

    2007-01-01

    Two field experiments were carried out during two growing seasons (2004 and 2005) at a farm located in Sahafa village, Sharkia Governorate, to evaluate newly rice mutants comparing with the local cultivar Sakha 104 for yield and quality characteristics as affected by nitrogen fertilizer levels. The obtained results showed that: 1- Rice grain yield and yield attributes were significantly increased with increasing N levels from 23 to 69 kg N fed '. 2- Both mutant MG 16 and MS 6 exhibited highly significant increases in mean values for yield attributes except for number of panicles/m2, as compared with the local cultivar Sakha 104. 3- Percentage of yield increases were 26.85 and 16.21 % for mutant MG16 and MS6 comparing with the local variety Sakha 104, respectively. Mutant MG 16 showed the highest mean values for plant height, panicle length, number of grains per panicle, panicle weight, 1000-grain weight, grain yield/fed, and straw yield/fed, as compared with the mutant MS 6 and Sakha 104. 4- Hulling and milling % were significantly increased as increasing of nitrogen levels from 23 to 69 kg N fed 1 , whereas head rice, gel consistency and amylose content were not significantly affect. 5- Significant differences were obtained between the three rice genotypes for hulling %, milling %, head rice %, amylose content and gel consistency

  20. Swamp Rice Production in Ogun Waterside Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the economics of swamp rice production among peasant farmers in the Waterside Local Government Area of Ogun State for 2001 cropping year. A total of 50 swamp rice farmers were randomly selected from 5 villages using multistage sampling technique. The data collected, with the aid of ...

  1. Adoption of selected innovations in rice production and their effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoption of selected innovations in rice production and their effect on farmers living standard in Bauchi local government area, Bauchi state, Nigeria. ... International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences ... Simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of 82 rice growers from these villages. The data ...

  2. Soil to rice transfer factors for 210Pb: a study on rice grown in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunakara, N.; Rao, Chetan; Ujwal, P.; Yashodhara, I.; Sudeep Kumara; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Bhaskara Shenoy, K.; Ravi, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    India is the second largest producer of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the world and rice is the essential component of the diet for the majority of the population of India. However, detailed studies aimed at evaluation of radionuclide transfer factors (F v ) for rice grown in India are almost non-existent. This paper presents soil to rice transfer factors for 210 Pb for rice grown in natural field conditions on the West Coast of India. A rice field was developed very close to the Kaiga nuclear power plant for the field studies. For a comparative study of radionuclide transfer factors, rice samples were also collected from the rice fields of nearby villages. The soil to un-hulled rice grain 210 Pb varied in the range <1.2 x10 -2 to 8.1 x 10 -1 with a mean of 1.4 x 10 -1 . The mean values of un-hulled grain to white rice processing retention factors (F r ) was 0.03 for 210 Pb. Using the processing retention factors the soil to white rice transfer factor was estimated and found to have the mean value of 4.2 x 10 -3 . The study has shown that the transfer of 210 Pb was retained in the root and its transfer to above ground organs of rice plant is significantly lower. (author)

  3. Recording Village Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cromwell, Jennifer Adele

    and economic changes happening at both the community and country-wide levels during the early years of Islamic rule in Egypt. Additionally, they offer a fascinating picture of the scribe’s role within this world, illuminating both the practical aspects of his work and the social and professional connections......Recording Village Life presents a close study of over 140 Coptic texts written between 724–756 CE by a single scribe, Aristophanes son of Johannes, of the village Djeme in western Thebes. These texts, which focus primarily on taxation and property concerns, yield a wealth of knowledge about social...... of late antique studies, papyrology, philology, early Islamic history, social and economic history, and Egyptology....

  4. Village power options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienthal, P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three different computer codes which have been written to model village power applications. The reasons which have driven the development of these codes include: the existance of limited field data; diverse applications can be modeled; models allow cost and performance comparisons; simulations generate insights into cost structures. The models which are discussed are: Hybrid2, a public code which provides detailed engineering simulations to analyze the performance of a particular configuration; HOMER - the hybrid optimization model for electric renewables - which provides economic screening for sensitivity analyses; and VIPOR the village power model - which is a network optimization model for comparing mini-grids to individual systems. Examples of the output of these codes are presented for specific applications.

  5. Thematic village Zalesie Royal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dombrowicz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Zalesie Królewskie is a village located in the district lay in the municipality of Swiekatowo. It is a town with well-preserved heritage Borowiakow Tucholskich. This heritage is rich and focused around the values of material culture, but also immaterial. People who live here have many features in common with neighboring Kociewiacy and Kashubian, but also have their own unique ethnographic, which is attractive for tourism.

  6. Interaction of genotype x management on vegetative growth and weed suppression of aerobic rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, D.L.; Bastiaans, L.; Atlin, G.N.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Water shortage in drought-prone rice-growing areas of the world is threatening conventional irrigated rice production systems, in which rice is transplanted into fields where standing water is maintained until harvest. Aerobic rice production systems, in which rice is grown as a direct-seeded upland

  7. Rice microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of plant structure is desirable to obtain a clear idea of the overall impact of a crop. A mature rice plant consists of leafy components (left in the field post-harvest) and paddy rice (collected). The rice plant is supported by a hollow stem (culm) with leaf sheaths attached to nod...

  8. RiceAtlas, a spatial database of global rice calendars and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborte, Alice G; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Balanza, Jane Girly; Saito, Kazuki; Zwart, Sander J; Boschetti, Mirco; Murty, M V R; Villano, Lorena; Aunario, Jorrel Khalil; Reinke, Russell; Koo, Jawoo; Hijmans, Robert J; Nelson, Andrew

    2017-05-30

    Knowing where, when, and how much rice is planted and harvested is crucial information for understanding the effects of policy, trade, and global and technological change on food security. We developed RiceAtlas, a spatial database on the seasonal distribution of the world's rice production. It consists of data on rice planting and harvesting dates by growing season and estimates of monthly production for all rice-producing countries. Sources used for planting and harvesting dates include global and regional databases, national publications, online reports, and expert knowledge. Monthly production data were estimated based on annual or seasonal production statistics, and planting and harvesting dates. RiceAtlas has 2,725 spatial units. Compared with available global crop calendars, RiceAtlas is nearly ten times more spatially detailed and has nearly seven times more spatial units, with at least two seasons of calendar data, making RiceAtlas the most comprehensive and detailed spatial database on rice calendar and production.

  9. Folk to functional: An explorative overview of rice-based fermented foods and beverages in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumi Ray

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods share an integral part of age-old wisdom from ancient Indian civilization. Over the generations, this pioneering practice of food fermentation has expanded and improved to preserve and fortify the available food resources, particularly to meet the hidden hunger. India, being the second largest producer of rice, has a great history of traditional rice-based fermented foods with different tastes and textures linked with cultural diversity and mostly prepared by rural women following village art techniques. Some of them have been scientifically investigated and it has been revealed that microflora in natural or starter culture plays imperative roles to bio-embolden the rice with varieties of health promoting macronutrients and micronutrients, phytochemicals, and other functional components during fermentation. In this review, some explorative information on traditional rice-based foods and beverages has been assembled to illustrate the global interest in Indian food heritage and their functional aspects. The review also deals with the preparation of raw materials, traditional processing, composition, and ethno-medicinal importance of each food to encourage entrepreneurs to develop large-scale production to meet the growing market demand of functional foods.

  10. Agriculture and the promotion of insect pests: rice cultivation in river floodplains and malaria vectors in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louca Vasilis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthropogenic modification of natural habitats can create conditions in which pest species associated with humans can thrive. In order to mitigate for these changes, it is necessary to determine which aspects of human management are associated with the promotion of those pests. Anopheles gambiae, the main Africa malaria vector, often breeds in rice fields. Here the impact of the ancient practice of 'swamp rice' cultivation, on the floodplains of the Gambia River, on the production of anopheline mosquitoes was investigated. Methods Routine surveys were carried out along 500 m transects crossing rice fields from the landward edge of the floodplains to the river during the 2006 rainy season. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled using area samplers and emergence traps and fish sampled using nets. Semi-field experiments were used to investigate whether nutrients used for swamp rice cultivation affected mosquito larval abundance. Results At the beginning of the rainy season rice is grown on the landward edge of the floodplain; the first area to flood with fresh water and one rich in cattle dung. Later, rice plants are transplanted close to the river, the last area to dry out on the floodplain. Nearly all larval and adult stages of malaria vectors were collected 0–100 m from the landward edge of the floodplains, where immature rice plants were grown. These paddies contained stagnant freshwater with high quantities of cattle faeces. Semi-field studies demonstrated that cattle faeces nearly doubled the number of anopheline larvae compared with untreated water. Conclusion Swamp rice cultivation creates ideal breeding sites for malaria vectors. However, only those close to the landward edge harboured vectors. These sites were productive since they were large areas of standing freshwater, rich in nutrients, protected from fish, and situated close to human habitation, where egg-laying mosquitoes from the villages had short distances to

  11. Village Power '98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardinal, Julie; Flowers, Larry; Siegel, Judy; Taylor, Roger; Weingart, Jerome

    1999-03-24

    This is the fifth Village Power workshop sponsored by NREL. We have held these meetings every year since 1993, to focus, challenge, and provide a forum for interaction among practitioners working in the field of using renewable energy technologies as an economically viable pathway to electrification of rural populations throughout the world. Starting with a small group of 30 colleagues in 1993, this ''workshop'' has doubled in size every year. When the NREL staff was planning for this meeting, they were hoping for something around 400 participants. We are now looking at over 500, and we apologize for the somewhat cramped accommodations. This overwhelming response, however, shows that the use of renewable energy to solve some of the world's serious problems is coming of age. This meeting, this ''conference'' (it's clearly no longer a workshop) marks a transition. A transition from the viewpoint that renewables are, and forever will be a technology of the future; to the reality that renewables have come of age. We have technologies available today, at today's prices, that can make a substantive contribution to the pressing needs of environmentally sustainable development in the world. This is a collection of all the papers presented at the Village Power '98 conference.

  12. Tackling malaria, village by village: a report on a concerted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Can an information intervention facilitated by information technology and carried out by an interdisciplinary team comprising medical students, technical experts, and the community itself make a positive contribution in reducing the burden of malaria at the village level? In Mifumi village in Eastern Uganda, ...

  13. IN VOZDVIZHENSKOE VILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetyrina Natalya Arkadevna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers civil engineering in retrospect. The paper presents the records of the two contracts that date back to 1837 and 1838. The contracts cover the two stages of construction of a famous church in Vozdvizhenskoe Village in the Moscow Province. These documents were stored in the Central Historic Archive, namely, in the collection of the town hall of Sergievskij Possad. These records of the two agreements in the collection of the brokers notes (or in other books of the same type are of particular value, as the majority of authentic contracts have been lost. One of the contracts covers the organizational procedure and pre-construction works, while the other one covers the construction of the church. The first document gives the idea of environmental protection, employment of ecological technologies, and safe disposal and recycling of human biowaste in the course of dismantling of an old structure in Vozdvizhenskoe village. The second document that dates back to 1838 covers the sequence of construction works, starting from the foundation and ending with the arches, the types of building materials used, and peculiarities of stone masonry. The information recorded in the contract includes the names of the counterparties, day-to-day mode of life of seasonal workers, remuneration of labour and procedures that assure the quality of construction. This agreement makes it possible to outline the construction process that includes workers, bricklayers, the foreman, the contractor, the architect, and the customer. On the whole, both documents help us outline and assess some of the building practices of the 19th century. This issue is relevant nowadays, as our society has entered the phase of the market economy, while the experience accumulated by the past generations is of undeniable value.

  14. Village Dogs in Coastal Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, Eliza; Hebinck, P.G.M.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Village dogs are important for households in coastal Mexico, yet they are seen as out of place by etic stakeholders (public health and wildlife experts, and animal welfarists). Caregivers of village dogs are considered irresponsible, a view that is reinforced by Mexican policy. We describe two

  15. A comparative study of competitiveness between different genotypes of weedy rice (Oryza sativa) and cultivated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Lu, Baorong; Qiang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Competition from weedy rice can cause serious yield losses to cultivated rice. However, key traits that facilitate competitiveness are still not well understood. To explore the mechanisms behind the strong growth and competitive ability, replacement series experiments were established with six genotypes of weedy rice from different regions and one cultivated rice cultivar. (1) Weedy rice from southern China had the greatest impact on growth and yield of cultivated rice throughout the entire growing season. Weedy rice from the northeast was very competitive during the early vegetative stage while the competitive effects of eastern weedy rice were more detrimental at later crop-growth stages. (2) As the proportion of weedy rice increased, plant height, tillers, above-ground biomass, and yield of cultivated rice significantly declined; the crop always being at disadvantage regardless of proportion. (3) Weedy biotypes with greater diversity as estimated by their Shannon indexes were more detrimental to the growth and yield of cultivated rice. Geographic origin (latitude) of weedy rice biotype, its mixture proportion under competition with the crop and its genetic diversity are determinant factors of the outcome of competition and the associated decline in the rice crop yield. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Exploring the potential of cultural villages as a model of community based tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, N. I. K.; Astawa, I. P.; Siwantara, I. W.; Mataram, I. G. A. B.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide better understanding of the potential of cultural villages as a model of Community Based Tourism. The research was held in Buleleng regency, North of Bali, where the tourism is growing in this area. A qualitative research had been applied and data was collected through in-depth interview with informants from the community who directly involve in the tourism businesses. Observation and document review were also utilized. Data was analyzed in qualitative manner following Miles and Huberman method: data reduction, data display and conclusion drawing. Four villages that won the Anugerah Desa Wisata award were selected as the cases namely Pemuteran Village, Munduk Village, Sambangan Village and Kalibukbuk Village. The findings revealed that those four villages have its own uniqueness and strong points to attract tourists. Pemuteran village has strong point on under water attraction and preservation of coral reefs. Munduk village relies on nature scenery, agro-tourism and traditional game as tourist’s attraction. Sambangan village is famous of waterfalls and adventurous activities. Kalibukbuk village depends on black sandy beach with dolphin watching as the main attraction. It is also apparent that the local community is actively involved and gets benefits from the tourism businesses.

  17. Children of Deb Koh: Young Life in an Iranian Village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Erika

    This book is based on ethnographic research carried out between 1965 and 1994 during eight visits to a tribal region in southwest Iran. The book weaves together local practices, cognitive categories, folklore, and anecdotes concerning all aspects of growing up to illuminate the world of children in the village of Deh Koh. The book describes how…

  18. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  19. TECHNICAL ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF PADDY RICE FIELDS VARIETY OF APPROACH PTT SPECIFIC LOCATIONS IN PAPUA (Case Jayapura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrizal Malik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study aims to determine technical economically feasibility of irrigration rice in village of Sumbe, Namblong District, Jayapura on-farm research involving farmers with an area of 2.50 ha cooperators, July to November 2011. Technology introduced: PTT, 4:1 legowo systems, seed varieties Inpari labeled 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, and Sintanur. Fertilizer: urea 150 kg +100 kg +100 kg SP-36 Phonska KCl +50 kg per ha. Variables: height and number of tillers 35 and 65 dap, weight of 1000 seeds, productivity, input, and output. Data were analyzed descriptively. Highest productivity in varieties Inpari 7 (7.925 tonnes per ha Milled Rice (MR and lowest Sintanur varieties (4.625 tonnes per ha MR. Pest stand: rice leaffolder and stinky rice pest. Lowest expenditure on non-cooperators Ciherang farmers IDR 12.15 million per ha per Growing Season (GS and highest in varieties Inpari 7 (IDR 15,005,000 per ha per GS. Lowest Acceptance Ciherang farmers on non-cooperators, IDR 16.4 million per ha per GS and highest in varieties Inpari 7, IDR 27.7 million per ha per GS. If farmers apply recommendation technologies using Inpari 7 varieties, farmers receiving IDR 3,173,750 per month (greater than Regional Minimum Wage of Jayapura. Need government support in order to minimize dependence on outside

  20. Villages of hope. Where security means food, ricemakers feed dreams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedekind, L.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear science is among reasons why fortunes are turning. It is helping to accelerate the age-old process of plant breeding that leads to better crops. Farmers in Vietnam and other countries of Asia live in the cradle of rice cultivation. Rice farming started there thousands of years ago, when wild rice was first domesticated. From season to season, farmers improved their harvests, by selecting and saving the best seeds from the highest yielding crops in their fields. Today more modern tools and methods accelerate nature's way. Rice breeders often apply a process that includes the laboratory irradiation of seeds and plant tissue cultures - usually called induced mutation breeding - to alter plant traits and characteristics. Research yields promising lines of new crop varieties - some that tolerate drought or poor soil conditions, others that resist disease, and still others that meet quality standards for export. In Vietnam, the best are screened and selected in field trials at agricultural stations and in villages like Thanh Gia, Dong Tien, Bau Don, and Cu Chi

  1. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    soil depth without restriction for rice root elongation was at least 25 cm from the soil surface. We suggest these values as indicative for optimal physical soil quality when growing rice in fine-textured alluvial soils and their definition as a first step towards presenting real threshold values.

  2. An overview of the sustainability of rice agroecosystem through rice-fish integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahyaudin Ali

    2002-01-01

    Rice-fish integration in the rice agroecosystem has been introduced and is expanding in Malaysia. This type of farm integration has resulted in land optimization, thus enabling farmers to grow both fish and rice in one farming system. Introducing fish into the ricefield has also increased seasonal income as well as reduced pesticide use. Although basic ecological knowledge on rice-fish integration has allowed rice-fish integration to be introduced, further research is required to allow for fine tuning of the methodologies used. Thus research on the ecology, management, production methods and the characterization of rice-fish farming system of Malaysia is needed. Further characterization and description is needed on the ecology of the rice-fish farming system of Malaysia in terms of production, food webs, nutrient flow and system diversity. To increase the sustainability efficiency and productivity of the system, implementation of management techniques formulated through research is required. (Author)

  3. Ethnobotanical investigation of 'wild' food plants used by rice farmers in Kalasin, Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Garcia Gisella S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wild food plants are a critical component in the subsistence system of rice farmers in Northeast Thailand. One of the important characteristics of wild plant foods among farming households is that the main collection locations are increasingly from anthropogenic ecosystems such as agricultural areas rather than pristine ecosystems. This paper provides selected results from a study of wild food conducted in several villages in Northeast Thailand. A complete botanical inventory of wild food plants from these communities and surrounding areas is provided including their diversity of growth forms, the different anthropogenic locations were these species grow and the multiplicity of uses they have. Methods Data was collected using focus groups and key informant interviews with women locally recognized as knowledgeable about contemporarily gathered plants. Plant species were identified by local taxonomists. Results A total of 87 wild food plants, belonging to 47 families were reported, mainly trees, herbs (terrestrial and aquatic and climbers. Rice fields constitute the most important growth location where 70% of the plants are found, followed by secondary woody areas and home gardens. The majority of species (80% can be found in multiple growth locations, which is partly explained by villagers moving selected species from one place to another and engaging in different degrees of management. Wild food plants have multiple edible parts varying from reproductive structures to vegetative organs. More than two thirds of species are reported as having diverse additional uses and more than half of them are also regarded as medicine. Conclusions This study shows the remarkable importance of anthropogenic areas in providing wild food plants. This is reflected in the great diversity of species found, contributing to the food and nutritional security of rice farmers in Northeast Thailand.

  4. Influence of cooling rate on growth of Bacillus cereus from spore inocula in cooked rice, beans, pasta, and combination products containing meat or poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to assess the ability of B. cereus spores to germinate and grow in order to determine a safe cooling rate for cooked rice, beans, and pasta, rice/chicken (4:1), rice/chicken/vegetables (3:1:1), rice/beef (4:1), and rice/beef/vegetables (3:1:1). Samples were inoculate...

  5. Mapping paddy rice planting area in rice-wetland coexistent areas through analysis of Landsat 8 OLI and MODIS images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuting; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Li, Xiangping

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of paddy rice fields is necessary for the studies of trace gas emissions, water source management, and food security. The phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, which identifies the unique flooding stage of paddy rice, has been widely used. However, identification and mapping of paddy rice in rice-wetland coexistent areas is still a challenging task. In this study, we found that the flooding/transplanting periods of paddy rice and natural wetlands were different. The natural wetlands flood earlier and have a shorter duration than paddy rice in the Panjin Plain, a temperate region in China. We used this asynchronous flooding stage to extract the paddy rice planting area from the rice-wetland coexistent area. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data was used to derive the temperature-defined plant growing season. Landsat 8 OLI imagery was used to detect the flooding signal and then paddy rice was extracted using the difference in flooding stages between paddy rice and natural wetlands. The resultant paddy rice map was evaluated with in-situ ground-truth data and Google Earth images. The estimated overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 95% and 0.90, respectively. The spatial pattern of OLI-derived paddy rice map agrees well with the paddy rice layer from the National Land Cover Dataset from 2010 (NLCD-2010). The differences between Rice Landsat and Rice NLCD are in the range of ±20% for most 1-km grid cell. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of the phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, via integrating MODIS and Landsat 8 OLI images, to map paddy rice fields in complex landscapes of paddy rice and natural wetland in the temperate region.

  6. Renewables for sustainable village power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, L.

    1997-03-01

    It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services. In addition, there is a sizeable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel gen-sets or partial electrification (local school or community center and several nearby houses). For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy (RE) technologies. The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. These four attributes foster sustainability; therefore, the program is entitled Renewables for Sustainable Village Power (RSVP). The RSVP program is a multi-technology, multi-application program composed of six activities, including village applications development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and Internet-based village power project data base. While the current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel gen-sets, micro-hydro and micro-biomass technologies may be integrated in the future. NREL's RSVP team is currently involved in rural electricity projects in thirteen countries, with U.S., foreign, and internationally based agencies and institutions. The integration of the technology developments, institutional experiences, and the financial solutions for the implementation of renewables in the main line rural electrification processes in both the developing world and remote regions of the developed world is the goal

  7. A visit to the village of Saye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This brief article describes the changes in the village of Saye, Burkina Faso which were recognizable after 20 years absence. Rainfall was plentiful and it was the best season for agriculture in 20 years; the sorghum swayed in the breezes ready for harvest. There are 28 women and village elders who still recognized their visitor, Ramata. The changes in family planning attitudes and sexuality were evident in the way men and women freely joke and laugh about sexual issues in a good humored but not superficial way. The respected El Hadj (meaning that he had visited Mecca) Sawadogo, president of the local Naam group, was the one who cracked jokes which brought laughter to the audience. The taboos are still there, but everyone agrees that family planning is a good idea because it reduces suffering and the people do not still have enough food to eat. Birth spacing is generally accepted, but there is resistance to stopping births. There is growing tolerance toward premarital pregnancies, and polygamy among younger women, which leads to fractious polygamous wives. 20 years ago it was a radical act to show a film on sex education, where pen and ink outlines gave shape to a naked teenaged boy and girl next to each other on the screen. The audience response was a roar of disbelief and the author feared that the local prefet would put him in jail for disturbing public order and violating a taboo.

  8. Community energy plan : village of Burns Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, B.

    2008-09-01

    Climate change has a significant impact on the lives of Canadians and their economies. In northern British Columbia, the ability to grow, process and transport food will likely change. The rising cost of fuel and other natural resources will create a need for more resilient communities. This report presented a community energy plan for Burns Lake in order to provide the first steps toward building on an already resilient community. The report answered questions about Burns Lake's energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as the community's views on energy issues. The report provided background information on the Village of Burns Lake and discussed climate change in Burns Lake, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions. The report also described community engagement by way of a questionnaire on fuel prices, homes and public opinion in Burns Lake. A strategy was also outlined. It was concluded that the village of Burns Lake is well positioned to face challenges regarding future energy use. The community is looking to the municipality for support and leadership, in order to deliver through active opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 6 figs., 4 appendices.

  9. Arsenic species in raw and cooked rice: Implications for human health in rural Bengal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, Dipti, E-mail: dipti@kth.se [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, 741 235, West Bengal (India); Biswas, Ashis [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, 741 235, West Bengal (India); Šlejkovec, Zdenka [Environmental Sciences Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Chatterjee, Debashis [Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, 741 235, West Bengal (India); Nriagu, Jerome [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, 109 Observatory Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 (United States); Jacks, Gunnar; Bhattacharya, Prosun [KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group, Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-11-01

    This study compares the concentrations of total and different species of arsenic (As) in 29 pairs of raw and cooked rice samples collected from households in an area of West Bengal affected by endemic arsenicism. The aim is to investigate the effects of indigenous cooking practice of the rural villagers on As accumulation and speciation in cooked rice. It is found that inorganic As is the predominant species in both raw (93.8%) and cooked rice (88.1%). Cooking of rice with water low in As (< 10 μg L{sup −1}) significantly decreases the total and inorganic As content in cooked rice compared to raw rice. Arsenic concentration is mainly decreased during boiling of rice grains with excess water. Washing of rice grains with low As water has negligible effect on grain As concentration. The study suggests that rice cooking with low As water by the villagers is a beneficial risk reduction strategy. Despite reductions in As content in cooked rice because of cooking with low As water, the consumption of cooked rice represents a significant health threat (in terms of chronic As toxicity) to the study population. - Highlights: • Pairs of raw and cooked rice samples are collected from households. • Total and different species of As in raw and cooked rice samples are compared. • Cooking with As safe water reduces total and inorganic As contents in cooked rice. • Inorganic As is the predominant species in both raw (93.8%) and cooked rice (88.1%). • Risks of As exposure from cooked rice consumption exceed the safety standards.

  10. Arsenic species in raw and cooked rice: Implications for human health in rural Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halder, Dipti; Biswas, Ashis; Šlejkovec, Zdenka; Chatterjee, Debashis; Nriagu, Jerome; Jacks, Gunnar; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2014-01-01

    This study compares the concentrations of total and different species of arsenic (As) in 29 pairs of raw and cooked rice samples collected from households in an area of West Bengal affected by endemic arsenicism. The aim is to investigate the effects of indigenous cooking practice of the rural villagers on As accumulation and speciation in cooked rice. It is found that inorganic As is the predominant species in both raw (93.8%) and cooked rice (88.1%). Cooking of rice with water low in As (< 10 μg L −1 ) significantly decreases the total and inorganic As content in cooked rice compared to raw rice. Arsenic concentration is mainly decreased during boiling of rice grains with excess water. Washing of rice grains with low As water has negligible effect on grain As concentration. The study suggests that rice cooking with low As water by the villagers is a beneficial risk reduction strategy. Despite reductions in As content in cooked rice because of cooking with low As water, the consumption of cooked rice represents a significant health threat (in terms of chronic As toxicity) to the study population. - Highlights: • Pairs of raw and cooked rice samples are collected from households. • Total and different species of As in raw and cooked rice samples are compared. • Cooking with As safe water reduces total and inorganic As contents in cooked rice. • Inorganic As is the predominant species in both raw (93.8%) and cooked rice (88.1%). • Risks of As exposure from cooked rice consumption exceed the safety standards

  11. Lumbung Desa in Java: A Credit Institution, Poverty Management, and Financial Problem Solving for Villagers During the Colonial Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Rinardi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the existence and development of Lumbung Desa or village rice barns as a credit institution during the colonial era. It was expected to be an inspiration and reference to revitalize, design, and develop barns at the village level that contributed significantly to the village welfare at the recent time.  Therefore, how and why was Lumbung Desa institution able to develop during the colonial era? How much was its contribution to the village welfare? To examine these questions, the authors used critical historical method and through economical and sociological approach. The result shows that Lumbung Desa was formed and developed by the Dutch to overcome poverty as a strategic issue at the time, especially at village level. The grand design program of Lumbung Desa was to channel loan schemes especially and savings that could be in the form of in cash or rice. It was used to help farmers against the middlemen and moneylenders who were considered as adverse parties for the villagers. Lumbung Desa existed and was managed in many villages of Java during the colonial era. It relied on rural communities with distinctive personal socio-economic relations that brought about both strengths and weaknesses for the institution. However, there were some advantages of Lumbung Desa; first, it provided loans in two types, cash and/ or rice which became major and urgent needs for the villagers; second, its presence in rural areas made farmers become customers and easily access the market; third, its flexibility made it easily transform according to rural community needs.

  12. Welcome to The Green Village

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, A.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A sustainable world can only be achieved by an open collaboration between science, business and the public. That is why we create the Green Village: an innovative, lively, interactive and challenging environment where entrepreneurs, innovators, companies, artists, teachers and visitors can meet,

  13. A Rhetorical Analysis of Village

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Pynt

    2011-01-01

    The award-winning TV spot Village is a creative example of NGO advertising using condensed visual stprytelling. The spot is analysed using rhetorical concepts and communication theory, and potential effects are discused in relation to contexts, strategy and communication ethics....

  14. Growing Pains

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Heat expands and cold contracts: it’s a simple thermodynamic rule. But when temperatures swing from 300 K to near-absolute zero, this rule can mean a contraction of more than 80 metres across the LHC’s 27-km-long cryogenic system. Keeping this growth in check are compensators (a.k.a. bellows), which shrink and stretch in response to thermodynamic changes. Leak tests and X-rays now underway in the tunnel have revealed that these “joints” might be suffering from growing pains…   This 25-μm weld crack is thought to be the cause of the helium leaks. Prior to the LS1 warm-up, CERN’s cryogenic experts knew of two points in the machine’s cryogenic distribution system that were leaking helium. Fortunately, these leaks were sufficiently small, confined to known sub-sectors of the cryogenic line and – with help from the vacuum team (TE-VSC) – could easily be compensated for. But as the machine warmed up f...

  15. RICE MARKETING SYSTEM A SOLUTION FOR INCREASING REVENUE FARMERS IN WEST KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana C.Kilmanun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of expectation want to be reached by development West Kalimantan is making regency Kubu Raya as " buffer Stock" rice for West Kalimantan. Problems is hitherto the solution rice marketing by society of Sui Itik. The price sell still be very low and have an effect to peasant earnings for this article aim to system of paddy marketing specially rice of Sui Itik village and is the solution which must be taken in rice marketing in Sui Itik. Collected by data is primary data representing result interview with method approach of Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA and gathering data by method of Stratifide Random Sampling. Collected data later;then be analysed in diskriptif. The study aims to: 1. to increase knowledge about marketing management hence need conducted by training about marketing management to peasant of Sui Itik village. 2 system and Good market information very have an effect on reality to fluency of rice marketing of Sui Itik village. 3 system of Rice marketing in Multi Level Marketing (MLM expected to expand since this system of fluenting rice marketing. 4. Governmental policy about stability of price shell of rice affected farmers.

  16. Village power hybrid systems development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L.; Green, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bergey, M. [Bergey Windpower Co., Norman, OK (United States); Lilley, A. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mott, L. [Northern Power Systems, Moretown, VT (United States)

    1994-11-01

    The energy demand in developing countries is growing at a rate seven times that of the OECD countries, even though there are still 2 billion people living in developing countries without electricity. Many developing countries have social and economic development programs aimed at stemming the massive migration from the rural communities to the overcrowded, environmentally problematic, unemployment-bound urban centers. To address the issue of providing social, educational, health, and economic benefits to the rural communities of the developing world, a number of government and nongovernment agencies are sponsoring pilot programs to install and evaluate renewable energy systems as alternatives to line extension, diesels, kerosene, and batteries. The use of renewables in remote villages has yielded mixed results over the last 20 years. However, recently, photovoltaics, small wind turbines, and microhydro system shave gained increasing recognition as reliable, cost-effective alternatives to grid extension and diesel gensets for village-electricity applications. At the same time, hybrid systems based on combinations of PV/wind/batteries/diesel gensets have proven reliable and economic for remote international telecommunications markets. With the growing emphasis on environmentally and economically sustainable development of international rural communities, the US hybrid industry is responding with the development and demonstration of hybrid systems and architectures that will directly compete with conventional alternatives for village electrification. Assisting the US industry in this development, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has embarked on a program of collaborative technology development and technical assistance in the area of hybrid systems for village power. Following a brief review of village-power hybrid systems application and design issues, this paper presents the present industry development activities of three US suppliers and the NREL.

  17. Village microgrids: The Chile project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a village application in Chile. The objective was to demonstrate the technical, economic and institutional viability of renewable energy for rural electrification, as well as to allow local partners to gain experience with hybrid/renewable technology, resource assessment, system siting and operation. A micro-grid system is viewed as a small village system, up to 1200 kWh/day load with a 50 kW peak load. It can consist of components of wind, photovoltaic, batteries, and conventional generators. It is usually associated with a single generator source, and uses batteries to cover light day time loads. This paper looks at the experiences learned from this project with regard to all of the facets of planning and installing this project.

  18. Labelling of rice seedlings and rice plants with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Nasroh, K.

    1989-01-01

    Labelling of rice seedlings and rice plants with 32 P. Labelled rice seedlings can be used to tag insect pests that feed on. Radioactivity counting of 32 P in the endosperm and in the shoot of rice seeds that soaked for 72 hours in KH 2 32 PO 4 solution of 1 μCi/ml were 29,300 and 9,500 cpm respectively. When these labelled seedlings were grown in unlabelled medium the radioactivity in the shoot increased. It was due to the 32 P that was translocated to the shoot from the endosperm. The 32 P translocation reached maximum about one week after the seedling were grown in the unlabelled medium. Labelled seedlings could also be produced by growing 5, 10 and 15 days old seedlings hydroponically in Kimura B solution containing 32 P. Ten days after growing, the radioactivity concentration of the seedlings stem reached about 115,000; 85,000 and 170,000 cpm/mg dry weight for the 5, 10 and 15 days old seedlings respectively. For the implementation of this method, 20 ml labelled Kimura B was needed for labelling of one seedling. The seedlings should be prepared in tap water. During the growth the 32 P in the labelled seedlings was distributed throughout the plant, so that new leaves and tillers became also radioactive. (author). 5 refs

  19. Marin Solar Village: feasibility study and technical analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-31

    The energy needs of Hamilton Air Force Base's Solar Village for electricity and heating and cooling of buildings are considered and alternative ways of meeting the Village's requirements for these forms of energy are evaluated. First, Solar Village's energy demand is calculated and compared to a base case representing calculations for typical energy usage for a development of similar size and density that is in conformance with current state and local ordinances. The potential of selected alternative technologies to meet the Solar Village projected demand for electrical power and natural gas is evaluated. Scenarios were developed to reduce demand, particularly in the building sector. Four alternative on-site energy technologies have been evaluated: wind, solar thermal electric, biomass conversion, photovoltaics. Each alternative is analyzed in detail. Of the four alternatives considered, the one with the greatest present potential is biomass conversion. Two technologies have been incorporated into the design. A 3-acre land fill is covered with a mantle of soil. A network of pipes carries off the methane gas which is a natural product of anaerobic decomposition of the materials in the land fill. The second technology involves the planting of rapidly-growing trees on denuded and unused portions of the site; 50 acres devoted to tree production could yield 12% of the back-up energy required for home heating on a sustainable basis.

  20. Extracting silica from rice husk treated with potassium permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, S.H.; Naveed, S.

    2008-01-01

    As an agro-waste material the rice husk is abundantly available is rice growing areas. In many areas rice husk after burning involves disposal problems because of higher quantities of silica present in it. Rice husk contains about 20 per cent silica, which is present in hydrated amorphous form. On thermal treatment the silica converts into crystobalite, which is a crystalline form of silica. However amorphous silica can be produced under controlled conditions ensuring high reactivity and large surface area. Leaching the rice husk with organic acids and alkalies removes the metallic impurities from its surface. How a dilute solution of potassium permanganate affects the rice husk is the subject of this research paper. The rice husk was treated with the dilute solution of potassium permanganate at room temperature and then analyzed by SEM, TGA and the ash by analytical treatment after burning under controlled temperature. The SEM results revealed that the protuberances of the rice husk were eaten away by the solution of potassium permanganate. Pyrolysis of rice husks showed that the thermal degradation of the treated rice husk was faster than the untreated rice husk where as analytical results confirmed the presence of more amorphous silica than untreated rice husk. (author)

  1. [Health care. From village to concrete suburb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrup, G H

    1992-07-29

    In the middle of the city of Arhus, Denmark, in a building playground, teachers use the natural elements and raise animals to teach about nature. The 175 children who attend this institution are responsible for the care of the animals, and no pedagogical problems exist. Similarly, in the village of Sarkisla, in the province of Siva in central Turkey, children are responsible for the care of animals and other chores, and have no problems in growing up. However, when these children move to Gellerup, Denmark, their environment changes radically from village to concrete jungle. The mothers are confused about the upbringing and feeding of their children in the new land, as old customs die hard. A group in Gellerup near Arhus comprised of 3 health nurses, 2 social counselors, and 2 club assistants have worked for 1.5 years together in order to develop new methods for Turkish immigrants via the project on immigrant children's health situation, health education, and nutrition. This project is supported by the Ministry of Social Affairs, an insurance firm, the Arhus research fund, and Nestle. The club called Bentesvej 7 was started in Gellerup in 1983 exclusively for Turkish women and children as a complement to individual counseling, providing basic health care and Danish language instruction to acquaint them with the Danish way of life. A study circle with 7 Turkish women of different ages met 3 times a week for 8 months to learn about illness and health, child nutrition and rearing, language, and social conduct. A 16-day study trip was also taken later to Turkey, including the village of Sarkisla, in order to study Turkish state policy on health, social, and educational problems. After returning the study circle was continued for another 3 months, and then all the experiences were recorded in a report, and 2 videos were made. 200 women and children took part in a final meeting where Turkish women showed pictures and recounted the trip, and the Danish members talked about

  2. Uncertainties in Integrated Climate Change Impact Assessments by Sub-setting GCMs Based on Annual as well as Crop Growing Period under Rice Based Farming System of Indo-Gangetic Plains of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, S. N.; Singh, H.; Panwar, A. S.; Meena, M. S.; Singh, S. V.; Singh, B.; Paudel, G. P.; Baigorria, G. A.; Ruane, A. C.; McDermid, S.; Boote, K. J.; Porter, C.; Valdivia, R. O.

    2016-12-01

    Integrated assessment of climate change impact on agricultural productivity is a challenge to the scientific community due to uncertainties of input data, particularly the climate, soil, crop calibration and socio-economic dataset. However, the uncertainty due to selection of GCMs is the major source due to complex underlying processes involved in initial as well as the boundary conditions dealt in solving the air-sea interactions. Under Agricultural Modeling Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP), the Indo-Gangetic Plains Regional Research Team investigated the uncertainties caused due to selection of GCMs through sub-setting based on annual as well as crop-growth period of rice-wheat systems in AgMIP Integrated Assessment methodology. The AgMIP Phase II protocols were used to study the linking of climate-crop-economic models for two study sites Meerut and Karnal to analyse the sensitivity of current production systems to climate change. Climate Change Projections were made using 29 CMIP5 GCMs under RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 during mid-century period (2040-2069). Two crop models (APSIM & DSSAT) were used. TOA-MD economic model was used for integrated assessment. Based on RAPs (Representative Agricultural Pathways), some of the parameters, which are not possible to get through modeling, derived from literature and interactions with stakeholders incorporated into the TOA-MD model for integrated assessment.

  3. Financial Village Standing in Indonesian Financial System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Purnomo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial resources of the village that are sourced from a country or a Regional Finance Financial based Law Number 6 Year 2014 of The Village is the mandate of the law that must be allocated to the village. The interconnectedness of the financial position of the village in the financial system of the country or Region concerned the Financial administrative and territorial relations, and there is no setting directly regarding the finances of the village as part of the financial system of the country or the financial area. In respect of the elements of the crime of corruption deeds against financial irregularities of the village there are still disagreements on the interpretation of the law in trapping the perpetrators of corruption on the village chief that implies not satisfy the principle of legality and legal certainty in the ruling of the matter of financial irregularities. In fact, many of the village chief or Councilor caught the criminal offence of corruption over the use of financial irregularities. This research analyzes How the financial position of the village in the financial system of the country or region, as well as whether the financial resources of the village is derived from the state budget or region budget managed in village budget belongs to the category of village finances and whether tort against the financial management of the village can be categorized as a criminal act corruption. How To Cite: Purnomo, H. (2015. Financial Village Standing in Indonesian Financial System. Rechtsidee, 2(2, 121-140. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i2.81

  4. PhosphoRice: a meta-predictor of rice-specific phosphorylation sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Que Shufu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of the growing body of protein phosphorylation sites data, the number of phosphoprotein databases is constantly increasing, and dozens of tools are available for predicting protein phosphorylation sites to achieve fast automatic results. However, none of the existing tools has been developed to predict protein phosphorylation sites in rice. Results In this paper, the phosphorylation site predictors, NetPhos 2.0, NetPhosK, Kinasephos, Scansite, Disphos and Predphosphos, were integrated to construct meta-predictors of rice-specific phosphorylation sites using several methods, including unweighted voting, unreduced weighted voting, reduced unweighted voting and weighted voting strategies. PhosphoRice, the meta-predictor produced by using weighted voting strategy with parameters selected by restricted grid search and conditional random search, performed the best at predicting phosphorylation sites in rice. Its Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC and Accuracy (ACC reached to 0.474 and 73.8%, respectively. Compared to the best individual element predictor (Disphos_default, PhosphoRice archieved a significant increase in MCC of 0.071 (P Conclusions PhosphoRice is a powerful tool for predicting unidentified phosphorylation sites in rice. Compared to the existing methods, we found that our tool showed greater robustness in ACC and MCC. PhosphoRice is available to the public at http://bioinformatics.fafu.edu.cn/PhosphoRice.

  5. Tourism Village Model Based on Local Indigenous: Case Study of Nongkosawit Tourism Village, Gunungpati, Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniasih; Nihayah, Dyah Maya; Sudibyo, Syafitri Amalia; Winda, Fajri Nur

    2018-02-01

    Officially, Nongkosawit Village has become a tourism village since 2012. However, the economic impact has not been received by the society yet because of inappropriate tourism village model. Therefore, this study aims to find out the best model for the development of Nongkosawit Tourism Village. This research used Analytical Hierarchy Process method. The results of this research shows that the model of tourism village which was suitable to the local indigenous of Nongkosawit Tourism Village was the cultural based tourism village with the percentage of 58%. Therefore, it is necessary to do re-orientation from the natural-based village model into the cultural-based village model by raising and exploring the existing culture through unique and different tourism products.

  6. Aquatic insect populations in the MUDA rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozilah Ismail; Ahyaudin Ali

    2002-01-01

    Periodic sampling of aquatic insects was carried out in an experimental plot of the Muda rice agroecosystem. The study which was conducted from August to December 1995, investigated the impact of the pesticides Broadox and Trebon on aquatic insect populations during the rice growing period. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in abundance and diversity of aquatic insects between the treated and non-treated area. The four dominant aquatic insects were from the families; Chironomidae, Dysticidae, Corixidae and Belostomatidae. Water temperature and dissolved oxygen showed changes throughout the rice growing season and the values of these parameters decreased gradually towards the end of the rice growing season in January when the rice plants were maturing. (Author)

  7. Rural electrification or village energization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D V

    1980-03-01

    Decentralized power generation using renewable energy resources is more appropriate to the energy needs of the rural Third World. These countries often look to the rural electrification programs of the US and Soviet Union as the answer to their problem even though studies consistently show this to be inefficient and frequently ineffective, often reinforcing existing social and economic inequities. When the uses of energy in rural villages are examined in detail, the only approach which will supply energy to the rural poor must be based on a local and regional match of need to indigenous energy sources and to the development of local talent and enthusiasm. 29 references. (DCK)

  8. Efficiency in rice production : evidence from gogounou district in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thetechnical, allocative and economic efficiencies of rice growing in the District of Gogonou and factors determining the economic efficiency have been analysed with the help of a survey carried out among 150 rice producers randomly sampled during the agricultural year 2005-2006. The data analysis is essentially based ...

  9. Rice bran phytochemicals and dietary colon chemoprevention teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    A growing body of evidence supports that dietary rice bran exhibits gastrointestinal cancer control and prevention activity using carcinogen induced animal models and human colon cancer cell lines. Our laboratory has recently reported metabolomic differences in rice from globally and genetically dis...

  10. Comparative nutritional evaluation of fungus and alkali treated rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding trial was conducted with growing white albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) for 56 days to determine whether alkali (NaOH) or fungus (Mushroom) treatment of rice husk would affect rat's performance. The treated rice husk comprised 10% of the rat's diets, the rests of which were 50% maize, 20% soybeans, 19% ...

  11. Indica rice (Oryza sativa, BR29 and IR64).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Karabi; Datta, Swapan Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Rice is the world's most important food crop. Indica-type rice provides the staple food for more than half of the world population. To satisfy the growing demand of the ever-increasing population, more sustained production of indica-type rice is needed. In addition, because of the high per capita consumption of indica rice, improvement of any traits including its nutritive value may have a significant positive health outcome for the rice-consuming population. Rice yield productivity is greatly affected by different biotic stresses, like diseases and insect pests, and abiotic stresses like drought, cold, and salinity. Attempts to improve resistance in rice to these stresses by conventional breeding through introgression of traits have limited success owing to a lack of resistance germplasm in the wild relatives. Gene transfer technology with genes from other sources can be used to make rice plants resistant or tolerant to insect pests, diseases, and different environmental stresses. For improving the nutritional value of the edible endosperm part of the rice, genes for increasing iron, beta-carotene, or better quality protein can be introduced in rice plants by genetic engineering. Different crops have been transformed using various gene transfer methods, such as protoplast transformation, biolistic, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This chapter describes the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for indica-type rice. The selectable marker genes used are hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt), neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII), or phosphomannose isomerase (pmi), and, accordingly, the selection agents are hygromycin, kanamycin (G418), or mannose, respectively.

  12. Measurement of Accountability Management of Village Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Yunita, Anggraeni; Christianingrum

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the accountability of village funds management in Kabupaten Bangka. In relation to the Village Funds program which is a government program, the measurement of accountability of Village Funds management uses accountability principles consisting of Transparency, Liability, Controlling, Responsibility and Responsiveness which are the principles of accountability developed by the United Nations Development Program in measuring bureaucratic accountability. T...

  13. The Management of Village Fund Finances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inten Meutia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to know the implementation of fund management of village fund in Ogan Ilir Regency, South Sumatera. The population in this study were 224 villages in Ogan Ilir Regency that received the allocation of Village Funds in 2016. The purposive sampling technique was applied to obtain samples and produce 26 villages. The analysis will be carried out with a quantitative and qualitative description process. Based on the data obtained, the researcher tries to describe or describe systematically, accurately, and factually about matters relating to the field as fact, nature, and relationship between phenomena. Quantitative techniques will also use frequency analysis that aims to provide an overview of the general condition. The results reveal that the financial management aspects are generally in accordance with those set out in Permendagri 113/2014 and have complied with the basic principles of financial management. Reporting and accountability remain a problem for some villages. Not all of the villages studied have aspects of human resource reporting and accountability. Taking into account the composition of village budgeting, the village does not meet the rules that require a ratio of 70:30, this results in inequality in the implementation of rural development. The conclusion of this research is that the implementation of village fund management in Ogan Ilur Regency has been running well according to Permendagri 113/2014.

  14. Family vs Village-Based: Intangible View on the Sustainable of Seaweed Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniwut, Wellem A.; Teniwut, Yuliana K.; Teniwut, Roberto M. K.; Hasyim, Cawalinya L.

    2017-10-01

    Compare to other fishery activities for instance fish mariculture and catching fisheries, seaweed farming is considered easier. Also, the market for seaweed is wider and will keep growing. Thus, makes seaweed farming as one of the fastest commodity to improve the welfare of a coastal community. There are technical and non-technical factors in seaweed farming management, for non-technical on this intangible factors vary between family-based and village-based management, therefore aimed of this study was to simulate farmers decision to choose between family-based and village-based on seaweed managing system trigger by intangible factors. We conducted our study in Southeast Maluku, data collecting conducted from October to December 2016 by depth interview and questionnaires on seaweed farmers. We used logistic regression to compare each intangible factors on family and village-based seaweed farming management. The result showed that for family-based management farmers were willing to transfer their knowledge among each member in the household. For village-based revealed that farmers with higher education background tend to work on village-based, also, the result also stated that in village-based management member were those who have better capability and skill, at the same time village-based management had a small probability for conflict to occur compared to family-based.

  15. DIFFUSION AND ADOPTION OF NEW RICE VARIETIES FOR AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Saharan Africa (SSA). It is ranked ... cultivated, rice is the most rapidly growing food .... population. Another parameter of interest is the average treatment effect on the treated, commonly denoted as ATE1 or ATT (Wooldridge, 2002, chapter 18).

  16. Economic and Environmental Impacts of Adoption of Genetically Modified Rice in California

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, Craig A.; Carter, Colin A.; Farzin, Y. Hossein

    2005-01-01

    Rice production in California is intensive in input usage. Weed resistance has led to growing chemical usage and has raised costs for many rice producers in California. In recent years, widespread adoption of genetically modified (GM) soybeans, corn, canola, and cotton has provided growers of those crops with new production alternatives that reduce chemical usage. But GM rice has not yet been approved for commercial production in California or elsewhere. One reason that GM rice production has...

  17. Rice as self: food, history and nation-building in Japan and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Bray, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Wherever rice is the traditional staple, people assume that eating rice, or growing rice, makes them who they are. The belief that their physical constitutions, mental aptitudes, social institutions or political formations are profoundly shaped by their dependence upon rice is sometimes expressed in everyday maxims and vernacular habits, sometimes formally elaborated by politicians, historians or scientists into theories of identity – as in the classic case of Japan, documented by Emiko Ohnuk...

  18. Anopheline (Diptera:Culicidae) breeding in a traditional tank-based village ecosystem in north central Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F; Fonseka, K T

    1997-01-01

    A 13-mo survey of immature anopheline mosquitoes breeding in surface water habitats was done at Mahameegaswewa village within the Huruluwewa watershed in north central Sri Lanka as part of a multidisciplinary study on malaria epidemiology. The watershed is representative of the ancient small tank......-based irrigation network that still forms an important component of the rice production system in the low elevation dry zone. In total, 3,818 immatures representing 12 species were obtained from 2,940 samples taken from 5 larval habitats within the village ecosystem. Anopheles varuna Iyengar and An. culicifacies...

  19. Chemometric classification of pigmented rice varieties based on antioxidative properties in relation to color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaiwan Pramai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The pigmented Thai rice varieties including red and black color and non-pigmented rice (white collected from different growth sites in the north of Thailand and were determined for color and antioxidant properties. Anthocyanins were the major compound in group of black rice (21.15-441.96 mg/100 g rice. Total phenolic, flavonoid, and -tocopherol contents were highest in the black rice followed by red rice and antioxidant capacities were predominant in pigmented varieties. Black rice grown in mountainous area presented the highest antioxidant activity compared to the other growing locations. The color parameters, especially L* value presented the negative correlations with antioxidant parameters, while the antioxidant contents, excepted -oryzanol content had significant correlation with antioxidant capacities. Pigmented rice varieties could be clearly classified into 4 groups using PCA and HCA, which provided a good indicator to classify pigmented rice varieties based on color and antioxidative properties.

  20. All in a day's work -- women of village Kamad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, L; Devi, Y; Mendhapurkar, S

    1993-02-01

    The conditions of rural women in villages of Kamad, Dhandi, Kumarkot, and Brahmpuri in Uttar Pradesh in India are revealed in the responses of 3 women to questions about their life. Improvement in women's conditions can be accomplished by empowerment; the women agreed that having women's groups and open discussion would help women stand up to their husbands who beat them or take their money. Conversations with the women were initially blocked by the village men, but after 5 months, dialogues were conducted. The conversations reflect very labor-intensive activity every day regardless of the season. Jungle surrounds the villages and the climate is harsh with both monsoons and snow. Men do not care for their women very well, and health and reproductive functions are neglected. The women are hopeful that things will change. Minu Devi explained that she was bought for Rs.5000 by her husband when she was 6-7 years old, but most now marry at 12-14 years and the girl's father is paid Rs.20,000-30,000. The work day is 18-20 hours. If the husband is disobeyed or the wife refuses to work, the husband tells his wife that he has the right to beat her. Minu's first child was born when she was 13-14, but died within hours. There was no understanding of prenatal or postnatal care. The practice of childbirth was described: living in the cattle house on a bed of paddy husks, and giving birth with the help of a Dai. The mother cuts the umbilical cord with a sickle and heats water to bathe herself and baby. Cooking, squatting, and washing clothes are all performed in the cattle house. A ration of rice and ghee is provided. After 24 hours, the mother must walk to a crossroads and throw away the birth remains and bathe within 3 days. On day 5 she is allowed to go to the river to wash clothes. Others may not touch her clothes and her path is sprinkled with cow urine. Day 11 brings with it some salt for the rice portion. Thereafter she may move to another room although still without

  1. Perceptions of Village Dogs by Villagers and Tourists in the Coastal Region of Rural Oaxaca, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, E.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of the village dog-keeping system, and of perceptions of dog-related problems by villagers and tourists, in the coastal region of Oaxaca, Mexico. We conducted a survey of the inhabitants of three villages (Mazunte, Puerto Angel, and Río Seco),

  2. Institutional issues in Village Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco, R.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents a view on renewable energy resource projects from one much closer to recipient of the services. The author argues that such programs aimed at development of village power situations need to keep certain points clearly in focus. These include the fact that electricity is not the goal, technology is not the problem, site selection involves more than just resource potential, the distinction between demonstration and pilot programs, and that such programs demand local involvement for success. The author recommends coordinating such projects with programs seeking competing funds such as health, education, and transportation. The projects must demonstrate a high economic benefit to justify the high economic cost, and one must use the benefits to leverage the program funding.

  3. In vitro sterilization technique on embryo of black Toraja rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, F.; Riadi, M.; Rafiuddin; Sjahril, R.; Muchlis, A. R.

    2018-05-01

    Toraja black rice has a high anthocyanin content, a water-soluble pigments, with antioxidant activity. Toraja black rice has a variety of seeds colour in one panicles such as full black (the outside and inside the rice), medium black (the outside and slightly inside rice) and a little black (only the outside of rice). Embryo culture in vitro is one way to grow plants in sterile conditions. The presence of contamination and the death of the embryo require in vitro embryo culture. The sterilization technique is a very important first step to eliminate contamination and the death of embryos. This research aims to determine the right material composition for sterilization of black rice’s embryo. The experiment was done by growing black rice on half strength MS media with the treatment of three method of sterilization, i.e.: S1 (70% alcohol for 5 minutes, 3% and 2% Chlorox each for 10 minutes,), S2 (70% alcohol for 3 minutes, 2% Clorox for 10 minutes) and S3 (70% alcohol for 3 minutes and 1% Clorox for 15 minutes). The materials used are rice seedlings that have been cut in two and opened the pericarp of paddy grain, leaving a piece of rice that has a complete embryo. The best sterilization for Toraja black rice embryo culture was using the S3 composition. Best germination was seen on the seeds with full and medium black color.

  4. Effect of cultural practices on the incidence and carry over of insect pests in rice-wheat system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzan, M.; Akhtar, M.; Hussain, S.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in cultural practices in rice-wheat system like mechanical transplanted rice, broadcasting (parachute method) of rice seedlings, direct seeding of rice, bed planting of rice and wheat and zero-till wheat sowing may affect population of insect pests and their natural enemies. The population of insect pests and their damage intensity on rice and wheat crops were determined for resource conservation technologies in rice-wheat system. Unploughed fallow fields and those planted with berseem are the major over-wintering sites of rice stem borers (RSB). Growing of wheat after rice, either by conventional or zero-tillage minimizes RSB problem. The effect of technological shifts in rice-wheat systems was discussed on leaffolder (LF) and white backed planthopper (WBPH) populations. Conservation tillage might take on preventive management as the diversity and population size of many beneficial organisms, especially soil-inhabiting predators, can be increased. (author)

  5. Rice in cropping systems - Modelling transitions between flooded and non-flooded soil environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaydon, D.S.; Probert, M.E.; Buresh, R.J.; Meinke, H.B.; Suriadi, A.; Dobermann, A.; Bouman, B.A.M.; Timsina, J.

    2012-01-01

    Water shortages in many rice-growing regions, combined with growing global imperatives to increase food production, are driving research into increased water use efficiency and modified agricultural practices in rice-based cropping systems. Well-tested cropping systems models that capture

  6. Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than its non-transgenic counterpart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangsheng Li

    Full Text Available Rice lines genetically modified with the crystal toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have experienced rapid development, with biosafety certificates for two Bt rice lines issued in 2009. There has still been no commercial release of these lines yet due to public concerns about human health and environmental risks. Some studies confirmed that Bt rice was as safe as conventional rice to non-target organisms when pesticides were not applied, however, pesticides are still required in Bt rice to control non-lepidopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the environmental effects of two Bt rice lines expressing either the cry1Ab/1Ac or cry2A genes, respectively, by using zooplanktons as indicator species under normal field management practices using pesticides when required. In the whole rice growing season, non-Bt rice was sprayed 5 times while Bt rice was sprayed 2 times, which ensured both rice achieved a normal yield. Field investigations showed that rice type (Bt and non-Bt significantly influenced zooplankton abundance and diversity, which were up to 95% and 80% lower in non-Bt rice fields than Bt rice fields. Laboratory rearing showed that water from non-Bt rice fields was significantly less suitable for the survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum in comparison with water from Bt rice fields. Higher pesticide residues were detected in the water from non-Bt than Bt rice fields, accounting for the bad performance of zooplankton in non-Bt field water. Our results demonstrate that Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than non-Bt rice, and its commercialization will be beneficial for biodiversity restoration in rice-based ecosystems.

  7. MIRACLES SHOWN BY MARRIAGE CUSTOMS IN SOPA FISHING VILLAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sopa Village in Chushur County of Lhasa Municipality is the only village in Tibet with a fishing business.The unique culture of this village includes ancient traditional customs.One in particular is a strange marriage custom.

  8. Induced Mutations in Thai Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klakhaeng, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Rice is the primary source of food for more than half of the world's population. It benefits greatly from technological inputs in the area of breeding such as induced mutation. Induced mutation can produce mutants with significant improvement in plant type, maturity, yields and protein ratio when compared to the parent. These improved traits enable the mutants to fit into farming systems with either shorter or longer growing seasons. Three induced mutant rice varieties, including RD6, RD10 and RD15, are well accepted by farmers and consumers in Thailand. RD6 and RD15 were aromatic, photosensitive varieties which were derived from KDML105 by acute irradiation of 20 and 15 kilorad gamma ray, respectively. After induced mutation, pedigree selection was applied. RD6 showed drought tolerance and also good grain quality including softness and good aroma with a higher average yield than the famous glutinous variety, San-Pah-Tong. Additionally, it was resistant to blast and brown spot diseases with an average yield of 4.19 tons/ha. RD15 showed drought tolerance and resistance to brown spot disease with the highest yield of 3.5 tons/ha. These two mutant varieties are currently the most famous aromatic rice varieties in Thailand. On the other hand, RD10 is a glutinous, photoperiod insensitive rice variety which was derived from RD1 by irradiation of 1 kilorad fast neutrons. RD10 showed good grain quality such as softness and stickiness with the yield of 4.25 tons/ha. As an on-going project, recommended rice varieties were irradiated with electron beam for anaerobic germination ability, submergence tolerance, stagnant-flood tolerance and also internode elongation.

  9. Analysis of rice policy based on presidential instruction on household food security: simultaneous equation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, S. A.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this research is to analyze the impacts of rice policy on the household food security. The research used cross section data, were collected from 74 respondent as determined by purposive sampling in Sei Rejo villages, the Sub District of Sei Rampah, Serdang Bedagai District in the Province of North Sumatera. Rice policy model specification uses the simultaneous equations consisting of 6 structural equations and 6 identity equations which was estimated using Two Stages Least Squares (2SLS) method. The results show that the effectiveness of government purchase price of dried harvest paddy gave a positive impact on paddy planted area and lead to an increase paddy production and an increase of the rice production gave a positive impact on household rice availability and household rice surplus, and the increase of household rice surplus gave the quantity of Raskin decrease, whereas the increase of fertilizers gave a negative impact on paddy planted area and lead to decrease paddy production and to decrease in rice production was followed by an decrease in household rice availability and household rice surplus, and the decrease of household rice surplus gave the quantity of Raskin increase.

  10. Integrated rice-duck farming mitigates the global warming potential in rice season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guochun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Qiangsheng; Yu, Xichen; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-01-01

    Integrated rice-duck farming (IRDF), as a mode of ecological agriculture, is an important way to realize sustainable development of agriculture. A 2-year split-plot field experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of IRDF on methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions and its ecological mechanism in rice season. This experiment was conducted with two rice farming systems (FS) of IRDF and conventional farming (CF) under four paddy-upland rotation systems (PUR): rice-fallow (RF), annual straw incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWS), annual straw-based biogas residues incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWB), and rice-green manure (RGM). During the rice growing seasons, IRDF decreased the CH 4 emission by 8.80-16.68%, while increased the N 2 O emission by 4.23-15.20%, when compared to CF. Given that CH 4 emission contributed to 85.83-96.22% of global warming potential (GWP), the strong reduction in CH 4 emission led to a significantly lower GWP of IRDF as compared to CF. The reason for this trend was because IRDF has significant effect on dissolved oxygen (DO) and soil redox potential (Eh), which were two pivotal factors for CH 4 and N 2 O emissions in this study. The IRDF not only mitigates the GWP, but also increases the rice yield by 0.76-2.43% compared to CF. Moreover, compared to RWS system, RF, RWB and RGM systems significantly reduced CH 4 emission by 50.17%, 44.89% and 39.51%, respectively, while increased N 2 O emission by 10.58%, 14.60% and 23.90%, respectively. And RWS system had the highest GWP. These findings suggest that mitigating GWP and improving rice yield could be simultaneously achieved by the IRDF, and employing suitable PUR would benefit for relieving greenhouse effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Management Restoration Plans for Coastal Villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudianto Rudianto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The village is located in the coastal area up to this time has decreased the quality of the coastal environment either caused by the process of natural or anthropogenic processes. Coastal damage Persistent will affect people's lives. Based on studies conducted by Rudianto (2013 and continued research by Rudianto (2014 on the institutional model for implementing the strategy, the resulting output coast of research called restoration plan for coastal villages or R2DP coastal villages. The objective of R2DP is helping the village administration to alleviate the problems of coastal areas. R2DP is a guideline that will be used by the village government based on a legal framework called the village regulations. The method used to compile R2DP is descriptive method. By using the method of Miles and Huberman (1984 used data reduction techniques. This technique is to pick and choose which data is critical to focus on the purpose of research. the results of research to produce findings about the restoration plan or a coastal village called R2DP. The essence of the mechanism and procedure R2DP is doing the restoration work by using institutions as a means of restoration.

  12. The Participation Role of Villagers in Village Plan Implementation: A Comparative Study on Two Villages in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengzhi; YIN; Haitao; CHEN

    2013-01-01

    China is in a process of rapid urbanization. Meanwhile, building development in rural areas is also accelerating. The paper intends to illustrate an original study focusing on villagers’ role in participation in village plan implementation in rural areas of China. Case studies, comparative studies, interviews, and questionnaires have been applied to reveal the mechanism of villager participation in village plan imple-mentation. Two case villages, which are pioneer units in the transition in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, have been selected. The study outcome shows that the villager participation plays an extremely important role in implementing the official village plan. The ideal development regulation mode in village planning in rural China should be a local government-villager cooperating system formed by three pillars: financial and technical supports from local governments; the participation of rural autonomous organizations, non-governmental organizations, and 'able persons' in formulation, implementation, and monitoring of official village plans; village construction teams like developers.

  13. Job satisfaction of village doctors during the new healthcare reforms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Fang, Pengqian

    2016-04-01

    Objective China launched new healthcare reforms in 2009 and several policies targeted village clinics, which affected village doctors' income, training and duties. The aim of the present study was to assess village doctors' job satisfaction during the reforms and to explore factors affecting job satisfaction. Methods Using a stratified multistage cluster sampling process, 935 village doctors in Jiangxi Province were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire that collected demographic information and contained a job satisfaction scale and questions regarding their work situation and individual perceptions of the new healthcare reforms. Descriptive analysis, Pearson's Chi-squared test and binary logistic regression were used to identify village doctors' job satisfaction and the factors associated with their job satisfaction. Results Only 12.72% of village doctors were either satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and the top three items leading to dissatisfaction were pay and the amount of work that had to be done, opportunities for job promotion and work conditions. Marriage, income, intention to leave, satisfaction with learning and training, social status, relationship with patients and satisfaction with the new healthcare reforms were significantly associated with job satisfaction (Pjob satisfaction. For future healthcare reforms, policy makers should pay more attention to appropriate remuneration and approaches that incentivise village doctors to achieve the goals of the health reforms. What is known about the topic? Village doctors act as gatekeepers at the bottom tier of the rural health system. However, the policies of the new healthcare reform initiatives in China were centred on improving the quality of care delivered to the rural population and reducing fast-growing medical costs. There have been limited studies on village doctors' reactions to these reforms. What does this paper add? The findings of the present study indicate that in the

  14. Sustainability of fisherman village in urban area case study : untia fisherman village, makassar, indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noegroho, N.; Ardiani, Y. M.

    2017-12-01

    Major cities in Indonesia, many of which have a fisherman village in the city area. One of them is the village of Untia in Makassar which keeps the story about relocation history of fishermen’s settlement in Makassar city. Initially, this village is very ‘friendly’ for the fishermen, especially the existence of canals that can be passed by the fishing boat to the front of the each house. However, the sustainability of this fisherman village is threatened by the development of urban functions that are urging towards it. From day to day, this village is segregated with the surrounding area, not only from its function but also from social point of view. This condition will be more severe related to the local government plan to reclaim sea far to the west side, thus threatening the sustainability of fisherman life in this village. How does a fisherman village in an urban area have to survive? The research begins by highlighting the conditions and problems that exist, data was collected by field survey. This data combined with some literatures then analyzed to propose a direction how fisherman’s village respond to the surrounding development. Become a Tourism village is a one way for fisherman’s village to survive in urban area.

  15. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp

  16. "Tinni" Rice ( Oryza rufipogon Griff.) Production: An Integrated Sociocultural Agroecosystem in Eastern Uttar Pradesh of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjay K.; Turner, Nancy J.; Pandey, C. B.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports how Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and informal cultural institutions have conserved key varieties of the wildgrowing rice, ` tinni' (red rice, or brownbeard rice, Oriza rufipogon Griff.), within the Bhar community of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The study was conducted, using conventional and participatory methods, in 10 purposively selected Bhar villages. Two distinct varieties of tinni (` tinni patali' and ` tinni moti') with differing habitats and phenotypic characters were identified. Seven microecosystems (Kari, Badaila, Chammo, Karmol, Bhainsiki, Bhainsala and Khodailia) were found to support these varieties in differing proportions. Tinni rice can withstand more extreme weather conditions (the highest as well as lowest temperatures and rainfall regimes) than the `genetically improved' varieties of rice ( Oriza sativa L.) grown in the region. Both tinni varieties are important bioresources for the Bhar's subsistence livelihoods, and they use distinctive conservation approaches in their maintenance. Bhar women are the main custodians of tinni rice agrobiodiversity, conserving tinni through an institution called Sajha. Democratic decision-making at meetings organized by village elders determines the market price of the tinni varieties. Overall, the indigenous institutions and women's participation seem to have provided safeguards from excessive exploitation of tinni rice varieties. The maintenance of tinni through cultural knowledge and institutions serves as an example of the importance of locally maintained crop varieties in contributing to people's resilience and food security in times of rapid social and environmental change.

  17. Diversity and population dynamics of pests and predators in irrigated rice fields with treated and untreated pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanapun, W

    2012-01-01

    The monitoring of rice pests and their predators in pesticide untreated and treated rice fields was conducted at the southern of Thailand. Twenty-two species in 15 families and 6 orders of rice pests were sampled from untreated rice field. For treated rice field, 22 species in 14 families and 5 orders of rice pest were collected. Regardless of treatment type, dominant species and individual number of rice pest varied to physiological stage of rice. Lepidopteran pests had highest infestation during the vegetative stage of rice growth, while hemipteran pests composed of hopper species (Hemipetra: Auchenorrhyncha) and heteropteran species (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) were dominant groups during the reproductive stage and grain formation and ripening stage of rice growth. In contrast, dominant species of predator did not change throughout rice growing season. There were 35 species in 25 families and seven orders and 40 species in 29 families and seven orders of predators collected from untreated and treated rice field, respectively. Major predators of both rice fields were Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Tetragnatha sp. (Araneae: Tetragnathidae) and Agriocnemis pygmaea Rambur (Odonata: Agrionidae). The population dynamic of predators were not related with rice pest population in both treatments. However, the fluctuation of population pattern of rice pests in the untreated treatment were more distinctly synchronized with their predators than that of the treated treatment. There were no significant differences in the total number of rice pest and predator between two treatments at vegetative and reproductive stages of rice growth. Untreated rice field had a higher population number of predator and a lower population number of rice pest than that of treated rice field during grain formation and ripening stages. These results indicated the ago-ecosystem balance in rice fields could be produced through minimal pesticide application, in order to allow

  18. A preliminary study on health effects in villagers exposed to mercury in a small-scale artisanal gold mining area in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Schierl, Rudolf; Nowak, Dennis; Siebert, Uwe; William, Jossep Frederick; Owi, Fradico Teorgi; Ir, Yuyun Ismawati

    2016-08-01

    Cisitu is a small-scale gold mining village in Indonesia. Mercury (Hg) is used to extract gold from ore, heavily polluting air, soil, fish and rice paddy fields with Hg. Rice in Cisitu is burdened with mercury. The main staple food of the inhabitants of Cisitu is this polluted rice. Villagers were concerned that the severe diseases they observed in the community might be related to their mining activities, including high mercury exposure. Case report of the medical examinations and the mercury levels in urine and hair of 18 people with neurological symptoms. Typical signs and symptoms of chronic mercury intoxication were found (excessive salivation, sleep disturbances, tremor, ataxia, dysdiadochokinesia, pathological coordination tests, gray to bluish discoloration of the oral cavity and proteinuria). Mercury levels in urine were increased in eight patients (>7µg Hg/L urine). All 18 people had increased hair levels (>1µg Hg/g hair). 15 patients exhibited several, and sometimes numerous, symptoms in addition to having moderately to highly elevated levels of mercury in their specimens. These patients were classified as intoxicated. The situation in Cisitu is special, with rice paddy fields being irrigated with mercury-contaminated water and villagers consuming only local food, especially mercury-contaminated rice. Severe neurological symptoms and increased levels of mercury in urine and hair support are possibly caused by exposure to inorganic mercury in air, and the consumption of mercury-contaminated fish and rice. The mercury exposure needs to be reduced and treatment provided. Further research is needed to test the hypothesis that mercury-contaminated rice from small-scale gold mining areas might cause mercury intoxication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Binding Site Concentration Explains the Differential Susceptibility of Chilo suppressalis and Sesamia inferens to Cry1A-Producing Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Lanzhi; Han, Chao; Liu, Zewen; Chen, Fajun; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Hou, Maolin; Peng, Yufa

    2014-01-01

    Chilo suppressalis and Sesamia inferens are two important lepidopteran rice pests that occur concurrently during outbreaks in paddy fields in the main rice-growing areas of China. Previous and current field tests demonstrate that the transgenic rice line Huahui 1 (HH1) producing a Cry1Ab-Cry1Ac hybrid toxin from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis reduces egg and larval densities of C. suppressalis but not of S. inferens. This differential susceptibility to HH1 rice correlates with the reduc...

  20. Growing media [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    Selecting the proper growing medium is one of the most important considerations in nursery plant production. A growing medium can be defined as a substance through which roots grow and extract water and nutrients. In native plant nurseries, a growing medium can consist of native soil but is more commonly an "artificial soil" composed of materials such as peat...

  1. 25 CFR 91.11 - Domestic animals in village reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic animals in village reserves. 91.11 Section 91.11... VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.11 Domestic animals in village reserves. (a) No livestock shall... owner of the animal, if known, by certified mail or by posting in the village square. The notice shall...

  2. Measuring the Development Patterns of Urban Villages in Shenzhen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, P.; Geertman, S.C.M.; Hooimeijer, P.; Sliuzas, R.

    2011-01-01

    Urban villages are widespread in many Chinese cities, providing affordable and accessible housing for rural migrants. These urban villages are developed by the indigenous village population base on a self-help approach and in an unauthorized style. Consequently, urban villages are characterized by

  3. 76 FR 13890 - Importation of Bromeliad Plants in Growing Media From Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... importation into the United States be free of sand, soil, earth, and other growing media. This requirement is..., Quarantine, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Rice, Vegetables. Accordingly, we propose to amend 7...

  4. Tumorigenesis: it takes a village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Doris P; Polyak, Kornelia

    2015-08-01

    Although it is widely accepted that most cancers exhibit some degree of intratumour heterogeneity, we are far from understanding the dynamics that operate among subpopulations within tumours. There is growing evidence that cancer cells behave as communities, and increasing attention is now being directed towards the cooperative behaviour of subclones that can influence disease progression. As expected, these interactions can add a greater layer of complexity to therapeutic interventions in heterogeneous tumours, often leading to a poor prognosis. In this Review, we highlight studies that demonstrate such interactions in cancer and postulate ways to overcome them with better-designed therapeutic strategies.

  5. Malaysian weedy rice shows its true stripes: wild Oryza and elite rice cultivars shape agricultural weed evolution in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Beng-Kah; Chuah, Tse-Seng; Tam, Sheh May; Olsen, Kenneth M

    2014-10-01

    Weedy rice is a close relative of domesticated rice (Oryza sativa) that competes aggressively with the crop and limits rice productivity worldwide. Most genetic studies of weedy rice have focused on populations in regions where no reproductively compatible wild Oryza species occur (North America, Europe and northern Asia). Here, we examined the population genetics of weedy rice in Malaysia, where wild rice (O. rufipogon) can be found growing in close proximity to cultivated and weedy rice. Using 375 accessions and a combined analysis of 24 neutral SSR loci and two rice domestication genes (sh4, controlling seed shattering, and Bh4, controlling hull colour), we addressed the following questions: (i) What is the relationship of Malaysian weedy rice to domesticated and wild rice, and to weedy rice strains in the USA? (ii) To what extent does the presence of O. rufipogon influence the genetic and phenotypic diversity of Malaysian weeds? (iii) What do the distributions of sh4 and Bh4 alleles and associated phenotypes reveal about the origin and contemporary evolution of Malaysian weedy rice? Our results reveal the following: independent evolutionary origins for Malaysian weeds and US strains, despite their very close phenotypic resemblance; wild-to-weed gene flow in Malaysian weed populations, including apparent adaptive introgression of seed-shattering alleles; and a prominent role for modern Malaysian cultivars in the origin and recent proliferation of Malaysian weeds. These findings suggest that the genetic complexity and adaptability of weedy crop relatives can be profoundly influenced by proximity to reproductively compatible wild and domesticated populations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. SUSTAINABLE CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT: THE FATE OF BALINESE ADAT VILLAGE POSTERIOR THE ENACTMENT OF LAW NUMBER 6 YEAR 2014 CONCERNING VILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Nurjaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of indigenous peoples existence is very dependent on the will of the Government. The village government as formulated in Act number 6/2014 of the village, as well as Government Regulation number 43/2014 about Implementation of the Act number 6/2014 has naturally become a bureaucratic and legal officials law, that the village is set in the system of local government under the supervision of State law. In the case of Bali and the local Government of Bali, there is legal consequences with the fate and the future existence and life of indigenous village/pakraman village as a social and cultural system of the Hindu society, it is the law on the development basis of the indigenous village/pakraman village will not remain be ”the awig-awig” as Balinese traditional society customary law; philosophy and the essence, function and role of the indigenous village/pakraman village changed physically as well as community life of Balinese people loss; traditional customs and Government system should be changed in accordance with the system of the village Government; on one side the customs affairs village should organize pakraman village administration and bureaucracy under the structure of local governments, and on the other hand the indigenous village is at the same time responsible to organize and responsible about the culture, traditions, customs and ritual as Hindu affairs, village understanding of pakraman village customs and traditions should be completely ignored in Balinese village daily community life.

  7. The village as a ‘community of practice’ Constitution of village belonging through leisure sociality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Barlocco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the formation and display of a form of identification alternative to the national one, the belonging to the village, within the leisure practices of Kadazan villagers in Sabah, East Malaysia, both constituted by the regular meetings of peer groups and by festive events. The analysis of the paper applies the concept of ‘community of practice’ to the group of villagers who regularly invest most of their resources of free time, but also money, in interacting between themselves and in organising celebrations for various life-cycle events or for other occasions, and argues that a strong sense of belonging to the village is developed through this engagement. These practices are informed by a powerful and widely spread local ideology, positing the village as the central point of reference for its inhabitants’ sense of belonging and as the locus of a traditionalist ‘way of life’, based on cooperation, sharing and egalitarian principles, and rejecting the modern, multi-ethnic urban world from which the majority of the villagers derive their livelihood. This ideology defines the village as Kadazan and Christian, determining a rootedness in everyday life of ethnic identity as well as a general rejection of government-led nationalist propaganda and of its policies. This ideology is an essential part of the affirmation by the villagers of the primacy of the local and of direct involvement and participation over their sense of belonging to collective categories.

  8. Sustainable Living and Co-Housing: Evidence from a Case Study of Eco-Villages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Bella Margrethe Mørch; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    2012-01-01

    is whether co-housing offers better opportunities for choosing and using more sustainable technologies, which also relates to the question of whether co-housing offers better opportunities for building smaller and denser and thus more energy efficient buildings. The second and third questions are socially......, as the growing number of small households is an emerging sustainability problem. The empirical analyses are based on the results from a Danish study of eco-villages including a survey, interviews with representatives of the eco-village movement and a detailed case study of a group of people in the process...... of establishing a new cluster in an existing eco-village. The aim of the article is to contribute to the general discussions about co-housing and sustainability. The study adds nuances to this discussion and shows that the answer is not as straightforward as presented in much of the literature....

  9. Drought resistant rice mutants, characteristics and discussions on possibilities for planting them in some Arab Countries which import rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Hegazi, A.M.T.

    1994-01-01

    A number of drought resistant mutants of rice were produced from ordinary rice varieties being planted in several parts of Egypt through utilization of gamma rays as a mutagen. The mutants have water requirements less than one half of that of their mother varieties. According to official data, authorities in Egypt insure about 18000 M 3 of irrigation water for every hectare (10000 M 2 ) of rice and about 6700 M 3 , 6900 M 3 for every hectare of corn and ground nuts, respectively. Peanuts and corn are summer crops like the drought resistant rice mutants. The mentioned mutants can produce good yield under water requirements very near to that of corn and peanuts. The wide gap in agricultural food stuffs for the Arab Countries (more than 20000 million US $ annually) includes rice imports usually exceeds 700 million US $ per year> Rice imports of Arab Countries such as Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Syria, Libya and the Sudan, reached 180, 47, 21, 16 and 14 million US $ in 1988 as an example. Such countries could make use of the drought resistant rice mutants for plantation on water requirements very near to those of usual summer crops such as corn and peanuts which is significantly less than one half of water requirements of their mother varieties. Some characteristics of such mutants as well as discussions on possibilities for planting them in some of the nominated Arab Countries are presented. However, arrangements for ensuring the minimum water requirements during the growing period irrespective to rain which in many cases did not accord the growing period of the mutants should be taken if such countries wants to make use of the drought resistant rice mutants. The author believe that most if not all requirements of rice of such countries could locally be ensured through planting of the above mentioned rice mutants. In this case, maximizing the efficiency of utilizing the limited water resources of such countries could also be counted as another cause for presenting this

  10. Towards A Moon Village: Vision and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    The new DG of ESA, Jan Wörner, has expressed from the very beginning of his duty a clear ambition towards a Moon Village, where Europe could have a lead role. The concept of Moon Village is basically to start with a robotic lunar village and then develop a permanent station on the Moon with different countries and partners that can participate and contribute with different elements, experiments, technologies, and overall support. ESA's DG has communicated about this programme and invited inputs from all the potential stakeholders, especially member states, engineers, industry, scientists, innovators and diverse representatives from the society. In order to fulfill this task, a series of Moon Village workshops have been organized first internally at ESA and then at international community events, and are also planned for the coming months, to gather stakeholders to present their ideas, their developments and their recommendations on how to put Moon Village into the minds of Europeans, international partners and prepare relevant actions for upcoming International Lunar Decade. Moon Village Workshop: The Moon Village Workshop in ESTEC on the 14th December was organized by ILEWG & ESTEC Staff Association in conjunction with the Moon 2020-2030 Symposium. It gathered people coming from all around the world, with many young professionals involved, as well as senior experts and representatives, with a very well gender balanced and multidisciplinary group. Engineers, business experts, managers, scientists, architects, artists, students presented their views and work done in the field of Lunar Exploration. Participants included colleagues from ESA, SGAC Space Generation Advisory Council, NASA, and industries such as OHB SE, TAS, Airbus DS, CGI, etc… and researchers or students from various Universities in Europe, America, and Asia. Working groups include: Moon Habitat Design, Science and Technology potentials on the Moon Village, and Engaging Stakeholders. The Moon

  11. Clinical significance of neurocysticercosis in endemic villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, H.H.; Gilman, R.H.; Tsang, V.C.W.; Gonzalez, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral cysticercosis is the main cause of late-onset epilepsy in most developing countries. Data on the neuroepidemiology of cysticercosis in endemic populations is scarce. In an endemic village on the northern coast of Peru, 49 individuals with neurological symptomatology (41 epileptic and 8 non-epileptic) were screened for antibodies to Taenia solium, using a serum electroimmuno transfer blot assay. Fifteen subjects were seropositive, 14 (34%) of those with epilepsy but only one (13%) of those who were non-epileptic. A history of passing proglottides was associated with positive serology. Thirteen of the 15 seropositive individuals underwent cerebral computed tomography; only 7 (54%) were abnormal. A randomly selected sample of 20 pigs from the village was also tested, and 6 (30%) were seropositive. This study demonstrated the importance of cysticercosis in the aetiology of epilepsy in endemic villages and the close relationship between porcine and human infection

  12. Optimal Time to Enter a Retirement Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the financial planning problem of a retiree wishing to enter a retirement village at a future uncertain date. The date of entry is determined by the retiree’s utility and bequest maximisation problem within the context of uncertain future health states. In addition, the retiree must choose optimal consumption, investment, bequest and purchase of insurance products prior to their full annuitisation on entry to the retirement village. A hyperbolic absolute risk-aversion (HARA utility function is used to allow necessary consumption for basic living and medical costs. The retirement village will typically require an initial deposit upon entry. This threshold wealth requirement leads to exercising the replication of an American put option at the uncertain stopping time. From our numerical results, active insurance and annuity markets are shown to be a critical aspect in retirement planning.

  13. Phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated soil by Pteris vittata L. II. Effect on arsenic uptake and rice yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Asit; Purakayastha, T J; Patra, A K; Sanyal, S K

    2012-07-01

    A greenhouse experiment evaluated the effect of phytoextraction of arsenic from a contaminated soil by Chinese Brake Fern (Pteris vittata L.) and its subsequent effects on growth and uptake of arsenic by rice (Oryza sativa L.) crop. Pteris vittata was grown for one or two growing cycles of four months each with two phosphate sources, using single super phosphate (SSP) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP). Rice was grown on phytoextracted soils followed by measurements of biomass yield (grain, straw, and root), arsenic concentration and, uptake by individual plant parts. The biomass yield (grain, straw and rice) of rice was highest in soil phytoextracted with Pteris vittata grown for two cycles and fertilized with diammonium phosphate (DAP). Total arsenic uptake in contaminated soil ranged from 8.2 to 16.9 mg pot(-1) in first growing cycle and 5.5 to 12.0 mg pot(-1) in second growing cycle of Pteris vittata. There was thus a mean reduction of 52% in arsenic content of rice grain after two growing cycle of Pteris vittata and 29% after the one growing cycle. The phytoextraction of arsenic contaminated soil by Pteris vittata was beneficial for growing rice resulted in decreased arsenic content in rice grain of <1 ppm. There was a mean improvement in rice grain yield 14% after two growing cycle and 8% after the one growing cycle of brake fern.

  14. Mapping rice areas of South Asia using MODIS multitemporal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumma, Murali Krishna; Nelson, Andrew; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Singh, Amrendra N.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal is to map the rice areas of six South Asian countries using moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data for the time period 2000 to 2001. South Asia accounts for almost 40% of the world's harvested rice area and is also home to 74% of the population that lives on less than $2.00 a day. The population of the region is growing faster than its ability to produce rice. Thus, accurate and timely assessment of where and how rice is cultivated is important to craft food security and poverty alleviation strategies. We used a time series of eight-day, 500-m spatial resolution composite images from the MODIS sensor to produce rice maps and rice characteristics (e.g., intensity of cropping, cropping calendar) taking data for the years 2000 to 2001 and by adopting a suite of methods that include spectral matching techniques, decision trees, and ideal temporal profile data banks to rapidly identify and classify rice areas over large spatial extents. These methods are used in conjunction with ancillary spatial data sets (e.g., elevation, precipitation), national statistics, and maps, and a large volume of field-plot data. The resulting rice maps and statistics are compared against a subset of independent field-plot points and the best available subnational statistics on rice areas for the main crop growing season (kharif season). A fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the 2000 to 2001 rice-map product, based on field-plot data, demonstrated accuracies from 67% to 100% for individual rice classes, with an overall accuracy of 80% for all classes. Most of the mixing was within rice classes. The derived physical rice area was highly correlated with the subnational statistics with R2 values of 97% at the district level and 99% at the state level for 2000 to 2001. These results suggest that the methods, approaches, algorithms, and data sets we used are ideal for rapid, accurate, and large-scale mapping of paddy rice as well as for generating

  15. Mapping rice areas of South Asia using MODIS multitemporal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumma, M.K.; Nelson, A.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Singh, A.N.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal is to map the rice areas of six South Asian countries using moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data for the time period 2000 to 2001. South Asia accounts for almost 40% of the world's harvested rice area and is also home to 74% of the population that lives on less than $2.00 a day. The population of the region is growing faster than its ability to produce rice. Thus, accurate and timely assessment of where and how rice is cultivated is important to craft food security and poverty alleviation strategies. We used a time series of eight-day, 500-m spatial resolution composite images from the MODIS sensor to produce rice maps and rice characteristics (e.g., intensity of cropping, cropping calendar) taking data for the years 2000 to 2001 and by adopting a suite of methods that include spectral matching techniques, decision trees, and ideal temporal profile data banks to rapidly identify and classify rice areas over large spatial extents. These methods are used in conjunction with ancillary spatial data sets (e.g., elevation, precipitation), national statistics, and maps, and a large volume of field-plot data. The resulting rice maps and statistics are compared against a subset of independent field-plot points and the best available subnational statistics on rice areas for the main crop growing season (kharif season). A fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the 2000 to 2001 rice-map product, based on field-plot data, demonstrated accuracies from 67% to 100% for individual rice classes, with an overall accuracy of 80% for all classes. Most of the mixing was within rice classes. The derived physical rice area was highly correlated with the subnational statistics with R2 values of 97% at the district level and 99% at the state level for 2000 to 2001. These results suggest that the methods, approaches, algorithms, and data sets we used are ideal for rapid, accurate, and large-scale mapping of paddy rice as well as for generating

  16. Study on rice absorption and distribution of Cd in applying Zn fertilizer with 65Zn, 115Cdm tracing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Nianxin; Shen Jinxiong

    1994-01-01

    Results of study by using 65 Zn and 115 Cd m tracers show that, along with the increase of the amount of Cd in applying Zn fertilizer to soil, rice has the phenomena of growth retard and tiller delay in the earlier growing stage. The inhibiting phenomenon is lightened along with the progress of rice growth. Very small quantity of Cd might be helpful to the growth of rice. It would cause serious inhibition to rice growth when the amount of Cd reaches to a definite limitation (64 x 10 -6 ). The distribution of Cd in a rice plant follows the following order in content: root>stem and leaves>brown rice>ear stalk>rice shell. Cd is mainly accumulated in rice root, taking 90% of the total amount of Cd contained in whole rice plant. The amount of Cd absorbed by rice increases with the amount of Cd applied to soil, though the total absorption extremely low, for example, only about 0.1% of the applied amount could be absorbed by two crops of rice, most of the applied Cd still retains in soil. Less and less Zn could be absorbed and utilized by rice along with the increase of the amount of the applied Cd. Application of Mn fertilizer affects negatively the absorption of Cd by rice, especially in brown rice

  17. Appreciation to Organic Agriculture Function: Case Study of Rice Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinjung Mary Prihtanti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural activities are not only producing the visible (tangible output in the form of food but also the non-visible output (non-marketable goods/non-tangible services. Non-visible output refers to a multifunctionality to supply food to ensure the food sufficiency of farmer household and job opportunities at rural area. The article aims to compare the capability of organic rice farming to conventional, to ensure the food sufficiency of farmer household, the economic value of rice farming to produce food, and the economic estimation of rice farming to its function as an job opportunities. The data for the research is collected in Gentungan Village, Mojogedang District, Karanganyar Regency during the crop year of 2015. In order to study the differences of two rice farming systems, the total of 60 farmers, 30 farmers are dealing with organic farming and other 30 farmers from conventional farming, are subjected for the interview in this research. The results found that the food security of organic farming is higher than conventional farming. The organic rice farming gives the economic value as the food producing and the labor-absorbing function in the study area is higher than the  conventional farming.

  18. CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF AGRONOMIC CHARACTERS AND GRAIN YIELD OF RICE FOR TIDAL SWAMP AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Hairmansis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of rice varieties for tidal swamp areas is emphasized on the improvement of rice yield potential in specific environment. However, grain yield is a complex trait and highly dependent on the other agronomic characters; while information related to the relationship between agronomic characters and grain yield in the breeding program particularly for tidal swamp areas is very limited. The objective of this study was to investigate relationship between agronomic characters and grain yield of rice as a basis for selection of high yielding rice varieties for tidal swamp areas. Agronomic characters and grain yield of nine advanced rice breeding lines and two rice varieties were evaluated in a series of experiments in tidal swamp areas, Karang Agung Ulu Village, Banyuasin, South Sumatra, for four cropping seasons in dry season (DS 2005, wet season (WS 2005/2006, DS 2006, and DS 2007. Result from path analysis revealed that the following characters had positive direct effect on grain yield, i.e. number of productive tillers per hill (p = 0.356, number of filled grains per panicle (p = 0.544, and spikelet fertility (p = 0.215. Plant height had negative direct effect (p = -0.332 on grain yield, while maturity, number of spikelets per panicle, and 1000-grain weight showed negligible effect on rice grain yield. Present study suggests that indirect selection of high yielding tidal swamp rice can be done by selecting breeding lines which have many product tive tillers, dense filled grains, and high spikelet fertility.

  19. Agroforestry practice in villages surrounding Nyamure former ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    Household surveys were conducted in the three administrative cells ... In order to be more concise, only those villages (settlements) within 5-10 km radius .... Market. 3. 1.9. Firewood collection from public land consumed a lot of time from ... in order to assess the extent of agroforestry practice so as to guide in planning.

  20. Communicative and narrative sound in Village

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Iben

    2010-01-01

    The soundtrack of the TV spot Village tells a story of its own. Some of the sounds communicate meaning very close to the visuals, for example by creating an African soundscape. But the soundtrack also supplies narrative elements of its own, which is most remarkable when it adds a happy ending...

  1. Radon variations in a Hungarian village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, E.; Deak, F.; Marx, G.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Vajda, N.

    1997-01-01

    A steady radon exhalation is assumed in most publications. In a village of North-East Hungary, however, high radon concentrations have been measured, differing strongly in neighbouring houses and varying in time, due to the interplay of geochemical phenomena. (orig.)

  2. Space architecture for MoonVillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2017-10-01

    The concept of a multinational MoonVillage, as proposed by Jan Wörner of ESA, is analyzed with respect to diverse factors affecting its implementation feasibility: potential activities and scale as a function of location, technology, and purpose; potential participants and their roles; business models for growth and sustainability as compared to the ISS; and implications for the field of space architecture. Environmental and operations constraints that govern all types of MoonVillage are detailed. Findings include: 1) while technically feasible, a MoonVillage would be more distributed and complex a project than the ISS; 2) significant and distinctive opportunities exist for willing participants, at all evolutionary scales and degrees of commercialization; 3) the mixed-use space business park model is essential for growth and permanence; 4) growth depends on exporting lunar material products, and the rate and extent of growth depends on export customers including terrestrial industries; 5) industrial-scale operations are a precondition for lunar urbanism, which goal in turn dramatically drives technology requirements; but 6) industrial viability cannot be discerned until significant in situ operations occur; and therefore 7) government investment in lunar surface operations is a strictly enabling step. Because of the resources it could apply, the U.S. government holds the greatest leverage on growth, no matter who founds a MoonVillage. The interplanetary business to be built may because for engagement.

  3. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  4. Optimizing Greenhouse Rice Production: Summary of Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Eddy, Robert; Acosta, Kevin; Liu, Yisi; Russell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This publication provides a single-page chart summarizing our protocols for growing Rice (japonica). Split into three production goals, recommendations are given for photoperiod, temperature, lighting, container, root medium, planting density, irrigation, fertilization, algae control and fungus gnat control. This version updates our fertilization frequency, pot size, root medium and algae control recommendations. This document summarizes a series of questions and answers originally posted ...

  5. Combined influence of Bt rice and rice dwarf virus on biological parameters of a non-target herbivore, Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianjin Wang

    Full Text Available The advent of genetically modified (GM Bt rice creates the possibility of interactions among Bt crops, crop pathogens and non-target herbivores. In particular, information on how pathogen-infected Bt-expressing plants will influence non-target herbivores is necessary to predict the sustainability of GM cropping systems. Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the potential combined impacts of rice dwarf virus (RDV and two Bt rice lines, T1C-19 (Cry1C and T2A-1 (Cry2A, on non-target green rice leafhopper (GRLH, Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae. In the first experiment, GRLHs feeding preference tests on Bt rice lines compared to a parental control rice line, MH63, were conducted. As rice plants were uninfected with RDV, GRLHs generally preferred the control MH63 line over the two Bt lines during the initial 8 h, with no significant preference during the following 64 h. As rice plants were infected with RDV, there were no clear preferences between the Bt rice lines and the control MH63 line. In the second experiment, we assessed the combined influence of RDV-infection status and Bt rice lines on GRLH biological parameters. Egg duration, adult weights, and male adult longevity were significantly affected on RDV-infected Bt rice. Other parameters, egg hatching rate, nymph survival and fecundity were not significantly influenced. We infer that interaction effect among two testing Bt rice lines and RDV will not lead to enlarged pest populations, thus demonstrating that growing these two Bt rice lines will poses negligible risk to GRLH in sustainable rice agroecosystems. Long-term field experiments to monitor the population dynamics of GRLHs at large scale need to be carried out to confirm the current results.

  6. Combined influence of Bt rice and rice dwarf virus on biological parameters of a non-target herbivore, Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianjin; Han, Naishun; Dang, Cong; Lu, Zengbin; Wang, Fang; Yao, Hongwei; Peng, Yufa; Stanley, David; Ye, Gongyin

    2017-01-01

    The advent of genetically modified (GM) Bt rice creates the possibility of interactions among Bt crops, crop pathogens and non-target herbivores. In particular, information on how pathogen-infected Bt-expressing plants will influence non-target herbivores is necessary to predict the sustainability of GM cropping systems. Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the potential combined impacts of rice dwarf virus (RDV) and two Bt rice lines, T1C-19 (Cry1C) and T2A-1 (Cry2A), on non-target green rice leafhopper (GRLH), Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). In the first experiment, GRLHs feeding preference tests on Bt rice lines compared to a parental control rice line, MH63, were conducted. As rice plants were uninfected with RDV, GRLHs generally preferred the control MH63 line over the two Bt lines during the initial 8 h, with no significant preference during the following 64 h. As rice plants were infected with RDV, there were no clear preferences between the Bt rice lines and the control MH63 line. In the second experiment, we assessed the combined influence of RDV-infection status and Bt rice lines on GRLH biological parameters. Egg duration, adult weights, and male adult longevity were significantly affected on RDV-infected Bt rice. Other parameters, egg hatching rate, nymph survival and fecundity were not significantly influenced. We infer that interaction effect among two testing Bt rice lines and RDV will not lead to enlarged pest populations, thus demonstrating that growing these two Bt rice lines will poses negligible risk to GRLH in sustainable rice agroecosystems. Long-term field experiments to monitor the population dynamics of GRLHs at large scale need to be carried out to confirm the current results.

  7. Contribution of rice straw carbon to CH4 emission from rice paddies using 13C-enriched rice straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Yoshida, Mariko; Kimura, Makoto

    1998-04-01

    It is generally recognized that the application of rice straw (RS) increases CH4 emission from rice paddies. To estimate the contribution of RS carbon to CH4 emission, a pot experiment was conducted using 13C-enriched RS. The percentage contributions of RS carbon to CH4 emission throughout the rice growth period were 10±1, 32±3, and 43±3% for the treatments with RS applied at the rates of 2, 4, and 6 g kg-1 soil, respectively. The increase in the rate of application of RS increased CH4 emission derived from both RS carbon and other carbon sources. The percentage contribution of RS carbon to CH4 emission was larger in the earlier period (maximum 96%) when the decomposition rate of RS was larger. After RS decomposition had slowed, CH4 emission derived from RS carbon decreased. However, the δ13C values of CH4 emitted from the pots with 13C-enriched RS applied at rates of 4 and 6 g kg-1 soil were significantly higher than those from the pots with natural RS until the harvesting stage. An increased atom-13C% of roots of rice plants growing in the pots with 6 g kg-1 of 13C-enriched RS at around the maximum tiller number stage and a decrease during the following 2 months suggested that rice plants assimilated RS carbon once and then released a portion of it. This supply of RS carbon from roots may be one of the sources of CH4 in the late period of rice growth.

  8. Village operator feasibility framework: A recommended method for assessing the viability of village operator sites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Staden, R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available model will serve to enhance local industry and government services, and contribute directly to the local economy through job creation. The proposed model empowers local ICT service providers, known as Village Operators, to implement broadband...

  9. 7 CFR 457.170 - Cultivated wild rice crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reinsured policies: Cultivated Wild Rice Crop Provisions. 1. Definitions Approved laboratory. A testing.... Cultivated Wild Rice. A member of the grass family Zizania Palustris L., adapted for growing in man-made... for the crop year. Planted acreage. In addition to the definition contained in the Basic Provisions...

  10. Heavy metals screening of rice bran oils and its relation to composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice bran oil contains beneficial compounds that contribute to the high stability of the oil itself, as well as the health of consumers. As a result, rice bran oil has been growing in popularity and is now widely used in many countries. However, concerns have surfaced in recent years related to the ...

  11. The yield and quality of black rice varieties in different altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanto, E.; Hidayati, W.; Nandariyah

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to determine the optimal environmental conditions and corresponding black rice varieties in order to produce high production and optimum quality rice. The study using nested design, first was location (2 levels: the highlands and lowland), second was varieties (3 levels: Cempo Ireng, IPB, and Gagak) the study was conducted from November 2015 until May 2016 in Karanglo and Gutanon village, Karanganyar. Anthocyanin analysis conducted in laboratory of Nutrition and Food, Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and significant difference continued with DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test) level of 5%. Results showed that cultivation in highlands and use of diverse varieties showed different quantity of rice that can be seen on panicle length, and weight of grain crops. Improved quality of results showed same things, anthocyanin content and iron increased on black rice which cultivated in highlands.

  12. Do fragmented landholdings have higher production costs? Evidence from rice farmers in Northeastern Jiangxi province, P.R. China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, S.; Heerink, N.; Kruseman, G.; Qu, F.

    2008-01-01

    Land fragmentation is generally seen as an obstacle to agricultural productivity improvements, but it can also facilitate labor smoothing and risk diversification. In this paper we examine the impact of land fragmentation on the variable production costs of rice farmers in three villages in Jiangxi

  13. SAR Agriculture Rice Production Estimation (SARPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimadoya, M.

    2013-12-01

    SAR imageries, determine the target planting season to be linked. In this case the radar image only acquired two time series: the date of 26/10/2012 (stripmap) and 10/31/2012 (scanSAR) for series-1, and the date of 19/11/2012 (stripmap) and 11/24/2012 ( scanSAR) for series-2. The end result of this study is a model of crop growth status at the village, district and county level compared to KATAM. The County of Subang was used as a pilot exercise, and then was replicated into the two other counties (Karawang and Indramayu). Status of plant growth is divided into five phases: fallow wet, young vegetation, old vegetation, generative (pre-harvest), and dry fallow. The process of plant growth status was started with the determination of the majority in each rice field as a benchmark. This was followed by the creation of status recapitulation at the village, district, and ultimately at the county level. The county results were then compared with KATAM. Further replication to the rest of the other counties in the West Java Province, can only be done after the related PESBAK was improved in accordance to the area base standard requirement.

  14. Barefoot in Afghanistan: solar electrification of villages in Afghanistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Bunker [Barefoot Coll., Rajasthan (India); Synnevag, Gry [Norwegian Church Aid (Norway)

    2006-05-15

    In the mountains of Afghanistan, villagers must walk long distances and pay high prices to buy fuel to survive. The authors report on an innovative solar electrification scheme that has enabled villagers to be self-reliant installers. (Author)

  15. Alaska Native Villages and Rural Communities Water Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant human health and water quality problems exist in Alaska Native Village and other rural communities in the state due to lack of sanitation. To address these issues, EPA created the Alaska Rural and Native Villages Grant Program.

  16. Feasibility of freight villages in the NYMTC region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    This report summarizes the work conducted to analyze the site impact of freight villages. The analysis included assessing traffic, : logistics and economic impacts, which are then used to determine the extent to which freight village development has ...

  17. SUSTAINABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT OF TRADITIONAL CRAFT INDUSTRY IN LOPATI TOURISM VILLAGE, YOGYAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    VITASURYA Vincentia Reni; PUDIANTI Anna

    2016-01-01

    Ecotourism has been growing in Yogyakarta that can be seen through the development of rural tourism. The development of rural tourism has positive impact to improve local community’s welfare nevertheless, it has also negative impact onto environmental carrying capacity. Lopati tourism village is located in Bantul, Yogyakarta, relying on traditional craft industry as tourism attraction. Traditional crafts are livelihood of local residents, so that environmental management efforts become part o...

  18. Sustainable Architecture Analyses of Walls in Miyaneh Village Houses, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zohreh Salavatizadeh; Feridoun NahidiAzar; Sara Salavatizadeh; Seyyed Hossein Salehi; Ahadollah Azami

    2012-01-01

    Even though so many efforts have been taken to renovate and renew the architecture of Miyaneh villages in cold and dry regions of Iran-s northwest, these efforts failed due to lack of significant study and ignoring the past and sustainable history of those villages. Considering the overpopulation of Iran-s villages as well as the importance in preventing their immigration to cities, recognizing village architecture and its construction technology is of great significance ...

  19. Spatial diversity of urban village development in Shenzhen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341235814; Geertman, S.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072392924; Hooimeijer, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073398578; Sliuzas, R.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic urbanization in China during the reform period has led to the emergence and proliferation of so-called urban villages in many cities. The development of urban villages, based on a self-help approach of indigenous villagers, has been satisfying great demand for migrant housing and space for

  20. Village health volunteers: key issues facing agencies in Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The participants discussed recruitment, training, rewards, retention, and roles of village health volunteers. This paper presents background data on village health volunteers in Malawi and elsewhere and reviews the key issues facing health care providers in working with village health volunteers. A copy of the workshop ...

  1. Report on the survey of the project for working out the new energy vision of Shinjo Village. New energy vision of Shinjo Village; 2001 nendo Shinjo son shin energy vision sakutei tou jigyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    For the purpose of promoting the introduction of new energy and enhancing the awareness of it in Shinjo Village, Okayama Prefecture, an investigational study was conducted of the energy demand of the village, existence amount of new energy, project for new energy introduction, etc., and a new energy vision was worked out. The energy demand amount of the village was estimated at 1,442.5kL in terms of crude oil. The rate of energy source was 48% of automobile use fuel, 25% of electric power, 20% of kerosene and 7% of LPG. As the project for new energy introduction, the following were studied: power generation by direct combustion/gasification of wood biomass such as forest trees; power generation/heat utilization using agricultural waste such as rice straw/hull; production/utilization of wood pellet; introduction of photovoltaic power system/solar heat utilization system to tourist facilities/welfare facilities such as the village office/elementary school/junior high school/michi-no-eki (service area along the road); introduction of clean energy vehicle to tourist resort; introduction of street light with solar panel/wind power generator/storage cell; introduction of micro hydraulic power generation. (NEDO)

  2. Perspectives on renewable energy and Village Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, A.R.

    1997-12-01

    The author provides a brief overview of the role the Department of Energy has been playing in the area of renewable energy sources and their applications at a village level. Energy demand is rising sharply, and shortages are becoming more acute. Developing countries will present a large demand, and market opportunity over the next 40 years. Environmental concerns are a factor in the choice for what sources to promote and develop. The author touches on the features of renewable sources which makes them attractive to DOE for some applications, and what the goals of the department are in supporting this technology. Examples of applications at the level of village power are presented for both the US and abroad.

  3. Cassava leaves in combination with sera onggok and rice bran as supplements in buffaloes ration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendratno, C.; Sofian, L.A.; Abidin, Z.; Bahaudin, R.; Suharyono.

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments have been undertaken to evaluate the utilization of cassava leaves in combination with sera onggok or rice bran as supplements in buffalo ration under traditional village condition. In experiment 1, 16 buffaloes were divided in four groups, each receiving a different ration ranging from mixed forage alone to mixed forage supplemented with a combination of cassava leaves and sera onggok or rice bran. Changes in dry metter consumption, daily weight gain, feed convertion ratio and incom over feed cost were assesed. Experiments 2 covered an in vitro study on the changes in rumen fermentation as affected by different rations. The results of experiment 1 indicated the lack of differences in dry matter consumption. However, the daily weight gain, feed convertion ratio and income over feed cost (IOFC) higher in animal receiving mixed forage suplement with cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran as compared to those of animal receiving mixed forage or mixed forage supplemented with cassava leaves. Experiment 2 revealed that amonia concentration and volatile fatty acid production were able to support a higher microbil activity supplemented with cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran as compared to those receiving the other two rations. In conclusion it is obvious that cassava leaves in combination with either sera onggok or rice bran used as supplements could promote a better production in animal in the villages. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

  4. Human–dog interactions and behavioural responses of village dogs in coastal villages in Michoacán, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, E.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Ortolani, A.; Ortega-Pacheco, A.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In Mexican villages, most households keep dogs that roam freely. Therefore, socialisation of village dogs occurs in a different context than that of companion dogs in developed countries. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess village dogs’ behavioural responses towards familiar and

  5. Village poultry production in the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalafalla, A.I.; Awad, S.; Hass, W.

    2002-01-01

    A survey form provided by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division was used to collect data on village poultry production in the Sudan. The production system in the households was based on scavenging indigenous domestic chickens, at times accompanied by pigeons, guinea fowls, ducks or turkeys. The average flock size was 18.8 birds and included 44.3% hens, 10% cocks, 20% growers and 24.8% chicks. The hen to cock ratio was 4.4:1. Average egg production was 3.1 per hen per month, of which 76% were incubated by hens. About 78% of incubated eggs hatched of which 75% survived the brooding period. Approximately half of the households provided the chickens with housing. Around 25.7% of interviewed households used chicken manure as fertilizer. While scavenging, chickens fed on insects, grass, vegetables and kitchen wastes. Feed supplements included sorghum, millet and sometimes wheat bran and alfalfa. The ownership of village chickens was shared between all gender categories and all were involved in the management of the birds. The major constraints to village poultry production in the Sudan were identified and included inadequate health care, poor production, inappropriate housing and poor knowledge of poultry management. (author)

  6. Encouraging girl child education in my village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Entongwe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available My critical reflection will be drawn from an experience I had just a year after my graduation from the university where I was appointed as one of the X-students to lead a student cultural week in my village with the theme “raising awareness on education”. At the university, I was a member of my association in which students from my tribe generally come together to promote unity and encourage others in education. My role was to present a discourse on girl child education all the entire villagers who were gathered at the village square that evening. A high dropout rate at school and illiteracy are major problems in my region, in which there is still a great deal of gender disparity when it comes to educating children, especially the girl child. This programme is in line with the government’s policy of promoting education in my country, whose priority is for education to reach the grass-roots communities.

  7. Growing old graciously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Manthorpe describes a nursing home for people with dementia in the Netherlands. With 120 beds it is large but splitting it into six-bed wings, each with separate sitting room, bathroom and kitchen, means that it still feels homely. The heart of the home is a central courtyard that has the feel of a market place in a small village. There is a large café bar in which residents, families and local residents can mingle. Crucially, there is also a small but well-stocked supermarket. There is no central provision of meals - staff cook with the residents. Residents can make a leisurely visit to the supermarket with staff. Preparing for and cleaning up after the meal becomes a framework for the day providing a normalising rhythm and purposeful activity.

  8. Research on the historic preservation of Zhaojiashan village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Li

    2018-03-01

    Through field investigation and field visiting, we studied and analyzed the ancient villages of Zhaojiashan in Jiancaoping District, Taiyuan City of Shanxi Province. We learned that Zhaojiashan Village is on the only way of the Shanxi Merchants The Tea Road starting from Taiyuan to Xinzhou. It occupies an indispensable and important position in camel road. There are many historical and cultural relics in the village. The analysis of the historical value and the environment of the village has provided the basis for the protection and exploitation of ancient villages.

  9. Factors Causing Farmers Not to Ferment Rice Straw as Cattle Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirajuddin, S. N.; Saleh, I. M.; Syawal, S.; Syamsinar

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed was to identify the factor of breeders have not done fermentation of rice straw as cattle feed. This research was conducted on August-September 2017 in Patampanua village, Marioriawa sub-district, Soppeng district. This research is descriptive quantitative with Delbeq method. Data collection is qualitative and quantitative. Data sources are primary and secondary data. Data analysis used is frequency distribution. The results showed that farmers have not done the fermentation of rice straw as animal feed that is the motivation of farmers, intensity counseling and lack of knowledge of farmers

  10. Rice Production Vulnerability to Climate Change in Indonesia: An Overview on Community-based Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaladara, A. A. S. P.; Budiasa, I. W.; Ambarawati, I. G. A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Rice remains to be a major crop and staple food in Indonesia. The task to ensure that rice production meets the demand of a growing population continues to engage the attention of national planners and policy makers. However, the adverse effects of climate change on agriculture production have presented Indonesia with yet another significant challenge. The exposure of rice crops to climate-related hazards such as temperature stress, floods, and drought, may lead to lower yield and self-sufficiency rate. This study explores the vulnerability of rice production to the effects of climate change in Indonesia. Considering the vast geographical span of the country and varying exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity to climate change at regional level, this study emphasize the importance of community-based adaptation. Results from a simulation based on production and climate data from 1984 to 2014 indicates that rice production is sensitive to variation in growing season temperature and precipitation. A projection of these climate factors in 2050 has a significant impact on the major rice crop. To manage the impact of climate change, this study turns to the potential roles of farmer organizations, such as Subak, in adaptation strategies. The Subak in Bali is recognized for its cultural and organizational framework that highlights the sharing of knowledge and local wisdom in rice production. This is demonstrated by its efficient community-based irrigation management system, leading to sustainable rice production. Keywords: rice production, climate change, community-based adaptation, Indonesia

  11. High-zinc rice as a breakthrough for high nutritional rice breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barokah, U.; Susanto, U.; Swamy, M.; Djoar, D. W.; Parjanto

    2018-03-01

    WHO reported climate change already takes 150,000 casualties annually, due to the emergence of various diseases and malnutrition caused by food shortages and disasters. Rice is the staple food for almost all of Indonesian citizens, therefore Zn biofortification on rice is expected to be effective, efficient, massive, and sustainable to overcome the Zn nutritional deficiency. This study aims to identify rice with high Zn content and yield for further effort in releasing this variety. Ten lines along with two varieties as a comparison (Ciherang and Inpari 5 Merawu) were tested in Plumbon Village, Mojolaban Subdistrict, Sukoharjo Regency during February-May 2017. The experiment was designed in a Randomized Completely Block Design with four replications on a 4 m x 5 m area, with 25 cm x 25 cm plant spacing using seedling transplanting techniques of 21 days old seeds. The results showed that the plant genotypes treated had differences in yield characteristics, heading date, harvest age, panicle number, filled and un-filled grain per panicle, seed set, 1000 grains weight, Zn and Iron (Fe) content in rice grain. B13884-MR-29-1-1 line (30.94 ppm Zn, 15.84 ppm Fe, 4.11 ton/ha yield) and IR 97477- 115-1-CRB-0-SKI-1-SKI-0-2 (29.61 ppm Zn, 13.49 ppm Zn, 4.4 ton/ha yield) are prospective variety to be released. Ciherang had Zn content of 23.04 ppm, 11.93 ppm Fe, and yield of 4.07 t/ha.

  12. Utilização da fitase em dietas com ou sem farelo de arroz desengordurado para suínos em crescimento/terminação Use of phytase in diets with or without defatted rice bran for growing/finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Mohaupt Marques Ludke

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de comparar a eficiência de diferentes níveis de fitase em relação à suplementação de fosfato inorgânico (fosfato bicálcico, quando adicionados em dietas sem e com farelo de arroz desengordurado (FAD. Foram utilizados 128 suínos com peso inicial médio de 21,2 ± 2,4 kg, alojados em baias coletivas, para avaliar o desempenho nas fases de crescimento e terminação. Os suínos foram abatidos com peso médio de 95,4 ± 5,3 kg e coletado o osso metacarpo para determinação do cálcio e do fósforo. Foram usados oito tratamentos, sendo quatro dietas sem FAD (milho e farelo de soja e quatro dietas com 30% de inclusão de FAD, nas quais foram adicionados níveis de 0, 750 ou 1000 UF (Unidades de Fitase/kg. Foi observado que adicionar fitase, tanto em dietas sem FAD quanto em dietas com FAD, melhora a disponibilidade do fósforo orgânico. Com os níveis de 750 e 1000 UF/kg adicionados em ambas as dietas, sem suplementação de fosfato bicálcico, não houve prejuízo sobre o desempenho dos animais. Entretanto, as características ósseas são prejudicadas se as dietas com fitase não forem suplementadas com a fonte de fósforo inorgânico.The objective of this work was to compare the efficiency of different levels of phytase with the use of inorganic phosphate (dicalcium phosphate when added to diets with or without defatted rice bran (DRB. One hundred and twenty eight pigs with average initial weight of 21.6 ± 2.4 kg were housed in collective boxes for the pig performance evaluation in the growing and finishing phase. The pigs were slaughtered with an average weight of 95.42 ± 5.3 kg and the metacarpus bones were collected to determine the calcium and phosphorus content. Eight treatments were used with four diets being formulated without DRB (corn-soybean meal and the other four diets with DRB. The phytase levels added in the diets were 0, 750 or 1000 PU/kg of the diet. It was observed that

  13. Local village heating. Final rapport; Landsby Naervarme. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojesen, C.

    2012-04-15

    Local Village Heating project relates to smaller villages which are located outside existing or planned district heating areas in Denmark. The analysis phase of Local Village Heating has shown that the concept can be the most feasible common heating system for villages that: 1. has a high building density - the buildings must be placed close together; 2. at least one large heat consumer, school, elder home or company is present in the village; 3. the number of buildings/households in the village is less than approx. 100. The analysis has shown that it is theoretical possible to establish a controlling system for the combined supplier/consumer option and an overall system for prioritizing the primary heat suppliers. A feasible Local Village Heating organisation could be a cooperative similar to other supply systems, such as common water supply and waste water cooperative. (Author)

  14. Growing Safflower in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, M. G.; Israelsen, C. E.; Creech, E.; Allen, N.

    2015-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information on growing safflower in Utah. It has become popular on dryland farms in rotation with winter wheat. Safflower seed provides three products, oil, meal, and birdseed.

  15. Towards a Moon Village : Community Workshops Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    A series of Moon Village Workshops were organised at ESTEC and at ILEWG community events in 2015 and 2016. They gathered a multi-disciplinary group of professionals from all around the world to discuss their ideas about the concept of a Moon Village, the vision of ESA's Director General (DG) Jan Woerner of a permanent lunar base within the next decades [1]. Three working groups focused on 1) Moon Habitat Design; 2) science and technology potentials of the Moon Village, and 3) engaging stake-holders [2-3]. Their results and recommendations are presented in this abstract. The Moon Habitat Design group identified that the lunar base design is strongly driven by the lunar environment, which is characterized by high radiation, meteoroids, abrasive dust particles, low gravity and vacuum. The base location is recommended to be near the poles to provide optimized illumination conditions for power generation, permanent communication to Earth, moderate temperature gradients at the surface and interesting subjects to scientific investigations. The abundance of nearby available resources, especially ice at the dark bottoms of craters, can be exploited in terms of In-Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU). The identified infrastructural requirements include a navigation, data- & commlink network, storage facilities and sustainable use of resources. This involves a high degree of recycling, closed-loop life support and use of 3D-printing technology, which are all technologies with great potential for terrestrial spin-off applications. For the site planning of the Moon Village, proven ideas from urban planning on Earth should be taken into account. A couple of principles, which could improve the quality of a long-term living milieu on the Moon, are creating spacious environments, visibility between interior and exterior spaces, areas with flora, such as gardens and greenhouses, establishing a sustainable community and creating social places for astronauts to interact and relax. The

  16. Identification of transplanting stage of rice using Sentinel-1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, C.; Tosa, T.; Tamura, E.; Sigit, G.; Barus, B.

    2017-12-01

    As the adaptation of climate change, the Government of Indonesia has launched agricultural insurance program for damage of rice by drought, flood and pest and disease. For assessment of the damage ratio and calculation of indemnity, extraction of paddy field and identification of transplanting stage are key issues. In this research, we conducted identification of rice transplanting stage in dry season of 2015, using data from Sentinel-1, for paddy in Cianjur, West Java, Indonesia. As the first step, time series order of backscattering coefficient was analyzed about paddy, forest, villages and fish farming ponds with use of Sentinel-1 data acquired on April 1, April 13, April 25, May 7, May 19, June 24, July 18 and August 11. The result shows that the backscattering coefficient of paddy substantially decreased from data on May 7 and reached minimum value and then after increased toward June. A paddy area showing this change was almost the same area where rice was at harvesting stage and we did field investigation work from August 11 to 13. Considering a growth period of rice in our research site was about 110 days, so the result supported the fact that transplantation of rice was done around May 7. On the other hand, backscattering coefficient of forest, villages and fish farming ponds was constant and showed clear difference from the coefficient of paddy. As the next step, minimum and maximum value of backscattering coefficient were extracted from the data of May 7, May 19 and June 24, respectively. Then increase amount was calculated by deducting the minimum value from the maximum. Finally, using the minimum value of backscattering coefficient and the increased amount, a classification of image was made to identify transplanting stage through maximum likelihood method, decision tree method and threshold setting method (regression analysis by 3σ-rule). As the result, the maximum likelihood method made the most accurate distinguishment about transplanting stage

  17. Hormonal regulation of floret closure of rice (Oryza sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Youming; Zeng, Xiaochun

    2018-01-01

    Plant hormones play important roles in regulating every aspect of growth, development, and metabolism of plants. We are interested in understanding hormonal regulation of floret opening and closure in plants. This is a particularly important problem for hybrid rice because regulation of flowering time is vitally important in hybrid rice seed production. However, little was known about the effects of plant hormones on rice flowering. We have shown that jasmonate and methyl jasmonate play significant roles in promoting rice floret opening. In this study, we investigated the effects of auxins including indole-3-acidic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 1-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (DIC) and abscisic acid (ABA) on floret closure of four fertile and three sterile varieties of rice. The results from field studies in three growing seasons in 2013–2015 showed that the percentages of closed florets were significantly lower in plants treated with IAA, IBA, 2,4-D, DIC and NAA and that the durations of floret opening were significantly longer in plants treated with the same auxins. The auxins exhibited time- and concentration-dependant effects on floret closure. ABA displayed opposite effects of auxins because it increased the percentages of floret closure and decreased the length of floret opening of rice varieties. The degree of auxin-inhibiting and ABA-promoting effects on floret closure was varied somewhat but not significantly different among the rice varieties. Endogenous IAA levels were the highest in florets collected shortly before opening followed by a sharp decline in florets with maximal angles of opening and a significant jump of IAA levels shortly after floret closure in both fertile and sterile rice plants. ABA levels showed an opposite trend in the same samples. Our results showed that auxins delayed but ABA promoted the closure of rice floret regardless of the varieties

  18. Hormonal regulation of floret closure of rice (Oryza sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youming Huang

    Full Text Available Plant hormones play important roles in regulating every aspect of growth, development, and metabolism of plants. We are interested in understanding hormonal regulation of floret opening and closure in plants. This is a particularly important problem for hybrid rice because regulation of flowering time is vitally important in hybrid rice seed production. However, little was known about the effects of plant hormones on rice flowering. We have shown that jasmonate and methyl jasmonate play significant roles in promoting rice floret opening. In this study, we investigated the effects of auxins including indole-3-acidic acid (IAA, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, 1-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D and 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (DIC and abscisic acid (ABA on floret closure of four fertile and three sterile varieties of rice. The results from field studies in three growing seasons in 2013-2015 showed that the percentages of closed florets were significantly lower in plants treated with IAA, IBA, 2,4-D, DIC and NAA and that the durations of floret opening were significantly longer in plants treated with the same auxins. The auxins exhibited time- and concentration-dependant effects on floret closure. ABA displayed opposite effects of auxins because it increased the percentages of floret closure and decreased the length of floret opening of rice varieties. The degree of auxin-inhibiting and ABA-promoting effects on floret closure was varied somewhat but not significantly different among the rice varieties. Endogenous IAA levels were the highest in florets collected shortly before opening followed by a sharp decline in florets with maximal angles of opening and a significant jump of IAA levels shortly after floret closure in both fertile and sterile rice plants. ABA levels showed an opposite trend in the same samples. Our results showed that auxins delayed but ABA promoted the closure of rice floret regardless of

  19. Fat-soluble bioactive components in colored rice varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatel, Igor Otavio; Han, Sang-Ik; Aldini, Giancarlo; Colzani, Mara; Matthan, Nirupa R; Correa, Camila Renata; Fecchio, Denise; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

    2014-10-01

    Bioactive components in rice vary depending on the variety and growing condition. Fat-soluble components such as γ-oryzanol, tocopherols, tocotrienols, carotenoids, and fatty acids were analyzed in brown, sugary brown, red, and black rice varieties using established high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC methodologies. In addition, these colored rice varieties were further analyzed using a high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (LTQ-Orbitrap XL) to identify the [M-H](-) ions of γ-oryzanol, ranging from m/z 573.3949 to 617.4211. The highest content of tocopherols (α-, 1.5; γ-, 0.5 mg/100 g) and carotenoids (lutein 244; trans-β carotene 25 μg/100 g) were observed in black rice; tocotrienols (α-, 0.07; γ-, 0.14 mg/100 g) in red rice, and γ-oryzanol (115 mg/100 g) in sugary brown rice. In all colored rice varieties, the major fatty acids were palmitic (16:0), oleic (18:1n-9), and linoleic (18:2n-6) acids. When the γ-oryzanol components were further analyzed by LC-MS/MS, 3, 10, 8, and 8 triterpene alcohols or sterol ferulates were identified in brown, sugary brown, red, and black rice varieties, respectively. Such structural identification can lead to the elucidation of biological function of each component at the molecular level. Consumption of colored rice rich in beneficial bioactive compounds may be a useful dietary strategy for achieving optimal health.

  20. Transfer of gaseous iodine from atmosphere to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiya, Misako; Uchida, Shigeo; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohmomo, Yoichiro; Yamaguchi, Shuho; Obata, Hitoshi.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in order to obtain information required for establishing transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine (I 2 ) to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice. The gaseous iodine deposited on young rice plants before the heading period was scarcely found in the rough rice harvested at the full ripe stage. The biological half life of iodine in hull, however, was much slower than that in leaves of 14 days. The translocation of iodine from leaves and stalks to rough rice was not clearly recognized. Therefore, it was deduced that iodine found in brown rice mainly should originate from that deposited on the hull. The distribution ratios of iodine between rough rice and brown rice, and between brown rice and polished rice were 100:4 and 100:30 on 100 grains basis, respectively. If average normalized deposition velocity (V d(m) ) or derived deposition velocity (V s ) are given, the transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine to rough rice (TF r ), brown rice (TF b ) and polished rice (TF p ) could be calculated. (author)

  1. Seasonal variation of carbon dioxide and methane exchange between rice paddy fields and atmosphere in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, R.

    2017-12-01

    Rice paddy fields spread throughout Asia and play an important role in terms of regulating greenhouse gases on the ground. Rice paddies have the potential to either increase or decrease the net balance of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In the rice growth period, rice paddy fields are sources of CH4, whereas they generally act as a sink of CO2. However, the behavior of greenhouse gases during fallow periods has not been well understood. A field experiment was conducted at a rice paddy field in Fuchu, central Japan in 2014. We evaluated CO2 and CH4 fluxes in the rice paddy field using the eddy covariance method. Except for 20 days after transplanting (DAT), temporal CO2 fluxes showed negative values during a rice growth period whereas they showed positive values throughout a fallow period. The positive CO2 fluxes at 2 emissions by respiration of rice plants and soil microorganisms than CO2 uptake by photosynthesis of rice plants. In the middle of the growing season at around DAT=50, CO2 emission became dominant again because flooded water was temporarily drained in the rice paddy field. Seasonal CH4 fluxes during a growth period were regulated by water management and plant growth stages. During a fallow period, however, the field was kept a non-flooded condition that resulted in an aerobic soil condition and thus very low CH4 emission.

  2. Water management practices affect arsenic and cadmium accumulation in rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liming; Zheng, Manman; Liu, Hongyan; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) accumulation in rice grains is a great threat to its productivity, grain quality, and thus human health. Pot and field studies were carried out to unravel the effect of different water management practices (aerobic, aerobic-flooded, and flooded) on Cd and As accumulation in rice grains of two different varieties. In pot experiment, Cd or As was also added into the soil as treatment. Pots without Cd or As addition were maintained as control. Results indicated that water management practices significantly influenced the Cd and As concentration in rice grains and aerobic cultivation of rice furnished less As concentration in its grains. Nonetheless, Cd concentration in this treatment was higher than the grains of flooded rice. Likewise, in field study, aerobic and flooded rice cultivation recorded higher Cd and As concentration, respectively. However, growing of rice in aerobic-flooded conditions decreased the Cd concentration by 9.38 times on average basis as compared to aerobic rice. Furthermore, this treatment showed 28% less As concentration than that recorded in flooded rice cultivation. The results suggested that aerobic-flooded cultivation may be a promising strategy to reduce the Cd and As accumulations in rice grains simultaneously.

  3. Looking Inward to the Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for Rice Production Assessment in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaladara, A. A. S. P.; Ambarawati, I. G. A. A.; Wijaya, I. M. A. S.; Hongo, C.; Mirah Adi, A. A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Rice is the main source of carbohydrate for most Indonesians. Rice production has been very dynamic due to improved infrastructure, research and development, and better farm management. However, rice production is susceptible to loss caused by drought, pest and disease attack and climate change. With the growing concern on sustainable and self-reliance food production in the country, there is an urgency to encourage research and efforts to increase rice productivity. Attempts to provide spatial distribution of rice fields on high resolution optical remote sensing data have been employed to some extent, however this technology could be costly. The use of UAV has been introduced to estimate damage ratio in rice crop recently in Indonesia. This technology is one of the ways to estimate rice production quicker, cost-saving and before harvesting time. This study aims to analyze spatio temporal and damage ratio of rice crop using UAV in Indonesia. The study empirically presents the use of UAV (Phantom 2 Vision +) on rice fields to the soil condition and development of management zone map in Bali as an example. The study concludes that the use of UAV allows researchers to pin point characteristics of crop and land in a specific area of a farm. This will then allow researchers to assist farmers in implementing specific and appropriate solutions to production issues. Key words: UAV, rice production, damage ratio

  4. ANALYSIS OF AGRO-ECOLOGICAL SITUATION FOR IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEMS BY PRA TECHNIQUES IN ADAPTIVE VILLAGE OF KRISHI VIGYAN KENDRA UNDER NEW ALLUVIA ZONE OF MURSHIDABAD DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishake Naskar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Agro Ecosystem analysis using the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA techniques of an adaptive village (Jainpur of New Alluvial Zone of Murshidabad-Jiaganj block in Murshidabad district, West Bengal revealed that the village basically has rice and jute based farming system. The cropping intensity of the village is 233%. Out of 363 household 80% is engaged in Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and other allied activities. The land availability per household is 0.40 ha. The villagers are mostly scheduled caste. By snow ball technique major problems were identified .On the basis of bio-physical and socio-economic problems, thrust area were selected. Area specific On Farm Trials (OFT in farmers' were conducted on some researchable issues. Front Line Demonstration (FLD, training programme, health camp, awareness camp and other different extension activities were arranged to mitigate the problems.

  5. Millennium Global Village-Net: bringing together Millennium Villages throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Andrew S; Negin, Joel; Olayo, Bernard; Bukachi, Frederick; Johnson, Edward; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich

    2009-12-01

    The Millennium Villages Project (MVP), based at The Earth Institute at Columbia University, is a bottom-up, community led approach to show how villages in developing countries can get out of the poverty trap that afflicts more than a billion people worldwide. With well-targeted, practical inputs can help the community invest in a path leading to self-sustaining development. There are 80 Millennium Villages clustered in 10 countries throughout sub-Saharan Africa. MVP is an important development process for empowering communities to invest in a package of integrated interventions aiming to increase food production, improve access to safe water, health care, education and infrastructure. The process benefits from synergies of the integrated approach and relies on community leadership as empowered by proven technological inputs. MVP is committed to a science-based approach to assess and monitor the progress of the communities towards clear objectives; the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and to do so with mechanisms that are scalable and sustainable. This approach offers much more than simply collecting and analyzing data since the mechanism used for recording progress would provide a bridge over the divide which separates the haves and the have-nots (by facilitating the sharing of solutions from one community to another bidirectionally). By so doing, it allows people to enhance their own futures in a sustainable manner. Solutions found in one community are transferable to similar communities in other MVP villages. To achieve this goal, the MVP requires an information and communication system which can provide both necessary infrastructure for monitoring and evaluation, and tools for communicating among the villages, cities and countries. This system is called the Millennium Global Village-Net (MGV-Net). It takes advantage of the latest in open source software (OpenMRS), databases (MySQL), interface terminology, a centralized concept dictionary, and uses appropriate

  6. Malaria vectors in a traditional dry zone village in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F

    1999-01-01

    Malaria transmission by anopheline mosquitoes was studied in a traditional tank-irrigation-based rice-producing village in the malaria-endemic low country dry zone of northcentral Sri Lanka during the period August 1994-February 1997. Adult mosquitoes were collected from human and bovid bait...... catches, bovid-baited trap huts, indoor catches, and pit traps. Mosquito head-thoraces were tested for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, and blood-engorged abdomens for the presence of human blood by ELISAs. House surveys were done at two-day intervals to record cases of blood film...... in An. culicifacies and An. peditaeniatus. Malaria parasite infections were seen in seven mosquito species, with 75% of the positive mosquitoes containing P. falciparum and 25% P. vivax. Polymorph PV247 was recorded from a vector (i.e., An. varuna) for the first time in Sri Lanka. Computations of mean...

  7. Geothermal rice drying unit in Kotchany, Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovski, K.; Dimitrov, K.; Andrejevski, B.; Popovska, S.

    1992-01-01

    A geothermal field in Kotchany (Macedonia) has very advantageous characteristics for direct application purposes. Low content of minerals, moderate temperature (78C) and substantial available geothermal water flow (up to 300 1/s) enabled the establishment of a district heating scheme comprising mainly agricultural and industrial uses. A rice drying unit of 10 t/h capacity was installed 8 years ago, using the geothermal water as the primary heat source. A temperature drop of 75/50C enables the adaptation of conventional drying technology, already proven in practice in the surrounding rice growing region. Water to air heat exchanger and all necessary equipment and materials are of local production, made of copper and carbon steel. The use of such drying units is strongly recommended for the concrete district heating scheme because it offers a very simple geothermal application and enables improvement in the annual heating load factor without high investments in geothermal water distribution lines

  8. Organic rice IPM research update in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. organic rice production has steadily increased over the past decade, with a majority of the acreage being grown in the southern region. Because of the warm and humid environments and the long growing season in the region, weed, disease and insect pests are among the primary factors limiting org...

  9. Compressive Strength Of Rice Husk Ash-Cement Sandcrete Blocks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is growing demand for alternative, low-cost building material in developing countries. The effect of partial substitution of ordinary Portland cement with Rice Husk Ash (RHA) on the compressive strength of hollow sandcrete block was investigated through laboratory experimental procedures. The specific gravity, initial ...

  10. Not just a grain of rice: the quest for quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fizgerald, M.A.; McCouch, S.R.; Hall, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    A better understanding of the factors that contribute to the overall grain quality of rice (Oryza sativa) will lay the foundation for developing new breeding and selection strategies for combining high quality, with high yield. This is necessary to meet the growing global demand for high quality

  11. ANALYSIS OF DEVELOPING BATIK INDUSTRY CLUSTER IN BAKARAN VILLAGE CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermanto Hermanto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available SMEs grow in a cluster in a certain geographical area. The entrepreneurs grow and thrive through the business cluster. Central Java Province has a lot of business clusters in improving the regional economy, one of which is batik industry cluster. Pati Regency is one of regencies / city in Central Java that has the lowest turnover. Batik industy cluster in Pati develops quite well, which can be seen from the increasing number of batik industry incorporated in the cluster. This research examines the strategy of developing the batik industry cluster in Pati Regency. The purpose of this research is to determine the proper strategy for developing the batik industry clusters in Pati. The method of research is quantitative. The analysis tool of this research is the Strengths, Weakness, Opportunity, Threats (SWOT analysis. The result of SWOT analysis in this research shows that the proper strategy for developing the batik industry cluster in Pati is optimizing the management of batik business cluster in Bakaran Village; the local government provides information of the facility of business capital loans; the utilization of labors from Bakaran Village while improving the quality of labors by training, and marketing the Bakaran batik to the broader markets while maintaining the quality of batik. Advice that can be given from this research is that the parties who have a role in batik industry cluster development in Bakaran Village, Pati Regency, such as the Local Government.

  12. Lessons learned -- NREL Village Power Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L.

    1998-07-01

    In 1993, a workshop was convened at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to discuss the issues of applying renewable energy in a sustainable manner to international rural development. One of the summary recommendations was that NREL could assist in the renewable energy for rural electrification effort by developing and supplying six related activities: resource assessment, comparative analysis and modeling, performance monitoring and analysis, pilot project development, internet-based project data, communications, and training. In response to this recommendation, NREL launched its Village Power Program consisting of these activities that cut across NREL technologies and disciplines. Currently NREL is active in 20 countries, with pilot projects in 12 of those countries. At this time the technologies include photovoltaics, wind, biomass, and hybrids. The rural applications include home lighting and communications, water pumping, schools and health posts, battery charging stations, ecotourism, and village systems. These pilot projects are central to the renewable energy village power development through the demonstration of three aspects critical to replication and implementation of the projects on a significant scale. The three aspects are technical functionality, economic competitiveness, and institutional sustainability. It is important to note that the pilot projects from which NREL's experience has been gained were funded and, in many cases, developed by other organizations and agencies. NREL's role has been one of technical assistance or project management or both. The purpose of this paper is to describe the lessons NREL staff has gleaned from their participation in the various pilot projects. The author hopes that these lessons will help the Renewable Energy-Based Rural Electrification (RERE) community in implementing sustainable projects that lead to replication.

  13. Prevalence of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) on Rice Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Incidence of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) on rice plants (ofada) grown in two local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State had been evaluated during a two year field survey. Six month old rice plants were observed for symptom expression and leaf samples collected for serological indexing. Of the 60 leaf ...

  14. Mapping Changes in Area and the Cropping Season of Irrigated Rice in Senegal and Mauritania between 2003 and 2014 Using the PhenoRice Algorithm and MODIS Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, S.; Busetto, L.; Diagne, M.; Boschetti, M.; Nelson, A.

    2017-12-01

    Government policies have resulted in rapid expansion of irrigated rice area in Mauritania and Senegal through private and public investments. Farmers switch rice cultivation from the wet to the dry season to achieve higher production while rice double cropping is increasingly practiced. As a result Senegal is close to attaining self-sufficiency in the coming years. However, tools to monitor those changes are absent and this inhibits assessments on for example its impact on wetlands located in the delta area, increased water demands and climate induced risks to farmers. In this study we aimed to map changes in irrigated rice area in the wet and dry seasons. We applied the PhenoRice algorithm on a combined time-series of MODIS Aqua and Terra images obtained between 2003 and 2016 to map pixels dominated by rice and determine the start, end and length of the growing season from sowing/transplanting to maturity. Between 2002 and 2010 researchers from the Africa Rice Center interviewed annually around 100 rice farmers located in two irrigation schemes in Senegal. We extracted the reported sowing/transplanting and harvest dates from the data base and used these to validate the estimates obtained by PhenoRice. We also compared the obtained rice areas with official statistics provided by the Senegalese Ministry of Agriculture. Analysis of PhenoRice results highlighted that starting 2008, rice farmers cultivate also during the dry season; the area is steadily increasing from 2008 onwards and in the recent years approximately almost equals that of the wet season. This was confirmed by official statistics, though the total area estimated by PhenoRice is smaller than reported, most likely due to the mismatch between pixel size and the small cultivated areas. However, the algorithm was able to detect the overall trends and inter-annual variations observed in the wet (r2=0.57) and dry season rice cultivated area (r2=0.91). The start of the season, that varied maximally 4 weeks

  15. Shrinking villages – trajectories for local development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    The New Rural Paradigm was introduced in 2006 as a policy emphasising investments rather than subsidies and aimed at integrating different sectoral policies in order to improve the coherence and effectiveness of public expenditure. The new rural paradigm also stresses a place-based approach...... and services e.g. schools as well as investment. Rural municipalities are challenged due to shrinking villages but by focussing on place bound resources there is a risk of reinforcing disparities between ‘weak’ and ‘strong’ communities as placed bound resources are unevenly distributed. This paper will address...

  16. Ritual Change in a Turkish Alevi Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas McElwain

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a documentation and analysis of change in ritual in the village of Sarilar, on the west bank of the Euphrates River near Yavuseli, Gaziantep. The research problem posed was identification of ritual change within the consultants' memory and some tentative ways of situating such change within the socio-economic context. The mysticism of the dervish lodge remains as a certain life attitude along with the new views of modernization that have been so well inculcated. Although modernization, at least in the Turkish Alevi context, tends to conflict with the mystical experience of the Bektashi dervish in some areas, a democratized inner core remains.

  17. Condition of karangkepatihan village community balong district ponorogo regency in supporting development of community based tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutedjo, A.; Prasetyo, K.; Sudaryono, L.

    2018-01-01

    In Karangkepatihan village, it can be found some attractions that have the potential to develop. Some attractions have been developed by involving the community in its management, but its development has not been as expected. The purpose of this research is to know the attitude of the community and the level of human resources of the community of Karangkepatihan village in supporting the development of community-based tourism and the right strategy for its development. Subjects in this study were the head of the family and the physical condition of tourist objects, with a sample of 100 family heads taken randomly. Research data which are knowledge, understanding, participation, support to the development of tourism and level of education and skill obtained by interview while observation is done to get potential data of tourism object. The data obtained are analyzed by using scoring technique and SWOT analysis. The results show that community attitudes are positive in supporting community-based tourism development, but have not been shown to participate in developing tourism in Karangkepatihan village. The level of human resources in Karangkepatihan village to support the development of tourism is low so that the development of tourism is slow. An appropriate strategy for developing tourism development in Karangkepatihan village is to grow and build. Improving the skills of the community to fill the job opportunities in the field of tourism, increase the participation or involvement of the community in tourism activities, increasing the accessibility of tourism objects, increasing the facilities and infrastructure of tourism needs to be done.

  18. Pesticide residue analysis of soil, water, and grain of IPM basmati rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sumitra; Mukherji, Irani; Kumar, Aman; Tanwar, R K

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of the present investigations was to compare the pesticide load in integrated pest management (IPM) with non-IPM crops of rice fields. The harvest samples of Basmati rice grain, soil, and irrigation water, from IPM and non-IPM field trials, at villages in northern India, were analyzed using multi-pesticide residue method. The field experiments were conducted for three consecutive years (2008-2011) for the successful validation of the modules, synthesized for Basmati rice, at these locations. Residues of tricyclazole, propiconazole, hexconazole, lambda cyhalothrin, pretilachlor chlorpyrifos, DDVP, carbendazim, and imidacloprid were analyzed from two locations, Dudhli village of Dehradun, Uttrakhand and Saboli and Aterna village of Sonepat, Haryana. The pesticide residues were observed below detectable limit (BDL) (water samples (2008-09). Residues of tricyclazole and carbendazim, analyzed from same locations, revealed pesticide residues as BDL (water samples (2009-2010). The residues of tricyclazole, propioconazole, chlorpyrifos, hexaconazole, pretilachlor, and λ-cyhalothrin were also found as BDL (water samples (<0.001-0.05 μg/L) (2010-2011).

  19. ‘When the Reservoir Comes’: Drowned Villages, Community and Nostalgia in Contemporary British Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Pollard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A ‘drowned’ or flooded village describes the destruction of a settlement or community to make way for a reservoir; as a practice, it most commonly occurred in Britain during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries when the need for fresh water in growing industrial cities was at its height. This essay will explore three different representations of the ‘drowned village’ in contemporary British fiction. Reginald Hill’s On Beulah Height (1992, Hilary Mantel’s short story ‘The Clean Slate’ (2001 and Sarah Hall’s Haweswater (2002 will all be considered in terms of how the drowned village is presented and described, and what this representation suggests about the ways nostalgia, ritual and ruin impact upon notions of community and place.

  20. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  1. Intraspecific responses of 188 rice cultivars to enhanced UVB radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Q.; Peng, A.; Chavez, A.Q.; Vergara, B.S.

    1994-01-01

    Phytotron studies were conducted to determine the intraspecific variation in sensitivity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to enhanced UVB and to test the hypothesis that rice cultivars originating from regions with higher ambient UVB radiation are more tolerant to enhanced UVB. Out of the 188 rice cultivars (from various rice growing regions and ecosystems) tested, 143 had significantly reduced plant height, 52 had smaller leaf area, 61 had lower plant dry weight and 41 had less tiller number under elevated UVB radiation (13.0 kJ m −2 day −1 ) for 3 weeks. Six cultivars showed significant positive growth response to enhanced UVB radiation, although the mechanism is not clear at present. These six cultivars were from the summer rice crop of Bangladesh and from high elevation rice areas where prevailing UVB radiation is most likely to be greater. However, there was no correlation between the dry matter changes under enhanced UVB and the ambient UVB level at the origin of the cultivar across the 188 cultivars tested. Therefore, cultivars originating from regions with higher ambient UVB are not necessarily more tolerant to enhanced UVB radiation. (author)

  2. Secretome of Aspergillus oryzae in Shaoxing rice wine koji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Guan, Zheng-Bing; Cao, Yu; Xie, Guang-Fa; Lu, Jian

    2012-04-16

    Shaoxing rice wine is the most famous and representative Chinese rice wine. Aspergillus oryzae SU16 is used in the manufacture of koji, the Shaoxing rice wine starter culture. In the current study, a comprehensive analysis of the secretome profile of A. oryzae SU16 in Shaoxing rice wine koji was performed for the first time. The proteomic analysis for the identification of the secretory proteins was done using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time of flight mass spectrometry based on the annotated A. oryzae genome sequence. A total of 41 unique proteins were identified from the secretome. These proteins included 17 extracellular proteins following the classical secretory pathway, and 10 extracellular proteins putatively secreted by the non-classical secretory pathway. The present secretome profile greatly differed from previous reports on A. oryzae growing in other solid-state nutrient sources. Several new secretory or putative secretory proteins were also found. These proteomic data will significantly aid the advancement of research on the secretome of A. oryzae, especially in solid-state cultures, and in elucidating the production process mechanism of Shaoxing rice wine koji. The findings may promote the technological development and innovation of the Shaoxing rice wine industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. IMPLEMENTATION OF WEB GOVERNMENT AS MEDIA INFORMATION POTENTIAL VILLAGE SUKARAJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Irawan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of information technology is so rapid that one of them in the form of the Internet. E-government In village Sukaraja is one of the most exciting sites in Sukaraja, the village of Sukaraja, the governance structure of the village of Sukaraja and all related information in the village of Sukaraja. System development Life Cycle (SDLC approach includes planning stages, analysis, in and system implementation, tools in system development process using DAD (Data Flow Diagram, DFD (Data Flow Diagram, and flowchart. In the making of this website use HTML programming language (Hypertext Markup Language, PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor, CSS (Cascading Style Sheet, JQUERY, Java script and presentation of data in the form of MySQL. With the existence of E-government In the Village Sukaraja aims to provide benefits for the wider community about obtaining Village information in a way easily, quickly, effectively and efficiently without knowing the deadline anytime and anywhere.

  4. Model strategy for village development in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav ROLÍNEK

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The model strategies discussed in this article represent different ways of possible village development in the Czech Republic. We used typologies of strategies from business strategic management for their definition. Twenty municipalities, where structured interviews were carried out with their mayors, were chosen randomly from among 100 villages where a questionnaire survey was conducted in 2012 (Faltová Leitmanová, et al., 2012. Based on the qualitative analysis of the structured interview summaries, eight model strategies were ascertained. These include integration strategy, service differentiation, spending cuts, usage of municipal property, stabilization of village population, business support, fundraising, and identification of the inhabitants with the village (village pride. The most commonly applied model strategy is integration, followed by village population stabilization.

  5. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  6. Growing Backyard Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eleanor Hall

    1975-01-01

    For those involved in creative work with textiles, the degree of control possible in texture, finish, and color of fiber by growing and processing one's own (perhaps with students' help) can make the experience rewarding. The author describes the processes for flax and nettles and gives tips on necessary equipment. (Author/AJ)

  7. The Ohrberg solar village; Solarsiedlung am Ohrberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanoli, K.; Christoffers, D.; Rockendorf, G. [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung GmbH Hameln/Emmerthal (ISFH), Emmerthal (Germany). Abt. Systemtechnik von Solarenergieanlagen; Kranz, R. [Elektrizitaetswerke Wesertal GmbH, Hameln (Germany). Abt. Energieberatung/Energiekonzepte

    1998-02-01

    As an officially approved regional project of the EXPO 2000, the Ohrberg Solar Village will demonstrate an integrated energy concept - combining customer information and counseling, modern energy technologies and energy services rendered by utilities - which reduces the consumption of conventional energy ressources and the CO{sub 2}-emissions. The local utility Wesertal GmbH will equip the 82 low-energy solar houses of the village with reliable, cost-effective and innovative energy technologies and will provide energy services on the basis of a user-friendly contract. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Solarsiedlung am Ohrberg demonstriert als registriertes Regionalprojekt der EXPO 2000, wie ein integriertes Energiekonzept - bestehend aus umfassender Energieberatung, Einsatz moderner Energietechnologien und einem Nutz-Energie-Dienstleistungsangebot der Energieversorger - einen substantiellen Beitrag zur Ressourcenschonung und zur Reduzierung der klimarelevanten Umweltbelastung leisten kann. Das regionale Energieversorgungsunternehmen Wesertal GmbH wird innovative, erprobte, kostenguenstige, rationelle und regenerative Energieversorgungstechniken in den 82 solaren Niedrigenergiehaeusern dieser Siedlung installieren und die Waermeversorgung im Rahmen eines Waermedienstleistungskonzeptes uebernehmen. (orig.)

  8. Extraction of rice bran oil from local rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Zaman, W.; Salman, M.; Jabeen, N.

    2006-01-01

    Rice Bran Oil is widely used in pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries due to its unique properties and high medicinal value. In the present work, extraction of rice bran oil from different samples of rice husk collected from local rice shellers by solvent extraction method has been studied. Experiments were conducted using a soxhelt apparatus, to extract rice bran oil using hexane, petroleum ether, ethanol and methanol as the solvents and the yields obtained under different conditions were compared. Batch extraction tests showed that the rate of extraction decreases with time and the solution approaches saturation at an exponential rate. (author)

  9. Village registers for vital registration in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singogo, E; Kanike, E; van Lettow, M; Cataldo, F; Zachariah, R; Bissell, K; Harries, A D

    2013-08-01

    Paper-based village registers were introduced 5 years ago in Malawi as a tool to measure vital statistics of births and deaths at the population level. However, usage, completeness and accuracy of their content have never been formally evaluated. In Traditional Authority Mwambo, Zomba district, Malawi, we assessed 280 of the 325 village registers with respect to (i) characteristics of village headmen who used village registers, (ii) use and content of village registers, and (iii) whether village registers provided accurate information on births and deaths. All village headpersons used registers. There were 185 (66%) registers that were regarded as 95% completed, and according to the registers, there were 115 840 people living in the villages in the catchment area. In 2011, there were 1753 births recorded in village registers, while 6397 births were recorded in health centre registers in the same catchment area. For the same year, 199 deaths were recorded in village registers, giving crude death rates per 100 000 population of 189 for males and 153 for females. These could not be compared with death rates in health centre registers due to poor and inconsistent recording in these registers, but they were compared with death rates obtained from the 2010 Malawi Demographic Health Survey that reported 880 and 840 per 100 000 for males and females, respectively. In conclusion, this study shows that village registers are a potential source for vital statistics. However, considerable inputs are needed to improve accuracy of births and deaths, and there are no functional systems for the collation and analysis of data at the traditional authority level. Innovative ways to address these challenges are discussed, including the use of solar-powered electronic village registers and mobile phones, connected with each other and the health facilities and the District Commissioner's office through the cellular network and wireless coverage. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The physical impoverishment and decay of Danish villages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    For the latest 30 years the physical environment (buildings, gardens, roads and spaces, etc.) in the Danish villages has undergone drastic changes. Many villages near the large towns are drowned in growth and modern buildings, and other villages in the Danish outskirts are hit by decline and phys......, a regional and local authority level as well as the local level, including a discussion of the Danish rural district policy before and after the re-adjustment of the farm subsidypolicy in the EU....

  11. Weed communities of rain-fed lowland rice vary with infestation by Rhamphicarpa fistulosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houngbédji, Tossimidé; Dessaint, Fabrice; Nicolardot, Bernard; Shykoff, Jacqui A.; Gibot-Leclerc, Stéphanie

    2016-11-01

    The facultative hemiparasitic plant Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (Orobanchaceae) thrives in seasonally wet soils in sub-Saharan Africa, mainly in marginal lowland rice growing environments where weeds are already a major constraint for rice production. Because lowland rice production is increasing in tropical Africa, it is important to ascertain the influence of R. fistulosa on weed plant communities in these rice-growing habitats. We investigated weed plant community richness and composition at four different levels of R. fistulosa infestation across two years of surveys from lowland rice fields in northern Togo (West Africa). Despite a lack of significant differences in community richness among sites with different R. fistulosa infestation levels, there were significant differences in community composition, both when estimated from presence-absence data and from relative abundance data, after controlling statistically for geographic proximity among sites. Rhamphicarpa fistulosa infestation, therefore, may influence the competitive balance between rice and its weeds and shape weed community structure. However, experimental studies are required to elucidate the weed host range of R. fistulosa and the direct and indirect effects of this hemiparasite in rice fields in order to predict its net impact on rice and its weed species.

  12. Global Rice Watch: Spatial-temporal dynamics, driving factors, and impacts of paddy rice agriculture in the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X.; Dong, J.; Zhang, G.; Xin, F.; Li, X.

    2017-12-01

    Paddy rice croplands account for more than 12% of the global cropland areas, and provide food to feed more than 50% of the world population. Spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of paddy rice croplands have changed remarkably in the past decades, driven by growing human population and their changing diet structure, land use (e.g., urbanization, industrialization), climate, markets, and technologies. In this presentation, we will provide a comprehensive review of our current knowledge on (1) the spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of paddy rice croplands from agricultural statistics data and remote sensing approaches; (2) major driving factors for the observed changes in paddy rice areas, including social, economic, climate, land use, markets, crop breeding technology, and farming technology; and (3) major impacts on atmospheric methane concentration, land surface temperature, water resources and use, and so on. We will highlight the results from a few case studies in China and monsoon Asia. We will also call for a global synthesis analysis of paddy rice agriculture, and invite researchers to join the effort to write and edit a book that provides comprehensive and updated knowledge on paddy rice agriculture.

  13. Can the parasitic weeds Striga asiatica and Rhamphicarpa fistulosa co-occur in rain-fed rice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabiri, S.; Rodenburg, J.; Kayeke, J.; Ast, van A.; Makokha, D.W.; Msangi, S.H.; Irakiza, R.; Bastiaans, L.

    2015-01-01

    Striga asiatica and Rhamphicarpa fistulosa are important parasitic weeds of rain-fed rice, partly distributed in similar regions in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It is not evident whether their ecologies are mutually exclusive or partially overlapping. In Kyela, a rice-growing area in south Tanzania

  14. Stomatal conductance, mesophyll conductance, and trans piration efficiency in relation to leaf anatomy in rice and wheat genotypes under drought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, Wenjing; Struik, Paul C.; Yin, Xinyou; Yang, Jianchang

    2017-01-01

    Increasing leaf transpiration efficiency (TE) may provide leads for growing rice like dryland cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum). To explore avenues for improving TE in rice, variations in stomatal conductance (g s) and mesophyll conductance (g m) and their anatomical determinants were

  15. Radiation use efficiency of rice under different planting methods and environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apakupakul, R.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation use efficiency is an important parameter which has often been used in many crop growth models to estimate total biomass and yield. Studies of the relationships between above-ground biomass and accumulative absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PARa, MJ/square m) of rice were examined both on-farms and on-station in Phatthalung. Planting methods were wet-sown and transplanted rice for Suphanburi 90 in the 1993 dry season and Chieng in the 1993-94 wet season. Solar radiation of the two growing seasons were calculated from climatic data. The objectives of this experiment were (1) to know the pattern of relationship between above-ground biomass and accumulative absorbed PAR of rice cultivars grown in South Thailand, (2) to compare the radiation use efficiency of rice cultivars under different planting methods and (3) to obtain the primary data for rice growth modelling in the southern climate. Results presented that only the duration of first growing period up to stem elongation in both cultivars, above-ground biomass and leaf area index were higher in wet-sown than in transplanted rice. Relationship between above-ground biomass accumulation through growing period and accumulative absorbed PAR was in positive linear regression with R*[2)0.85. Erect leaf of Suphanburi 90 had a radiation use efficiency (RUE, g/MJ) higher than non-erect leaf of Chieng. A problem of weed infestation in wet-sown rice in both cultivars had an effect on the RUE which were highly significant lower than transplanted rice. The Rue of wet-sown and transplanted rice were 2.77 and 3.20 g/MJ, respectively for Suphanburi 90, 2.13 and 2.67 g/MJ for Chieng. These results suggest that when dealing with radiation use efficiency in the rice growth modelling the differences of cultivars and planting methods should be taken into consideration

  16. Prevalence and magnitude of acidosis sequelae to rice-based feeding regimen followed in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugeswari, Rathinam; Valli, Chinnamani; Karunakaran, Raman; Leela, Venkatasubramanian; Pandian, Amaresan Serma Saravana

    2018-04-01

    In Tamil Nadu, a southern state of India, rice is readily available at a low cost, hence, is cooked (cooking akin to human consumption) and fed irrationally to cross-bred dairy cattle with poor productivity. Hence, a study was carried out with the objective to examine the prevalence of acidosis sequelae to rice-based feeding regimen and assess its magnitude. A survey was conducted in all the 32 districts of Tamil Nadu, by randomly selecting two blocks per districts and from each block five villages were randomly selected. From each of the selected village, 10 dairy farmers belonging to the unorganized sector, owning one or two cross-bred dairy cows in early and mid-lactation were randomly selected so that a sample size of 100 farmers per district was maintained. The feeding regimen, milk yield was recorded, and occurrence of acidosis and incidence of laminitis were ascertained by the veterinarian with the confirmative test to determine the impact of feeding cooked rice to cows. It is observed that 71.5% of farmers in unorganized sector feed cooked rice to their cattle. The incidence of acidosis progressively increased significantly (p<0.05) from 29.00% in cows fed with 0.5 kg of cooked rice to 69.23% in cows fed with more than 2.5 kg of cooked rice. However, the incidence of acidosis remained significantly (p<0.05) as low as 9.9% in cows fed feeding regimen without cooked rice which is suggestive of a correlation between excessive feeding cooked rice and onset of acidosis. Further, the noticeable difference in the incidence of acidosis observed between feeding cooked rice and those fed without rice and limited intake of oil cake indicates that there is a mismatch between energy and protein supply to these cattle. Among cooked rice-based diet, the incidence of laminitis increased progressively (p<0.05) from 9.2% to 37.9% with the increase in the quantum of cooked rice in the diet. The study points out the importance of protein supplementation in rice-based feeding

  17. Prevalence and magnitude of acidosis sequelae to rice-based feeding regimen followed in Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathinam Murugeswari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In Tamil Nadu, a southern state of India, rice is readily available at a low cost, hence, is cooked (cooking akin to human consumption and fed irrationally to cross-bred dairy cattle with poor productivity. Hence, a study was carried out with the objective to examine the prevalence of acidosis sequelae to rice-based feeding regimen and assess its magnitude. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted in all the 32 districts of Tamil Nadu, by randomly selecting two blocks per districts and from each block five villages were randomly selected. From each of the selected village, 10 dairy farmers belonging to the unorganized sector, owning one or two cross-bred dairy cows in early and mid-lactation were randomly selected so that a sample size of 100 farmers per district was maintained. The feeding regimen, milk yield was recorded, and occurrence of acidosis and incidence of laminitis were ascertained by the veterinarian with the confirmative test to determine the impact of feeding cooked rice to cows. Results: It is observed that 71.5% of farmers in unorganized sector feed cooked rice to their cattle. The incidence of acidosis progressively increased significantly (p<0.05 from 29.00% in cows fed with 0.5 kg of cooked rice to 69.23% in cows fed with more than 2.5 kg of cooked rice. However, the incidence of acidosis remained significantly (p<0.05 as low as 9.9% in cows fed feeding regimen without cooked rice which is suggestive of a correlation between excessive feeding cooked rice and onset of acidosis. Further, the noticeable difference in the incidence of acidosis observed between feeding cooked rice and those fed without rice and limited intake of oil cake indicates that there is a mismatch between energy and protein supply to these cattle. Among cooked rice-based diet, the incidence of laminitis increased progressively (p<0.05 from 9.2% to 37.9% with the increase in the quantum of cooked rice in the diet. Conclusion: The

  18. The relationship between Anopheles gambiae density and rice cultivation in the savannah zone and forest zone of Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briët, Olivier J T; Dossou-Yovo, Joel; Akodo, Elena; van de Giesen, Nick; Teuscher, Thomas M

    2003-05-01

    In 13 villages in the savannah zone and 21 villages in the forest zone of Côte d'Ivoire, the biting density of the principal malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, was studied as a function of rice cultivation in the inland valleys in a 2-km radius around each village. In the savannah villages, during the main season cropping period, surface water on rice-cultivated and to a lesser extent on uncultivated inland valleys seems to contribute strongly to the A. gambiae population density. For the off-season cropping period (which starts after the first light rains in the savannah zone), correlations were weaker. Breeding sites other than in inland valleys may play an important role in the savannah zone. In the forest zone, however, the A. gambiae population density was strongly correlated with the surface water availability (SWA) in the rice-cultivated inland valleys, whereas the correlation with the SWA in other (uncultivated) inland valleys was weak. The requirement of sunlit breeding sites for A. gambiae might explain this difference between zones. In the forest zone, only inland valleys cleared for rice cultivation meet this requirement, whereas all other inland valleys are covered with dense vegetation. In the savannah zone, however, most undergrowth is burnt during the dry season, which permits sunlight to reach puddles resulting from the first rains.

  19. Gasification of rice husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzetti, P. (ENEA, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Fonti Alternative e Risparmio Energetico)

    The paper outlines the thermochemical processes and equipment involved in the gasification of rice husks. An assessment is made of the feasibility (availability, technology requirements, economics of production and marketing) of this renewable energy source. Results, reported here in tabular form, of experimental trials at an Italian pilot plant (producing, with the use of 165 kg/h of rice husks, 350,000 kcal/h of gas with a conversion yield of 70%) indicated good feasibility. More research is required to improve the combustion qualities of the final product.

  20. Health assessment of Arsenic and Zinc in rice cultivated in Fars province (Case Study: Firoozabad fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cheraghi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Food security along with the protection of environment has become a global issue.Accumulation of Arsenic and Zinc in rice is considered as a major problem for South-East Asia, where rice is a staple food. Given that, rice is considered as the highly consumed food in the diet of Iranian people, this study was conducted to estimate the concentrations of Zinc and Arsenic in rice cultivated in Firoozabad fields. For this purpose, 38 rice samples were collected from 22 nearby villages. Samples were digested by Digesdahl device and the concentrations of Arsenic and Zinc were determined by ICP. The results showed that the concentration (mean ± SD of Zinc was 20.87 ± 1.9 mg/kg of dry matter (ranged from 25.26 to 32.97; meanwhile mean value of Arsenic concentration was estimated at 22.89 ± 2.2 mg/kg of dry matter (ranged from 17.61 to 26.77.Comparing the concentrations of Arsenic and Zinc in rice samples with the standard limit set by WHO/FAO it was revealed that Arsenic concentrations in 100% of the samples were higher than standard level, whereas Zinc concentrations in 97.36% of the samples were below the limit.

  1. Rice distribution planning for “the poor people” in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutarman; Hidayat, Endang

    2017-12-01

    Bandung is one of the big and developed cities in Indonesia. The high economic growth in this city has an impact on increasing the prosperity of its citizens. However, the prosperity has not spread evenly. In fact, many residents of the city are still lack of rice. The party in charge of distributing rice to the poor is a state company called Bulog. Bulog has several warehouses with limited capacity to supply the poor. Three of them are Cisaranten Kidul, Main Warehouse and Citeureup warehouse. Bulog supplies rice to poor villages spread over 30 districts in Bandung. The allocation of rice for all districts needs to be improved so that the needs of the poor can be fulfilled with minimum allocation cost. Distribution planning conducted in this research was used Linear Programming method. Through this method, the optimization of rice allocation for the poor in Bandung can be obtained. Based on the finding, Linear programming method can be recommended as rice distribution pattern for poor people in Bandung with minimal logistics cost.

  2. Chinese villages and their sustainable future: the European Union-China-Research Project "SUCCESS".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumreicher, Heidi

    2008-04-01

    China has 800,000 villages-one person out of seven on the globe is living in a Chinese rural settlement. Yet the global discussions about the situation in China is currently characterised by a disproportionate focus on the development of towns and until now circumstances have generally been neglected in the rural areas, where 70% of the Chinese population is still living. Within the 5 years of the SUCCESS project research, this set of actual problems has been considered and analysed under the principle of sustainability: "What to maintain?" "What to change?" were the overall research questions asked in the SUCCESS project; the researchers were looking for answers under a sustainability regime, respecting the need to raise the quality of life in the villages. Several interweaving processes were used to achieve results: the inter-disciplinary research process between many areas of expertise, the trans-disciplinary process between the researchers and the Chinese villagers, and a negotiation process that made the connection between these two processes. The introduction describes the basic sustainability definition that was orienting the whole study. The innovation lays mostly in the methodology: the inter-disciplinary research co-operation related to practice and to involving the affected communities is needed to manage the significant and growing imbalances between urban and rural areas regarding their sustainability. In the transdisciplinary work, the project developed "village future sentences" that describe the local outcome of the research as one step towards better theoretical understanding of the mechanisms that could lead to a sustainable future, and they also managed to start sustainability processes in the case study sites. The integrated approach of the project helped generating future scenarios for these villages covering all aspects of their development, including urban design issues. Out of these scenarios, the villages developed small projects that could

  3. Analyzing the impact of price subsidy on rice self-sufficiency level in Malaysia: A preliminary finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Farah Hanim Abdul; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Hawari, Nurul Nazihah

    2017-11-01

    The Malaysian government had targeted for the rice industry in the country to achieve 100% rice self-sufficiency where Malaysia's rice self-sufficiency level (SSL) is currently at 65% to 75%. Thus, the government had implemented few policies to increase the rice production in Malaysia in order to meet the growing demand of rice. In this paper, the effect of price support on the rice production system in Malaysia is investigated. This study utilizes the system dynamics approach of the rice production system in Malaysia where the complexity of the factor is interrelated and changed dynamically through time. Scenario analysis was conducted using system dynamics model by making changes on the price subsidy to see its effect on the rice production and rice SSL. The system dynamics model provides a framework for understanding the effect of price subsidy on the rice self-sufficiency level. The scenario analysis of the model shows that a 50% increase in the price subsidy leads to a substantial increase in demand as the rice price drops. Accordingly, the local production increases by 15%. However, the SSL slightly decreases as the local production is insufficient to meet the large demand.

  4. [Impacts of climate warming on growth period and yield of rice in Northeast China during recent two decades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-jia; Geng, Ting; Chen, Qun; Chen, Chang-qing

    2015-01-01

    By using rice growth period, yield and climate observation data during the recent two decades, the impact of climate warming on rice in Northeast China was investigated by mathematical statistics methods. The results indicated that in the three provinces of Northeast China, the average, maximum and minimum temperatures in rice growing season were on the. rise, and the rainfall presented a downward trend during 1989-2009. Compared to 1990s, the rice whole growth periods of Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces in 2000s were prolonged 14 d, 4.5 d and 5.1 d, respectively. The increase of temperature in May, June and September could extend the rice growth period, while that in July would shorten the growth duration. The rice growth duration of registered varieties and experiment sites had a similar increasing trend in Northeast China except for the Heilongjiang Province, and the extension of registered varieties growth period was the main factor causing the prolonged growth period of rice at experiment sites. The change in daily average, minimum and maximum temperatures all could affect the rice yield in Northeast China. The increasing temperature significantly increased the rice yield in Heilongjiang Province, especially in the west region of Sanjiang Plain. Except for the south of Liaoning Province, rice yields in other regions of Northeast China were promoted by increasing temperature. Proper measures for breeding, cultivation and farming, could be adopted to fully improve the adaptation of rice to climate warming in Northeast China.

  5. Analysis on Sustainable Development Management Model of Village Banks - Based on Bayan Rongxing Village Bank in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang shuang; Wang Ji-heng; Liu Bing; Yu Xiao-wen

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarized the management models of village banks in China. We compared and analyzed different management models of four village banks in different regions on four aspects: regional agriculture feature, loan for farmers, loan for enterprises and the construction of network, then came to the conclusion that, if the village banks' health development can realize, they must pay attention to innovating in loan patterns as well as material loan and starting out the network development.

  6. Effects of Low Light on Agronomic and Physiological Characteristics of Rice Including Grain Yield and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-hua LIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Light intensity is one of the most important environmental factors that determine the basic characteristics of rice development. However, continuously cloudy weather or rainfall, especially during the grain-filling stage, induces a significant loss in yield and results in poor grain quality. Stress caused by low light often creates severe meteorological disasters in some rice-growing regions worldwide. This review was based on our previous research and related research regarding the effects of low light on rice growth, yield and quality as well as the formation of grain, and mainly reviewed the physiological metabolism of rice plants, including characteristics of photosynthesis, activities of antioxidant enzymes in rice leaves and key enzymes involved in starch synthesis in grains, as well as the translocations of carbohydrate and nitrogen. These characteristics include various grain yield and rice quality components (milling and appearance as well as cooking, eating and nutritional qualities under different rates of shading imposed at the vegetative or reproductive stages of rice plants. Furthermore, we discussed why grain yield and quality are reduced under the low light environment. Next, we summarized the need for future research that emphasizes methods can effectively improve rice grain yield and quality under low light stress. These research findings can provide a beneficial reference for rice cultivation management and breeding program in low light environments.

  7. Estimating the effect of urease inhibitor on rice yield based on NDVI at key growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailou LIU,Yazhen LI,Huiwen HU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the urease inhibitor, N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT at a range of application rates on rice production was examined in a field experiment at Jinxian County, Jiangxi Province, China. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI was measured at key growth stages in both early and late rice. The results showed that the grain yield increased significantly when urea was applied with NBPT, with the highest yield observed at 1.00% NBPT (wt/wt. NDVI differed with the growth stage of rice; it remained steady from the heading to the filling stage. Rice yield could be predicted from the NDVI taken at key rice growing stages, with R2 ranging from 0.34 to 0.69 in early rice and 0.49 to 0.70 in late rice. The validation test showed that RMSE (t·hm-2 values were 0.77 and 0.87 in early and late rice, respectively. Therefore, it was feasible to estimate rice yield for different amounts of urease inhibitor using NDVI.

  8. Rapid assessment of rice seed availability for wildlife in harvested fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, B.J.; Miller, M.R.; Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, P.S.; Farinha, M.A.; Benjamin, Gustafson K.; Yee, J.L.; Fleskes, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Rice seed remaining in commercial fields after harvest (waste rice) is a critical food resource for wintering waterfowl in rice-growing regions of North America. Accurate and precise estimates of the seed mass density of waste rice are essential for planning waterfowl wintering habitat extents and management. In the Sacramento Valley of California, USA, the existing method for obtaining estimates of availability of waste rice in harvested fields produces relatively precise estimates, but the labor-, time-, and machineryintensive process is not practical for routine assessments needed to examine long-term trends in waste rice availability. We tested several experimental methods designed to rapidly derive estimates that would not be burdened with disadvantages of the existing method. We first conducted a simulation study of the efficiency of each method and then conducted field tests. For each approach, methods did not vary in root mean squared error, although some methods did exhibit bias for both simulations and field tests. Methods also varied substantially in the time to conduct each sample and in the number of samples required to detect a standard trend. Overall, modified line-intercept methods performed well for estimating the density of rice seeds. Waste rice in the straw, although not measured directly, can be accounted for by a positive relationship with density of rice on the ground. Rapid assessment of food availability is a useful tool to help waterfowl managers establish and implement wetland restoration and agricultural habitat-enhancement goals for wintering waterfowl. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  9. Can Rice (Oryza sativa) Mitigate Pesticides and Nutrients in Agricultural Runoff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M T; Locke, M A

    2018-01-01

    Phytoremediation of nutrients and pesticides in runoff is a growing conservation effort, particularly in agriculturally intensive areas such as the lower Mississippi River Valley. In the current study, rice (Oryza sativa) was examined for its mitigation capacity of nitrogen, phosphorus, diazinon, and permethrin. Twenty-two high density polyethylene circular containers (56 cm x 45 cm) were used as mesocosms, with 12 mesocosms planted with rice and 10 mesocosms remaining unvegetated. Mesocosms were hydraulically connected and arranged in a series of two, with each system providing a 4 h hydraulic retention time (HRT) for a total system retention time of 8 h. Two treatments (RICE/RICE and RICE/BARE) of four replicates each were utilized, with three replicates of controls (BARE/BARE). Systems with RICE/RICE (8 h HRT) significantly reduced diazinon (p = 0.0126), cis-permethrin (p = 0.0442), filtered orthophosphate (p = 0.0058), and total orthophosphate (p = 0.0123) compared to control systems. No significant differences were noted for trans-permethrin, nitrate, or ammonium. Results indicate promise in phytoremediation of agricultural runoff by rice. If further studies reveal contaminants are not transferred into seeds, then rice could potentially serve as both a remediation tool and food source in countries facing agricultural pollution challenges.

  10. A comparison of spider communities in Bt and non-Bt rice fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sue Yeon; Kim, Seung Tae; Jung, Jong Kook; Lee, Joon-Ho

    2014-06-01

    To assess the potential adverse effects of a Bt rice line (Japonica rice cultivar, Nakdong) expressing a synthetic cry1Ac1 gene, C7-1-9-1-B, which was highly active against all larval stages of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), we investigated the community structure of spiders in Bt and non-Bt rice fields during the rice-growing season in 2007 and 2008 in Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. Spiders were surveyed with a sweep net and suction device. Suction sampling captured more spiders, measured in terms of species level and abundance, than sweeping. Araneidae and Thomisidae were captured more by sweeping, and certain species were captured only by sweeping. These findings show that both suction and sweep sampling methods should be used because these methods are most likely complementary. In total, 29 species in 23 genera and nine families were identified from the 4,937 spiders collected, and both Bt and non-Bt rice fields showed a typical Korean spider assemblage. The temporal patterns of spider species richness and spider abundance were very similar between Bt and non-Bt rice, although significant differences in species richness were observed on a few occasions. Overall, spider community structure, including diversity, the dominant species, and abundance did not differ between Bt and non-Bt rice. The results of the study indicated that the transgenic Cry1Ac rice lines tested in this study had no adverse effects on the spider community structure of the rice fields.

  11. Utilization of wastewater on seed germination and physioogical parameters of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huy, V.; Iwai, C. B.

    2018-03-01

    Due to increasing world population and demand, fresh water availability is becoming a limited resource. Reusing wastewater for agriculture has received attention since it contains nutrients, which are beneficial for growing crops. Even though wastewater can be used as the nutrient source for the plant, the toxicity of wastewater can still be a cause for concern and investigation. The main objective of this paper was to assess the effect of different sources of wastewater on the germination of Jasmine rice (KDML105), White rice (Phatum Thani 1), and Sticky rice (RD6) under laboratory conditions. Petri dish cultures were used with various concentrations (0, 50, and 100%) of wastewater collected from swine farm, aquaculture activity, and domestic. Seed germination, root length, shoot length, seed vigor index, fresh weight and dry weight were measured after each experiment. The results have shown that domestic wastewater and aquaculture activity wastewater did not decrease performance of Jasmine rice (KDML105), White rice (Phatum thani 1), and Sticky rice (RD6) while the germination of Jasmine rice (KDML105), White rice (Phatum thani 1), and Sticky rice (RD6) decreased when irrigated with swine farm wastewater. Therefore, using domestic and aquaculture activity wastewater for irrigation are suitable for growth of these crop.

  12. How to Grow Old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bertrand Russell

    2008-01-01

    <正>1. In spite of the title, this article will really be on how not to grow old, which, at my time of life, is a much more important subject. My first advice would be to choose your ancestors carefully. Although both my parents died young, I have done well in this respect as regards my other ancestors. My maternal grandfather, it is true, was cut off in the flower of his youth at the age of sixty-seven,

  13. Role of sulphur in rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, Pamila; Sachdev, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Sulphur is an essential plant nutrient growing in international importance. Rice farmers usually apply nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium at high rates to the crop. Whenever there is an imbalance between off take and input of nutrients, it may lead to a decline in soil fertility and increase incidence of deficiencies of certain plant nutrients especially sulphur and zinc. On the basis of available information, nutritional requirement, uptake values, crop response and measures to overcome S deficiency are some of the aspects critically dealt with

  14. The village and the city: a diagnostic study of the spatial embedding patterns in villages absorbed by cities in Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    AL-Ghatam, W.

    2009-01-01

    During the growth of cities villages are frequently absorbed into the fabric of that conurbation. But what are the consequences of this? To what extent and how well do these villages become part of the overall fabric of the city? What is the effect on the village and the wider city? How do these villages interact with the configuration of the city to create a rich spatial urban structure? This study focuses on the spatial distribution of the internal and edge commercial activity w...

  15. Application of gamma-ray irradiation technique to select, create and develop super rice with high quality to substitute the imported hybrid rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Duy Quy; Tran Duy Vuong; Tran Duy Duong; Bui Huy Thuc

    2015-01-01

    Three varieties NPT3, BQ and TQ14 were selected by irradiation ray source Gamma Co-60 with dry seed, 13% grain moisture and created at 25-30 krad. NPT3 is super rice varieties with characteristics such as: extremely short growing period (105-110 day crop; 130- 135 days in the spring, the average yield of 9-10 tones/ha), quality, stem, leaf stand, suitable for intensive capability, able to resist pests and unfavorable conditions especially the elements of productivity (amylase from 15-16%) and mass produced including hybrid rice as Nhi Uu 868, Thien Nguyen Uu 9, HYT100, etc. BQ rice varieties were high quality, average productivity gain of 7.5- 8.0 ton/ha, equivalent to hybrid rice, short growth period (105-110 days in summer season; 120- 130 days in spring season), and quality rice: content 18-20% amylose, rice delicious, supple as BC15. TQ14 varieties was planted in 2 seasons/ year, with agricultural and biological characteristics as Khang-Dan18 mutant with wide adaptation, high yield potential, the average gain from 5.9 to 6.2 tones/ha, short growth period (105-110 days in summer season, 130-135 days in spring season), insect resistance, quality of rice suitable for manufacturing technology like noodles, instant noodles, rice noodles, Ethanol. (author)

  16. Are Retirement Villages Promoting Active Aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Annie; Lee, Andy H; Jancey, Jonine; Kerr, Deborah; Howat, Peter

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated physical activity (PA) facilities of retirement villages (RVs) and neighborhood PA barriers identified by RV residents in Perth, Australia. An environmental audit of PA facilities was undertaken on 50 RV with 50+ independent living units, using the Audit of Physical Activity Resources for Seniors. Telephone interviews with 200 RV residents were conducted to identify neighborhood barriers to walking, and to obtain information on utilization of facilities and attendance of PA programs. Larger size RV appeared to provide significantly more PA facilities and programs. Utilization of PA facilities and program attendance were low (≈ 50%) and not associated with the RV environment (size, age, and facilities). Neighborhood barriers to walking were unsafe streets and hills. RV offers an attractive residential option with facilities that support active aging, but it is important to understand the barriers and enablers to use such facilities and attend programs offered.

  17. [Blood pressure in 6 Yanomami villages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilha-Carvalho, J J; Sousa e Silva, N A; Carvalho, J V; Lima, J A

    1991-06-01

    To investigate in Yanomami Indians that not add salt to food, the relationship between blood pressure (BP), biological variables (age, body weight, height and pulse) and urinary electrolytes (Na+, K+, Ca++ and Mg++). We studied 125 males and 129 females from six villages on Surucuru plateau and on Catrimani and Ajarani rivers region in the state of Roraima, north Brazil. Two BP measurements were made and the mean of them were used in data analysis. None hypertensive was found. Systolic BP decreased with age and correlated with body weight, pulse and urinary Na+. Diastolic BP only correlated with body weight. Height, urinary K+, Ca++ and Mg++ did not correlate with BP. There was no hypertension nor increase of BP with increasing age in these isolated Yanomami.

  18. Lighting: The Killer App of Village Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This paper looks at lighting systems as the major market for village level power generation. To the consumer it is something which is needed, could come from a much friendlier source, and the issues of affordability, convenience, and reliability are important. To the supplier lighting has an enormous range of potential customers, it opens the opportunity for other services, and even small demand can give big returns. Because the efficiency of the light source is critical to the number of lights which a fixed power supply can drive, it is important to pick the proper type of bulb to use in this system. The paper discusses test results from an array of fluorescent and incadescent lamps, compared with a kerosene lamp. Low wattage fluorescents seem to perform the best.

  19. BERCENI VILLAGE - A SOCIAL-ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina IORGA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural modernization aims at maintaining rural societies through occupational diversification that will improvequality of life and avoid rural exodus. It aims to acquire some features of the modern world such as those related totechnical, increased productivity, infrastructure, whereby rural community enriches its identity, acquiring newmeanings.This study is a close social-economical analysis of the countryside households of Berceni village. Berceniis in the southern county of Ilfov near Bucharest. It is based on the statistical data provided by National Institute ofStatistics. The data have been processed into the following indicators:age structure and gender, births and deaths,feminization, migration .Considering that human resources is the main factor in developing and moderinization ofrural space, this study is aimed to investigate as well, the posibility of diversifying inhabitants’ occupationsaccording to pshicologycal, social and economical resources.

  20. Neglecting rice milling yield and quality underestimates economic losses from high-temperature stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel B Lyman

    Full Text Available Future increases in global surface temperature threaten those worldwide who depend on rice production for their livelihoods and food security. Past analyses of high-temperature stress on rice production have focused on paddy yield and have failed to account for the detrimental impact of high temperatures on milling quality outcomes, which ultimately determine edible (marketable rice yield and market value. Using genotype specific rice yield and milling quality data on six common rice varieties from Arkansas, USA, combined with on-site, half-hourly and daily temperature observations, we show a nonlinear effect of high-temperature stress exposure on yield and milling quality. A 1 °C increase in average growing season temperature reduces paddy yield by 6.2%, total milled rice yield by 7.1% to 8.0%, head rice yield by 9.0% to 13.8%, and total milling revenue by 8.1% to 11.0%, across genotypes. Our results indicate that failure to account for changes in milling quality leads to understatement of the impacts of high temperatures on rice production outcomes. These dramatic losses result from reduced paddy yield and increased percentages of chalky and broken kernels, which together decrease the quantity and market value of milled rice. Recently published estimates show paddy yield reductions of up to 10% across the major rice-producing regions of South and Southeast Asia due to rising temperatures. The results of our study suggest that the often-cited 10% figure underestimates the economic implications of climate change for rice producers, thus potentially threatening future food security for global rice producers and consumers.

  1. Improving child nutrition at the village level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, J P

    1981-01-01

    The decision was made about 12 years ago in the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health of Makerere University to see if childhood malnutrition could be cured and prevented in a rural area of Uganda, surrounding a small 10-bedded maternity center some 20 miles north of Kampala. The staff included 2 midwives and another midwife who had had training in health visiting, and a community development foreman. There were weekly visits from the Church of Uganda Mengo Hospital by a doctor and sister and a similar visit from an agricultural assistant from Makerere University Department of Agriculture. A small shelter was built on the grounds of the maternity center for the purpose of conducting antenatal and children's clinics. From the beginning the intention was to involve the community, and this was done through the local pastor and the community development foreman assisted by the midwife with health-visiting experience. A local club was formed, and members decided to start by improving and cleaning the local sources of water. At the clinic infants and children were weighed and seen every fortnight until they had been immunized, and thereafter at any time their mothers were anxious about them. Any child who showed early signs of faltering in weight or of clinical malnutrition was followed by a midwife health visitor from the large children's clinic. The mothers were taught about mixing the food to give the children adequate calories and protein. The principles which appeared to be significant in the improvement of child nutrition at the village level were the following: identification; involvement of mothers; communication with the people; involvement of influential persons; indoctrination; integration in village life; and staff effectiveness.

  2. The development status and protection of traditional qiang ethnic minority villages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yanping; He, Yunxiao; Yu, Chunhua; Chen, Mengxin

    2018-03-01

    This study is to focus on the protection of development countermeasures on the development status of Yinling village,and to provide beneficial suggestions for the development of the village. It is approached by analyzing the traditional village deeply from the situation of Yinling village, development status and protection countermeasures,taking the traditional Qiang Ethnic Minority village of Yinling village in Pinwu county, Sichuan province as an example,which is under the background that the protection and development of traditional ethnic villages have became the focus of attention,because traditional ethnic villages are living villages of traditional Chinese culture, retaining old and historic material remains.

  3. Rice as commodity and anti-commodity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    2016-01-01

    On the Upper West Africa coast rice belongs to two species — African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) and Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.). African rice was domesticated in the region, perhaps three millennia ago, from a presumed wild ancestor, O. barthii. Asian rice was introduced via trans-Saharan

  4. Diseases of wild rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases are much more pronounced in cultivated wild rice than in natural stands, most likely due to the narrower genetic base of the populations, plant stress due to high planting density and floodwater removal prior to harvest, and high relative humidity in the plant canopy. Yield losses occur as ...

  5. Promising rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Two induced mutants namely, Mut NS 1 (tall) and Mut NS 5 (semi-dwarf) derived from rice variety Nizersail were evaluated for various agronomic characters at four locations in Bangladesh. Both the mutants matured about three weeks earlier and yielded significantly higher than the parent variety Nizersail. (author). 3 tabs., 9 refs

  6. Moving Towards Eco Cultural Tourism Village (A Case Study of Pondok Cabe Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Kurniawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies some eco-cultural tourism attraction potentials that exist in PondokCabeUdik Village Tangerang Selatan Indonesia. In addition, it investigates local people’s opinion on tourism development. The objective is to provide a preliminary overview of eco-tourism development. This study is a descriptive study that uses three types of instrument in data collection method, including questionnaire, interview and field observation. The data is then analyzed using SWOT analysis. The result indicated that natural potential include farming, lake and fish pond, and chicken hatchery. Cultural potentials include cultural diversity that depicted in praying houses and culinary. 194 respondents involved are the locals. The result showed thatthere is positive view from the local community on the availability of tourism potentials and development in the future. It is proposed that environmental awareness, education, ecotourism development, and consensus buildingare needed to implement eco cultural tourism concept. Keywords: Tourism, Eco-Cultural, Village, Planning and Development

  7. Distributions of soil phosphorus in China's densely populated village landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaguo Jiao; Erle C. Ellis; Ian Yesilonis; Junxi Wu; Hongqing Wang; Huixin Li; Linzhang. Yang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Village landscapes, which integrate small-scale agriculture with housing, forestry and a host of other land use practices, cover more than 2x106 km2 across China. Village lands tend to be managed at very fine spatial scales (≤30 m), with managers altering soil fertility and even terrain by terracing,...

  8. Design for sustainability: rural connectivity with village operators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has approximately 26500 primary and secondary schools, of which at least 17000 are in remote rural villages. None of these rural schools have any form of Internet connectivity. The same rural villages may have one health facility...

  9. A Resilience Pattern in Village level: The Case Babalan Village, Pati, Central Java Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nurwahyudi Ragil; Maryono Maryono

    2018-01-01

    Based on the Indonesia Disaster Prone Index 2013, Pati Regency is a high risk area of disaster and is ranked 11th level Central Java province while nationally ranked 156. Babalan Village located on the edge of Juwana River has disaster history from 2006-2014 shows flood disaster Giving the greatest probability and impact followed by rat pest, tornado, drought, fire. The public recognizes the signs of a continuous flooding of heavy rains accompanied by clouds all over the edge, the continuous ...

  10. Investigating differences in light stable isotopes between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukusamude, C.; Kongsri, S.

    2017-10-01

    We report the differences in light stable isotopes between two kinds of Thai rice (Thai jasmine and Sungyod rice). Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice were cultivated in the northeast and the south of Thailand. Light isotopes including 13C, 15N and 18O of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice samples were carried out using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Thai jasmine rice (Khao Dawk Mali 105) was cultivated from Thung Kula Rong Hai area, whereas Sungyod rice was cultivated from Phathalung province. Hypothesis testing of difference of each isotope between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice was also studied. The study was the feasibility test whether the light stable isotopes can be the variables to identify Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. The result shows that there was difference in the isotope patterns of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. Our results may provide the useful information in term of stable isotope profiles of Thai rice.

  11. The hydrogen village in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.; Smith, R.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' A Hydrogen Village (H2V) is a public/private partnership with an objective to accelerate the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technology in Canada and firmly position Canada as the international leader in this sector. The first Hydrogen Village is planned for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and will make use of existing hydrogen and fuel cell deployments to assist in its creation. This five year GTA Hydrogen Village program is planned to begin operations in 2004. The Hydrogen Village will demonstrate and deploy various hydrogen production and delivery techniques as well as fuel cells for stationary, transportation (mobile) and portable applications. This paper will provide an overview of the Hydrogen Village and identify the missions, objectives, members and progress within the H2V. (author)

  12. Radiation disinfestation of Basmati rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.S.; Gholap, A.S.; Adhikari, H.R.; Nair, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Effect of low dose γ-radiation on prepackaged Basmati rice was studied in order to achieve disinfestation of rice. Basmati rice procured from local market was repacked in 1 kg pouches made from high density polyethylene (HDP) and biaxially oriented polypropylene: low density polyethylene (BOPP/LDP) laminate and irradiated at doses from 0.25-1.0 kGy. Within one month of storage at room temperature, unirradiated (control) Basmati rice developed heavy infestation. No infestation was observed in any of the irradiated samples even at 0.25 kGy and the rice could be stored for 6 months in a clean state. Irradiation (at 0.25 kGy) did not alter the moisture content of the rice. Likewise, no significant change was noted due to irradiation in the functional properties of rice such as swelling index and water absorption and in total volatile components responsible for flavour of Basmati rice. In organoleptic evaluation, no significant difference was found between the acceptability of irradiated (0.25 kGy) and control rice. These results are significant in view of the high export potential of Basmati rice and the transit losses at present due to infestation. (author). 24 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Implementation of the biomass gasification project for community empowerment at Melani village, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamphweli, Ntshengedzeni S.; Meyer, Edson L. [University of Fort Hare, Institute of Technology, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700 (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    Eskom and the University of Fort Hare are engaged in a biomass gasification project using the System Johansson Biomass gasifier (SJBG). The SJBG installed at Melani village in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa is used to assess the viability and affordability of biomass gasification in South Africa. A community needs assessment study was undertaken at the village before the installation of the plant. The study revealed the need for low-cost electricity for small businesses including growing of crops, chicken broilers, manufacturing of windows and door frames, sewing of clothing, bakery etc. It was also found that the community had a problem with the socio-environmental aspects of burning biomass waste from the sawmill furnace as a means of waste management. The SJBG uses the excess biomass materials (waste) to generate low-cost electricity to drive community economic development initiatives. A study on the properties and suitability of the biomass materials resulting from sawmill operation and their suitability for gasification using the SJBG was undertaken. The study established that the biomass materials meet the requirements for the SJBG. A 300 Nm{sup 3}/h SJBG was then manufactured and installed at the village. (author)

  14. Self Medication: Predictors and Practices among Rural Population of Nellikuppam Village, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaivani Annadurai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inappropriate self medication is one of the leading causes of growing antibiotic resistance in developing nations which poses a major public health threat worldwide and assessment of self medication practices is essential for better understanding of the problem. Aim and Objectives: To find out the predictors of self medication use among the residents of Nellikuppam village, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu. To assess the self medication practices among the residents of Nellikuppam village, Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu. Material and Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted among 335 adult households with six months recall period in Nellikuppam village of Tamil Nadu during May to October, 2014 using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Prevalence of self medication among adult rural population was 53.43% and only half of the study population opined that it was harmful. Pharmacists (72.06% were the major source of drug information on self medication. Paracetomol (84.91% was the commonest drug used for self medication. Major predictors were perception of illness as minor ailment and unavailability of doctors in their locality. Nearly half of the current self medication users (47.49% were in the idea of practicing self medication in the future. Conclusion: This study results implies the need for proper enforcement of legal measures towards the restriction of over the counter medicine and creating awareness among general population on adverse reaction of self medication.

  15. Farinha de mandioca enriquecida com bioproteínas (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, em associação ao feijão e arroz, na dieta de ratos em crescimento Cassava flour enriched with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein, in association with beans and rice, in the diet of growing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastácia Cavalcanti Metri

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da mistura de feijão, arroz e farinha de mandioca enriquecida com bioproteína (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, em ratos wistar machos recém-desmamados (n=60, durante 28 dias. Foram utilizadas as seguintes dietas: experimentais (feijão, arroz e farinha de mandioca enriquecida com leveduras; feijão, arroz e farinha de mandioca comum; controle (farinha de mandioca enriquecida com levedura; e padrão (caseína. Determinaram-se os testes biológicos. Os orgãos foram removidos para análise de pesos úmido e seco (rim esquerdo, baço e amostras do fígado e cérebro, teor de proteína (fígado e cérebro e histopatologia (fígado, coração e rim direito. Foram ainda quantificados os lipídios totais da carcaça dos animais. Os dados foram estatisticamente avaliados pelo teste Não Paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis e pelo teste de Comparações Múltiplas (pThe effect of a mixture of beans, rice and cassava flour enriched with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein was assessed in weanling male Wistar rats (n=60, during 28 days. The following diets were used: experimental (beans, rice and manioc flour with yeast protein; beans, rice and cassava flour without yeast protein; control (cassava flour with yeast protein; and standard (casein. The biological test were determined. The organs were removed for evaluation of wet and dry weights (left kidney, spleen and liver and brain samples, protein levels (liver and brain, and histopathology (heart, right kidney and liver. Carcass total lipids were also recorded. Results were statistically analyzed by the Nonparametric Test of Kruskal-Wallis and the Test of Multiple Comparisons (p<0.05. The highest values for all investigated parameters were found in the casein-fed group, followed by the experimental groups. Data suggest that flour enriched with yeast protein can be recommended as a dietary supplement to eradicate the nutritional deficiency in the poor population.

  16. Relégation au village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Renahy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Les thèses de l’individualisation des sociétés occidentales, ou de l’exclusion de ceux qui resteraient en marge d’une vaste classe moyenne aux modes de vie homogénéisés, ont sans doute permis de sortir d’une grille de lecture rigide héritée du marxisme. Mais elles résistent aujourd’hui mal aux faits et sont vivement contredites par le renouvellement des études sur les inégalités sociales pensées en termes de stratification. Enquêtant la population ouvrière d’un village industriel de Bourgogne au cours des années 1990, l’auteur a pu mesurer tout autant la force socialisatrice continue du groupe ouvrier sur sa jeunesse que le lent processus de délitement de ses cadres de références, longtemps stabilisés autour d’une mono-industrie métallurgique, provoquant une crise dans la reproduction de ce monde ouvrier. C’est cette crise de reproduction qui est évoquée ici. Dans un premier temps sont explicitées les formes passées de la présence industrielle au village, qui n’a jamais été celle d’un bastion de la grande industrie – la population locale n’est pas structurellement différenciée de celle de son environnement rural immédiat. L’exemple d’une lignée familiale d’artisans montre pour finir l’étroit maillage entre usine et structures sociales plus classiquement rurales, favorisant la constitution d’un capital d’autochtonie, déclinaison populaire du capital social.Relegation to the villageArguments demonstrating the individualisation of western societies, or the exclusion of those who stay on the margins of a vast middle class homogeneous life style, have no doubt allowed the move away from the rigid interpretations inherited from Marxism. However, these arguments resist today in spite of the facts and they are even keenly contradicted by the renewal of stratification studies on social inequalities. Analyzing the working population of an industrial village in Bourgogne during the

  17. Application of two-stream model to solar radiation of rice canopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakata, T.

    2005-01-01

    The amount of solar radiation absorbed by a crop canopy is correlated with crop production, and thus it is necessary to estimate both transmission and reflection around the canopy for crop growth models. The 'forward and backward streams' representation of radiation has been refined to account for both transmission and reflection in the crop canopy. However, this model has not been applied to a rice canopy through the growing period. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the two-stream model is applicable to the rice canopy, and to investigate the parameters of the model. The values for both transmittance below the rice canopy and reflectance above it that were derived from the two-stream model represent the observed values throughout the growing period. The inclination factor of leaves (F), which is used in the two-stream model, was almost equivalent to the extinction coefficient of transmittance in the case of the rice canopy

  18. Selectivity and weed control efficacy of some herbicides applied to sprinkler irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavero, J; Zaragoza, C; Cirujeda, A; Anzalone, A; Faci, J M; Blanco, O

    2011-07-01

    Sprinkler irrigation can reduce the irrigation water needed to grow rice. However, most available information on weed control with herbicides is related to flood irrigated rice because this is the main growing method. Field experiments were conducted at Zaragoza (Spain) during two years to study weed control and tolerance of sprinkler irrigated rice to several herbicides. The main weeds were Atriplex prostrata Boucher ex DC., Cyperus rotundus L., Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. and Sonchus oleraceus L. Rice cv Guadiamar was tolerant to preemergence (PRE) application of clomazone at 0.36 kg ha{sup -}1 and oxadiazon at 0.5 kg ha{sup -}1. PRE application of pendimethalin at 1.32 kg ha{sup -}1 combined with clomazone at 0.36 kg ha{sup -}1 decreased rice yield. Postemergence (POST) application of bentazon at 1.6 kg ha{sup -}1 + MCPA at 0.25 kg ha{sup -}1 did not injure rice but POST application of azimsulfuron at 0.025 kg ha{sup -}1 produced visual crop injury. Only treatments that controlled grassy weeds since rice was planted and by more than 80% at harvest time lead to acceptable rice yield (> 5,000 kg ha{sup -}1). Clomazone applied PRE at 0.36 kg ha{sup -}1 provided good control of grassy weeds (> 80%) and the highest rice yield, so it is recommended as a selective and efficacious PRE treatment for weed control of annual weeds in sprinkler irrigated rice. The perennial purple nutsedge was difficult to control at high plant densities (> 150 plants m{sup -}2) and the recommended herbicide is azimsulfuron applied at POST at 0.02 kg ha{sup -}1. (Author) 37 refs.

  19. Mosquitoes of the rice agroecosystem of Malaysia: species composition and their abundance in relation to rice farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Hassan Ahmad; Che Salmah Md Rawi

    2002-01-01

    Mosquito abundance in relation to rice farming was studied in the Muda and the Kerian Irrigation Schemes. Mosquito larvae were collected using dippers for several growing seasons. Adult mosquitoes were collected by using human bait and cow bait and net trap at nights. Culex, Mansonia and Anopheles were the three genera of mosquito found in the rice agroecosystem. Four species of Mansonia were found biting on human bait. Culex mosquitoes were caught biting on human and cow baits. Culex tritaeniorhynchus, C pseudovishnui, C vishnui, C gelidus and C bitaeniorhynchus were the most common Culex mosquitoes found. Anoheles sinensis and A. peditaeniatus were the most dominant panopheline mosquitoes. High abundance of larvae and adult mosquitoes were observed during ploughing, planting, and tillering stages of rice farming. (Author)

  20. Growing a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  1. New Energy Villages in Taiwan and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. S.; Wang, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan locates in the active tectonic subdution and collision belts, therefore, the geothermal gradient is very high and have found 128 sites of high geothermal areas; 20% of them have the temperature between 75 - 200 degree C in which they can be directly used for the electricity generation; 50% of them are in 50 - 74 degree C and the rest 30% are below 50 degree C. These areas need the deep drillings to get into higher temperature for power energy. The first 20% high temperature areas are mostly located in the coastal or mountain regions. The government is interesting to develop these areas as the "New Energy Villages" so that they can not only become self-energy sufficient sites, but also to protect themself from being the loss of electricity and water during the typhoon and earthquake hazards. The multiple usages of hot water (such as the first power generation and then the hot spring utilization) have its merits. China, in the other hand, is not within the present-day active tectonic zone. However, the recent Sino Probe Experiments (Deep Exploration in China) have mapped the Cetaceous plate boundaries in the coast of China. The heat is still possibly migrating to near the surface through the existing structures. For example, the Feng Shun Geothermal Power Station in north of Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, used the 96 degree C hot water from a well of 800 m producing a small amount of 300 KW power since 1984. The Guangdong Province is located in the edge of Mesozoic South China Plate. Further in land, the Huang Mountain, one of the world heritage sites, is located at the boundary of another Mesozoic Yangtze River Plate. There is not a geothermal power plant; however, a number of hot springs are in a booming tour business at the foot hill of the mountain. The electricity has to come from a long way of net working. If China develops the local, small, but sufficient power plants by using the modern geothermal exploration and drilling techniques. The "New Energy

  2. Astronomy Village Reaches for New Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, S. K.; Pompea, S. M.

    2007-12-01

    We are developing a set of complex, multimedia-based instructional modules emphasizing technical and scientific issues related to Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope project. The modules" pedagogy will be open-ended and problem-based to promote development of problem-solving skills. Problem- based-learning modules that emphasize work on open-ended complex real world problems are particularly valuable in illustrating and promoting a perspective on the process of science and engineering. Research in this area shows that these kinds of learning experiences are superior to more conventional student training in terms of gains in student learning. The format for the modules will be based on the award-winning multi-media educational Astronomy Village products that present students with a simulated environment: a mountaintop community surrounded by a cluster of telescopes, satellite receivers, and telecommunication towers. A number of "buildings" are found in the Village, such as a library, a laboratory, and an auditorium. Each building contains an array of information sources and computer simulations. Students navigate through their research with a mentor via imbedded video. The first module will be "Observatory Site Selection." Students will use astronomical data, basic weather information, and sky brightness data to select the best site for an observatory. Students will investigate the six GSMT sites considered by the professional site selection teams. Students will explore weather and basic site issues (e.g., roads and topography) using remote sensing images, computational fluid dynamics results, turbulence profiles, and scintillation of the different sites. Comparison of student problem solving with expert problem solving will also be done as part of the module. As part of a site selection team they will have to construct a case and present it on why they chose a particular site. The second module will address aspects of system engineering and optimization for a GSMT

  3. The growing fibroadenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Linda M; Sara, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Fibroadenomas (FAs) are the most common tumors of the breast clinically and pathologically in adolescent and young women but may be discovered at any age. With increasing use of core biopsy rather than excision for diagnosis, it is now commonplace to follow these lesions with imaging. To assess the incidence of epithelial abnormalities (atypia, in situ or invasive, ductal or lobular malignancies) in FAs diagnosed by core biopsy and to re-evaluate the management paradigm for any growing FA. A retrospective review of the senior author’s pathology results over 19 years identified 2062 nodular FAs (biopsied by ultrasound or stereotactic guidance). Eighty-three core biopsied FAs were identified which subsequently enlarged. Twelve of 2062 of core biopsied nodules demonstrated atypia, in situ, or invasive malignancy (ductal or lobular) within or adjacent to the FA (0.58%). Eighty-three FAs enlarged and underwent either surgical excision (n = 65), repeat core biopsy (n = 9), or imaging follow-up (n = 9). The incidence of atypia, in situ or invasive malignancy was 0/83 (0%). Two enlarging FAs were subsequently surgically diagnosed as benign phyllodes tumors (PT). Malignancy in or adjacent to a core biopsied FA is rare. The risk of cancer in a growing FA is even rarer; none were present in our series. FAs with abnormal epithelial abnormalities require excision. Otherwise, FAs without epithelial abnormality diagnosed by core biopsy need no specific follow-up considering the negligible incidence of conversion to malignancy. The breast interventionalist must know how to manage discordant pathology results

  4. Biochar amendment reduced methylmercury accumulation in rice plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Rui; Wang, Yongjie [School of Environment, Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China (China); Zhong, Huan, E-mail: zhonghuan@nju.edu.cn [School of Environment, Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China (China); Environmental and Life Sciences Program (EnLS), Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • Biochar amendment could evidently reduce methylmercury (MeHg) levels in rice grain. • Biochar could enhance microbial production of MeHg, probably by providing sulfate. • Biochar could immobilize MeHg in soil, and reduce MeHg availability to rice plants. • Biochar amendment increased grain biomass, leading to biodilution of MeHg in grain. - Abstract: There is growing concern about methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice grains and thus enhanced dietary exposure to MeHg in Asian countries. Here, we explored the possibility of reducing grain MeHg levels by biochar amendment, and the underlying mechanisms. Pot (i.e., rice cultivation in biochar amended soils) and batch experiments (i.e., incubation of amended soils under laboratory conditions) were carried out, to investigate MeHg dynamics (i.e., MeHg production, partitioning and phytoavailability in paddy soils, and MeHg uptake by rice) under biochar amendment (1–4% of soil mass). We demonstrate for the first time that biochar amendment could evidently reduce grain MeHg levels (49–92%). The declines could be attributed to the combined effects of: (1) increased soil MeHg concentrations, probably explained by the release of sulfate from biochar and thus enhanced microbial production of MeHg (e.g., by sulfate-reducing bacteria), (2) MeHg immobilization in soils, facilitated by the large surface areas and high organosulfur content of biochar, and (3) biodilution of MeHg in rice grains, due to the increased grain biomass under biochar amendment (35–79%). These observations together with mechanistic explanations improve understanding of MeHg dynamics in soil-rice systems, and support the possibility of reducing MeHg phytoaccumulation under biochar amendment.

  5. Biochar amendment reduced methylmercury accumulation in rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Rui; Wang, Yongjie; Zhong, Huan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biochar amendment could evidently reduce methylmercury (MeHg) levels in rice grain. • Biochar could enhance microbial production of MeHg, probably by providing sulfate. • Biochar could immobilize MeHg in soil, and reduce MeHg availability to rice plants. • Biochar amendment increased grain biomass, leading to biodilution of MeHg in grain. - Abstract: There is growing concern about methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice grains and thus enhanced dietary exposure to MeHg in Asian countries. Here, we explored the possibility of reducing grain MeHg levels by biochar amendment, and the underlying mechanisms. Pot (i.e., rice cultivation in biochar amended soils) and batch experiments (i.e., incubation of amended soils under laboratory conditions) were carried out, to investigate MeHg dynamics (i.e., MeHg production, partitioning and phytoavailability in paddy soils, and MeHg uptake by rice) under biochar amendment (1–4% of soil mass). We demonstrate for the first time that biochar amendment could evidently reduce grain MeHg levels (49–92%). The declines could be attributed to the combined effects of: (1) increased soil MeHg concentrations, probably explained by the release of sulfate from biochar and thus enhanced microbial production of MeHg (e.g., by sulfate-reducing bacteria), (2) MeHg immobilization in soils, facilitated by the large surface areas and high organosulfur content of biochar, and (3) biodilution of MeHg in rice grains, due to the increased grain biomass under biochar amendment (35–79%). These observations together with mechanistic explanations improve understanding of MeHg dynamics in soil-rice systems, and support the possibility of reducing MeHg phytoaccumulation under biochar amendment.

  6. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Feizabadi, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  7. Understanding the nature of methane emission from rice ecosystems as basis of mitigation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buendia, L.V.; Neue, H.U.; Wassmann, R. [International Rice Research Institute, Laguna (Philippines)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Methane is considered as an important Greenhouse gas and rice fields are one of the major atmospheric methane sources. The paper aims to develop sampling strategies and formulate mitigation options based on diel (day and night) and seasonal pattern of methane emission. The study was conducted in 4 countries to measure methane flux using an automatic closed chamber system. A 24-hour bihourly methane emissions were continuously obtained during the whole growing season. Daily and seasonal pattern of methane fluxes from different rice ecosystems were evaluated. Diel pattern of methane emission from irrigated rice fields, in all sites, displayed similar pattern from planting to flowering. Fluxes at 0600, 1200, and 1800 h were important components of the total diel flux. A proposed sampling frequency to accurately estimate methane emission within the growing season was designed based on the magnitude of daily flux variation. Total methane emission from different ecosystems follow the order: deepwater rice > irrigated rice > rainfed rice. Application of pig manure increased total emission by 10 times of that without manure. Green manure application increased emission by 49% of that applied only with inorganic fertilizer. Removal of floodwater at 10 DAP and 35 DAP, within a period of 4 days, inhibited production and emission of methane. The level of variation in daily methane emission and seasonal emission pattern provides useful information for accurate determination of methane fluxes. Characterization of seasonal emission pattern as to ecologies, fertilizer amendments, and water management gives an idea of where to focus mitigation strategies for sustainable rice production.

  8. Marker-assisted backcrossing: a useful method for rice improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Muhammad Mahmudul; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Mahmood, Maziah; Rahim, Harun A; Alam, Md Amirul; Ashkani, Sadegh; Malek, Md Abdul; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2015-03-04

    The world's population is increasing very rapidly, reducing the cultivable land of rice, decreasing table water, emerging new diseases and pests, and the climate changes are major issues that must be addressed to researchers to develop sustainable crop varieties with resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, recent scientific discoveries and advances particularly in genetics, genomics and crop physiology have opened up new opportunities to reduce the impact of these stresses which would have been difficult if not impossible as recently as the turn of the century. Marker assisted backcrossing (MABC) is one of the most promising approaches is the use of molecular markers to identify and select genes controlling resistance to those factors. Regarding this, MABC can contribute to develop resistant or high-yielding or quality rice varieties by incorporating a gene of interest into an elite variety which is already well adapted by the farmers. MABC is newly developed efficient tool by which using large population sizes (400 or more plants) for the backcross F 1 generations, it is possible to recover the recurrent parent genotype using only two or three backcrosses. So far, many high yielding, biotic and abiotic stresses tolerance, quality and fragrance rice varieties have been developed in rice growing countries through MABC within the shortest timeframe. Nowadays, MABC is being used widely in plant breeding programmes to develop new variety/lines especially in rice. This paper reviews recent literature on some examples of variety/ line development using MABC strategy.

  9. Biodiversity Conservation in Rice Paddies in China: Toward Ecological Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Luo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice paddies are artificial wetlands that supply people with food and provide wildlife with habitats, breeding areas, shelters, feeding grounds and other services, and rice paddies play an important part in agricultural ecological systems. However, modern agricultural practices with large-scale intensive farming have significantly accelerated the homogenization of the paddy field ecosystem. Modern agriculture mostly relies on chemically-driven modern varieties and irrigation to ensure high production, resulting in the deterioration and imbalance of the ecosystem. Consequently, outbreaks of diseases, insects and weeds have become more frequent in paddy fields. This paper describes the current situation of rice paddy biodiversity in China and analyzes the community characteristics of arthropods and weedy plants. Meanwhile, we discuss how biodiversity was affected by modern agriculture changes, which have brought about a mounting crisis threatening to animals and plants once common in rice paddies. Measures should be focused to firstly preventing further deterioration and, then, also, promoting restoration processes. Ecological sustainability can be achieved by restoring paddy field biodiversity through protecting the ecological environment surrounding the paddy fields, improving paddy cropping patterns, growing rice with less agricultural chemicals and chemical fertilizers, constructing paddy systems with animals and plants and promoting ecological education and public awareness.

  10. Biochar amendment reduced methylmercury accumulation in rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Rui; Wang, Yongjie; Zhong, Huan

    2016-08-05

    There is growing concern about methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice grains and thus enhanced dietary exposure to MeHg in Asian countries. Here, we explored the possibility of reducing grain MeHg levels by biochar amendment, and the underlying mechanisms. Pot (i.e., rice cultivation in biochar amended soils) and batch experiments (i.e., incubation of amended soils under laboratory conditions) were carried out, to investigate MeHg dynamics (i.e., MeHg production, partitioning and phytoavailability in paddy soils, and MeHg uptake by rice) under biochar amendment (1-4% of soil mass). We demonstrate for the first time that biochar amendment could evidently reduce grain MeHg levels (49-92%). The declines could be attributed to the combined effects of: (1) increased soil MeHg concentrations, probably explained by the release of sulfate from biochar and thus enhanced microbial production of MeHg (e.g., by sulfate-reducing bacteria), (2) MeHg immobilization in soils, facilitated by the large surface areas and high organosulfur content of biochar, and (3) biodilution of MeHg in rice grains, due to the increased grain biomass under biochar amendment (35-79%). These observations together with mechanistic explanations improve understanding of MeHg dynamics in soil-rice systems, and support the possibility of reducing MeHg phytoaccumulation under biochar amendment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. RICE CROP MAPPING USING SENTINEL-1A PHENOLOGICAL METRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the most important food crop in Vietnam, providing food more than 90 million people and is considered as an essential source of income for majority of rural populations. Monitoring rice-growing areas is thus important to developing successful strategies for food security in the country. This paper aims to develop an approach for crop acreage estimation from multi-temporal Sentinel-1A data. We processed the data for two main cropping seasons (e.g., winter–spring, summer–autumn in the Mekong River Delta (MRD, Vietnam through three main steps: (1 data pre-processing, (3 rice classification based on crop phenological metrics, and (4 accuracy assessment of the mapping results. The classification results compared with the ground reference data indicated the overall accuracy of 86.2% and Kappa coefficient of 0.72. These results were reaffirmed by close correlation between the government’s rice area statistics for such crops (R2 > 0.95. The values of relative error in area obtained for the winter–spring and summer–autumn were -3.6% and 6.7%, respectively. This study demonstrates the potential application of multi-temporal Sentinel-1A data for rice crop mapping using information of crop phenology in the study region.

  12. Using ORYZA2000 to model cold rice yield response to climate change in the Heilongjiang province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingting Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is one of the most important staple crops in China. Increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and associated climate change may greatly affect rice production. We assessed the potential impacts of climate change on cold rice production in the Heilongjiang province, one of China's most important rice production regions. Data for a baseline period (1961–1990 and the period 2010–2050 in A2 and B2 scenarios were used as input to drive the rice model ORYZA2000 with and without accounting for the effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. The results indicate that mean, maximum, and minimum temperature during the rice growing season, in the future period considered, would increase by 1.8 °C under the A2 scenario and by 2.2 °C under the B2 scenario compared with those in the baseline. The rate of change in average maximum and minimum temperatures would increase by 0.6 °C per 10-year period under the A2 scenario and by 0.4 °C per 10-year period under the B2 scenario. Precipitation would increase slightly in the rice growing season over the next 40 years. The rice growing season would be shortened and the yield would increase in most areas in the Heilongjiang province. Without accounting for CO2 effect, the rice growing season in the period 2010–2050 would be shortened by 4.7 and 5.8 days, and rice yields would increase by 11.9% and 7.9%, under the A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. Areas with simulated rice yield increases greater than 30.0% were in the Xiaoxing'an Mountain region. The simulation indicated a decrease in yield of less than 15% in the southwestern Songnen Plain. The rate of change in simulated rice yield was 5.0% and 2.5% per 10 years under the A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. When CO2 effect was accounted for, rice yield increased by 44.5% and 31.3% under the A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. The areas of increasing yield were sharply expanded. The area of decreasing yield in the

  13. Biomass District Heat System for Interior Rural Alaska Villages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, William A.; Parker, Charles R.

    2014-09-01

    Alaska Village Initiatives (AVI) from the outset of the project had a goal of developing an integrated village approach to biomass in Rural Alaskan villages. A successful biomass project had to be ecologically, socially/culturally and economically viable and sustainable. Although many agencies were supportive of biomass programs in villages none had the capacity to deal effectively with developing all of the tools necessary to build a complete integrated program. AVI had a sharp learning curve as well. By the end of the project with all the completed tasks, AVI developed the tools and understanding to connect all of the dots of an integrated village based program. These included initially developing a feasibility model that created the capacity to optimize a biomass system in a village. AVI intent was to develop all aspects or components of a fully integrated biomass program for a village. This meant understand the forest resource and developing a sustainable harvest system that included the “right sized” harvest equipment for the scale of the project. Developing a training program for harvesting and managing the forest for regeneration. Making sure the type, quality, and delivery system matched the needs of the type of boiler or boilers to be installed. AVI intended for each biomass program to be of the scale that would create jobs and a sustainable business.

  14. Nicaragua - Rice and Banana Farmers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report is an impact evaluation of two components of the Rural Business Development Program (RBD) in Nicaragua, specifically the components benefitting rice and...

  15. TOURISM WAS BORN IN THE VILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Liliana CIOBAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Statistical data certifies that tourism is one of the most profitable and dynamic sectors of the economy, occupying the second position in international trade, after oil. By extrapolation results that rural tourism also has major implications for the economic, social and cultural development of the villages. This study presents an analysis of the factors contributing to the practice of rural tourism in Romania during 2000-2015. Using data provided by the National Statistics Institute was possible to analyze the number of employees and number of units specific to rural tourism. In the structure of this study, the methods of improving and developing rural tourism are defined by the concept of volunteer tourism by developing national portals presenting the vacant jobs in tourism and developing human capital by attracting European Funds 2014-2010. The importance of these methods have as a starting point the alignment with the current requirements of tourists and human resources due to the fact that workers in tourism are the main connection point between services and tourist.

  16. Improvement of nitrogen accumulation and metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by the endophyte Phomopsis liquidambari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Ma, Hai-Yan; Wang, Xiao-Mi; Jia, Yong; Hu, Jing; Li, Xia; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2014-09-01

    The fungal endophyte Phomopsis liquidambari can enhance nitrogen (N) uptake and metabolism of rice plants under hydroponic conditions. To investigate the effects of P. liquidambari on N accumulation and metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under field conditions during the entire growing season (S1, the seedling stage; S2, the tillering stage; S3, the heading stage; S4, the ripening stage), we utilized pot experiments to examine metabolic and physiological levels in both shoot and root tissues of rice, with endophyte (E+) and without endophyte (E-), in response to three different N levels. We found that under low-N treatment, P. liquidambari symbiosis increased the rice yield and N use efficiency by 12% and by 11.59%, respectively; that the total N contents in E+ rice plants at the four growth stages were separately increased by 29.05%, 14.65%, 21.06% and 18.38%, respectively; and that the activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase in E+ rice roots and shoots were significantly increased by fungal infection during the S1 to S3 stages. Moreover, P. liquidambari significantly increased the free NH4(+), NO3(-), amino acid and soluble protein contents in infected rice tissues under low-N treatment during the S1 to S3 stages. The obtained results offer novel data concerning the systemic changes induced by P. liquidambari in rice during the entire growth period and confirm the hypothesis that the rice-P. liquidambari interaction improved the N accumulation and metabolism of rice plants, consequently increasing rice N utilization in nutrient-limited soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Remotely sensed rice yield prediction using multi-temporal NDVI data derived from NOAA's-AVHRR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Xiuzhen; Li, Xinxing; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Zhuokun

    2013-01-01

    Grain-yield prediction using remotely sensed data have been intensively studied in wheat and maize, but such information is limited in rice, barley, oats and soybeans. The present study proposes a new framework for rice-yield prediction, which eliminates the influence of the technology development, fertilizer application, and management improvement and can be used for the development and implementation of provincial rice-yield predictions. The technique requires the collection of remotely sensed data over an adequate time frame and a corresponding record of the region's crop yields. Longer normalized-difference-vegetation-index (NDVI) time series are preferable to shorter ones for the purposes of rice-yield prediction because the well-contrasted seasons in a longer time series provide the opportunity to build regression models with a wide application range. A regression analysis of the yield versus the year indicated an annual gain in the rice yield of 50 to 128 kg ha(-1). Stepwise regression models for the remotely sensed rice-yield predictions have been developed for five typical rice-growing provinces in China. The prediction models for the remotely sensed rice yield indicated that the influences of the NDVIs on the rice yield were always positive. The association between the predicted and observed rice yields was highly significant without obvious outliers from 1982 to 2004. Independent validation found that the overall relative error is approximately 5.82%, and a majority of the relative errors were less than 5% in 2005 and 2006, depending on the study area. The proposed models can be used in an operational context to predict rice yields at the provincial level in China. The methodologies described in the present paper can be applied to any crop for which a sufficient time series of NDVI data and the corresponding historical yield information are available, as long as the historical yield increases significantly.

  18. Climate Change Implications to Irrigated Rice Production in Southern Brazil: A Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Thiago

    Rice is one of the staple foods for more than three billion people worldwide. When cultivated under irrigated conditions (i.e. lowland rice), rice is one of the most intensive water consumer crops globally. Therefore, representation of rice growth should be integrated into the latest land surface models to allow studies on food security and to ensure that accurate simulations of the bidirectional feedbacks between the land surface and atmosphere take place. In this study, I present a new process-based model for rice fields that includes rice growth and rice irrigation as modules within the Agro-IBIS dynamic agro-ecosystem model. The model includes a series of equations, agricultural management parameters and an irrigation scheme that are specifically tailored for rice crops. The model was evaluated against leaf area index and biomass observations, obtained for one growing season in Rio Grande do Sul state (southern Brazil), and in Los Banos, Philippines. The model accurately captured the temporal dynamics of leaf area index in both the Brazilian and the Philippine sites, and predicted end-of-season biomass with an error of between -9.5% and 11.3% depending on the location and the plant organ. Rice phenology is predicted by the model based on experimentally-derived growth rates, and was evaluated by comparing simulated and observed durations of the four growth phases considered by the model. Agro-IBIS showed a tendency to overestimate the duration of the growth stages between 3% and 16%, but underestimated by 8% the duration of the panicle formation phase in one growing season. The new irrigation model is based on the water balance at the surface and applies irrigation in order to keep the water layer at the paddy field always in the optimum level. A set of climate projections from global climate models under two emission scenarios, and excluding and considering CO2 fertilizations effects, was used to drive the updated Agro-IBIS to estimate the effects of climate

  19. Energy supply and use in a rural West African village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Nathan G.; Bryden, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    Over three billion people live in the rural areas of low- and middle-income countries. Often rural households have many unmet energy needs, including cooking, lighting, heating, transportation, and telecommunication. Designing solutions to meet these needs requires an understanding of the human, natural, and engineered systems that drive village energy dynamics. This paper presents the results of a novel study of energy supply and use over a one year period in an isolated rural village of 770 people in Mali. Quantitative data and narrative descriptions from this study portray village energy supply and use. Annual village energy use is 6000 MJ cap −1 yr −1 . Domestic energy needs account for 93% of village energy use. Wood is the primary energy source and provides 94% of the village energy supply. Approximately 98% of the wood is used for domestic consumption. The uses of wood in the home are cooking (52.2%), heating water (22.2%), space heating (19.1%), and other activities (6.5%). This paper also reports variations in energy usage over the period of a year for a broad range of domestic, artisan, transport, and public energy uses. -- Highlights: ► Village energy supply and use is driven by human, natural, and engineered systems. ► Village energy use varies by 250% between the hot and cold seasons. ► Domestic wood consumption accounts for 92% of village energy. ► Solar PV cells and batteries supply power to pumps, lights, and personal electronics. ► Every household uses multiple energy sources to meet basic needs.

  20. Sorghum and rice: Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Agriculture is the mainstay of the Malian economy and yet cereal imports absorb 6.5% of GDP. Food self-sufficiency is therefore a national priority. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division is supporting a programme to improve local varieties of sorghum and rice by using nuclear techniques to develop new cultivars that will produce higher yields under Mali's semi-arid climatic conditions. (IAEA)

  1. Improving the phenotypic expression of rice genotypes: Rethinking “intensification” for production systems and selection practices for rice breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensification in rice crop production is generally understood as requiring increased use of material inputs: water, inorganic fertilizers, and agrochemicals. However, this is not the only kind of intensification available. More productive crop phenotypes, with traits such as more resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and shorter crop cycles, are possible through modifications in the management of rice plants, soil, water, and nutrients, reducing rather than increasing material inputs. Greater factor productivity can be achieved through the application of new knowledge and more skill, and (initially more labor, as seen from the System of Rice Intensification (SRI, whose practices are used in various combinations by as many as 10 million farmers on about 4 million hectares in over 50 countries. The highest yields achieved with these management methods have come from hybrids and improved rice varieties, confirming the importance of making genetic improvements. However, unimproved varieties are also responsive to these changes, which induce better growth and functioning of rice root systems and more abundance, diversity, and activity of beneficial soil organisms. Some of these organisms as symbiotic endophytes can affect and enhance the expression of rice plants' genetic potential as well as their phenotypic resilience to multiple stresses, including those of climate change. SRI experience and data suggest that decades of plant breeding have been selecting for the best crop genetic endowments under suboptimal growing conditions, with crowding of plants that impedes their photosynthesis and growth, flooding of rice paddies that causes roots to degenerate and forgoes benefits derived from aerobic soil organisms, and overuse of agrochemicals that adversely affect these organisms as well as soil and human health. This review paper reports evidence from research in India and Indonesia that changes in crop and water management can improve the

  2. Verification of strontium isotopes and its possible source in Indian basmati rice for geographical authentication study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagad, Rupali A.; Rai, Vinai K.; Singh, Sunil K.

    2015-01-01

    Due to globalization of food and agriculture product's market, there is increasing awareness of safety and authenticity of the food products. Consumers continuously demand the reassurance of origin and content of their foods. Hence safety and authenticity of food has been a growing analytical challenge. Basmati rice, the unique aromatic quality rice and a nature's gift to Indian sub-continent is produced and consumed on a large scale. Due to its profitable market as well as great demand overseas true Basmati rice market is facing unfair competition by unscrupulous producers for profit. Very few researches for geographical authentication are available for Indian basmati rice. Sr isotope composition of rice could be used as a geographical source indicator; however, little information is available on the possible source (lithogenic, biogenic, silicate, carbonate) of Sr in Rice or any other food stuff for tracing the geographical origin using Strontium isotopes as tracer. Hence in order to determine suitability of strontium isotopes as tracer and its possible source in rice for geographical authentication study, strontium isotope signature study of authentic Indian Basmati rice along with in situ soil and water of that region have been carried out

  3. Management of soil physical properties of lowland puddled rice soil for sustainable food production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagat, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    About 3 billion people who rely on rice as their staple food today will have multiplied to some 4.4 billion by the middle of this century. With rice demand growing at an average rate of about 3 percent annually, 70 percent more rice has to be produced in next 30 years compared to present day production levels. More rice has to come from less favorable environments, with less water and nutrients. Agricultural population densities on Asia's rice producing lands are among the highest in the world and continue to increase at a remarkable rate. Rice has widely adapted itself: to the hot Australian and Egyptian deserts, to the cool Himalayan foothills of Nepal. Hill tribes in Southeast Asia plant it on slash-and-burned forest slopes; that's upland rice. However, low lying areas in Asia, which are subject to uncontrolled flooding, are home to more than 100 million poor farmers. Puddling or wet tillage in rice, decreases total soil porosity only slightly, but markedly changes porosity distribution with both storage and residual porosity increasing at the expanse of transmission porosity. Soil texture plays an important role in soil water retention following soil disturbance. Cracking pattern of the soils is studied after six years of different levels of regular addition of residue. Cracking pattern at a soil surface affects the hydrodynamic properties of soil. Cracking extends the soil-air interface into the soil profile and thereby may increase the moisture loss through evaporation

  4. A dynamic compartment model for evaluating transfer of radionuclide into rice-plant after acute release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, D.K.; Lee, H.S.; Choi, H.J.; Kang, H.S.; Lee, C.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a dynamic compartment model is presented to estimate the transfer of radionuclides deposited on rice-fields after an accidental release. The present model includes a surface water compartment and a direct shoot-base absorption from the surface water to the rice plant to account for the flooded condition of rice-fields, which are major features discriminating the present model from the existing model. In order to test the validity of model, a number of simulated Cs-137 deposition experiments were performed while growing rice-plant in a green house. For the experiments the radionuclide was indirectly treated in the root zone soil before transplanting and on the surface water without a direct contamination of rice-plant after transplanting. In the first year of deposition the shoot-base absorption was a predominant process for the transfer of radionuclide into rice when the radionuclide was treated on the surface water, and from the second year, the root-uptake was dominant. The model calculation predicted reasonably well the first year experimental result showing the importance of shoot base absorption as well as the concentration of rice-body and grain measured from respective rice-plant grown consecutively on the contaminated soils for years. (author)

  5. Arsenic uptake and accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) with selenite fertilization and water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yanan; Camara, Aboubacar Younoussa; Huang, Qingqing; Yu, Yao; Wang, Qi; Li, Huafen

    2018-07-30

    The accumulation of arsenic (As) in rice grain is a potential threat to human health. Our study investigated the possible mediatory role of selenite fertilization on As uptake and accumulation by rice (Oryza sativa L.) under different water management regimes (aerobic or flooded) in a pot experiment. Soil solutions were also extracted during the growing season to monitor As dynamics. Results showed that As contents in the soil solutions, seedlings, and mature rice were higher under flooded than under aerobic water management. Under aerobic conditions, selenite additions slightly increased As concentrations in soil solutions (in the last two samplings), but decreased As levels in rice plants. Relative to the control, 0.5 mg kg -1 selenite decreased rice grain As by 27.5%. Under flooded conditions, however, selenite additions decreased As in soil solutions, while increased As in rice grain. Tendencies also showed that selenite additions decreased the proportion of As in rice shoots both at the seedling stage and maturity, and were more effective in aerobic soil. Our results demonstrate that the effect of selenite fertilizer on As accumulation by rice is related to water management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impacts of aerosol pollutant mitigation on lowland rice yields in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyi; Li, Tao; Yue, Xu; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2017-10-01

    Aerosol pollution in China is significantly altering radiative transfer processes and is thereby potentially affecting rice photosynthesis and yields. However, the response of rice photosynthesis to aerosol-induced radiative perturbations is still not well understood. Here, we employ a process-based modelling approach to simulate changes in incoming radiation (RAD) and the diffuse radiation fraction (DF) with aerosol mitigation in China and their associated impacts on rice yields. Aerosol reduction has the positive effect of increasing RAD and the negative effect of decreasing DF on rice photosynthesis and yields. In rice production areas where the average RAD during the growing season is lower than 250 W m-2, aerosol reduction is beneficial for higher rice yields, whereas in areas with RAD>250 W m-2, aerosol mitigation causes yield declines due to the associated reduction in the DF, which decreases the light use efficiency. As a net effect, rice yields were estimated to significantly increase by 0.8%-2.6% with aerosol concentrations reductions from 20 to 100%, which is lower than the estimates obtained in earlier studies that only considered the effects of RAD. This finding suggests that both RAD and DF are important processes influencing rice yields and should be incorporated into future assessments of agricultural responses to variations in aerosol-induced radiation under climate change.

  7. Impacts of aerosol mitigation on Chinese rice photosynthesis: An integrated modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Li, T.; Yue, X.; Yang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol pollution in China is significantly altering radiative transfer processes and is thereby potentially affecting rice photosynthesis. However, the response of rice photosynthesis to aerosol-induced radiative perturbations is still not well understood. Here, we employ an integrated process-based modeling approach to simulate changes in incoming radiation (RAD) and the diffuse radiation fraction (DF) with aerosol mitigation in China and their associated impacts on rice yields. Aerosol reduction has the positive effect of increasing RAD and the negative effect of decreasing DF on rice photosynthesis and yields. In rice production areas where the average RAD during the growing season is lower than 250 W m-2, aerosol reduction is beneficial for higher rice yields, whereas in areas with RAD>250 W m-2, aerosol mitigation causes yield declines due to the associated reduction in the DF, which decreases the light use efficiency. This response pattern and threshold are similar with observations, even through more data are needed in future investigation. As a net effect, rice yields were estimated to significantly increase by 0.8-2.6% with aerosol concentrations reductions from 20 to 100%, which is lower than the estimates obtained in earlier studies that only considered the effects of RAD. This finding suggests that both RAD and DF are important processes influencing rice yields and should be incorporated into future assessments of agricultural responses to variations in aerosol-induced radiation under climate change.

  8. A Study Of Biogas Production From Rice Straw In An Underground Digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpabio, O; Sambo, A.S; Fai, F

    2002-01-01

    The rising cost of petroleum products, the growing world population with diminishing resources and increasing wastes has brought about the need for sourcing alternative resources in order to bring about sustainable development. In this regard. this research was conceived to innovate design and construction of a biogas digester and to study the production of biogas from rice straw. An underground biogas digester was designed. Constructed and tested. The test digestion produced biogas yield of 0.020 M/KXg from green cow dung. In the study of biogas production from rice straw, four bench digesters of one d m3 (I litre) each were used. The bench digester produced biogas yields of 0.0149 m3/kg of rice straw, 0.0389 m3/kg of a mixture of rice straw and cow dung and 0.0792 m3/kg of cow dung. Scaled up digestion of rice straw in the underground digester gave biogas yield of 7.37 x 104 m3/kg. The biogas produced from rice straw was found to contain 38.52% of carbon dioxide and no hydrogen sulphide. It was concluded that the biogas generation from rice straw was encouraging, but scale up yields was low. The limiting factors on biogas production from rice straw with the effect of digester design or biogas production are presented and discussed

  9. Nitrogen fixation in rice systems: State of knowledge and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladha, J.K.; Reddy, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    Rice is the most important cereal crop. In the next three decades, the world will need to produce about 60% more rice than today's global production to feed the extra billion people. Nitrogen is the major nutrient limiting rice production. Development of fertilizer-responsive varieties in the Green Revolution, coupled with the realization by farmers of the importance of nitrogen, has led to high rates of N fertilizer use on rice. Increased future demand for rice will entail increased application of fertilizer N. Awareness is growing, however, that such an increase in agricultural production needs to be achieved without endangering the environment. To achieve food security through sustainable agriculture, the requirement for fixed nitrogen must increasingly met by biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) rather than by using nitrogen fixed industrially. It is thus imperative to improve existing BNF systems and develop N 2 -fixing non-leguminous crops such as rice. Here we review the potentials and constraints of conventional BNF systems in rice agriculture, as well as the prospects of achieving in planta nitrogen fixation in rice. (author)

  10. Diversity of some endophytic fungi associated with rice black bug Paraeucosmetus pallicornis on rice plant

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Amin; La Daha; Nurariaty, Agus; Ade, Rosmana; Muh., Fadlan

    2015-01-01

    A new rice insect pest was sighted in some rice producing areas of South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This pest is rice black bugs Paraeucosmetus pallicornis. The research aimed to isolation of fungi associated with rice black bugs Paraeucosmetus pallicornis, so as to know the cause of a bitter taste to the rice. The isolation of the fungi consist of three kinds of treatment, namely rice black bugs without sterilization, with sterilization and rice black bugs cut and sterilized. The resul...

  11. Selenium and iodine in soil, rice and drinking water in relation to endemic goitre in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fordyce, F.M.; Johnson, C.C.; Appleton, J.D.; Navaratna, U.R.B.; Dissanayake, C.B.

    2000-01-01

    Endemic goitre has been reported in the climatic wet zone of south-west Sri Lanka for the past 50 years, but rarely occurs in the northern dry zone. Despite government-sponsored iodised salt programmes, endemic goitre is still prevalent. In recent years, it has been suggested that Se deficiency may be an important factor in the onset of goitre and other iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Prior to the present study, environmental concentrations of Se in Sri Lanka and the possible relationships between Se deficiency and endemic goitre had not been investigated. During the present study, chemical differences in the environment (measured in soil, rice and drinking water) and the Se-status of the human population (demonstrated by hair samples from women) were determined for 15 villages. The villages were characterised by low ( 25%) goitre incidence (NIDD, MIDD and HIDD, respectively). Results show that concentrations of soil total Se and iodine are highest in the HIDD villages, however, the soil clay and organic matter content appear to inhibit the bioavailability of these elements. Concentrations of iodine in rice are low (≤58 ng/g) and rice does not provide a significant source of iodine in the Sri Lankan diet. High concentrations of iodine (up to 84 μg/l) in drinking water in the dry zone may, in part, explain why goitre is uncommon in this area. This study has shown for the first time that significant proportions of the Sri Lankan female population may be Se deficient (24, 24 and 40% in the NIDD, MIDD and HIDD villages, respectively). Although Se deficiency is not restricted to areas where goitre is prevalent, a combination of iodine and Se deficiency could be involved in the pathogenesis of goitre in Sri Lanka. The distribution of red rice cultivation in Sri Lanka is coincident with the HIDD villages. Varieties of red rice grown in other countries contain anthocyanins and procyanidins, compounds which in other foodstuffs are known goitrogens. The potential

  12. The Vertical Village: indigenous mixture in Rio de Janeiro city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Bevilaqua

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses upon a place called the Vertical Village, a building in the center of Rio de Janeiro inhabited exclusively by indigenous peoples from different ethnic groups belonging to different parts of the country. In this paper, we discuss questions related to the experience of being indigenous in a city, the construction of a residential space as a village, and the constitution of indigenous identity in the urban context. Following the paths of three inhabitants of the building, the questions considered emerge from their transiting between cities and villages, frontiers either real or imaginary, prejudices and expectations of indigenous identity.

  13. Changing Traditions and Village Development in Kalotaszentkirály

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Kraft

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of village traditions depends on the stability and cohesion of village communities. Since the opening of Transylvania after the fall of Nicolae Ceauşescu, there has been a sort of revival of Hungarian village dance and music, on the one hand, but, on the longer term, the communities themselves are threatened by economic challenges and by consequent demographic changes. This essay is based on field research conducted in Kalotaszentkirály (Sincraiu from 1995 to 2010.

  14. Human energy and work in a European village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberger, H

    1998-09-01

    In order to understand the problem of poverty its historical background must be elucidated. Since in the past most people in Europe were peasants living in small villages, a useful, initial way to examine the question of poverty is to investigate the villagers' condition of life. A basic contribution to this endeavor is to compile a food balance sheet that includes the food energy necessary for a healthy population, the amount of food in terms of calories that was available and the human energy required for the production of the nutriments. This essay is a case-study, incorporating these variables for the village Unterfinning (Bavaria) in 1721.

  15. Establishment of a rice-duck integrated farming system and its effects on soil fertility and rice disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Qing; Hu, Xue-Feng; Cheng, Chang; Luo, Zhi-Qing; Luo, Fan

    2015-04-01

    Rice-duck integrated farming is an ecological farming system newly established in some areas of southern China . It was reported that the ducks walking around the paddy fields is beneficial to control weed hazards and reduce rice pests and diseases. To study and evaluate the effects of the rice-duck integrated farming on soil fertility and rice disease control, a field experiment of rice cultivation was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai in 2014. It includes a treatment of raising ducks in the fields and a control without ducks. The treatment was implemented by building a duck coop nearby the experimental fields and driving 15 ducks into a plot at daytime since the early stage of rice growth. Each plot is 667 m2 in area. The treatment and control were replicated for three times. No any herbicides, pesticides, fungicides and chemical fertilizers were applied during the experiment to prevent any disturbance to duck growing and rice weed hazards and disease incidences from agrochemicals. The results are as follows: (1) The incidences of rice leaf rollers (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and stem borers treated with ducks, 0.45%and 1.18% on average, respectively, are lower than those of the control, 0.74% and 1.44% on average, respectively. At the late stage of rice growth, the incidence of rice sheath blight treated with ducks, 13.15% on average, is significantly lower than that of the control, 16.9% on average; and the incidence of rice planthoppers treated with ducks, 11.3 per hill on average, is also significantly lower than that of the control, 47.4 per hill on average. (2) The number of weeds in the plots treated with ducks, 8.3 per m2 on average, is significantly lower than that of the control, 87.5 m2 on average. (3) Raising ducks in the fields could also enhance soil enzyme activity and nutrient status. At the late stage of rice growth, the activities of urease, phosphatase, sucrase and catalase in the soils treated with ducks are 1.39 times, 1.40 times, 1

  16. Mapping Atlas of Shenzhen - Urban Villages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, L.; van Oostrum, Matthijs; Liu, Jiayao; Li, Yishiqin; Hoek, Ruben; Yang, Yidong; He, Zhujun; Buysschaert, Axel; Xiao, Yazhi; Peng, Jiping; van Eijk, Saskia; Yang, Qiao

    2017-01-01

    This publication is in response to the call of 2017 Bi-City Biennale of Urbanism\\Architecture (Shenzhen) (UABB) “Cities, Grow in Difference”, from the perspective of urbanism: the synthesis of factors that collectively determine the spatial use of the city.
    This atlas is based on master

  17. Performance, Economics and Potential Impact of Perennial Rice PR23 Relative to Annual Rice Cultivars at Multiple Locations in Yunnan Province of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangfu Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Perennial grain crops hold the promise of stabilizing fragile lands, while contributing grain and grazing in mixed farming systems. Recently, perennial rice was reported to successfully survive, regrow, and yield across a diverse range of environments in Southern China and Laos, with perennial rice PR23 being identified as a prime candidate for release to farmers. This paper reports the evaluation of PR23 for release, by (1 comparing its survival, regrowth, performance, and adaptation with preferred annual rices across nine ecological regions in southern Yunnan Province of China; (2 examining the economic costs and benefits of perennial versus annual rice there; and (3 discussing the evidence for the release of PR23 as a broadly adapted and acceptable cultivar for farmers. Overall, the grain yield of PR23 was similar to those of the preferred annual rice cultivars RD23 and HXR7, but the economic analysis indicated substantial labour savings for farmers by growing the perennial instead of the annual. PR23 was comparable to the annuals in phenology, plant height, grain yield, and grain size, and was acceptable in grain and cooking quality. Farmers were keen to grow it because of reduced costs and especially savings in labour. PR23 is proposed for release to farmers because of its comparable grain yields to annual rices, its acceptable grain and milling quality, its cost and labour savings, and the likely benefits to soil stability and ecological sustainability, along with more flexible farming systems.

  18. Social Interactions in Growing Bananas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Dercon, Stefan

    This paper analyses whether agricultural information flows give rise to social learning effects in banana cultivation in Nyakatoke, a small Tanzanian village. Based on a village census, full information is available on socio-economic characteristics and banana production of farmer kinship members......, neighbours and informal insurance group members. This allows a test for social learning within these groups and the identification of different types of social effects. Controlling for exogenous group characteristics, the effect of group behaviour on individual farmer output is studied. The results show...... that social effects are strongly dependent on the definition of the reference group. It emerges that no social effects are found in distance based groups, exogenous social effects linked to group education exist in informal insurance groups, and only kinship related groups generate the endogenous social...

  19. Soil to rice transfer factors for 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs: a study on rice grown in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunakara, N.; Rao, Chetan; Ujwal, P.; Yashodhara, I.; Kumara, Sudeep; Ravi, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    India is the second largest producer of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the world and rice is an essential component of the diet for a majority of the population in India. However, detailed studies aimed at the evaluation of radionuclide transfer factors (F v ) for the rice grown in India are almost non-existent. This paper presents the soil to rice transfer factors for natural ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 40 K, and 210 Pb) and artificial ( 137 Cs) radionuclides for rice grown in natural field conditions on the West Coast of India. A rice field was developed very close to the Kaiga nuclear power plant and the water required for this field was drawn from the cooling water discharge canal of the power plant. For a comparative study of the radionuclide transfer factors, rice samples were also collected from the rice fields of nearby villages. The study showed that the 226 Ra and 228 Ra activity concentrations were below detection levels in different organs of the rice plant. The soil to un-hulled rice grain 40 K transfer factor varied in the range of 6.5 × 10 −1 to 2.9 with a mean of 0.15 × 10 1 , and of 210 Pb varied in the range of −2 to 8.1 × 10 −1 with a mean of 1.4 × 10 −1 , and of 137 Cs varied in the range of 6.6 × 10 −2 to 3.4 × 10 −1 with a mean of 2.1 × 10 −1 . The mean values of un-hulled grain to white rice processing retention factors (F r ) were 0.12 for 40 K, 0.03 for 210 Pb, and 0.14 for 137 Cs. Using these processing retention factors, the soil to white rice transfer factors were estimated and these were found to have mean values of 1.8 × 10 −1 , 4.2 × 10 −3 , and 3.0 × 10 −2 for 40 K, 210 Pb, and 137 Cs, respectively. The study has shown that the transfer of 40 K was higher for above the ground organs than for the root, but 210 Pb and 137 Cs were retained in the root and their transfer to above the ground organs of the rice plant is significantly lower. -- Highlights: ► Soil to rice (Oryza sativa L.) transfer factors for radionuclides

  20. Melting ice, growing trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Bensassi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR. Two key constraints on the future viability of the NSR pertain to bathymetry and the future evolution of the sea ice cover. Climate model projections of future sea ice conditions throughout the rest of the century suggest that even under the most “aggressive” emission scenario, increases in international trade between Europe and Asia will be very low. The large inter-annual variability of weather and sea ice conditions in the route, the Russian toll imposed for transiting the NSR, together with high insurance costs and scarce loading/unloading opportunities, limit the use of the NSR. We show that even if these obstacles are removed, the duration of the opening of the NSR over the course of the century is not long enough to offer a consequent boost to international trade at the macroeconomic level.

  1. Environmental Factors in the Growth of Jatropha at Potorono Village, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nurcholis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a perennial crop that has been known by Indonesian people for more than seven decades as a plant that produces renewable biofuel. In the present decade, plants producing biofuel are expected to be developed to overcome the lowering nonrenewable fuel reserves. There is a myth that jatropha can grow well on marginal lands and draught condition, perform well on non-fertile soils, no need for agronomic management and is resistant to plant pests and diseases. This study was conducted to identify the environmental factors that influenced the growth of jatropha on the marginal land at Potorono village, Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia. Jatropha has been planted by local people at the village road sides and on the marginal land field at the local governmental land in this village. They grew jatropha on these areas with the purpose of preventing competition of area utilization with food crops. The results showed that the growth of jatropha was restricted by low content of organic matter, plant nutrition and poor soil drainage. Applications of manure and macro nutrients (N, P and K to this crop were able to increase crop performance. The number of shoots, flowers and fruit bunches increased by manure and nutrients treatments. Field observation showed that there were several plant pests, such as Aspidiotus sp., Paracoccus marginatus, Poliphagotarsonemus latus, Selenothrips rubrocinctus, Chrysochoris javanus, Valanga nigricornis, Chloracris prasina, and Helicoverpa armigera that attacked plant leaves and fruits. There were plant leaf necrotic symptoms that caused by plant pathogens were also observed. The diseases are bacterial leaf spot (Xanthomonas ricinicola, cercospora leaf spot (Cercospora ricinella and rust (Phakopsora jatrophicola. Thus, jatropha is like any other plants that need a good agro-ecological condition to grow well and produce high yield.

  2. Broken rice kernels and the kinetics of rice hydration and texture during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed; Meullenet, Jean-Francois

    2013-05-01

    During rice milling and processing, broken kernels are inevitably present, although to date it has been unclear as to how the presence of broken kernels affects rice hydration and cooked rice texture. Therefore, this work intended to study the effect of broken kernels in a rice sample on rice hydration and texture during cooking. Two medium-grain and two long-grain rice cultivars were harvested, dried and milled, and the broken kernels were separated from unbroken kernels. Broken rice kernels were subsequently combined with unbroken rice kernels forming treatments of 0, 40, 150, 350 or 1000 g kg(-1) broken kernels ratio. Rice samples were then cooked and the moisture content of the cooked rice, the moisture uptake rate, and rice hardness and stickiness were measured. As the amount of broken rice kernels increased, rice sample texture became increasingly softer (P hardness was negatively correlated to the percentage of broken kernels in rice samples. Differences in the proportions of broken rice in a milled rice sample play a major role in determining the texture properties of cooked rice. Variations in the moisture migration kinetics between broken and unbroken kernels caused faster hydration of the cores of broken rice kernels, with greater starch leach-out during cooking affecting the texture of the cooked rice. The texture of cooked rice can be controlled, to some extent, by varying the proportion of broken kernels in milled rice. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Information system of rice planting calendar based on ten-day (Dasarian) rainfall prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susandi, Armi; Tamamadin, Mamad; Djamal, Erizal; Las, Irsal

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes information system of rice planting calendar to help farmers in determining the time for rice planting. The information includes rainfall prediction in ten days (dasarian) scale overlaid to map of rice field to produce map of rice planting in village level. The rainfall prediction was produced by stochastic modeling using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Non-Linier Least Squares methods to fit the curve of function to the rainfall data. In this research, the Fourier series has been modified become non-linear function to follow the recent characteristics of rainfall that is non stationary. The results have been also validated in 4 steps, including R-Square, RMSE, R-Skill, and comparison with field data. The development of information system (cyber extension) provides information such as rainfall prediction, prediction of the planting time, and interactive space for farmers to respond to the information submitted. Interfaces for interactive response will be critical to the improvement of prediction accuracy of information, both rainfall and planting time. The method used to get this information system includes mapping on rice planting prediction, converting the format file, developing database system, developing website, and posting website. Because of this map was overlaid with the Google map, the map files must be converted to the .kml file format

  4. Information system of rice planting calendar based on ten-day (Dasarian) rainfall prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susandi, Armi, E-mail: armi@meteo.itb.ac.id [Department of Meteorology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Labtek XI Building floor 1, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Tamamadin, Mamad, E-mail: mamadtama@meteo.itb.ac.id [Laboratory of Applied Meteorology, Institut Teknologi Bandung Ged. Labtek XI lt. 1, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Djamal, Erizal, E-mail: erizal-jamal@yahoo.com [Center for Agricultural Technology Transfer Management, Ministry of Agriculture Jl. Salak No. 22 Bogor (Indonesia); Las, Irsal, E-mail: irsallas@yahoo.com [Indonesian Agroclimate and Hydrology Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture Jl. Tentara Pelajar 1a Bogor 16111 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    This paper describes information system of rice planting calendar to help farmers in determining the time for rice planting. The information includes rainfall prediction in ten days (dasarian) scale overlaid to map of rice field to produce map of rice planting in village level. The rainfall prediction was produced by stochastic modeling using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Non-Linier Least Squares methods to fit the curve of function to the rainfall data. In this research, the Fourier series has been modified become non-linear function to follow the recent characteristics of rainfall that is non stationary. The results have been also validated in 4 steps, including R-Square, RMSE, R-Skill, and comparison with field data. The development of information system (cyber extension) provides information such as rainfall prediction, prediction of the planting time, and interactive space for farmers to respond to the information submitted. Interfaces for interactive response will be critical to the improvement of prediction accuracy of information, both rainfall and planting time. The method used to get this information system includes mapping on rice planting prediction, converting the format file, developing database system, developing website, and posting website. Because of this map was overlaid with the Google map, the map files must be converted to the .kml file format.

  5. THE FEASIBILITY OF VILLAGE FOREST PROGRAM IN TANJUNG AUR II VILLAGE, PINO RAYA SUBDISTRICT, SOUTH BENGKULU REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmantoro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A feasibility study toward the prerequisite conditions is required for the successful implementation of the Village Forest program in Tanjung Aur II Village. This study aims to: 1 identify bio-geophysical conditions of the work area; 2 analyze the conditions of sosioeconomic-cultural society/institutional; 3 analyze the support of stakeholders; and 4 formulate appropriate implementation strategies. The study was using survey method and qualitative studies with multiple analysis techniques. The results showed that: 1 the biogeophysical conditions was eligible and suitable to be proposed as village forest working area; 2 conditions of socio-economic-cultural communities enable to form village forest management institution, through collaboration between state forest encroachers and the villager representatives; 3 stakeholders were ready to provide support facilitation and assistance according to their capacity and capabilities. Key stakeholder were among others BPDAS Ketahun, Dishut Provinsi Bengkulu, Dishut ESDM Bengkulu Selatan, NGOs Ulayat, and officials of the Village; 4 the implementation strategy of village forest program that suitable for Tanjung Aur II was a competitive strategy or diversification (S-T strategy, with the main priority of the strategy, among others by seeking and asking for support from relevant stakeholders or other parties who had capacity and capability to undertake facilitation and assistance.

  6. The Haitian Rice Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundahl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se ha argumentado que los problemas agríco-las de Haití derivan de la tarifa del arroz de a mediados de los años noventa. Antes, supues-tamente, Haití fue autosuficiente, abastecida por su producción doméstica. Después de la reducción, el mercado haitiano se inundó en importaciones de arroz barato de los EEUU, lo cual despojó a los campesinos de sus fincas, convirtiendolos en migrantes internos, hacia los empleos de bajo pago de las ciudades. El artículo rechaza ese argumento y demuestra que es falso. La malnutrición fue un fenómeno extendido en Haití mucho antes de la reducción de la tarifa del arroz, la cual tampoco tuvo un gran impacto en la importación y la producción doméstica del arroz. Lo que sí impulsó el aumento de las importaciones fue el crecimiento de la población. También el artículo argumenta que un aumento de la tarifa del arroz no solucionará el problema de la alimentación que sufre Haití. English: It has been argued that Haiti’s agricultural problems derive from the reduction of the rice tariff in the mid-1990s. Before that Haiti was allegedly able to meet its food needs by domestic production. After the reduction the Haitian market was swamped by imports of cheap American rice which drove the farmers off their lands and forced them to migrate to low-wage industrial jobs in the cities. The article demonstrates that the argument is false. Malnutrition was widespread in Haiti long before the rice tariff reduction, and the latter did not have much of an impact on rice imports and domestic production. Instead, the main driving force behind imports appears to be population growth. It is also shown that an increase of the rice tariff will not solve Haiti’s food problem.

  7. Nutritional test of rice in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horii, Masaji; Yoshikawa, Seiji

    1980-01-01

    Behaviors on N derived from rice were followed up by means of 15 N-labeled rice. In the first test, the single unpolished rice diet and the diet of rice and bean lecithin (4.5%) produced urinary excretion of 10 - 12% of 15 N, and that of rice and mannan from devil's tongue (3%), 16 - 20%. The single unpolished rice diet showed slightly more urinary excretion of 15 N, and the other 2 diets showed a similar proportion of 15 N in 3 days. The results indicated that the diet containing mannan from devil's tongue resulted in a poor N absorption by rice, a large quantity of N being excreted over a long period of time. This suggested differences and time lags in the excretion of rice N into the stool and urine depending on the diet constitution. With the unpolished rice diet, a small quantity of rice protein was not absorbed, but was excreted. In the 2nd test with 15 N-polished rice, the urinary excretion rate was 11.44% for a single rice diet, 11.16% for a mixed diet of rice and bean (1:1 in protein), 10.99% for rice and egg yolk, 9.66% for rice, bean and egg yolk and 8.10% for rice and bean lecithin. This decrease in urinary excretion indicated a corresponding increase in absorption of rice protein. (Chiba, N.)

  8. Growing Galaxies Gently

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  9. 'Of peasants, peacocks and priests; a Portuguese village'

    OpenAIRE

    Iturra, Raul

    2009-01-01

    Made on very early equipment, silent 8mm film and tape recorder. Narration by Sarah Harrison. An early product of the Rivers Video Project. A film about a north Portuguese village in 1985, based on the fieldwork of Raul Iturra

  10. Perceptions of forest resource use and management in two village ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceptions of forest resource use and management in two village ... parts of the developing world in terms of their use and management of natural forest resources ... Neither group was aware of current or future management strategies for the ...

  11. 427 knowledge, attitude and perceptions of village residents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-07-04

    Jul 4, 2013 ... This study sought to assess the knowledge, attitude and perceptions of the residents of Kadhodeki village on the ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 6 No.4 ..... World Bank Report. Dupler, D.

  12. Sustainability literacy of older people in retirement villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bo; Zuo, Jian; Skitmore, Martin; Buys, Laurie; Hu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    With many developed countries experiencing the aging of the population, older people play a large role in contributing to environmental problems but also to environmental solutions. The purpose of this research is to understand the awareness and behavior of current older people living in retirement villages towards sustainability development. To achieve this, a sustainability literacy survey was conducted with 65 older residents of a private retirement village located 10 Km outside the Brisbane, Australia's central business district (CBD). Most of residents recognized the importance of environment protection and would like to lead a more environmentally friendly lifestyle. In addition, the majority were willing to pay higher prices for a living environment with sustainable features. The importance of positive social communications was emphasized with most residents having established good relationships with others in the village. The findings provide an important insight into consumer perspectives regarding the sustainable features that should and can be incorporated into the village planning and development.

  13. Village Health Volunteers: Key Issues Facing Agencies in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the key issues facing health care providers in ... gral part of community-based health programmes ... health care services more accessible to everyone s. , .... health; villagers are often more willing to help meet the costs of services they value. 2.

  14. Sleeping sickness surveys: game reserve adjacent villages in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sleeping sickness surveys: game reserve adjacent villages in Malawi. ... Sera from 160 game ranger volunteers and from 82 suspected cases_of Rhodesian sleeping sickness were tested by use of ELISA, ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  15. VERSHINA – A POLISH VILLAGE IN SIBERIA. FACTORS INFLUENCING LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE UNDER CHANGING SOCIAL, CULTURAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Głuszkowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses factors influencing language maintenance under changing social, cultural, economic and political conditions of Polish minority in Siberia. The village of Vershina was founded in 1910 by Polish voluntary settlers from Little Poland.During its first three decades Vershina preserved Polish language,traditions, farming methods and machines and also the Roman Catholic religion. The changes came to a village in taiga in the1930s. Vershina lost its ethnocultural homogeneity because of Russian and Buryat workers in the local kolkhoz. Nowadays the inhabitants of Vershina regained their minority rights: religious, educational and cultural. However, during the years of sovietization and ateization, their culture and customs became much more similar to other Siberian villages. Polish language in Vershina is under strong influence of Russian, which is the language of education,administration, and surrounding villages. Children from Polish-Russian families become monolingual and use Polish very rare, only asa school subject and in contacts with grandparents. The process of abandoning mother tongue in Vershina is growing rapidly. However,there are some factors which may hinder the actual changes:the activity of local Polish organisations and Roman Catholic parish as well as folk group “Jazhumbek”.

  16. The types and genetic analysis of radiation induced early maturity mutants of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hefeng; Chen Xiulan; He Zhengtian; Gu Shiliang; Xu Chenwu

    1989-01-01

    Observation and correlation analysis were made for 50 early mutant lines,The early mutant lines fall into late type of early-maturity rice, and early type of mid- maturity rice, some of which are valuable as materials of rice breeding.With shorter growing period, the mutants have less inter-nodes and leaf numbers on main culm, shorter leaf and panicle length, and less filled grains and yield per plant, but have higher Protein content.Among 20 traits observed, 7 were significantly correlated with the length of growing period.The genetic parameter analysis for the mutant lines indicates that the length of growing period, plant height, grain number per panicle, 1000-grain weight have high heritability, Non-filled grain rate, secondary branch, number of panicle, grain number per panicle have larger genetic coefficient of variation and larger gain of selection

  17. Fiscal 1998 achievement report. Venture business raising type regional consortium - Small business creation base type (Development of nursery tray pickup robot and transport system for rice or vegetable growing); 1998 nendo suito oyobi yasai nado no hako ikubyo no robot naetori hanso system no kaihatsu (dai 2 nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The project aims to develop energy conservation technologies through robotizing the processes of uprooting and conveying rice or vegetable seedlings. In fiscal 1998, the task covered root cutting and seedling uprooting, and a method was designed in which seedlings were uprooted through the intermediary of strings placed to run under the nursery trays. An effort was started to build an experimental root-cutting/seedling-pickup device. Systems for housing and conveying seedling trays were built simultaneously with a seedling tray loading system. In fiscal 1999, the root-cutting/seedling-pickup device was tested repeatedly for its seedling-pickup performance, and was modified. The nursery tray housing and conveying system accommodates a total of 84 trays in a 2-line 7-stage arrangement with 6 trays mounted on each stage. The conveyance speed was set at 0.4m/s-0.5m/s, and the trays travelled with stability in the system house. As for tray loading, an experimental device was built in which the mechanism for replacing empty trays with full trays had been changed from the turn table mechanism to a lateral movement type. Tests were conducted and it was demonstrated that the experimental device operated smoothly. A commercialization survey was conducted, and a conclusion was reached that a quarter of the target farmers in Hokkaido would positively accept the new technologies and adopt this system. (NEDO)

  18. Optimizing Greenhouse Rice Production: What Is the Best Pot Size?

    OpenAIRE

    Eddy, Robert; Acosta, Kevin; Liu, Yisi; Russell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This publication describes our studies to determine the best pot size to optimize greenhouse rice production. We recommend 9-cm (4-inch) diameter square pot. Pots as small as 7-cm diameter yielded seed. This version is updated to include observations of larger pots with multiple plants. Photos of the plants growing under differing pot sizes are provided. This document is one entry in a series of questions and answers originally posted to the Purdue University Department of Horticulture & L...

  19. Alternate wetting and drying decreases methylmercury in flooded rice (Oryza sativa) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, K. Christy; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Fleck, Jacob; Linquist, Bruce A.

    2018-01-01

    In flooded soils, including those found in rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields, microbes convert inorganic Hg to more toxic methylmercury (MeHg). Methylmercury is accumulated in rice grain, potentially affecting health. Methylmercury in rice field surface water can bioaccumulate in wildlife. We evaluated how introducing aerobic periods into an otherwise continuously flooded rice growing season affects MeHg dynamics. Conventional continuously flooded (CF) rice field water management was compared with alternate wetting and drying, where irrigation was stopped twice during the growing season, allowing soil to dry to 35% volumetric moisture content, at which point plots were reflooded (AWD-35). Methylmercury studies began at harvest in Year 3 and throughout Year 4 of a 4-yr replicated field experiment. Bulk soil, water, and plant samples were analyzed for MeHg and total Hg (THg), and iron (Fe) speciation was measured in soil samples. Rice grain yield over 4 yr did not differ between treatments. Soil chemistry responded quickly to AWD-35 dry-downs, showing significant oxidation of Fe(II) accompanied by a significant reduction of MeHg concentration (76% reduction at harvest) compared with CF. Surface water MeHg decreased by 68 and 39% in the growing and fallow seasons, respectively, suggesting that the effects of AWD-35 management can last through to the fallow season. The AWD-35 treatment reduced rice grain MeHg and THg by 60 and 32%, respectively. These results suggest that the more aerobic conditions caused by AWD-35 limited the activity of Hg(II)-methylating microbes and may be an effective way to reduce MeHg concentrations in rice ecosystems.

  20. Remote sensing and conservation of isolated indigenous villages in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert S; Hamilton, Marcus J; Groth, Aaron A

    2014-11-01

    The vast forests on the border between Brazil and Peru harbour a number of indigenous groups that have limited contact with the outside world. Accurate estimates of population sizes and village areas are essential to begin assessing the immediate conservation needs of such isolated groups. In contrast to overflights and encounters on the ground, remote sensing with satellite imagery offers a safe, inexpensive, non-invasive and systematic approach to provide demographic and land-use information for isolated peoples. Satellite imagery can also be used to understand the growth of isolated villages over time. There are five isolated villages in the headwaters of the Envira River confirmed by overflights that are visible with recent satellite imagery further confirming their locations and allowing measurement of their cleared gardens, village areas and thatch roofed houses. These isolated villages appear to have population densities that are an order of magnitude higher than averages for other Brazilian indigenous villages. Here, we report on initial results of a remote surveillance programme designed to monitor movements and assess the demographic health of isolated peoples as a means to better mitigate against external threats to their long-term survival.

  1. Rice status and microwave characteristics: Analysis of rice paddy fields at Kojima Bay [Okayama, Japan] using multi-frequency and polarimetric Pi-SAR radar data images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishitsuka, N.; Saito, G.; Ouchi, K.; Davidson, G.; Mohri, K.; Uratsuka, S.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract South-east Asia has a rainy-season at the crop growing period, and it is difficult to observe agricultural land in this season using optical remote sensing. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) can observe the earth's surface without being influenced by of clouds. However, it is less useful for observing agricultural land, because satellite SAR has only one data band. Recently, SAR is able to provide multi band and multi polarimetric data. Pi-SAR, an airborne SAR developed by NASDA and CRL, can provide L and X bands and fully polarimetric data. Rice is the main crop in Asia, and we studied the characteristic microwave scatter on rice paddy fields using Pi-SAR data. Our study area was the rice paddy fields in Kojima reclaimed land in Japan. We had two fully polarimetric data sets from 13 July 1999 and 4 October 2000. First, we processed the color polarimetric composite image. Next we calibrated the phase of each polarimetric data using river area by the Kimura method. After that we performed decomposition analysis and drew polarimetric signatures for understanding the status of rice paddy fields. At the rice planting period, rice paddy fields are filled with water and rice plants are very small. The SAR microwave scatters on water surfaces like a mirror, called 'mirror (or specular) reflection'. This phenomenon makes backscatter a small value at the water-covered area. The image from July is about one month after trans-planting and rice plants are 20-40 cm in height. X-band microwave scatters on the rice surface, but L-band microwave passes through rice bodies and shows mirror refraction on water surfaces. Some strong backscatter occur on rice paddy fields especially VV polarization because of bragg scattering. The fields where bragg scattering returns strong VV scatter because the space between rice stems cause resonation in the L-band wavelength. We can easily understand bragg scatter by using polarimetric data. Using the image from October at

  2. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose and...

  3. Effects of Bt-transgenic rice cultivation on planktonic communities in paddy fields and adjacent ditches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yongbo; Liu, Fang; Wang, Chao; Quan, Zhanjun; Li, Junsheng

    2016-01-01

    The non-target effects of transgenic plants are issues of concern; however, their impacts in cultivated agricultural fields and adjacent natural aquatic ecosystems are poorly understood. We conducted field experiments during two growing seasons to determine the effects of cultivating Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice on the phytoplankton and zooplankton communities in a paddy field and an adjacent ditch. Bt toxin was detected in soil but not in water. Water quality was not significantly different between non-Bt and Bt rice fields, but varied among up-, mid- and downstream locations in the ditch. Cultivation of Bt-transgenic rice had no effects on zooplankton communities. Phytoplankton abundance and biodiversity were not significantly different between transgenic and non-transgenic rice fields in 2013; however, phytoplankton were more abundant in the transgenic rice field than in the non-transgenic rice field in 2014. Water quality and rice type explained 65.9% and 12.8% of this difference in 2014, respectively. Phytoplankton and zooplankton were more abundant in mid- and downstream, than upstream, locations in the ditch, an effect that we attribute to water quality differences. Thus, the release of Bt toxins into field water during the cultivation of transgenic crops had no direct negative effects on plankton community composition, but indirect effects that alter environmental conditions should be taken into account during the processes of management planning and policymaking. - Highlights: • We detect fusion Cry1Ab/1Ac proteins from Bt rice entering into aquatic ecosystems. • Bt-transgenic rice cultivation have no significant effect on zooplankton community. • Bt-transgenic rice cultivation have indirect effect on phytoplankton community. • Water quality explains the difference of plankton communities in adjacent ditches.

  4. Effects of Bt-transgenic rice cultivation on planktonic communities in paddy fields and adjacent ditches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yongbo, E-mail: liuyb@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Fang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang, Chao [Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Science, Guangzhou 510380 (China); Quan, Zhanjun [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Junsheng, E-mail: lijsh@creas.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-09-15

    The non-target effects of transgenic plants are issues of concern; however, their impacts in cultivated agricultural fields and adjacent natural aquatic ecosystems are poorly understood. We conducted field experiments during two growing seasons to determine the effects of cultivating Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice on the phytoplankton and zooplankton communities in a paddy field and an adjacent ditch. Bt toxin was detected in soil but not in water. Water quality was not significantly different between non-Bt and Bt rice fields, but varied among up-, mid- and downstream locations in the ditch. Cultivation of Bt-transgenic rice had no effects on zooplankton communities. Phytoplankton abundance and biodiversity were not significantly different between transgenic and non-transgenic rice fields in 2013; however, phytoplankton were more abundant in the transgenic rice field than in the non-transgenic rice field in 2014. Water quality and rice type explained 65.9% and 12.8% of this difference in 2014, respectively. Phytoplankton and zooplankton were more abundant in mid- and downstream, than upstream, locations in the ditch, an effect that we attribute to water quality differences. Thus, the release of Bt toxins into field water during the cultivation of transgenic crops had no direct negative effects on plankton community composition, but indirect effects that alter environmental conditions should be taken into account during the processes of management planning and policymaking. - Highlights: • We detect fusion Cry1Ab/1Ac proteins from Bt rice entering into aquatic ecosystems. • Bt-transgenic rice cultivation have no significant effect on zooplankton community. • Bt-transgenic rice cultivation have indirect effect on phytoplankton community. • Water quality explains the difference of plankton communities in adjacent ditches.

  5. Utilization of services provided by village based ethnic minority midwives in mountainous villages of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doan DTT

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Doan Thi Thuy Duong,1 Bui Thi Thu Ha,1 Le Minh Thi,1 Duong Minh Duc,1 Luu Thi Hong,2 Tuan Anh Dinh,2 Tolib Mirzoev3 1Department of Reproductive Health, Hanoi School of Public Health, 2Department of Maternal and Child Health, Ministry of Health, Hanoi, Vietnam; 3Nuffield Centre for International Health and Development, Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK Introduction: Since 2011, the Vietnam’s Ministry of Health implemented the ethnic minority midwives (EMMs scheme in order to increase the utilization of maternal health services by women from ethnic minorities and those living in hard-to-reach mountainous areas. This paper analyzes the utilization of antenatal, delivery, and postpartum care provided by EMMs and reports the key determinants of utilization of EMM services as perceived by service users. Methods: A structured questionnaire was administered in 2015 to all mothers (n=320 who gave birth to a live-born during a 1-year period in 31 villages which had EMM in two provinces, Dien Bien and Kon Tum. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine the association between all potential factors and the use of services provided by EMMs. Results: We found that EMMs provided more antenatal care and postnatal care as compared with delivery services, which corresponded to their job descriptions. The results also showed that utilization of antenatal care provided by EMMs was lower than that of postnatal care. The proportion of those who never heard about EMM was high (24%. Among the mothers who knew about EMM services, 33.4% had antenatal checkups, 20.1% were attended during home deliveries, and 57.3% had postnatal visits by an EMM. Key factors that determined the use of EMM services included knowledge of the location of EMM’s house, being aware about EMMs by health workers, trust in services provided by EMMs, and perception that many others mothers in a village also knew about EMM services. Conclusion

  6. Communicating new ideas to traditional villagers (an Indonesian case).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, A

    1984-01-01

    Recent cases derived from a series of communication research projects conducted in remote villages on the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia, are presented. These cases, which indicate the tremendously complex problem of communicating new ideas to traditional villages, also reflect the equally complex problem of social marketing. Indonesian, villagers remain very traditional, but their communication environment has been undergoing marked changes over the past decade or so. Overwhelming media exposure has pushed these people towards a modern environment filled with new knowledge and experiences. In view of the importance of changing attitudes and behavior of traditional villagers -- to realize modernization for the rural society -- the government of Indonesia has been using a host of communication means and channels. These include all the viable traditional or indigenous communication systems, but mainly face-to-face communication. Traditional dances, story-telling, and music are no longer interesting to the rural people themselves, and, apparently, no real developmental message can be transmitted by traditional "mass media." Among the 50 respondents randomly selected from the isolated village of Gelang (Case I), only 17% claimed to have listened to news in addition to music and songs. 67% of the respondents explained that information carrying novel ideas or methods usually attract them, but they are always reluctant to accept the new ideas for real application. Case II is about the effect of movie exposure on traditional villagers. As many as 73% of 50 respondents explained that the knowledge of the peasant-fisherman has increased considerably with regard to the urban way of life, as a result of movie attendance. The informants indicated that many villagers were disgusted by feature films or theatrical ones and that 62% of the villagers had yet to go to a movie. Case III involved the communication of new methods of medication to rural societies, including traditional

  7. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Grande, Genelou; Oreiro, Eula Gems; Borja, Frances Nikki; Dossa, Gerbert Sylvestre; Mauleon, Ramil; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI) and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments. PMID:26422147

  8. Stomatal conductance, mesophyll conductance, and transpiration efficiency in relation to leaf anatomy in rice and wheat genotypes under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wenjing; Struik, Paul C; Yin, Xinyou; Yang, Jianchang

    2017-11-02

    Increasing leaf transpiration efficiency (TE) may provide leads for growing rice like dryland cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum). To explore avenues for improving TE in rice, variations in stomatal conductance (gs) and mesophyll conductance (gm) and their anatomical determinants were evaluated in two cultivars from each of lowland, aerobic, and upland groups of Oryza sativa, one cultivar of O. glaberrima, and two cultivars of T. aestivum, under three water regimes. The TE of upland rice, O. glaberrima, and wheat was more responsive to the gm/gs ratio than that of lowland and aerobic rice. Overall, the explanatory power of the particular anatomical trait varied among species. Low stomatal density mostly explained the low gs in drought-tolerant rice, whereas rice genotypes with smaller stomata generally responded more strongly to drought. Compared with rice, wheat had a higher gm, which was associated with thicker mesophyll tissue, mesophyll and chloroplasts more exposed to intercellular spaces, and thinner cell walls. Upland rice, O. glaberrima, and wheat cultivars minimized the decrease in gm under drought by maintaining high ratios of chloroplasts to exposed mesophyll cell walls. Rice TE could be improved by increasing the gm/gs ratio via modifying anatomical traits. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. evaluation of job performance of village extension agents in lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFINNI IMAM

    Nigeria is that of inability to access credit facilities for agricultural production. It is envisaged that ... They equally engage in storage, marketing processing of she abutter, rice, groundnut, ... number of people eating from the same pot. The farm ...

  10. Primary care in the village. An approach to village self-help health programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyadi, A; Sadjimin, T; Rohde, J E

    1977-07-01

    The health clinic run in Kalirandu, Indonesia, by Foster Parents Plan, a private philanthropic welfare organization is described. In 1974 the Plan was serving 3000 families through 4 clinics, providing general curative services, pre- and postnatal services, family planning, dental care, and referral to the local urban hospital where needed. Each clinic treated about 100 patients per day at a cost of $1 per client family per month. However, few inocculations were given and few preventive health checks were requested. When the number of Plan families grew to 9500 while the population of the served communities grew to 400,000 with no increase in clinic budget, a different approach was tried. Instead of serving only the families helped direactly by the Plan, a total community service was developed. Plan personnel began to encourage use of the government health clinics. A rural health insurance system was developed which entitles the families to preventive health services. Plan medical staff and the local health center trained volunteers from Kalirandu in the use of a few simple medicines. The volunteers were selected by the village headmen and generally have elementary school education and a position of responsibility. This health "kader" works without payment and has 10-15 families living near him for whom he is responsible. At the time of writing there were over 500 kaders trained. Inservice courses are conducted to keep them up-to-date. An acceptors club was formed to motivate use of family planning. Seeking a more active role in village life, the acceptors club then took on child nutrition as a project, weighing children and reminding mothers of inoculations. The self-help momentum is spreading to housing and better farming practices, which is providing more vegetable gardens and better sources of Vitamin A. It is emphasized that this type of group responsibility cannot be imposed from outside. It is community leaders within that provide the motivation for self

  11. Single spore isolation and morphological characterization of local Malaysian isolates of rice blast fungus Magnoporthe grisea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ankitta; Ratnam, Wickneswari; Bhuiyan, Md Atiqur Rahman; Ponaya, Ariane; Jena, Khisord K.

    2015-09-01

    Rice blast is a destructive disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea. It causes considerable damage to rice and leads to crop loss in rice growing regions worldwide. Although fungicides can be used to control rice blast, they generate additional cost in rice production and contamination of environment and food. Therefore, the use of resistant varieties is thought to be one of the most economically and environmentally efficient ways of crop protection from the disease. Six new local Malaysian isolates of M. grisea were isolated using single spore isolation method. Five isolates were from infected leaf samples collected from Kompleks Latihan MADA, Kedah and one was from Kelantan. These isolates were identified using morphological characteristics and microscopic studies and later confirmed by ITSequences. These isolates were induced to sporulate and used for greenhouse screening on two differential rice varieties: Mahsuri (susceptible) and Pongsu Seribu 2 (resistant). Among the 6 isolates, isolate number 3 was found to be the most virulent showing high sporulation while isolate number 4 was very slow growing, and the least virulent.

  12. Introducing non-flooded crops in rice-dominated landscapes: Impact on carbon, nitrogen and water budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauker, Frank; Wassmann, Reiner; Amelung, Wulf; Breuer, Lutz; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Conrad, Ralf; Ekschmitt, Klemens; Goldbach, Heiner; He, Yao; John, Katharina; Kiese, Ralf; Kraus, David; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara; Siemens, Jan; Weller, Sebastian; Wolters, Volkmar

    2013-04-01

    , N2O and CO2 from rice-rice and rice-maize rotations. The conversion of flooded to non-flooded cropping systems resulted in pollution swapping of greenhouse gas emissions, shifting from CH4 under wet conditions to N2O under dry conditions. - Quantification and assessment of water budgets and nutrient loss in rice-rice and rice-maize rotations. Switching from rice-rice dominated growing systems to upland rice or maize-rice cropping systems resulted in reduced water use efficiency and increased nitrogen loss. - Quantification and assessment of soil functions affected by soil fauna community structure in flooded and non-flooded cropping rotations. In contrast to temperate soils, earthworms reduced the peaks of microbial C and N decomposition depending on soil water content.

  13. Asian wild rice is a hybrid swarm with extensive gene flow and feralization from domesticated rice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hongru; Garrett Vieira, Filipe Jorge; Crawford, Jacob E.; Chu, Chengcai; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    The domestication history of rice remains controversial, with multiple studies reaching different conclusions regarding its origin(s). These studies have generally assumed that populations of living wild rice, O. rufipogon, are descendants of the ancestral population that gave rise to domesticated rice, but relatively little attention has been paid to the origins and history of wild rice itself. Here, we investigate the genetic ancestry of wild rice by analyzing a diverse panel of rice genome...

  14. Toxic metal levels in children residing in a smelting craft village in Vietnam: a pilot biomonitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Alison P; Miller, Sloane K; Nguyen, Viet; Kotch, Jonathan B; Fry, Rebecca C

    2014-02-04

    In Vietnam, environmental pollution caused by small-scale domestic smelting of automobile batteries into lead ingot is a growing concern. The village of Nghia Lo is a smelting craft village located roughly 25 km southeast of Hanoi in the Red River Delta. Despite the concern of toxic metal exposure in the village, biomonitoring among susceptible populations, such as children, has not been previously conducted. The aim of this study was to determine the body burden of toxic metals in children residing in a smelting craft village. Twenty children from Nghia Lo, Vietnam, ages 18 months to four years were selected for capillary whole blood and toenail biomonitoring. Whole blood lead levels (BLLs) were measured using a portable lead analyzer, and toenail levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The findings show that all of the 20 children had detectable BLLs, and every child had levels that exceeded the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline level of 5 μg/dL. Eighty percent of tested subjects had BLLs higher than 10 μg/dL. Five children (25%) had BLLs greater than 45 μg/dL, the level of recommended medical intervention. In addition to blood lead, all of the children had detectable levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, and mercury in toenail samples. Notably, average toenail lead, manganese, and mercury levels were 157 μg/g, 7.41 μg/g, and 2.63 μg/g respectively, well above levels previously reported in children. Significant Spearman's rank correlations showed that there were relationships between blood and toenail lead levels (r = 0.65, p craft villages in Vietnam are co-exposed to toxic metals. There is an urgent need for mitigation to control metal exposure related to domestic smelting.

  15. Contrasts in livelihoods and protein intake between commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunters in two villages on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, María Grande; Carpinetti, Bruno; Duarte, Jesús; Fa, John E

    2013-06-01

    Across West and Central Africa, wildlife provides a source of food and income. We investigated the relation between bushmeat hunting and household wealth and protein consumption in 2 rural communities in Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. One village was dedicated to commercial hunting, the other trapped game primarily for food. We tested whether commercial-hunter households were nutritionally advantaged over subsistence-hunter households due to their higher income from the bushmeat trade and greater access to wild-animal protein. We conducted bushmeat-offtake surveys in both villages (captures by hunters and carcasses arriving to each village). Mammals (including threatened primates: black colobus [Colobus satanas], Preussi's guenon [Allochrocebus preussi], and russet-eared guenon [Cercopithecus erythrotis]), birds, and reptiles were hunted. The blue duiker (Philantomba monticola), giant pouched rat (Cricetomys emini), and brush-tailed porcupine (Atherurus africanus) contributed almost all the animal biomass hunted, consumed, or sold in both villages. Monkeys and Ogilbyi's duikers (Cephalophus ogilbyi) were hunted only by commercial hunters. Commercial hunters generated a mean of US$2000/year from bushmeat sales. Households with commercial hunters were on average wealthier, generated more income, spent more money on nonessential goods, and bought more products they did not grow. By contrast, households with subsistence hunters spent less on market items, spent more on essential products, and grew more of their own food. Despite these differences, average consumption of vegetable protein and domestic meat and bushmeat protein did not differ between villages. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the socioeconomic and nutritional context of commercial and subsistence bushmeat hunting to correctly interpret ways of reducing their effects on threatened species and to enable the sustainable offtake of more productive taxa. © 2013 Society for Conservation

  16. Antixenosis and Antibiosis Resistance in Rice Cultivars against Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabari, M A; Fathi, S A A; Nouri-Ganbalani, G; Moumeni, A; Razmjou, J

    2017-08-01

    The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an important pest afflicting rice in most rice-growing countries in the world. Deliniating the categories of resistance in rice genotypes under field conditions could be helpful in managment of this pest. Two categories of resistance, antixenosis and antibiosis, were examined in ten popular and diverse rice genotypes of different origin that had been selected for their resistance to the striped stem borer in a previous study. Significant differences were found between genotypes for the number of egg masses, number of eggs, preference index, larval and pupal weight, larval development time, larval survival rate, larval mine length, and leaf trichome density. It was found that the rice genotypes Novator, A7801, and Nemat had the more pronounced antixenosis-type resistance, whereas AB1 and Shirodi had better antiobiosis-type resistance. Interestingly, the rice genotype AN-74 for which Nemat is the parental line showed both types of resistance and could be effectively used in an integrated pest management of the rice striped stem borer.

  17. Improved amylose content of rice (IR72) induced through gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrida, Adelaida C.; Rivera, Faye G.; Manrique, Mary Jayne C.; Dimaano, Arvin O.; Costimiano, Eduardo C.

    2015-01-01

    In general grain quality and quality preferences vary across rice growing countries and regions. Filipinos preferres translucent, well milled, long grain rice with aroma and minimal broken grains which is soft after cooling. The amylose content of rice starch is a major eating quality factor. The aim of this study is to develop rice mutants with good eating quality and low to intermediate amylose content through induced mutation using gamma radiation. Low to intermediate amylose content in rice were identified and selected among the advance generation lines irradiated with 200 and 300Gy dose of gamma radiation. Screening was done using qualitative method (Iodine staining method). Selected lines were analyzed quantitatively, to determine the percent amylose content. Percent amylose were group to several categories where; 0-6% is waxy, 6-12% is very low, 12-18% is low, 18-24% is intermediate and >25% is high. Results were further confirmed using molecular marker technique by looking at the waxy gene which code for granule bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) and controls amylose content in rice. Among the 30 lines selcted and anaylzes, 2 lines were confirmed to have a gene base mutation with a low to intermediate amylose content. Thus, induced mutation using gamma radiation has successfully improved amylose content in rice (IR72). (author)

  18. Notes on the distribution of lichen biota of Podlasie. III. Nowosady village, Podlaskie province (north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kiercul

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the biodiversity of lichen species in Nowosady village and surrounding areas. This work was conducted in 2014 (in August and biodiversity of lichen species growing on tree bark and bushes, on dead wood (anthropogenic origin, glacial erratics, concrete, mortared walls and other specific substrates like eternit roof slates has been assessed. The lichen species represented morphologically diverse forms: crustose (38%, foliose (38%, fruticose (13%, dimorphous (5%, placodial (3% and squamulose (3%. They belonged to different ecological types including epiphytes (27 species, epixyles (18 and epilithes (12. Out of 39 species identified in Nowosady village, five are included in the Polish red list of lichens: Bryoria fuscescens, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia tubulosa, Ramalina farinacea and Ramalina fraxinea. Four taxons from the study area are under statutory protection of species. One species, Ramalina fraxinea is under full protection and 3 species (Bryoria fuscescens, Evernia prunastri and Hypogymnia tubulosa are under partial protection.

  19. Zinc fertilization of flooded rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Local scientists studied Zn fertilization of flooded rice soils in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Egypt, the Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. Diagnosis of Zn deficiency was carried out for submerged rice soils. Soil maps were prepared, designating areas as low, medium and high in Zn, based on Zn extraction with DTPA and HCl solutions and on rice leaf analysis. The effectiveness of various Zn fertilizer sources and methods of application in field and greenhouse experiments was measured, using 65 Zn. The percent Zn derived from fertilizer was shown to be a much more sensitive measure of efficiency than yield or total uptake

  20. A measure for the promotion of mountain ecological villages in South Korea: focus on the national mountain ecological village investigation of 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Soo Im; Kang, Hag Mo; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Chang Heon; Lee, Chong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Although South Korean mountain villages occupy 44 and 55?% of land and forest areas, respectively, these villages account for only 3?% of the national population and they suffer from a declining workforce owing to aging, wage inflation, and low forestry productivity. As a result, the South Korean government implemented a mountain ecological village development project from 1995 to 2013 in 312 of the 4972 mountain villages and investigated project performance in 2014. The present st...

  1. The Millennium Villages Project: a retrospective, observational, endline evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Shira; Gelman, Andrew; Ross, Rebecca; Chen, Joyce; Bari, Sehrish; Huynh, Uyen Kim; Harris, Matthew W; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Feller, Avi; Makela, Susanna; Zaslavsky, Alan M; McClellan, Lucy; Ohemeng-Dapaah, Seth; Namakula, Patricia; Palm, Cheryl A; Sachs, Jeffrey D

    2018-05-01

    The Millennium Villages Project (MVP) was a 10 year, multisector, rural development project, initiated in 2005, operating across ten sites in ten sub-Saharan African countries to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In this study, we aimed to estimate the project's impact, target attainment, and on-site spending. In this endline evaluation of the MVP, we retrospectively selected comparison villages that best matched the project villages on possible confounding variables. Cross-sectional survey data on 40 outcomes of interest were collected from both the project and the comparison villages in 2015. Using these data, as well as on-site spending data collected during the project, we estimated project impacts as differences in outcomes between the project and comparison villages; target attainment as differences between project outcomes and prespecified targets; and on-site spending as expenditures reported by communities, donors, governments, and the project. Spending data were not collected in the comparison villages. Averaged across the ten project sites, we found that impact estimates for 30 of 40 outcomes were significant (95% uncertainty intervals [UIs] for these outcomes excluded zero) and favoured the project villages. In particular, substantial effects were seen in agriculture and health, in which some outcomes were roughly one SD better in the project villages than in the comparison villages. The project was estimated to have no significant impact on the consumption-based measures of poverty, but a significant favourable impact on an index of asset ownership. Impacts on nutrition and education outcomes were often inconclusive (95% UIs included zero). Averaging across outcomes within categories, the project had significant favourable impacts on agriculture, nutrition, education, child health, maternal health, HIV and malaria, and water and sanitation. A third of the targets were met in the project sites. Total on-site spending decreased from US$132

  2. The Millennium Villages Project: a retrospective, observational, endline evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira Mitchell, PhD

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: The Millennium Villages Project (MVP was a 10 year, multisector, rural development project, initiated in 2005, operating across ten sites in ten sub-Saharan African countries to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. In this study, we aimed to estimate the project's impact, target attainment, and on-site spending. Methods: In this endline evaluation of the MVP, we retrospectively selected comparison villages that best matched the project villages on possible confounding variables. Cross-sectional survey data on 40 outcomes of interest were collected from both the project and the comparison villages in 2015. Using these data, as well as on-site spending data collected during the project, we estimated project impacts as differences in outcomes between the project and comparison villages; target attainment as differences between project outcomes and prespecified targets; and on-site spending as expenditures reported by communities, donors, governments, and the project. Spending data were not collected in the comparison villages. Findings: Averaged across the ten project sites, we found that impact estimates for 30 of 40 outcomes were significant (95% uncertainty intervals [UIs] for these outcomes excluded zero and favoured the project villages. In particular, substantial effects were seen in agriculture and health, in which some outcomes were roughly one SD better in the project villages than in the comparison villages. The project was estimated to have no significant impact on the consumption-based measures of poverty, but a significant favourable impact on an index of asset ownership. Impacts on nutrition and education outcomes were often inconclusive (95% UIs included zero. Averaging across outcomes within categories, the project had significant favourable impacts on agriculture, nutrition, education, child health, maternal health, HIV and malaria, and water and sanitation. A third of the targets were met in the

  3. ANALYZING THE TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF RICE FARMS IN THE RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Mussi Alvim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the technical efficiency in rice farms in Rio Grande do Sul (RS. For this, we use the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and the Tobit regression model. The study use the variables available in the Census of the Institute of Irrigated Rice of RS (IRGA, 2006. The study shows that most of the rice farmers are technically inefficient on local terms, and only 5.7% are efficient. In addition, it is possible to observe that the main variables, which increase the level of efficiency in different regions of the state, are technical assistance, education level and growing system. The results show that there are important differences between the rice farms, which depends of the region of RS and of the producer condition (owner or tenant.

  4. Wellbeing in retirement villages: eudaimonic challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Rebecca C; Robinson, Oliver C

    2014-12-01

    A retirement village consists of a collection of privately owned or leased flats or maisonettes for elderly adults that are supported by a central hub that provides catering, medical care and social activities. There have been studies of the psychological experience and impacts of such environments, however, there is lack of research that links the retirement village experience to overarching theories of eudaimonic wellbeing, and that uses qualitative methods to find out about how wellbeing manifests for the individual. This study used Ryff's (1989) model of wellbeing as a framework for analysis, while aiming to gain an in-depth understanding of the experiences and sources of wellbeing in residents of two retirement villages in the South East of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 18 residents. Thematic analysis revealed a dialectical tension to retirement village living: while facilitating all six core components of eudaimonic wellbeing as conceptualized by Ryff's model, individuals living within the retirement villages also experience challenges to wellbeing on the same dimensions. An integrative model of these tensions between positive and negative experiences is presented and discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Socio-Cultural Impacts in the Formation of Urban Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marpaung, B. O. Y.

    2017-03-01

    In Indonesia, a group of village people tends to move from one place to another and develops a living space to create a settlement. This research is conducted by taking an example of a particular ethnic group that leaves the forestry area to a new place in the city. After some time, this group of people creates a similar or adapted socio-cultural system adapted from their origin place. The purpose of this research is to examine the socio-cultural aspects that significantly influence the emergence of urban village. This influence is interpreted as social and cultural relations with the establishment of space and significance of urban village. By focusing on this issue, this research will trace the process of how a new and unplanned settlement could emerge. The process and elements are indispensable from social and cultural factors. Essentially, the shape of bulit space is a non-physical manifestation of local people, which is established from time to time. In this case, the research’s challenge lies on the circumstance in Indonesia where society and culture influence the emergence of urban village. Physical appearance can be identified as a tipology of settlement and morphology of urban village.

  6. Village voice: towards inclusive information technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garside, Ben

    2009-04-15

    A decade ago it was dubbed the 'digital divide'. Now, the gap in information and communications technologies (ICTs) between North and South is gradually shrinking. The developing world accounts for two-thirds of total mobile phone subscriptions, and Africa has the world's fastest growing mobile phone market. By gaining a toehold in affordable ICTs, the poor can access the knowledge and services they need, such as real-time market prices, to boost their livelihoods. But to be sustainable, technologies need to factor in social realities. These include how people already share knowledge, and adapt to introduced technologies: mobile phones, for instance, confer status but can eat into much-needed income. Many development agencies opt for technology-led solutions that fail to 'take'. Approaches that keep development concerns at their core and people as their central focus are key.

  7. Village voice: towards inclusive information technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garside, Ben

    2009-04-15

    A decade ago it was dubbed the 'digital divide'. Now, the gap in information and communications technologies (ICTs) between North and South is gradually shrinking. The developing world accounts for two-thirds of total mobile phone subscriptions, and Africa has the world's fastest growing mobile phone market. By gaining a toehold in affordable ICTs, the poor can access the knowledge and services they need, such as real-time market prices, to boost their livelihoods. But to be sustainable, technologies need to factor in social realities. These include how people already share knowledge, and adapt to introduced technologies: mobile phones, for instance, confer status but can eat into much-needed income. Many development agencies opt for technology-led solutions that fail to 'take'. Approaches that keep development concerns at their core and people as their central focus are key.

  8. Community quarantine to interrupt Ebola virus transmission - Mawah Village, Bong County, Liberia, August-October, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenswah, Tolbert; Blackley, David J; Freeman, Tabeh; Lindblade, Kim A; Arzoaquoi, Samson K; Mott, Joshua A; Williams, Justin N; Halldin, Cara N; Kollie, Francis; Laney, A Scott

    2015-02-27

    On September 30, 2014, the Bong County health officer notified the county Ebola task force of a growing outbreak of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in Mawah, a village of approximately 800 residents. During September 9-16, household quarantine had been used by the community in response to a new Ebola infection. Because the infection led to a local outbreak that grew during September 17-20, county authorities suggested community quarantine be considered, and beginning on approximately September 20, the Fuamah District Ebola Task Force (Task Force) engaged Mawah leaders to provide education about Ebola and to secure cooperation for the proposed measures. On September 30, Bong County requested technical assistance to develop strategies to limit transmission in the village and to prevent spread to other areas. The county health team, with support from the Task Force and CDC, traveled to Mawah on October 1 and identified approximately two dozen residents reporting symptoms consistent with Ebola. Because of an ambulance shortage, 2 days were required, beginning October 1, to transport the patients to an Ebola treatment unit in Monrovia. Community quarantine measures, consisting of restrictions on entering or leaving Mawah, regulated river crossings, and market closures, were implemented on October 1. Local leaders raised concerns about availability of medical care and food. The local clinic was reopened on October 11, and food was distributed on October 12. The Task Force reported a total of 22 cases of Ebola in Mawah during September 9-October 2, of which 19 were fatal. During October 3-November 21, no new cases were reported in the village. Involving community members during planning and implementation helped support a safe and effective community quarantine in Mawah.

  9. Rural household energy consumption pattern in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Md. Danesh; Kabir, Rashel Rana Mohammad Sirajul; Koike, Masao; Akther, Shalina; Shin, Man Yong

    2010-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important ingredients required to alleviate poverty and realize socio-economic and human development, which is directly interconnected to the prominence of life in rural areas. An extensive survey on household energy consumption pattern interrelating socio-economic and demographic factors was carried out in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh using stratified random sampling technique of 120 households. This paper focuses on household energy consumption, various combinations of fuels and their expenditure in the study area. Biomass, kerosene, electricity, LPG and candle were found as the energy carrier used in the rural households in this study. The study shows that 92% households use biomass, 28% LPG, 89% kerosene, 78% electricity and 27% candle as fuel types. It was found that 56% households collected biomass from their own homesteads and/or agricultural lands. Bamboo, branches, cow dung, firewood, rice husk, leaves and twigs and straw were found as the biomass for household energy use. Average monthly household expenditure for total energy was US$ 9.67 (SE, 0.31) per month while the total monthly income of the household was US$ 123 (SE, 2.53). The ratio of the total monthly energy expenditure to the total monthly income was 7.86%. The study will be helpful to understand the energy consumption system and its expenditure in the rural areas of Bangladesh and to the policy formulation for energy production, consumption and utilization.

  10. Catering for the athletes village at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games: the role of sports dietitians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelly, Fiona; O'Connor, Helen; Denyer, Gareth; Caterson, Ian

    2009-08-01

    This article describes the development, analysis, and implementation of the menu available to athletes and patrons in the main dining hall of the Athletes Village at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games and the significant role of sports dietitians in this process. Menu design and development was informed by focus groups, literature reviews, and food-preference surveys of athletes. The final menu was also assessed by an expert panel of Australian sports dietitians. A custom-designed database (Foodweb) was developed to enable dietary analysis of food-production data and creation of point-of-choice nutrition labels. Dietitians assisted with quality assurance testing and training of catering staff. Athletes surveyed in the main dining hall (N=414) agreed that the menu contained sufficient variety and adequate meat, pasta/rice, vegetable/salad, fruit, and snack items. Sports dietitians played a significant role in ensuring that the menu met the needs of athletes from a range of differing cultural and sporting backgrounds. Dining-hall patrons provided positive feedback and few complaints about the overall dining experience. The information presented in this report can help future caterers and dietitians with the planning and provision of suitable food for athletic performance at an Olympic Games.

  11. Rural household energy consumption pattern in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Md. Danesh [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamimminowa, Nagano-ken 399-4598 (Japan); Kabir, Rashel Rana Mohammad Sirajul [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Koike, Masao; Akther, Shalina [Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamimminowa, Nagano-ken 399-4598 (Japan); Yong Shin, Man [Department of Forest Science, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-02-15

    Energy is one of the most important ingredients required to alleviate poverty and realize socio-economic and human development, which is directly interconnected to the prominence of life in rural areas. An extensive survey on household energy consumption pattern interrelating socio-economic and demographic factors was carried out in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh using stratified random sampling technique of 120 households. This paper focuses on household energy consumption, various combinations of fuels and their expenditure in the study area. Biomass, kerosene, electricity, LPG and candle were found as the energy carrier used in the rural households in this study. The study shows that 92% households use biomass, 28% LPG, 89% kerosene, 78% electricity and 27% candle as fuel types. It was found that 56% households collected biomass from their own homesteads and/or agricultural lands. Bamboo, branches, cow dung, firewood, rice husk, leaves and twigs and straw were found as the biomass for household energy use. Average monthly household expenditure for total energy was US$ 9.67 (SE, 0.31) per month while the total monthly income of the household was US$ 123 (SE, 2.53). The ratio of the total monthly energy expenditure to the total monthly income was 7.86%. The study will be helpful to understand the energy consumption system and its expenditure in the rural areas of Bangladesh and to the policy formulation for energy production, consumption and utilization. (author)

  12. Concentrations and health risks of lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury in rice and edible mushrooms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yong; Sun, Xinyang; Yang, Wenjian; Ma, Ning; Xin, Zhihong; Fu, Jin; Liu, Xiaochang; Liu, Meng; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Zhu, Xuefeng; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-03-15

    In this study, four common heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in rice and edible mushrooms of China were studied to evaluate contamination level and edible safety. Ninety two (92) rice samples were collected from the main rice growing regions in China, and 38 fresh and 21 dry edible mushroom samples were collected from typical markets in Nanjing City. The analyzed metal concentrations were significantly different between rice and edible mushroom samples (price samples respectively, were above maximum allowable concentration (MAC). In fresh edible mushroom, Pb and Hg contents in 2.6% samples were above MAC, respectively. However, only Hg content in 4.8% dry edible mushroom samples was above its MAC. Therefore, more than 95% rice and edible mushroom samples in our test had high edible safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Research within the coordinated programme on isotope-aided micronutrient studies in rice production with special reference to zinc deficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales, C.M.

    1980-07-01

    An extensive survey identified 500,000 ha of soil in the Philippines as being potentially Zn-deficient for rice production. Isotope-aided laboratory, greenhouse, and field experiments were conducted to identify the most efficient methods of supplying fertilizer Zn to flooded rice. The application of 5 kg Zn/ha as ZnSO 4 effectively corrected a Zn deficiency and increased rice yield and Zn uptake for three successive growing seasons. No further increases were noted with higher rates of Zn application. Fertilizer ZnSO 4 was equally effective when mixed with the soil, combined with urea fertilizers, or surface-applied at or two weeks after transplanting the rice. Mine tailings were also shown to be an effective source of Zn. Mixing organic compost with the ZnSO 4 decreased the percent Zn derived from the fertilizer and the rice yield. 65 Zn-labelled ZnSO 4 was used

  14. Logistic Regression Analysis on Factors Affecting Adoption of Rice-Fish Farming in North Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali NOORHOSSEINI-NIYAKI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the factors influencing the adoption of rice-fish farming in the Tavalesh region near the Caspian Sea in northern Iran. We conducted a survey with open-ended questions. Data were collected from 184 respondents (61 adopters and 123 non-adopters randomly sampled from selected villages and analyzed using logistic regression and multi-response analysis. Family size, number of contacts with an extension agent, participation in extension-education activities, membership in social institutions and the presence of farm workers were the most important socio-economic factors for the adoption of rice-fish farming system. In addition, economic problems were the most common issue reported by adopters. Other issues such as lack of access to appropriate fish food, losses of fish, lack of access to high quality fish fingerlings and dehydration and poor water quality were also important to a number of farmers.

  15. Impacts of climate change on rice production in Africa and causes of simulated yield changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oort, Pepijn A J; Zwart, Sander J

    2018-03-01

    This study is the first of its kind to quantify possible effects of climate change on rice production in Africa. We simulated impacts on rice in irrigated systems (dry season and wet season) and rainfed systems (upland and lowland). We simulated the use of rice varieties with a higher temperature sum as adaptation option. We simulated rice yields for 4 RCP climate change scenarios and identified causes of yield declines. Without adaptation, shortening of the growing period due to higher temperatures had a negative impact on yields (-24% in RCP 8.5 in 2070 compared with the baseline year 2000). With varieties that have a high temperature sum, the length of the growing period would remain the same as under the baseline conditions. With this adaptation option rainfed rice yields would increase slightly (+8%) but they remain subject to water availability constraints. Irrigated rice yields in East Africa would increase (+25%) due to more favourable temperatures and due to CO2 fertilization. Wet season irrigated rice yields in West Africa were projected to change by -21% or +7% (without/with adaptation). Without adaptation irrigated rice yields in West Africa in the dry season would decrease by -45% with adaptation they would decrease significantly less (-15%). The main cause of this decline was reduced photosynthesis at extremely high temperatures. Simulated heat sterility hardly increased and was not found a major cause for yield decline. The implications for these findings are as follows. For East Africa to benefit from climate change, improved water and nutrient management will be needed to benefit fully from the more favourable temperatures and increased CO2 concentrations. For West Africa, more research is needed on photosynthesis processes at extreme temperatures and on adaptation options such as shifting sowing dates. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Rice vaikib salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopasse visiidile sõitev USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice külastab Saksamaad, Rumeeniat, Ukrainat ja Belgiat. Süüdistusi CIA lennukite maandumiste ja salavanglate kohta ei olevat tal kavas kommenteerida

  17. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rice are used in food products in Chinese cuisine, including Peking duck. Others have been sold as ... Medicine . 2010;170(19):1722–1727. Halbert SC, French B, Gordon RY, et al. Tolerability of red ...

  18. indica rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... fresh weight, regeneration, proline level and total protein content in salt sensitive indica rice cv. IR 64. For callus ... INTRODUCTION. Salinity is one of the ... Proline is reported to reduce the enzyme denaturation caused due.

  19. The rural villages electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocev, Kiril; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Tugjarov, Gjorgji

    2002-01-01

    Depending on a daily load demand, distance from the utility grid and the available solar energy, the rural villages electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic (PV) system can be a cheaper solution than the classic electrification, by connecting them to the utility grid. Besides PV generator, the considered hybrid system is consisted of a battery and a diesel genset. For the concrete case - rural village with estimated daily load demand of 15.5 kWh/day, with the computer program PVFORM, which is modified for such hybrid system, were simulated a few hundreds PV systems, with different sizes of the PV generator and of the battery capacity. Analyzing the obtained results, it can be foreseen the influence of the component size on the system functionality. From the mass of possible system combinations, it is chosen one that has 42 % lower initial investment, than the initial investment for connection of the village to the utility grid. (Original)

  20. Growing container seedlings: Three considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis

    2015-01-01

    The science of growing reforestation and conservation plants in containers has continually evolved, and three simple observations may greatly improve seedling quality. First, retaining stock in its original container for more than one growing season should be avoided. Second, strongly taprooted species now being grown as bareroot stock may be good candidates...

  1. Mutant heterosis in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In the variety TKM6 a high yielding semidwarf mutant has been induced. This TKM6 mutant was used in test crosses with a number of other varieties and mutants to examine the extent of heterosis of dwarfs in rice and to select superior crosses. An excerpt of the published data is given. It appears from the backcross of the mutant with its original variety, that an increase in number of productive tillers occurs in the hybrid, leading to a striking grain yield increase, while the semi-dwarf culm length (the main mutant character) reverts to the normal phenotype. In the cross with IR8 on the other hand, there is only a minimal increase in tiller number but a substantial increase in TGW leading to more than 30% yield increase over the better parent

  2. World Heritage Site Designation Impacts on a Historic Village: A Case Study on Residents’ Perceptions of Hahoe Village (Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonki Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between World Heritage Site (WHS designation and the community sustainability of a historic village, focusing on Hahoe Village, Korea, which was inscribed in 2010. It examines residents’ perceptions of increasing tourism at Hahoe Village by adopting a questionnaire and using an interview as research methods. This study examined both the positive and negative impacts that Hahoe Village’s WHS designation has had on its sustainability. Of all of the impacts examined in this research, the three most noteworthy issues are identified: (1 the acceleration of the change of the village’s industrial base and the influx of strangers; (2 the degradation of quality of life (in the physical aspects caused by increasing tourism; and (3 the collision predicated by the tension between conserving the village’s historic environments and developing tourism. In conclusion, the WHS designation impacts on Hahoe Village, which local residents perceived, have both positive and negative aspects. WHS designation needs to be accompanied by a management plan that is more concerned about the impact from tourism after the designation. In this context, Hahoe Village must not only have a comprehensive preservation plan that balances with the demand for tourism development, but also secure the village’s community sustainability as a living place other than a tourist destination.

  3. Effects of Feeding Purple Rice ( L. Var. Glutinosa on the Quality of Pork and Pork Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchai Jaturasitha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purple rice is a strain of glutaneous rice rich in anthocyanins and γ-oryzanol. Both types of compounds are involved in antioxidant and lipid metabolism of mammals. Three experimental diet types were used which consisted approximately by half either of purple rice, white rice or corn. Diets were fed to 3×10 pigs growing from about 30 to 100 kg. Meat samples were investigated either as raw or cured loin chops or as smoked bacon produced from the belly. Various physicochemical traits were assessed and data were evaluated by analysis of variance. Traits describing water-holding capacity (drip, thaw, and cooking losses and tenderness (sensory grading, shear force of the meat were mostly not significantly affected by the diet type. However, purple rice feeding of pigs resulted in lower fat and cholesterol contents of loin and smoked bacon compared to white rice, but not compared to corn feeding except of the fat content of the loin. The shelf life of the raw loin chops was improved by purple rice as well. In detail, the occurrence of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances after 9 days of chilled storage was three to four times higher in the white rice and corn diets than with purple rice. The n-6:n-3 ratio in the raw loin chops was 9:1 with purple rice and clearly higher with 12:1 with the other diets, meat lipids. Level and kind of effect of purple rice found in raw meat was not always recovered in the cured loin chops and the smoked bacon. Still the impression of flavor and color, as well as overall acceptability were best in the smoked bacon from the purple-rice fed pigs, whereas this effect did not occur in the cured loin chops. These findings suggest that purple rice has a certain, useful, bioactivity in pigs concerning meat quality, but some of these effects are of low practical relevance. Further studies have to show ways how transiency and low recovery in meat products of some of the effects can be counteracted.

  4. Diversity and utilization of bamboo species in Tigawasa Village, Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IDA BAGUS KETUT ARINASA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Tigawasa is one of the famous traditional villages as a center of bamboo handicraft in Buleleng regency-Bali. As a center of bamboo handicraft its have been wrestled since centuries. Their peoples have done traditionally bamboo conservation surrounding their house and garden too. The marginal area, river flow area and stiff slope that are outskirts of village become to focus of bamboo conservation by their peoples, too. This research conducted at Tigawasa village in June 2003 by stripe and interview methods. Two kilometers stripe length by 50 meters width; follow the direction north south of the river was investigated. To know the utilization of kind of bamboo and their product conducted by interview to craftsman and community figure. The result of inventory knew about four genus consist of 19 species planted in this village. To know those bamboo species will be presented their key of determination. The genus of Gigantochloa and Schizostachyum to dominate of their species, and have many uses of it’s, also. Not less than 54 kind of bamboos handicraft product was produced in this village. The diversity of bamboos handicraft product, develop according progress of the technology and demand of period. Many of new products composed and use of color or paint develop to produce varieties of fixed product. Two-kind of product that is traditional boxes (“sokasi” handicraft and woven bamboo (“bedeg” to become this village famous at Bali, even though in foreign countries Energetic development of bamboos home industry to come to decrease stock of raw materials. About two trucks supply from east Java regularly to anticipation of decrease local stock of raw materials every week.

  5. SUSTAINABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT OF TRADITIONAL CRAFT INDUSTRY IN LOPATI TOURISM VILLAGE, YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VITASURYA Vincentia Reni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecotourism has been growing in Yogyakarta that can be seen through the development of rural tourism. The development of rural tourism has positive impact to improve local community’s welfare nevertheless, it has also negative impact onto environmental carrying capacity. Lopati tourism village is located in Bantul, Yogyakarta, relying on traditional craft industry as tourism attraction. Traditional crafts are livelihood of local residents, so that environmental management efforts become part of their daily lives. This research aims to review the roles of community to reduce environmental impacts through analyzing the waste management of traditional craft industry. It used case study method to examine the uniqueness of Lopati village. Data collecting used participatory action research techniques in order to gather information from residents. Community participation acted to anticipate negative impact on development of rural tourism.  Waste management in Lopati committed by local residents not to cause adverse environmental impacts. The result show that waste management based on community participation supports the development of rural tourism.

  6. Realistic Simulation of Rice Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-long DING

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The existing research results of virtual modeling of rice plant, however, is far from perfect compared to that of other crops due to its complex structure and growth process. Techniques to visually simulate the architecture of rice plant and its growth process are presented based on the analysis of the morphological characteristics at different stages. Firstly, the simulations of geometrical shape, the bending status and the structural distortion of rice leaves are conducted. Then, by using an improved model for bending deformation, the curved patterns of panicle axis and various types of panicle branches are generated, and the spatial shape of rice panicle is therefore created. Parametric L-system is employed to generate its topological structures, and finite-state automaton is adopted to describe the development of geometrical structures. Finally, the computer visualization of three-dimensional morphologies of rice plant at both organ and individual levels is achieved. The experimental results showed that the proposed methods of modeling the three-dimensional shapes of organs and simulating the growth of rice plant are feasible and effective, and the generated three-dimensional images are realistic.

  7. Heavy Metal Content in Terraced Rice Fields at Sruwen Tengaran Semarang - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindarwati, Yulis; Soeprobowati, Tri Retnaningsih; Sudarno

    2018-02-01

    The presence of heavy metal on agricultural soils can be caused not only natural factors but also due to human intervention. Differences in management and lack of understanding of farmers in the production input of fertilizers and pesticides ensued in land ravaged. Periodic testing of paddy fields is necessary to minimize the contaminants from being absorbed by plants that will have an impact on health decline. The purpose of the assessment was to identify the heavy metal content in the terraced rice field in Sruwen Village, Tengaran District, Semarang Regency. Survey was conducted in February 2017. Sampling on terraced rice fields of different heights consisted of upper, middle, and upper down. Taken as many as eight single points and composed at a depth of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm. The identification results showed that heavy metal content of Pb, Cd, and Cu were present at all altitudes. Heavy Metals Pb and Cd at a depth of 0-20 cm were higher from 20-40 cm in the upper and lower rice fields but lower in the middle rice field. Cu heavy metal at a depth of 0-20 cm was higher than 20-40 cm in all altitude land. The heavy metal content of Pb, Cd, and Cu was still below the heavy metal standard set by the European Union and India.

  8. Variation in Grain Quality of Upland Rice from Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vua Xiongsiyee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Luang Prabang Province is located within the area recognized as the center of rice (Oryza sativa L. diversity in Lao PDR. This study reported on grain quality characteristics of 60 upland rice seed samples sharing 49 variety names collected from 6 villages in Luang Prabang in 2015. Most of the samples has non-pigmented pericarp, while red pericarp was found in four samples and purple in five samples. Almost all of the samples were of large grain type, with glutinous endosperm in 70% and non-glutinous endosperm in 30%. The brown (unpolished rice was found with a wide range of grain nutritional quality, including protein (9.2% ± 0.9%, Fe (15.9 ± 6.9 mg/kg, Zn (19.6 ± 2.1 mg/kg, anthocyanin (0.774 ± 0.880 mg/g, and anti-oxidative capacity (2.071 ± 1.373 mg/g. The varieties sharing similar names had similar morphological characteristics but varied in nutritional concentration, with required confirmation in genetic variation analysis. This study found that some rice varieties with high grain quality may benefit the farmers directly or could be used in varietal improvement programs.

  9. Biodiversity Insects Used Three Traps Of Upland Rice Fields In Simalungun District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameilia Zuliyanti Siregar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice and fish are the main food source for the peoples of Indonesia especially in Northern Sumatra. This research was done to determine biodiversity insects used by purposive random sampling from March until July 2016 which 3 traps yellow trap sweeping net and core sampler repeated five times in control and fish farming sites in Purwosari village Pematang Bandar Simalungun District Northern Sumatra Indonesia. The results showed the insects were caught on land fish-rice farming consist of 9 orders 40 families and 42 species 2028 individuals identified. From the research the fish farming has been done obtained the highest number of individuals insects caught used yellow trap are 1111 individuals followed by sweep net 800 individuals and the lower used the core sampler 117 individuals. Meanwhile 1288 individuals are highest of insects collected use by yellow trap followed by Sweep net 704 individuals and Core sampler 137 individuals. The value of species richness in rice-fish farming 5.384 index Margalef and 0.932 index Menhinick more than a value of species richness in control 5.089 index Margalef and 0.866 index Menhinick. The result value Index of Evenness in rice-fish farming 0.80 and control 0.78. The suitable traps for detected of biodiversity insects in paddy plantation and fish farming used the yellow trap..

  10. Molecular Breeding Strategy and Challenges toward Improvement of Blast Disease Resistance in Rice Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh eAshkani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice is a staple and most important security food crop consumed by almost half of the world’s population. More rice production is needed due to the rapid population growth in the world. Rice blast caused by the fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop in different part of the world. Breakdown of blast resistance is the major cause of yield instability in several rice growing areas. There is a need to develop strategies providing long-lasting disease resistance against a broad spectrum of pathogens, giving protection for a long time over a broad geographic area, promising for sustainable rice production in the future. So far, molecular breeding approaches involving DNA markers, such as QTL mapping, marker-aided selection, gene pyramiding, allele mining and genetic transformation have been used to develop new resistant rice cultivars. Such techniques now are used as a low-cost, high-throughput alternative to conventional methods allowing rapid introgression of disease resistance genes into susceptible varieties as well as the incorporation of multiple genes into individual lines for more durable blast resistance. The paper briefly reviewed the progress of studies on this aspect to provide the interest information for rice disease resistance breeding. This review includes examples of how advanced molecular method have been used in breeding programs for improve blast resistance. New information and knowledge gained from previous research on the recent strategy and challenges toward improvement of blast disease such as pyramiding disease resistance gene for creating new rice varieties with high resistance against multiple diseases will undoubtedly provide new insights into the rice disease control.

  11. EcoVillage: A Net Zero Energy Ready Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Faakye, O. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-02-01

    CARB is working with the EcoVillage co-housing community in Ithaca, New York, on their third neighborhood called the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience (TREE). This community scale project consists of 40 housing units --15 apartments and 25 single family residences. The community is pursuing certifications for DOE Zero Energy Ready Home, U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Gold, and ENERGY STAR for the entire project. Additionally, seven of the 25 homes, along with the four-story apartment building and community center, are being constructed to the Passive House (PH) design standard.

  12. Lessons learned from the NREL village power program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Renewable energy solutions for village power applications can be economical, functional, and sustainable. Pilot projects are an appropriate step in the development of a commercially viable market for rural renewable energy solutions. Moreover, there are a significant number of rural electrification projects under way that employ various technologies, delivery mechanisms, and financing arrangements. These projects, if properly evaluated, communicated, and their lessons incorporated in future projects and programs, can lead the way to a future that includes a robust opportunity for cost-effective, renewable-based village power systems. This paper summarizes some of NREL`s recent experiences and lessons learned.

  13. Lessons Learned from the NREL Village Power Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.

    1998-07-01

    Renewable energy solutions for village power applications can be economical, functional, and sustainable. Pilot projects are an appropriate step in the development of a commercially viable market for rural renewable energy solutions. Moreover, there are a significant number of rural electrification projects under way that employ various technologies, delivery mechanisms, and financing arrangements. These projects, if properly evaluated, communicated, and their lessons incorporated in future projects and programs, can lead the way to a future that includes a robust opportunity for cost-effective, renewable-based village power systems. This paper summarizes some of NRELs recent experiences and lessons learned.

  14. Transgenic rice plants expressing a fused protein of Cry1Ab/Vip3H has resistance to rice stem borers under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Tian, Jun-Ce; Shen, Zhi-Chen; Peng, Yu-Fa; Hu, Cui; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2010-08-01

    Six transgenic rice, Oryza sativa L., lines (G6H1, G6H2, G6H3, G6H4, G6H5, and G6H6) expressing a fused Cry1Ab/Vip3H protein, were evaluated for resistance against the Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and the stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the laboratory and field. The bioassay results indicated that the mortality of Asiatic rice borer and S. inferens neonate larvae on six transgenic lines from seedling to filling stage was up to 100% at 168 h after infestation. The cumulative feeding area by Asiatic rice borer neonate larvae on all transgenic lines was significantly reduced compared with the untransformed parental 'Xiushui 110' rice. A 2-yr field evaluation showed that damage during the vegetative stage (deadheart) or during the reproductive stage (whitehead) caused by Asiatic rice borer and S. inferens for transgenic lines was much lower than the control. For three lines (G6H1, G6H2, and G6H6), no damage was found during the entire growing period. Estimation of fused Cry1Ab/Vip3H protein concentrations using PathoScreen kit for Bt-Cry1Ab/1Ac protein indicated that the expression levels of Cry1Ab protein both in main stems (within the average range of 0.006-0.073% of total soluble protein) and their flag leaves (within the average range of 0.001-0.038% of total soluble protein) were significantly different among six transgenic lines at different developmental stages. Both laboratory and field researches suggested that the transgenic rice lines have considerable potential for protecting rice from attack by both stem borers.

  15. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  16. Study on movement, accumulation and distribution of 137Cs in rice and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zixian; Xu Shiming

    1992-11-01

    The experiment of growing rice contaminated by 137 Cs solution shows that from the seedling stage to booting stage the absorption rate of 137 Cs is the highest, in the heading stage it is steady and in the milk stage goes to high again. The 137 Cs transfers from root to straw and ear, and from vegetative organs to reproductive organs. The relationship between specific activity (SA) and the amount of 137 Cs in soil is proportional. Only when the amount of 137 Cs in soil reaches to 370 Bq/g the SA of 137 Cs in rice rises remarkably. The different soil growing rice has different absorption rate of 137 Cs. Only in Shenzhen it is much higher than in other areas. The absorption of 137 Cs is also depending on different stage, in the milk stage it is considerably higher than other stages

  17. Heading for an energy crisis in villages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arokiaswamy, N S.S.

    1979-12-15

    About 150 million tons of firewood is being burnt yearly in the homes of the poor, mostly in the rural areas, for cooking. In addition, 70 to 80 million tons of dry vegetable wastes as well as cow dung cakes are being burnt for the same purpose in India. Also, over 5 million tons of kerosene are burnt yearly. Avaiability of kerosene in future is a question markexclamation Most rural families spend 20 to 30 per cent of their income on cooking fuels only. It is high time that our politicians and planners launch on a large scale afforestation and tree planting programme to replenish the annual consumption. The forest and other departments of states, the panchayats and municipalities have to be enabled and compelled to plant fast-growing trees and shrubs on all government and panchayat vacant lands, sides of all roads, railways, banks of canals, tanks, ponds, barren hills and waste lands, etc.Subsidised tree plants will have to be distributed to all interested persons for planting in the boundaries of all fields and houses, frontages, backyards, vacant sites, etc. More than planting, their protection and maintenance as well as monitoring of their growth are important.

  18. Song forms from Kustilj and neighbouring villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina PLANJANIN SIMIC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Song-forms constitute one of the four sub-categories of folklore within the classification of children’s folklore The song-forms reflect children's responses in relation to nature. They are dedicated to animals that children find interesting and dear. In the distant past, they were performed at fixed hours and days, on certain places and there was a number of their repetition, but over the past centuries, they lost the initial position and became the motive for play and recreational activities for children. In the examples collected for this paper, what can be observed and singled out are a few basic melodic and rhythmic motifs that also occur in children's songs around the world, the connection between children's rhythm with the text, simplicity and the syllable of melody as well as the fact that the tone of these songs often relates to archaic diatonic infra-pentatonic series. In addition to educational and entertainment features, these songs reveal a mentality, way of thinking, creativity and spiritual development of a generation that will grow up at the beginning of the 21st century.

  19. Improving village poultry’s survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto D.

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... to the fact that village poultry farming is practiced in a total or partial scavenging system which gives the impression that all the birds in the village belong to the same flock. Accordingly, actions that target all farmers of the same village may have a larger impact on the village poultry’s survival rate...... than actions that target individual producers. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of CBM on the survival rate of village poultry. Based on data collected on 353 poultry keepers, the study shows that CBM significantly improves the survival rate of village poultry. The adoption...

  20. Improving village poultry's survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto Delphin

    2012-01-01

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... to the fact that village poultry farming is practiced in a total or partial scavenging system which gives the impression that all the birds in the village belong to the same flock. Accordingly, actions that target all farmers of the same village may have a larger impact on the village poultry's survival rate...... than actions that target individual producers. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of CBM on the survival rate of village poultry. Based on data collected on 353 poultry keepers, the study shows that CBM significantly improves the survival rate of village poultry. The adoption...

  1. Storage stability of flour-blasted brown rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rice was blasted with rice flour rather than sand in a sand blaster to make microscopic nicks and cuts so that water can easily penetrate into the brown rice endosperm and cook the rice in a shorter time. The flour-blasted American Basmati brown rice, long grain brown rice, and parboiled long...

  2. Chinese Milk Vetch as Green Manure Mitigates Nitrous Oxide Emission from Monocropped Rice System in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhijian; Shah, Farooq; Tu, Shuxin; Xu, Changxu; Cao, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Monocropped rice system is an important intensive cropping system for food security in China. Green manure (GM) as an alternative to fertilizer N (FN) is useful for improving soil quality. However, few studies have examined the effect of Chinese milk vetch (CMV) as GM on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from monocropped rice field in south China. Therefore, a pot-culture experiment with four treatments (control, no FN and CMV; CMV as GM alone, M; fertilizer N alone, FN; integrating fertilizer N with CMV, NM) was performed to investigate the effect of incorporating CMV as GM on N2O emission using a closed chamber-gas chromatography (GC) technique during the rice growing periods. Under the same N rate, incorporating CMV as GM (the treatments of M and NM) mitigated N2O emission during the growing periods of rice plant, reduced the NO3- content and activities of nitrate and nitrite reductase as well as the population of nitrifying bacteria in top soil at maturity stage of rice plant versus FN pots. The global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) of N2O from monocropped rice field was ranked as Mrice grain yield and soil NH4+ content, which were dramatically decreased in the M pots, over the treatment of FN. Hence, it can be concluded that integrating FN with CMV as GM is a feasible tactic for food security and N2O mitigation in the monocropped rice based system.

  3. Absorption and utilization of fertilizer-N and soil-N with mixed application of straw and urea by rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinwei; Liu Feng; Ye Shuya; Zhu Hongbin; Ye Chengxin

    1996-01-01

    The nitrogen absorption of mixed application of straw and urea by rice was studied by using 15 N isotope tracing technique. The results show that the sole application of straw would result in biological immobilization of available soil N. The insufficient N supply was the limiting factor for rice tiller and spikelets development. Mixed use of straw and urea obviously improved nitrogen supply from both fertilizer and soil, which in turn, promoted the yield of growing rice and increased the soil fertility and productivity of later crop

  4. An assessment of Wx microsatellite allele, alkali degradation and differentiation of chloroplast DNA in traditional black rice (Oryza sativa L.) from Thailand and Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathepha, Preecha

    2007-01-15

    Thailand and Lao PDR are the country's rich rice diversity. To contribute a significant knowledge for development new rice varieties, a collection of 142 black rice (Oryza sativa) accessions were determined for variation of physico-chemical properties, Wx microsatellite allele, Wx allele and chloroplast DNA type. The results showed that amylose content of black rice accessions were ranged from 1.9 to 6.8%. All of the alkali disintegration types (high, intermediate and low) was observed in these rice with average of 1.75 on the 1-3 digestibility scale. The unique Wx microsatellite allele (CT)17 was found in these samples and all black rice strains carried Wx(b) allele. In addition, all black rice accessions were found the duplication of the 23 bp sequence motif in the exon 2 of the wx gene. This evidence is a common phenomenon in glutinous rice. Based on two growing condition for black rice, rainfed lowland and rainfed upland, chloroplast DNA type was distinct from each other. All rice strains from rainfed lowland was deletion plastotype, but all other rainfed upland strains were non-deletion types.

  5. Assessment and genetic analysis of heavy metal content in rice grain using an Oryza sativa × O. rufipogon backcross inbred line population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, De-Run; Fan, Ye-Yang; Hu, Biao-Lin; Xiao, Ye-Qing; Chen, Da-Zhou; Zhuang, Jie-Yun

    2018-03-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in rice is a growing concern for public health. Backcross inbred lines derived from an interspecific cross of Oryza sativa × O. rufipogon were grown in two distinct ecological locations (Hangzhou and Lingshui, China). The objective of this study was to characterise the contents of heavy metal in rice grains, and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for heavy metal contents. The contents of Ni, As, Pb, Cr and Hg in milled rice showed a significant decline as compared with those in brown rice, whereas the content of Cd showed little change. The concentration of heavy metal in rice grain varied greatly between the two environments. A total of 24 QTLs responsible for heavy metal contents were detected, including two for both the brown and milled rice, 13 for brown rice only, and nine for milled rice only. All the QTLs except two had the enhancing alleles derived from O. rufipogon. Sixteen QTLs were clustered in six chromosomal regions. Environmental variation plays an important role in the heavy metal contents in rice grain. QTLs detected in this study might be useful for breeding rice varieties with low heavy metal content. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Arsenic species in wheat, raw and cooked rice: Exposure and associated health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Hifza; Kay, Paul; Slack, Rebecca; Gong, Yun Yun

    2018-09-01

    Arsenic concentrations above 10μgL -1 were previously found in 89% of ground water sources in six villages of Pakistan. The present study has ascertained the health risks associated with exposure to total arsenic (tAs) and its species in most frequently consumed foods. Inorganic arsenic (iAs) concentrations were found to be 92.5±41.88μgkg -1 , 79.21±76.42μgkg -1 , and 116.38±51.38μgkg -1 for raw rice, cooked rice and wheat respectively. The mean tAs concentrations were 47.47±30.72μgkg -1 , 71.65±74.7μgkg -1 , 105±61.47μgkg -1 . Wheat is therefore demonstrated to be a significant source of arsenic exposure. Dimethylarsinic acid was the main organic species detected in rice, whilst monomethylarsonic acid was only found at trace levels. Total daily intake of iAs exceeded the provisional tolerable daily intake of 2.1μgkg -1 day -1 body weight in 74% of study participants due to concurrent intake from water (94%), wheat (5%) and raw rice (1%). A significant association between tAs in cooked rice and cooking water resulted in tAs intake 43% higher in cooked rice compared to raw rice. The study suggests that arsenic intake from food, particularly from wheat consumption, holds particular significance where iAs is relatively low in water. Chronic health risks were found to be significantly higher from wheat intake than rice, whilst the risk in terms of acute effects was below the USEPA's limit of 1.0. Children were at significantly higher health risk than adults due to iAs exposure from rice and/or wheat. The dietary exposure of participants to tAs was attributable to staple food intake with ground water iAs iAs in drinking water. Although the daily iAs intake from food was lower than total water intake, the potential health risk from exposure to arsenic and its species still exists and requires exposure control measures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Resilience Pattern in Village level: The Case Babalan Village, Pati, Central Java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurwahyudi, Ragil; Maryono

    2018-02-01

    Based on the Indonesia Disaster Prone Index 2013, Pati Regency is a high risk area of disaster and is ranked 11th level Central Java province while nationally ranked 156. Babalan Village located on the edge of Juwana River has disaster history from 2006-2014 shows flood disaster Giving the greatest probability and impact followed by rat pest, tornado, drought, fire. The public recognizes the signs of a continuous flooding of heavy rains accompanied by clouds all over the edge, the continuous rise of the Juwana River surface to overflow, ants, isoptera, and animals out of its nest, "Yuyu Bule", earthworms out, clear water for "Rowo floods ", Brownish water for the flash floods. Most residents have boats and can make rafts from makeshift materials (jerry cans, bamboo, banana stems). Make "Ranggon" at home for those who do not evacuate for a place to stay during the flood. Citizens elevate the kitchen (to evacuate people and goods / household furniture). Breeding Tyto Alba owl for rats pest control post-flood and controllers in the fields. Develop vegetable crops in the yard with viticulture pattern (upstairs) if flood can be moved and can eat vegetables during flood. Have food reserves for stock before outside help comes. Citizens initiate "Water Bath honesty" to meet the water needs during the dry season.

  8. A Resilience Pattern in Village level: The Case Babalan Village, Pati, Central Java Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwahyudi Ragil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Indonesia Disaster Prone Index 2013, Pati Regency is a high risk area of disaster and is ranked 11th level Central Java province while nationally ranked 156. Babalan Village located on the edge of Juwana River has disaster history from 2006-2014 shows flood disaster Giving the greatest probability and impact followed by rat pest, tornado, drought, fire. The public recognizes the signs of a continuous flooding of heavy rains accompanied by clouds all over the edge, the continuous rise of the Juwana River surface to overflow, ants, isoptera, and animals out of its nest, “Yuyu Bule”, earthworms out, clear water for “Rowo floods ”, Brownish water for the flash floods. Most residents have boats and can make rafts from makeshift materials (jerry cans, bamboo, banana stems. Make “Ranggon” at home for those who do not evacuate for a place to stay during the flood. Citizens elevate the kitchen (to evacuate people and goods / household furniture. Breeding Tyto Alba owl for rats pest control post-flood and controllers in the fields. Develop vegetable crops in the yard with viticulture pattern (upstairs if flood can be moved and can eat vegetables during flood. Have food reserves for stock before outside help comes. Citizens initiate “Water Bath honesty” to meet the water needs during the dry season.

  9. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Nakamura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR, germinated brown rice (GBR and partially-milled rice (PMR contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR. Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled, and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society.

  10. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg -1 , dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and rice samples, respectively, median PA concentrations were 5438 and 1906 mg kg -1 , and median PA:Zn molar ratios were 29 and 13. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements (mg kg -1 , dry weight) in brown and white rice samples, respectively, were: As = 0.030 and 0.006; Cd  ≤ 0.002 and 0.006; Pb = 0.008 and 0.008. Approximately 95 % of As was found to be inorganic As, where this could be quantified. Malawian rice, like the more widely consumed staple grain maize, contains inadequate Ca, I, Se or Zn to meet dietary requirements. Biofortification strategies could significantly increase Se and Zn concentrations and require further investigation. Concentrations of Fe in rice grain varied

  11. 75 FR 56911 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and... reviewing the United States Standards and grading procedures for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice under the Agriculture Marketing Act of 1946 (AMA). Since the standards were last revised...

  12. Genetic potentiality of indigenous rice genotypes from Eastern India with reference to submergence tolerance and deepwater traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayani Goswami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Submergence tolerance in rice varieties is crucial for maintaining stable yields in low land areas, where recurrence of flooding is a constant phenomenon during monsoon. We have conducted detailed physiological and genotyping studies of 27 rice genotypes and one wild rice relative, popularly grown in low land areas of the two major rice growing states of eastern India, West Bengal and Odisha with a focus on submergence tolerance traits and Sub1 loci. We found that these genotypes show varying degree (50–100% survival rate during post submergence recovery period, and high degree of polymorphism in the Sub1 linked rice microsatellite loci RM219 and RM7175. Detailed allelic diversity study of Sub1A loci suggests that rice varieties IR42, Panibhasha, Khoda and Kalaputia share a common allele that is different from FR13A, Keralasundari, Bhashakalmi, Kumrogore. Two other genotypes Meghi and Khoda shares both alleles of Sub1A loci (present in IR42 and FR13A groups in addition to a new variant. Detailed sequence analysis of the amplified product for the Sub1A loci from these genotypes showed several single nucleotide changes with respect to reference Oryza sativa Sub1A loci (DQ011598. Three rice genotypes (Meghi, Bhashakalmi and Keralasundari showed beneficial properties in relation to induced submergence stress and can be considered as valuable genetic source in context of utilization of natural rice genetic resources in breeding program for submergence tolerance.

  13. Influence of Rapeseed Cake on Heavy Metal Uptake by a Subsequent Rice Crop After Phytoextraction Using Sedum plumbizincicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liqiang; Wu, Longhua; Li, Zhu; Yang, Bingfan; Yin, Bin; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A glasshouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of phytoextraction by Sedum plumbizincicola and application of rapeseed cake (RSC) on heavy metal accumulation by a subsequent rice (Oryza sativa L.) crop in a contaminated paddy soil collected from east China. After phytoextraction by S. plumbizincicola the soil and brown rice Cd concentrations effectively declined. After phytoextraction, RSC application reduced brown rice Cd concentrations in the subsequent rice crop to 0.23-0.28 mg kg(-1), almost down to the standard limit (0.2 mg kg(-1)). After phytoextraction and then application of RSC, the soil solution pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations increased during early stages of rice growth resulting directly and indirectly in lowering the bioavailability of the heavy metals. Thus the grain yield of the subsequent rice crop increased and the heavy metals in the brown rice declined significantly. In this contaminated acid soil, growing the hyperaccumulator S. plumbizincicola and rice in rotation together with RSC application may therefore be regarded as a viable strategy for safe grain production and bioremediation.

  14. Monitoring leaf photosynthesis with canopy spectral reflectance in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Y.; Zhu, Y.; Cao, W.

    2005-01-01

    We determined the quantitative relationships between leaf photosynthetic characteristics (LPC) and canopy spectral reflectance under different water supply and nitrogen application rates in rice plants. The responses of reflectance at red radiation (680 nm) to different water contents and N rates were parallel to those of leaf net photosynthetic rate (PN). The relationships of reflectance at 680 nm and ratio index of R(810,680) (near infrared/red) to PN of different leaf positions and layers indicated that the top two full leaves were the best positions for quantitative monitoring of PN with remote sensing technique, and the index R(810,680) was the best ratio index for evaluating LPC. Testing of the models with independent data sets indicated that R(810,680) could well estimate PN of the top two leaves and canopy leaf photosynthetic potential. Hence R(810,680) can be used to monitor LPC in rice under diverse growing conditions

  15. December, 2013 ISSN 1119-944X 167 Rice Production under

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONIKOYI

    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa with a population of over 130 ... consumed in South East Asia, which is a major centre of the world population. ... Studies have shown that aggregate rice production in Nigeria has been growing at.

  16. Effect of a combination of two rice herbicides on the cyanobacterium, Nostoc spongiaeforme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacteria grow in California rice fields where they form large mats that may smoother seedlings or cause them to dislodge, resulting in yield loss. The most troublesome species is Nostoc spongiaeforme. It is very difficult to control using currently accepted methods, i.e., aerial applications of...

  17. Can rice (Oryza sativa) mitigate pesticides and nutrients in agricultural runoff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation of nutrients and pesticides in runoff is a growing conservation effort, particularly in agriculturally intensive areas such as the lower Mississippi River Valley. In the current study, rice (Oryza sativa) was examined for its mitigation capacity of nitrogen, phosphorus, diazinon, a...

  18. Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and can be increased by diet like white rice (WR). Though brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) have high antioxidant potentials as a result of their bioactive compounds, reports of their effects on oxidative stress-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes are lacking. We hypothesized therefore that if BR and GBR were to improve antioxidant status, they would be better for rice consuming populations inst...

  19. Diversity of global rice markets and the science required for consumer-targeted rice breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of different quality traits that make up the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice ...

  20. Rice varieties in relation to rice bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hye Min; Cho, Jun Hyeon; Kang, Hang Won; Koh, Bong Kyung

    2012-05-01

    It is difficult to predict rice bread quality only from the amylose content (AC) or dough characteristics of new lines produced by rice breeding programmes. This study investigated the AC relative to bread baking quality of rice varieties developed in Korea, and identified specific characteristics that contribute to rice bread quality. Manmibyeo, Jinsumi, Seolgaeng and Hanareumbyeo were classified as low AC, YR24088 Acp9, Suweon517, Chenmaai and Goamibyeo as intermediate AC and Milyang261 as high AC. Suweon517, Milyang261 and Manmibyeo had a high water absorption index (WAI), while Goamibyeo, YR24088 Acp9, Jinsumi, Seolgaeng, Hanareumbyeo and Chenmaai had a low WAI. The gelatinisation enthalpy of flour varied from 9.2 J g(-1) in Milyang261 to 14.8 J g(-1) in YR24088 Acp9. After 7 days of storage the rate of flour retrogradation and crumb firmness were weakly correlated, with the exception of Jinsumi. Bread volumes of Jinsumi, Chenmaai, YR24088 Acp9 and Goamibyeo were comparable to that of wheat flour, but the rest were unsuited to bread making because of their low volume and hard crumb texture. Based on volume, texture and crumb firmness ratio, Chenmaai and Goamibyeo were the most appropriate varieties for making bread. An intermediate AC and low WAI were the primary indicators of rice bread flour quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Organization of growing random networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2001-01-01

    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A k . When A k grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N k (t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A k growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A k is asymptotically linear, N k (t)∼tk -ν , with ν dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2 -2 power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network

  2. MoonVillage: Frame & Opportunity for Space Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.

    2017-09-01

    We shall discuss the frame and opportunity for space economy in the context of elaborating the concept of a Moon Village with the goal of a sustainable human presence and activity on the lunar surface as an ensemble where multiple users can carry out multiple activities. This enterprise can federate all interested Nations and partners, in particular from terrestrial and non space commercial sectors .

  3. Evaluation of oral vaccination of village chickens against newcastle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the suitability of soaked parboiled cracked maize as a carrier of I-2 vaccine for oral immunization of village chickens. Chickens were vaccinated once via ocular route and orally with cracked maize at the second and fifth weeks of the experiment. Post vaccination serum was collected 4, 7, ...

  4. K'qizaghetnu Ht'ana (Stories from Lime Village).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobby, Pete; And Others

    A cross section of Athabascan life as related by eight inhabitants of Lime Village, Alaska, is given in this document. The short narratives are printed in English and in Dena'ina. Illustrations accompany the text. The stories tell of making eagle feather robes, birchbark or mooseskin boats, a raincoat from black bear intestines, and boots from…

  5. Structural-functional development policies for converted villages to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After scoring each item and placing in a SWOT matrix it could be possible to propose special policies and plans for each settlements. The method can be easily applied in rural centers and small cities to help local authorities to make proper developmental decisions. Keywords: Converted villages to city centers, urban ...

  6. Analysis of Edible Mushroom Marketing in Three Villages in Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the marketing of edible mushroom in three villages (Alesi, Ekukunela ... The socio-economic characteristics of sellers, profit margin and marketing ... One hundred and twenty respondents were interviewed at three different markets in three selected ... The concentration of sellers is low while entry is free.

  7. Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site: Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC. National Register of Historic Places.

    This guide provides history and social studies teachers, at all grade levels, with information and activities about the American Indians of the Northern Plains who lived in the area of the Knife River where it enters the Missouri River. Located in what is now North Dakota, this area is the Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site. The…

  8. Village facilities and social place attachment in the rural Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieling, J.; Haartsen, T.; Vermeij, Lotte; Svels, Kristina

    Economies of scale and increased mobility have led to the closure of many village facilities. Most residents do not rely on locally available facilities anymore for their primary function. However, facilities are also meeting places. A decline in facilities may therefore negatively influence

  9. State-owned versus township and village enterprises in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Sun, L.; Zou, L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date survey of the comparison issue between state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and township-village enterprises (TVEs) in China. Although TVEs are at a disadvantage in areas such as technology, labor skills, education levels of staff access to bank loans and government

  10. State-owned versus township and village enterprises in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Sun, L.; Zou, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date survey of the comparison issue between state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and township-village enterprises (TVEs) in China. Although TVEs are disadvantaged in areas such as technology, labour skills, education levels of staff, access to bank loans and government

  11. Market Segmentation: An Application to the Schist Village Tourism Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Martinho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The Schist Village network is a sustainable development project in Portugal’s Pinhal Interior region that includes 27 villages located in the central inland area of the country. Overall, this study sets out evidence about the motivations, interests, behaviors, and images of visitors/tourists (tourism consumers regarding the Schist Villages in the area. Design/Methodology/Approach – The sample of individuals interviewed includes a total of 223 individuals (59 international and 164 national tourists, all of whom personally answered the questionnaire. Findings and implications – Through analysis of the survey results obtained, it is possible to chart a profile of Schist Village visitors/tourists, ascertain their preferences and the key attributes associated with the image of this tourist destination and, based on these, put forward strongly focused orientations and guidelines to help develop future marketing plans for this territory. Limitations – One limitation stems from how the data was gathered and analyzed constitutes but a mere “moment” in a fairly vast and dynamic universe given that the questionnaires were completed across a defined and fairly brief period of time. The fact that the questionnaires were handed out by network partners effectively excluded from the study all those tourism consumers who travel and visit the territory without any direct recourse to the services of the aforementioned partners. Originality – This study presents an easy and clear way to segment the market that could be used by several stakeholders in order to improve their targeting activities.

  12. Morphological diversity in fourteen cultivars Tiron village, Kediri, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azis Fuad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tiron village, Kediri is one of central mangoes in Indonesia. Many cultivar of mangoes encountered at this location. This study aims to look at the diversity of mango cultivars in the Tiron Village, Kediri, Indonesia. Mangoes diversity is based on qualitative and quantitative character of each cultivar. The diversity among cultivar indicated by the standard deviation and variance in the eleven quantitative characters of mango. Mango cultivars categorized by phylogeny morphological characters. The method used for phylogeny analysis is an UPGMA method (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean. Phylogenic analysis is based by the qualitative character of the plant. The results showed there were fourteen cultivars of mango in the village of Tiron Kediri have high diversity. Fourteen mango cultivars were categorized four groups. Based on a qualitative character, there are four classes of mango. The first group is the Katul, Podang Urang, and Podang Lumut. The second group is the Gadung, Jaran, Madu, Endog, Pakel, Dodonilo, Ireng, Lanang and Cantek. Santok Kapur into groups to form groups of three and Kopyor fourth. The high diversity in the village mango Tiron Kediri potential for resource in situ germplasm.

  13. Community Development Agency in Developing Village in The Lamongan District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Muhtarom

    2017-03-01

    Privileges Institute for Community Empowerment  In Development In Rural System In the Village Administration is (1 Plan development by consensus, (2 Mobilize and increase community participation in the implementation of development, (3 Cultivate dynamic condition of society and increase resilience in the district that studied to perform the function and role in the development of the Institute for Community Empowerment must comply with the rules villages and villages that have been made. However, there are some good functions to be executed to enhance the development of the Institute for Community Empowerment, namely (1 As a means of community participation in planning and implementing development; (2 Cultivating understanding and appreciation and awareness of the Pancasila; (3 Digging, harness, potential and mobilize self-help mutual aid societies to develop; (4 As a means of communication between the Government and the community and between citizens themselves; (5 Improving the knowledge and skills of the community; (6 To foster and mobilize the potential of the youth in development; (7 Fostering cooperation between institutions in society for development; (8 Implementation of other tasks in order to help the village government to build resilience established. Keywords: Role of the Institute of Community and Rural Development.

  14. Digital Citizenship in K-12: It Takes a Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollandsworth, Randy; Dowdy, Lena; Donovan, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Digital citizenship encompasses a wide range of behaviors with varying degrees of risk and possible negative consequences. Lack of digital citizenship awareness and education can, and has, led to problematic, even dangerous student conduct. If our educational village does not address these issues, the digital culture establishes its own direction,…

  15. Menopausal challenges as perceived by women in rural villages of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored the challenges of menopause as perceived by participants in rural villages of Vhembe District. A cross-sectional study involved a sample of 500 women between the ages of 40 years and above. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data and was analysed descriptively. The results indicated that ...

  16. Life in Remote Villages, Book A, Explorations in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mid-Continent Regional Educational Lab., Inc., Kansas City, MO.

    The booklet is part of a series which tests some skills biologists use in their investigations. A series of drawings of the inhabitants of two fictional villages, and a number of extracts of literature concerning congenital malformations, introduce the first question in this test, which asks students to identify an unusual event shown in the…

  17. medicinal plant use of villagers in the mopani district, limpopo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alinah Chauke

    These studies may guide the regulation of herbal medicine industry in South. Africa. Key words: Ethnobotanical, Medicinal plants, Mashishimale village. Introduction. Reviews of literature involving research of medicinal plants suggest that scientists follow more or less the same general strategy to investigate plant materials ...

  18. Overview of village scale, renewable energy powered desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K.E.

    1997-04-01

    An overview of desalination technologies is presented, focusing on those technologies appropriate for use in remote villages, and how they can be powered using renewable energy. Technologies are compared on the basis of capital cost, lifecycle cost, operations and maintenance complexity, and energy requirements. Conclusions on the appropriateness of different technologies are drawn, and recommendations for future research are given.

  19. Conceptualizing responsible innovation in craft villages in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voeten, J.; de Haan, J.A.C.; Roome, N.; de Groot, G.A.; Nguyen Thi, Huong; van den Hoven, J.; Doorn, N.; Swierstra, T.; Koops, B.-J.; Romijn, H.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research by the authors has explored small-scale innovations in poor craft producers’ clusters in villages in the Red River Delta in northern Vietnam. Although these innovations resulted in value creation and increased incomes, they also often gave rise to negative environmental or social

  20. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in villages under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medicinal plants remain an integral part of the lives of people in rural areas. The aim of this study was to document information about the medicinal plants used by Shangaan people in villages under Jongilanga tribal council, Bushbuckridge municipality, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Materials and ...

  1. Ekspansif soil solution in the villages at Trenggalek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triastuti, Nusa Setiani

    2017-11-01

    District 2/3 hills with easy sliding and land survey results showed the soil because it consists of expansive soil Survey some villages who experience insatiability or failure, a secondary analysis of the data gathered from the expert on geology, Trenggalek geological map, Trenggalek geography. Ground location researched several villages, the Terbis village of focus discussion of the landslides and plan of relocation. In the watching a black. Colored soil and easily slide, showed very expansive soil due to montmorrelite. While soil relocation contour relative is more stable because the land of kaolin and invisible water sources that could push the land. Expansive soil in the village of solution should be cheap, easily obtainable, not damaging the fertility of the soil, groundwater should be awake to the source of life, ease of implementation, utilizing local materials and use modest tools and equipment. Under the soil surface do not get there water stored in the soil until deep the water because it will slide the ground. The analysis must meet the 7 items above and steady the contour. Design of building installed sub drain, the shallow bore foundations tied tie beam, floor plate into the unity of the structure.

  2. Pennsylvania Village to Get Safe, Reliable Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Pennsylvania village whose unfiltered, contaminated water source made it the top violator of federal and state drinking water laws will be connected to a public water system in 2015 with $2.2 million from EPA’s Drinking Water State Revolving Fund

  3. Sustainability Literacy of Older People in Retirement Villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With many developed countries experiencing the aging of the population, older people play a large role in contributing to environmental problems but also to environmental solutions. The purpose of this research is to understand the awareness and behavior of current older people living in retirement villages towards sustainability development. To achieve this, a sustainability literacy survey was conducted with 65 older residents of a private retirement village located 10 Km outside the Brisbane, Australia’s central business district (CBD. Most of residents recognized the importance of environment protection and would like to lead a more environmentally friendly lifestyle. In addition, the majority were willing to pay higher prices for a living environment with sustainable features. The importance of positive social communications was emphasized with most residents having established good relationships with others in the village. The findings provide an important insight into consumer perspectives regarding the sustainable features that should and can be incorporated into the village planning and development.

  4. Economics of fuel energy in an Indian village ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisanka, S.K.; Misra, M.K.; Sahu, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    Fuel energy consumption pattern and its associated socio-economic factors have been intensively studied in the Bhabinarayanpur village ecosystem, Orissa, located on the east coast of India. About 21% of the gross annual income of the village is devoted to the fuels. Biomass, which is mostly collected free from the environment, is the major source of fuel energy. It constitutes 94.1% of the total fuel consumption. Family size and consumption of cereals and legumes significantly influence fuel use. However, there is no significant correlation between fuel consumption and other variables such as farm size, income and number of earning members in the family. The efficiency of the traditional stove is low in respect of all the biomass fuels for which more than three-quarters of the total energy is lost in the village. There is scope for improving the efficiency of fuel consumption and for ensuring a continuous supply of fuel energy to the village, for which suggestions have been made. (author)

  5. Novel uses of rice-husk-ash (a natural silica-carbon matrix) in low-cost water purification applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Chetan; Patil, Rajshree; Kausley, Shankar; Ahmad, Dilshad

    2013-06-01

    Rice-husk-ash is used as the base material for developing novel compositions to deal with the challenge of purifying drinking water in low-income households in India. For example, rice-husk-ash cast in a matrix of cement and pebbles can be formed into a filtration bed which can trap up to 95% of turbidity and bacteria present in water. This innovation was proliferated in villages across India as a do-it-yourself rural water filter. Another innovation involves embedding silver nanoparticles within the rice husk ash matrix to create a bactericidal filtration bed which has now been commercialized in India as a low-cost for-profit household water purifier. Other innovations include the impregnation of rice-husk-ash with iron hydroxide for the removal of arsenic from water and the impregnation of rice-husk ash with aluminum hydroxide for the removal of fluoride ions from water which together have the potential to benefit over 100 million people across India who are suffering from the health effects of drinking groundwater contaminated with arsenic and fluoride.

  6. Enhanced rice production but greatly reduced carbon emission following biochar amendment in a metal-polluted rice paddy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Afeng; Bian, Rongjun; Li, Lianqing; Wang, Xudong; Zhao, Ying; Hussain, Qaiser; Pan, Genxing

    2015-12-01

    Soil amendment of biochar (BSA) had been shown effective for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and alleviating metal stress to plants and microbes in soil. It has not yet been addressed if biochar exerts synergy effects on crop production, GHG emission, and microbial activity in metal-polluted soils. In a field experiment, biochar was amended at sequential rates at 0, 10, 20, and 40 t ha(-1), respectively, in a cadmium- and lead-contaminated rice paddy from the Tai lake Plain, China, before rice cropping in 2010. Fluxes of soil carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were monitored using a static chamber method during the whole rice growing season (WRGS) of 2011. BSA significantly reduced soil CaCl2 extractable pool of Cd, and DTPA extractable pool of Cd and Pb. As compared to control, soil CO2 emission under BSA was observed to have no change at 10 t ha(-1) but decreased by 16-24% at 20 and 40 t ha(-1). In a similar trend, BSA at 20 and 40 t ha(-1) increased rice yield by 25-26% and thus enhanced ecosystem CO2 sequestration by 47-55% over the control. Seasonal total N2O emission was reduced by 7.1, 30.7, and 48.6% under BSA at 10, 20, and 40 t ha(-1), respectively. Overall, a net reduction in greenhouse gas balance (NGHGB) by 53.9-62.8% and in greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) by 14.3-28.6% was observed following BSA at 20 and 40 t ha(-1). The present study suggested a great potential of biochar to enhancing grain yield while reducing carbon emission in metal-polluted rice paddies.

  7. Droughts and debts: The domestic tea value chain and vulnerable livelihoods in Girimukti village, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyawati Sumadio

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the linkages between the livelihoods of tea smallholders and domestic value chains in Indonesia. Theoretically, our empirical inquiry is informed by an integration of the sustainable livelihoods approach and value chain analyses. This enables a better investigation of micro (livelihoods — meso (industry — macro (national and international trends and political economy interdependencies and interactions. In addition to value chains and socioeconomic challenges, tea smallholders in Indonesia are also confronted with droughts due to climate change and the 2015–2016 El Niño. The empirical work consisted of 36 semi-structured interviews in Girimukti village in West Java; a remote village relatively far from urban markets. Overall, our analysis demonstrates that tea smallholders are not poor, but are in a vulnerable position and remain far below the level of a stable lower-middle class. The smallholders lack human and financial capital and growing tea is not supported by horizontal coordination/social capital. In contrast, a few wealthy tea agripreneurs have established themselves as providers of inputs, intermediaries, tea drying factories, informal rural banks and village philanthropists. In other words, Girimukti is host to a process of increasing rural inequality driven by endogenous actors who are able to accumulate and concentrate tea assets and position themselves as essential nodes within the domestic tea value chain. The adaptive strategy of rural-urban migration from Girimukti to escape rural marginalisation is unattractive because of relatively low human capital levels.

  8. Restoration of mangrove forest landscape in Babulu Laut village, sub district of Babulu, Penajam Paser Utara district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febrina, W. K.; Marjenah; Sumaryono

    2018-04-01

    The reforestation activities of mangrove forest carried out in various regions have not been well known as the success and influence of landscape in rehabilitation area. Utilization of existing land along the coastal Babulu Laut Village has reduced the area of mangrove forest from day to day. Due to the use of land by the community without considering the conservation aspect causes the loss of mangrove forest. This study aims to determine the final condition of the success rate of forest and land rehabilitation, land cover and the benefits of mangrove forest restoration for the surrounding people. The research method used is the preparation and orientation of research location, data input, codefication, data processing, the field verification and analysis of data. The results of the execution of the inventory mangrove in 22 research location in the Babulu Laut Village, Babulu Subdistrict, Penajam Paser Utara District of 125 ha of plant a whole is kind of Rhizophora sp, where the intensity of sampling 2% with the growing plants of 65.92 %or 2,175 stem/ha then success rate of Mangrove Forest Rehabilitation at Babulu Laut Village Babulu Subdistrict is medium level (55-75%).

  9. Detection of genomic deletions in rice using oligonucleotide microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordeos Alicia

    2009-03-01

    database saturated with deletions across the rice genome. This community resource can continue to grow with further hybridizations, allowing researchers to quickly identify mutants that harbor deletions in candidate genomic regions, for example, regions containing QTL of interest.

  10. Self-reliance in health among village women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M L; Chen, P C

    1991-01-01

    A project in a remote region in Sarawak, Malaysia, in which village women were mobilized to plan and implement a kindergarten and child feeding program, illustrates the potential of carefully conceptualized community participation. Permission was obtained from village elders to train 18 mothers (all of whom has at least 4 years of education) to conduct a community needs survey. III health among children emerged as the problem of greatest concern to villagers and a health committee was formed to plan an intervention. Although a team of outside professionals was available for technical support, the emphasis from he onset was on developing self-reliance and community involvement in all decisions. To build confidence and develop leadership, a month-long participatory training course in promotive health care was organized by village health volunteers. Preparation for the project included conversion of an unused hut into a kindergarten and construction of furniture by village men, registration of preschool children, preparation of educational materials, and organization of a kitchen and duty roster for the feeding program. Project funding came from local bake sales and kindergarten subscriptions. Monitoring during the initial phase identified several problems, such as food shortages brought about by drought, some parents' inability to pay for kindergarten services, and a lack of trust in the teacher's abilities. These problems were corrected by the field team, but subsequent supervisory visits focused on teaching problem-solving skills to the local women. An evaluation conducted 1 year after program implementation revealed dramatic increases in the proportion of households producing fruits and vegetables, a higher percentage of breastfeeding mothers, and improvements in weight-for-age among kindergartners.

  11. Mapping regional risks from climate change for rainfed rice cultivation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuntal; McClean, Colin J; Büker, Patrick; Hartley, Sue E; Hill, Jane K

    2017-09-01

    Global warming is predicted to increase in the future, with detrimental consequences for rainfed crops that are dependent on natural rainfall (i.e. non-irrigated). Given that many crops grown under rainfed conditions support the livelihoods of low-income farmers, it is important to highlight the vulnerability of rainfed areas to climate change in order to anticipate potential risks to food security. In this paper, we focus on India, where ~ 50% of rice is grown under rainfed conditions, and we employ statistical models (climate envelope models (CEMs) and boosted regression trees (BRTs)) to map changes in climate suitability for rainfed rice cultivation at a regional level (~ 18 × 18 km cell resolution) under projected future (2050) climate change (IPCC RCPs 2.6 and 8.5, using three GCMs: BCC-CSM1.1, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, and HadGEM2-ES). We quantify the occurrence of rice (whether or not rainfed rice is commonly grown, using CEMs) and rice extent (area under cultivation, using BRTs) during the summer monsoon in relation to four climate variables that affect rice growth and yield namely ratio of precipitation to evapotranspiration ( PER ), maximum and minimum temperatures ( T max and T min ), and total rainfall during harvesting. Our models described the occurrence and extent of rice very well (CEMs for occurrence, ensemble AUC = 0.92; BRTs for extent, Pearson's r = 0.87). PER was the most important predictor of rainfed rice occurrence, and it was positively related to rainfed rice area, but all four climate variables were important for determining the extent of rice cultivation. Our models project that 15%-40% of current rainfed rice growing areas will be at risk (i.e. decline in climate suitability or become completely unsuitable). However, our models project considerable variation across India in the impact of future climate change: eastern and northern India are the locations most at risk, but parts of central and western India may benefit from increased

  12. Greenhouse gas budget from a rice paddy field in the Albufera of Valencia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijide, Ana; López-Ballesteros, Ana; Calvo-Roselló, Esperanza; López-Jiménez, Ramón; Recio-Huetos, Jaime; Calatayud, Vicent; Carrara, Arnaud; Serrano-Ortiz, Penelope

    2017-04-01

    Rice paddy fields are large sources of anthropogenic methane (CH4) and therefore many studies have assessed CH4 fluxes from rice paddy fields, mainly in Asia where most of the rice cultivation takes place. However, rice is also cultivated in the Mediterranean, where climatic and management conditions greatly differ. In the Albufera of Valencia, the largest freshwater lagoon in Spain, rice paddy fields have the particularity of being flooded not only while the rice grows, but also after the harvest during the winter. These flooding conditions might result in emissions which are very specific of this ecosystem, and cannot be extrapolated from other studies. We studied CH4 fluxes in a rice paddy field in the Albufera of Valencia at different stages of rice cultivation using the eddy covariance technique and static chambers. We additionally measured carbon dioxide (CO2), water fluxes and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes with eddy covariance and chamber methods respectively, in order to obtain a full greenhouse gas (GHG) budget. Our study also aimed at providing a mechanistic understanding of GHG emissions at different stages of rice cultivation, and therefore we also used the Enhanced and Normalized Vegetation Indexes (EVI and NDVI, respectively), derived from remote sensing images. The general ecosystem functioning encompasses three different phases. The first one, over the autumn and the winter, a biological dormancy period causes low CO2 emissions (ca. 1-5 µmol m-2 s-1), which coincides with the EVI and NDVI. The intermittent flooding taking place during this period is expected to cause CH4 emissions. Then, during the spring months (March-May), larger CO2 respiratory emissions take place during the daytime (> 5 µmol m-2 s-1) due to an increase in air temperature, which turn to neutral at the end of spring due to the start of photosynthesis by the rice. The third phase corresponds to the vegetation growth, when the net CO2 uptake increases gradually up to maximum CO2

  13. A Non-destructive and Continuous Measurement of Gelatinization of Rice in Rice Cooking Process

    OpenAIRE

    Hagura, Yoshio; Suzuki, Kanichi

    2002-01-01

    A non-destructive and continuous method to measure gelatinization of rice samples in a rice-water system during rice cooking process was examined. An aluminum pot and a lid of a rice cooker were used as two electrode plates, and changes in dielectric properties (capacitance : C, and dielectric dissipation factor : tan δ) of the samples in the rice cooking process were measured by a capacitance meter. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure gelatinization enthalpy and to de...

  14. Effect of Rice bran on the Quality of Rice Flour Breads (Gluten-free)

    OpenAIRE

    仲上, 晴世; 矢部, えん; Haruyo, Nakagami; En, Yabe

    2016-01-01

    Over recent years progress has been made in the development of substitute foods for allergy patients. One such is rice flour bread. However, typically rice flour bread uses polysaccharide thickener in substitution for the gluten in wheat. Most polysaccharide thickeners are of dietary fiber origin, and the nutritive value is poor. Therefore, in this study, I made rice flour bread adding rice bran in place of polysaccharide thickener. Various nutrients are included in rice bran, including vitam...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECT OF GROWING MISCANTHUS GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián KOTRLA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deliberate cultivation of plants for energy biomass is becoming increasingly important. Biomass should significantly contribute to increase the share of renewable energy in the European Union. On the research locality of Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra localized in the village Kolíňany (Slovak Republic is implemented basic research focused on the growth and production of the two genotypes energy grass Miscanthus. Research is carried out since 2010. In the third year after planting (the year 2012 were confirmed biomass production depending on the genotype of 35.45 and 36.67 t ha-1. Based on the analysis of growth and production performance of Miscanthus genotypes can be evaluated the high environmental and socio-economic aspects of growing energy crops, depending on the specific agro-ecological conditions.

  16. FLUORIDE LEVELS IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE RICE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2013-05-05

    May 5, 2013 ... Rice is one of the commonly consumed cereals for more than half of the ... also used as flour, for making rice wine, as ingredient for beer and liquor, ... Fluoride is a necessary element to human health, and a moderate amount of fluoride intake ... For Ethiopian red rice (ERR) Fogera was selected to collect.

  17. Impact of bio-processing on rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLAU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The usual way of preparing rice is boiling, thermal process that gives it a lower digestibility as compared to instantiation, extrusion or expandation. Having in view this fact, the possibility to biotechnologically improve the boiled rice digestibility was investigated in a laboratory study. In this respect, boiled rice wassolid state fermented using a strain of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, an amylase producing yeast originating from ragi. Fermented rice was then analyzed from the point of view of its content in easily assimilable sugars, protein, amino-acids, phosphorus and vitamins from B group. Biochemical analyses revealed that the fermented rice has a ten times higher content of reducing sugars than boiled rice, due to starch hydrolysis, while chromatographic studies proved that the fermented rice contains glucose, maltose, maltotriose and maltotetrose that are easily assimilable carbohydrates.Fermented rice has a protein content that is two times higher than that of boiled rice because it contains the yeast biomass, and is enriched in vitamins from B group (B1, B2, and B6 that are synthesized by the yeast. Inorganic phosphorus present in rice doubles its concentration in fermented rice, which means thatphosphorus bioavailability is increased.The sensorial profile of boiled rice is also improved by fermentation.This study proves the possibility to have a processing method which is relatively cheap, practical and of which the resulting product has good nutritive qualities and does not pose safety problems due to pure culture utilization as starter.

  18. PICTORIAL INTERLUDES Flake-shaped rice bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    removing the rice bodies and the bursa.3. In summary: rice bodies can occur without underlying systemic disorder, have different shapes and sizes, and have specific signal characteristics on. MRI that allow discrimination from synovial chondromatosis. 1. Cheung HS, Ryan LM, Kozin F, McCarty DJ. Synovial origins of rice ...

  19. New market opportunities for rice grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding efforts for rice have been focusing on increasing yield and improving quality (milling yield and grain quality), while maintaining cooked rice sensory properties to meet consumer preferences. These breeding targets will no doubt continue as the main foci for the rice industry. However, the ...

  20. Arsenic in rice: A cause for concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all rice products, stri...

  1. Consumer preference mapping for rice product concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Chaveesuk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries is decreasing constantly, but American and European citizens are eating more rice nowadays. A preference study among consumers was carried out with the aim of determining new rice product characteristics in order to support export of Thai

  2. Spatiotemporal analysis the precipitation extremes affecting rice yield in Jiangsu province, southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Islam, A. R. M. Towfiqul; Zhang, Fangmin; Hu, Zhenghua

    2017-10-01

    With the increasing risk of meteorological disasters, it is of great importance to analyze the spatiotemporal changes of precipitation extremes and its possible impact on rice productivity, especially in Jiangsu province, southeast China. In this study, we explored the relationships between rice yield and extreme precipitation indices using Mann-Kendall trend test, Pettitt's test, and K-means clustering methods. This study used 10 extreme precipitation indices of the rice growing season (May to October) based on the daily precipitation records and rice yield data at 52 meteorological stations during 1961-2012 in Jiangsu province. The main findings were as follows: (1) correlation results indicated that precipitation extremes occurred in the months of July, August, and October, which had noticeable adverse effects on rice yield; (2) the maximum 7-day precipitation of July and the number of rainy days of August and October should be considered as three key indicators for the precipitation-induced rice meteorological disasters; and (3) most of the stations showed an increasing trends for the maximum 7-day precipitation of July and the number of rainy days of August, while the number of rainy days of October in all the stations demonstrated a decreasing trend. Moreover, Jiangsu province could be divided into two major sub-regions such as north and south areas with different temporal variations in the three key indicators.

  3. Spatiotemporal analysis the precipitation extremes affecting rice yield in Jiangsu province, southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Islam, A R M Towfiqul; Zhang, Fangmin; Hu, Zhenghua

    2017-10-01

    With the increasing risk of meteorological disasters, it is of great importance to analyze the spatiotemporal changes of precipitation extremes and its possible impact on rice productivity, especially in Jiangsu province, southeast China. In this study, we explored the relationships between rice yield and extreme precipitation indices using Mann-Kendall trend test, Pettitt's test, and K-means clustering methods. This study used 10 extreme precipitation indices of the rice growing season (May to October) based on the daily precipitation records and rice yield data at 52 meteorological stations during 1961-2012 in Jiangsu province. The main findings were as follows: (1) correlation results indicated that precipitation extremes occurred in the months of July, August, and October, which had noticeable adverse effects on rice yield; (2) the maximum 7-day precipitation of July and the number of rainy days of August and October should be considered as three key indicators for the precipitation-induced rice meteorological disasters; and (3) most of the stations showed an increasing trends for the maximum 7-day precipitation of July and the number of rainy days of August, while the number of rainy days of October in all the stations demonstrated a decreasing trend. Moreover, Jiangsu province could be divided into two major sub-regions such as north and south areas with different temporal variations in the three key indicators.

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Early Responsive Genes in Rice during Magnaporthe oryzae Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most serious diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L. in most rice-growing regions of the world. In order to investigate early response genes in rice, we utilized the transcriptome analysis approach using a 300 K tilling microarray to rice leaves infected with compatible and incompatible M. oryzae strains. Prior to the microarray experiment, total RNA was validated by measuring the differential expression of rice defense-related marker genes (chitinase 2, barwin, PBZ1, and PR-10 by RT-PCR, and phytoalexins (sakuranetin and momilactone A with HPLC. Microarray analysis revealed that 231 genes were up-regulated (>2 fold change, p < 0.05 in the incompatible interaction compared to the compatible one. Highly expressed genes were functionally characterized into metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction categories. The oxidative stress response was induced in both early and later infection stages. Biotic stress overview from MapMan analysis revealed that the phytohormone ethylene as well as signaling molecules jasmonic acid and salicylic acid is important for defense gene regulation. WRKY and Myb transcription factors were also involved in signal transduction processes. Additionally, receptor-like kinases were more likely associated with the defense response, and their expression patterns were validated by RT-PCR. Our results suggest that candidate genes, including receptor-like protein kinases, may play a key role in disease resistance against M. oryzae attack.

  5. Rhizobial Inoculation, Alone or Coinoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, Promotes Growth of Wetland Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Hahn

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rhizobia and associative bacteria promote growth in rice plants (Oryza sativa L. through a series of mechanisms, but most studies on inoculation have been performed based on inoculation with these bacteria in a separate or singular manner. The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of single/isolated inoculation and inoculation combined with symbiotic rhizobia from forage legume and with Azospirillum brasilense on promoting growth and the root colonization process in wetland rice. Two rhizobia among four isolates from a greenhouse and a laboratory experiment were selected that efficiently promoted seed germination and rice plant growth in a sterilized substrate and in soil. The two most efficient isolates (UFRGS Vp16 and UFRGS Lc348 were inoculated alone or in combination with a commercial product containing A. brasilense in two field experiments using two wetland rice cultivars over two growing seasons. In the field experiments, these isolates coinoculated with A. brasilense promoted larger increases in the agronomic variables of wetland rice compared to the control without inoculation. Confocal laser microscopy confirmed the presence of inoculated bacteria tagged with gfp (UFRGS Vp16, UFRGS Lc348, and A. brasilense colonizing the root surface of the rice seedlings, mainly in the root hairs and lateral roots.

  6. Characteristics of the water footprint of rice production under different rainfall years in Jilin Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongying; Qin, Lijie; He, Hongshi

    2018-06-01

    Rice is a special crop, and its production differs from that of other crops because it requires a thin layer of water coverage for a long period. The calculation of the water footprint of rice production should differ from that of other crops owing to the rice growing process. This study improved the calculation of blue and grey water footprints of rice production and analyzed the variations in the water footprints for rice production under different rainfall years in Jilin Province. In the drought year, the green water footprint was the lowest and the blue water footprint was the highest among the three years, while in the humid year, the green water footprint was the highest and the blue water footprint was not the lowest. The areas with higher water footprints were found in the east and west regions of Jilin Province, while the areas with lower water footprints were found in the middle east and middle regions of Jilin Province. Blue water was the primary water resource for rice production, although more precipitation provided the highest green water in the humid year; also, the spatial distributions of water footprints were not the same under different rainfall years. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Rhizosphere biodegradation of xenobiotics: Microbiological study of a rice field polluted by oil refinery residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasolomanana, J.L.; Balandreau, J.

    1987-07-01

    A rice field had been studied in which the disposal of oil residues from a refinery plant seemed to improve rice growth and soil N content. To check the hypothesis that nitrogen fixation by oil-adapted bacteria could explain this observation we isolated and studied dominant diazotrophic bacteria from the rhizosphere of an actively N/sub 2/-fixing rice plant growing on the polluted soil; for this purpose we used an axenic plant as an enrichment step. The rhizosphere did not contain more than 10/sup 5/ N/sub 2/-fixing bacteria per g dry soil, essentially Bacillus polymyxa; one of the isolates, strain R3 could grow and reduce C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ on oil residues only in the presence of glucose or of exudates from an axenic plant (spermosphere model); the presence of R3 diminished the inhibition of rice growth due to the oil residues; R3 nitrogenase activity in the rhizosphere of rice was increased in the presence of these residues. This cometabolism of oil residues in the presence of exudates and their stimulating effect on N/sub 2/ fixation provide a likely explanation for observed positive effects of the disposal of oil residues on arable lands, and are conducive to the hypothesis that rhizosphere cometabolism could greatly enhance soil organic matter turn over and humification rates.

  8. Asian wild rice is a hybrid swarm with extensive gene flow and feralization from domesticated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongru; Vieira, Filipe G; Crawford, Jacob E; Chu, Chengcai; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-06-01

    The domestication history of rice remains controversial, with multiple studies reaching different conclusions regarding its origin(s). These studies have generally assumed that populations of living wild rice, O. rufipogon , are descendants of the ancestral population that gave rise to domesticated rice, but relatively little attention has been paid to the origins and history of wild rice itself. Here, we investigate the genetic ancestry of wild rice by analyzing a diverse panel of rice genomes consisting of 203 domesticated and 435 wild rice accessions. We show that most modern wild rice is heavily admixed with domesticated rice through both pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow. In fact, much presumed wild rice may simply represent different stages of feralized domesticated rice. In line with this hypothesis, many presumed wild rice varieties show remnants of the effects of selective sweeps in previously identified domestication genes, as well as evidence of recent selection in flowering genes possibly associated with the feralization process. Furthermore, there is a distinct geographical pattern of gene flow from aus , indica , and japonica varieties into colocated wild rice. We also show that admixture from aus and indica is more recent than gene flow from japonica , possibly consistent with an earlier spread of japonica varieties. We argue that wild rice populations should be considered a hybrid swarm, connected to domesticated rice by continuous and extensive gene flow. © 2017 Wang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. Effects of Extraction Methods on Phytochemicals of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Singanusong, Riantong; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kimura, Fumiko; Ito, Junya

    2018-02-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) especially from colored rice is rich in phytochemicals and has become popular in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications owing to its offering health benefits. This study determined the contents of phytochemicals including oryzanols, phytosterols, tocopherols (Toc) and tocotrienols (T3) in RBOs extracted using different methods namely cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO 2 extraction (SC-CO 2 ). Two colored rice, Red Jasmine rice (RJM, red rice) and Hom-nin rice (HN, black rice), were studied in comparison with the popular Thai fragrant rice Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105, white rice). RBOs were found to be the rich source of oryzanols, phytosterols, Toc and T3. Rice varieties had a greater effect on the phytochemicals concentrations than extraction methods. HN rice showed the significantly highest concentration of all phytochemicals, followed by RJM and KDML 105 rice, indicating that colored rice contained high concentration of phytochemicals in the oil than non-colored rice. The RBO samples extracted by the CPE method had a greater concentration of the phytochemicals than those extracted by the SC-CO 2 and SE methods, respectively. In terms of phytochemical contents, HN rice extracted using CPE method was found to be the best.

  10. Induction of Xa10-like Genes in Rice Cultivar Nipponbare Confers Disease Resistance to Rice Bacterial Blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Tian, Dongsheng; Gu, Keyu; Yang, Xiaobei; Wang, Lanlan; Zeng, Xuan; Yin, Zhongchao

    2017-06-01

    Bacterial blight of rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, is one of the most destructive bacterial diseases throughout the major rice-growing regions in the world. The rice disease resistance (R) gene Xa10 confers race-specific disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains that deliver the corresponding transcription activator-like (TAL) effector AvrXa10. Upon bacterial infection, AvrXa10 binds specifically to the effector binding element in the promoter of the R gene and activates its expression. Xa10 encodes an executor R protein that triggers hypersensitive response and activates disease resistance. 'Nipponbare' rice carries two Xa10-like genes in its genome, of which one is the susceptible allele of the Xa23 gene, a Xa10-like TAL effector-dependent executor R gene isolated recently from 'CBB23' rice. However, the function of the two Xa10-like genes in disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains has not been investigated. Here, we designated the two Xa10-like genes as Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni and characterized their function for disease resistance to rice bacterial blight. Both Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni provided disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains that deliver the matching artificially designed TAL effectors (dTALE). Transgenic rice plants containing Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni under the Xa10 promoter provided specific disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains that deliver AvrXa10. Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni knock-out mutants abolished dTALE-dependent disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Heterologous expression of Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni in Nicotiana benthamiana triggered cell death. The 19-amino-acid residues at the N-terminal regions of XA10 or XA10-Ni are dispensable for their function in inducing cell death in N. benthamiana and the C-terminal regions of XA10, XA10-Ni, and XA23-Ni are interchangeable among each other without affecting their function. Like XA10, both XA10-Ni and XA23-Ni locate to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane

  11. Research on the localization method of protecting traditional village landscape: a case study on Tangyin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available China has over 271 million villages and less than the number in ten years ago in which there are 363 million villages. New rural construction indeed do some good for common villages but still destroy hundreds and thousands traditional village which contain great cultural, science, artistic values. In addition, traditional villages can't meet the increasing needs in more convenient and comfortable living conditions. Increasing population also makes traditional villages out of control in construction. With the background of this, we have to set up in traditional village protection. This article put forward an idea in protection which make use of landscape localization to pursue the sustainable development and vernacular landscape protection. Tangyin Town is a famous trade center in history and left many cultural heritage, especially historical buildings. Take Tangyin as a case study to apply the localization method which could guide other similar villages to achieve same goals.

  12. The Rise of Syria’s Urban Poor: Why the War for Syria’s Future Will Be Fought Over the Country’s New Urban Villages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    the words rif and medina have developed not just geographic connotations, but social ones as well. The rif not only describes village farmers but...growing in. The poor farmers were bringing their customs… to cosmopolitan Aleppo. …They were turning their apartments into compact versions of their...opposition activity. Baba Amr, a slum of Homs adjacent to the orchards that once fed the city, is synonymous with the THE RISE OF SYRIA’S POOR

  13. Microbial-driven arsenic cycling in rice paddies amended with monosodium methanearsonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguffin, S. C.; McClung, A.; Rohila, J. S.; Derry, L. A.; Huang, R.; Reid, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Rice consumption is the second largest contributor to human arsenic exposure worldwide and is linked to many serious diseases. Because rice is uniquely adapted for agricultural production under flooded soils, arsenic species solubilized in such environments can be effectively transported into plant tissue via root transporters. Through this process, both inorganic and organic (methylated) arsenic species can accumulate to problematic concentrations and may affect grain yield as well as crop value. The distribution of these species in plant tissue is determined by arsenic sources, as well as enzymatic redox and methylation-demethylation reactions in soils and pore water. Historic use of organoarsenic-based pesticides in US agriculture may provide an enduring source of arsenic in rice paddies. However, it is unclear how persistent these organic species are in the adsorbed phase or how available they remain to rice cultivars throughout the growing season. We conducted a field experiment in a 2x2 factorial design examining the effects of irrigation methods (continuous flooding and alternate wetting and drying) and monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) application on the abundance and speciation of arsenic in pore water, soil, and rice plant tissues. We monitored arsenic speciation and partitioning between these reservoirs at semi-weekly to semi-monthly frequencies. Pore water arsenic speciation was determined using LC-ICP-MS, and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis was employed to speciate the arsenic within solid-phase soil and plant tissue throughout the growing season. These data help clarify the role of two irrigation methods and MSMA amendments for arsenic bioavailability and speciation in rice. Furthermore, the study illuminates the significance of microbial metabolism in the reapportionment of arsenic within the soil-plant-water system and its impact on arsenic levels in rice grains.

  14. Temporal dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities in a genetically modified (GM) rice ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Chang-Gi; Kang, Hojeong

    2011-04-01

    We assessed the temporal dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities in a soil ecosystem supporting genetically modified (GM) rice (Oryza sativa L., ABC-TPSP; fusion of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase and phosphatase). Using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and real-time quantitative PCR, we compared bacterial and fungal communities in the soils underlying GM rice (ABC-TPSP), and its host cultivar (Nakdong) during growing seasons and non-growing seasons. Overall, the soils supporting GM and non-GM rice did not differ significantly in diversity indices, including ribotype numbers, for either bacteria or fungi. The diversity index (H) in both the bacterial and fungal communities was correlated with water content, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and ammonium nitrogen, and the correlation was stronger in fungi than in bacteria. Multivariate analysis showed no differences in microbial community structures between the two crop genotypes, but such differences did appear in time, with significant changes observed after harvest. Gene copy number was estimated as 10(8)~10(11) and 10(5)~10(7) per gram of soil for bacteria and fungi, respectively. As observed for community structure, the rice genotypes did not differ significantly in either bacterial- or fungal-specific gene copy numbers, although we observed a seasonal change in number. We summarize the results of this study as follows. (1) GM rice did not influence soil bacterial and fungal community structures as compared to non-GM rice in our system, (2) both bacterial and fungal communities changed with the growth stage of either rice genotype, (3) fungal communities were less variable than bacterial communities, and (4) although several environmental factors, including ammonium nitrogen and DOC correlated with shifts in microbial community structure, no single factor stood out.

  15. Isotope studies on rice fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the report is to provide practical information on the efficient utilization of nitrogen fertilizers in rice production. Results obtained from field investigations during the years 1970 to 1974 in ten countries (Bangladesh, Burma, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Philippines), using 15 N-labelled nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, urea) are given. The experiments, which were conducted both during the dry and wet seasons, included comparison of varieties, effect of placement, source and time of nitrogen fertilizer application on the yield and quality of rice. The data from the project is presented in table form. In most of the experiments, the addition of nitrogen increased the rice grain yield. The role of soil nitrogen vs. fertilizer nitrogen is compared, and it is concluded that the physiological growth stage at which fertilizer-derived nitrogen is absorbed is of great importance

  16. Growing Oppression, Growing Resistance : LGBT Activism and Europeanisation in Macedonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miškovska Kajevska, A.; Bilić, B.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides one of the first socio-historical overviews of the LGBT groups in Macedonia and argues that an important impetus for the proliferation of LGBT activities has been the growing state-endorsed homophobia starting from 2008. The homophobic rhetoric of the ruling parties was clearly

  17. A preliminary study on the uptake of radioiodine by rice plants from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Sumiya, Misako; Ohmomo, Yoichiro; Yamaguchi, Shuho.

    1989-01-01

    In an atmospheric discharge of radioiodines, direct deposition of the nuclides onto leaf surface must be the most significant pathway from the environment to man. However, 129 I reaches man through several pathways because of its long half life of 1.6 x 10 7 years. Root uptake of 129 I is one of the most important pathways of this nuclide. In Japan, rice is thought to be the most critical crop on the pathway. In this paper, uptake of radioiodine from irrigation water by rice plant was investigated. Rice plants, Oryza sativa cv. Nihonbare, were grown under flooded condition in Wagner pots containing soil collected in Tokai-mura. Iodine-131 was added as a tracer into the surface water in the pots at three different growing stages, heading, dough-ripe and yellow-ripe stages, respectively, and the plants were cultivated until the harvest time in a plant growth chamber. At the harvest time, concentration of 131 I in each organ of rice plant was measured with a NaI scintillation counter. The profile of 131 I in the soil was also investigated. The results obtained are as follows; (1) Activities of 131 I in leaf blade and sheath of lower part were generally higher than those of upper part. Compared to the 131 I activity of the flag leaf, the ratios of the activity in rachis-branch, hull and brown rice were 1.0-0.5, 0.1 and 1-5 x 10 -3 , respectively. These may suggest that iodine taken up by the roots scarcely re-translocated into rice. (2) Ratio of 131 I in brown rice and hull was about 1 : 4. (3) Activity ratio ('concentration of 131 I in brown rice'/'average concentration of that in the soil' during 6 days uptake experiment.) was 4-5 x 10 -4 . (author)

  18. Comparison of Rice Direct Seeding Methods (Mechanical and Manual with Transplanting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Eyvani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main method of rice planting in Iran is transplanting. Due to poor mechanization of rice production, this method is laborious and costly. The other method is direct seeding in wet lands which is performed in the one third of rice cultivation area of the world. The most important problem in this method is high labor requirement of weed control. In order to compare the different rice planting methods (direct drilling, transplanting, and seed broadcasting a manually operated rice direct seeder (drum seeder was designed and fabricated. The research was conducted using a randomized complete block design with three treatments and three replications. Required draft force, field efficiency, effective field capacity, yield, and yield components were measured and the treatments were compared economically. Results showed that there were significant differences among the treatments from the view point of rice yield at the confidence level of 95% i.e. the transplanting method had the maximum yield. A higher rice yield was obtained from the direct seeder compared to the manual broadcasting method but, the difference between these two methods for crop yield was not significant even at the confidence level of the 95%. The coefficient of variation of seed distribution with direct seeding was more than 20%. The labor and time requirements per hectare reduced to 7 and 20 times, respectively when comparing the newly designed direct seeder with the transplanting method. The direct seeding method had the highest benefit to cost ratio in spite of its lower yield. Therefore, this method could be recommended in the rice growing regions.

  19. Energy use pattern in rice production: A case study from Mazandaran province, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AghaAlikhani, M.; Kazemi-Poshtmasari, H.; Habibzadeh, F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We compare the energy use efficiency in rice production for traditional and mechanized system. ► Since farmers growing native, high yield and hybrid rice cultivars we have focused on mean data. ► Chemical fertilizer has the highest share in total energy inputs were followed by diesel fuel. ► Rice production in traditional system has lower output but higher EUE than mechanized system. - Abstract: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is grown under both traditional system (TS) and mechanized system (MS) in Iran. In this study the energy consumption for rice is analyzed in Mazandaran, Northern province of Iran. The indicators are: net energy, energy use efficiency, specific energy, energy productivity, direct energy, indirect energy, renewable energy, non-renewable and total energy input. The cultivars of rice commonly grown in Iran are listed in three groups: native, high yield cultivars and hybrid cultivar. Primary data were obtained through field survey and personal interviews using questionnaires from 48 agricultural services center in Mazandaran province. Secondary data and energy equivalents were obtained from available literature using collected data of the production period of 2007–2008. Analysis of date showed that averagely diesel fuel had the highest share within the total energy inputs, followed by chemical fertilizer in rice production in both TS and MS. Energy use efficiency was calculated as 1.72 in TS and 1.63 in MS. Total energy consumption in rice production were 71,092.26 MJ/ha (TS) and 79,460.33 MJ/ha (MS). In general, there were not significant changes regarding the human labor and chemicals in tow systems

  20. Construction of a rice glycoside hydrolase phylogenomic database and identification of targets for biofuel research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita eSharma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Glycoside hydrolases (GH catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in cell wall polymers and can have major effects on cell wall architecture. Taking advantage of the massive datasets available in public databases, we have constructed a rice phylogenomic database of GHs (http://ricephylogenomics.ucdavis.edu/cellwalls/gh/. This database integrates multiple data types including the structural features, orthologous relationships, mutant availability and gene expression patterns for each GH family in a phylogenomic context. The rice genome encodes 437 GH genes classified into 34 families. Based on pairwise comparison with eight dicot and four monocot genomes, we identified 138 GH genes that are highly diverged between monocots and dicots, 57 of which have diverged further in rice as compared with four monocot genomes scanned in this study. Chromosomal localization and expression analysis suggest a role for both whole-genome and localized gene duplications in expansion and diversification of GH families in rice. We examined the meta-profiles of expression patterns of GH genes in twenty different anatomical tissues of rice. Transcripts of 51 genes exhibit tissue or developmental stage-preferential expression, whereas, seventeen other genes preferentially accumulate in actively growing tissues. When queried in RiceNet, a probabilistic functional gene network that facilitates functional gene predictions, nine out of seventeen genes form a regulatory network with the well-characterized genes involved in biosynthesis of cell wall polymers including cellulose synthase and cellulose synthase-like genes of rice. Two-thirds of the GH genes in rice are up regulated in response to biotic and abiotic stress treatments indicating a role in stress adaptation. Our analyses identify potential GH targets for cell wall modification.