Sample records for rice germin-like proteins

  1. In silico analysis of transcription factor binding sites in promoters of germin-like protein genes in rice

    Ilyas Muhammad


    Full Text Available Germins (GERs and germin-like proteins (GLPs play important roles in responses to various stresses; however, their function is still not fully understood. Significant insight into their function can be obtained by analyzing their promoters. In the present study, the 5' upstream promoters (1000 bp of 43 Asian rice (Oryza sativa var. Japonica GLP genes were retrieved from the Plant Ensemble, based on the Rice Annotation Project database (RAP-DB. Phylogenetic analysis via MEGA6 showed a narrow genetic background (0.2% with a Tajima neutrality value (π of 0.69. Overall, 4234 transcription factor (TF binding sites (TFBSs were found on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11 and 12 via “MatInspector” from 90 different TF families using a total of 444 families. Common TFs and DiAlign analyses showed that arabidopsis homeobox protein (AHBP, MYB-like proteins (MYBL and vertebrate TATA-box-binding protein (VTBP were the most abundant, common and evolutionarily conserved elements in the upstream region from 0 to -800. Finding their mutual interaction via Farmworker analysis uncovered three new cisregulatory modules (VTBP_VTBP, MYBS_MYBS, and AHBP_VTBP, which appear to be decisive for OsGLP regulation. In silico functional analysis via ModelInspector revealed 77 cis-regulatory modules, each comprised of two elements, among which DOFF_OPAQ_03 and GTBX_MYCL_01 were the most frequent and mostly found on chromosome 8 and 12, indicating that the combinatorial interaction of these elements has a fundamental role in various biological processes. The study revealed the importance of these elements in regulating OsGLP expression that will help in predicting the role of these genes in various stresses, and can have application in biotechnology.

  2. Germin-like protein 2 gene promoter from rice is responsive to fungal pathogens in transgenic potato plants.

    Munir, Faiza; Hayashi, Satomi; Batley, Jacqueline; Naqvi, Syed Muhammad Saqlan; Mahmood, Tariq


    Controlled transgene expression via a promoter is particularly triggered in response to pathogen infiltration. This is significant for eliciting disease-resistant features in crops through genetic engineering. The germins and germin-like proteins (GLPs) are known to be associated with plant and developmental stages. The 1107-bp Oryza sativa root GLP2 (OsRGLP2) gene promoter fused to a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene was transformed into potato plants through an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The OsRGLP2 promoter was activated in response to Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. and Alternaria solani Sorauer. Quantitative real-time PCR results revealed 4-5-fold increase in promoter activity every 24 h following infection. There was a 15-fold increase in OsRGLP2 promoter activity after 72 h of F. solani (Mart.) Sacc. treatment and a 12-fold increase observed with A. solani Sorauer. Our results confirmed that the OsRGLP2 promoter activity was enhanced under fungal stress. Furthermore, a hyperaccumulation of H2O2 in transgenic plants is a clear signal for the involvement of OsRGLP2 promoter region in the activation of specific genes in the potato genome involved in H2O2-mediated defense response. The OsRGLP2 promoter evidently harbors copies of GT-I and Dof transcription factors (AAAG) that act in response to elicitors generated in the wake of pathogen infection.

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of novel Morus alba germin-like protein gene which encodes for a silkworm gut digestion-resistant antimicrobial protein.

    Bharat Bhusan Patnaik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Silkworm fecal matter is considered one of the richest sources of antimicrobial and antiviral protein (substances and such economically feasible and eco-friendly proteins acting as secondary metabolites from the insect system can be explored for their practical utility in conferring broad spectrum disease resistance against pathogenic microbial specimens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Silkworm fecal matter extracts prepared in 0.02 M phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4, at a temperature of 60°C was subjected to 40% saturated ammonium sulphate precipitation and purified by gel-filtration chromatography (GFC. SDS-PAGE under denaturing conditions showed a single band at about 21.5 kDa. The peak fraction, thus obtained by GFC wastested for homogeneityusing C18reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The activity of the purified protein was tested against selected Gram +/- bacteria and phytopathogenic Fusarium species with concentration-dependent inhibitionrelationship. The purified bioactive protein was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS and N-terminal sequencing by Edman degradation towards its identification. The N-terminal first 18 amino acid sequence following the predicted signal peptide showed homology to plant germin-like proteins (Glp. In order to characterize the full-length gene sequence in detail, the partial cDNA was cloned and sequenced using degenerate primers, followed by 5'- and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR. The full-length cDNA sequence composed of 630 bp encoding 209 amino acids and corresponded to germin-like proteins (Glps involved in plant development and defense. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The study reports, characterization of novel Glpbelonging to subfamily 3 from M. alba by the purification of mature active protein from silkworm fecal matter. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified protein was

  4. A Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP of Capsicum chinense Jacq. Is Induced during Incompatible Interactions and Displays Mn-Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    Enrique Rico-García


    Full Text Available A germin-like gene (CchGLP cloned from geminivirus-resistant pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. Line BG-3821 was characterized and the enzymatic activity of the expressed protein analyzed. The predicted protein consists of 203 amino acids, similar to other germin-like proteins. A highly conserved cupin domain and typical germin boxes, one of them containing three histidines and one glutamate, are also present in CchGLP. A signal peptide was predicted in the first 18 N-terminal amino acids, as well as one putative N-glycosylation site from residues 44–47. CchGLP was expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein displayed manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD activity. Molecular analysis showed that CchGLP is present in one copy in the C. chinense Jacq. genome and was induced in plants by ethylene (Et and salicylic acid (SA but not jasmonic acid (JA applications in the absence of pathogens. Meanwhile, incompatible interactions with either Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV or Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV caused local and systemic CchGLP induction in these geminivirus-resistant plants, but not in a susceptible accession. Compatible interactions with PHYVV, PepGMV and oomycete Phytophthora capsici did not induce CchGLP expression. Thus, these results indicate that CchGLP encodes a Mn-SOD, which is induced in the C. chinense geminivirus-resistant line BG-3821, likely using SA and Et signaling pathways during incompatible interactions with geminiviruses PepGMV and PHYVV.

  5. A Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP) of Capsicum chinense Jacq. Is Induced during Incompatible Interactions and Displays Mn-Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    León-Galván, Fabiola; de Jesús Joaquín-Ramos, Ahuizolt; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P.; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; González-Chavira, Mario M.; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalía V.; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-González, Ramón Gerardo


    A germin-like gene (CchGLP) cloned from geminivirus-resistant pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. Line BG-3821) was characterized and the enzymatic activity of the expressed protein analyzed. The predicted protein consists of 203 amino acids, similar to other germin-like proteins. A highly conserved cupin domain and typical germin boxes, one of them containing three histidines and one glutamate, are also present in CchGLP. A signal peptide was predicted in the first 18 N-terminal amino acids, as well as one putative N-glycosylation site from residues 44–47. CchGLP was expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein displayed manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity. Molecular analysis showed that CchGLP is present in one copy in the C. chinense Jacq. genome and was induced in plants by ethylene (Et) and salicylic acid (SA) but not jasmonic acid (JA) applications in the absence of pathogens. Meanwhile, incompatible interactions with either Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) or Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV) caused local and systemic CchGLP induction in these geminivirus-resistant plants, but not in a susceptible accession. Compatible interactions with PHYVV, PepGMV and oomycete Phytophthora capsici did not induce CchGLP expression. Thus, these results indicate that CchGLP encodes a Mn-SOD, which is induced in the C. chinense geminivirus-resistant line BG-3821, likely using SA and Et signaling pathways during incompatible interactions with geminiviruses PepGMV and PHYVV. PMID:22174599

  6. Members of the germin-like protein family in Brassica napus are candidates for the initiation of an oxidative burst that impedes pathogenesis of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Rietz, Steffen; Bernsdorff, Friederike E M; Cai, Daguang


    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) are defined by their sequence homology to germins from barley and are present ubiquitously in plants. Analyses of corresponding genes have revealed diverse functions of GLPs in plant development and biotic and abiotic stresses. This study describes the identification of a family of 14 germin-like genes from Brassica napus (BnGLP) designated BnGLP1-BnGLP14 and investigated potential functions of BnGLPs in plant defense against the necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses classify the 14 BnGLPs into four groups, which were clearly distinguished from known germin oxalic acid oxidases. Transcriptional responses of the BnGLP genes to S. sclerotiorum infection was determined by comparing cultivars of susceptible B. napus 'Falcon' and partially resistant B. napus 'Zhongshuang 9'. Of the 14 BnGLP genes tested, BnGLP3 was transcriptionally upregulated in both B. napus cultivars at 6h after S. sclerotiorum infection, while upregulation of BnGLP12 was restricted to resistant B. napus 'Zhongshuang 9'. Biochemical analysis of five representative BnGLP members identified a H(2)O(2)-generating superoxide dismutase activity only for higher molecular weight complexes of BnGLP3 and BnGLP12. By analogy, H(2)O(2) formation at infected leaf sites increased after 6h, with even higher H(2)O(2) production in B. napus 'Zhongshuang 9' compared with B. napus 'Falcon'. Conversely, exogenous application of H(2)O(2) significantly reduced the susceptibility of B. napus 'Falcon'. These data suggest that early induction of BnGLP3 and BnGLP12 participates in an oxidative burst that may play a pivotal role in defence of B. napus against S. sclerotiorum.

  7. Expression of BvGLP-1 encoding a germin-like protein from sugar beet in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to resistance against phytopathogenic fungi.

    Knecht, Katrin; Seyffarth, Monique; Desel, Christine; Thurau, Tim; Sherameti, Irena; Lou, Binggan; Oelmüller, Ralf; Cai, Daguang


    Nematode (Heterodera schachtii) resistance in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is controlled by a single dominant resistance gene, Hs1(pro-1). BvGLP-1 was cloned from resistant sugar beet. The BvGLP-1 messenger (m)RNA is highly upregulated in the resistant plants after nematode infection, suggesting its role in the Hs1(pro-1) mediated resistance. BvGLP-1 exhibits sequence homology to a set of plant germin-like proteins (GLP), from which several have proved to be functional in plant basal or defense resistance against fungal pathogens. To test whether BvGLP-1 is also involved in the plant-fungus interaction, we transferred BvGLP-1 into Arabidopsis and challenged the transgenic plants with the pathogenic fungi Verticillium longisporum and Rhizoctonia solani as well as with the beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica. The expression of BvGLP-1 in Arabidopsis elevated the H(2)O(2) content and conferred significant resistance to V. longisporum and R. solani but did not affect the beneficial interaction with P. indica in seedlings. Microscopic observations revealed a dramatic reduction in the amount of hyphae of the pathogenic fungi on the root surface as well as of fungal mycelium developed inside the roots of transgenic Arabidopsis compared with wild-type plants. Molecular analysis demonstrated that the BvGLP-1 expression in Arabidopsis constitutively activates the expression of a subset of plant defense-related proteins such as PR-1 to PR-4 and PDF1.2 but not PDF2.1 and PDF2.3. In contrast, the PDF2.1 mRNA level was downregulated. These data suggest an important role of BvGLP-1 in establishment of plant defense responses, which follow specific signaling routes that diverge from those induced by the beneficial fungus.

  8. 小麦类发芽素蛋白3启动子序列(登录号:AY864922)%Nucleotide Sequence of Promoter of Triticum aestivum Germin-like Protein 3 (AY864922)

    陈军营; 温付喜; 陈新建; 程西永; 许海霞


    In germinating wheat embryos, gl-OXO accumulation is localized in cell wall. It has been confirmed that this enzyme locally provides H2O2 to catalyze peroxide-mediated cross-linking of cell wall components in terminal cellular differentiation and plays an important role in enabling cells to retain their meristematicand organogenic capacity. Using tail-PCR and DNA sequencing techniques, we isolated Germin-like Protein 3promoter sequence(1 654 bp), from common wheat cultivar (yumai 18) genome. No GGGCGGG sequence exiting in promoter implies that germin-like protein 3 is not "house-keeping" protein. The presence of TGTCTC, an auxin response element and localizing at upstream -258, indicates that this promoter is auxin-inducible. The TATA box situates in upstream -27~-32 and 5'-UTR consists of 95 bp.

  9. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV

    Laura Mejía-Teniente


    Full Text Available Germin-like proteins (GLPs are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession.

  10. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP) in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV

    Mejía-Teniente, Laura; Joaquin-Ramos, Ahuizolt de Jesús; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F.; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G.


    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession. PMID:26610554

  11. Identification of two peanut germin-like genes and the potential superoxide dismutase activity

    Germin and germin-like protein (GLP) genes are members of large multigene families. These genes have been reported to play a role directly or indirectly in plant defense response. A number of GLPs have been demonstrated to have superoxidase dismutase (SOD) or oxalate oxidase (OxO) activity, leading ...

  12. Characterization of paralogous protein families in rice

    Zhu Wei


    Full Text Available Abstract Background High gene numbers in plant genomes reflect polyploidy and major gene duplication events. Oryza sativa, cultivated rice, is a diploid monocotyledonous species with a ~390 Mb genome that has undergone segmental duplication of a substantial portion of its genome. This, coupled with other genetic events such as tandem duplications, has resulted in a substantial number of its genes, and resulting proteins, occurring in paralogous families. Results Using a computational pipeline that utilizes Pfam and novel protein domains, we characterized paralogous families in rice and compared these with paralogous families in the model dicotyledonous diploid species, Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis, which has undergone genome duplication as well, has a substantially smaller genome (~120 Mb and gene complement compared to rice. Overall, 53% and 68% of the non-transposable element-related rice and Arabidopsis proteins could be classified into paralogous protein families, respectively. Singleton and paralogous family genes differed substantially in their likelihood of encoding a protein of known or putative function; 26% and 66% of singleton genes compared to 73% and 96% of the paralogous family genes encode a known or putative protein in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. Furthermore, a major skew in the distribution of specific gene function was observed; a total of 17 Gene Ontology categories in both rice and Arabidopsis were statistically significant in their differential distribution between paralogous family and singleton proteins. In contrast to mammalian organisms, we found that duplicated genes in rice and Arabidopsis tend to have more alternative splice forms. Using data from Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing, we show that a significant portion of the duplicated genes in rice show divergent expression although a correlation between sequence divergence and correlation of expression could be seen in very young genes. Conclusion

  13. Identification and analysis of the germin-like gene family in soybean

    Wang Xiang-Jing


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germin and germin-like proteins constitute a ubiquitous family of plant proteins. A role of some family members in defense against pathogen attack had been proposed based on gene regulation studies and transgenic approaches. Soybean (G. max L. Merr. germin genes had not been characterized at the molecular and functional levels. Results In the present study, twenty-one germin gene members in soybean cultivar 'Maple Arrow' (partial resistance to Sclerotinia stem rot of soybean were identified by in silico identification and RACE method (GmGER 1 to GmGER 21. A genome-wide analyses of these germin-like protein genes using a bioinformatics approach showed that the genes located on chromosomes 8, 1, 15, 20, 16, 19, 7, 3 and 10, on which more disease-resistant genes were located on. Sequence comparison revealed that the genes encoded three germin-like domains. The phylogenetic relationships and functional diversity of the germin gene family of soybean were analyzed among diverse genera. The expression of the GmGER genes treated with exogenous IAA suggested that GmGER genes might be regulated by auxin. Transgenic tobacco that expressed the GmGER 9 gene exhibited high tolerance to the salt stress. In addition, the GmGER mRNA increased transiently at darkness and peaked at a time that corresponded approximately to the critical night length. The mRNA did not accumulate significantly under the constant light condition, and did not change greatly under the SD and LD treatments. Conclusions This study provides a complex overview of the GmGER genes in soybean. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the germin and germin-like genes of the plant species that had been founded might be evolved by independent gene duplication events. The experiment indicated that germin genes exhibited diverse expression patterns during soybean development. The different time courses of the mRNAs accumulation of GmGER genes in soybean leaves appeared to have a

  14. A convenient method for rapid determination of proteins in rices and rice products

    光永, 俊郎; 安藤, ひとみ


    [Author abstract]In the biuret determination of protein in rices and rice products, starch and lipids extractable with an alkaline solution such as biuret reagent were found to interfere with the biuret method. Comparative evaluation of their effects revealed that starch, a major component of rice, has the most significant effect on the biuret method. In the presence of starch, the correlation between Kjeldahl protein and the optical density of biuret was poor. It was found that several perha...

  15. Comparative analysis of regulatory elements in different germin-like ...


    Earlier, two GLP promoter regions have been amplified, ... was done using web based program PLACE/Signal Scan ... including two promoters from rice reported by our group. (Mahmood et al. .... al., 2004). The TTGAC/TTGACC element, component of .... implicated in His-Asp phosphorelay signal transduction. Plant Cell.

  16. Rice allergenic protein and molecular-genetic approach for hypoallergenic rice.

    Nakamura, R; Matsuda, T


    Allergenic proteins with a molecular mass of about 14 to 16 kDa were isolated from a rice salt-soluble fraction based on the reactivity with IgE antibodies from patients allergic to rice. cDNA clones encoding these allergenic proteins were isolated from a cDNA library of maturing rice seeds, and the deduced amino acid sequences showed considerable similarity to wheat and barley alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors, which have recently been identified as major allergens associated with baker's asthma. An antisense RNA strategy was applied to repress the allergen gene expression in maturing rice seeds. Immunoblotting and ELISA analyses of the seeds using a monoclonal antibody to a 16-kDa allergen showed that allergen content of seeds from several transgenic rice plants was markedly lower than that of the seeds from parental wild type rice.

  17. Manually Curated Database of Rice Proteins (MCDRP, a database of digitized experimental data on rice

    Saurabh Raghuvanshi


    Full Text Available MCDRP or ‘Manually Curated Database of Rice Proteins’ is a database of digitized experimental datasets on rice proteins. Every aspect of the experimental data published in peer-reviewed research articles on rice biology has been digitized with the help of novel data curation models. These models use a semantic and structured arrangement of alpha-numeric notation, including several well known ontologies, to represent various aspect of the data. As a result data from more than 15,000 different experiments pertaining to about 2400 rice proteins has been digitized from over 540 published and peer-reviewed research articles. The database portal provides access to the digitized experimental data via search or browse functions. In essence, one can instantly access data from even a single data-point from a collection of thousands of the experimental datasets. On the other hand, one can easily access the digitized experimental data from multiple research articles on a rice protein. Based on the analysis and integration of the digitized experimental data, more than 800 different traits (molecular, biochemical or phenotypic have been precisely mapped onto the rice proteins along with the underlying experimental evidences. Similarly, over 4370 associations, based on experimental evidence, have been established between the rice proteins and various gene ontology terms. The database is being continuously updated and is freely available at


    V. V. Kolpakova


    Full Text Available Traditionally rice and products of its processing are used to cook porridge, pilaf, lettuce, confectionery, fish, dairy and meat products. At the same time new ways of its processing with releasing of protein products for more effective using, including the use of a glutenfree diet, are developing. The task of this study was a comparative research of nutrition and biological value and functional properties of protein and protein-calcium concentrates produced from rice flour milled from white and brown rice. The traditional and special methods were used. Concentrates were isolated with enzyme preparations of xylanase and amylolytic activity with the next dissolution of protein in diluted hydrochloric acid. Concentrates differed in the content of mineral substances (calcium, zinc, iron and other elements, amino acids and functional properties. The values of the functional properties and indicators of the nutritional value of concentrates from white rice show the advisability of their using in food products, including gluten-free products prepared on the basis of the emulsion and foam systems, and concentrates from brown rice in food products prepared on the basis of using of the emulsion systems. Protein concentrates of brown rice have a low foaming capacity and there is no foam stability at all.

  19. Food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome caused by rice beverage.

    Caminiti, Lucia; Salzano, Giuseppina; Crisafulli, Giuseppe; Porcaro, Federica; Pajno, Giovanni Battista


    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an uncommon and potentially severe non IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy. It is usually caused by cow's milk or soy proteins, but may also be triggered by ingestion of solid foods. The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical history and symptoms. Management of acute phase requires fluid resuscitation and intravenous steroids administration, but avoidance of offending foods is the only effective therapeutic option.Infant with FPIES presented to our emergency department with vomiting, watery stools, hypothension and metabolic acidosis after ingestion of rice beverage. Intravenous fluids and steroids were administered with good clinical response. Subsequently, a double blind placebo control food challenge (DBPCFC) was performed using rice beverage and hydrolyzed formula (eHF) as placebo. The "rice based formula" induced emesis, diarrhoea and lethargy. Laboratory investigations reveal an increase of absolute count of neutrophils and the presence of faecal eosinophils. The patient was treated with both intravenous hydration and steroids. According to Powell criteria, oral food challenge was considered positive and diagnosis of FPIES induced by rice beverage was made. Patient was discharged at home with the indication to avoid rice and any rice beverage as well as to reintroduce hydrolyzed formula. A case of FPIES induced by rice beverage has never been reported. The present case clearly shows that also beverage containing rice proteins can be responsible of FPIES. For this reason, the use of rice beverage as cow's milk substitute for the treatment of non IgE-mediated food allergy should be avoided.

  20. Analysis of Salicylic Acid Induced Proteins in Rice


    An analysis using SDS-PAGE of acidic and basic protein fractions extracted from rice seedling treated with salicylic acid (SA) yielded several new proteins, some of which are similar in relative molecular mass to PR-1a,c, PR-2, 2e and PR-3d, 3e of tobacco.Direct assays for peroxidases and β-1,3-glucanases demonstrated that the activities of the two enzymes in the rice seedlings increased rapidly with time after SA treatment, reaching a maximum 6 days after treatment.Disease resistance tests showed that SA treated rice seedlings stunted the development of blight lesions and displayed higher resistance to rice blight pathogen (Xanthomonas oryzea pv.oryzea).The data suggest that the treatment with SA, even for plants with high endogenous SA levels such as rice, may induce the appearance of new proteins and the formation of disease resistance.The results contribute to the analysis of the SA role in rice systemic acquired resistance.

  1. Gene, protein and network of male sterility in rice

    Wang eKun


    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and proteins related to cytoplasmic male sterility, photoperiod sensitive male sterility, self-incompatibility and other types of microspores deterioration have been characterized through genetics or proteomics. Especially the latter, offers us a powerful and high throughput approach to discern the novel proteins involving in male-sterile pathways which may help us to breed artificial male-sterile system. This represents an alternative tool to meet the critical challenge of further development of hybrid rice. In this paper, we reviewed the recent developments in our understanding of male sterility in rice hybrid production across gene, protein and integrated network levels, and also, present a perspective on the engineering of male sterile lines for hybrid rice production.

  2. Gene, protein, and network of male sterility in rice.

    Wang, Kun; Peng, Xiaojue; Ji, Yanxiao; Yang, Pingfang; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing


    Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well-exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male-sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and proteins related to cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), photoperiod-sensitive male sterility, self-incompatibility, and other types of microspores deterioration have been characterized through genetics or proteomics. Especially the latter, offers us a powerful and high throughput approach to discern the novel proteins involving in male-sterile pathways which may help us to breed artificial male-sterile system. This represents an alternative tool to meet the critical challenge of further development of hybrid rice. In this paper, we reviewed the recent developments in our understanding of male sterility in rice hybrid production across gene, protein, and integrated network levels, and also, present a perspective on the engineering of male-sterile lines for hybrid rice production.

  3. Novel protein controls growth regulators in rice


    @@ A recent study by CAS researchers could add new dimensions to the understanding of downstream signaling mechanism of Brassinosteroids(BRs), a group of plant growth regulators, in rice. Their work was published by the August 21 issue of the Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

  4. Fungal Biomass Protein Production from Trichoderma harzianum Using Rice Polishing

    Mustafa, Ghulam; Arshad, Muhammad


    Industrially important enzymes and microbial biomass proteins have been produced from fungi for more than 50 years. High levels of crude protein as much as 45% are present in fungal biomass with balanced essential amino acids. The aim of this study was to access the potential of Trichoderma harzianum to produce fungal biomass protein from rice polishings. Maximum biomass yield was obtained at 5% (w/v) rice polishings after 72 h of incubation at 28°C at pH 4. Carbon and nitrogen ratio of 20 : 1 gave significantly higher production of fungal biomass protein. The FBP in the 75 L fermenter contained 49.50% crude protein, 32.00% true protein, 19.45% crude fiber, 9.62% ash, 11.5% cellulose content, and 0.325% RNA content. The profile of amino acids of final FBP exhibited that all essential amino acids were present in great quantities. The FBP produced by this fungus has been shown to be of good nutritional value for supplementation to poultry. The results presented in this study have practical implications in that the fungus T. harzianum could be used successfully to produce fungal biomass protein using rice polishings.

  5. Fungal Biomass Protein Production from Trichoderma harzianum Using Rice Polishing.

    Ahmed, Sibtain; Mustafa, Ghulam; Arshad, Muhammad; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim


    Industrially important enzymes and microbial biomass proteins have been produced from fungi for more than 50 years. High levels of crude protein as much as 45% are present in fungal biomass with balanced essential amino acids. The aim of this study was to access the potential of Trichoderma harzianum to produce fungal biomass protein from rice polishings. Maximum biomass yield was obtained at 5% (w/v) rice polishings after 72 h of incubation at 28°C at pH 4. Carbon and nitrogen ratio of 20 : 1 gave significantly higher production of fungal biomass protein. The FBP in the 75 L fermenter contained 49.50% crude protein, 32.00% true protein, 19.45% crude fiber, 9.62% ash, 11.5% cellulose content, and 0.325% RNA content. The profile of amino acids of final FBP exhibited that all essential amino acids were present in great quantities. The FBP produced by this fungus has been shown to be of good nutritional value for supplementation to poultry. The results presented in this study have practical implications in that the fungus T. harzianum could be used successfully to produce fungal biomass protein using rice polishings.

  6. Studies on the Pasting and Rheology of Rice Starch with Different Protein Residual

    Lin, Qinlu; Xiao, Huaxi; Li, Lihui; Yu, Fengxiang; Tian, Wei


    International audience; Indica rice starch and japonica rice starch were used in the study. The protein contents of the two rice variety were respectively 0.43%, 0.62%, 0.84%, 1.08%, 1.25%. The pasting and rheological properties of samples were determined with Rapid Visco Analyzer and dynamic rheometer. The results indicated that, with the increase of protein content, the peak viscosity, breakdown viscosity and final viscosity of rice starch paste decreased, the setback viscosity increased an...

  7. Comparative proteomic analysis of early salt stress responsive proteins in roots and leaves of rice.

    Liu, Chih-Wei; Chang, Tao-Shan; Hsu, Yu-Kai; Wang, Arthur Z; Yen, Hung-Chen; Wu, Yung-Pei; Wang, Chang-Sheng; Lai, Chien-Chen


    Growth and productivity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) are severely affected by salinity. Understanding the mechanisms that protect rice and other important cereal crops from salt stress will help in the development of salt-stress-tolerant strains. In this study, rice seedlings of the same genetic species with various salt tolerances were studied. We first used 2DE to resolve the expressed proteome in rice roots and leaves and then used nanospray liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry to identify the differentially expressed proteins in rice seedlings after salt treatment. The 2DE assays revealed that there were 104 differentially expressed protein spots in rice roots and 59 in leaves. Then, we identified 83 proteins in rice roots and 61 proteins in rice leaves by MS analysis. Functional classification analysis revealed that the differentially expressed proteins from roots could be classified into 18 functional categories while those from leaves could be classified into 11 functional categories. The proteins from rice seedlings that most significantly contributed to a protective effect against increased salinity were cysteine synthase, adenosine triphosphate synthase, quercetin 3-O-methyltransferase 1, and lipoxygenase 2. Further analysis demonstrated that the primary mechanisms underlying the ability of rice seedlings to tolerate salt stress were glycolysis, purine metabolism, and photosynthesis. Thus, we suggest that differentially expressed proteins may serve as marker group for the salt tolerance of rice.

  8. Concentration-dependent displacement of cholesterol in micelles by hydrophobic rice bran protein hydrolysates

    The recent production of rice bran oil in Asia and the U.S. has resulted in large quantities of defatted rice bran as a low-value byproduct. Peptides from soy, milk, and other foods have been shown to have the potential hypocholesterolemic property and rice bran protein (RBP) may also contain bioact...

  9. MucoRice-cholera toxin B-subunit, a rice-based oral cholera vaccine, down-regulates the expression of α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor-like protein family as major rice allergens.

    Kurokawa, Shiho; Nakamura, Rika; Mejima, Mio; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Kuroda, Masaharu; Takeyama, Natsumi; Oyama, Masaaki; Satoh, Shigeru; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Masumura, Takehiro; Teshima, Reiko; Yuki, Yoshikazu


    To develop a cold chain- and needle/syringe-free rice-based cholera vaccine (MucoRice-CTB) for human use, we previously advanced the MucoRice system by introducing antisense genes specific for endogenous rice storage proteins and produced a molecularly uniform, human-applicable, high-yield MucoRice-CTB devoid of plant-associated sugar. To maintain the cold chain-free property of this vaccine for clinical application, we wanted to use a polished rice powder preparation of MucoRice-CTB without further purification but wondered whether this might cause an unexpected increase in rice allergen protein expression levels in MucoRice-CTB and prompt safety concerns. Therefore, we used two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and shotgun MS/MS proteomics to compare rice allergen protein expression levels in MucoRice-CTB and wild-type (WT) rice. Both proteomics analyses showed that the only notable change in the expression levels of rice allergen protein in MucoRice-CTB, compared with those in WT rice, was a decrease in the expression levels of α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor-like protein family such as the seed allergen protein RAG2. Real-time PCR analysis showed mRNA of RAG2 reduced in MucoRice-CTB seed. These results demonstrate that no known rice allergens appear to be up-reregulated by genetic modification of MucoRice-CTB, suggesting that MucoRice-CTB has potential as a safe oral cholera vaccine for clinical application.

  10. Impact of SNPs on Protein Phosphorylation Status in Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Shoukai Lin


    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are widely used in functional genomics and genetics research work. The high-quality sequence of rice genome has provided a genome-wide SNP and proteome resource. However, the impact of SNPs on protein phosphorylation status in rice is not fully understood. In this paper, we firstly updated rice SNP resource based on the new rice genome Ver. 7.0, then systematically analyzed the potential impact of Non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs on the protein phosphorylation status. There were 3,897,312 SNPs in Ver. 7.0 rice genome, among which 9.9% was nsSNPs. Whilst, a total 2,508,261 phosphorylated sites were predicted in rice proteome. Interestingly, we observed that 150,197 (39.1% nsSNPs could influence protein phosphorylation status, among which 52.2% might induce changes of protein kinase (PK types for adjacent phosphorylation sites. We constructed a database, SNP_rice, to deposit the updated rice SNP resource and phosSNPs information. It was freely available to academic researchers at As a case study, we detected five nsSNPs that potentially influenced heterotrimeric G proteins phosphorylation status in rice, indicating that genetic polymorphisms showed impact on the signal transduction by influencing the phosphorylation status of heterotrimeric G proteins. The results in this work could be a useful resource for future experimental identification and provide interesting information for better rice breeding.

  11. Differences in the Content of Protein and Essential Amino Acids between Different Rice Varieties

    Zhiyuan ZHANG; Jianzhou TANG; Ling ZHOU; Xinghai LIU


    Evaluation of the protein content is a major indicator of the nutritional quality of rice,and the protein quality of rice is the best among cereal crops. Essential amino acids play an irreplaceable role in human growth,development and health care. Essential amino acid is a key ingredient to measure the nutritional value of rice. Using the experimental rice processed from the rice variety " Yuzhenxiang" sprayed with plant nutrients( patent number: ZL201110103910. 9),namely high essential amino acid nutritional rice,combined with five kinds of high quality rice imported by COFCO and homegrown " Wuchang rice",we send the samples of the seven kinds of rice to Hunan Food Testing Center,and adopt HPLC method to test the content of protein and eight kinds of essential amino acids. Three bags of rice are randomly selected for each kind of rice,and each bag is a replication. The test results show that there are highly significant differences in the content of essential amino acids between different kinds of rice( F = 246. 29**,P =5 ×10- 71),and there are also highly significant differences in the content between different kinds of essential amino acids( F = 3937. 09**,P = 4 × 10- 146). The test results of protein content indicate that there are highly significant differences in the content of protein between different kinds of rice( F = 3937. 0973. 29**,P =5. 81 ×10- 11),and the test results of lysine content show that there are highly significant differences in the content of lysine between different kinds of rice( F =3937. 0973. 29**,P =5. 81 ×10- 11).

  12. Proteome Analysis of Rice Root Proteins Regulated by Gibberellin

    Setsuko Komatsu; Hirosato Konishi


    To gain an enhanced understanding of the mechanism by which gibberellins (GAs) regulate the growth and development of plants, it is necessary to identify proteins regulated by GA. Proteome analysis techniques have been applied as a direct,effective, and reliable tool in differential protein expressions. In previous studies,sixteen proteins showed differences in accumulation levels as a result of treatment with GA3, uniconazole, or abscisic acid (ABA), and/or the differences between the GA-deficient semi-dwarf mutant, Tan-ginbozu, and normal cultivars. Among these proteins, aldolase increased in roots treated with GA3, was present at low levels in Tan-ginbozu roots, and decreased in roots treated with uniconazole or ABA. In a root elongation assay, the growth of aldolase-antisense transgenic rice was half of that of vector control transgenic rice. These results indicate that increases in aldolase activity stimulate the glycolytic pathway and may play an important role in the GA-induced growth of roots. In this review, we discuss the relationship among GA, aldolase, and root growth.

  13. Energy and Protein Consumption of Manggadong Rice as Local Wisdom and Effort of Staple Food Diversification

    Evawany Aritonang


    Full Text Available Carbohydrates as one of the macro nutrients have significant role in the food pattern in which 60-70% of the recommended energy requirement comes from carbohydrates, and generally being a staple food. It is unfortunate that almost all people in Indonesia have made rice as the main source of carbohydrates and became a staple food. This situation affects the high dependence on rice. This study aims to modify manggadong as local wisdom into manggadong rice that is rice mixed with 4 types of cassava flour in cooking rice and analyze energy consumption and protein from manggadong rice. Intervention has 100 mothers as a sample. The results showed that the consumption of energy and protein manggadong rice of 4 types of cassava are arround 691 kcal - 729 kcal and 12.7 to 12.9 g. Manggadong rice consumption can reduce the consumption of energy and protein than rice without cassava flour. It recommended socialization of manggadong rice in society in order to be applied in staple food consumption to support food diversification program as an effort to create a household food security. Food industry must be support to provide cassava flour to facilitate the application of manggadong rice.

  14. Enhanced disease resistance and drought tolerance in transgenic rice plants overexpressing protein elicitors from Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Han, Qiang; Zi, Qian; Lv, Shun; Qiu, Dewen; Zeng, Hongmei


    Exogenous application of the protein elicitors MoHrip1 and MoHrip2, which were isolated from the pathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae), was previously shown to induce a hypersensitive response in tobacco and to enhance resistance to rice blast. In this work, we successfully transformed rice with the mohrip1 and mohrip2 genes separately. The MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 transgenic rice plants displayed higher resistance to rice blast and stronger tolerance to drought stress than wild-type (WT) rice and the vector-control pCXUN rice. The expression of salicylic acid (SA)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-related genes was also increased, suggesting that these two elicitors may trigger SA signaling to protect the rice from damage during pathogen infection and regulate the ABA content to increase drought tolerance in transgenic rice. Trypan blue staining indicated that expressing MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 in rice plants inhibited hyphal growth of the rice blast fungus. Relative water content (RWC), water usage efficiency (WUE) and water loss rate (WLR) were measured to confirm the high capacity for water retention in transgenic rice. The MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 transgenic rice also exhibited enhanced agronomic traits such as increased plant height and tiller number.

  15. A double built-in containment strategy for production of recombinant proteins in transgenic rice.

    Zhang, Xianwen; Wang, Dongfang; Zhao, Sinan; Shen, Zhicheng


    Using transgenic rice as a bioreactor for mass production of pharmaceutical proteins could potentially reduce the cost of production significantly. However, a major concern over the bioreactor transgenic rice is the risk of its unintended spreading into environment and into food or feed supplies. Here we report a mitigating method to prevent unwanted transgenic rice spreading by a double built-in containment strategy, which sets a selectively termination method and a visual tag technology in the T-DNA for transformation. We created transgenic rice with an inserted T-DNA that harbors a human proinsulin gene fused with the far-red fluorescent protein gene mKate_S158A, an RNAi cassette suppressing the expression of the rice bentazon detoxification enzyme CYP81A6, and an EPSPS gene as the selection marker for transformation. Herbicide spray tests indicated that such transgenic rice plants can be killed selectively by a spray of bentazon at regular field application dosage for rice weed control. Moreover, the transgenic rice seeds were bright red in color due to the fused far-red fluorescent protein, and could be easily visualized under daylight by naked eyes. Thus, the transgenic rice plants reported in this study could be selectively killed by a commonly used herbicide during their growth stage, and their seeds may be detected visually during processing and consumption after harvest. This double built-in containment strategy may greatly enhance the confinement of the transgenic rice.

  16. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, soy protein, and their hydrolysates.

    Zhang, Huijuan; Bartley, Glenn E; Mitchell, Cheryl R; Zhang, Hui; Yokoyama, Wallace


    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates of white rice protein (WRP), brown rice protein (BRP), and soy protein (SP) hydrolyzed by the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L, were compared to the original protein source. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing either 20% casein (control) or 20% extracted proteins or their hydrolysates as the protein source for 3 weeks. The brown rice protein hydrolysate (BRPH) diet group reduced weight gain 76% compared with the control. Animals fed the BRPH supplemented diet also had lower final body weight, liver weight, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and liver cholesterol, and higher fecal fat and bile acid excretion than the control. Expression levels of hepatic genes for lipid oxidation, PPARα, ACOX1, and CPT1, were highest for hamsters fed the BRPH supplemented diet. Expression of CYP7A1, the gene regulating bile acid synthesis, was higher in all test groups. Expression of CYP51, a gene coding for an enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, was highest in the BRPH diet group. The results suggest that BRPH includes unique peptides that reduce weight gain and hepatic cholesterol synthesis.

  17. Microarray and Proteomic Analysis of Brassinosteroid- and Gibberellin-Regulated Gene and Protein Expression in Rice

    Guangxiao Yang; Setsuko Komatsu


    Brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) are two groups of plant growth regulators essential for normal plant growth and development. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism by which BR and GA regulate the growth and development of plants, especially the monocot plant rice, it is necessary to identify and analyze more genes and proteins that are regulated by them. With the availability of draft sequences of two major types, japonica and indica rice, it has become possible to analyze expression changes of genes and proteins at genome scale. In this review, we summarize rice functional genomic research by using microarray and proteomic approaches and our recent research results focusing on the comparison of cDNA microarray and proteomic analyses of BR- and GA-regulated gene and protein expression in rice. We believe our findings have important implications for understanding the mechanism by which BR and GA regulate the growth and development of rice.

  18. Effects of organic and conventional rice on protein efficiency ratio and pesticide residue in rats

    Wanpen Mesomya


    Full Text Available The comparative effects of organic rice and conventional rice on the protein efficiency ratio (PER in rats were investigated by feeding 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats for four weeks with three experimental diets containing polished conventional rice (PCR, unpolished conventional rice (UCR, unpolished organic rice (UOR and a control protein diet (casein under standardised conditions. All diets were prepared according to AOAC guidelines. The results showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05 among the values of PER (2.75 ± 0.14 - 2.80 ± 0.09 in rats fed with diets containing PCR, UCR or UOR. Similar growth was also observed among the three groups fed with different experimental diets. Additionally, residues of pesticides, viz. carbofuran, methyl parathion, p-nitrophenol and -cyfluthrin, in rat blood and rice samples were determined using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Pesticide residues were not detected in all serum samples of experimental rats and only p-nitrophenol was found (8.23 ± 0.65 - 12.84 ± 2.58 mg/kg in all samples of the cooked rice diets, indicating that organic rice produced similar effect as conventional rice on PER and growth in rats.

  19. The Effect of Glycosylation on the Functional Properties of Rice Protein

    Ying Liang


    Full Text Available Due to its relatively low solubility, emulsibility and foamability, rice protein is restricted in the processing and utilization. The experiment showed that in the modified combination of optimal glycosylation obtained by the orthogonal method, its composite solubility increased from 3.43 to 32.75%, emulsibility increased from 33.85 to 48.96% and foamability increased from 16.9 to 30.9%. It indicated that glycosylation could effectively improve the functional properties of rice protein like solubility, emulsibility and foamability and contribute to the further processing and utilization of rice protein, thus laying good theoretical foundation for further study.

  20. A review on rice bran protein: its properties and extraction methods.

    Fabian, Cynthia; Ju, Yi-Hsu


    Rice bran protein has been found to be of high quality and of importance for food and pharmaceutical applications. It is a plant protein that can be derived from rice bran, an abundant and cheap agricultural byproduct. The protein content in rice bran is about 10-15% and it consists of 37% water-soluble, 31% salt-soluble, 2% alcohol-soluble, and 27% alkali-soluble storage proteins. Its unique property as being hypoallergenic and having anti-cancer activity makes it a superior cereal protein that may find a wide range of applications. There were already reports on the extraction of rice bran protein several decades ago. However, as of now, commercial rice bran protein is still unavailable in the market. This review is aimed at providing valuable discussions on rice bran protein, that is, storage protein, its various properties, and extraction methods for the development of an effective processing scheme. Also, an update on the current processing methods is also included.

  1. Analysis of Recombinant Proteins in Transgenic Rice Seeds: Identity, Localization, Tolerance to Digestion, and Plant Stress Response.

    Wakasa, Yuhya; Takaiwa, Fumio


    Rice seeds are an ideal production platform for high-value recombinant proteins in terms of economy, scalability, safety, and stability. Strategies for the expression of large amounts of recombinant proteins in rice seeds have been established in the past decade and transgenic rice seeds that accumulate recombinant products such as bioactive peptides and proteins, which promote the health and quality of life of humans, have been generated in many laboratories worldwide. One of the most important advantages is the potential for direct oral delivery of transgenic rice seeds without the need for recombinant protein purification (downstream processing), which has been attributed to the high expression levels of recombinant products. Transgenic rice will be beneficial as a delivery system for pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals in the future. This chapter introduces the strategy for producing recombinant protein in the edible part (endosperm) of the rice grain and describes methods for the analysis of transgenic rice seeds in detail.

  2. Characterization of rice starch and protein obtained by a fast alkaline extraction method.

    Souza, Daiana de; Sbardelotto, Arthur Francisco; Ziegler, Denize Righetto; Marczak, Ligia Damasceno Ferreira; Tessaro, Isabel Cristina


    This study evaluated the characteristics of rice starch and protein obtained by a fast alkaline extraction method on rice flour (RF) derived from broken rice. The extraction was conducted using 0.18% NaOH at 30°C for 30min followed by centrifugation to separate the starch rich and the protein rich fractions. This fast extraction method allowed to obtain an isoelectric precipitation protein concentrate (IPPC) with 79% protein and a starchy product with low protein content. The amino acid content of IPPC was practically unchanged compared to the protein in RF. The proteins of the IPPC underwent denaturation during extraction and some of the starch suffered the cold gelatinization phenomenon, due to the alkaline treatment. With some modifications, the fast method can be interesting in a technological point of view as it enables process cost reduction and useful ingredients obtention to the food and chemical industries.

  3. Proteome from lemon fruit flavedo reveals that this tissue produces high amounts of the Cit s1 germin-like isoforms.

    Pignataro, Vittorio; Canton, Cristina; Spadafora, Antonia; Mazzuca, Silvia


    A multistep procedure has been developed and applied to extract and purify proteins from lemon fruit flavedo. 2DE, LC-ESI-MS/MS, and bioinformatics were used to detect the high abundance of the germin-like glycoprotein Cit s1, a powerful allergen in humans. Peptide alignments against Citrus EST repositories gave the best scores with the C. sinensis cDNA (gi|188354270/EY710037), annotated as unknown sweet orange fruit protein; additional BLAST of peptides against NCBI databases gave high sequence identities with sequence of orange Cit s1 (gi|52782810/P84159), suggesting that the unknown sweet orange fruit protein is consistent with the Cit s1 protein. Peptides of Cit s1 were detected in 17 spots ranging from 120 to 20 kDa, pointing out that in the flavedo of lemon the Cit s1 may be expressed as several isoforms of which the 120 kDa isoform is the largest monomer and the 20 kDa is the smallest one. This finding adds information about the features of Cit s1, because it has been previously reported as a unique monomeric glycoprotein of 24 kDa.

  4. Cytotoxicity evaluation of the whole protein extract from Bar-transgenic rice on Mus musculus lymphocytes.

    Lu, X B


    With the expanding demand for genetically modified (GM) rice, its safety evaluation is of great significance. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess the acute cytotoxicity of the whole protein extract from GM rice Bar68-1 in Mus musculus lymphocytes in vitro. Cell viability was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) tests. CCK-8 tests was carried out according to the manufacturer's instructions. Cell dehydrogenase (catalytic redox enzymes) activity was spectrophotometrically determined at 450 nm. The tests result were recorded immediately. NRU tests were completed under yellow light in a dark room according to an improved protocol. Lysosomal uptake of neutral red was spectrophotometrically determined at 540 nm and the results were recorded immediately. The results showed that the survival rate of M. musculus lymphocytes in the positive control group was significantly less than in the blank control group (P tests. There was no significant difference in survival rate between GM rice Bar68-1group and non-GM rice D68 group (P > 0.05). The GM rice Bar68-1 group also did not show a higher survival rate than non-GM rice D68 group (P > 0.05). These results suggested that the whole protein extract from Bar68-1 and D68 were equivalent in their cytotoxicity, and GM rice Bar68-1 had no acute cytotoxic effect on M. musculus lymphocytes in vitro.

  5. Dissection of brassinosteroid-regulated proteins in rice embryos during germination by quantitative proteomics

    Li, Qian-Feng; Xiong, Min; Xu, Peng; Huang, Li-Chun; Zhang, Chang-Quan; Liu, Qiao-Quan


    Brassinosteroids (BRs), essential plant-specific steroidal hormones, function in a wide spectrum of plant growth and development events, including seed germination. Rice is not only a monocotyledonous model plant but also one of the most important staple food crops of human beings. Rice seed germination is a decisive event for the next-generation of plant growth and successful seed germination is critical for rice yield. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms on how BR modulates seed germination in rice. In the present study, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) based proteomic approach to study BR-regulated proteome during the early stage of seed germination. The results showed that more than 800 BR-responsive proteins were identified, including 88 reliable target proteins responsive to stimuli of both BR-deficiency and BR-insensitivity. Moreover, 90% of the 88 target proteins shared a similar expression change pattern. Gene ontology and string analysis indicated that ribosomal structural proteins, as well as proteins involved in protein biosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolisms were highly clustered. These findings not only enrich BR-regulated protein database in rice seeds, but also allow us to gain novel insights into the molecular mechanism of BR regulated seed germination. PMID:27703189

  6. [Preparation, characterization and application of rice Qb-SNARE protein OsNPSN11 polyclonal antibody].

    Bao, Yong-Mei; Liu, Yong-Hui; Xu, Dong-Qing; Huang, Ji; Wang, Zhou-Fei; Wang, Jian-Fei; Zhang, Hong-Sheng


    Membrane fusion in vesicle trafficking in the cells of eukaryotic organisms is mediated by soluble-N-ethyl- maleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins. OsNPSN11 is a member of Qb-SNARE gene family isolate from rice. The cDNA of OsNPSN11 was subcloned into pET-30a and fusion to the 6 × His tag. Induced by 0.5 mmol/L IPTG for four hours, the recombinant protein was highly expressed in Escherichia coli, which was purified by Ni2+ -NTA His-bind resin affinity chromatography column to be used as an antigen to raise the antibody in New Zealand rabbits. Western blotting analysis showed that the antibody can specifically recognize the expressed antigen and the OsNPSN11 in plasma membrane protein from various rice tissues. This indicated that the antibody can be used for expres-sion analysis in transgenic rice.

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Rice Plasma Membrane-associated Proteins in Response to Chitooligosaccharide Elicitors

    Fang Chen; Qun Li; Zuhua He


    Chitooligomers or chitooligosaccharides (COS) are elicitors that bind to the plasma membrane (PM) and elicit various defense responses. However, the PM-bound proteins involved in elicitor-mediated plant defense responses still remain widely unknown. In order to get more information about PM proteins involved in rice defense responses, we conducted PM proteomic analysis of the rice suspension cells elicited by COS. A total of 14 up- or down-regulated protein spots were observed on 2-D gels of PM fractions at 12 h and 24 h after COS incubation. Of them, eight protein spots were successfully identified by MS (mass spectrography) and predicted to be associated to the PM and function in plant defense, including a putative PKN/PRK1 protein kinase, a putative pyruvate kinase isozyme G, a putative zinc finger protein, a putative MAR-binding protein MFP1, and a putative calcium-dependent protein kinase. Interestingly, a COS-induced pM5-like protein was identified for the first time in plants, which is a trans-membrane nodal modulator in transforming growth factor-β(TGFβ) signaling in vertebrates. We also identified two members of a rice polyprotein family, which were up-regulated by COS. Our study would provide a starting point for functionality of PM proteins in the rice basal defense.

  8. Medium-density particleboards from modified rice husks and soybean protein concentrate-based adhesives.

    Ciannamea, Emiliano M; Stefani, Pablo M; Ruseckaite, Roxana A


    The main goal of this work was to evaluate the technical feasibility of using rice husk (RH) as wood substitute in the production of environmentally sound medium-density particleboards using adhesives from soybean protein concentrate (SPC). Chemical modification of rice husk with sodium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide followed by hydrogen peroxide (bleaching) were undertaken to evaluate the effect of such treatments on the composition and topology of rice husk and the performance of produced panels. Both treatments were efficient in partially eliminating hemicelluloses, lignin and silica from RH, as evidenced by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron microscopy observations suggested that alkaline treatment resulted in a more damaged RH substrate than bleaching. The dependence of mechanical properties (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and internal bond) and the physical properties (water absorption and thickness swelling) on chemical treatments performed on both, rice husk and SPC was studied. Bleached-rice husk particleboards bonded with alkaline-treated soybean protein concentrate displayed the best set of final properties. Particleboards with this formulation met the minimum requirements of internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture recommended by the US Standard ANSI/A208.1 specifications for M1, MS and M2-grade medium-density particleboards, but failed to achieve the thickness swelling value recommended for general use panels. This limitation of soybean protein concentrate-bonded rice husk particleboards was counterbalanced by the advantage of being formaldehyde-free which makes them a suitable alternative for indoor applications.

  9. The trafficking pathway of a wheat storage protein in transgenic rice endosperm

    Oszvald, Maria; Tamas, Laszlo; Shewry, Peter R.; Tosi, Paola


    Background and Aims The trafficking of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of plant cells is a topic of considerable interest since this organelle serves as an entry point for proteins destined for other organelles, as well as for the ER itself. In the current work, transgenic rice was used to study the pattern and pathway of deposition of the wheat high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin sub-unit (GS) 1Dx5 within the rice endosperm using specific antibodies to determine whether it is deposited in the same or different protein bodies from the rice storage proteins, and whether it is located in the same or separate phases within these. Methods The protein distribution and the expression pattern of HMW sub-unit 1Dx5 in transgenic rice endosperm at different stages of development were determined using light and electron microscopy after labelling with antibodies. Key results The use of HMW-GS-specific antibodies showed that sub-unit 1Dx5 was expressed mainly in the sub-aleurone cells of the endosperm and that it was deposited in both types of protein body present in the rice endosperm: derived from the ER and containing prolamins, and derived from the vacuole and containing glutelins. In addition, new types of protein bodies were also formed within the endosperm cells. Conclusions The results suggest that the HMW 1Dx5 protein could be trafficked by either the ER or vacuolar pathway, possibly depending on the stage of development, and that its accumulation in the rice endosperm could compromise the structural integrity of protein bodies and their segregation into two distinct populations in the mature endosperm. PMID:24603605

  10. Rice bZIP protein, REB, interacts with GCN4 motif in promoter of Waxy gene

    程世军; 王宗阳; 洪孟民


    A bifactorial endosperm box (EB), which contains an endosperm motif (EM) and a GCN4 motif, was found in rice Wx promoter. EB was found in 5′ upstream region of many seed storage protein genes accounting for these genes expression exclusive in endosperm among various cereals. Many reports demonstrated that the bZIP transcription activators isolated from wheat, barley and maize, etc. regulate the gene expression through binding to the GCN4 motif. In this research, we showed that GCN4 sequence could be recognized by nuclear proteins extracted from immature rice seeds. Furthermore, a rice bZIP protein, REB was isolated by using PCR method and REB fusion protein was expressed in E. coli. The results of gel shift analysis showed that REB could recognize and bind to the GCN4 motif in the Wx gene in addition to binding to the target sequence in the promoter of α-globulin.

  11. Identification of differentially expressed proteins and phosphorylated proteins in rice seedlings in response to strigolactone treatment.

    Fangyu Chen

    Full Text Available Strigolactones (SLs are recently identified plant hormones that inhibit shoot branching and control various aspects of plant growth, development and interaction with parasites. Previous studies have shown that plant D10 protein is a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase that functions in SL biosynthesis. In this work, we used an allelic SL-deficient d10 mutant XJC of rice (Oryza sativa L. spp. indica to investigate proteins that were responsive to SL treatment. When grown in darkness, d10 mutant seedlings exhibited elongated mesocotyl that could be rescued by exogenous application of SLs. Soluble protein extracts were prepared from d10 mutant seedlings grown in darkness in the presence of GR24, a synthetic SL analog. Soluble proteins were separated on two-dimensional gels and subjected to proteomic analysis. Proteins that were expressed differentially and phosphoproteins whose phosphorylation status changed in response to GR24 treatment were identified. Eight proteins were found to be induced or down-regulated by GR24, and a different set of 8 phosphoproteins were shown to change their phosphorylation intensities in the dark-grown d10 seedlings in response to GR24 treatment. Analysis of these proteins revealed that they are important enzymes of the carbohydrate and amino acid metabolic pathways and key components of the cellular energy generation machinery. These proteins may represent potential targets of the SL signaling pathway. This study provides new insight into the complex and negative regulatory mechanism by which SLs control shoot branching and plant development.

  12. The Rice RMR1 Associates with a Distinct Prevacuolar Compartment for the Protein Storage Vacuole Pathway

    Yun Shen; Junqi Wang; Yu Ding; SzeWan Lo; Guillaume Gouzerh; Jean-Marc Neuhaus; Liwen Jiang


    Transport of vacuolar proteins from Golgi apparatus or trans-Golgi network (TGN) to vacuoles is a receptormediated process via an intermediate membrane-bound prevacuolar compartment (PVC) in plant cells.Both vacuolar sorting receptor (VSR) and receptor homology region-transmembrane domain-RING-H2 (RMR) proteins have been shown to function in transporting storage proteins to protein storage vacuole (PSV),but little is known about the nature of the PVC for the PSV pathway.Here,we use the rice RMR1 (OsRMR1) as a probe to study the PSV pathway in plants.Immunogold electron microscopy (EM) with specific OsRMR1 antibodies showed that OsRMR1 proteins were found in the Golgi apparatus,TGN,and a distinct organelle with characteristics of PVC in both rice culture cells and developing rice seeds,as well as the protein body type Ⅱ (PBII) or PSV in developing rice seeds.This organelle,also found in both tobacco BY-2 and Arabidopsis suspension cultured cells,is morphologically distinct from the VSR-positive multivesicular lytic PVC or multivesicular body (MVB) and thus represent a PVC for the PSV pathway that we name storage PVC (sPVC).Further in vivo and in vitro interaction studies using truncated OsRMR1 proteins secreted into the culture media of transgenic BY-2 suspension cells demonstrated that OsRMR1 functions as a sorting receptor in transporting vicilin-like storage proteins.

  13. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z A; Liang, J B; Yaakub, H; Abdullah, N


    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS...

  14. Effects of Uniconazole on Nitrogen Metabolism and Grain Protein Content of Rice

    XIANG Zu-fen; YANG Wen-yu; REN Wan-jun; WANG Xiao-chun


    The effects of uniconazole by soaking seeds and spraying leaves at booting stage with different concentrations (0, 20 and40 mg/kg) on the nitrogen metabolism of flag leaf and grains after flowering, and rice grain protein content and yield were studied withhybrid rice combination Shanyou 63. Under uniconazole treatment, the soluble protein content in flag leaf was increased in early andmiddle period of grain filling, but this content was nearly the same as or even lower than that of control at maturity; Glutaminesynthetase activity in superior and inferior grains and non-protein nitrogen content in superior grains at early stage of graindevelopment were promoted, and moreover, the transforming speed from non-protein nitrogen to protein nitrogen was accelerated;Non-protein nitrogen content was lower than that of control at maturity, but protein nitrogen content at each stage was higher thanthose of control; Protein nitrogen content in superior and inferior grains and protein nitrogen absolutely accumulative content in agrain both were enhanced and protein content and yield in rice grain were raised. The application of uniconazole by soaking seedsand spraying leaves raised crude protein content by an average of 7.2% and 8.3%, and protein yield by an average of 13.1% and13.4%, respectively.

  15. Over-Expression of Rice CBS Domain Containing Protein, OsCBSX3, Confers Rice Resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae Inoculation.

    Mou, Shaoliang; Shi, Lanping; Lin, Wei; Liu, Yanyan; Shen, Lei; Guan, Deyi; He, Shuilin


    Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) domain containing proteins (CDCPs) constitute a big family in plants and some members in this family have been implicated in a variety of biological processes, but the precise functions and the underlying mechanism of the majority of this family in plant immunity remain to be elucidated. In the present study, a CBS domain containing protein gene, OsCBSX3, is functionally characterized in rice resistance against Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae). By quantitative real-time PCR, transcripts of OsCBSX3 are up-regulated significantly by inoculation of M. oryzae and the exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). OsCBSX3 is exclusively localized to the plasma membrane by transient expression of OsCBSX3 fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) through approach of Agrobacterium infiltration in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. The plants of homozygous T3 transgenic rice lines of over-expressing OsCBSX3 exhibit significant enhanced resistance to M. oryzae inoculation, manifested by decreased disease symptoms, and inhibition of pathogen growth detected in DNA. Consistently, the over-expression of OsCBSX3 enhances the transcript levels of immunity associated marker genes including PR1a, PR1b, PR5, AOS2, PAL, NH1, and OsWRKY13 in plants inoculated with M. oryzae. These results suggest that OsCBSX3 acts as a positive regulator in resistance of rice to M. oryzae regulated by SA and JA-mediated signaling pathways synergistically.

  16. Over-Expression of Rice CBS Domain Containing Protein, OsCBSX3, Confers Rice Resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae Inoculation

    Shaoling Mou


    Full Text Available Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS domain containing proteins (CDCPs constitute a big family in plants and some members in this family have been implicated in a variety of biological processes, but the precise functions and the underlying mechanism of the majority of this family in plant immunity remain to be elucidated. In the present study, a CBS domain containing protein gene, OsCBSX3, is functionally characterized in rice resistance against Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae. By quantitative real-time PCR, transcripts of OsCBSX3 are up-regulated significantly by inoculation of M. oryzae and the exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA. OsCBSX3 is exclusively localized to the plasma membrane by transient expression of OsCBSX3 fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP through approach of Agrobacterium infiltration in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. The plants of homozygous T3 transgenic rice lines of over-expressing OsCBSX3 exhibit significant enhanced resistance to M. oryzae inoculation, manifested by decreased disease symptoms, and inhibition of pathogen growth detected in DNA. Consistently, the over-expression of OsCBSX3 enhances the transcript levels of immunity associated marker genes including PR1a, PR1b, PR5, AOS2, PAL, NH1, and OsWRKY13 in plants inoculated with M. oryzae. These results suggest that OsCBSX3 acts as a positive regulator in resistance of rice to M. oryzae regulated by SA and JA-mediated signaling pathways synergistically.

  17. Rice Protein Extracted by Different Methods Affects Cholesterol Metabolism in Rats Due to Its Lower Digestibility

    Hongbo Liu


    Full Text Available To elucidate whether the digestibility is responsible for the hypocholesterolemic action of rice protein, the effects of rice proteins extracted by alkali (RP-A and α-amylase (RP-E on cholesterol metabolism were investigated in 7-week-old male Wistar rats fed cholesterol-free diets for 3 weeks. The in vitro and in vivo digestibility was significantly reduced by RP-A and RP-E as compared to casein (CAS. The digestibility was lower in RP-E than that of RP-A. Compared with CAS, the significant cholesterol-lowering effects were observed in rats fed by RP-A and RP-E. Fecal excretion of bile acids was significantly stimulated by RP-E, but not by RP-A. The apparent cholesterol absorption was more effectively inhibited by RP-E than RP-A because more fecal neutral sterols were excreted in rats fed RP-E. There was a significant correlation between protein digestibility and cholesterol absorption (r = 0.8662, P < 0.01, resulting in a significant correlation between protein digestibility and plasma cholesterol level (r = 0.7357, P < 0.01 in this study. The present study demonstrates that the digestibility of rice protein affected by extraction method plays a major role in the modulation of cholesterol metabolism. Results suggest that the hypocholesterolemic action induced by rice protein with lower digestibility primarily contribute to the inhibition of cholesterol absorption.

  18. Differential Proteins Expressed in Rice Leaves and Grains in Response to Salinity and Exogenous Spermidine Treatments

    Paweena Saleethong


    Full Text Available Exogenous application of spermidine (Spd has been reported to modulate physiological processes and alleviate salt-induced damage to growth and productivity of several plants including rice. Employing a proteomic approach, we aimed at identifying rice leaf and grain proteins differentially expressing under salt stress, and in response to Spd prior to NaCl treatment. A total of 9 and 20 differentially expressed protein spots were identified in the leaves of salt-tolerant (Pokkali and salt-sensitive (KDML105 rice cultivars, respectively. Differential proteins common to both cultivars included a photosynthetic light reaction protein (oxygen-evolving complex protein 1, enzymes of Calvin cycle and glycolysis (fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and triose-phosphate isomerase, malate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase and a hypothetical protein (OsI_18213. Most proteins were present at higher intensities in Pokkali leaves. The photosynthetic oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2 was detected only in Pokkali and was up-regulated by salt-stress and further enhanced by Spd treatment. All three spots identified as superoxide dismutase in KDML105 were up-regulated by NaCl but down-regulated when treated with Spd prior to NaCl, indicating that Spd acted directly as antioxidants. Important differential stress proteins detected in mature grains of both rice cultivars were late embryogenesis abundant proteins with protective roles and an antioxidant protein, 1-Cys-peroxiredoxin. Higher salt tolerance of Pokkali partly resulted from higher intensities and more responsiveness of the proteins relating to photosynthesis light reactions, energy metabolism, antioxidant enzymes in the leaves, and stress proteins with protective roles in the grains.

  19. Comparison of Two Methods for the Extraction of Fractionated Rice Bran Protein

    Changyuan Wang


    Full Text Available Two different methods for extracting fractionated rice bran protein (FRBP from defatted rice bran were investigated according to the solubility of protein in different extraction solvents. The yields of the obtained proteins and their purity were first compared. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, differential scanning calorimetry, protein surface hydrophobicity, and protein secondary molecular structure analyses were subsequently applied to identify and compare the compositional, structural, and functional characteristics of the obtained proteins. The highest yield (13.8%, w/w and purity (45–47% of FRBP products were obtained using 0.4 M NaCl, 80% ethanol, and 0.01 M NaOH as extraction solvents to fractionate albumin, globulin, prolamin, and glutelin. Several good properties were exhibited, including good functionality, specific denaturation temperature, and enthalpy values, for FRBP products prepared by the above method.

  20. Micronutrient and protein-fortified whole grain puffed rice made by supercritical fluid extrusion.

    Paraman, Ilankovan; Wagner, Michael E; Rizvi, Syed S H


    Supercritical fluid extrusion (SCFX) was used to produce shelf-stable puffed rice fortified with protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrients. Product ingredients and process parameters were evaluated for end-product nutritional and textural qualities. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) served as a viscosity-lowering plasticizer and blowing agent during the process, which has been shown to produce expanded products with good textural qualities at lower temperatures (~100 °C) than conventional steam-based extrusion (130-180 °C). The fortified puffed rice contained 8% dietary fiber, 21.5% protein, and iron, zinc, and vitamins A and C at their recommended daily values in 100 g of product. The SCFX process allowed for the complete retention of all added minerals, 55-58% retention of vitamin A, and 64-76% retention of vitamin C. All essential amino acids including lysine were retained at exceptionally high levels (98.6%), and no losses were observed due to Maillard reaction or oxidation. All of the essential amino acid contents were equal to the reference protein recommended by FAO/WHO. Soy protein fortification improved the total amount of protein in the final rice products and provided a complementary amino acid profile to that of rice; the lysine content improved from 35 to 60 mg/protein, making the end product an excellent source of complete protein. Thus, SC-CO(2)-assisted extrusion is an effective process-based approach to produce cereal grain-based, low-moisture (5-8%) expanded products fortified with protein and any cocktail of micronutrients, without compromising the end-product sensory or nutritional qualities. These products are ideally suited for consumption as breakfast cereals, snack foods, and as part of nutrition bars for school lunch programs. The balanced nutritional profile and use of staple crop byproducts such as broken rice makes these expanded crisps unique to the marketplace.

  1. The NS3 protein of rice hoja blanca virus suppresses RNA silencing in mammalian cells

    Schnettler, E.; Hemmes, J.C.; Goldbach, R.W.; Prins, M.W.


    The NS3 protein of the tenuivirus rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV) has previously been shown to represent the viral RNA interference (RNAi) suppressor and is active in both plant and insect cells by binding short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in vitro. Using a firefly luciferase-based silencing assay it is

  2. Enzymatic hydrolysis of rice protein with papain and antioxidation activity of hydrolysate

    The enzymatic hydrolysis technology of rice protein and the antioxidant activity of the hydrolysate were studied. Substrate concentration,enzyme dose,pH value and temperature were selected as factors to optimize the hydrolysis parameters with single—factor and orthogonal tests. Results show the opti...

  3. OsMADS32 interacts with PI-like proteins and regulates rice flower development

    Huanhuan Wang; Mingjiao Chen; Dabing Zhang; Zheng Yuan; Liang Zhang; Qiang Cai; Yun Hu; Zhenming Jin; Xiangxiang Zhao; Wei Fan; Qianming Huang; Zhijing Luo


    OsMADS32 is a monocot specific MIKCc type MADS‐box gene that plays an important role in regulating rice floral meristem and organs identity, a crucial process for reproductive success and rice yield. However, its underlying mechanism of action remains to be clarified. Here, we characterized a hypomorphic mutant allele of OsMADS32/CFO1, cfo1‐3 and identified its function in controlling rice flower development by bioinformatics and protein‐protein interac-tion analysis. The cfo1‐3 mutant produces defective flowers, including loss of lodicule identity, formation of ectopic lodicule or hull‐like organs and decreased stamen number, mimicking phenotypes related to the mutation of B class genes. Molecular characterization indicated that mis‐splicing of OsMADS32 transcripts in the cfo1‐3 mutant resulted in an extra eight amino acids in the K‐domain of OsMADS32 protein. By yeast two hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence comple-mentation assays, we revealed that the insertion of eight amino acids or deletion of the internal region in the K1 subdomain of OsMADS32 affects the interaction between OsMADS32 with PISTILLATA (PI)‐like proteins OsMADS2 and OsMADS4. This work provides new insight into the mecha-nism by which OsMADS32 regulates rice lodicule and stamen identity, by interaction with two PI‐like proteins via its K domain.

  4. FT-like proteins induce transposon silencing in the shoot apex during floral induction in rice.

    Tamaki, Shojiro; Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Ayana; Fujita, Akiko; Shimatani, Zenpei; Terada, Rie; Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Kurata, Tetsuya; Shimamoto, Ko


    Floral induction is a crucial developmental step in higher plants. Florigen, a mobile floral activator that is synthesized in the leaf and transported to the shoot apex, was recently identified as a protein encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and its orthologs; the rice florigen is Heading date 3a (Hd3a) protein. The 14-3-3 proteins mediate the interaction of Hd3a with the transcription factor OsFD1 to form a ternary structure called the florigen activation complex on the promoter of OsMADS15, a rice APETALA1 ortholog. However, crucial information, including the spatiotemporal overlap among FT-like proteins and the components of florigen activation complex and downstream genes, remains unclear. Here, we confirm that Hd3a coexists, in the same regions of the rice shoot apex, with the other components of the florigen activation complex and its transcriptional targets. Unexpectedly, however, RNA-sequencing analysis of shoot apex from wild-type and RNA-interference plants depleted of florigen activity revealed that 4,379 transposable elements (TEs; 58% of all classifiable rice TEs) were expressed collectively in the vegetative and reproductive shoot apex. Furthermore, in the reproductive shoot apex, 214 TEs were silenced by florigen. Our results suggest a link between floral induction and regulation of TEs.

  5. A Small G Protein as a Novel Component of the Rice Brassinosteroid Signal Transduction.

    Zhang, Ge; Song, Xiaoguang; Guo, Hongyan; Wu, Yao; Chen, Xiaoying; Fang, Rongxiang


    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of steroid hormones that are essential for plant growth and development. The BR signal transduction pathway in the dicot model plant Arabidopsis is well established, but the components connecting the BR signaling steps in rice have not been fully explored. For example, how the BR signaling is fine-tuned in rice, especially at the BR receptor level, is largely unknown. Here we show that OsPRA2, a rice small G protein, plays a repressive role in the BR signaling pathway. Lamina inclination, coleoptile elongation, and root inhibition assays indicated that rice plants with suppressed expression of OsPRA2 were more sensitive to exogenously applied brassinolide than the wild-type plants. Conversely, rice overexpressing OsPRA2 was less sensitive to exogenous brassinolide. Further study uncovered that OsPRA2 inhibited the dephosphorylation of, and thus inactivated the transcription factor BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT 1 (OsBZR1). More importantly, OsPRA2 was found to co-localize with and directly bind to rice BR receptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1 (OsBRI1) at the plasma membrane. Additionally, the in vitro assays showed that OsPRA2 inhibits its autophosphorylation. This OsPRA2-OsBRI1 interaction led to the dissociation of OsBRI1 from its co-receptor OsBAK1, and abolished OsBRI1-mediated phosphorylation of OsBAK1. Together, these results reveal a possible working mechanism of OsPRA2 as a novel negative regulator on OsBRI1 and OsBZR1 and extend the knowledge about the regulatory mechanism of rice BR signaling.

  6. Sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition.

    Arsa, Supeeraya; Theerakulkait, Chockchai


    The sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate as affected by spray drying and sugar addition were investigated. Rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) was hydrolyzed by alcalase. Sucrose, glucose or fructose was added to the liquid rice bran protein hydrolysate (LRBPH) and subsequently spray dried. The sensory aroma intensities of the hydrolysates were evaluated. Results showed that after spray drying, the rice bran protein concentrate powder (RBPC-P) had higher sweet and cocoa-like aroma intensities than RBPC (p ≤ 0.05) and hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder (HRBPP) had higher milk powder-like aroma intensities than LRBPH (p ≤ 0.05). The sweet, cocoa-like and milk powder-like aroma intensities in hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with fructose addition (HRBPP-F) were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) than those of hydrolyzed rice bran protein powder with sucrose or glucose addition (HRBPP-S or HRBPP-G). HRBPP-F had the highest overall aroma liking score. These results also indicate that spray drying and sugar addition could improve the sensory aroma characteristics of alcalase hydrolyzed RBPC.

  7. Comparative transcriptome profiling of resistant and susceptible rice genotypes in response to the seedborne pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi.

    Matić, Slavica; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Biselli, Chiara; Orru', Luigi; Amaral Carneiro, Greice; Siciliano, Ilenia; Valé, Giampiero; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Spadaro, Davide


    Fusarium fujikuroi is the causal agent of bakanae, the most significant seed-borne disease of rice. Molecular mechanisms regulating defence responses of rice towards this fungus are not yet fully known. To identify transcriptional mechanisms underpinning rice resistance, a RNA-seq comparative transcriptome profiling was conducted on infected seedlings of selected rice genotypes at one and three weeks post germination (wpg). Twelve rice genotypes were screened against bakanae disease leading to the identification of Selenio and Dorella as the most resistant and susceptible cultivars, respectively. Transcriptional changes were more appreciable at 3 wpg, suggesting that this infection stage is essential to study the resistance mechanisms: 3,119 DEGs were found in Selenio and 5,095 in Dorella. PR1, germin-like proteins, glycoside hydrolases, MAP kinases, and WRKY transcriptional factors were up-regulated in the resistant genotype upon infection with F. fujikuroi. Up-regulation of chitinases and down-regulation of MAP kinases and WRKY transcriptional factors were observed in the susceptible genotype. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analyses detected in Selenio GO terms specific to response to F. fujikuroi: 'response to chitin', 'jasmonic acid biosynthetic process', and 'plant-type hypersensitive response', while Dorella activated different mechanisms, such as 'response to salicylic acid stimulus' and 'gibberellin metabolic process', which was in agreement with the production of gibberellin A3 in Dorella plants. RNA-seq profiling was performed for the first time to analyse response of rice to F. fujikuroi infection. Our findings allowed the identification of genes activated in one- and three- week-old rice seedlings of two genotypes infected with F. fujikuroi. Furthermore, we found the pathways involved in bakanae resistance, such as response to chitin, JA-dependent signalling and hypersensitive response. Collectively, this provides important information to elucidate the

  8. Improving the quality of rice straw by urea and calcium hydroxide on rumen ecology, microbial protein synthesis in beef cattle.

    Polyorach, S; Wanapat, M


    Four rumen-fistulated beef cattle were randomly assigned to four treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study the influence of urea and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ] treatment of rice straw to improve the nutritive value of rice straw. Four dietary treatments were as follows: untreated rice straw, 50 g/kg urea-treated rice straw, 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw and 30 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw. All animals were kept in individual pens and fed with concentrate at 0.5 g/kg of BW (DM), rice straw was fed ad libitum. The experiment was conducted for four periods, and each period lasted for 21 days. During the first 14 days, DM feed intake measurements were made while during the last 7 days, all cattle were moved to metabolism crates for total faeces and urine collections. The results revealed that 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw improved the nutritive value of rice straw, in terms of dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal volatile fatty acids, population of bacteria and fungi, nitrogen retention and microbial protein synthesis. Based on this study, it could be concluded that using urea plus calcium hydroxide was one alternative method to improve the nutritive value of rice straw, rumen ecology and fermentation and thus a reduction of treatment cost.

  9. Regulation of GAs-binding protein on dwarfism of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    SONGPing; CAOXianzu; WUYonghong; LIANGJiansheng


    The levels of endogenous hormones (GAs and ABA) in rice seedlings (7d) were measured by gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detoctor (GLC-FID) and the GAs-binding protein on meanbrane of young rice shoot was also analysed as dascribed by Chiharu.

  10. Production and immunogenicity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ApxIIA protein in transgenic rice callus.

    Kim, Mi-Young; Kim, Tae-Geum; Yang, Moon-Sik


    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a major etiological agent that is responsible for swine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious respiratory infection that causes severe economic losses in the swine production industry. ApxIIA is one of the virulence factors in A. pleuropneumoniae and has been considered as a candidate for developing a vaccine against the bacterial infection. A gene encoding an ApxIIA fragment (amino acids 439-801) was modified based on a plant-optimized codon and constructed into a plant expression vector under the control of a promoter and the 3' UTR of the rice amylase 3D gene. The plant expression vector was introduced into rice embryogenic callus (Oryza sativa L. cv. Dongjin) via particle bombardment-mediated transformation. The integration and transcription of the ApxIIA439-801 gene were confirmed by using genomic DNA PCR amplification and Northern blot analysis, respectively. The synthesis of ApxIIA439-801 antigen protein in transgenic rice callus was confirmed by western blot analysis. The concentration of antigen protein in lyophilized samples of transgenic rice callus was 250 μg/g. Immunizing mice with protein extracts from transgenic plants intranasally elicited secretory IgA. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using a transgenic plant to elicit immune responses against A. pleuropneumoniae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Protein markers associated with fertility restoration in japonica rice (Oryza sativaL.)


    @@As genetic markers, seed storage proteins have characters of high level of polymorphism, less environmental influence, and simple genetic control. In this study, Kinmaze (CK), Liuqianxin A, Liuqianxin B, Liuqianxin R, 77302-1, Ninghui3-2, C57, Chinsurah Boro Ⅱ, TN1, IR8, IR2A, and F1 and F2 of Liuqianxin A/77302-1 were used to detect protein markers associated with fertility restoration in japonica rice.

  12. Evaluation of extraction solutions for biochemical analyses of the proteins in rice grains.

    Lang, Gang-hua; Kagiya, Yukari; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Kitta, Kazumi


    The influence of different extraction solutions on the proteins extracted from rice grains was investigated. The largest amounts of salt-soluble proteins were extracted with solutions supplemented with Tris-HCl at pH 8.0. Rice allergens were analyzed by multiplex immunodetection. Except for α-globulin extracted with the solutions at pH 8.0, which showed a low-molecular-weight band besides the main band, no significant solution-dependent difference among the allergens was found. Total proteins were extracted with four kinds of solution. The extraction of the basic subunit of glutelin was found to be SDS-dependent, and more protein was obtained with extraction solutions supplemented with SDS. The contents of α-globulin and α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors were higher in the extracts without SDS than with SDS. We conclude from the present data that, in order to obtain comparable data from rice grain salt-soluble and total protein analyses, differences in the protein extraction efficiency of solutions used should be taken into consideration.

  13. Classificati,Expression Patter,and E3 Ligase Activity Assay of Rice U-Box-Containing Proteins

    Li-Rong Zeng; Chan Ho Park; R.C.Venu; Julian Gough; Guo-Liang Wang


    Ubiquitin ligases play a central role in determining the specificity of the ubiquitination system by selecting a myriad of appropriate candidate proteins for modification.The U-box is a recently identified,ubiquitin ligase activityrelated protein domain that shows greater presence in plants than in other organisms.In this study,we identified 77 putative U-box proteins from the rice genome using a battery of whole genome analysis algorithms.Most of the U-box protein genes are expressed,as supported by the identification of their corresponding expressed sequence tags (ESTs),full-length cDNAs,or massively parallel signature sequencing(MPSS)tags.Using the same algorithms,we identified 61 U-box proteins from the Arabidopsis genome.The rice and Arabidopsis U-box proteins were classified into nine major classes based on their domain compositions.Comparison between rice and Arabidopsis U-box proteins indicates that the majority of rice and Arabidopsis U-box proteins have the same domain organizations.The inferred phylogeny established the homology between rice and Arabidopsis U-box/ARM proteins.Cell death assay using the rice protoplast system suggests that one rice U-box gene,OsPU851,might act as a negative regulator of cell death signaling.In addition,the selected U-box proteins were found to be functional E3 ubiquitin ligases.The identification and analysis of rice U-box proteins hereby at the genomic level will help functionally characterize this class of E3 ubiquitin ligase in the future.

  14. Aroma components of acid-hydrolyzed vegetable protein made by partial hydrolysis of rice bran protein.

    Jarunrattanasri, Arporn; Theerakulkait, Chockchai; Cadwallader, Keith R


    Hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) was prepared from rice bran protein concentrate (RBPc) by partial hydrolysis with aqueous 0.5 N HCl at 95 degrees C for 12 or 36 h (H-RBPc-12 and H-RBPc-36, respectively). Aroma components of the RBPc and the HVPs were characterized by gas chromatography-olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, aroma extract dilution analysis, and calculation of odor activity values (OAVs). The predominant odorants in RBPc were 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, 2-aminoacetophenone, (E)-2-nonenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and beta-damascenone. Among these, the odor of 2-aminoacetophenone, present at 59 ng/g in RBPc, was reminiscent of the typical odor of RBPc. Most of the predominant odorants had higher log3FD factors in the H-RBPc-36 as compared to H-RBPc-12. Aroma impact compounds of H-RBPc-12 and H-RBPc-36 were 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)furanone (sotolon), vanillin, 3-methylbutanal, (E)-2-nonenal, 4-vinyl-2-methoxyphenol (p-vinylguaiacol), and beta-damascenone. Guaiacol had the highest OAV values of 2770 and 17650 in H-RBPc-12 and H-RBPc-36, respectively.

  15. Modeling grain protein formation in relation to nitrogen uptake and remobilization in rice plant

    ZHU Yan; LI Weiguo; JING Qi; CAO Weixing; Takeshi Horie


    Protein concentration of grain is an important quality index of rice,and formation of grain protein largely depends on pre-anthesis nitrogen assimilation and postanthesis nitrogen remobilization in the rice plant.The primary objective of this study was to develop a simplified process model for simulating nitrogen accumulation and remobilization in plant and protein formation in rice grains on the basis of an established rice growth model.Six field experiments,involving different years,eco-sites,varieties,nitrogen rates,and irrigation regimes,were conducted to obtain the necessary data for model building,genotypic parameter determination,and model validation.Using physiological development time(PDT)as general time scale of development progress and cultivar-specific grain protein concentration as genotypic parameter,the dynamic relationships of plant nitrogen accumulation and translocation to environmental and genetic factors were quantified and synthesized in the present model.The pre-anthesis nitrogen uptake rate by plant changed with the PDT in a negative exponential pattern,and post-anthesis nitrogen uptake rate changed with leaf area index(LA1)in an exponential equation.Post-antbesis nitrogen translocation rate depended on the plant nitrogen concentration and dry weight at anthesis as well as residue nitrogen concentration of plant at maturity.The nitrogen for protein synthesis in grains came from two sources:the nitrogen pre-stored in leaves,stem and sheath before anthesis and then remobilized after anthesis,and the nitrogen absorbed directly by plant after anthesis.Finally,the model was tested by using the data sets of different years,eco-sites,varieties,and N fertilization and irrigation conditions with the root mean square errors(RMSE)0.22%-0.26%,indicating the general and reliable features of the model.It is hoped that by properly integrating with the existing rice growth models,the present model can be used for predicting grain protein concentration and

  16. Effects and Mechanisms of P and K Nutrients on Yield and Protein Content of Fodder Rice

    TANG Xiang-ru; YU Tie-qiao


    Effects and mechanisms of P and K nutrients on yield and protein content of Weiyou 56, a fodder hybrid rice combination, were studied through pot experiment and biochemical analysis. The results showed that the increase of P and K nutrients enhanced the activities of PEP carboxylase (PEPC), glutamine synthase (GS) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in leaves, sucrose synthase (SS), ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADPGP) and GS in grains, and the chlorophyll content in leaves, soluble sugar and starch content in grains,protein N and total N content in leaves and grains. Howerer, they decreased soluble sugar content in leaves and led to an increase of protein content in brown rice, biomass, grain yield and harvest index. Excessive P nutrients slightly reduced SPS and ADPG activity in leaves and grains respectively.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutritional components and Cry1Ab protein in the transgenic rice with a synthetic cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis[Transgenic rice; Gamma irradiation; Nutritional components; Cry1Ab protein

    Wu Dianxing E-mail:; Ye Qingfu; Wang Zhonghua; Xia Yingwu


    The effects of gamma irradiation on the transgenic rice containing a synthetic cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis were investigated. There was almost no difference in the content of the major nutritional components, i.e. crude protein, crude lipid, eight essential amino acids and total ash between the irradiated grains and the non-irradiated transgenic rice. However, the amounts of Cry1Ab protein and apparent amylose in the irradiated transgenic rice were reduced significantly by the doses higher than 200 Gy. In vivo observation showed that Cry1Ab protein contents also decreased in the fresh leaf tissues of survival seedlings after irradiation with 200 Gy or higher doses and showed inhibition of seedling growth. The results indicate that gamma irradiation might improve the quality of transgenic rice due to removal of the toxic Cry1Ab protein.

  18. Simultaneous production of trehalose, bioethanol, and high-protein product from rice by an enzymatic process.

    Chang, Shu-Wei; Chang, Wei-Hsin; Lee, Maw-Rong; Yang, Tzung-Jie; Yu, Nu-Yi; Chen, Chin-Shuh; Shaw, Jei-Fu


    Rice is a starch-rich raw material that can be used for trehalose production. It can be hydrolyzed with alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, and pullulanase to produce high-maltose content of rice saccharified solution for bioconversion of maltose into trehalose by trehalose synthase (TSase). For this purpose, an efficient enzymatic procedure has been successfully developed to simultaneously produce value-added trehalose, bioethanol, and high-protein product from rice as substrate. The highest maltose yield produced from the liquefied rice starch hydrolysate was 82.4 +/- 2.8% at 50 degrees C and pH 5.0 for 21-22 h. The trehalose conversion rate can reach at least 50% at 50 degrees C and pH 5.0 for 20-24 h by a novel thermostable recombinant Picrophilus torridus trehalose synthase (PTTS). All residual sugar, except trehalose, can be fully hydrolyzed by glucoamylase into glucose for further bioethanol production. The insoluble byproduct containing high yields of protein (75.99%) and dietary fiber (14.01%) can be processed as breakfast cereal product, health food, animal forage, etc. The conversion yield of bioethanol was about 98% after 64 h of fermentation time by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without any artificial culture solution addition. Ethanol can easily be separated from trehalose by distillation with a high recovery yield and purity of crystalline trehalose of 92.5 +/- 8.7% and 92.3%, respectively.

  19. Starch digestibility and molecular weight distribution of proteins in rice grains subjected to heat-moisture treatment.

    Silva, Wyller Max Ferreira; Biduski, Bárbara; Lima, Karina Oliveira; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Hoffmann, Jéssica Fernanda; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the heat-moisture treatment (HMT) applied to paddy rice grains on the physicochemical properties, in vitro starch digestibility, and molecular weight distribution of proteins in rice flour. The paddy rice grains were adjusted to 13%, 16%, and 18% moisture and autoclaved at 121°C for 30 and 60min. The HMT promoted a reduction of the amylose content, the swelling power, and the solubility of the rice flour. Changes in the relative crystallinity and molecular weight of the proteins extracted with a sodium phosphate buffer containing 2.0% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDDS) were observed in HMT samples. The different methods for the quantification of resistant starch resulted in distinct resistant starch contents. The HMT (18%-60min) promoted an increase in resistant starch content and the HMT (16%-60min) caused an increase in the slowly digestible starch in the rice flour.

  20. Comparative proteomic study and functional analysis of translationally controlled tumor protein in rice roots under Hg2+ stress

    Feijuan Wang; Yongshen Shang; Ling Yang; Cheng Zhu


    So far,very little is known about mercury stress-induced intercellular metabolic changes in rice roots at the proteome level.To investigate the response of rice roots to mercury stress,changes in protein expression in rice roots were analyzed using a comparative proteomics approach.Six-leaf stage rice seedlings were treated with 50 μmol/L HgCl2 for 3 hr; 29 protein spots showed a significant changes in abundance under stress when compared with the Hg2+-tolerant rice mutant and wild type (Zhonghua 11).Furthermore,all these protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry to match 27 diverse protein species.The identified proteins were involved in several processes,including stress response,redox homeostasis,signal transduction,regulation and metabolism; some were found to be cellular structure proteins and a few were unknown.Among the up-regulated proteins,OsTCTP (translationally controlled tumor protein) was chosen to perform hetereologous expression in yeast which was presumed to participate in the Hg2+ tolerance of rice,providing evidence for its role in alleviating Hg2+ damage.Among the many tests,we found that OsTCTP-overexpressed yeast strains were more resistant to Hg2+ than wild-type yeast.Thus,we propose that OsTCTP contributes to Hg2+ resistance.Here we present,for the first time,the functional characterization of OsTCTP in connection with Hg2+ stress in plants.

  1. Proteomic Study Identifies Proteins Involved in Brassinosteroid Regulation of Rice Growth

    Fengru Wang; Ming-Yi Bai; Zhiping Deng; Juan A. Oses-Prieto; Alma L. Burlingame; Tiegang Lu; Kang Chong; Zhi-Yong Wang


    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential hormones for growth and development of plant. In rice, BRs regulate multiple developmental processes and affect many important traits such as height, leaf angle, fertility and seed filling. We identified brassinosteroid-regulated proteins in rice using proteomic approaches and performed functional analysis of some BR-regulated proteins by overexpression experiments. Using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) followed by protein identification by mass spectrometry, we compared proteomic differences in the shoots and roots of the BR-insensitive mutant d61-4 and BR-deficient mutant brd1-3. We identified a large number of proteins differentially expressed in the mutants compared with wild type control. These include a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein (OsGRP1)and a DREPP2 protein, which showed reduced levels in the BR mutants. Overexpression of these two proteins partially suppressed the dwarf phenotype of the Arabidopsis BR-insensitive mutant bri1-5. In contrast to the reduced protein level, the RNA level of OsGRP1 was not significantly affected in the BR mutants or by BR treatment, suggesting BR regulation of OsGRP1 at the posttranslational level. This study identifies many BR-regulated proteins and demonstrates that OsGRP1 functions downstream in the BR signal transduction pathway to promote cell expansion.

  2. A 52-week safety study in cynomolgus macaques for genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein.

    Mao, Jie; Sun, Xing; Cheng, Jian-Hua; Shi, Yong-Jie; Wang, Xin-Zheng; Qin, Jun-Jie; Sang, Zhi-Hong; He, Kun; Xia, Qing


    A 52-week feeding study in cynomolgus macaques was carried out to evaluate the safety of Bt rice Huahui 1 (HH1), a transgenic rice line expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein. Monkeys were fed a diet with 20% or 60% HH1 rice, 20% or 60% parental rice (Minghui 63, MH63), normal diet, normal diet spiked with purified recombinant Cry1Ab/1Ac fusion protein or bovine serum albumin (BSA) respectively. During the feeding trail, clinical observations were conducted daily, and multiple parameters, including body weight, body temperature, electrocardiogram, hematology, blood biochemistry, serum metabolome and gut microbiome were examined at regular intervals. Upon sacrifice, the organs were weighted, and the macroscopic, microscopic and electron microscopic examinations were performed. The results show no adverse or toxic effects of Bt rice HH1 or Cry1Ab/1Ac fusion protein on monkeys. Therefore, the present 52-week primate feeding study suggests that the transgenic rice containing Cry 1Ab/1Ac is equivalent to its parental rice line MH63.

  3. Purification and Analysis of Abscisic Acid-Specifically-Inducible Proteins from Rice Callus


    Two ABA-specifically-inducible proteins from rice callus were isolated and purified by precipitation with 65-100 % saturated(NH4)2SO4, followed by the DEAE-sepharose, TSK-gel, and two-dimension electrophoresis. Iso-electric points (pl) of the proteins with the same molecular mass (24.5 kD) were 6.1 and 6.9, respectively. The Western blot analysis indicated that the proteins expressed in different tissues were obviously different. The A1 (pl 6.1) protein was only detected in calli treated with ABA and seed embryos (SE).However, the A2 (pl 6.9) protein was found not only in the calli treated with ABA and SE, but also in the white dry callus. Thus it suggested that the two proteins might play some important roles in the processes of seed embryo (or somatic embryo) formation.

  4. Proteomic analysis of embryonic proteins synthesized from long-lived mRNAs during germination of rice seeds.

    Sano, Naoto; Permana, Hadian; Kumada, Ryota; Shinozaki, Yoshihito; Tanabata, Takanari; Yamada, Tetsuya; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Kanekatsu, Motoki


    Dry seeds contain translatable, long-lived mRNAs that are stored during seed maturation. Early studies using transcriptional inhibitors supported the view that protein synthesis during the initial phase of germination occurs on long-lived mRNA templates. Rice seeds were treated with the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D (Act D), and the embryonic proteins translated from long-lived mRNAs during germination were identified using a proteomic analysis. De novo transcription was not required for germination of rice seeds, since >80% of seeds germinated when transcription was prevented by treatment with Act D. In contrast, germination was completely inhibited in the presence of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of translation. Thus, de novo protein synthesis is necessary for germination of rice seeds. The proteomic analysis revealed that 20 proteins are up-regulated during germination, even after Act D treatment. Many of the up-regulated proteins are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and cytoskeleton formation. These results indicate that some of the germination-specific proteins involved in energy production and maintenance of cell structure in rice seeds are synthesized from long-lived mRNAs. The timing of translation of eight up-regulated proteins was clearly later than that of the other up-regulated proteins under conditions in which transcription was inhibited by Act D, suggesting that translation of long-lived mRNAs in rice seeds is regulated according to the germination phase.

  5. Understanding the molecular basis of plant growth promotional effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens on rice through protein profiling

    Thiruvengadam Raguchander


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR, Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KH-1 was found to exhibit plant growth promotional activity in rice under both in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. But the mechanism underlying such promotional activity of P. fluorescens is not yet understood clearly. In this study, efforts were made to elucidate the molecular responses of rice plants to P. fluorescens treatment through protein profiling. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis strategy was adopted to identify the PGPR responsive proteins and the differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Results Priming of P. fluorescens, 23 different proteins found to be differentially expressed in rice leaf sheaths and MS analysis revealed the differential expression of some important proteins namely putative p23 co-chaperone, Thioredoxin h- rice, Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase large chain precursor, Nucleotide diPhosphate kinase, Proteosome sub unit protein and putative glutathione S-transferase protein. Conclusion Functional analyses of the differential proteins were reported to be directly or indirectly involved in growth promotion in plants. Thus, this study confirms the primary role of PGPR strain KH-1 in rice plant growth promotion.

  6. Promotion of bone growth by dietary soy protein isolate: Comparision with dietary casein, whey hydrolysate and rice protein isolate in growing female rats

    The effects of different dietary protein sources(casein (CAS), soy protein isolate (SPI), whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) and rice protein isolate (RPI)) on bone were studied in intact growing female rats and in ovarectomized (OVX) rats showing sex steroid deficiency-induced bone loss. In addition, S...

  7. Effect of algal biofertilizer on yield and protein content of rice

    Antarikanonda, P.; Amarit, P.; Chetsumon; Tancharoenrat, P.

    Four strains of nitrogen fixing blue-green algae, namely Anabaena siamensis, Anabaena lutea, Nostoc sp. 46 and Nostoc sp. 79. Mixed cultures were applied as biofertilizers to four paddy soil samples, taken from Rangsit, Khok Sumrong, Sakhon Nakorn and Surin areas. Pots which were arranged in completely randomized design consisted of 3 replications and 2 treatment in each replication. These treatments comprise an unbiofertilizer and a biofertilizer which biofertilizer rate was applied equally at 4 grams of blue green algae per 10 kilograms of soil sample. The results showed that algal biofertilizer enhanced the growth and yield of the rice significantly, which was noticeable in the dry weight of the straw and grain of rice, for all sources of soil. Grain yield of rice in these soils increased form the check of 32.07, 34.87, 8.86 and 21.49 to 53.14, 49.53, 20.02, and 49.60 grams per pot, respectively. The responsiveness of rice which received algal biofertilizer was different. The percentage increase in yield ranged from 42% in Khok Sumrong soil and 66% in Rangsit soil, to 126 and 131% in Sakhon Nakorn and Surin soil, respectively. Significant increase in protein content of rice with the application of algal biofertilizer was from the check of 5.03, 5.14, 6.75 and 5.25 to 6.45, 6.53, 7.80 and 7.11 percent respectively. The difference in plant N-uptake level, after the application algal biofertilizer gave 383.50, 310.00, 222.20 and 480.70 milligrams per pot, respectively.

  8. Monoclonal Antibody Production and Immunolocalization of a Salinity Stress-Related Protein in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Jackson MARCONDES; Ana Beatriz GARCIA


    Among various physiological responses to salt stress,the synthesis of a lectin-related protein of 14.5 kDa was observed in rice plants (Oryza sativa L.) under the treatment of 170 mmol/L NaCl.In order to better understand the role of the SALT protein in the physiological processes involving salinity,it was immunolocalized in mesophilic cells of leaf sheath and blade of a rice variety IAC-4440 following monoclonal antibodies produced by hybridome culture technique.This variety turned out to be an excellent model for that purpose,since it accumulates SALT protein even in absence of salt treatment and it has been classified as moderately sensitive to salinity and a superior grain producer.This feature was relevant for this work since it allowed the use of plants without the deleterious effects caused by salinity.Immunocytochemistry assays revealed that the SALT protein is located in the stroma of chloroplasts under non-stressing condition.Since the chloroplast is the main target affected by salinity and considering that the SALT protein does not present any apparent signal peptide for organelle localization,its lectin-like activity seems to play an important role in the establishment of stable complexes,either to other proteins or to oligosaccharides that are translocated to the chloroplast.

  9. 14-3-3 proteins act as intracellular receptors for rice Hd3a florigen.

    Taoka, Ken-ichiro; Ohki, Izuru; Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Furuita, Kyoko; Hayashi, Kokoro; Yanase, Tomoko; Yamaguchi, Midori; Nakashima, Chika; Purwestri, Yekti Asih; Tamaki, Shojiro; Ogaki, Yuka; Shimada, Chihiro; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Kojima, Chojiro; Shimamoto, Ko


    'Florigen' was proposed 75 years ago to be synthesized in the leaf and transported to the shoot apex, where it induces flowering. Only recently have genetic and biochemical studies established that florigen is encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), a gene that is universally conserved in higher plants. Nonetheless, the exact function of florigen during floral induction remains poorly understood and receptors for florigen have not been identified. Here we show that the rice FT homologue Hd3a interacts with 14-3-3 proteins in the apical cells of shoots, yielding a complex that translocates to the nucleus and binds to the Oryza sativa (Os)FD1 transcription factor, a rice homologue of Arabidopsis thaliana FD. The resultant ternary 'florigen activation complex' (FAC) induces transcription of OsMADS15, a homologue of A. thaliana APETALA1 (AP1), which leads to flowering. We have determined the 2.4 Å crystal structure of rice FAC, which provides a mechanistic basis for florigen function in flowering. Our results indicate that 14-3-3 proteins act as intracellular receptors for florigen in shoot apical cells, and offer new approaches to manipulate flowering in various crops and trees.

  10. Location of the Protein of RSG6,a Predominantly Expressed Gene in Rice Sperm Cells

    Lan Li-qiong; Miao chen; Zeng yu; Wang Sheng-hua; Xu ying; Tang Lin; BAI Yu; Chen Fang


    Using Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis, here the localization of RSG6 protein was determined in various tissues of rice. Western blot showed only a weak signal in mature pollen. Nevertheless, according to the result of immunohistochemistry with DAB and fluorescent staining, the expression of RSG6 protein appeared to begin at the bicellular microspore stage, and then keep activity in the sperm cells of mature pollens. The fluorescence pattern showed RSG6 polypeptide was present close to or attached to the surface of the isolated sperm cells. And this suggested that RSG6 might take an important part in the process of recognition of sperm cell and ovum.

  11. Identification of β-phenylalanine as a non-protein amino acid in cultivated rice, Oryza sativa.

    Yokoo, Takayuki; Takata, Ryo; Yan, Jian; Matsumoto, Fuka; Teraishi, Masayoshi; Okumoto, Yutaka; Jander, Georg; Mori, Naoki


    Non-protein amino acids, often analogs of the standard 20 protein amino acids, have been discovered in many plant species. Recent research with cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) identified (3R)-β-tyrosine, as well as a tyrosine amino mutase that synthesizes (3R)-β-tyrosine from the protein amino acid (2S)-α-tyrosine. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) assays and comparison to an authentic standard showed that β-phenylalanine is also a relatively abundant non-protein amino acid in rice leaves and that its biosynthesis occurs independently from that of β-tyrosine.

  12. Serpins in rice: protein sequence analysis, phylogeny and gene expression during development

    Francis Sheila E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most members of the serpin family of proteins are potent, irreversible inhibitors of specific serine or cysteine proteinases. Inhibitory serpins are distinguished from members of other families of proteinase inhibitors by their metastable structure and unique suicide-substrate mechanism. Animal serpins exert control over a remarkable diversity of physiological processes including blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, innate immunity and aspects of development. Relatively little is known about the complement of serpin genes in plant genomes and the biological functions of plant serpins. Results A structurally refined amino-acid sequence alignment of the 14 full-length serpins encoded in the genome of the japonica rice Oryza sativa cv. Nipponbare (a monocot showed a diversity of reactive-centre sequences (which largely determine inhibitory specificity and a low degree of identity with those of serpins in Arabidopsis (a eudicot. A new convenient and functionally informative nomenclature for plant serpins in which the reactive-centre sequence is incorporated into the serpin name was developed and applied to the rice serpins. A phylogenetic analysis of the rice serpins provided evidence for two main clades and a number of relatively recent gene duplications. Transcriptional analysis showed vastly different levels of basal expression among eight selected rice serpin genes in callus tissue, during seedling development, among vegetative tissues of mature plants and throughout seed development. The gene OsSRP-LRS (Os03g41419, encoding a putative orthologue of Arabidopsis AtSerpin1 (At1g47710, was expressed ubiquitously and at high levels. The second most highly expressed serpin gene was OsSRP-PLP (Os11g11500, encoding a non-inhibitory serpin with a surprisingly well-conserved reactive-centre loop (RCL sequence among putative orthologues in other grass species. Conclusions The diversity of reactive-centre sequences among the putatively

  13. Cutin monomer induces expression of the rice OsLTP5 lipid transfer protein gene.

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Park, Jong Ho; Kim, Moon Chul; Cho, Sung Ho


    Treatment with the cutin monomer 16-hydroxypalmitic acid (HPA), a major component of cutin, elicited the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in rice leaves and induced the expression of the lipid transfer protein gene OsLTP5. Treatment with HPA also induced expression of OsLTP1, OsLTP2, and the pathogen-related PR-10 genes to a lesser extent. The OsLTP5 transcript was expressed prominently in stems and flowers, but was barely detectable in leaves. Expression of OsLTP5 was induced in shoots in response to ABA and salicylic acid. It is proposed that HPA is perceived by rice as a signal, inducing defense reactions.

  14. 大米过敏蛋白的研究进展%Advances of rice allergen proteins

    潘菁; 汪何雅; 钱和


    In recent years,studies have shown that there is a small amount of rice protein can lead to allergies.This article describes the mechanism of rice allergy and clinical manifestations,the rice allergy protein biochemistry and immunology details,and method of removing of rice allergens.%近年来的研究表明,大米中存在着少量可导致过敏的蛋白。介绍了大米过敏的机制和临床表现、大米过敏蛋白的生化和免疫学性质以及脱除大米过敏原的方法。

  15. Preparation of gluten-free rice spaghetti with soy protein isolate using twin-screw extrusion.

    Detchewa, Pakkawat; Thongngam, Masubon; Jane, Jay-Lin; Naivikul, Onanong


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soy protein isolate on functional properties and consumer acceptance of gluten-free rice spaghetti (GFRS) made from rice flour. Dry-milled high-amylose (Chai Nat 1) rice flour was premixed with dry-milled waxy (RD 6) rice flour at a ratio of 90:10 (w/w) with the soy protein isolate (SPI) concentration varying between 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 %, db. The GFRS formulation was processed using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder up to 95 °C with a screw speed of 220 rpm, 32 % moisture content, and then dried at 40 °C. The GFRS samples were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and texture parameters. Increasing SPI decreased the starch retrogradation of GFRS, whereas the enthalpy change of the amylose-lipid complex increased and crystallinity decreased. SEM revealed that the surface of GFRS containing SPI was much more porous than that of GFRS without SPI. The cooked GFRS containing 5.0 % SPI showed the best eating quality with increased firmness and tensile strength, and decrease stickiness. The GFRS samples were evaluated on the bases of cooking qualities and sensory evaluation. The results showed that the GFRS containing 5.0 % SPI decrease the cooking time from 17.6 to 13.7 min and cooking loss from 25.4 to 17.0 %. Overall acceptability of cooked GFRS containing 5.0 % SPI was the highest among all GFRS samples.

  16. Polycomb Protein OsFIE2 Affects Plant Height and Grain Yield in Rice

    Sheng, Zhonghua; Jiao, Guiai; Tang, Shaoqing; Luo, Ju; Hu, Peisong


    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins have been shown to affect growth and development in plants. To further elucidate their role in these processes in rice, we isolated and characterized a rice mutant which exhibits dwarfism, reduced seed setting rate, defective floral organ, and small grains. Map-based cloning revealed that abnormal phenotypes were attributed to a mutation of the Fertilization Independent Endosperm 2 (OsFIE2) protein, which belongs to the PcG protein family. So we named the mutant as osfie2-1. Histological analysis revealed that the number of longitudinal cells in the internodes decreased in osfie2-1, and that lateral cell layer of the internodes was markedly thinner than wild-type. In addition, compared to wild-type, the number of large and small vascular bundles decreased in osfie2-1, as well as cell number and cell size in spikelet hulls. OsFIE2 is expressed in most tissues and the coded protein localizes in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays demonstrated that OsFIE2 interacts with OsiEZ1 which encodes an enhancer of zeste protein previously identified as a histone methylation enzyme. RNA sequencing-based transcriptome profiling and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that some homeotic genes and genes involved in endosperm starch synthesis, cell division/expansion and hormone synthesis and signaling are differentially expressed between osfie2-1 and wild-type. In addition, the contents of IAA, GA3, ABA, JA and SA in osfie2-1 are significantly different from those in wild-type. Taken together, these results indicate that OsFIE2 plays an important role in the regulation of plant height and grain yield in rice. PMID:27764161

  17. Effects of 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene and Mercury Ion Stress on Ca2+ Fluxion and Protein Phosphorylation in Rice

    Cai-lin GE


    Full Text Available The effects of 5 mg/L 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB and 0.1 mmol/L mercury ion (Hg2+ stresses on Ca2+ fluxion and protein phosphorylation in rice seedlings were investigated by isotope exchange kinetics and in vitro phosphorylation assay. The Ca2+ absorption in rice leaves and Ca2+ transportation from roots to leaves were promoted significantly in response to Hg2+ and TCB treatments for 4-48 h. The Ca2+ absorption peaks presented in the leaves when the rice seedlings were exposed to Hg2+ for 8-12 h or to TCB for 12-24 h. Several Ca2+ absorption peaks presented in the roots during rice seedlings being exposed to Hg2+ and TCB, and the first Ca2+ absorption peak was at 8 h after being exposed to Hg2+ and TCB. The result of isotope exchange kinetic analysis confirmed that short-term (8 h Hg2+ and TCB stresses caused Ca2+ channels or pumps located on plasmalemma to open transiently. The phosphorylation assay showed that short-term TCB stress enhanced protein phosphorylation in rice roots (TCB treatment for 4-8 h and leaves (TCB treatment for 4-24 h, and short-term (4-8 h Hg2+ stress also enhanced protein phosphorylation in rice leaves. The enhancement of protein phosphorylation in both roots and leaves corresponded with the first Ca2+ absorption peak, which confirmed that the enhancement of protein phosphorylation caused by TCB or Hg2+ stress might be partly triggered by the increases of cytosolic calcium. TCB treatment over 12 h inhibited protein phosphorylation in rice roots, which might be partly due to that TCB stress suppressed the protein kinase activity. Whereas, Hg2+ treatment inhibited protein phosphorylation in rice roots, and Hg2+ treatment over 12 h inhibited protein phosphorylation in rice leaves. This might be attributed to that not only the protein kinase activity, but also the expressions of phosphorylation proteins were restrained by Hg2+ stress.

  18. Effects of 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene and Mercury Ion Stress on Ca2+ Fluxion and Protein Phosphorylation in Rice

    GE Cai-lin; WANG Ze-gang; WAN Ding-zhen; DING Yan; WANG Yu-long; SHANG Qi; LUO Shi-shi; MA Fei


    The effects of 5 mg/L 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and 0.1 mmol/L mercury ion (Hg2+) stresses on Ca2+ fluxion and protein phosphorylation in rice seedlings were investigated by isotope exchange kinetics and in vitro phosphorylation assay. The Ca2+ absorption in rice leaves and Ca2+ transportation from roots to leaves were promoted significantly in response to Hg2+ and TCB treatments for 4-48 h. The Ca2+ absorption peaks presented in the leaves when the rice seedlings were exposed to Hg2+ for 8-12 h or to TCB for 12-24 h. Several Ca2+ absorption peaks presented in the roots during rice seedlings being exposed to Hg2+ and TCB, and the first Ca2+ absorption peak was at 8 h after being exposed to Hg2+ and TCB.The result of isotope exchange kinetic analysis confirmed that short-term (8 h) Hg2+ and TCB stresses caused Ca2+ channels or pumps located on plasmalemma to open transiently. The phosphorylation assay showed that short-term TCB stress enhanced protein phosphorylation in rice roots (TCB treatment for 4-8 h) and leaves (TCB treatment for 4-24 h), and short-term (4-8 h) Hg2+ stress also enhanced protein phosphorylation in rice leaves. The enhancement of protein phosphorylation in both roots and leaves corresponded with the first Ca2+ absorption peak, which confirmed that the enhancement of protein phosphorylation caused by TCB or Hg2+ stress might be partly triggered by the increases of cytosolic calcium. TCB treatment over 12 h inhibited protein phosphorylation in rice roots, which might be partly due to that TCB stress suppressed the protein kinase activity. Whereas, Hg2+ treatment inhibited protein phosphorylation in rice roots, and Hg2+treatment over 12 h inhibited protein phosphorylation in rice leaves. This might be attributed to that not only the protein kinase activity, but also the expressions of phosphorylation proteins were restrained by Hg2+ stress.

  19. Rice protein improves adiposity, body weight and reduces lipids level in rats through modification of triglyceride metabolism

    Yang Lin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To elucidate whether rice protein can possess a vital function in improving lipids level and adiposity, the effects of rice proteins extracted by alkaline (RP-A and α-amylase (RP-E on triglyceride metabolism were investigated in 7-week-old male Wistar rats fed cholesterol-enriched diets for 2 weeks, as compared with casein (CAS. Results Compared with CAS, plasma concentrations of glucose and lipids were significantly reduced by RP-feeding (P P P P P > 0.05. There was a significant positive correlation between protein digestibility and deposit fat (r = 0.8567, P P Conclusions The present study demonstrates that rice protein can modify triglyceride metabolism, leading to an improvement of body weight and adiposity. Results suggest that the triglyceride-lowering action as well as the potential of anti-adiposity induced by rice protein is attributed to upregulation of lipolysis and downregulation of lipogenesis, and the lower digestibility of rice protein may be the main modulator responsible for the lipid-lowering action.

  20. Genome-wide and expression analysis of protein phosphatase 2C in rice and Arabidopsis

    Jakab Stephen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs from various organisms have been implicated to act as negative modulators of protein kinase pathways involved in diverse environmental stress responses and developmental processes. A genome-wide overview of the PP2C gene family in plants is not yet available. Results A comprehensive computational analysis identified 80 and 78 PP2C genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPP2Cs and Oryza sativa (OsPP2Cs, respectively, which denotes the PP2C gene family as one of the largest families identified in plants. Phylogenic analysis divided PP2Cs in Arabidopsis and rice into 13 and 11 subfamilies, respectively, which are supported by the analyses of gene structures and protein motifs. Comparative analysis between the PP2C genes in Arabidopsis and rice identified common and lineage-specific subfamilies and potential 'gene birth-and-death' events. Gene duplication analysis reveals that whole genome and chromosomal segment duplications mainly contributed to the expansion of both OsPP2Cs and AtPP2Cs, but tandem or local duplication occurred less frequently in Arabidopsis than rice. Some protein motifs are widespread among the PP2C proteins, whereas some other motifs are specific to only one or two subfamilies. Expression pattern analysis suggests that 1 most PP2C genes play functional roles in multiple tissues in both species, 2 the induced expression of most genes in subfamily A by diverse stimuli indicates their primary role in stress tolerance, especially ABA response, and 3 the expression pattern of subfamily D members suggests that they may constitute positive regulators in ABA-mediated signaling pathways. The analyses of putative upstream regulatory elements by two approaches further support the functions of subfamily A in ABA signaling, and provide insights into the shared and different transcriptional regulation machineries in dicots and monocots. Conclusion This comparative genome-wide overview of the PP

  1. QTLs and analysis of the candidate gene for amylose, protein, and moisture content in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Bruno, Ester; Choi, Yun-Sik; Chung, Il Kyung; Kim, Kyung-Min


    In this study, we determined using NIRS the heritability percentage of amylose, protein, and moisture content in polished and unpolished rice in a CNDH population derived from a cross between Cheongcheong and Nagdong rice varieties. The results revealed a higher heritability percentage for the amylose content and compromised heritability for protein and moisture contents. We also conducted QTL analysis of rice for these major components and identified their chromosomal locations on a physical map. We found a total of four QTLs affecting the amylose, protein, and moisture contents of grain on chromosome 7. We constructed physical maps of seven DNA markers responsible for amylose content, six responsible for protein content, and three responsible for moisture content. Furthermore, we classified these genes according to their functions and found 17 genes (over 77%) to be involved in secondary metabolite synthesis, two genes (about 9%), each related to cell function and abiotic stress, and one gene (about 5%) involved in redox signaling.

  2. Processing and intracellular localization of rice stripe virus Pc2 protein in insect cells

    Zhao, Shuling; Zhang, Gaozhan; Dai, Xuejuan; Hou, Yanling; Li, Min [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Liang, Jiansheng, E-mail: [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Liang, Changyong, E-mail: [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China)


    Rice stripe virus (RSV) belongs to the genus Tenuivirus and its genome consists of four single-stranded RNAs encoding seven proteins. Here, we have analyzed the processing and membrane association of Pc2 encoded by vcRNA2 in insect cells. The enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was fused to the Pc2 and used for the detection of Pc2 fusion proteins. The results showed that Pc2 was cleaved to produce two proteins named Pc2-N and Pc2-C. When expressed alone, either Pc2-N or Pc2-C could transport to the Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes independently. Further mutagenesis studies revealed that Pc2 contained three ER-targeting domains. The results led us to propose a model for the topology of the Pc2 in which an internal signal peptide immediately followed a cleavage site, and two transmembrane regions are contained.

  3. Overexpression of OsEm1 encoding a group I LEA protein confers enhanced drought tolerance in rice.

    Yu, Jing; Lai, Yongmin; Wu, Xi; Wu, Gang; Guo, Changkui


    Drought is the greatest threat for crops, including rice. In an effort to identify rice genes responsible for drought tolerance, a drought-responsive gene OsEm1 encoding a group I LEA protein, was chosen for this study. OsEm1 was shown at vegetative stages to be responsive to various abiotic stresses, including drought, salt, cold and the hormone ABA. In this study, we generated OsEm1-overexpressing rice plants to explore the function of OsEm1 under drought conditions. Overexpression of OsEm1 increases ABA sensitivity and enhances osmotic tolerance in rice. Compared with wild type, the OsEm1-overexpressing rice plants showed enhanced plant survival ratio at the vegetative stage; moreover, over expression of OsEm1 in rice increased the expression of other LEA genes, including RAB16A, RAB16C, RAB21, and LEA3, likely protecting organ integrity against harsh environments. Interestingly, the elevated level of OsEm1 had no different phenotype compared with wild type under normal condition. Our findings suggest that OsEm1 is a positive regulator of drought tolerance and is potentially promising for engineering drought tolerance in rice.

  4. Rice Bran Protein as a Potent Source of Antimelanogenic Peptides with Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity.

    Ochiai, Akihito; Tanaka, Seiya; Tanaka, Takaaki; Taniguchi, Masayuki


    Rice (Oryza sativa) is consumed as a staple food globally, and rice bran, the byproduct, is an unused biomass that is ultimately discarded as waste. Thus, in the present study, a technique for producing tyrosinase inhibitory peptides from rice bran protein (RBP) was developed. Simultaneous treatment of RBP with chymotrypsin and trypsin produced numerous peptides. Subsequently, six tyrosinase inhibitory peptides were isolated from the hydrolysate fractions in a multistep purification protocol, and their amino acid sequences were determined. Three of these peptides had a C-terminal tyrosine residue and exhibited significant inhibitory effects against tyrosinase-mediated monophenolase reactions. Furthermore, peptide CT-2 (Leu-Gln-Pro-Ser-His-Tyr) potently inhibited melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells without causing cytotoxicity, suggesting the potential of CT-2 as an agent for melanin-related skin disorder treatment. The present data indicate that RBP is a potent source of tyrosinase inhibitory peptides and that simultaneous treatment of RBP with chymotrypsin and trypsin efficiently produces these peptides.

  5. Hybrid Sterility in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Involves the Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domain Containing Protein.

    Yu, Yang; Zhao, Zhigang; Shi, Yanrong; Tian, Hua; Liu, Linglong; Bian, Xiaofeng; Xu, Yang; Zheng, Xiaoming; Gan, Lu; Shen, Yumin; Wang, Chaolong; Yu, Xiaowen; Wang, Chunming; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiuping; Wang, Jiulin; Ikehashi, Hiroshi; Jiang, Ling; Wan, Jianmin


    Intersubspecific hybrid sterility is a common form of reproductive isolation in rice (Oryza sativa L.), which significantly hampers the utilization of heterosis between indica and japonica varieties. Here, we elucidated the mechanism of S7, which specially causes Aus-japonica/indica hybrid female sterility, through cytological and genetic analysis, map-based cloning, and transformation experiments. Abnormal positioning of polar nuclei and smaller embryo sac were observed in F1 compared with male and female parents. Female gametes carrying S7(cp) and S7(i) were aborted in S7(ai)/S7(cp) and S7(ai)/S7(i), respectively, whereas they were normal in both N22 and Dular possessing a neutral allele, S7(n) S7 was fine mapped to a 139-kb region in the centromere region on chromosome 7, where the recombination was remarkably suppressed due to aggregation of retrotransposons. Among 16 putative open reading frames (ORFs) localized in the mapping region, ORF3 encoding a tetratricopeptide repeat domain containing protein was highly expressed in the pistil. Transformation experiments demonstrated that ORF3 is the candidate gene: downregulated expression of ORF3 restored spikelet fertility and eliminated absolutely preferential transmission of S7(ai) in heterozygote S7(ai)/S7(cp); sterility occurred in the transformants Cpslo17-S7(ai) Our results may provide implications for overcoming hybrid embryo sac sterility in intersubspecific hybrid rice and utilization of hybrid heterosis for cultivated rice improvement.

  6. Prediction and identification of the effectors of heterotrimeric G proteins in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Li, Kuan; Xu, Chaoqun; Huang, Jian; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Lina; Wan, Weifeng; Tao, Huan; Li, Ling; Lin, Shoukai; Harrison, Andrew; He, Huaqin


    Heterotrimeric G protein signaling cascades are one of the primary metazoan sensing mechanisms linking a cell to environment. However, the number of experimentally identified effectors of G protein in plant is limited. We have therefore studied which tools are best suited for predicting G protein effectors in rice. Here, we compared the predicting performance of four classifiers with eight different encoding schemes on the effectors of G proteins by using 10-fold cross-validation. Four methods were evaluated: random forest, naive Bayes, K-nearest neighbors and support vector machine. We applied these methods to experimentally identified effectors of G proteins and randomly selected non-effector proteins, and tested their sensitivity and specificity. The result showed that random forest classifier with composition of K-spaced amino acid pairs and composition of motif or domain (CKSAAP_PROSITE_200) combination method yielded the best performance, with accuracy and the Mathew's correlation coefficient reaching 74.62% and 0.49, respectively. We have developed G-Effector, an online predictor, which outperforms BLAST, PSI-BLAST and HMMER on predicting the effectors of G proteins. This provided valuable guidance for the researchers to select classifiers combined with different feature selection encoding schemes. We used G-Effector to screen the effectors of G protein in rice, and confirmed the candidate effectors by gene co-expression data. Interestingly, one of the top 15 candidates, which did not appear in the training data set, was validated in a previous research work. Therefore, the candidate effectors list in this article provides both a clue for researchers as to their function and a framework of validation for future experimental work. It is accessible at © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email:

  7. The α-subunit of the rice heterotrimeric G protein, RGA1, regulates drought tolerance during the vegetative phase in the dwarf rice mutant d1.

    Ferrero-Serrano, Ángel; Assmann, Sarah M


    Essential in the Green Revolution was the development of high-yielding dwarf varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.), but their selection was not based on responses to water limitation. We studied physiological responses to progressive drought of the dwarf rice mutant, d1, in which the RGA1 gene, which encodes the GTP-binding α-subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein, is non-functional. Wild-type (WT) plants cease net carbon fixation 11 days after water is withheld, while d1 plants maintain net photosynthesis for an additional week. During drought, d1 plants exhibit greater stomatal conductance than the WT, but both genotypes exhibit the same transpirational water loss per unit leaf area. This is explained by a smaller driving force for water loss in d1 owing to its lower leaf temperatures, consistent with its more erect architecture. As drought becomes more severe, WT plants show an accelerated decline in photosynthesis, which may be exacerbated by the higher leaf temperatures in the WT. We thus show how a rice mutant with dwarf and erect leaves has a decreased susceptibility to water stress. Accordingly, it may be useful to incorporate RGA1 mutation in breeding or biotechnological strategies for development of drought-resistant rice.

  8. Effects of Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels and Native Soil Properties on Rice Grain Fe, Zn and Protein Contents



    Deposition of protein and metal ions (Fe, Zn) in rice grains is a complex polygenic trait showing considerable environmental effect. To analyze the effect of nitrogen application levels and native soil properties on rice grain protein, iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) contents, 32 rice genotypes were grown at three different locations each under 80 and 120 kg/hm2 nitrogen fertilizer applications. In treatments with nitrogen fertilizer application, the brown rice grain protein content (GPC) increased significantly (1.1% to 7.0%) under higher nitrogen fertilizer application (120 kg/hm2) whereas grain Fe/Zn contents showed non-significant effect of nitrogen application level, thus suggesting that the rate of uptake and translocation of macro-elements does not influence the uptake and translocation of micro-elements. The pH, organic matter content and inherent Fe/Zn levels of native soil showed significant effects on grain Fe and Zn contents of all the rice genotypes. Grain Zn content of almost all the tested rice genotypes was found to increase at Location III having loamy soil texture, neutral pH value (pH 6.83) and higher organic matter content than the other two locations (Locations I and II), indicating significant influence of native soil properties on brown rice grain Zn content while grain Fe content showed significant genotype × environment interaction effect. Genotypic difference was found to be the most significant factor to affect grain Fe/Zn contents in all the tested rice genotypes, indicating that although native soil properties influence phyto-availability of micronutrients and consequently influencing absorption, translocation and grain deposition of Fe/Zn ions, yet genetic makeup of a plant determines its response to varied soil conditions and other external factors. Two indica rice genotypes R-RF-31 (27.62 μg/g grain Zn content and 7.80% GPC) and R1033-968-2-1 (30.05 μg/g grain Zn content and 8.47% GPC) were identified as high grain Zn and moderate GPC

  9. A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) in Wistar rats

    Schrøder, Malene; Poulsen, Morten; Wilcks, Andrea


    An animal model for safety assessment of genetically modified foods was tested as part of the SAFOTEST project. In a 90-day feeding study on Wistar rats, the transgenic KMD1 rice expressing Cry1Ab protein was compared to its non-transgenic parental wild type, Xiushui 11. The KMD1 rice contained 15......, macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with only minor changes to report. The aim of the study was to use a known animal model in performance of safety assessment of a GM crop, in this case KMD1 rice. The results show no adverse or toxic effects of KMD1 rice when tested in the design...... used in this 90-day study. Nevertheless the experiences from this study lead to the overall conclusion that safety assessment for unintended effects of a GM crop cannot be done without additional test group(s)....

  10. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Proteins Involved in Seed Imbibition under Salt Stress in Rice.

    Xu, Enshun; Chen, Mingming; He, Hui; Zhan, Chengfang; Cheng, Yanhao; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Zhoufei


    Enhancement of salinity tolerance during seed germination is very important for direct seeding in rice. In this study, the salt-tolerant japonica landrace Jiucaiqing was used to determine the regulators that are involved in seed imbibition under salt stress. Briefly, the comparative proteomic analysis was conducted between dry (0 h) and imbibed (24 h) seeds with 150 mM NaCl. Under salt stress, the uptake of water increased rapidly before 24 h imbibition (Phase I), followed by a plateau of seed imbibition from 24 to 96 h imbibition (Phase II). We identified 14 proteins involved in seed imbibition, in which the majority of these proteins were involved in energy supply and storage protein. The early imbibition process was mediated by protein catabolism; the most of proteins were down-regulated after 24 h imbibition. Eleven genes in salt stress treated seeds were expressed early during the seed imbibition in comparison to control seeds. By comparison, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (BPM), glutelin (GLU2.2 and GLU2.3), glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase large subunit (GAS8), and cupin domain containing protein (CDP3.1 and CDP3.2) were near the regions of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seed dormancy, seed reserve utilization, and seed germination in Jiucaiqing. In particular, CDP3.1 was co-located in the region of qIR-3 for imbibition rate, and qGP-3 for germination percentage. The role of CDP3.1 was verified in enhancing seed germination under salt stress using T-DNA mutant. The identified proteins might be applicable for the improvement of seed germination under salt stress in rice.

  11. Assessment on proximate composition, dietary fiber, phytic acid and protein hydrolysis of germinated Ecuatorian brown rice.

    Cáceres, Patricio J; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Amigo, Lourdes; Frias, Juana


    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is considered healthier than brown rice (BR) but its nutritive value has been hardly studied. Since nutritive quality of GBR depends on genetic diversity and germination conditions, six Ecuadorian BR varieties were germinated at 28 and 34 ºC for 48 and 96 h in darkness and proximate composition, dietary fiber fractions, phytic acid content as well as degree of protein hydrolysis and peptide content were studied. Protein, lipids, ash and available carbohydrate ranged 7.3-10.4%, 2.0-4.0%, 0.8-1.5% and 71.6 to 84.0%, respectively, in GBR seedlings. Total dietary fiber increased during germination (6.1-13.6%), with a large proportion of insoluble fraction, while phytic acid was reduced noticeably. In general, protein hydrolysis occurred during germination was more accused at 28 ºC for 48 h. These results suggest that GBR can be consumed directly as nutritive staple food for a large population worldwide contributing to their nutritional requirements.

  12. Expression of a gibberellin-induced leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase in deepwater rice and its interaction with kinase-associated protein phosphatase

    Knaap, E. van der; Sauter, M.; Kende, H. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). DOE Plant Research Lab.); Song, W.Y.; Ruan, D.L.; Ronald, P.C. (Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant Pathology)


    The authors identified in deepwater rice (Oryza sativa L.) a gene encoding a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like transmembrane protein kinase, OsTMK (O. sativa transmembrane kinase). The transcript levels of OsTMK increased in the rice internode in response to gibberellin. Expression of OsTMK was especially high in regions undergoing cell division and elongation. The kinase domain of OsTMK was enzymatically active autophosphorylating on serine and threonine residues. A cDNA encoding a rice ortholog of a kinase-associated type 2C protein phosphatase (OsKAPP) was cloned. KAPPs are putative downstream components in kinase-mediated signal transduction pathways. The kinase interaction domain of OsKAPP was phosphorylated in vitro by the kinase domain of OsTMK. RNA gel-blot analysis indicated that the expression of OsTMK and OsKAPP was similar in different tissues of the rice plant. In protein-binding assays, OsKAPP interacted with a receptor-like protein kinase, RLK5 of Arabidopsis, but not with the protein kinase domains of the rice and maize receptor-like protein kinases Xa21 and ZmPK1, respectively.

  13. Members of rice plasma membrane intrinsic proteins subfamily are involved in arsenite permeability and tolerance in plants.

    Mosa, Kareem A; Kumar, Kundan; Chhikara, Sudesh; Mcdermott, Joseph; Liu, Zijuan; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Dhankher, Om Parkash


    Rice accumulates high level of arsenic (As) in its edible parts and thus plays an important role in the transfer of As into the food chain. However, the mechanisms of As uptake and its detoxification in rice are not well understood. Recently, members of the Nodulin 26-like intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily of plant aquaporins were shown to transport arsenite in rice and Arabidopsis. Here we report that members of the rice plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) subfamily are also involved in As tolerance and transport. Based on the homology search with the mammalian AQP9 and yeast Fps1 arsenite transporters, we identified and cloned five rice PIP gene subfamily members. qRT-PCR analysis of PIPs in rice root and shoot tissues revealed a significant down regulation of transcripts encoding OsPIP1;2, OsPIP1;3, OsPIP2;4, OsPIP2;6, and OsPIP2;7 in response to arsenite treatment. Heterologous expression of OsPIP2;4, OsPIP2;6, and OsPIP2;7 in Xenopus laevis oocytes significantly increased the uptake of arsenite. Overexpression of OsPIP2;4, OsPIP2;6, and OsPIP2;7 in Arabidopsis yielded enhanced arsenite tolerance and higher biomass accumulation. Further, these transgenic plants showed no significant accumulation of As in shoot and root tissues in long term uptake assays. Whereas, short duration exposure to arsenite caused both active influx and efflux of As in the roots. The data suggests a bidirectional arsenite permeability of rice PIPs in plants. These rice PIPs genes will be highly useful for engineering important food and biofuel crops for enhanced crop productivity on contaminated soils without increasing the accumulation of toxic As in the biomass or edible tissues.

  14. Comparative Analysis of the Endosperm Proteins Separated by 2-D Electrophoresis for Two Cultivars of Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Pingfang Yang; Shihua Shen; Tingyun Kuang


    Liangyoupeijiu is a two-parental-line, and Shanyou63 is a three-parental-line hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.).Although both belong to the indica subspecies, they have obvious differences with respect to morphology,physiology and grain quality. Variations in endosperm protein compositions were studied by comparing the 2-D electrophoresis (2-DE) maps for these two cultivars of hybrid rice. After matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis, a 21-kDa precursor of 19-kDa globulin was identified as the major storage protein for both cultivars. Some isoforms of peroxiredoxin and seed maturation protein were found to only exist in Shanyou63, whereas aldose reductase and starch granule-bound starch synthase were only detected in Liangyoupeijiu. These data might provide a foundation for further comparative studies of these two cultivars of hybrid rice.

  15. Protein disulfide isomerase-like protein 1-1 controls endosperm development through regulation of the amount and composition of seed proteins in rice.

    Yeon Jeong Kim

    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI is a chaperone protein involved in oxidative protein folding by acting as a catalyst and assisting folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. A genome database search showed that rice contains 19 PDI-like genes. However, their functions are not clearly identified. This paper shows possible functions of rice PDI-like protein 1-1 (PDIL1-1 during seed development. Seeds of the T-DNA insertion PDIL1-1 mutant, PDIL1-1Δ, identified by genomic DNA PCR and western blot analysis, display a chalky phenotype and a thick aleurone layer. Protein content per seed was significantly lower and free sugar content higher in PDIL1-1Δ mutant seeds than in the wild type. Proteomic analysis of PDIL1-1Δ mutant seeds showed that PDIL1-1 is post-translationally regulated, and its loss causes accumulation of many types of seed proteins including glucose/starch metabolism- and ROS (reactive oxygen species scavenging-related proteins. In addition, PDIL1-1 strongly interacts with the cysteine protease OsCP1. Our data indicate that the opaque phenotype of PDIL1-1Δ mutant seeds results from production of irregular starch granules and protein body through loss of regulatory activity for various proteins involved in the synthesis of seed components.

  16. Proteome analysis of the rice etioplast: metabolic and regulatory networks and novel protein functions.

    von Zychlinski, Anne; Kleffmann, Torsten; Krishnamurthy, Nandini; Sjölander, Kimmen; Baginsky, Sacha; Gruissem, Wilhelm


    We report an extensive proteome analysis of rice etioplasts, which were highly purified from dark-grown leaves by a novel protocol using Nycodenz density gradient centrifugation. Comparative protein profiling of different cell compartments from leaf tissue demonstrated the purity of the etioplast preparation by the absence of diagnostic marker proteins of other cell compartments. Systematic analysis of the etioplast proteome identified 240 unique proteins that provide new insights into heterotrophic plant metabolism and control of gene expression. They include several new proteins that were not previously known to localize to plastids. The etioplast proteins were compared with proteomes from Arabidopsis chloroplasts and plastid from tobacco Bright Yellow 2 cells. Together with computational structure analyses of proteins without functional annotations, this comparative proteome analysis revealed novel etioplast-specific proteins. These include components of the plastid gene expression machinery such as two RNA helicases, an RNase II-like hydrolytic exonuclease, and a site 2 protease-like metalloprotease all of which were not known previously to localize to the plastid and are indicative for so far unknown regulatory mechanisms of plastid gene expression. All etioplast protein identifications and related data were integrated into a data base that is freely available upon request.

  17. Cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding ribosomal protein S4 from Rice (Oryza sativa)


    A cDNA clone, pS4, has been isolated from a cDNA library prepared from rice anthers of about 1.0 mm in length. DNA sequence analysis and database search show that the cDNA encodes a protein which is highly homologous to eukaryotic 80S ribosomal protein subunit 4 (S4). Northern hybridization indicates that this gene expresses in all tissues analyzed although the expression level varies and it cannot be induced by mechanical wounding in leaves. Southern blot analysis demonstrates that this rice S4 gene is from a multigene family.

  18. Effects of physical form and urea treatment of rice straw on rumen fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and nutrient digestibility in dairy steers.

    Gunun, P; Wanapat, M; Anantasook, N


    This study was designed to determine the effect of physical form and urea treatment of rice straw on rumen fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and nutrient digestibility. Four rumen-fistulated dairy steers were randomly assigned according to a 2 (2 factorial arrangement in a 4 (4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. Factor A was roughage source: untreated rice straw (RS) and urea-treated (3%) rice straw (UTRS), and factor B was type of physical form of rice straw: long form rice straw (LFR) and chopped (4 cm) rice straw (CHR). The steers were offered the concentrate at 0.5% body weight (BW) /d and rice straw was fed ad libitum. DM intake and nutrient digestibility were increased (p0.05), except propionic acid (C3) was increased (pstraw improved feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and efficiency of microbial N synthesis in crossbred dairy steers.

  19. Hypoxia-inducible genes encoding small EF-hand proteins in rice and tomato.

    Otsuka, Chie; Minami, Ikuko; Oda, Kenji


    Rice has evolved metabolic and morphological adaptations to low-oxygen stress to grow in submerged paddy fields. To characterize the molecular components that mediate the response to hypoxia in rice, we identified low-oxygen stress early response genes by microarray analysis. Among the highly responsive genes, five genes, OsHREF1 to OsHREF5, shared strong homology. They encoded small proteins harboring two EF-hands, typical Ca(2+)-binding motifs. Homologous genes were found in many land plants, including SlHREF in tomato, which is also strongly induced by hypoxia. SlHREF induction was detected in both roots and shoots of tomato plants under hypoxia. With the exception of OsHREF5, OsHREF expression was unaffected by drought, salinity, cold, or osmotic stress. Fluorescent signals of green fluorescent protein-fused OsHREFs were detected in the cytosol and nucleus. Ruthenium red, an inhibitor of intracellular Ca(2+) release, repressed induction of OsHREF1-4 under hypoxia. The HREFs may be related to the Ca(2+) response to hypoxia.

  20. Preparation of Monoclonal Antibody Against HPT and Its Application to Detecting Marker Protein in Genetically Modified Rice



    Objective To produce the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against hygromycin B phosphotransferase (HPT) and to develop immunoassay based on mAbs for biosafety assessment of HPT in genetically modified rice (GM rice). Methods BALB/c mice were immunized with purified recombinant 6His. HPT protein, and the conventional hybridoma technology was used to generate the monoclonal hybridoma cells. ELISA and Western blot were used to analyze the specificity of mAbs recognizing HPT and the cross reaction with other proteins. A double-Ab sandwich ELISA method was established to detect HPT expression level in the sck gene-modified rice plants. Results Four hybridomas, named F1, D4-2, D4-4, and D4-5, producing the mAbs against HPT were successfully obtained with the titer of ascetic mAbs ranging from 1×10-4 to 1×10-5. Identification of subclass showed that all the produced mAbs belonged to IgG1. Western blot showed specific binding reaction between the mAbs to the HPT proteins expressed in the GM rice. A double sandwich ELISA coated with anti-HPT polyclonal antibody was established with mAbs as sandwich antibody, which showed a sensitivity of 30ng/mL and did not crossreact with other proteins. The expression level of HPT in the leaves of sck-transformed lines was detected (80-150ng/mL). But HPT protein in the grain and seed of GM rice could not be detected using this ELISA assay. Conclusion Anti-HPT mAbs prepared herein have a high specificity and can be used for rapid assay of HPT antigen. The expression level of HPT in the GM rice grain and seed is lower than our ELISA detection limit.

  1. Rice Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Gene Family and Its Role in Biotic and Abiotic Stress Response

    Jai S. Rohila; Yinong Yang


    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MARK) cascade is an important signaling module that transduces extracellular stimuli into intracellular responses in eukaryotic organisms. An increasing body of evidence has shown that the MAPK-mediated cellular signaling is crucial to plant growth and development, as well as biotic and abiotic stress responses. To date, a total of 17 MARK genes have been identified from the rice genome. Expression profiling, biochemical characterization and/or functional analysis were carried out with many members of the rice MARK gene family, especially those associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses. In this review, the phylogenetic relationship and classification of rice MARK genes are discussed to facilitate a simple nomenclature and standard annotation of the rice MARK gene family. Functional data relating to biotic and abiotic stress responses are reviewed for each MARK group and show that despite overlapping in functionality, there is a certain level of functional specificity among different rice MAP kinases. The future challenges are to functionally characterize each MARK, to identify their downstream substrates and upstream kinases, and to genetically manipulate the MARK signaling pathway in rice crops for the improvement of agronomically important traits.


    Yan-yan Yang; Kai-zhou Zhang; Yi-hu Song; Qiang Zheng


    Environment friendly thermosetting composites were prepared by blending wheat gluten (WG) and rice protein (RP) at different weight ratios with glycerol as plasticizer followed by compression molding the mixture at 120C to crosslink the proteins. Reducing agent of sodium bisulfate and sodium sulfite and crosslinking agent formaldehyde were used to adjust the properties of the composites. Morphology, moisture absorption and tensile properties were evaluated. The results showed that formaldehyde could increase tensile strength of the composites without significant influence on Young's modulus and elongation at break. On the other hand, reducing agents could improve tensile strength and extensibility simultaneously, which was much marked at WG/RP ratios from 7/3 to 3/7.

  3. Mapping of the regions involved in self-interaction of rice stripe virus P3 protein.

    Zhao, S L; Hao, J H; Xue, Y N; Liang, C Y


    Rice stripe virus (RSV) protein P3 is a suppressor of RNA silencing in plants. P3 has been shown by biomolecular fluorescence complementation assay to self-interact in planta but the regions responsible for homotypic interaction have not been determined. Here we analyzed the domains for the self-interaction of P3 by using yeast two-hybrid, co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescence experiments. The results showed that P3 was also able to interact with itself in yeast and insect cells. The domain responsible for P3-P3 interaction was mapped to amino acids 15-30 at the N-terminal region of P3. Furthermore, subcellular localization suggested that the homo-oligomerization was the prerequisite for P3 to form larger protein aggregates in the nucleus of insect cell.

  4. Difference of Phytic Acid Content and its Relation to Four Protein Composition Contents in Grains of Twenty-nine japonica Rice Varieties from Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces, China

    WU Wei; CHENG Fang-min; LIU Zheng-hui; WEI Ke-su


    Twenty-nine japonica rice varieties collected from Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces, China were planted in Hangzhou,China, to investigate the phytic acid content in brown rice and its frequency distribution as well as the correlation among the contents of phytic acid, total protein and four protein compositions in brown rice. The phytic acid content in brown rice ranged from 0.699% to 1.034%, with a mean of 0.868% for the 29 tested rice varieties. Xiushui series rice varieties generally exhibited lower phytic acid level than Wuyujing and Huai series rice varieties. A rough normal distribution, with a mean of 8.722%, was observed for the total protein contents in the tested varieties. Of the four protein compositions, the glutelin, globulin and albumin contents had larger coefficient of variation than the prolamin content, although the difference in prolamin content was genotype-dependent. No significant correlation was found between the phytic acid and four protein composition contents, whereas the total protein content was significantly and positively related to the glutelin content in brown rice.

  5. Transferring an optimized TAP-toolbox for the isolation of protein complexes to a portfolio of rice tissues.

    Dedecker, Maarten; Van Leene, Jelle; De Winne, Nancy; Eeckhout, Dominique; Persiau, Geert; Van De Slijke, Eveline; Cannoot, Bernard; Vercruysse, Leen; Dumoulin, Lies; Wojsznis, Nathalie; Gevaert, Kris; Vandenabeele, Steven; De Jaeger, Geert


    Proteins are the cell's functional entities. Rather than operating independently, they interact with other proteins. Capturing in vivo protein complexes is therefore crucial to gain understanding of the function of a protein in a cellular context. Affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry has proven to yield a wealth of information about protein complex constitutions for a broad range of organisms. For Oryza sativa, the technique has been initiated in callus and shoots, but has not been optimized ever since. We translated an optimized tandem affinity purification (TAP) approach from Arabidopsis thaliana toward Oryza sativa, and demonstrate its applicability in a variety of rice tissues. A list of non-specific and false positive interactors is presented, based on re-occurrence over more than 170 independent experiments, to filter bona fide interactors. We demonstrate the sensitivity of our approach by isolating the complexes for the rice ANAPHASE PROMOTING COMPLEX SUBUNIT 10 (APC10) and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE D (CDKD) proteins from the proliferation zone of the emerging fourth leaf. Next to APC10 and CDKD, we tested several additional baits in the different rice tissues and reproducibly retrieved at least one interactor for 81.4 % of the baits screened for in callus tissue and T1 seedlings. By transferring an optimized TAP tag combined with state-of-the-art mass spectrometry, our TAP protocol enables the discovery of interactors for low abundance proteins in rice and opens the possibility to capture complex dynamics by comparing tissues at different stages of a developing rice organ.

  6. Caught red-handed: Rc encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein conditioning red pericarp in rice.

    Sweeney, Megan T; Thomson, Michael J; Pfeil, Bernard E; McCouch, Susan


    Rc is a domestication-related gene required for red pericarp in rice (Oryza sativa). The red grain color is ubiquitous among the wild ancestors of O. sativa, in which it is closely associated with seed shattering and dormancy. Rc encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein that was fine-mapped to an 18.5-kb region on rice chromosome 7 using a cross between Oryza rufipogon (red pericarp) and O. sativa cv Jefferson (white pericarp). Sequencing of the alleles from both mapping parents as well as from two independent genetic stocks of Rc revealed that the dominant red allele differed from the recessive white allele by a 14-bp deletion within exon 6 that knocked out the bHLH domain of the protein. A premature stop codon was identified in the second mutant stock that had a light red pericarp. RT-PCR experiments confirmed that the Rc gene was expressed in both red- and white-grained rice but that a shortened transcript was present in white varieties. Phylogenetic analysis, supported by comparative mapping in rice and maize (Zea mays), showed that Rc, a positive regulator of proanthocyanidin, is orthologous with INTENSIFIER1, a negative regulator of anthocyanin production in maize, and is not in the same clade as rice bHLH anthocyanin regulators.

  7. Comparison of three transgenic Bt rice lines for insecticidal protein expression and resistance against a target pest, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Wang, Ya-Nan; Ke, Kai-Qie; Li, Yun-He; Han, Lan-Zhi; Liu, Yan-Min; Hua, Hong-Xia; Peng, Yu-Fa


    Two transgenic rice lines (T2A-1 and T1C-19b) expressing cry2A and cry1C genes, respectively, were developed in China, targeting lepidopteran pests including Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). The seasonal expression of Cry proteins in different tissues of the rice lines and their resistance to C. suppressalis were assessed in comparison to a Bt rice line expressing a cry1Ab/Ac fusion gene, Huahui 1, which has been granted a biosafety certificate. In general, levels of Cry proteins were T2A-1 > Huahui 1 > T1C-19b among rice lines, and leaf > stem > root among rice tissues. The expression patterns of Cry protein in the rice line plants were similar: higher level at early stages than at later stages with an exception that high Cry1C level in T1C-19b stems at the maturing stage. The bioassay results revealed that the three transgenic rice lines exhibited significantly high resistance against C. suppressalis larvae throughout the rice growing season. According to Cry protein levels in rice tissues, the raw and corrected mortalities of C. suppressalis caused by each Bt rice line were the highest in the seedling and declined through the jointing stage with an exception for T1C-19b providing an excellent performance at the maturing stage. By comparison, T1C-19b exhibited more stable and greater resistance to C. suppressalis larvae than T2A-1, being close to Huahui 1. The results suggest cry1C is an ideal Bt gene for plant transformation for lepidopteran pest control, and T1C-19b is a promising Bt rice line for commercial use for tolerating lepidopteran rice pests.

  8. A Rice Ca2+ Binding Protein Is Required for Tapetum Function and Pollen Formation.

    Yu, Jing; Meng, Zhaolu; Liang, Wanqi; Behera, Smrutisanjita; Kudla, Jörg; Tucker, Matthew R; Luo, Zhijing; Chen, Mingjiao; Xu, Dawei; Zhao, Guochao; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Siyi; Kim, Yu-Jin; Zhang, Dabing


    In flowering plants, successful male reproduction requires the sophisticated interaction between somatic anther wall layers and reproductive cells. Timely degradation of the innermost tissue of the anther wall layer, the tapetal layer, is critical for pollen development. Ca(2+) is a well-known stimulus for plant development, but whether it plays a role in affecting male reproduction remains elusive. Here we report a role of Defective in Exine Formation 1 (OsDEX1) in rice (Oryza sativa), a Ca(2+) binding protein, in regulating rice tapetal cell degradation and pollen formation. In osdex1 anthers, tapetal cell degeneration is delayed and degradation of the callose wall surrounding the microspores is compromised, leading to aborted pollen formation and complete male sterility. OsDEX1 is expressed in tapetal cells and microspores during early anther development. Recombinant OsDEX1 is able to bind Ca(2+) and regulate Ca(2+) homeostasis in vitro, and osdex1 exhibited disturbed Ca(2+) homeostasis in tapetal cells. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that OsDEX1 may have a conserved function in binding Ca(2+) in flowering plants, and genetic complementation of pollen wall defects of an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) dex1 mutant confirmed its evolutionary conservation in pollen development. Collectively, these findings suggest that OsDEX1 plays a fundamental role in the development of tapetal cells and pollen formation, possibly via modulating the Ca(2+) homeostasis during pollen development.

  9. The role of water channel proteins and nitric oxide signaling in rice seed germination

    Hong-Yan Liu; Xin Yu; Da-Yong Cui; Mei-Hao Sun; Wei-Ning Sun; Zhang-Cheng Tang; Sang-Soo Kwak; Wei-Ai Su


    Previous studies have demonstrated the possible role of several aquaporins in seed germination. But systematic investigation of the role of aquaporin family members in this process is lacking. Here, the developmental regulation of plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) expression throughout germination and post-germination processes in rice embryos was analyzed. The expression patterns of the PIPs suggest these aquaporins play different roles in seed germination and seedling growth. Partial silencing of the water channel genes, OsPIP1; 1 and OsPIP1;3, reduced seed germination while over-expression of OsPIPl;3 promoted seed germination under water-stress conditions. Moreover, spatial expression analysis indicates that OsPIP1;3 is expressed predominantly in embryo during seed germination. Our data also revealed that the nitric oxide (NO) donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), promoted seed germination; furthermore, the NO scavenger, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, inhibited germination and reduced the stimulative effects of SNP and GSNO on rice germination. Exogenous NO stimulated the transcription of OsPIP1;1, OsPIP1;2, OsPIP1;3 and OsPIP2;8 in germinating seeds. These results suggest that water channels play an important role in seed germination, acting, at least partly, in response to the NO signaling pathway.

  10. Molecular characterization of a defense-related AMP-binding protein gene, OsBIABP1, from rice

    Xin-chun ZHANG; Xin YU; Hui-juan ZHANG; Feng-ming SONG


    We cloned and characterized a rice gene OsBIABPI encoding an AMP-binding protein. The full-length cDNA of OsBIABP1 is 1912-bp long and is predicted to encode a 558-aa protein. OsBIABP1 contains a typical AMP-binding signature motif and shows high similarity to members of AMP-binding protein family. OsBIABP1 is expressed in stems, leaves and flowers of rice plants, but is not expressed, or expressed at a very low level, in rice roots. The expression of OsBIABP1 was induced by some defense-related signal molecules, e.g., salicylic acid (SA), benzothiadiazole, jasmonic acid (JA), and 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, which mediate SA-and JA/ethylene (ET)-dependent defense signaling pathways, respectively. Furthermore, the expression of OsBIABP1 is activated by the infection of Magnaporthe oryzae, and the induced expression is quicker and stronger during early stages of pathogenesis in incompatible interaction than that in compatible interaction between rice and M. oryzae. Our results suggest that OsBIABP1 may be a defense-related AMP-binding protein that is involved in the regulation of defense re-sponse through SA and/or JA/ET signaling pathways.

  11. The rice OsLpa1 gene encodse a novel protein involved in phytic acid metabolism

    The rice low phytic acid 1 (OsLpa1) gene was originally identified using a forward genetics approach. Mutation of this gene resulted in a 45% reduction in rice seed phytic acid with a molar-equivalent increase in inorganic phosphorus; however, the rice lpa1 mutant does not appear to differ significa...

  12. Cloning and characterization of three genes encoding Qb-SNARE proteins in rice.

    Bao, Yong-Mei; Wang, Jian-Fei; Huang, Ji; Zhang, Hong-Sheng


    Qb-SNARE proteins belong to the superfamily of SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) and function as important components of the vesicle trafficking machinery in eukaryotic cells. Here, we report three novel plant SNARE (NPSN) genes isolated from rice and named OsNPSN11, OsNPSN12 and OsNPSN13. They have about 70% nucleotide identity over their entire coding regions and similar genomic organization with ten exons and nine introns in each gene. Multiple alignment of deduced amino acid sequences indicate that the OsNPSNs proteins are homologous to AtNPSNs from Arabidopsis, containing a Qb-SNARE domain and a membrane-spanning domain in the C-terminal region. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays showed that the OsNPSNs were ubiquitously and differentially expressed in roots, culms, leaves, immature spikes and flowering spikes. The expression of OsNPSNs was significantly activated in rice seedlings treated with H(2)O(2), but down-regulated under NaCl and PEG6000 stresses. Transient expression method in onion epidermal cells revealed that OsNPSNs were located in the plasma membrane. Transformed yeast cells with OsNPSNs had better growth rates than empty-vector transformants when cultured on either solid or liquid selective media containing various concentrations of H(2)O(2), but more sensitive to NaCl and mannitol stresses. The 35S:OsNPSN11 transgenic tobacco also showed more tolerance to H(2)O(2) and sensitivity to NaCl and mannitol than non-transgenic tobacco. These results indicate that OsNPSNs may be involved in different aspects of the signal transduction in plant and yeast responses to abiotic stresses.

  13. Rice proteins, extracted by alkali and α-amylase, differently affect in vitro antioxidant activity.

    Wang, Zhengxuan; Liu, Ye; Li, Hui; Yang, Lin


    Alkali treatment and α-amylase degradation are different processes for rice protein (RP) isolation. The major aim of this study was to determine the influence of two different extraction methods on the antioxidant capacities of RPA, extracted by alkaline (0.2% NaOH), and RPE, extracted by α-amylase, during in vitro digestion for 2h with pepsin and for 3h with pancreatin. Upon pepsin-pancreatin digestion, the protein hydrolysates (RPA-S, RPE-S), which were the supernatants in the absence of undigested residue, and the whole protein digests (RPA, RPE), in which undigested residue remained, were measured. RPE exhibited the stronger antioxidant responses to free radical scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and reducing power, whereas the weakest antioxidant capacities were produced by RPE-S. In contrast, no significant differences in antioxidant activity were observed between RPA and RPA-S. The present study demonstrated that the in vitro antioxidant responses induced by the hydrolysates and the protein digests of RPs could be affected differently by alkali treatment and α-amylase degradation, suggesting that the extraction is a vital processing step to modify the antioxidant capacities of RPs. The results of the current study indicated that the protein digests, in which undigested residues remained, could exhibit more efficacious antioxidant activity compared to the hydrolysates.

  14. Identification of embryo proteins associated with seed germination and seedling establishment in germinating rice seeds.

    Liu, Shu-Jun; Xu, Heng-Heng; Wang, Wei-Qing; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Ping; Lu, Zhuang; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan


    Seed germination is a critical phase in the plant life cycle, but the mechanism of seed germination is still poorly understood. In the present study, rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Peiai 64S) seeds were sampled individually when they reached different germination stages, quiescent, germinated sensu stricto, germinated completely and seedling, and were used to study the changes in the embryo proteome. A total of 88 protein spots showed a significant change in abundance during germination in water, and the results showed an activation of metabolic processes. Cell division, cell wall synthesis, and secondary metabolism were activated at late seed germination and during preparation for subsequent seedling establishment. Cycloheximide (CHX) at 70μM inhibited seedling establishment without an apparent negative effect on seed germination, while CHX at 500μM completely blocked seed germination. We used this observation to identify the potentially important proteins involved in seed germination (coleoptile protrusion) and seedling establishment (coleoptile and radicle protrusion). Twenty-six protein spots, mainly associated with sugar/polysaccharide metabolism and energy production, showed a significant difference in abundance during seed germination. Forty-nine protein spots, mainly involved in cell wall biosynthesis, proteolysis as well as cell defense and rescue, were required for seedling establishment. The results help improve our understanding of the key events (proteins) involved in germination and seedling development.

  15. High Temperature During Rice Grain Filling Enhances Aspartate Metabolism in Grains and Results in Accumulation of Aspartate-Family Amino Acids and Protein Components

    Cheng-gang LIANG


    Full Text Available Global warming causes the exacerbation of rice growing environment, which seriously affects rice growth and reproduction, and finally results in the decrease of rice yield and quality. We investigated the activities of aspartate metabolism enzymes in grains, and the contents of Aspartate-family amino acids and protein components to further understand the effects of high temperature (HT on rice nutritional quality during rice grain filling. Under HT, the average activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AAT and aspartokinase (AK in grains significantly increased, the amino acid contents of aspartate (Asp, lysine (Lys, threonine (Thr, methionine (Met and isoleucine (Ile and the protein contents of albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin also significantly increased. The results indicated that HT enhanced Asp metabolism during rice grain filling and the enhancement of Asp metabolism might play an important role in the increase of Asp-family amino acids and protein components in grains. In case of the partial appraisal of the change of Asp-family amino acids and protein components under HT, we introduced eight indicators (amino acid or protein content, ratio of amino acid or protein, amino acid or protein content per grain and amino acid or protein content per panicle to estimate the effects of HT. It is suggested that HT during rice grain filling was benefit for the accumulation of Asp-family amino acids and protein components. Combined with the improvement of Asp-family amino acid ratio in grains under HT, it is suggested that HT during grain filling may improve the rice nutritional quality. However, the yields of parts of Asp-family amino acids and protein components were decreased under HT during rice grain filling.

  16. Characterization and expression analysis of calcium-dependent protein kinase genes in rice(Oryza sativa L.)

    WANG Jiaojiao; GUO Li; XIAO Kai


    Under abiotic stress,the calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) in plant species are activated by the fluctuated Ca2+ levels in cytoplasm and thereby provide a mechanism to decode calcium signals.In this paper,twenty-two rice CDPK genes were identified based on scanning the rice genome released in National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).It was found that there were dramatic differences on the DNA length,cDNA length,open reading frame (ORF) and the translated amino acids among the rice CDPK genes,with the highest diversity on the DNA length.Calculations of the exon/intron numbers and the lengths of exon and intron revealed that all of the rice CDPK genes had the longest exon at the position of exon 1,but the lengths of introns in different genes showed different patterns.The gene structure and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the rice CDPK genes had derived at least from two different ancestors during the evolution.The expression analysis elucidated that the rice CDPK genes showed different patterns under normal growth (CK) and salt stress condition,including constitutively expression (OsCDPK4,OsCDPK18,OsCDPK19 and OsCDPK24),down- or up-regulated in roots by salt stress (OsCDPK10 and OsCDPK16),up-regulated in leaves by salt stress (OsCDPK6,OsCDPK20 and OsCDPK13),and no detected transcripts under CK and salt stress condition.There-fore,the members of rice CDPK gene family should be evolutionally divergent and several members could play an important role in transducing the signal of salt stress.

  17. RNA-sequencing reveals previously unannotated protein- and microRNA-coding genes expressed in aleurone cells of rice seeds.

    Watanabe, Kenneth A; Ringler, Patricia; Gu, Lingkun; Shen, Qingxi J


    The rice genome annotation has been greatly improved in recent years, largely due to the availability of full length cDNA sequences derived from many tissues. Among those yet to be studied is the aleurone layer, which produces hydrolases for mobilization of seed storage reserves during seed germination and post germination growth. Herein, we report transcriptomes of aleurone cells treated with the hormones abscisic acid, gibberellic acid, or both. Using a comprehensive approach, we identified hundreds of novel genes. To minimize the number of false positives, only transcripts that did not overlap with existing annotations, had a high level of expression, and showed a high level of uniqueness within the rice genome were considered to be novel genes. This approach led to the identification of 553 novel genes that encode proteins and/or microRNAs. The transcriptome data reported here will help to further improve the annotation of the rice genome.

  18. Rice endosperm protein slows progression of fatty liver and diabetic nephropathy in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Kubota, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Reiko; Yamaguchi, Miki; Hosojima, Michihiro; Saito, Akihiko; Fujii, Mikio; Fujimura, Shinobu; Kadowaki, Motoni


    We previously reported that rice endosperm protein (REP) has renoprotective effects in Goto-Kakizaki rats, a non-obese diabetic model. However, whether these effects occur in obese diabetes remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the effects of REP on obese diabetes, especially on fatty liver and diabetic nephropathy, using the obese diabetic model Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. In total, 7-week-old male ZDF rats were fed diets containing 20 % REP or casein (C) for 8 weeks. Changes in fasting blood glucose levels and urinary markers were monitored during the experimental period. Hepatic lipids and metabolites were measured and renal glomeruli were observed morphologically. HbA1c levels were significantly lower in rats fed REP, compared with C (Pdiabetes, fatty liver and diabetic nephropathy.

  19. Quality evaluation of rice bran protein isolate-based weaning food for preschoolers.

    Khan, Saima H; Butt, Masood S; Anjum, Faqir M; Sameen, Ayesha


    Agro-industrial waste 'rice bran' was stabilized and the extracted protein isolates were used as ingredients to make nutritive complimentary food for the growing infants. The formulation processed through drum drying and the starchy ingredients were pregelatinized to reduce bulk in the prepared meal and facilitate spoon-feeding. The formulations had uniform texture, light golden color and good paste consistency. Nutrient composition was good enough to meet standards for supplementary infant foods. Caloric value remained up to 416 kcal/100 g with spoonable viscosity and 80.90-84.45% in vitro digestibility. A single meal could substantially contribute to the daily essential amino acid requirement. The formulation had good acceptability during a short-term infant-feeding trial. The present study can provide practical guideline for manufacturers as well as the nutritionist for the use of an economical and nutritive formulation for young children.

  20. Rice ABERRANT PANICLE ORGANIZATION 1, encoding an F-box protein, regulates meristem fate.

    Ikeda, Kyoko; Ito, Momoyo; Nagasawa, Nobuhiro; Kyozuka, Junko; Nagato, Yasuo


    Inflorescence architecture is one of the most important agronomical traits. Characterization of rice aberrant panicle organization 1 (apo1) mutants revealed that APO1 positively controls spikelet number by suppressing the precocious conversion of inflorescence meristems to spikelet meristems. In addition, APO1 is associated with the regulation of the plastchron, floral organ identity, and floral determinacy. Phenotypic analyses of apo1 and floral homeotic double mutants demonstrate that APO1 positively regulates class-C floral homeotic genes, but not class-B genes. Molecular studies revealed that APO1 encodes an F-box protein, an ortholog of Arabidopsis UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGAN (UFO), which is a positive regulator of class-B genes. Overexpression of APO1 caused an increase in inflorescence branches and spikelets. As the mutant inflorescences and flowers differed considerably between apo1 and ufo, the functions of APO1 and UFO appear to have diverged during evolution.

  1. Expression of rice gall dwarf virus outer coat protein gene (S8) in insect cells.

    Fan, Guo-cheng; Gao, Fang-luan; Wei, Tai-yun; Huang, Mei-ying; Xie, Li-yan; Wu, Zu-jian; Lin, Qi-ying; Xie, Lian-hui


    To obtain the P8 protein of Rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV) with biological activity, its outer coat protein gene S8 was expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells using the baculovirus expression system. The S8 gene was subcloned into the pFastBac™1 vector, to produce the recombinant baculovirus transfer vector pFB-S8. After transformation, pFB-S8 was introduced into the competent cells (E. coli DH10Bac) containing a shuttle vector, Bacmid, generating the recombinant bacmid rbpFB-S8. After being infected by recombinant baculovirus rvpFB-S8 at different multiplicities of infection, Sf9 cells were collected at different times and analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. The expression level of the P8 protein was highest between 48-72 h after transfection of Sf9 cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that P8 protein of RGDV formed punctate structures in the cytoplasm of Sf9 cells.

  2. OsSGL, a Novel DUF1645 Domain-Containing Protein, Confers Enhanced Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Rice and Arabidopsis.

    Cui, Yanchun; Wang, Manling; Zhou, Huina; Li, Mingjuan; Huang, Lifang; Yin, Xuming; Zhao, Guoqiang; Lin, Fucheng; Xia, Xinjie; Xu, Guoyun


    Drought is a major environmental factor that limits plant growth and crop productivity. Genetic engineering is an effective approach to improve drought tolerance in various crops, including rice (Oryza sativa). Functional characterization of relevant genes is a prerequisite when identifying candidates for such improvements. We investigated OsSGL (Oryza sativa Stress tolerance and Grain Length), a novel DUF1645 domain-containing protein from rice. OsSGL was up-regulated by multiple stresses and localized to the nucleus. Transgenic plants over-expressing or hetero-expressing OsSGL conferred significantly improved drought tolerance in transgenic rice and Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively. The overexpressing plants accumulated higher levels of proline and soluble sugars but lower malondialdehyde (MDA) contents under osmotic stress. Our RNA-sequencing data demonstrated that several stress-responsive genes were significantly altered in transgenic rice plants. We unexpectedly observed that those overexpressing rice plants also had extensive root systems, perhaps due to the altered transcript levels of auxin- and cytokinin-associated genes. These results suggest that the mechanism by which OsSGL confers enhanced drought tolerance is due to the modulated expression of stress-responsive genes, higher accumulations of osmolytes, and enlarged root systems.

  3. Classification of rice allergenic protein cDNAs belonging to the alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor gene family.

    Alvarez, A M; Adachi, T; Nakase, M; Aoki, N; Nakamura, R; Matsuda, T


    Seven cDNA clones encoding rice allergenic proteins were newly isolated. Comparison of the sequences of ten cDNA clones, including the previously isolated three clones results in their classification into four subfamilies. Homologies in the nucleotide sequences among and within subfamilies are 70-85% and above 95%, respectively. A sequence of twenty five amino-acid residues at the C-terminal proximal region is highly conserved among all clones and resembles that of plant lipid transfer proteins.

  4. Effects of a diet containing genetically modified rice expressing the Cry1Ab/1Ac protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) on broiler chickens.

    Li, Zeyang; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Minhong; Feng, Jinghai; Xiong, Yandan


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice expressing the Cry1Ab/1Ac protein on broiler chicken. The genetically modified (GM) Bt rice was compared with the corresponding non-GM rice regarding performance of feeding groups, their health status, relative organ weights, biochemical serum parameters and occurrence of Cry1Ab/1Ac gene fragments. One hundred and eighty day-old Arbor Acres female broilers with the same health condition were randomly allocated to the two treatments (6 replicate cages with 15 broilers in each cage per treatment). They received diets containing GM rice (GM group) or its parental non-GM rice (non-GM group) at 52-57% of the air-dried diet for 42 days. The results show that the transgenic rice had a similar nutrient composition as the non-GM rice and had no adverse effects on chicken growth, biochemical serum parameters and necropsy during the 42-day feeding period. In birds fed the GM rice, no transgenic gene fragments were detected in the samples of blood, liver, kidneys, spleen, jejunum, ileum, duodenum and muscle tissue. In conclusion, the results suggest that Bt rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein has no adverse effects on broiler chicken. Therefore, it can be considered as safe and used as feed source for broiler chicken.

  5. Effects of ultrasound-assisted α-amylase degradation treatment with multiple modes on the extraction of rice protein.

    Yang, Xue; Li, Yunliang; Li, Suyun; Oladejo, Ayobami Olayemi; Wang, Yucheng; Huang, Shanfen; Zhou, Cunshan; Ye, Xiaofei; Ma, Haile; Duan, Yuqing


    The effects of ultrasound-assisted α-amylase degradation (UAD) treatment with multiple modes on the extraction of rice protein (RP) from rice dreg powder were studied. The results showed that UAD treatment increased protein extraction rate significantly (pextraction rate compared to that of simultaneous or single frequency ultrasound treatment. The highest protein extraction rate was obtained under 20/35kHz of sequential frequency UAD treatment with the protein extraction rate of 89.58% and protein purity of 92.99%. The test and analysis of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, starch content, non-protein nitrogen content, SH and SS content, surface hydrophobicity, amino acids content and proteins characteristics were studied to reveal the mechanism of UAD on the protein extraction effect. After treated with UAD, the starch-protein agglomerates disintegrated completely, moreover, protein advanced structure was changed to some extent and the disulfide bond was partially broken, but the main chain structure (peptide chain), specificity of protein and amino acid composition were not obviously changed. Consequently, the structure modified RP extracted by UAD treatment presented higher solubility, emulsifying activity and foaming capacity, which was beneficial for the application of RP. In conclusion, UAD treatment is an effective method for maximizing extraction rate, purity and modifying properties of extracted protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Different Involvement of Embryo and Endosperm Proteins during Aging of Yliangyou 2 Hybrid Rice Seeds

    Zhang, Ying-Xue; Xu, Heng-Heng; Liu, Shu-Jun; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Qing; Møller, Ian M.; Song, Song-Quan


    Seed aging is a process that results in a delayed germination, a decreased germination percentage, and finally a total loss of seed viability. However, the mechanism of seed aging is poorly understood. In the present study, Yliangyou 2 hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds were artificially aged at 100% relative humidity and 40°C, and the effect of artificial aging on germination, germination time course and the change in protein profiles of embryo and endosperm was studied to understand the molecular mechanism behind seed aging. With an increasing duration of artificial aging, the germination percentage and germination rate of hybrid rice seeds decreased. By comparing the protein profiles from the seeds aged for 0, 10 and 25 days, a total of 91 and 100 protein spots were found to show a significant change of more than 2-fold (P cell defense and rescue (28%), and with storage protein (18%). In endosperms, most of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism (37%), in energy (27%), and in protein synthesis and destination (11%). The most marked change was the increased abundance of many glycolytic enzymes together with the two fermentation enzymes pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase in the embryos during aging. We hypothesize that the decreased viability of hybrid rice seeds during artificial aging is caused by the development of hypoxic conditions in the embryos followed by ethanol accumulation.

  7. Impacts of Bt rice expressing Cry1C or Cry2A protein on the performance of nontarget leafhopper, Nephotettix cincticeps (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), under laboratory and field conditions.

    Lu, Z B; Tian, J C; Wang, W; Xu, H X; Hu, C; Guo, Y Y; Peng, Y F; Ye, G Y


    Transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) protein can effectively control target insects including stem borers and leaf folders. However, the potential effects of Bt rice on nontarget organisms including nontarget herbivores have not been fully evaluated. In the current study, ecological fitness parameters of the nontarget herbivore, Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), fed on T1C-19 (Cry1C) or T2A-1 (Cry2A) rice were compared with non-Bt rice (MH63) under laboratory conditions. A 2-yr field trial was also conducted to monitor the population dynamics of N. cincticeps in the Bt and control rice plots using the vacuum-suction machine and yellow sticky card traps. Laboratory results showed that there were no significant differences in some of biological parameters including egg developmental duration, adult fresh weight, adult longevity, and oviposition period when N. cincticeps fed on Bt or non-Bt rice was compared. However, the survival rate of N. cincticeps nymphs fed on T2A-1 Bt rice plants was significantly higher than that on the control. When N. cincticeps fed on T1C-19 Bt rice plants, its nymphal duration was significantly longer and fecundity significantly lower compared with those fed on both T2A-1 Bt and non-Bt rice plants; the preoviposition period of N. cincticeps fed on T1C-19 and T2A-1 Bt rice was also significantly shorter than those on non-Bt rice. Nonetheless, both seasonal density and population dynamics of N. cincticeps adults and nymphs were similar between Bt (T1C-19 and T2A-1) and non-Bt rice plots under field conditions. In conclusion, our results indicate that our two tested Bt rice lines would not lead to higher population of N. cincticeps. Long-term experiments to monitor the population dynamics of N. cincticeps at large scale need to be carried out to confirm the current results.

  8. Modeling-dependent protein characterization of the rice aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH superfamily reveals distinct functional and structural features.

    Simeon O Kotchoni

    Full Text Available The completion of the rice genome sequence has made it possible to identify and characterize new genes and to perform comparative genomics studies across taxa. The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH gene superfamily encoding for NAD(P(+-dependent enzymes is found in all major plant and animal taxa. However, the characterization of plant ALDHs has lagged behind their animal- and prokaryotic-ALDH homologs. In plants, ALDHs are involved in abiotic stress tolerance, male sterility restoration, embryo development and seed viability and maturation. However, there is still no structural property-dependent functional characterization of ALDH protein superfamily in plants. In this paper, we identify members of the rice ALDH gene superfamily and use the evolutionary nesting events of retrotransposons and protein-modeling-based structural reconstitution to report the genetic and molecular and structural features of each member of the rice ALDH superfamily in abiotic/biotic stress responses and developmental processes. Our results indicate that rice-ALDHs are the most expanded plant ALDHs ever characterized. This work represents the first report of specific structural features mediating functionality of the whole families of ALDHs in an organism ever characterized.

  9. Relationships between D1 protein, xanthophyll cycle and photodamage-resistant capacity in rice (Orysa sativa L.)


    Relationships between D1 protein, xanthophyll cycle and subspecific difference of photodamage-resistant capacity have been studied in O. japonica rice varieties 02428 and 029 (photoinhibition-tolerance) and O. indica rice varieties 3037 and Palghar (photoinhibition-sensitivity) and their reciprocal cross F1 hybrids after photoinhibitory treatment. It was shown that PSⅡ photochemical efficiency (Fv /Fm) decreased, and xanthophyll cycle from violaxanthin (V), via anaxanthin (A), to zeaxanthin (Z) was enhanced and non-photochemical quenching (qN) increased accordingly in SM-pretreated leaves of rice when the synthesis of D1 protein was inhibited, and that there was a decrease in qN and, as a result, more loss of D1 protein and a big decrease in Fv /Fm in DTT-pretreated leaves when xanthophyll cycle was inhibited. O. japonica subspecies had a higher maintaining capacity of D1 protein and a decrease of Fv /Fm in a more narrow range, and exhibited more resistance against photodamage, as compared with O. indica subspecies. The above physiological indexes in reciprocal cross F1 hybrids, though between the values of their parents, were closer to maternal lines than to paternal lines. Experimental results support the concept that the turnover capacity for D1 protein is an important physiological basis of photoinhibition-tolerance, and will provide the physiological basis for selection of the photoinhibition-tolerant parents and develop a new approach to breed hybrids with high photosynthetic efficiency.

  10. Rice Hypersensitive Induced Reaction Protein 1 (OsHIR1 associates with plasma membrane and triggers hypersensitive cell death

    Sun Sai-Ming


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In plants, HIR (Hypersensitive Induced Reaction proteins, members of the PID (Proliferation, Ion and Death superfamily, have been shown to play a part in the development of spontaneous hypersensitive response lesions in leaves, in reaction to pathogen attacks. The levels of HIR proteins were shown to correlate with localized host cell deaths and defense responses in maize and barley. However, not much was known about the HIR proteins in rice. Since rice is an important cereal crop consumed by more than 50% of the populations in Asia and Africa, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms of disease responses in this plant. We previously identified the rice HIR1 (OsHIR1 as an interacting partner of the OsLRR1 (rice Leucine-Rich Repeat protein 1. Here we show that OsHIR1 triggers hypersensitive cell death and its localization to the plasma membrane is enhanced by OsLRR1. Result Through electron microscopy studies using wild type rice plants, OsHIR1 was found to mainly localize to the plasma membrane, with a minor portion localized to the tonoplast. Moreover, the plasma membrane localization of OsHIR1 was enhanced in transgenic rice plants overexpressing its interacting protein partner, OsLRR1. Co-localization of OsHIR1 and OsLRR1 to the plasma membrane was confirmed by double-labeling electron microscopy. Pathogen inoculation studies using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing either OsHIR1 or OsLRR1 showed that both transgenic lines exhibited increased resistance toward the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. However, OsHIR1 transgenic plants produced more extensive spontaneous hypersensitive response lesions and contained lower titers of the invading pathogen, when compared to OsLRR1 transgenic plants. Conclusion The OsHIR1 protein is mainly localized to the plasma membrane, and its subcellular localization in that compartment is enhanced by OsLRR1. The expression of OsHIR1 may sensitize the plant

  11. Field and laboratory studies on the impact of two Bt rice lines expressing a fusion protein Cry1Ab/1Ac on aquatic organisms.

    Wang, Yongmo; Huang, Jiacheng; Hu, Huawei; Li, Jianhong; Liu, Biao; Zhang, Guoan


    Genetically modified (GM) rice expressing Bt toxins is at the edge of commercial release in China. However, little information is available concerning the impact of Bt rice on aquatic organisms which are abundant in paddy field. A two-year study was conducted to assess the effects of two GM rice lines expressing a fusion protein Cry1Ab/1Ac (Bt rice) on three groups of zooplankton, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods in field conditions. Multi-factor ANOVA revealed that the population densities of rotifers, cladocerans and copepods in paddy field varied significantly between years and rice developmental stages, but did not differ significantly between Bt and non-Bt rice treatments. In all the field investigations, only one significant difference was found on copepods in the tillering stage of 2009, but the difference was not related to the presence of the Cry toxin. Under open-air conditions, we simulated the farming practice of straw mulch, using Bt rice straw as a food source for the water flea Daphnia hyalina. After one and two months of culture, the density of D. hyalina did not differ between Bt rice treatments and non-Bt rice treatments. A laboratory experiment found that purified Bt toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac had no toxic effect on D. hyalina even in the treatment in which the Bt toxin concentration was as high as 2500ng/ml. Those above results indicate that the two Bt rice lines have no negative effect on the three groups of zooplankton. However, further studies are needed to compare the effects of Bt rice and non-Bt rice on the paddy zooplankton community in the context of integrated pest management which includes the use of pesticides.

  12. Progress of rice protein modification technology%大米蛋白改性技术的研究进展

    银波; 李亦蔚; 汪霞丽; 沈娜; 程云辉


    Rice protein is recognized as a quality plant protein with high nutritive value and hypoallergenic. Due to the poor solubility of rice protein, the emulsification, foaming, gelling and other features are not well, which limited the wide application in food industry.The paper introduces the latest development of physical, chemical and enzymatic modification technology, analyses the technical features and key research fields, looking forward to providing theory reference for rice protein modification and applications.%大米蛋白是公认的优质植物蛋白,具有高营养价值和低过敏性等特点,但因大米蛋白溶解性差,进而导致乳化性、发泡性、胶凝性等功能特性不佳,限制了其在食品领域的广泛应用.文章综述了物理、化学和酶法3大改性技术的最新进展,分析了各类技术的特点和研究重点,以期为大米蛋白的改性及应用提供理论参考.

  13. Effectiveness of partially hydrolyzed rice glutelin as a food emulsifier: Comparison to whey protein.

    Xu, Xingfeng; Zhong, Junzhen; Chen, Jun; Liu, Chengmei; Luo, Liping; Luo, Shunjing; Wu, Lixin; McClements, David Julian


    The emulsifying properties of partially hydrolyzed rice glutelin (H-RG, 2% degree of hydrolysis) were compared to those of whey isolate protein (WPI), a commonly used protein-based emulsifier. The surface load of WPI (1% emulsifier, d32=167.5nm) was 2.8 times lower than that of H-RG (3% emulsifier, d32=159.0nm). Emulsions containing WPI-coated lipid droplets had better stability to pH changes (2-8), NaCl addition (0-500mM) and thermal processing (30-90°C, 0 or 200mM NaCl). Nevertheless, H-RG emulsions were stable over a range of conditions: pH 6-8; NaCl≤200 (pH 7); temperatures≤90°C in the absence of salt (pH 7); and temperatures≤50°C in the presence of 200mM NaCl (pH 7). This study indicates that H-RG may be utilized as a natural emulsifier in the development of label-friendly emulsion-based food products, but that further work is needed to increase the range of applications.

  14. Functional diversification of CLAVATA3-related CLE proteins in meristem maintenance in rice.

    Suzaki, Takuya; Yoshida, Akiko; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki


    Postembryonic development in plants depends on the activity of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and root apical meristem (RAM). In Arabidopsis thaliana, CLAVATA signaling negatively regulates the size of the stem cell population in the SAM by repressing WUSCHEL. In other plants, however, studies of factors involved in stem cell maintenance are insufficient. Here, we report that two proteins closely related to CLAVATA3, FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 (FON2) and FON2-LIKE CLE PROTEIN1 (FCP1/Os CLE402), have functionally diversified to regulate the different types of meristem in rice (Oryza sativa). Unlike FON2, which regulates the maintenance of flower and inflorescence meristems, FCP1 appears to regulate the maintenance of the vegetative SAM and RAM. Constitutive expression of FCP1 results in consumption of the SAM in the vegetative phase, and application of an FCP1 CLE peptide in vitro disturbs root development by misspecification of cell fates in the RAM. FON1, a putative receptor of FON2, is likely to be unnecessary for these FCP1 functions. Furthermore, we identify a key amino acid residue that discriminates between the actions of FCP1 and FON2. Our results suggest that, although the basic framework of meristem maintenance is conserved in the angiosperms, the functions of the individual factors have diversified during evolution.

  15. Identification of QTL Affecting Protein and Amino Acid Contents in Rice

    ZHONG Ming; WANG Ling-qiang; YuAN De-jun; LUO Li-jun; Xu Cai-guo; HE Yu-qing


    The phenotypes of protein and amino acid contents were measured in an F9 recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between Zhenshan 97B and Delong 208.A total of 48 and 64 QTLs were identified in 2004 and 2005,respectively.The contribution of each QTL to the phenotypic variation ranged from 4.0% to 43.7%.Most QTLs co-localized,forming 29 QTL clusters on the chromosomes with three major ones detected in both years,which were mapped on chromosomes 1,7 and 9,respectively.The two QTL clusters for amino acid content,qAa1 and qAa7,influenced almost all the traits with the allele from Zhenshan 97B,and the third QTL cluster for amino acid content,qAa9,increased the lysine content with the allele from Delong 208.A wide coincidence was found between the QTL detected under this study and the loci involved in amino acid metabolism pathways in nitrogen assimilation and transport,or protein biosynthesis.The results would facilitate the identification of candidate genes and could be used in marker-assisted selection for the favorable allele in rice quality improvement.

  16. Characterization of an immunomodulatory Der p 2-FIP-fve fusion protein produced in transformed rice suspension cell culture.

    Su, Chin-Fen; Kuo, I-Chun; Chen, Peng-Wen; Huang, Chiung-Hui; Seow, See Voon; Chua, Kaw Yan; Yu, Su-May


    Der p 2, a major allergen of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus mites, is one of the most clinically relevant allergens to allergic patients worldwide. FIP-fve protein (Fve) from the golden needle mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) is an immunomodulatory protein with potential Th1-skewed adjuvant properties. Here, we produced and immunologically evaluated a Der p 2-Fve fusion protein as a potential immunotherapeutic for allergic diseases. Using an inducible expression system in cultured rice suspension cells, the recombinant Der p 2-Fve fusion protein (designated as OsDp2Fve) was expressed in rice cells under the control of an α-amylase gene (αAmy8) promoter and secreted under sucrose starvation. OsDp2Fve was partially purified from the cultured medium. The conformation of Der p 2 in OsDp2Fve remains intact as reflected by its unaltered allergenicity, as assessed by human IgE ELISA and histamine release assays, compared to non-fusion Der p 2 protein. Furthermore, the Fve protein expressed in OsDp2Fve retains its in vitro lymphoproliferative activity but loses its hemagglutination and lymphoagglutination effects compared to the native protein. Notably, in vivo evaluation showed that mice administered with OsDp2Fve possessed an enhanced production of Der p 2-specific IgG antibodies without potentiating the production of Der p 2-specific IgE and Th2 effector cytokines in comparison with mice co-administered with native Fve and Der p 2 proteins. These results suggest that the recombinant Der p 2-Fve fusion protein produced in rice suspension cell cultures has a great potential for allergy immunotherapy.

  17. Constitutive expression of a plant ferredoxin-like protein (pflp) enhances capacity of photosynthetic carbon assimilation in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Chang, Hsiang; Huang, Hsiang-En; Cheng, Chin-Fu; Ho, Mei-Hsuan; Ger, Mang-Jye


    The plant ferredoxin-like protein (PFLP) gene, cloned from sweet peppers predicted as an electron carrier in photosynthesis, shows high homology to the Fd-I sequence of Arabidopsis thaliana, Lycopersicon esculentum, Oryza sativa and Spinacia oleracea. Most of pflp related studies focused on anti-pathogenic effects, while less understanding for the effects in photosynthesis with physiological aspects, such as photosynthesis rate, and levels of carbohydrate metabolites. This project focuses on the effects of pflp overexpression on photosynthesis by physiological evaluations of carbon assimilation with significant higher levels of carbohydrates with higher photosynthesis efficiency. In this report, two independent transgenic lines of rice plants (designated as pflp-1 and pflp-2) were generated from non-transgenic TNG67 rice plant (WT). Both transgenic pflp rice plants exhibited enhanced photosynthesis efficiency, and gas exchange rates of photosynthesis were 1.3- and 1.2-fold higher for pflp-1 and pflp-2 than WT respectively. Significantly higher electron transport rates of pflp rice plants were observed. Moreover, photosynthetic products, such as fructose, glucose, sucrose and starch contents of pflp transgenic lines were increased accordingly. Molecular evidences of carbohydrate metabolism related genes activities (osHXK5, osHXK6, osAGPL3, osAGPS2α, osSPS, ospFBPase, oscFBPase, and osSBPase) in transgenic lines were higher than those of WT. For performance of crop production, 1000-grain weight for pflp-1 and pflp-2 rice plants were 52.9 and 41.1 g that were both significantly higher than 31.6 g for WT, and panicles weights were 1.4- and 1.2-fold higher than WT. Panicle number, tiller number per plants for pflp rice plants were all significantly higher compared with those of WT where there was no significant difference observed between two pflp rice plants. Taken altogether; this study demonstrated that constitutive pflp expression can improve rice production by

  18. Distribution of Water Channel Protein RWC3 and Its Regulation by GA and Sucrose in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    SUNMei-Hao; ZHANGMin-Hua; LIUHong-Yan; LILe-Gong; YUXin; SUWei-Ai; TANGZhang-Cheng


    Water channel proteins facilitate water flux across cell membranes and play important roles in plant growth and development. By GUS histochemical assay in RWC3 promoter-GUS transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Shenxiangjin 4), one of the members of water channel proteins in rice, RWC3, was found to distribute widely in variety of organs, from vegetative and reproductive organs. Further studies showed that gibberellin (GA) enhanced the GUS activity in the transgenic calli, suspension cells and leaves, whereas ancymidol (anc), an inhibitor of GA synthesis, reduced the GUS activity. Sucrose was found to inhibit the effects induced by addition of GA, suggesting a possible cross-talk between GA and sucrose signaling on regulation of the RWC3 gene expression.

  19. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry ( Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    Dwi Yulistiani


    Full Text Available A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS. The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05 among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW0.75 and DM, organic matter (OM, and crude protein (CP digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP. The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber was significantly lower (p<0.05 for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively. Nitrogen (N intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05 higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d. In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05 higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05 in T1 (120.3 mM, whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%. However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05 higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of

  20. Fortification of lysine for improving protein quality in multiple-fortified quick cooking rice : Review

    Wongmetinee, T.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Chavasit, V.


    Previous studies in Thailand indicated that rice-based complementary foods of breast-fed infants normally provided inadequate iron and calcium. Quick-cooking rice fortified with different nutrients was therefore developed. The idea of lysine fortification was based on the fact that lysine is a limit

  1. Fortification of lysine for improving protein quality in multiple-fortified quick cooking rice : Review

    Wongmetinee, T.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Chavasit, V.


    Previous studies in Thailand indicated that rice-based complementary foods of breast-fed infants normally provided inadequate iron and calcium. Quick-cooking rice fortified with different nutrients was therefore developed. The idea of lysine fortification was based on the fact that lysine is a

  2. Unintended Changes in Genetically Modified Rice Expressing the Lysine-Rich Fusion Protein Gene Revealed by a Proteomics Approach

    ZHAO Xiang-xiang; TANG Tang; LIU Fu-xia; LU Chang-li; HU Xiao-lan; JI Li-lian; LIU Qiao-quan


    Development of new technologies for evaluating genetically modiifed (GM) crops has revealed that there are unintended insertions and expression changes in GM crops. Proifling techniques are non-targeted approaches and are capable of detecting more unintended changes in GM crops. Here, we report the application of a comparative proteomic approach to investigate the protein proifle differences between a GM rice line, which has a lysine-rich protein gene, and its non-transgenic parental line. Proteome analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrum analysis of the seeds identiifed 22 differentially expressed protein spots. Apart from a number of glutelins that were detected as targeted proteins in the GM line, the majority of the other changed proteins were involved in carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis and stress responses. These results indicated that the altered proteins were not associated with plant allergens or toxicity.

  3. OsbHLH148, a basic helix-loop-helix protein, interacts with OsJAZ proteins in a jasmonate signaling pathway leading to drought tolerance in rice.

    Seo, Ju-Seok; Joo, Joungsu; Kim, Min-Jeong; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Nahm, Baek Hie; Song, Sang Ik; Cheong, Jong-Joo; Lee, Jong Seob; Kim, Ju-Kon; Choi, Yang Do


    Jasmonates play important roles in development, stress responses and defense in plants. Here, we report the results of a study using a functional genomics approach that identified a rice basic helix-loop-helix domain gene, OsbHLH148, that conferred drought tolerance as a component of the jasmonate signaling module in rice. OsbHLH148 transcript levels were rapidly increased by treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or abscisic acid, and abiotic stresses including dehydration, high salinity, low temperature and wounding. Transgenic over-expression of OsbHLH148 in rice confers plant tolerance to drought stress. Expression profiling followed by DNA microarray and RNA gel-blot analyses of transgenic versus wild-type rice identified genes that are up-regulated by OsbHLH148 over-expression. These include OsDREB and OsJAZ genes that are involved in stress responses and the jasmonate signaling pathway, respectively. OsJAZ1, a rice ZIM domain protein, interacted with OsbHLH148 in yeast two-hybrid and pull-down assays, but it interacted with the putative OsCOI1 only in the presence of coronatine. Furthermore, the OsJAZ1 protein was degraded by rice and Arabidopsis extracts in the presence of coronatine, and its degradation was inhibited by MG132, a 26S proteasome inhibitor, suggesting 26S proteasome-mediated degradation of OsJAZ1 via the SCF(OsCOI1) complex. The transcription level of OsJAZ1 increased upon exposure of rice to MeJA. These results show that OsJAZ1 could act as a transcriptional regulator of the OsbHLH148-related jasmonate signaling pathway leading to drought tolerance. Thus, our study suggests that OsbHLH148 acts on an initial response of jasmonate-regulated gene expression toward drought tolerance, constituting the OsbHLH148-OsJAZ-OsCOI1 signaling module in rice.

  4. Strong resistance against Rice grassy stunt virus is induced in transgenic rice plants expressing double-stranded RNA of the viral genes for nucleocapsid or movement proteins as targets for RNA interference.

    Shimizu, Takumi; Ogamino, Takumi; Hiraguri, Akihiro; Nakazono-Nagaoka, Eiko; Uehara-Ichiki, Tamaki; Nakajima, Masami; Akutsu, Katsumi; Omura, Toshihiro; Sasaya, Takahide


    Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV), a member of the genus Tenuivirus, causes significant economic losses in rice production in South, Southeast, and East Asian countries. Growing resistant varieties is the most efficient method to control RGSV; however, suitable resistance genes have not yet been found in natural rice resources. One of the most promising methods to confer resistance against RGSV is the use of RNA interference (RNAi). It is important to target viral genes that play important roles in viral infection and proliferation at an early stage of viral replication. Our recent findings obtained from an RNAi experiment with Rice stripe virus (RSV), a tenuivirus, revealed that the genes for nucleocapsid and movement proteins were appropriate targets for RNAi to confer resistance against RSV. In this study, we transformed rice plants by introducing an RNAi construct of the RGSV genes for the nucelocapsid protein pC5 or movement protein pC6. All progenies from self-fertilized transgenic plants had strong resistance against RGSV infection and did not allow the proliferation of RGSV. Thus, our strategy to target genes for nucleocapsid and movement proteins for conferring viral resistance might be applicable to the plant viruses in the genus Tenuivirus.

  5. Comparative metalloproteomic approaches for the investigation proteins involved in the toxicity of inorganic and organic forms of mercury in rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots.

    Li, Yunyun; Zhao, Jiating; Li, Yu-Feng; Xu, Xiaohan; Zhang, Bowen; Liu, Yongjie; Cui, Liwei; Li, Bai; Gao, Yuxi; Chai, Zhifang


    The toxicity mechanisms of rice roots under inorganic mercury (IHg) or methylmercury (MeHg) stress were investigated using metalloproteomic approaches. Rice seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solutions with IHg or MeHg for three weeks. Proteins were extracted from the roots and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Differentially expressed proteins were analyzed using ESI-MS/MS and identified by PMF. 26 and 29 protein spots were differentially expressed in the IHg- and MeHg-exposed roots, respectively. The proteins responsive to Hg exposure are involved in antioxidative defense, sulfur and glutathione metabolism, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, programmed cell death, and pathogen defense. Chitinase and salt stress-induced proteins exhibited a greater differentially expression in response to MeHg stress compared to IHg stress. Hg-binding proteins were detected by the combined use of 1-DE, SRXRF, and ESI-MS/MS. The results showed that Hg was bound to proteins of 15-25 kDa in rice roots under Hg stress. The Hg contents in the band under IHg stress were remarkably higher than those under MeHg. Hg binds to proteins, which leads to irreversible damage of root growth. Rice roots changed the related protein expression levels in response to Hg stress. These results may provide new insights into the mechanism of toxicity of IHg and MeHg in rice.

  6. Cytosolic APX knockdown rice plants sustain photosynthesis by regulation of protein expression related to photochemistry, Calvin cycle and photorespiration.

    Carvalho, Fabrício E L; Ribeiro, Carolina W; Martins, Márcio O; Bonifacio, Aurenivia; Staats, Charley C; Andrade, Cláudia M B; Cerqueira, João V; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; Silveira, Joaquim A G


    The biochemical mechanisms underlying the involvement of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidases (cAPXs) in photosynthesis are still unknown. In this study, rice plants doubly silenced in these genes (APX1/2) were exposed to moderate light (ML) and high light (HL) to assess the role of cAPXs in photosynthetic efficiency. APX1/2 mutants that were exposed to ML overexpressed seven and five proteins involved in photochemical activity and photorespiration, respectively. These plants also increased the pheophytin and chlorophyll levels, but the amount of five proteins that are important for Calvin cycle did not change. These responses in mutants were associated with Rubisco carboxylation rate, photosystem II (PSII) activity and potential photosynthesis, which were similar to non-transformed plants. The upregulation of photochemical proteins may be part of a compensatory mechanism for APX1/2 deficiency but apparently the finer-control for photosynthesis efficiency is dependent on Calvin cycle proteins. Conversely, under HL the mutants employed a different strategy, triggering downregulation of proteins related to photochemical activity, Calvin cycle and decreasing the levels of photosynthetic pigments. These changes were associated to strong impairment in PSII activity and Rubisco carboxylation. The upregulation of some photorespiratory proteins was maintained under that stressful condition and this response may have contributed to photoprotection in rice plants deficient in cAPXs. The data reveal that the two cAPXs are not essential for photosynthesis in rice or, alternatively, the deficient plants are able to trigger compensatory mechanisms to photosynthetic acclimation under ML and HL conditions. These mechanisms involve differential regulation in protein expression related to photochemistry, Calvin cycle and photorespiration.

  7. In silico study of interaction between rice proteins enhanced disease susceptibility 1 and phytoalexin deficient 4, the regulators of salicylic acid signalling pathway.

    Singh, Indra; Shah, Kavita


    Enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1), a plant-specific protein has homology with the eukaryotic lipase in their N-terminal halves and a unique domain at its C-termini. EDS1 is known to be an important regulator of biotic stress and an essential component of basal immunity. EDS1 interacts with its positive co-regulator phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4), resulting in mobilization of the salicylic acid defence pathway. Limited information regarding this interaction in rice is available. To study this interaction, a model of EDS1 and PAD4 proteins from rice was generated and validated with Accelrys DS software version 3.1 using bioinformatics interface. The in silico docking between the two proteins showed a significant protein-protein interaction between rice EDS1 and PAD4, suggesting that they form a dimeric protein complex, which, similar to that in Arabidopsis, is perhaps also important for triggering the salicylic acid signalling pathway in plants.

  8. Sensory optimization of a mayonnaise-type spread made with rice bran oil and soy protein.

    Garcia, Karen; Sriwattana, Sujinda; No, Hong Kyoon; Corredor, Jose Andres Herrera; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon


    The optimum formulation for mayonnaise-type spreads containing rice bran oil (RBO) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) was determined based on sensory acceptability. RBO and SPC were used due to their health benefit claims such as lowering risk of heart disease. The effects of the proportions of high-impact ingredients (RBO, SPC, and water) on sensory acceptability of the spreads were determined. The 10 spread formulations, prepared following a 3-component constrained simplex lattice mixture design, were subjected to a consumer acceptance test to identify sensory attributes driving consumer acceptance and purchase intent. Predictive regression models were used to plot mixture response surfaces of the critical sensory attributes (taste, mouthfeel, and overall liking) that influenced purchase intent. Areas within the contour plots of these critical sensory attributes, having acceptability scores > or = 68 ("moderately like" on the 100-mm bidirectional labeled affective magnitude scale) were chosen and superimposed to obtain a predicted optimum formulation range (37% to 43% RBO, 4% to 7% SPC, and 52% to 57% water). The formulation containing 37% RBO, 6% SPC, and 57% water, which was located within the optimum region, was selected as a base for further developing flavored (sour cream & onion, cheddar & sour cream, or Monterrey Jack dried cheese) products. All flavored spreads were significantly more acceptable than the plain formulation. Purchase intent of all flavored products also significantly increased once consumers had been given the information about potential health benefits associated with RBO and SPC in the spreads.

  9. Analysis of SSLP and Soluble Protein Contents in Leaves of Mutants Induced by High Pressure in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    HE Xiu-ying; XU Shi-ping; LIAO Yao-ping; MAO Xing-xue; WENG Ke-nan; CHEN Zhao-ming; CHEN Yue-han; XIAO Wan-sheng


    Rice variety Yuexiangzhan and its mutants induced by high pressure were studied using microsatellite markers and soluble protein content analyses. Eleven of the 88 microsatellite primer pairs showed evident polymorphisms repeatedly, and the polymorphic frequencies were 3.4-11.3% between the mutants and Yuexiangzhan. The polymorphic markers were randomly located on chromosomes. The more similar the plant types of the mutants like their original variety, the less polymorphic loci were detected. In addition, there was variation in the soluble protein contents among the leaves of mutants,and the contents were significantly lower than those of the original variety.

  10. Rice G-protein subunits qPE9-1 and RGB1 play distinct roles in abscisic acid responses and drought adaptation.

    Zhang, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Yong; Yin, Jian-Feng; Yan, Xue-Jiao; Lin, Sheng; Xu, Wei-Feng; Baluška, František; Wang, Yi-Ping; Xia, Yi-Ji; Liang, Guo-hua; Liang, Jian-Sheng


    Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G-protein)-mediated abscisic acid (ABA) and drought-stress responses have been documented in numerous plant species. However, our understanding of the function of rice G-protein subunits in ABA signalling and drought tolerance is limited. In this study, the function of G-protein subunits in ABA response and drought resistance in rice plants was explored. It was found that the transcription level of qPE9-1 (rice Gγ subunit) gradually decreased with increasing ABA concentration and the lack of qPE9-1 showed an enhanced drought tolerance in rice plants. In contrast, mRNA levels of RGB1 (rice Gβ subunit) were significantly upregulated by ABA treatment and the lack of RGB1 led to reduced drought tolerance. Furthermore, the results suggested that qPE9-1 negatively regulates the ABA response by suppressing the expression of key transcription factors involved in ABA and stress responses, while RGB1 positively regulates ABA biosynthesis by upregulating NCED gene expression under both normal and drought stress conditions. Taken together, it is proposed that RGB1 is a positive regulator of the ABA response and drought adaption in rice plants, whereas qPE9-1 is modulated by RGB1 and functions as a negative regulator in the ABA-dependent drought-stress responses.

  11. In silico study of interaction between rice proteins enhanced disease susceptibility 1 and phytoalexin deficient 4, the regulators of salicylic acid signalling pathway

    Indra Singh; Kavita Shah


    Enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1), a plant-specific protein has homology with the eukaryotic lipase in their N-terminal halves and a unique domain at its C-termini. EDS1 is known to be an important regulator of biotic stress and an essential component of basal immunity. EDS1 interacts with its positive co-regulator phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4), resulting in mobilization of the salicylic acid defence pathway. Limited information regarding this interaction in rice is available. To study this interaction, a model of EDS1 and PAD4 proteins from rice was generated and validated with Accelrys DS software version 3.1 using bioinformatics interface. The in silico docking between the two proteins showed a significant protein–protein interaction between rice EDS1 and PAD4, suggesting that they form a dimeric protein complex, which, similar to that in Arabidopsis, is perhaps also important for triggering the salicylic acid signalling pathway in plants.

  12. Special rice in China


    @@Shanxi black rice It was originally from Yang County, Hanzhong Region.This rice was a world-famous rice variety developed in 140 BC. It had pitch-black surface with the protein and oil contents being 6.8% and 20% higher than that of common rice, respectively. It had 15 kinds of amino acids and many kinds of vitamins. It was praised as" Black pearl" and "The king of the world riee".DongnianThe other names for Dongnian were "Yellow rice" and "Oil rice". It was grown in E City and Huangmei County,Hubei Province. It was characterized by its long-slim shape, milky yellow in color, oily, solid, and sticky quality, fragrant smell, and easiness for digestion.Guizhou black pearl rice

  13. Amino Acid Composition of an Organic Brown Rice Protein Concentrate and Isolate Compared to Soy and Whey Concentrates and Isolates

    Douglas S. Kalman


    Full Text Available A protein concentrate (Oryzatein-80™ and a protein isolate (Oryzatein-90™ from organic whole-grain brown rice were analyzed for their amino acid composition. Two samples from different batches of Oryzatein-90™ and one sample of Oryzatein-80™ were provided by Axiom Foods (Los Angeles, CA, USA. Preparation and analysis was carried out by Covance Laboratories (Madison, WI, USA. After hydrolysis in 6-N hydrochloric acid for 24 h at approximately 110 °C and further chemical stabilization, samples were analyzed by HPLC after pre-injection derivitization. Total amino acid content of both the isolate and the concentrate was approximately 78% by weight with 36% essential amino acids and 18% branched-chain amino acids. These results are similar to the profiles of raw and cooked brown rice except in the case of glutamic acid which was 3% lower in the isolate and concentrate. The amino acid content and profile of the Oryzatein-90™ isolate was similar to published values for soy protein isolate but the total, essential, and branched-chain amino acid content of whey protein isolate was 20%, 39% and 33% greater, respectively, than that of Oryzatein-90™. These results provide a valuable addition to the nutrient database of protein isolates and concentrates from cereal grains.

  14. 糯米蛋白提取工艺优化及其水解物性质的测定%Optimization of alkaline protease extraction of sticky rice protein from sticky rice and properties mensuration of hydrolysates of sticky rice protein

    王国泽; 袁怀波; 徐建文


    以糯米为原料,采用碱性蛋白酶水解法提取了糯米蛋白。就影响糯米蛋白提取率的5个因素:料液比(g/mL)、加酶量(E/S)、pH、温度和提取时间进行单因素实验和正交实验。研究确立了提取糯米蛋白的最佳工艺条件为料液比1:12,加酶量2%,pH9,温度45℃,提取时间3h。在此条件下,糯米蛋白的提取率可达8.529%。实验表明,糯米蛋白水解物是一类天然的抗氧化氨基酸及其聚合物。%In order to obtain the extraction of sticky rice protein, sticky rice was used as raw materials by alkaline protease .The influence factors, amount of solid to liquid ratio, enzyme dosage, pH, temperature and time of the alkaline protease,which could affect the efficiency of extracting sticky rice protein,were investigated by singlefactor experiment and orthogonal test.The research results showed that the optimal technical parameters could be obtained as following : solid to liquid ratio 1: ]2, enzyme dosage 2%, pH = 9, temperature 45 ℃ and time 3 h.The max extraction rate of sticky rice protein reached to 8.529%.Antioxidant tests of protein hydrolysates by papain showed that hydrolyzate from sticky rice protein serves as amino acids or their polymer.

  15. Increased leaf photosynthesis caused by elevated stomatal conductance in a rice mutant deficient in SLAC1, a guard cell anion channel protein


    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), leaf photosynthesis is known to be highly correlated with stomatal conductance; however, it remains unclear whether stomatal conductance dominantly limits the photosynthetic rate. SLAC1 is a stomatal anion channel protein controlling stomatal closure in response to environmental [CO2]. In order to examine stomatal limitations to photosynthesis, a SLAC1-deficient mutant of rice was isolated and characterized. A TILLING screen of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-derived mutant ...

  16. Nano scale proteomics revealed the presence of regulatory proteins including three FT-Like proteins in phloem and xylem saps from rice.

    Aki, Toshihiko; Shigyo, Mikao; Nakano, Ryouhei; Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Yanagisawa, Shuichi


    The main physiological roles of phloem and xylem in higher plants involve the transport of water, nutrients and metabolites. They are also involved, however, in whole plant events including stress responses and long-distance signaling. Phloem and xylem saps therefore include a variety of proteins. In this study, we have performed a shotgun analysis of the proteome of phloem and xylem saps from rice, taking advantage of the complete and available genomic information for this plant. Xylem sap was prepared using the root pressure method, whereas phloem sap was prepared with a unique method with the assistance of planthoppers to ensure the robustness of the detected proteins. The technical difficulties caused by the very limited availability of rice samples were overcome by the use of nano-flow liquid chromatography linked to a mass spectrometer. We identified 118 different proteins and eight different peptides in xylem sap, and 107 different proteins and five different peptides in phloem sap. Signal transduction proteins, putative transcription factors and stress response factors as well as metabolic enzymes were identified in these saps. Interestingly, we found the presence of three TERMINAL FLOWER 1/FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like proteins in phloem sap. The detected FT-like proteins were not rice Hd3a (OsFTL2) itself that acted as a non-cell-autonomous signal for flowering control, but they were members of distinct subfamilies of the FT family with differential expression patterns. These results imply that proteomics on a nano scale is a potent tool for investigation of biological processes in plants.

  17. A STRESS-RESPONSIVE NAC1-regulated protein phosphatase gene rice protein phosphatase18 modulates drought and oxidative stress tolerance through abscisic acid-independent reactive oxygen species scavenging in rice.

    You, Jun; Zong, Wei; Hu, Honghong; Li, Xianghua; Xiao, Jinghua; Xiong, Lizhong


    Plants respond to abiotic stresses through a complexity of signaling pathways, and the dephosphorylation mediated by protein phosphatase (PP) is an important event in this process. We identified a rice (Oryza sativa) PP2C gene, OsPP18, as a STRESS-RESPONSIVE NAC1 (SNAC1)-regulated downstream gene. The ospp18 mutant was more sensitive than wild-type plants to drought stress at both the seedling and panicle development stages. Rice plants with OsPP18 suppressed through artificial microRNA were also hypersensitive to drought stress. Microarray analysis of the mutant revealed that genes encoding reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes were down-regulated in the ospp18 mutant, and the mutant exhibited reduced activities of ROS scavenging enzymes and increased sensitivity to oxidative stresses. Overexpression of OsPP18 in rice led to enhanced osmotic and oxidative stress tolerance. The expression of OsPP18 was induced by drought stress but not induced by abscisic acid (ABA). Although OsPP18 is a typical PP2C with enzymatic activity, it did not interact with SNF1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2 protein kinases, which function in ABA signaling. Meanwhile, the expression of ABA-responsive genes was not affected in the ospp18 mutant, and the ABA sensitivities of the ospp18 mutant and OsPP18-overexpressing plants were also not altered. Together, these findings suggest that OsPP18 is a unique PP2C gene that is regulated by SNAC1 and confers drought and oxidative stress tolerance by regulating ROS homeostasis through ABA-independent pathways.

  18. Effects of surface proteins and lipids on molecular structure, thermal properties, and enzymatic hydrolysis of rice starch

    Pan HU

    Full Text Available Abstract Rice starches with different amylose contents were treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS to deplete surface proteins and lipids, and the changes in molecular structure, thermal properties, and enzymatic hydrolysis were evaluated. SDS treatment did not significantly change the molecular weight distribution, crystalline structure, short-range ordered degree, and gelatinization properties of starch, but significantly altered the pasting properties and increased the swelling power of starch. The removal of surface proteins and lipids increased the enzymatic hydrolysis and in vitro digestion of starch. The influences of removing surface proteins and lipids from starch on swelling power, pasting properties, and enzymatic hydrolysis were different among the various starches because of the differences in molecular structures of different starch styles. The aforementioned results indicated that removing the surface proteins and lipids from starch did not change the molecular structure but had significant effects on some functional properties.

  19. Sucrose-mediated priming of plant defense responses and broad-spectrum disease resistance by overexpression of the maize pathogenesis-related PRms protein in rice plants.

    Gómez-Ariza, Jorge; Campo, Sonia; Rufat, Mar; Estopà, Montserrat; Messeguer, Joaquima; San Segundo, Blanca; Coca, María


    Expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes is part of the plant's natural defense response against pathogen attack. The PRms gene encodes a fungal-inducible PR protein from maize. Here, we demonstrate that expression of PRms in transgenic rice confers broad-spectrum protection against pathogens, including fungal (Magnaporthe oryzae, Fusarium verticillioides, and Helminthosporium oryzae) and bacterial (Erwinia chrysanthemi) pathogens. The PRms-mediated disease resistance in rice plants is associated with an enhanced capacity to express and activate the natural plant defense mechanisms. Thus, PRms rice plants display a basal level of expression of endogenous defense genes in the absence of the pathogen. PRms plants also exhibit stronger and quicker defense responses during pathogen infection. We also have found that sucrose accumulates at higher levels in leaves of PRms plants. Sucrose responsiveness of rice defense genes correlates with the pathogen-responsive priming of their expression in PRms rice plants. Moreover, pretreatment of rice plants with sucrose enhances resistance to M. oryzae infection. Together, these results support a sucrose-mediated priming of defense responses in PRms rice plants which results in broad-spectrum disease resistance.

  20. Antagonistic actions of HLH/bHLH proteins are involved in grain length and weight in rice.

    Dany Heang

    Full Text Available Grain size is a major yield component in rice, and partly controlled by the sizes of the lemma and palea. Molecular mechanisms controlling the sizes of these organs largely remain unknown. In this study, we show that an antagonistic pair of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH proteins is involved in determining rice grain length by controlling cell length in the lemma/palea. Overexpression of an atypical bHLH, named POSITIVE REGULATOR OF GRAIN LENGTH 1 (PGL1, in lemma/palea increased grain length and weight in transgenic rice. PGL1 is an atypical non-DNA-binding bHLH and assumed to function as an inhibitor of a typical DNA-binding bHLH through heterodimerization. We identified the interaction partner of PGL1 and named it ANTAGONIST OF PGL1 (APG. PGL1 and APG interacted in vivo and localized in the nucleus. As expected, silencing of APG produced the same phenotype as overexpression of PGL1, suggesting antagonistic roles for the two genes. Transcription of two known grain-length-related genes, GS3 and SRS3, was largely unaffected in the PGL1-overexpressing and APG-silenced plants. Observation of the inner epidermal cells of lemma revealed that are caused by increased cell length. PGL1-APG represents a new grain length and weight-controlling pathway in which APG is a negative regulator whose function is inhibited by PGL1.

  1. Functional Analysis of OsKANADI1, A Florigen Hd3a Interacting Protein in Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Yekti Asih Purwestri


    Full Text Available OsKANADI1 is considered as a florigen Hd3a interacting protein. To study the function of OsKANADI1, the expression pattern of OsKANADI1 was performed by semiquantitative RT-PCR with various wild-type tissues in the floral transition stage. The results demonstrated that OsKANADI1 was expressed in all organs of wild-type plants, but was highest in roots and leaves. We hypothesize that OsKANADI1 is a transcription factor in rice because it contains a GARP domain and posses a nuclear localization signal. To determine whether OsKANADI1 encodes a nuclear protein, full-length OsKANADI1 fused to GFP was introduced into onion epidermis cells by particle bombardment. The result revealed that OsKANADI1 was localized in the nucleus, suggesting that OsKANADI1 may be a transcription factor. Functional analysis was carried out using a reverse genetics approach to generate gain of function mutant (overexpression and knockdown mutant (RNAi. The results showed that suppression of OsKANADI1 by RNAi displayed branching and increasing tiller number in several lines. This phenotype resembles to the Hd3a overexpressed plants indicating they possibly function in similar pathway.Key words : OsKANADI1, Transcription factor, Hd3a interacting protein, Rice

  2. Global analysis of lysine acetylation suggests the involvement of protein acetylation in diverse biological processes in rice (Oryza sativa.

    Babi Ramesh Reddy Nallamilli

    Full Text Available Lysine acetylation is a reversible, dynamic protein modification regulated by lysine acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Recent advances in high-throughput proteomics have greatly contributed to the success of global analysis of lysine acetylation. A large number of proteins of diverse biological functions have been shown to be acetylated in several reports in human cells, E.coli, and dicot plants. However, the extent of lysine acetylation in non-histone proteins remains largely unknown in monocots, particularly in the cereal crops. Here we report the mass spectrometric examination of lysine acetylation in rice (Oryza sativa. We identified 60 lysine acetylated sites on 44 proteins of diverse biological functions. Immunoblot studies further validated the presence of a large number of acetylated non-histone proteins. Examination of the amino acid composition revealed substantial amino acid bias around the acetylation sites and the amino acid preference is conserved among different organisms. Gene ontology analysis demonstrates that lysine acetylation occurs in diverse cytoplasmic, chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins in addition to the histone modifications. Our results suggest that lysine acetylation might constitute a regulatory mechanism for many proteins, including both histones and non-histone proteins of diverse biological functions.

  3. Inter-laboratory optimization of protein extraction, separation, and fluorescent detection of endogenous rice allergens

    Satoh, Rie; Teshima, Reiko; Kitta, Kazumi


    , an inter-laboratory validation of 2D-DIGE analysis was conducted in five independent laboratories, focusing on three rice allergens (52 kDa globulin, 33 kDa glyoxalase I, and 14-16 kDa α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family members). The results of the present study indicate that a combination of 1D...

  4. ABA Inducible Rice Protein Phosphatase 2C Confers ABA Insensitivity and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Singh, Amarjeet; Jha, Saroj K.; Bagri, Jayram; Pandey, Girdhar K.


    Arabidopsis PP2C belonging to group A have been extensively worked out and known to negatively regulate ABA signaling. However, rice (Oryza sativa) orthologs of Arabidopsis group A PP2C are scarcely characterized functionally. We have identified a group A PP2C from rice (OsPP108), which is highly inducible under ABA, salt and drought stresses and localized predominantly in the nucleus. Genetic analysis revealed that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsPP108 are highly insensitive to ABA and tolerant to high salt and mannitol stresses during seed germination, root growth and overall seedling growth. At adult stage, OsPP108 overexpression leads to high tolerance to salt, mannitol and drought stresses with far better physiological parameters such as water loss, fresh weight, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic potential (Fv/Fm) in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression profile of various stress marker genes in OsPP108 overexpressing plants revealed interplay of ABA dependent and independent pathway for abiotic stress tolerance. Overall, this study has identified a potential rice group A PP2C, which regulates ABA signaling negatively and abiotic stress signaling positively. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing this gene might provide an answer to the problem of low crop yield and productivity during adverse environmental conditions. PMID:25886365

  5. Rice calcium-dependent protein kinase OsCPK17 targets plasma membrane intrinsic protein and sucrose phosphate synthase and is required for a proper cold stress response

    Almadanim, M. Cecília


    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are involved in plant tolerance mechanisms to abiotic stresses. Although CDPKs are recognized as key messengers in signal transduction, the specific role of most members of this family remains unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that OsCPK17 plays a role in rice cold stress response by analyzing OsCPK17 knockout, silencing, and overexpressing rice lines under low temperature. Altered OsCPK17 gene expression compromises cold tolerance performance, without affecting the expression of key cold stress-inducible genes. A comparative phosphoproteomic approach led to the identification of six potential in vivo OsCPK17 targets, which are associated with sugar and nitrogen metabolism, and with osmotic regulation. To test direct interaction, in vitro kinase assays were performed, showing that the sucrose phosphate synthase OsSPS4, and the aquaporin OsPIP2;1/OsPIP2;6 are phosphorylated by OsCPK17 in a calcium-dependent manner. Altogether, our data indicates that OsCPK17 is required for a proper cold stress response in rice, likely affecting the activity of membrane channels and sugar metabolism.

  6. Application of rice wine lees protein as beer foam fortifier%黄酒糟蛋白作为啤酒泡沫强化剂的研究



    In this essay, the rice wine lees protein was used as beer foam fortifier to improve the foaming ability and stability. After adding the protein extracted from rice wine lees, the foaming ability was increased to 3, the foaming ability was enhanced to 410 s and the quality of the foam was excellent.%利用黄酒糟蛋白作为啤酒泡沫强化剂,改善啤酒的起泡性和泡持值,添加后的啤酒起泡性提高到3左右,泡持值增加到410s,泡沫品质高.

  7. Sequence and expression analyses of KIX domain proteins suggest their importance in seed development and determination of seed size in rice, and genome stability in Arabidopsis.

    Thakur, Jitendra Kumar; Agarwal, Pinky; Parida, Swarup; Bajaj, Deepak; Pasrija, Richa


    The KIX domain, which mediates protein-protein interactions, was first discovered as a motif in the large multidomain transcriptional activator histone acetyltransferase p300/CBP. Later, the domain was also found in Mediator subunit MED15, where it interacts with many transcription factors. In both proteins, the KIX domain is a target of activation domains of diverse transcription activators. It was found to be an essential component of several specific gene-activation pathways in fungi and metazoans. Not much is known about KIX domain proteins in plants. This study aims to characterize all the KIX domain proteins encoded by the genomes of Arabidopsis and rice. All identified KIX domain proteins are presented, together with their chromosomal locations, phylogenetic analysis, expression and SNP analyses. KIX domains were found not only in p300/CBP- and MED15-like plant proteins, but also in F-box proteins in rice and DNA helicase in Arabidopsis, suggesting roles of KIX domains in ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation and genome stability. Expression analysis revealed overlapping expression of OsKIX_3, OsKIX_5 and OsKIX_7 in different stages of rice seeds development. Moreover, an association analysis of 136 in silico mined SNP loci in 23 different rice genotypes with grain-length information identified three non-synonymous SNP loci in these three rice genes showing strong association with long- and short-grain differentiation. Interestingly, these SNPs were located within KIX domain encoding sequences. Overall, this study lays a foundation for functional analysis of KIX domain proteins in plants.

  8. A 90 day safety assessment of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein using an aquatic animal model.

    Zhu, Hao-Jun; Chen, Yi; Li, Yun-He; Wang, Jia-Mei; Ding, Jia-Tong; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Peng, Yu-Fa


    In fields of transgenic Bt rice, frogs are exposed to Bt proteins through consumption of both target and nontarget insects. In the present study, we assessed the risk posed by transgenic rice expressing a Cry1Ab/1Ac fusion protein (Huahui 1, HH1) on the development of Xenopus laevis. For 90 days, froglets were fed a diet with 30% HH1 rice, 30% parental rice (Minghui 63, MH63), or no rice as a control. Body weight and length were measured every 15 days. After sacrificing the froglets, we performed a range of biological, clinical, and pathological assessments. No significant differences were found in body weight (on day 90: 27.7 ± 2.17, 27.4 ± 2.40, and 27.9 ± 1.67 g for HH1, MH63, and control, respectively), body length (on day 90: 60.2 ± 1.55, 59.3 ± 2.33, and 59.7 ± 1.64 mm for HH1, MH63, and control, respectively), animal behavior, organ weight, liver and kidney function, or the microstructure of some tissues between the froglets fed on the HH1-containing diet and those fed on the MH63-containing or control diets. This indicates that frog development was not adversely affected by dietary intake of Cry1Ab/1Ac protein.

  9. Homologous Pairing Activities of Two Rice RAD51 Proteins, RAD51A1 and RAD51A2

    Ikawa, Shukuko; Mimida, Naozumi; Shimizu, Takeshi; Toki, Seiichi; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Shibata, Takehiko; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi


    In higher eukaryotes, RAD51 functions as an essential protein in homologous recombination and recombinational repair of DNA double strand breaks. During these processes, RAD51 catalyzes homologous pairing between single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA. Japonica cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa) encode two RAD51 proteins, RAD51A1 and RAD51A2, whereas only one RAD51 exists in yeast and mammals. However, the functional differences between RAD51A1 and RAD51A2 have not been elucidated, because their biochemical properties have not been characterized. In the present study, we purified RAD51A1 and RAD51A2, and found that RAD51A2 robustly promotes homologous pairing in vitro. RAD51A1 also possesses homologous-pairing activity, but it is only about 10% of the RAD51A2 activity. Both RAD51A1 and RAD51A2 bind to ssDNA and dsDNA, and their DNA binding strictly requires ATP, which modulates the polymer formation activities of RAD51A1 and RAD51A2. These findings suggest that although both RAD51A1 and RAD51A2 have the potential to catalyze homologous pairing, RAD51A2 may be the major recombinase in rice. PMID:24124491

  10. Analysis of Male Sterility-Related Proteins of Young Panicle in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) by Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis

    HU Yao-jun; WEI Lei; LIU Shu-nan; YU Jin-hong; DING Yi


    For searching out male sterility-related proteins (polypeptides) in rice (Oryza sativa L.), we examined the difference of panicle protein (polypeptides) between hybrid rice (Wujin2A/R168, Wujin5A/R988) and their parents (male-sterile line Wujin2A, Wujin5A, and restorer line R168, R988) at the formation stage of pollen mother cell by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The results revealed that the 2-DE polypeptide maps were similar among these experimental materials. A small group of polypeptides were disappeared in 2-DE polypeptide maps of male-sterile line (Wujin2A, Wujin5A) by comparing to restorer line (R168, R988) and the first filial (F1) generation (Wujin2A/R168, Wujin5A/R988). The isoelectric points of these polypeptides were pI 5.8-6.5, molecular weight 42.7×103-66.2×103.

  11. Rice dwarf phytoreovirus segment S6-encoded nonstructural protein has a cell-to-cell movement function.

    Li, Yi; Bao, Yi M; Wei, Chun H; Kang, Zhen S; Zhong, Yong W; Mao, Peng; Wu, Gang; Chen, Zhang L; Schiemann, Joachim; Nelson, Richard S


    Rice dwarf virus (RDV) is a member of the genus Phytoreovirus, which is composed of viruses with segmented double-stranded RNA genomes. Proteins that support the intercellular movement of these viruses in the host have not been identified. Microprojectile bombardment was used to determine which open reading frames (ORFs) support intercellular movement of a heterologous virus. A plasmid containing an infectious clone of Potato virus X (PVX) defective in cell-to-cell movement and expressing either beta-glucuronidase or green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used for cobombardment with plasmids containing ORFs from RDV gene segments S1 through S12 onto leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Cell-to-cell movement of the movement-defective PVX was restored by cobombardment with a plasmid containing S6. In the absence of S6, no other gene segment supported movement. Identical results were obtained with Nicotiana tabacum, a host that allows fewer viruses to infect and spread within its tissue. S6 supported the cell-to-cell movement of the movement-defective PVX in sink and source leaves of N. benthamiana. A mutant S6 lacking the translation start codon did not complement the cell-to-cell movement of the movement-defective PVX. An S6 protein product (Pns6)-enhanced GFP fusion was observed near or within cell walls of epidermal cells from N. tabacum. By immunocytochemistry, unfused Pns6 was localized to plasmodesmata in rice leaves infected with RDV. S6 thus encodes a protein with characteristics identical to those of other viral proteins required for the cell-to-cell movement of their genome and therefore is likely required for the cell-to-cell movement of RDV.

  12. Analysis of Copper-binding Proteins in Rice Radicles Exposed to Excess Copper and Hydrogen Peroxide Stress

    Hongxiao Zhang


    Full Text Available Copper (Cu is an essential micronutrient for plants, but excess Cu can inactivate and disturb the protein function due to unavoidable binding to proteins at the cellular level. As a redox-active metal, Cu toxicity is mediated by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Cu-binding structural motifs may alleviate Cu-induced damage by decreasing free Cu2+ activity in cytoplasm or scavenging ROS. The identification of Cu-binding proteins involved in the response of plants to Cu or ROS toxicity may increase our understanding the mechanisms of metal toxicity and tolerance in plants. This study investigated change of Cu-binding proteins in radicles of germinating rice seeds under excess Cu and oxidative stress using immobilized Cu2+ affinity chromatography, two-dimensional electrophoresis, and mass spectra analysis. Quantitative image analysis revealed that 26 protein spots showed more than a 1.5-fold difference in abundances under Cu or H2O2 treatment compared to the control. The identified Cu-binding proteins were involved in anti-oxidative defense, stress response and detoxification, protein synthesis, protein modification, and metabolism regulation. The present results revealed that 17 out of 24 identified Cu-binding proteins have a similar response to low concentration Cu and H2O2 stress, and 5 out of 24 were increased under low and high concentration Cu but unaffected under H2O2 stress, which hint Cu ions can regulate Cu-binding proteins accumulation by H2O2 or no H2O2 pathway to cope with excess Cu in cell. The change pattern of these Cu-binding proteins and their function analysis warrant to further study the roles of Cu ions in these Cu-binding proteins of plant cells.

  13. Impact of volunteer rice infestation on yield and grain quality of rice.

    Singh, Vijay; Burgos, Nilda R; Singh, Shilpa; Gealy, David R; Gbur, Edward E; Caicedo, Ana L


    Volunteer rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains may differ in physicochemical traits from cultivated rice, which may reduce the quality of harvested rice grain. To evaluate the effect of volunteer rice on cultivated rice, fields were surveyed in Arkansas in 2012. Cropping history that included hybrid cultivars in the previous two years (2010 and 2011) had higher volunteer rice infestation (20%) compared with fields planted previously with inbred rice (5.5%). The total grain yield of rice was reduced by 0.4% for every 1% increase in volunteer rice density. The grain quality did not change in fields planted with the same cultivar for three years. Volunteer rice density of at least 7.6% negatively impacted the head rice and when infestation reached 17.7%, it also reduced the rice grain yield. The protein and amylose contents of rice were not affected until volunteer rice infestation exceeded 30%. Crop rotation systems that include hybrid rice are expected to have higher volunteer rice infestation than systems without hybrid rice. It is predicted that, at 8% infestation, volunteer rice will start to impact head rice yield and will reduce total yield at 18% infestation. It could alter the chemical quality of rice grain at >30% infestation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Biomolecular analyses of starch and starch granule proteins in the high-amylose rice mutant Goami 2.

    Butardo, Vito M; Daygon, Venea Dara; Colgrave, Michelle L; Campbell, Peter M; Resurreccion, Adoracion; Cuevas, Rosa Paula; Jobling, Stephen A; Tetlow, Ian; Rahman, Sadequr; Morell, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Melissa


    Elevated proportions of amylose in cereals are commonly associated with either the loss of starch branching or starch synthase activity. Goami 2 is a high-amylose mutant of the temperate japonica rice variety Ilpumbyeo. Genotyping revealed that Goami 2 and Ilpumbyeo carry the same alleles for starch synthase IIa and granule-bound starch synthase I genes. Analyses of granule-bound proteins revealed that SSI and SSIIa accumulate inside the mature starch granules of Goami 2, which is similar to the amylose extender mutant IR36ae. However, unlike the amylose extender mutants, SBEIIb was still detectable inside the starch granules of Goami 2. Detection of SBEIIb after protein fractionation revealed that most of the SBEIIb in Goami 2 accumulates inside the starch granules, whereas most of it accumulates at the granule surface in Ilpumbyeo. Exhaustive mass spectrometric characterisations of granule-bound proteins failed to detect any peptide sequence mutation or major post-translational modifications in Goami 2. Moreover, the signal peptide was found to be cleaved normally from the precursor protein, and there is no apparent N-linked glycosylation. Finally, no difference was found in the SBEIIb structural gene sequence of Goami 2 compared with Ilpumbyeo. In contrast, a G-to-A mutation was detected in the SBEIIb gene of IR36ae located at the splice site between exon and intron 11, which could potentially introduce a premature stop codon and produce a truncated form of SBEIIb. It is suggested that the mutation responsible for producing high amylose in Goami 2 is not due to a defect in SBEIIb gene as was observed in IR36ae, even though it produces a phenotype analogous to the amylose extender mutation. Understanding the molecular genetic basis of this mutation will be important in identifying novel targets for increasing amylose and resistant starch contents in rice and other cereals.

  15. Flowering-Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) Regulates Flowering Time and Yield Potential by Affecting Histone H2B Monoubiquitination in Rice (Oryza Sativa).

    Du, Yiwei; He, Wei; Deng, Changwang; Chen, Xi; Gou, Lanming; Zhu, Fugui; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Jianfu; Wang, Tao


    Flowering time is a critical trait for crops cultivated under various temperature/photoperiod conditions around the world. To understand better the flowering time of rice, we used the vector pTCK303 to produce several lines of RNAi knockdown transgenic rice and investigated their flowering times and other agronomic traits. Among them, the heading date of FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice was 23-26 days earlier than that of wild-type plants. FRRP1 is a novel rice gene that encodes a C3HC4-type Really Interesting Novel Gene (RING) finger domain protein. In addition to the early flowering time, FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice caused changes on an array of agronomic traits, including plant height, panicle length and grain length. We analyzed the expression of some key genes associated with the flowering time and other agronomic traits in the FRRP1-RNAi knockdown lines and compared with that in wild-type lines. The expression of Hd3a increased significantly, which was the key factor in the early flowering time. Further experiments showed that the level of histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1) was noticeably reduced in the FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice lines compared with wild-type plants and MBP-FRRP1-F1 was capable of self-ubiquitination. The results indicate that Flowering Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) is involved in histone H2B monoubiquitination and suggest that FRRP1 functions as an E3 ligase in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, FRRP1 probably regulates flowering time and yield potential in rice by affecting histone H2B monoubiquitination, which leads to changes in gene expression in multiple processes.

  16. Subchronic toxicity study in vivo and allergenicity study in vitro for genetically modified rice that expresses pharmaceutical protein (human serum albumin).

    Sheng, Yao; Qi, Xiaozhe; Liu, Yifei; Guo, Mingzhang; Chen, Siyuan; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao


    Genetically modified (GM) crops that express pharmaceutical proteins have become an important focus of recent genetic engineering research. Food safety assessment is necessary for the commercial development of these crops. Subchronic toxicity study in vivo and allergenicity study in vitro were designed to evaluate the food safety of the rice variety expressing human serum albumin (HSA). Animals were fed rodent diets containing 12.5%, 25.0% and 50.0% GM or non-GM rice for 90 days. The composition analysis of the GM rice demonstrated several significant differences. However, most of the differences remained within the ranges reported in the literature. In the animal study, a range of indexes including clinical observation, feed efficiency, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights and histopathology were examined. Random changes unrelated to the GM rice exposure, within the range of historical control values and not associated with any signs of illness were observed. The results of heat stability and in vitro digestion of HSA indicated no evidence of potential allergenicity of the protein. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that the GM rice appears to be safe as a dietary ingredient when it is used at up to 50% in the diet on a subchronic basis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The rice HGW gene encodes a ubiquitin-associated (UBA domain protein that regulates heading date and grain weight.

    Juan Li

    Full Text Available Heading date and grain weight are two determining agronomic traits of crop yield. To date, molecular factors controlling both heading date and grain weight have not been identified. Here we report the isolation of a hemizygous mutation, heading and grain weight (hgw, which delays heading and reduces grain weight in rice. Analysis of hgw mutant phenotypes indicate that the hemizygous hgw mutation decreases latitudinal cell number in the lemma and palea, both composing the spikelet hull that is known to determine the size and shape of brown grain. Molecular cloning and characterization of the HGW gene showed that it encodes a novel plant-specific ubiquitin-associated (UBA domain protein localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus, and functions as a key upstream regulator to promote expressions of heading date- and grain weight-related genes. Moreover, co-expression analysis in rice and Arabidopsis indicated that HGW and its Arabidopsis homolog are co-expressed with genes encoding various components of ubiquitination machinery, implying a fundamental role for the ubiquitination pathway in heading date and grain weight control.

  18. Defective Pollen Wall is Required for Anther and Microspore Development in Rice and Encodes a Fatty Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase

    Shi, J.; Shanklin, J.; Tan, H.; Yu, X.-H.; Liu, Y.; Liang, W.; Ranathunge, K.; Franke, R. B.; Schreiber, L.; Wang, Y.; Kai, G.; Ma, H.; Zhang, D.


    Aliphatic alcohols naturally exist in many organisms as important cellular components; however, their roles in extracellular polymer biosynthesis are poorly defined. We report here the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) male-sterile mutant, defective pollen wall (dpw), which displays defective anther development and degenerated pollen grains with an irregular exine. Chemical analysis revealed that dpw anthers had a dramatic reduction in cutin monomers and an altered composition of cuticular wax, as well as soluble fatty acids and alcohols. Using map-based cloning, we identified the DPW gene, which is expressed in both tapetal cells and microspores during anther development. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant DPW enzyme shows that it is a novel fatty acid reductase that produces 1-hexadecanol and exhibits >270-fold higher specificity for palmiltoyl-acyl carrier protein than for C16:0 CoA substrates. DPW was predominantly targeted to plastids mediated by its N-terminal transit peptide. Moreover, we demonstrate that the monocot DPW from rice complements the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana male sterile2 (ms2) mutant and is the probable ortholog of MS2. These data suggest that DPWs participate in a conserved step in primary fatty alcohol synthesis for anther cuticle and pollen sporopollenin biosynthesis in monocots and dicots.

  19. Functional characterization of a pheromone-binding protein from rice leaffolder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis in detecting pheromones and host plant volatiles.

    Sun, X; Zhao, Z-F; Zeng, F-F; Zhang, A; Lu, Z-X; Wang, M-Q


    Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are believed to be involved in the recognition of semiochemicals. In the present study, western blot analysis, fluorescence-binding characteristics and immunolocalization of CmedPBP4 from the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, were investigated. Western blot analysis revealed that CmedPBP4 showed obvious antenna-specific expression patterns in female and male antenna, and made a clearly different sex-biased expression. Immunocytochemical labeling revealed that CmedPBP4 showed specific expression in the trichoid sensilla. Competitive fluorescence binding assays indicated that CmedPBP4 could selectively recognize three sex pheromone components (Z13-18:Ac, Z11-16:Al and Z13-18:OH) and eleven rice plant volatiles, including cyclohexanol, nerolidol, cedrol, dodecanal, ionone, (-)-α-cedrene, (Z)-farnesene, β-myrcene, R-(+)-limonene, (-)-limonene, and (+)-3-carene. Meanwhile the CmedPBP4 detection of sex pheromones and host odorants was pH-dependent. Our results, for the first time, provide further evidence that trichoid sensilla might be play an important role in detecting sex pheromones and host plant volatiles in the C. medinalis moth. Our systematic studies provided further detailed evidence for the function of trichoid sensilla in insect semiochemical perception.

  20. Gene structure and expression of rice seed allergenic proteins belonging to the alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family.

    Adachi, T; Izumi, H; Yamada, T; Tanaka, K; Takeuchi, S; Nakamura, R; Matsuda, T


    Genomic and two novel cDNA clones for rice seed allergenic protein (RA) belonging to the alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family were isolated and their nucleotide sequences determined. Ten cysteine residues deduced from nucleotide sequences were completely conserved among three cDNA clones including a clone, RA17, reported previously. One genomic clone, lambda 4, contained two RA genes, RAG1 and RAG2. Although RAG1 was cloned at the 5' portion only, two RA genes were arranged divergently. Nucleotide sequencing and DNA blotting analyses showed that RA are encoded by a multigene family consisting of at least four members. The transcriptional initiation site of RAG1 was localized at A, 26 bp upstream of the putative translational initiation codon, ATG, by the primer extension assay. The putative TATA box and CAAT box existed about 45 bp and 147 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site, respectively. A conserved sequence (ATGCAAAA) which was similar to the sequence (TGCAAAA) identified in rice glutelin promoters was observed in the 5' region of the two genes. In addition, RNA blotting analyses provided that RA genes specifically expressed in ripening seed and their transcripts accumulated maximally between 15 and 20 days after flowering.

  1. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase1 coordinates with TOR-Raptor2 to regulate thylakoid membrane biosynthesis in rice.

    Sun, Linxiao; Yu, Yonghua; Hu, Weiqin; Min, Qiming; Kang, Huiling; Li, Yilu; Hong, Yue; Wang, Xuemin; Hong, Yueyun


    Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) functions as a key component in the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway involved in multiple processes in eukaryotes. The role and regulation of TOR-S6K in lipid metabolism remained unknown in plants. Here we provide genetic and pharmacological evidence that TOR-Raptor2-S6K1 is important for thylakoid galactolipid biosynthesis and thylakoid grana modeling in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Genetic suppression of S6K1 caused pale yellow-green leaves, defective thylakoid grana architecture. S6K1 directly interacts with Raptor2, a core component in TOR signaling, and S6K1 activity is regulated by Raptor2 and TOR. Plants with suppressed Raptor2 expression or reduced TOR activity by inhibitors mimicked the S6K1-deficient phenotype. A significant reduction in galactolipid content was found in the s6k1, raptor2 mutant or TOR-inhibited plants, which was accompanied by decreased transcript levels of the set of genes such as lipid phosphate phosphatase α5 (LPPα5), MGDG synthase 1 (MGD1), and DGDG synthase 1 (DGD1) involved in galactolipid synthesis, compared to the control plants. Moreover, loss of LPPα5 exhibited a similar phenotype with pale yellow-green leaves. These results suggest that TOR-Raptor2-S6K1 is important for modulating thylakoid membrane lipid biosynthesis, homeostasis, thus enhancing thylakoid grana architecture and normal photosynthesis ability in rice.

  2. Pentatricopeptide-repeat family protein RF6 functions with hexokinase 6 to rescue rice cytoplasmic male sterility.

    Huang, Wenchao; Yu, Changchun; Hu, Jun; Wang, Lili; Dan, Zhiwu; Zhou, Wei; He, Chunlan; Zeng, Yafei; Yao, Guoxin; Qi, Jianzhao; Zhang, Zhihong; Zhu, Renshan; Chen, Xuefeng; Zhu, Yingguo


    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been extensively used for hybrid seed production in many major crops. Honglian CMS (HL-CMS) is one of the three major types of CMS in rice and has contributed greatly to food security worldwide. The HL-CMS trait is associated with an aberrant chimeric mitochondrial transcript, atp6-orfH79, which causes pollen sterility and can be rescued by two nonallelic restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes, Rf5 or Rf6. Here, we report the identification of Rf6, which encodes a novel pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) family protein with a characteristic duplication of PPR motifs 3-5. RF6 is targeted to mitochondria, where it physically associates with hexokinase 6 (OsHXK6) and promotes the processing of the aberrant CMS-associated transcript atp6-orfH79 at nucleotide 1238, which ensures normal pollen development and restores fertility. The duplicated motif 3 of RF6 is essential for RF6-OsHXK6 interactions, processing of the aberrant transcript, and restoration of fertility. Furthermore, reductions in the level of OsHXK6 result in atp6-orfH79 transcript accumulation and male sterility. Together these results reveal a novel mechanism for CMS restoration by which RF6 functions with OsHXK6 to restore HL-CMS fertility. The present study also provides insight into the function of hexokinase 6 in regulating mitochondrial RNA metabolism and may facilitate further exploitation of heterosis in rice.

  3. Functional characterization of a pheromone binding protein from rice leaf-folder cnaphalocrocis medinalis in detecting pheromones and host plant volatiles

    Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are believed to be involved in the recognition of semiochemicals. In the present study, western blot analysis, fluorescence binding characteristics, and immunolocalization of the CmedPBP4 from rice leaf-folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, were investigated. The wester...

  4. RNA-binding Domain of the Key Structural Protein P7 for the Rice dwarf virus Particle Assembly

    Bo-Xiong ZHONG; Yan-Wei SHEN; Toshihiro OMURA


    The Rice dwarf virus (RDV) P7 structural protein is the key protein in the RDV particle assembly. The P7 protein was digested partially or completely by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease and/or Pseudomonas fragi Asp-N protease. The molecular mass and the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the polypeptide fragments of the P7 protein were determined by SDS-PAGE and the Edman degradation method,respectively. Then the polypeptides were located in the deduced amino acid sequence of the RDV P7 protein based on the nucleotide sequence information, with the knowledge of the specific cleavage sites of the Staphylococcus aureus V8 and Pseudomonasfragi Asp-N protease, and the two RNA-binding domains in the P7 protein were identified. Domain 1 was located in the residue 128-249 containing 122 amino acids and domain 2 was located in the residue 325-355 containing 31 amino acids. Thus, these two domains may play an important role in the virus particle assembly by contributing to the packaging of viral dsRNAs inside the particles. The two domains may be novel RNA-binding domains, because no amino acid sequences highly similar to the conservative sequences of known dsRNA-binding domains reported so far. The similarity between the motif of domain 1 and the motif of the DNA-binding protein suggests that the DNA-binding activity of the RDV P7 protein may be due to this sequence. The similarity between the motif of domain 1 and the motif of the RNA polymerase domain suggests that the P7 protein may also play a role in RNA synthesis,besides its function in the assembly and subsequent packaging of viral dsRNA into core particles.

  5. Protein repair L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase 1 (PIMT1) in rice improves seed longevity by preserving embryo vigor and viability.

    Wei, Yidong; Xu, Huibin; Diao, Lirong; Zhu, Yongsheng; Xie, Hongguang; Cai, Qiuhua; Wu, Fangxi; Wang, Zonghua; Zhang, Jianfu; Xie, Huaan


    Damaged proteins containing abnormal isoaspartyl (isoAsp) accumulate as seeds age and the abnormality is thought to undermine seed vigor. Protein-L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT) is involved in isoAsp-containing protein repair. Two PIMT genes from rice (Oryza sativa L.), designated as OsPIMT1 and OsPIMT2, were isolated and investigated for their roles. The results indicated that OsPIMT2 was mainly present in green tissues, but OsPIMT1 largely accumulated in embryos. Confocal visualization of the transient expression of OsPIMTs showed that OsPIMT2 was localized in the chloroplast and nucleus, whereas OsPIMT1 was predominately found in the cytosol. Artificial aging results highlighted the sensitivity of the seeds of OsPIMT1 mutant line when subjected to accelerated aging. Overexpression of OsPIMT1 in transgenic seeds reduced the accumulation of isoAsp-containing protein in embryos, and increased embryo viability. The germination percentage of transgenic seeds overexpressing OsPIMT1 increased 9-15% compared to the WT seeds after 21-day of artificial aging, whereas seeds from the OsPIMT1 RNAi lines overaccumulated isoAsp in embryos and experienced rapid loss of seed germinability. Taken together, these data strongly indicated that OsPIMT1-related seed longevity improvement is probably due to the repair of detrimental isoAsp-containing proteins that over accumulate in embryos when subjected to accelerated aging.

  6. Expression of Cry1Ab protein in a marker-free transgenic Bt rice line and its efficacy in controlling a target pest, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Wang, Yanan; Zhang, Lei; Li, Yunhe; Liu, Yanmin; Han, Lanzhi; Zhu, Zhen; Wang, Feng; Peng, Yufa


    A marker-free Bt transgenic rice line, mfb-MH86, was recently developed in China, which contains a cry1Ab gene driven by a ubiquitin promoter. This Bt gene confers resistance to a range of lepidopteran species, including the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker). The expression of Cry1Ab protein in mfb-MH86 leaves, stems and leaf sheaths (hereinafter referred to as stems), and roots was evaluated throughout the rice-growing season using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, mfb-MH86 resistance to C. suppressalis, a major pest of rice, was evaluated in a laboratory bioassay with field-collected rice stems. Cry1Ab protein levels of mfb-MH86 were highest in leaves (9.71-34.09 μg/g dry weight [DW]), intermediate in stems (7.66-18.51 μg/g DW), and lowest in roots (1.95-13.40 μg/g DW). In all tissues, Cry1Ab levels in mfb-MH86 were higher in seedling and tillering stages than in subsequent growth stages. In the laboratory bioassay, mortality of C. suppressalis after 6 d of feeding on mfb-MH86 stems was 100% throughout the rice-growing season; mortality of C. suppressalis when feeding on stems of the nontransformed isoline, MH86, ranged from 15.0 to 38.3%. The results indicate that Cry1Ab protein levels in mfb-MH86 stems are sufficient to protect plants against C. suppressalis throughout the rice-growing season. Although our results are promising, further comprehensive evaluations of mfb-MH86, including field surveys, will be needed before commercial use.

  7. Gene Networks and Functional Features of Gravitropic response in Rice Shoot Bases

    Hu, Liwei; Zang, Aiping; Ai, Qianru; Chen, Haiying; Li, Lin; Li, Rui; Su, Feng; Chen, Xijiang; Rong, Hui; Dou, Xianying; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara; Li, Qi; Cai, Weiming

    To delineate key genes and the corresponding physiological functions as well as the coordina-tion of genes involved in the gravitropism of rice shoot bases, we used whole-genome microarray analysis of upper and lower parts of rice shoot bases at 0.5 h and 6 h after gravistimulation. And bio-information analysis was applied including GO-analysis, expression tendency and net-work analysis. In the lower shoot bases, auxin-mediated signaling pathway and glutathione transferase activity with the biggest enrichment were activated at 0.5 h, while cytokinin stimu-lus and photosynthesis were activated at 6 h. Meanwhile, several processes were suppressed in the lower shoot bases, including: xyloglucan:xyloglucosyl transferase activity, glucan metabolic processes, and ATPase activity at 0.5 h; and tRNA isopentenyltransferase activity, and chiti-nase activity, etc. at 6 h. Gene expression profile responding to gravistimulation suggested that the asymmetrically activation of several phytohormone signaling pathways including auxin, gib-berellin and cytokinin brassinolide ethylene and cytokinin-related genes were involved in the differentially growth between the upper and lower parts of rice shoot bases, and so do cell wall-related genes. Topological analysis of the coexpression networks revealed the core statue of AY177699.1(apetala3-like protein) and AK105103.1 at 0.5 h; AK062612.1 (ethylene response factor) and AK099932.1 (lectin-like receptor kinase 72) at 6 h. All the core factors have the function "response to endogenous stimulus". Additionally, AK108057.1(similar to germin-like protein precursor) was discovered as the most important core gene in the upper shoot bases in 6h after gravistimualtion while AK067424.1(cellulose synthase-like protein), AK120101.1 (Zinc finger, B-box domain containing protein) and CR278698 (ATPase associated with various cel-lular activities cellulose synthase-like protein) contribute equally to gravitropic response in the lower shoot bases.

  8. A CHASE domain containing protein kinase OsCRL4, represents a new AtCRE1-like gene family in rice

    韩秋敏; 姜华武; 齐晓朋; 于洁; 吴平


    AtCRE1 is known to be a cytokinin receptor in Arabidopsis. The AtCRE1 protein contains CHASE domain at the N-terminal part, followed by a transmitter (histidine kinase) domain and two receiver domains. The N-terminal CHASE domain of AtCRE1 contains putative recognition sites for cytokinin. Five CHASE domains containing proteins were found in rice, OsCRL1a, OsCRL1b, OsCRL2, OsCRL3, and OsCRL4. OsCRL1a, OsCRL1b, OsCRL2 and OsCRL3 contain the four domains existing in CRE1, whereas OsCRL4 only contains the CHASE domain and a putative Ser/Thr protein kinase domain. The authors cloned the encoding gene OsCRL4 and found that it represents a new member of the cytokinin receptor protein in rice.

  9. A CHASE domain containing protein kinase OsCRL4, represents a new AtCRE1-like gene family in rice

    韩秋敏; 姜华武; 齐晓朋; 丁洁; 吴平


    AtCRE1 is known to be a cytokinin receptor inArabidopsis. The AtCRE1 protein contains CHASE domain at the N-terminal part, followed by a transmitter (histidine kinase) domain and two receiver domains. The N-terminal CHASE domain of AtCRE1 contains putative recognition sites for cytokinin. Five CHASE domains containing proteins were found in rice, OsCRLla, OsCRLlb, OsCRL2, OsCRL3, and OsCRL4. OsCRL1a, OsCRL1b, OsCRL2 and OsCRL3 contain the four domains existing in CRE1, whereas OsCRL4 only contains the CHASE domain and a putative Ser/Thr protein kinase domain The authors cloned the encoding gene OsCRL4 and found that it represents a new member of the cytokinin receptor protein in rice.

  10. Rice grassy stunt virus nonstructural protein p5 serves as a viral suppressor of RNA silencing and interacts with nonstructural protein p3.

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Xiao-juan; Wu, Kang-cheng; Zheng, Lu-Ping; Ding, Zuo-mei; Li, Fei; Zou, Peng; Yang, Liang; Wu, Jian-guo; Wu, Zu-jian


    Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV), a member of the genus Tenuivirus, causes serious rice disease in Southeast Asian countries. In this study, a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based transient expression assay was conducted to show that p5, encoded on RNA5 in the viral sense, is a viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR). Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) between p5 and all RGSV proteins except pC1 and pC2 were investigated using Gal4-based yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) experiments. The results demonstrated that p5 interacts with itself and with p3 encoded on RNA3 in the viral sense. p5-p5 and p5-p3 interactions were detected by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay, and the p5-p3 interaction was confirmed by subcellular co-localization and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays. Using the Y2H system, we demonstrated that the p5-p3 interaction requires both the N-terminal (amino acid residues 1 to 99) and C-terminal (amino acid residues 94 to 191) domains of p5. In addition, either p5 or p3 could enhance the pathogenicity of potato virus X (PVX) in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. A much more significant enhancement of PVX pathogenicity and accumulation was observed when p5 and p3 were expressed together. Our data also showed that RGSV p3 does not function as a VSR, and it had no effect on the VSR activity of p5 or the subcellular localization pattern of p5 in plant cells from Nicotiana benthamiana.

  11. Immunodetection of a brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) salivary catalase-like protein into tissues of rice, Oryza sativa.

    Petrova, A; Smith, C M


    Saliva plays an important role in host plant-phloem-feeding insect molecular interactions. To better elucidate the role of insect saliva, a series of experiments were conducted to establish if catalase from the salivary glands of the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) was secreted into rice host plant tissue during feeding. Catalase is the main enzyme that decomposes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at high concentrations. H2O2 is a part of the free radicals system that mediates important physiological roles including signalling and defence. Previous studies have suggested that H2O2 is involved in the rice endogenous response to BPH feeding. If, the BPH secretes catalase into host plant tissue this will counter the effects of H2O2, from detoxification to interfering with plant signalling and defence mechanisms. When BPHs were fed on a hopper-resistant rice variety for 24 h, catalase activity in the salivary glands increased 3.5-fold compared with hoppers fed on a susceptible rice variety. Further supporting evidence of the effects of BPH catalase was demonstrated by immunodetection analyses where results from two independent sources: BPH-infested rice tissue and BPH-probed artificial diets, suggest that the BPH secretes catalase-like protein during feeding. The possible physiological roles of BPH-secreted catalase are discussed.

  12. OsFY, a Homolog of AtFY, Encodes a Protein that Can Interact with OsFCA-γin Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Qi LU; Zheng-Kai XU; Ren-Tao SONG


    FCA and FY are flowering time related genes involved in the autonomous flowering pathway in Arabidopsis. FCA interacts with FY to regulate the alternative processing of FCA pre-mRNA. The FCA/FY interaction is also required for the regulation of FLC expression, a major floral repressor in Arabidopsis.However, it is not clear if the regulation of this autonomous flowering pathway is also present in monocot plants, such as rice. Recently, alternative RNA processing of OsFCA was observed in rice, which strongly suggested the existence of an autonomous flowering pathway in rice. In this work, we cloned the cDNA of the autonomous flowering pathway gene OsFY from rice. The predicted OsFY protein contained a conserved 7 WD-repeat region and at least two Pro-Pro-Leu-Pro motifs compared to Arabidopsis FY. The proteinprotein interaction between OsFY and OsFCA-γ, the key feature of their gene function, was also demonstrated using the yeast two-hybrid system. The GenBank database search provided evidence of expression for other autonomous pathway gene homologs in rice. These results indicate that the autonomous flowering pathway is present in monocots, and the regulation through FY and FCA interaction is conserved between monocots and dicots.

  13. A Novel Protein RLS1 with NB-ARM Domains Is Involved in Chloroplast Degradation during Leaf Senescence in Rice

    Bin-Bin Jiao; Jian-Jun Wang; Xu-Dong Zhu; Long-Jun Zeng; Qun Li; Zu-Hua He


    Leaf senescence,a type of programmed cell death (PCD) characterized by chlorophyll degradation,is important to plant growth and crop productivity.It emerges that autophagy is involved in chloroplast degradation during leaf senescence.However,the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the process is not well understood.In this study,the genetic and physiological characteristics of the rice rls1 (rapid leaf senescence 1) mutant were identified.The rls1 mutant developed small,yellow-brown lesions resembling disease scattered over the whole surfaces of leaves that displayed earlier senescence than those of wild-type plants.The rapid loss of chlorophyll content during senescence was the main cause of accelerated leaf senescence in rls1.Microscopic observation indicated that PCD was misregulated,probably resulting in the accelerated degradation of chloroplasts in rls1 leaves.Map-based cloning of the RLS1 gene revealed that it encodes a previously uncharacterized NB (nucleotide-binding site)-containing protein with an ARM (armadillo) domain at the carboxyl terminus.Consistent with its involvement in leaf senescence,RLS1 was up-regulated during dark-induced leaf senescence and down-regulated by cytokinin.Intriguingly,constitutive expression of RLS1 also slightly accelerated leaf senescence with decreased chlorophyll content in transgenic rice plants.Our study identified a previously uncharacterized NB-ARM protein involved in PCD during plant growth and development,providing a unique tool for dissecting possible autophagymediated PCD during senescence in plants.

  14. Variations in Carbohydrate and Protein Accumulation among Spikelets at Different Positions Within a Panicle During Rice Grain Filling

    DONG Ming-hui; CHEN Pei-feng; XIE Yu-lin; QIAO Zhong-ying; YANG Jian-chang


    The accumulation dynamics of kernel components for spikelets at different positions within a rice panicle were investigated during grain filling to understand the physiological reasons for the variation of grain quality.Two rice cultivars,Yangdao 6 (indica) and Yangjing 9538 (japonica),were field-grown,and the grain filling characters and contents of starch,soluble sugar,and protein of the spikelets at different positions were studied.There were significant differences in matter accumulation among spikelets at different positions during grain filling.The early-flowering spikelets presented dominance over the late-flowering spikelets in initial time and initial rate of accumulation.At the initial and mid filling stages,the contents and the rates of starch and amylose accumulation in spikelets decreased with the flowering sequence,but soluble sugar content (SSC) exhibited the opposite trend.The difference in SSC among the spikelets of Yangjing 9538 was greater than that of Yangdao 6,but amylose content in mature spikelets showed no obvious relationship to their flowering sequence.The crude protein content (CPC) of early-flowering spikelets decreased more rapidly than that of late-flowering ones at the initial filling stage,and CPC in the spikelets on the secondary branch was higher than that on the primary branch,but CPC in early-flowering ones was lower than that in late-flowering across the whole grain filling period.Grain water content (GWC) of early-flowering spikelets decreased more rapidly than that of late-flowering spikelets on the same branch at the initial and mid filling stages,especially for the top grain on each primary branch.The results suggested that poor grain filling of late-flowering spikelets may be attributed to their low biological activity rather than carbohydrate supply limitation.

  15. Effect of source and level of protein supplementation on rice straw utilization by Brahman steers.

    McCann, J C; Sawyer, J E; Wickersham, T A


    Seven ruminally cannulated Brahman steers were used in a 7 × 4 incomplete block design to determine the effects of cottonseed meal (CSM; 43.9% CP, 82.9% RDP) or dried distillers' grains (DDG; 27.5% CP, 43.6% RDP) supplementation on rice straw utilization (47 g/kg CP and 681 g/kg NDF). Treatments consisted of a negative control receiving no supplement (control) and 3 levels (60, 120, and 180 mg N/kg BW) of either CSM or DDG. Periods were 14 d with 8 d for adaptation and 6 d for data collection. Steers had ad libitum access to rice straw and were fed supplements daily. Increased supplementation resulted in a linear increase ( ≤ 0.06) in forage OM intake from 13.5 g/kg BW by controls to 15.5 and 16.1 g/kg BW for 180 mg N/kg BW of DDG and CSM, respectively. No differences between sources were observed ( = 0.84). Total digestible OM intake was increased by supplementation (linear, 0.40) or calculated forage NDF digestibility ( > 0.40). Ruminal ammonia concentrations peaked 4 h after supplementation/feeding with the greatest concentration (4.0 m) observed for 180 mg N/kg BW of CSM and the lowest concentration at 4 h observed in the control (0.8 m). Provision of CSM resulted in a linear increase ( Brahman steers.

  16. Rice MEL2, the RNA recognition motif (RRM) protein, binds in vitro to meiosis-expressed genes containing U-rich RNA consensus sequences in the 3'-UTR.

    Miyazaki, Saori; Sato, Yutaka; Asano, Tomoya; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Nonomura, Ken-Ichi


    Post-transcriptional gene regulation by RNA recognition motif (RRM) proteins through binding to cis-elements in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) is widely used in eukaryotes to complete various biological processes. Rice MEIOSIS ARRESTED AT LEPTOTENE2 (MEL2) is the RRM protein that functions in the transition to meiosis in proper timing. The MEL2 RRM preferentially associated with the U-rich RNA consensus, UUAGUU[U/A][U/G][A/U/G]U, dependently on sequences and proportionally to MEL2 protein amounts in vitro. The consensus sequences were located in the putative looped structures of the RNA ligand. A genome-wide survey revealed a tendency of MEL2-binding consensus appearing in 3'-UTR of rice genes. Of 249 genes that conserved the consensus in their 3'-UTR, 13 genes spatiotemporally co-expressed with MEL2 in meiotic flowers, and included several genes whose function was supposed in meiosis; such as Replication protein A and OsMADS3. The proteome analysis revealed that the amounts of small ubiquitin-related modifier-like protein and eukaryotic translation initiation factor3-like protein were dramatically altered in mel2 mutant anthers. Taken together with transcriptome and gene ontology results, we propose that the rice MEL2 is involved in the translational regulation of key meiotic genes on 3'-UTRs to achieve the faithful transition of germ cells to meiosis.

  17. Screening of browning inhibitor in the extraction of rice bran protein%米糠蛋白提取中褐变抑制剂的筛选

    李坤; 刘颖; 窦博鑫


    米糠蛋白是一种低过敏性的优质植物性蛋白,但制备过程中常伴随褐变反应的发生,导致制备出的米糠蛋白成品颜色深,限制了米糠蛋白在食品及相关领域的广泛应用。本文以米糠为原料,分别采用碱法和复合法提取米糠蛋白,在提取米糠蛋白的过程中分别加入各种不同的抑制剂,以抑制褐变反应。碱法提取米糠蛋白过程中,最佳抑制剂为1.5%的次氯酸钠,色素抑制率为64.2%,蛋白提取率为53.7%;复合法中,以3.0%的抗坏血酸、1.0%的次氯酸钠和o.15%的L-半胱氨酸为最佳复配抑制剂的情况下,提取出的米糠蛋白颜色浅,此时色素抑制率为69.87%,蛋白提取率曲80.06%,褐变抑制效果显著,蛋白提取率高。%Rice bran protein is hypoallergenic and high-quality plant protein. Browning reactions often occur with extraction process of rice bran protein,and the color of protein production is dark that limits the applications of rice bran protein.Rice bran was used as the raw material and many kinds of inhibitors were added in the extraction process of rice bran protein to prevent the browning of rice bran.In the alkali extraction process,the best inhibitor was sodium hypochlorite,the protein extraction rate was 53.7% and inhibitory rate of pigment was 64.2%.1n the compounding extraction process, the best inhibitor was the mixture of 3.0% ascorbic acid, 1.0% Sodium hypochlorite and 0.15% L-Cysteine. Under this condition, inhibition rate of pigment was 69.87% and protein extraction rate was 80.06%.

  18. OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins inhibit flowering under long-day conditions in rice

    Kim, SoonKap


    OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response through the modulation of three flowering-time genes ( Ehd1, Hd3a , and RFT1 ) in rice. Plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factors control numerous developmental processes by forming heterotrimeric complexes, but little is known about their roles in flowering in rice. In this study, it is shown that some subunits of OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC interact with each other, and among them, OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response of rice. Protein interaction studies showed that the physical interactions occurred between the three OsNF-YC proteins (OsNF-YC2, OsNF-YC4 and OsNF-YC6) and three OsNF-YB proteins (OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10 and OsNF-YB11). Repression and overexpression of the OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 genes revealed that they act as inhibitors of flowering only under long-day (LD) conditions. Overexpression of OsNF-YC6, however, promoted flowering only under LD conditions, suggesting it could function as a flowering promoter. These phenotypes correlated with the changes in the expression of three rice flowering-time genes [Early heading date 1 (Ehd1), Heading date 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1)]. The diurnal and tissue-specific expression patterns of the subsets of OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes were similar to those of CCT domain encoding genes such as OsCO3, Heading date 1 (Hd1) and Ghd7. We propose that OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response by interacting directly with OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10 or OsNF-YB11 proteins in rice.

  19. Ferritin acts as the most abundant binding protein for snowdrop lectin in the midgut of rice brown planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens).

    Du, J; Foissac, X; Carss, A; Gatehouse, A M; Gatehouse, J A


    The mannose-specific snowdrop lectin [Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)] displays toxicity to the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. A 26kDa GNA-binding polypeptide from N. lugens midgut was identified by lectin blotting and affinity chromatography, and characterized by N-terminal sequencing. This polypeptide is the most abundant binding protein for GNA in the N. lugens midgut. A cDNA (fersub2) encoding this protein was isolated from an N. lugens cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence shows significant homology to ferritin subunits from Manduca sexta and other arthropods, plants and vertebrates, and contains a putative N-glycosylation site. Native ferritin was purified from whole insects as a protein of more than 400kDa in size and characterized biochemically. Three subunits of 20, 26 and 27kDa were released from the native complex. The 26kDa subunit binds GNA, and its N-terminal sequence was identical to that of fersub2. A second cDNA (fersub1), exhibiting strong homology with dipteran ferritin, was identified as an abundant cDNA in an N. lugens midgut-specific cDNA library, and could encode the larger ferritin subunit. The fersub1 cDNA carries a stem-loop structure (iron-responsive element) upstream from the start codon, similar to structures that have been shown to play a role in the control of ferritin synthesis in other insects.

  20. SMALL GRAIN 1, which encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4, influences grain size in rice.

    Duan, Penggen; Rao, Yuchun; Zeng, Dali; Yang, Yaolong; Xu, Ran; Zhang, Baolan; Dong, Guojun; Qian, Qian; Li, Yunhai


    Although grain size is one of the most important components of grain yield, little information is known about the mechanisms that determine final grain size in crops. Here we characterize rice small grain1 (smg1) mutants, which exhibit small and light grains, dense and erect panicles and comparatively slightly shorter plants. The short grain and panicle phenotypes of smg1 mutants are caused by a defect in cell proliferation. The smg1 mutations were identified, using a map-based cloning approach, in mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (OsMKK4). Relatively higher expression of OsMKK4/SMG1 was detected in younger organs than in older ones, consistent with its role in cell proliferation. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-OsMKK4/SMG1 fusion proteins appear to be distributed ubiquitously in plant cells. Further results revealed that OsMKK4 influenced brassinosteroid (BR) responses and the expression of BR-related genes. Thus, our findings have identified OsMKK4 as a factor for grain size, and suggest a possible link between the MAPK pathways and BRs in grain growth. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Present situations and prospects for the research on rice bran protein%米糠蛋白的研究现状与展望



      Rice bran protein is a cheap plant protein, which can be easily obtained. It has the characte-ristics of high nutrition and hypoallergy. This article introduced the nutritional evaluation, functional proper-ties, extraction method, the development and utilization of rice bran protein.%  米糠蛋白是一种廉价易得的植物蛋白,其具有高营养、低过敏性的特点。本文主要介绍米糠蛋白的营养价值、功能性质、提取方法及其开发利用等方面的研究现状。

  2. Effects of processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein in extruded brown rice and pinto bean composite flours.

    Sumargo, Franklin; Gulati, Paridhi; Weier, Steven A; Clarke, Jennifer; Rose, Devin J


    The influence of pinto bean flour and processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of rice-bean extrudates has been investigated. Brown rice: pinto bean flour (0%, 15%, 30%, and 45% bean flour) were extruded under 5 moisture conditions (17.2%, 18.1%, 18.3%, 19.5%, and 20.1%). Physical properties [bulk density, unit density, radial expansion, axial expansion, overall expansion, specific volume, hardness, color, water solubility index, and water absorption index] and in vitro starch and protein digestibilities were determined. Increasing bean flour and processing moisture increased density and hardness while decreasing expansion. Rapidly digestible starch decreased and resistant starch increased as bean substitution and processing moisture increased. In vitro protein digestibility increased with increasing bean flour or with decreasing processing moisture. Incorporating bean flour into extruded snacks can negatively affect physical attributes (hardness, density, and expansion) while positively affecting in vitro starch (decrease) and protein (increase) digestibilities.

  3. Rice TUTOU1 Encodes a Suppressor of cAMP Receptor-Like Protein That Is Important for Actin Organization and Panicle Development.

    Bai, Jiaoteng; Zhu, Xudong; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Hongqi; Dong, Guojun; Zhu, Lei; Zheng, Huakun; Xie, Qingjun; Nian, Jinqiang; Chen, Fan; Fu, Ying; Qian, Qian; Zuo, Jianru


    Panicle development, a key event in rice (Oryza sativa) reproduction and a critical determinant of grain yield, forms a branched structure containing multiple spikelets. Genetic and environmental factors can perturb panicle development, causing panicles to degenerate and producing characteristic whitish, small spikelets with severely reduced fertility and yield; however, little is known about the molecular basis of the formation of degenerating panicles in rice. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the rice panicle degenerative mutant tutou1 (tut1), which shows severe defects in panicle development. The tut1 also shows a pleiotropic phenotype, characterized by short roots, reduced plant height, and abnormal development of anthers and pollen grains. Molecular genetic studies revealed that TUT1 encodes a suppressor of cAMP receptor/Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family verprolin-homologous (SCAR/WAVE)-like protein. We found that TUT1 contains conserved functional domains found in eukaryotic SCAR/WAVE proteins, and was able to activate Actin-related protein2/3 to promote actin nucleation and polymerization in vitro. Consistently, tut1 mutants show defects in the arrangement of actin filaments in trichome. These results indicate that TUT1 is a functional SCAR/WAVE protein and plays an important role in panicle development. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. The 14-3-3 protein GF14c acts as a negative regulator of flowering in rice by interacting with the florigen Hd3a.

    Purwestri, Yekti Asih; Ogaki, Yuka; Tamaki, Shojiro; Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Shimamoto, Ko


    Hd3a and FT proteins have recently been proposed to act as florigens in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively; however, the molecular mechanisms of their function remain to be determined. In this study, we identified GF14c (a 14-3-3 protein) as an Hd3a-interacting protein in a yeast two-hybrid screen. In vitro and in vivo experiments, using a combination of pull-down assays and bimolecular fluorescence complementation, confirmed the interaction between Hd3a and GF14c. Functional analysis using either GF14c overexpression or knockout transgenic rice plants indicated that this interaction plays a role in the regulation of flowering. GF14c-overexpressing plants exhibited a delay in flowering and the knockout mutants displayed early flowering relative to the wild-type plants under short-day conditions. These results suggest that GF14c acts as a negative regulator of flowering by interacting with Hd3a. Since the 14-3-3 protein has been shown to interact with FT protein in tomato and Arabidopsis, our results in rice provide important findings about FT signaling in plants.

  5. A Kelch Motif-Containing Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatase Determines the Large Grain QTL Trait in Rice

    Zejun Hu; Haohua He; Shiyong Zhang; Fan Sun; Xiaoyun Xin; Wenxiang Wang; Xi Qian; Jingshui Yang; Xiaojin Luo


    A thorough understanding of the genetic basis of rice grain traits is critical for the improvement of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties.In this study,we generated an F2 population by crossing the large-grain japonica cultivar CW23 with Peiai 64 (PA64),an elite indica small-grain cultivar.Using QTL analysis,17 QTLs for five grain traits were detected on four different chromosomes.Eight of the QTLs were newly-identified in this study.In particular,qGL3-1,a newly-identified grain length QTL with the highest LOD value and largest phenotypic variation,was fine-mapped to the 17 kb region of chromosome 3.A serine/threonine protein phosphatase gene encoding a repeat domain containing two Kelch motifs was identified as the unique candidate gene corresponding to this QTL.A comparison of PA64 and CW23 sequences revealed a single nucleotide substitution (C→A) at position 1092 in exon 10,resulting in replacement of Asp (D) in PA64 with Glu (E) in CW23 for the 364th amino acid.This variation is located at the D position of the conserved sequence motif AVLDT of the Kelch repeat.Genetic analysis of a near-isogenic line (NIL) for qGL3-1 revealed that the allele qGL3-1 from CW23 has an additive or partly dominant effect,and is suitable for use in molecular marker-assisted selection.

  6. Overexpression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase gene OsMAPK33 enhances sensitivity to salt stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Seong-Kon Lee; Beom-Gi Kim; Taek-Ryoun Kwon; Mi-Jeong Jeong; Sang-Ryeol Park; Jung-Won Lee; Myung-Ok Byun; Hawk-Bin Kwon; Benjamin F Matthews; Choo-Bong Hong; Soo-Chul Park


    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signalling cascades are activated by extracellular stimuli such as environmental stresses and pathogens in higher eukaryotic plants. To know more about MAPK signalling in plants, a MAPK cDNA clone, OsMAPK33, was isolated from rice. The gene is mainly induced by drought stress. In phylogenetic analysis, OsMAPK33 (Os02g0148100) showed approximately 47–93% identity at the amino acid level with other plant MAPKs. It was found to exhibit organ-specific expression with relatively higher expression in leaves as compared with roots or stems, and to exist as a single copy in the rice genome. To investigate the biological functions of OsMAPK33 in rice MAPK signalling, transgenic rice plants that either overexpressed or suppressed OsMAPK33 were made. Under dehydration conditions, the suppressed lines showed lower osmotic potential compared with that of wild-type plants, suggesting a role of OsMAPK33 in osmotic homeostasis. Nonetheless, the suppressed lines did not display any significant difference in drought tolerance compared with their wild-type plants. With increased salinity, there was still no difference in salt tolerance between OsMAPK33-suppressed lines and their wild-type plants. However, the overexpressing lines showed greater reduction in biomass accumulation and higher sodium uptake into cells, resulting in a lower K+/Na+ ratio inside the cell than that in the wild-type plants and OsMAPK33-suppressed lines. These results suggest that OsMAPK33 could play a negative role in salt tolerance through unfavourable ion homeostasis. Gene expression profiling of OsMAPK33 transgenic lines through rice DNA chip analysis showed that OsMAPK33 altered expression of genes involved in ion transport. Further characterization of downstream components will elucidate various biological functions of this novel rice MAPK.

  7. Dissecting the genetic basis for the effect of rice chalkiness, amylose content, protein content, and rapid viscosity analyzer profile characteristics on the eating quality of cooked rice using the chromosome segment substitution line population across eight environments.

    Liu, Xiaolu; Wan, Xiangyuan; Ma, Xiaodong; Wan, Jianmin


    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and stability analysis were carried out for 16 rice (Oryza sativa L.) quality traits across eight environments, by using a set of chromosome segment substitution lines with 'Asominori' as genetic background. The 16 quality traits include percentage of grain with chalkiness (PGWC), area of chalky endosperm (ACE), amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, cool paste viscosity, breakdown viscosity (BDV), setback viscosity (SBV), consistency viscosity, cooked-rice luster (LT), scent, tenderness (TD), viscosity, elasticity, and the integrated values of organleptic evaluation (IVOE). A total of 132 additive effect QTLs are detected for the 16 quality straits in the eight environments. Among these QTLs, 56 loci were detected repeatedly in at least three environments. Interestingly, several QTL clusters were observed for multiple quality traits. Especially, one QTL cluster near the G1149 marker on chromosome 8 includes nine QTLs: qPGWC-8, qACE-8, qAC-8, qPC-8a, qBDV-8a, qSBV-8b, qLT-8a, qTD-8a, and qIVOE-8a, which control PGWC, ACE, AC, PC, BDV, SBV, LT, TD, and IVOE, respectively. Moreover, this QTL cluster shows high stability and repeatability in all eight environments. In addition, one QTL cluster was located near the C2340 marker on chromosome 1 and another was detected near the XNpb67 marker on chromosome 2; each cluster contained five loci. Near the C563 marker on chromosome 3, one QTL cluster with four loci was found. Also, there were nine QTL clusters that each had two or three loci; however, their repeatability in different environments was relatively lower, and the genetic contribution rate was relatively smaller. Considering the correlations among all of the 16 quality traits with QTL cluster distributions, we can conclude that the stable and major QTL cluster on chromosome 8 is the main genetic basis for the effect of rice chalkiness, AC, PC, and rapid viscosity analyzer profile

  8. Low Temperature Stress Induced Changes in Biochemical Parameters, Protein Banding Pattern and Expression of Zat12 and Myb Genes in Rice Seedling

    Salma Perveen


    Full Text Available Low temperature stress is one of the main abiotic factors that reduce the productivity of many crops in hilly areas around the world. In this study, rice seedling were exposed to low temperature stress (control, 0°C, -2°C, -4°C and -6°C for 2 hr to observe its effect on two rice varieties (Basmati-385 and Shaheen Basmati through ion and proline contents, photosynthetic pigments, total protein content, protein banding pattern and expression of Zat12 and Myb genes. Resulted showed different patterns of accumulation of Na+ K+ and Ca+2 ions with the decrease in temperature in both varieties. Proline accumulation was gradually increased in both varieties with the decrease in temperature. Photosynthetic pigments (Chlorophyll (Chl a, b and carotene were negatively affected by low temperature stress in both varieties, however, carotene content was much affected than Chl a and b. Nonsignificant variation in protein contents was observed at all levels of low temperature, but the effects of low temperature stress on protein banding pattern of Basmti-385 and Shaheen Basmati were different at different treatments. RT-PCR results indicated that ZAT12 was upregulated by short term low temperature stress while OsMYB show slight upregulation at -2°C as compared to the other treatments. This study identified that ZAT12 and OsMYB function as a positive regulator to mediate tolerance of rice seedlings at low temperature stress.

  9. Retention of OsNMD3 in the cytoplasm disturbs protein synthesis efficiency and affects plant development in rice.

    Shi, Yanyun; Liu, Xiangling; Li, Rui; Gao, Yaping; Xu, Zuopeng; Zhang, Baocai; Zhou, Yihua


    The ribosome is the basic machinery for translation, and biogenesis of ribosomes involves many coordinated events. However, knowledge about ribosomal dynamics in higher plants is very limited. This study chose a highly conserved trans-factor, the 60S ribosomal subunit nuclear export adaptor NMD3, to characterize the mechanism of ribosome biogenesis in the monocot plant Oryza sativa (rice). O. sativa NMD3 (OsNMD3) shares all the common motifs and shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm via CRM1/XPO1. A dominant negative form of OsNMD3 with a truncated nuclear localization sequence (OsNMD3(ΔNLS)) was retained in the cytoplasm, consequently interfering with the release of OsNMD3 from pre-60S particles and disturbing the assembly of ribosome subunits. Analyses of the transactivation activity and cellulose biosynthesis level revealed low protein synthesis efficiency in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants. Pharmaceutical treatments demonstrated structural alterations in ribosomes in the transgenic plants. Moreover, global expression profiles of the wild-type and transgenic plants were investigated using the Illumina RNA sequencing approach. These expression profiles suggested that overexpression of OsNMD3(ΔNLS) affected ribosome biogenesis and certain basic pathways, leading to pleiotropic abnormalities in plant growth. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that OsNMD3 is important for ribosome assembly and the maintenance of normal protein synthesis efficiency.

  10. Comparative Analysis of JmjC Domain-containing Proteins Reveals the Potential Histone Demethylases in Arabidopsis and Rice

    Falong Lu; Guanglin Li; Xia Cui; Chunyan Liu; Xiu-Jie Wang; Xiaofeng Cao


    Histone methylation homeostasis is achieved by controlling the balance between methylation and demethylation to maintain chromatin function and developmental regulation. In animals, a conserved Jumonji C (JmjC) domain was found In a large group of histone demethylases. However, it is still unclear whether plants also contain the JmjC domaincontaining active histone demethylases. Here we performed genome-wide screen and phylogenetic analysis of JmjC domaincontaining proteins in the dicot plant, Arabidopsis, and monocot plant rice, and found 21 and 20 JmjC domain-containing, respectively. We also examined the expression of JmjC domain-containing proteins and compared them to human JmjC counterparts for potential enzymatic activity. The spatial expression patterns of the Arabidopsis JmjC domaincontaining genes revealed that they are all actively transcribed genes. These active plant JmjC domain-containing genes could possibly function in epigenetic regulation to antagonize the activity of the large number of putative SET domaincontaining histone methyltransferase activity to dynamically regulate histone methylation homeostasis.

  11. A positive feedback loop between HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN101 and HEAT STRESS-ASSOCIATED 32-KD PROTEIN modulates long-term acquired thermotolerance illustrating diverse heat stress responses in rice varieties.

    Lin, Meng-yi; Chai, Kuo-hsing; Ko, Swee-suak; Kuang, Lin-yun; Lur, Huu-sheng; Charng, Yee-yung


    Heat stress is an important factor that has a negative impact on rice (Oryza sativa) production. To alleviate this problem, it is necessary to extensively understand the genetic basis of heat tolerance and adaptability to heat stress in rice. Here, we report the molecular mechanism underlying heat acclimation memory that confers long-term acquired thermotolerance (LAT) in this monocot plant. Our results showed that a positive feedback loop formed by two heat-inducible genes, HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN101 (HSP101) and HEAT STRESS-ASSOCIATED 32-KD PROTEIN (HSA32), at the posttranscriptional level prolongs the effect of heat acclimation in rice seedlings. The interplay between HSP101 and HSA32 also affects basal thermotolerance of rice seeds. These findings are similar to those reported for the dicot plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), suggesting a conserved function in plant heat stress response. Comparison between two rice cultivars, japonica Nipponbare and indica N22 showed opposite performance in basal thermotolerance and LAT assays. 'N22' seedlings have a higher basal thermotolerance level than cv Nipponbare and vice versa at the LAT level, indicating that these two types of thermotolerance can be decoupled. The HSP101 and HSA32 protein levels were substantially higher in cv Nipponbare than in cv N22 after a long recovery following heat acclimation treatment, at least partly explaining the difference in the LAT phenotype. Our results point out the complexity of thermotolerance diversity in rice cultivars, which may need to be taken into consideration when breeding for heat tolerance for different climate scenarios.

  12. Detection and assignment of proteins encoded by rice black streaked dwarf fijivirus S7, S8, S9 and S10.

    Isogai, M; Uyeda, I; Lee, B C


    The proteins encoded by rice black streaked dwarf fijivirus (RBSDV) genomic segments 7-10 (S7-S10) were characterized. Open reading frames (ORFs) from these segments were expressed as fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. Antibodies raised against the expressed products were used as probes to determine whether the viral ORFs encode structural proteins. In Western blots, antibodies to the expressed S8 and S10 products reacted with a core capsid (65 kDa) and a major outer capsid (56 kDa) protein, respectively, while none of the antibodies to S7 and S9 products reacted with structural proteins. Antisera to RBSDV S7 ORF1 and S9 ORF1 each detected a single protein of the predicted size in total protein extracts from infected rice plants and viruliferous Laodelphax striatellus. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that antibodies to RBSDV S7 ORF1 and RBSDV S9 ORF1 reacted with tubular structures and viroplasm, respectively, in sections of both infected maize plants and viruliferous L. striatellus. Antisera to ORF2 of S7 and S9 failed to detect any proteins in the infected tissue using either Western blotting or immuno-electron microscopic techniques.

  13. An extensively hydrolysed rice protein-based formula in the management of infants with cow's milk protein allergy: preliminary results after 1 month

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Hauser, Bruno


    Background Guidelines recommend extensively hydrolysed cow's milk protein formulas (eHF) in the treatment of infants diagnosed with cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). Extensively hydrolysed rice protein infant formulas (eRHFs) have recently become available, and could offer a valid alternative. Methods A prospective trial was performed to evaluate the clinical tolerance of a new eRHF in infants with a confirmed CMPA. Patients were followed for 1 month. Clinical tolerance of the eRHF was evaluated with a symptom-based score (SBS) and growth (weight and length) was monitored. Results Thirty-nine infants (mean age 3.4 months, range 0.5–6 months) diagnosed with CMPA were enrolled. All infants tolerated the eRHF and experienced a normal growth. Conclusions In accordance with current guidelines, this eRHF is tolerated by more than 90% of children with proven CMPA with a 95% CI, and is an adequate alternative to cow's milk-based eHF. Trial registration number NCT01998074. PMID:24914098


    Spikelet sterility is the greatest barrier to rice hybridization. ... sterility, Hybridization, Duplicate recessive epis- tasis ' ... hybrid fertility of intra-subspecific crosses, i.e., indica by ..... 'Germ 59(1) 293$ ' ' male sterility and fertility restoration in rice.


    张浩; 胡昊; 陈义; 唐旭; 吴春艳; 刘玉学; 杨生茂; 郑可锋


    Non-destructive and rapid monitoring methods for leaf nitrogen and seed protein of rice is of great significance in estimating rice nutritional diagnosis and grain quality monitoring, enhancing nitrogen management and use efficiency. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to determine leaf nitrogen, grain protein content and canopy spectra in rice, and establish model to predict the leaf nitrogen and seed protein. Key spectral bands were selected by principal component analysis (PCA) method, and the predicted models were built by multiple linear regression (MLR), artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) model. Results showed that significant correlation was found between leaf nitrogen and grain protein content and key spectral bands, and the determined coefficient of predication (R2p) were higher than 0. 847, and tested results predicted by PLSR models is the best. Therefore, it is concluded that rice nutrition and grain quality could be estimated by hyper spectral data.%研究水稻叶片氮素和籽粒蛋白质含量的高光谱快速、无损监测方法,对于水稻营养诊断、籽粒品质监测及氮肥高效利用具有重要意义。本文通过水稻盆栽试验,测定水稻叶片氮素、籽粒蛋白质含量和冠层光谱,采用不同的光谱建模方法来提高氮素、籽粒蛋白质含量的估测精度。先用主成分分析(PCA)方法进行特征波段的提取,再用多元线性回归(MLR)、人工神经网络(ANN)和偏最小二乘回归(PLSR)进行建模。结果表明,水稻叶片氮素和籽粒蛋白质含量与特征光谱存在很好的模型关系,3种模型预测的决定系数(R2p)均在0.847以上,并以PLSR模型的预测效果为最好,可以实现水稻氮素营养和籽粒品质的高光谱估测。

  16. A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing rhIGF-1 protein in C57BL/6J rats.

    Tang, Maoxue; Xie, Tingting; Cheng, Wenke; Qian, Lili; Yang, Shulin; Yang, Daichang; Cui, Wentao; Li, Kui


    Genetically modified plants expressing disease resistance traits offer new treatment strategies for human diseases, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. The present 90-day feeding study was designed to assess the safety of transgenic rice expressing the recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 (rhIGF-1) compared to its parental wild rice. Male and female C57BL/6J rats were given a nutritionally balanced purified diet with 20% transgenic rhIGF-1 rice or 20% parental rice for 90 days. This corresponds to a mean daily rhIGF-1 protein intake of approximately 217.6 mg/kg body weight based on the average feed consumption. In the animal study a range of biological, biochemical, clinical, microbiological and pathological parameters were examined and several significant differences were observed between groups, but none of the effects were considered to be adverse. In conclusion, no adverse or toxic effects on C57BL/6J rats were observed in the design used in this 90-day study. These results will provide valuable information for the safety assessment of genetically modified food crops.

  17. Increased leaf photosynthesis caused by elevated stomatal conductance in a rice mutant deficient in SLAC1, a guard cell anion channel protein.

    Kusumi, Kensuke; Hirotsuka, Shoko; Kumamaru, Toshiharu; Iba, Koh


    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), leaf photosynthesis is known to be highly correlated with stomatal conductance; however, it remains unclear whether stomatal conductance dominantly limits the photosynthetic rate. SLAC1 is a stomatal anion channel protein controlling stomatal closure in response to environmental [CO(2)]. In order to examine stomatal limitations to photosynthesis, a SLAC1-deficient mutant of rice was isolated and characterized. A TILLING screen of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-derived mutant lines was conducted for the rice SLAC1 orthologue gene Os04g0674700, and four mutant lines containing mutations within the open reading frame were obtained. A second screen using an infrared thermography camera revealed that one of the mutants, named slac1, had a constitutive low leaf temperature phenotype. Measurement of leaf gas exchange showed that slac1 plants grown in the greenhouse had significantly higher stomatal conductance (g (s)), rates of photosynthesis (A), and ratios of internal [CO(2)] to ambient [CO(2)] (C (i)/C (a)) compared with wild-type plants, whereas there was no significant difference in the response of photosynthesis to internal [CO(2)] (A/C (i) curves). These observations demonstrate that in well-watered conditions, stomatal conductance is a major determinant of photosynthetic rate in rice.

  18. Rice Brittle culm 6 encodes a dominant-negative form of CesA protein that perturbs cellulose synthesis in secondary cell walls.

    Kotake, Toshihisa; Aohara, Tsutomu; Hirano, Ko; Sato, Ami; Kaneko, Yasuko; Tsumuraya, Yoichi; Takatsuji, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Shinji


    The brittle culm (bc) mutants of Gramineae plants having brittle skeletal structures are valuable materials for studying secondary cell walls. In contrast to other recessive bc mutants, rice Bc6 is a semi-dominant bc mutant with easily breakable plant bodies. In this study, the Bc6 gene was cloned by positional cloning. Bc6 encodes a cellulose synthase catalytic subunit, OsCesA9, and has a missense mutation in its highly conserved region. In culms of the Bc6 mutant, the proportion of cellulose was reduced by 38%, while that of hemicellulose was increased by 34%. Introduction of the semi-dominant Bc6 mutant gene into wild-type rice significantly reduced the percentage of cellulose, causing brittle phenotypes. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that Bc6 mutation reduced the cell wall thickness of sclerenchymal cells in culms. In rice expressing a reporter construct, BC6 promoter activity was detected in the culms, nodes, and flowers, and was localized primarily in xylem tissues. This expression pattern was highly similar to that of BC1, which encodes a COBRA-like protein involved in cellulose synthesis in secondary cell walls in rice. These results indicate that BC6 is a secondary cell wall-specific CesA that plays an important role in proper deposition of cellulose in the secondary cell walls.

  19. Data set from the phosphoproteomic analysis of Magnaporthe oryzae-responsive proteins in susceptible and resistant rice cultivars

    Yunfeng Li


    Full Text Available Rice blast, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, is the most destructive disease of rice and causes tremendous losses of rice yield worldwide. To explore the molecular mechanisms involved in the rice–M. oryzae interaction, we conducted a time-course phosphoproteomic analysis of leaf samples from resistant and susceptible rice cultivars infected with M. oryzae. This data article contains additional results and analysis of M. oryzae-regulated phosphoproteins in rice leaves [1]. We report the analysis of M. oryzae-regulated phosphoproteins at all time points, including Venn diagram analysis, close-up views, relative intensities, and functional category, and the MS spectra of representative phosphoprotein and representative phosphorylated peptides.

  20. The mitochondrion-located protein OsB12D1 enhances flooding tolerance during seed germination and early seedling growth in rice.

    He, Dongli; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Pingfang


    B12D belongs to a function unknown subgroup of the Balem (Barley aleurone and embryo) proteins. In our previous work on rice seed germination, we identified a B12D-like protein encoded by LOC_Os7g41350 (named OsB12D1). OsB12D1 pertains to an ancient protein family with an amino acid sequence highly conserved from moss to angiosperms. Among the six OsB12Ds, OsB12D1 is one of the major transcripts and is primarily expressed in germinating seed and root. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that OsB12D1 is an anoxic or submergence resistance-related gene. RT-PCR results showed OsB12D1 is induced remarkably in the coleoptiles or roots by flooding during seed germination and early seedling growth. The OsB12D1-overexpressed rice seeds could protrude radicles in 8 cm deep water, further exhibiting significant flooding tolerance compared to the wild type. Moreover, this tolerance was not affected by the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. OsB12D1 was identified in the mitochondrion by subcellular localization analysis and possibly enhances electron transport through mediating Fe and oxygen availability under flooded conditions. This work indicated that OsB12D1 is a promising gene that can help to enhance rice seedling establishment in farming practices, especially for direct seeding.

  1. The Mitochondrion-Located Protein OsB12D1 Enhances Flooding Tolerance during Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth in Rice

    Dongli He


    Full Text Available B12D belongs to a function unknown subgroup of the Balem (Barley aleurone and embryo proteins. In our previous work on rice seed germination, we identified a B12D-like protein encoded by LOC_Os7g41350 (named OsB12D1. OsB12D1 pertains to an ancient protein family with an amino acid sequence highly conserved from moss to angiosperms. Among the six OsB12Ds, OsB12D1 is one of the major transcripts and is primarily expressed in germinating seed and root. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that OsB12D1 is an anoxic or submergence resistance-related gene. RT-PCR results showed OsB12D1 is induced remarkably in the coleoptiles or roots by flooding during seed germination and early seedling growth. The OsB12D1-overexpressed rice seeds could protrude radicles in 8 cm deep water, further exhibiting significant flooding tolerance compared to the wild type. Moreover, this tolerance was not affected by the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. OsB12D1 was identified in the mitochondrion by subcellular localization analysis and possibly enhances electron transport through mediating Fe and oxygen availability under flooded conditions. This work indicated that OsB12D1 is a promising gene that can help to enhance rice seedling establishment in farming practices, especially for direct seeding.

  2. Total Soluble Protein Extraction for Improved Proteomic Analysis of Transgenic Rice Plant Roots.

    Raorane, Manish L; Narciso, Joan O; Kohli, Ajay


    With the advent of high-throughput platforms, proteomics has become a powerful tool to search for plant gene products of agronomic relevance. Protein extractions using multistep protocols have been shown to be effective to achieve better proteome profiles than simple, single-step extractions. These protocols are generally efficient for above ground tissues such as leaves. However, each step leads to loss of some amount of proteins. Additionally, compounds such as proteases in the plant tissues lead to protein degradation. While protease inhibitor cocktails are available, these alone do not seem to suffice when roots are included in the plant sample. This is obvious given the lack of high molecular weight (HMW) proteins obtained from samples that include root tissue. For protein/proteome analysis of transgenic plant roots or of seedlings, which include root tissue, such pronounced protein degradation is especially undesirable. A facile protein extraction protocol is presented, which ensures that despite the inclusion of root tissues there is minimal loss in total protein components.

  3. Proteomics analysis reveals distinct involvement of embryo and endosperm proteins during seed germination in dormant and non-dormant rice seeds.

    Xu, Heng-Heng; Liu, Shu-Jun; Song, Shun-Hua; Wang, Rui-Xia; Wang, Wei-Qing; Song, Song-Quan


    Seed germination is a complex trait which is influenced by many genetic, endogenous and environmental factors, but the key event(s) associated with seed germination are still poorly understood. In present study, the non-dormant cultivated rice Yannong S and the dormant Dongxiang wild rice seeds were used as experimental materials, we comparatively investigated the water uptake, germination time course, and the differential proteome of the effect of embryo and endosperm on germination of these two types of seeds. A total of 231 and 180 protein spots in embryo and endosperm, respectively, showed a significant change in abundance during germination. We observed that the important proteins associated with seed germination included those involved in metabolism, energy production, protein synthesis and destination, storage protein, cell growth and division, signal transduction, cell defense and rescue. The contribution of embryo and endosperm to seed germination is different. In embryo, the proteins involved in amino acid activation, sucrose cleavage, glycolysis, fermentation and protein synthesis increased; in endosperm, the proteins involved in sucrose cleavage and glycolysis decreased, and those with ATP and CoQ synthesis and proteolysis increased. Our results provide some new knowledge to understand further the mechanism of seed germination.

  4. Changes in Moisture, Protein, and Fat Content of Fish and Rice Flour Coextrudates during Single-Screw Extrusion Cooking

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Sukumar Bandyopadhyay; A. S. Bawa


    Changes in proximate composition of fish and rice flour coextrudates like moisture, protein, and fat content were studied with respect to extrusion process v ariables like barrel temperature, x1 (100–200 degrees C); screw speed, x2 (70–110 rpm); fish content of the feed, x3 (5–45 percent); and feed moisture content, x4 (20–60 percent). Experiments were conducted at five levels of the process variables based on rotatable experimental design. Response surface models (RSM) were developed that adequately described the changes in moisture, protein, and fat content of the extrudates based on the coeff icient of determination (R2) values of 0.95, 0.99, and 0.94. ANOVA analysis indicated that extrudate moisture content was influenced by x4, protein content by x1 and x3, and fat content by x3 and x4 at P < 0.001. Trends based on response surf ace plots indicated that the x1 of about 200 degrees C, x2 of about 90 rpm, x3 of about 25%, and x4 of about 20% minimized the moisture in the extrudates. Protein content was maximized at x1 of 100 degrees C, x2 > 80 rpm, x3 of about 45 percent, and x4 > 50 percent, and fat content was minimized at x1 of about 200 degrees C, x2 of about 85–95 rpm, x3 < 15 percent, and x4 of about >50 percent. Optimized process variables based on a genetic algorithm (GA) for minimum moisture and fat content and maximum protein content were x1 = 199.86, x2 = 109.86, x3 = 32.45, x4 = 20.03; x1 = 199.71, x2 = 90.09, x3 = 15.27, x4 = 58.47; and x1 = 102.97, x2 = 107.67, x3 = 44.56, x4 = 59.54. The predicted values were 17.52 percent, 0.57 percent, and 46.65 percent. Based on the RSM and GA analy sis, extrudate moisture and protein content was influenced by x1, x3, and x4 and fat content by x2, x3, and x4.

  5. Optimum conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis of rice residue protein by alkaline protease%米渣蛋白碱性蛋白酶酶解条件优化

    许尨; 袁江兰; 靳艳; 邓川; 李文竹


    Rice dreg is the quality of protein resources. This by-product from rice residue as raw material starch sugar enterprise, degree of hydrolysis and foaming index for evaluation, of enzymatic hydrolysis of rice residue protein by alkaline protease, first examine the enzyme adds volume, pH, substrate concentration, and other factors influence on the degree of hydrolysis of rice residue protein, and then came to the best enzymatic hydrolysis by response surface test conditions. The results show that the optimal conditions enzyme solution is substrate concentration 6%, enzyme solution time 90 min, add enzyme quantity 2%, pH 8.5, enzyme solution temperature 55 %, the conditions under which get enzyme solution liquid foaming ability high.%米渣是优质的蛋白质资源。以淀粉糖企业副产品米渣为原料,以水解度和起泡性为评价指标,利用碱性蛋白酶对米渣蛋白进行酶解,首先研究酶添加量、pH、底物浓度等因素对米渣蛋白质水解度的影响,然后通过响应面试验得出最佳酶解条件。结果表明,酶解最适条件是底物浓度6%、酶解时间90min、加酶量2%、pH为8.5、酶解温度55℃,在此条件下得到的酶解液起泡性高。

  6. Identification and expression profiles of neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis.

    Xu, Gang; Gu, Gui-Xiang; Teng, Zi-Wen; Wu, Shun-Fan; Huang, Jia; Song, Qi-Sheng; Ye, Gong-Yin; Fang, Qi


    In insects, neuropeptides play important roles in the regulation of multiple physiological processes by binding to their corresponding receptors, which are primarily G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The genes encoding neuropeptides and their associated GPCRs in the rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis were identified by a transcriptomic analysis and were used to identify potential targets for the disruption of physiological processes and the protection of crops. Forty-three candidate genes were found to encode the neuropeptide precursors for all known insect neuropeptides except for arginine-vasopressin-like peptide (AVLP), CNMamide, neuropeptide-like precursors 2-4 (NPLP2-4), and proctolin. In addition, novel alternative splicing variants of three neuropeptide genes (allatostatin CC, CCHamide 1, and short neuropeptide F) are reported for the first time, and 51 putative neuropeptide GPCRs were identified. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that 44 of these GPCRs belong to the A-family (or rhodopsin-like), 5 belong to the B-family (or secretin-like), and 2 are leucine-rich repeat-containing GPCRs. These GPCRs and their likely ligands were also described. qRT-PCR analyses revealed the expression profiles of the neuropeptide precursors and GPCR genes in various tissues of C. suppressalis. Our study provides fundamental information that may further our understanding of neuropeptidergic signaling systems in Lepidoptera and aid in the design of peptidomimetics, pseudopeptides or small molecules capable of disrupting the physiological processes regulated by these signaling molecules and their receptors.

  7. Linking differential domain functions of the GS3 protein to natural variation of grain size in rice.

    Mao, Hailiang; Sun, Shengyuan; Yao, Jialing; Wang, Chongrong; Yu, Sibin; Xu, Caiguo; Li, Xianghua; Zhang, Qifa


    Grain yield in many cereal crops is largely determined by grain size. Here we report the genetic and molecular characterization of GS3, a major quantitative trait locus for grain size. It functions as a negative regulator of grain size and organ size. The wild-type isoform is composed of four putative domains: a plant-specific organ size regulation (OSR) domain in the N terminus, a transmembrane domain, a tumor necrosis factor receptor/nerve growth factor receptor (TNFR/NGFR) family cysteine-rich domain, and a von Willebrand factor type C (VWFC) in the C terminus. These domains function differentially in grain size regulation. The OSR domain is both necessary and sufficient for functioning as a negative regulator. The wild-type allele corresponds to medium grain. Loss of function of OSR results in long grain. The C-terminal TNFR/NGFR and VWFC domains show an inhibitory effect on the OSR function; loss-of-function mutations of these domains produced very short grain. This study linked the functional domains of the GS3 protein to natural variation of grain size in rice.

  8. Expression of Bt Protein in Transgenic Insect-resistant Rice%转基因抗虫水稻中Bt蛋白表达量的研究

    于志晶; 蔡勤安; 林秀峰; 马瑞


    [Objective] The aim was to study the expression of Bt protein in transgenic pest-resistant rice. [ Method] Enzyme-linked immu-nosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure Bt protein expression in different parts of transgenic pest-resistant rice at same growth stage. [Result] Absolute content of Bt protein expression from high to low was as follows: leaves>immature seeds and glumes>roots>stems in different tissues of transgenic rice in grain-filling stage; Bt protein contents of transgenic rice changed a little in different growth stages (tillering stage, booting stage, and grain-filling stage) ; in general, concentration of Bt protein declined a little in later growth stage, for which, the resistibility would not be influenced too much. [ Conclusion ] The experiment is of great importance for pest prevention and transgenic rice breeding.%[目的]对转基因抗虫水稻中Bt蛋白表达量进行研究.[方法]应用酶联免疫吸附测定法(ELISA)定量检测转基因抗虫水稻生相同生长时期不同部位的Bt蛋自表达量.[结果]转基因水稻灌浆期不同组织中Bt蛋白表达绝对含量的高低顺序为:叶片>未成熟种子及颖壳>根>茎杆;在水稻不同的生长发育(分蘖期、抽穗期和灌浆期)阶段,转基因Bt水稻中Bt蛋白的含量有一些变化;一般在水稻生长后期Bt蛋白的浓度有所下降,但幅度不大,对其抗性不会造成太大影响[结论]该试验对田间害虫的防治以及转基因水稻的育种都具有重要意义.

  9. A novel RNA-recognition-motif protein is required for premeiotic G1/S-phase transition in rice (Oryza sativa L..

    Ken-Ichi Nonomura

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanism for meiotic entry remains largely elusive in flowering plants. Only Arabidopsis SWI1/DYAD and maize AM1, both of which are the coiled-coil protein, are known to be required for the initiation of plant meiosis. The mechanism underlying the synchrony of male meiosis, characteristic to flowering plants, has also been unclear in the plant kingdom. In other eukaryotes, RNA-recognition-motif (RRM proteins are known to play essential roles in germ-cell development and meiosis progression. Rice MEL2 protein discovered in this study shows partial similarity with human proline-rich RRM protein, deleted in Azoospermia-Associated Protein1 (DAZAP1, though MEL2 also possesses ankyrin repeats and a RING finger motif. Expression analyses of several cell-cycle markers revealed that, in mel2 mutant anthers, most germ cells failed to enter premeiotic S-phase and meiosis, and a part escaped from the defect and underwent meiosis with a significant delay or continued mitotic cycles. Immunofluorescent detection revealed that T7 peptide-tagged MEL2 localized at cytoplasmic perinuclear region of germ cells during premeiotic interphase in transgenic rice plants. This study is the first report of the plant RRM protein, which is required for regulating the premeiotic G1/S-phase transition of male and female germ cells and also establishing synchrony of male meiosis. This study will contribute to elucidation of similarities and diversities in reproduction system between plants and other species.

  10. A wide reprogramming of histone H3 modifications during male meiosis I in rice is dependent on the Argonaute protein MEL1.

    Liu, Hua; Nonomura, Ken-Ichi


    The roles of epigenetic mechanisms, including small-RNA-mediated silencing, in plant meiosis largely remain unclear, despite their importance in plant reproduction. This study unveiled that rice chromosomes are reprogrammed during the premeiosis-to-meiosis transition in pollen mother cells (PMCs). This large-scale meiotic chromosome reprogramming (LMR) continued throughout meiosis I, during which time H3K9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) was increased, and H3K9 acetylation and H3S10 phosphorylation were broadly decreased, with an accompanying immunostaining pattern shift of RNA polymerase II. LMR was dependent on the rice Argonaute protein, MEIOSIS ARRESTED AT LEPTOTENE1 (MEL1), which is specifically expressed in germ cells prior to meiosis, because LMR was severely diminished in mel1 mutant anthers. Pivotal meiotic events, such as pre-synaptic centromere association, DNA double-strand break initiation and synapsis of homologous chromosomes, were also disrupted in this mutant. Interestingly, and as opposed to the LMR loss in most chromosomal regions, aberrant meiotic protein loading and hypermethylation of H3K9 emerged on the nucleolar organizing region in the mel1 PMCs. These results suggest that MEL1 plays important roles in epigenetic LMR to promote faithful homologous recombination and synapsis during rice meiosis. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Analysis of SSLP and Soluble Protein Contents in Leaves of Mutants Induced by High Pressure in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    HEXiu-ying; XuShi-ping; LIAoYao-ping; MAOXing-xue; WENGKe-nan; CHENZhao-ming; CHENYue-han; XIAOWan-sheng


    Rice variety Yuexiangzhan and its mutants induced by high pressure were studied using microsatellite markers and soluble protein content analyses. Eleven of the 88 microsatellite primer pairs showed evident polymorphisms repeatedly, and the polymorphic frequencies wcrc 3.4-11.3% between the mutants and Yuexiangzhan. The polymorphic markers were randomly located on chromosomes. The more similar the plant types of the mutants like their original variety., the less polymorphic loci were detected. In addition, there was variation in the soluble protein contents among the leaves of mutants, and the contents were significantly lower than those of the original variety.

  12. Identification of oxidised proteins in the matrix of rice leaf mitochondria by immunoprecipitation and two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Kristensen, B.K.; Askerlund, P.; Bykova, N.V.


    Highly purified mitochondria were isolated from green 7-day-old rice leaves. The mitochondria were sonicated and the matrix fraction isolated as the 100,000g supernatant. Part of the matrix fraction was left untreated while the other part was subjected to a mild oxidative treatment (0.5 mM H2O2 + 0.......2 mM CuSO4 for 10 min at room temperature). The oxidised proteins in both samples were tagged with dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNP), which forms a covalent bond with carbonyl groups. The DNP-tagged proteins were immunoprecipitated using anti-DNP antibodies and digested with trypsin. The mixture...

  13. Phytochrome controlled, long-day photoperiod-inducible protein in rice leaves


    A new protein in the leaves of NK58S and NK58 (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica), which can be induced by 10 d-long-day photoperiod (14 h light/d) and cannot be induced by 10 d-short-day photoperiod (10 h light/d), has been found by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The protein,whose molecular weight and isoelectric point are 36 ku and pH 5.2 respectively, is found to be controlled by phytochrome as shown by the experiment of red light induction-far red light reversion.The existence of this protein in both NK58S and NK58 reflects that some of the responses of NK58S and NK58 might be similar in response to long-day photoperiod, a mild stress.

  14. The rice DUF1620-containing and WD40-like repeat protein is required for the assembly of the restoration of fertility complex.

    Qin, Xiaojian; Huang, Qi; Xiao, Haijun; Zhang, Qiannan; Ni, Chenzi; Xu, Yanghong; Liu, Gai; Yang, Daichang; Zhu, Yingguo; Hu, Jun


    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and restoration of fertility (Rf) are widely distributed in plant species utilized by humans. RF5 and GRP162 are subunits of the restoration of fertility complex (RFC) in Hong-Lian rice. Despite the fact that the RFC is 400-500 kDa in size, the other proteins or factors in the complex still remain unknown. Here, we identified RFC subunit 3, which encodes a DUF1620-containing and WD40-like repeat protein (RFC3) that is present in all tissues but highly expressed in leaves. We established that RFC3 interacts with both RF5 and GRP162 in vitro and in vivo, and is transported into the mitochondria as a membrane protein. Furthermore, CMS RNA (atp6-orfH79) and CMS cytotoxic protein (ORFH79) accumulate when RFC3 is silenced in restorer lines. We presented the analysis with blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that RFC is disrupted in the RNAi line. We concluded that RCF3 is indispensable as a scaffold protein for the assembly of the RFC complex. We unveil a new molecular player of the RFC in the Rf pathway in rice and propose the model of RFC based on these data.

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Copper-Binding Proteins in Excess Copper-Stressed Roots of Two Rice (Oryza sativa L. Varieties with Different Cu Tolerances.

    Chen Chen

    Full Text Available To better understand the mechanisms involved in the heavy metal stress response and tolerance in plants, a proteomic approach was used to investigate the differences in Cu-binding protein expression in Cu-tolerant and Cu-sensitive rice varieties. Cu-binding proteins from Cu-treated rice roots were separated using a new IMAC method in which an IDA-sepharose column was applied prior to the Cu-IMAC column to remove metal ions from protein samples. More than 300 protein spots were reproducibly detected in the 2D gel. Thirty-five protein spots exhibited changes greater than 1.5-fold in intensity compared to the control. Twenty-four proteins contained one or more of nine putative metal-binding motifs reported by Smith et al., and 19 proteins (spots contained one to three of the top six motifs reported by Kung et al. The intensities of seven protein spots were increased in the Cu-tolerant variety B1139 compared to the Cu-sensitive variety B1195 (p<0.05 and six protein spots were markedly up-regulated in B1139, but not detectable in B1195. Four protein spots were significantly up-regulated in B1139, but unchanged in B1195 under Cu stress. In contrast, two protein spots were significantly down-regulated in B1195, but unchanged in B1139. These Cu-responsive proteins included those involved in antioxidant defense and detoxification (spots 5, 16, 21, 22, 28, 29 and 33, pathogenesis (spots 5, 16, 21, 22, 28, 29 and 33, regulation of gene transcription (spots 8 and 34, amino acid synthesis (spots 8 and 34, protein synthesis, modification, transport and degradation (spots 1, 2, 4, 10, 15, 19, 30, 31, 32 and 35, cell wall synthesis (spot 14, molecular signaling (spot 3, and salt stress (spots 7, 9 and 27; together with other proteins, such as a putative glyoxylate induced protein, proteins containing dimeric alpha-beta barrel domains, and adenosine kinase-like proteins. Our results suggest that these proteins, together with related physiological processes, play

  16. 大米蛋白调控胆固醇代谢的研究进展%Research progress in rice protein affect cholesterol metabolism

    栾慧; 杨林


    Cholesterol metabolism disorders became the first threat to human health.Cholesterol was related to many diseases,such as coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis.The development of a cholesterol-lowing food became a hot research worldwide.Rice protein was a high-quality plant protein with high nutritional value.The nutritional value,composition,home and abroad lower cholesterol concentration and metabolism of rice protein were described.Studies showed that rice protein could reduce cholesterol levels in blood and liver,increase fecal and sterol excretion and reduce LDL levels.%由于胆固醇代谢紊乱已成为威胁人类健康的第一杀手,胆固醇与许多疾病如冠心病及动脉粥样硬化等疾病密切相关,所以开发一种降低胆固醇的保健食品已经成为世界范围研究的热点。大米蛋白具有高营养价值,是一种优质的植物蛋白。介绍了大米蛋白的营养价值和大米蛋白的结构组成,并对国内外大米蛋白的降低胆固醇水平及调控胆固醇代谢机制进行了综述。研究表明,大米蛋白能够降低血液和肝脏的胆固醇水平,促进粪便和类固醇的排泄,降低LDL的水平。

  17. Impact of bio-processing on rice



    Full Text Available The usual way of preparing rice is boiling, thermal process that gives it a lower digestibility as compared to instantiation, extrusion or expandation. Having in view this fact, the possibility to biotechnologically improve the boiled rice digestibility was investigated in a laboratory study. In this respect, boiled rice wassolid state fermented using a strain of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, an amylase producing yeast originating from ragi. Fermented rice was then analyzed from the point of view of its content in easily assimilable sugars, protein, amino-acids, phosphorus and vitamins from B group. Biochemical analyses revealed that the fermented rice has a ten times higher content of reducing sugars than boiled rice, due to starch hydrolysis, while chromatographic studies proved that the fermented rice contains glucose, maltose, maltotriose and maltotetrose that are easily assimilable carbohydrates.Fermented rice has a protein content that is two times higher than that of boiled rice because it contains the yeast biomass, and is enriched in vitamins from B group (B1, B2, and B6 that are synthesized by the yeast. Inorganic phosphorus present in rice doubles its concentration in fermented rice, which means thatphosphorus bioavailability is increased.The sensorial profile of boiled rice is also improved by fermentation.This study proves the possibility to have a processing method which is relatively cheap, practical and of which the resulting product has good nutritive qualities and does not pose safety problems due to pure culture utilization as starter.

  18. Interaction Research on the Antiviral Molecule Dufulin Targeting on Southern Rice Black Streaked Dwarf Virus P9-1 Nonstructural Protein

    Zhenchao Wang


    Full Text Available ern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV causes severe harm to rice production. Unfortunately, studies on effective antiviral drugs against SRBSDV and interaction mechanism of antiviral molecule targeting on SRBSDV have not been reported. This study found dufulin (DFL, an ideal anti-SRBSDV molecule, and investigated the interactions of DFL targeting on the nonstructural protein P9-1. The biological sequence information and bonding characterization of DFL to four kinds of P9-1 protein were described with fluorescence titration (FT and microscale thermophoresis (MST assays. The sequence analysis indicated that P9-1 had highly-conserved C- and N-terminal amino acid residues and a hypervariable region that differed from 131 aa to 160 aa. Consequently, wild-type (WT-His-P9-1, 23 C-terminal residues truncated (TR-ΔC23-His-P9-1, 6 N-terminal residues truncated (TR-ΔN6-His-P9-1, and Ser138 site-directed (MU-138-His-P9-1 mutant proteins were expressed. The FT and MST assay results indicated that DFL bounded to WT-His-P9-1 with micromole affinity and the 23 C-terminal amino acids were the potential targeting site. This system, which combines a complete sequence analysis, mutant protein expression, and binding action evaluating system, could further advance the understanding of the interaction abilities between antiviral drugs and their targets.

  19. Over-expression of rice leucine-rich repeat protein results in activation of defense response, thereby enhancing resistance to bacterial soft rot in Chinese cabbage.

    Park, Young Ho; Choi, Changhyun; Park, Eun Mi; Kim, Hyo Sun; Park, Hong Jae; Bae, Shin Cheol; Ahn, Ilpyung; Kim, Min Gab; Park, Sang Ryeol; Hwang, Duk-Ju


    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum causes soft rot disease in various plants, including Chinese cabbage. The simple extracellular leucine-rich repeat (eLRR) domain proteins have been implicated in disease resistance. Rice leucine-rich repeat protein (OsLRP), a rice simple eLRR domain protein, is induced by pathogens, phytohormones, and salt. To see whether OsLRP enhances disease resistance to bacterial soft rot, OsLRP was introduced into Chinese cabbage by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Two independent transgenic lines over-expressing OsLRP were generated and further analyzed. Transgenic lines over-expressing OsLRP showed enhanced disease resistance to bacterial soft rot compared to non-transgenic control. Bacterial growth was retarded in transgenic lines over-expressing OsLRP compared to non-transgenic controls. We propose that OsLRP confers enhanced resistance to bacterial soft rot. Monitoring expression of defense-associated genes in transgenic lines over-expressing OsLRP, two different glucanases and Brassica rapa polygalacturonase inhibiting protein 2, PDF1 were constitutively activated in transgenic lines compared to non-transgenic control. Taken together, heterologous expression of OsLRP results in the activation of defense response and enhanced resistance to bacterial soft rot.

  20. Overexpression of MoSM1, encoding for an immunity-inducing protein from Magnaporthe oryzae, in rice confers broad-spectrum resistance against fungal and bacterial diseases

    Hong, Yongbo; Yang, Yayun; Zhang, Huijuan; Huang, Lei; Li, Dayong; Song, Fengming


    Potential of MoSM1, encoding for a cerato-platanin protein from Magnaporthe oryzae, in improvement of rice disease resistance was examined. Transient expression of MoSM1 in rice leaves initiated hypersensitive response and upregulated expression of defense genes. When transiently expressed in tobacco leaves, MoSM1 targeted to plasma membrane. The MoSM1-overexpressing (MoSM1-OE) transgenic rice lines showed an improved resistance, as revealed by the reduced disease severity and decreased in planta pathogen growth, against 2 strains belonging to two different races of M. oryzae, causing blast disease, and against 2 strains of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, causing bacterial leaf blight disease. However, no alteration in resistance to sheath blight disease was observed in MoSM1-OE lines. The MoSM1-OE plants contained elevated levels of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and constitutively activated the expression of SA and JA signaling-related regulatory and defense genes. Furthermore, the MoSM1-OE plants had no effect on drought and salt stress tolerance and on grain yield. We conclude that MoSM1 confers a broad-spectrum resistance against different pathogens through modulating SA- and JA-mediated signaling pathways without any penalty on abiotic stress tolerance and grain yield, providing a promising potential for application of MoSM1 in improvement of disease resistance in crops. PMID:28106116

  1. An A20/AN1-type zinc finger protein modulates gibberellins and abscisic acid contents and increases sensitivity to abiotic stress in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Zhang, Ye; Lan, Hongxia; Shao, Qiaolin; Wang, Ruqin; Chen, Hui; Tang, Haijuan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Huang, Ji


    The plant hormones gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) play important roles in plant development and stress responses. Here we report a novel A20/AN1-type zinc finger protein ZFP185 involved in GA and ABA signaling in the regulation of growth and stress response. ZFP185 was constitutively expressed in various rice tissues. Overexpression of ZFP185 in rice results in a semi-dwarfism phenotype, reduced cell size, and the decrease of endogenous GA3 content. By contrast, higher GA3 content was observed in RNAi plants. The application of exogenous GA3 can fully rescue the semi-dwarfism phenotype of ZFP185 overexpressing plants, suggesting the negative role of ZFP185 in GA biosynthesis. Besides GA, overexpression of ZFP185 decreased ABA content and expression of several ABA biosynthesis-related genes. Moreover, it was found that ZFP185, unlike previously known A20/AN1-type zinc finger genes, increases sensitivity to drought, cold, and salt stresses, implying the negative role of ZFP185 in stress tolerance. ZFP185 was localized in the cytoplasm and lacked transcriptional activation potential. Our study suggests that ZFP185 regulates plant growth and stress responses by affecting GA and ABA biosynthesis in rice.

  2. Starch Content in Leaf Sheath Controlled by CO2-Responsive CCT Protein is a Potential Determinant of Photosynthetic Capacity in Rice.

    Morita, Ryutaro; Inoue, Kanako; Ikeda, Ken-Ichi; Hatanaka, Tomoko; Misoo, Shuji; Fukayama, Hiroshi


    CO2-responsive CCT protein (CRCT) is the suggested positive regulator of starch synthesis in vegetative organs, particularly the leaf sheath of rice. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the starch level in the leaf sheath on the photosynthetic rate in the leaf blade using CRCT overexpression and RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown transgenic rice grown under ambient (38 Pa) or elevated (100 Pa) CO2 conditions. In leaf sheath, the starch content was markedly changed in relation to CRCT expression levels under both CO2 conditions. In contrast, the soluble sugar and starch contents of the leaf blade were markedly increased in the knockdown line grown under elevated CO2 conditions. The overexpression or RNAi knockdown of CRCT did not cause large effects on the photosynthetic rate of the transgenic lines grown under ambient CO2 condition. However, the photosynthetic rate of the overexpression line was enhanced, while that of the knockdown line was substantially decreased under elevated CO2 conditions. These photosynthetic rates were weakly correlated with the nitrogen contents and negatively correlated with the total non-structural carbohydrate contents. Thus, the capacity for starch synthesis in leaf sheath, which is controlled by CRCT, can indirectly affect the carbohydrate content, and then the photosynthetic rate in the leaf blade of rice grown under elevated CO2 conditions.

  3. Natural variation of rice blast resistance gene Pi-d2

    Studying natural variation of rice resistance (R) genes in cultivated and wild rice relatives can predict resistance stability to rice blast fungus. In the present study, the protein coding regions of rice R gene Pi-d2 in 35 rice accessions of subgroups, aus (AUS), indica (IND), temperate japonica (...

  4. The C2H2-type Zinc Finger Protein ZFP182 is Involved in Abscisic Acid-Induced Antioxidant Defense in Rice

    Hong Zhang; Lan Ni; Yanpei Liu; Yunfei Wang; Aying Zhang; Mingpu Tan; Mingyi Jiang


    C2H2-type zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) are thought to play important roles in modulating the responses of plants to drought,salinity and oxidative stress.However,direct evidence is lacking for the involvement of these ZFPs in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defense in plants.In this study,the role of the rice (Oryza sativa L.sub.japonica cv.Nipponbare) C2H2-type ZFP ZFP182 in ABA-induced antioxidant defense and the relationship between ZFP182 and two rice MAPKs,OsMPK1 and OsMPK5 in ABA signaling were investigated.ABA treatment induced the increases in the expression of ZFP182,OsMPK1 and OsMPK5,and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in rice leaves.The transient gene expression analysis and the transient RNA interference (RNAi) analysis in protoplasts showed that ZFP182,OsMPK1 and OsMPK5 are involved in ABA-induced up-regulation in the activities of SOD and APX.Besides,OsMPK1 and OsMPK5 were shown to be required for the up-regulation in the expression of ZFP182 in ABA signaling,but ZFP182 did not mediate the ABA-induced up-regulation in the expression of OsMPK1 and OsMPK5.These results indicate that ZFP182 is required for ABA-induced antioxidant defense and the expression of ZFP182 is regulated by rice MAPKs in ABA signaling.

  5. [Expression of rice dwarf virus outer coat protein gene(S8) in insect cells].

    Li, S; Liu, H; Chen, Z; Li, Y


    Outer coat protein gene(S8) of RDV was cloned into the transfer vector pVL 1393 to construct a recombinant vector pVL1393-S8. The recombinant vector pVL1393-S8 and the linear baculovirus RP23. LacZ were cotransfected into sf9 cells to produce the recombinant virus RP23-S8. RP23-S8 infected sf9 cells were collected and analysed by SDS-PAGE and Western-blot. The results showed that the S8 gene of RDV was expressed in sf9 cells and the expression level of sf9 cells was higher between 72-96 h after infected.

  6. In vitro slow-release urea contained in rice straw-based diets to increase efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis

    Dede Kardaya


    Full Text Available Effect of slow-release urea on efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis (EMPS was examined using an in vitro technique. The objective of this experiment was to reveal the in vitro slow-release urea characteristics of zinc-urea, zeolites-urea, and zeolites-zinc-urea in relation to EMPS observed in different incubation time. The experimental design employed was randomized block design with 4 x 3 factorial plus a control treatment, and conducted in two replications. Factors were various urea sources (urea, zinc-urea, zeolites-urea, and zeolites-zinc-urea and molasses concentrations (0%, 6%, and 12% in rice straw-based diets. The control treatment was the rice straw-based diets containing neither urea nor molasses. Diets consisting of 45% rice straw and 55% concentrates (DM basis were formulated to have similar N and TDN levels. Responses of parameters measured were subjected to MANOVA using the GLM procedure of SPSS 16.00 and differences among mean values, if applicable, were examined using HSD-test. Orthogonal comparisons were used to determine the effects of the control treatment vs. various urea sources. Results indicated that treatment of UZ combined with 6% of molasses showed the highest microbial biomass production (2.71 mg/l at 24 hours fermentation period with its peak production estimation (3.2 mg/l reached at 33.5 hours of fermentation period. Moreover, UZ treatment resulted in the highest microbial protein synthesis (1,381.45 ± 77.1 mg/l at 24 hours fermentation period with its peak microbial protein synthesis estimation (1,756.04 mg/l reached at 33.7 hours of fermentation period. The highest EMPS (25.98 ± 1.21 mg/100 mg OMD was achieved when ration contained 6% of molasses.

  7. Rice RING protein OSBBI1 with E3 ligase activity confers broad-spectrum resistance against Magnaporthe oryzae by modifying the cell wall defence

    Wei Li; Zuhua He; Sihui Zhong; Guojun Li; Qun Li; Bizeng Mao; Yiwen Deng; Huijuan Zhang; Longjun Zeng; Fengming Song


    Emerging evidence suggests that E3 ligases play critical roles in diverse biological processes, including innate immune responses in plants. However, the mechanism of the E3 ligase involvement in plant innate immunity is unclear.We report that a rice gene, OsBBI1, encoding a RING finger protein with E3 ligase activity, mediates broad-spectrum disease resistance. The expression of OSBBI1 was induced by rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, as well as chemical inducers, benzothiadiazole and salicylic acid. Biochemical analysis revealed that OsBBI1 protein possesses E3ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro. Genetic analysis revealed that the loss of OsBBI1 function in a Tos17-insertion line increased susceptibility, while the overexpression of OsBBI1 in transgenic plants conferred enhanced resistance to multiple races of M.oryzae. This indicates that OsBBI1 modulates broad-spectrum resistance against the blast fungus. The OsBBII-overexpressing plants showed higher levels of H,O, accumulation in cells and higher levels of phenolic compounds and cross-linking of proteins in cell walls at infection sites by M. Oryzae compared with wild-type(WT)plants. The cell walls were thicker in the OsBB11-overexpressing plants and thinner in the mutant plants than in the WT plants. Our results suggest that OsBBH modulates broad-spectrum resistance to blast fungus by modifying cell wall defence responses. The functional characterization of OsBBI1 provides insight into the E3 ligase-mediated innate immunity, and a practical tool for constructing broad-spectrum resistance against the most destructive disease in rice.

  8. The dynamic changes of the plasma membrane proteins and the protective roles of nitric oxide in rice subjected to heavy metal cadmium stress

    Liming eYang


    Full Text Available The heavy metal cadmium is a common environmental contaminant in soils and has adverse effects on crop growth and development. The signaling processes in plants that initiate cellular responses to environmental stress have been shown to be located in the plasma membrane (PM. A better understanding of the PM proteome in response to environmental stress might provide new insights for improving stress-tolerant crops. Nitric oxide (NO is reported to be involved in the plant response to cadmium (Cd stress. To further investigate how NO modulates protein changes in the plasma membrane during Cd stress, a quantitative proteomics approach based on isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ was used to identify differentially regulated proteins from the rice plasma membrane after Cd or Cd and NO treatment. Sixty-six differentially expressed proteins were identified, of which, many function as transporters, ATPases, kinases, metabolic enzymes, phosphatases and phospholipases. Among these, the abundance of phospholipase D (PLD was altered substantially after the treatment of both Cd and Cd and NO. Transient expression of the PLD fused with green fluorescent peptide (GFP in rice protoplasts showed that the Cd and NO treatment promoted the accumulation of PLD in the plasma membrane. Addition of NO also enhanced Cd-induced PLD activity and the accumulation of phosphatidic acid (PA produced through PLD activity. Meanwhile, NO elevated the activities of antioxidant enzymes and caused the accumulation of glutathione both which function to reduce Cd-induced H2O2 accumulation. Taken together, we suggest that NO signaling is associated with the accumulation of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione and PA which increases cadmium tolerance in rice via the antioxidant defense system.

  9. Sequence Analysis of Segment 8 of Five Chinese Isolates of Rice Gall Dwarf Virus and Expression of a Main Outer Capsid Protein in Escherichia coli


    The rice gall dwarf disease, caused by the Rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV) is a serious disease occurring in rice in many regions of Guangdong province. As a basis to control the disease we have studied the genomic diversity of a variety of isolates from different locations. Genome segment 8(S8), encoding a main outer capsid protein (Pns8) of RGDV five isolates (BL, CH, DQ, GZ, XY) from Guangdong province was cloned and sequenced. The results revealed that all the S8 segments of the five isolates consisted of 1 578 nucleotides and had a single open reading frame (ORF) extending for 1 301 nucleotides from nucleotide 21 which encoded a polypeptide of 426 amino acids with an estimated molecular weight of 47.4 kDa. The S8 full-length sequence and the ORF sequence shared 97.3%-98.8% and 97.3%-99.1% nucleotide sequence identities within the five Chinese isolates, and shared 94.8%-95.6% and 95.0%-96.0% identities with those of the Thailand isolate respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence of Pns8 in GZ isolate was identical to that in the Thailand isolate, while the amino acid sequence variability of Pns8 within five Chinese isolates ranged from 0.5% to 2.1%. These results indicate that the S8 segment of RGDV is highly conserved in different isolates from different locations. The S8 cDNA from the XY isolate was cloned into the plasmid vector pET-28b(+) and a fused expression protein with an apparent molecular mass of 51kDa was specifically detected in an analysis of Escherichia coli Rossetta(DE3)Ⅱcells. To our knowledge, this is the first report on analysis of the RGDV segment 8 sequence and genetic comparison of different RGDV isolates and their protein expression.

  10. Effect of inclusion of different levels of silage on rumen microbial population and microbial protein synthesis in dairy steers fed on rice straw

    Thien Truong Giang Nguyen


    Full Text Available Objective Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena is a perennial tropical legume that can be directly grazed or harvested and offered to ruminants as hay, silage, or fresh. However, Leucaena contain phenolic compounds, which are considered anti-nutritional factors as these may reduce intake, digestibility and thus animal performance. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS feeding levels on rumen microbial populations, N-balance and microbial protein synthesis in dairy steers. Methods Four, rumen fistulated dairy steers with initial weight of 167±12 kg were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4×4 Latin square design. Treatments were as followings: T1 = untreated rice straw (RS; Control, T2 = 70% RS+30% LS, T3 = 40% RS+60% LS, and T4 = 100% LS. Dairy steers were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum and supplemented with concentrate at 0.2% of body weight/d. Results Results revealed that the rumen microbial population, especially cellulolytic, proteolytic bacteria and fungal zoospores were enhanced in steers that received 60% of LS (p0.05. Protozoal population was linearly decreased with increasing level of LS (p<0.05. Moreover, N-balance and microbial protein synthesis were enhanced by LS feeding (p<0.05 and were the highest in 60% LS group. Conclusion Based on this study, it could be concluded that replacement of RS with 60% LS significantly improved microbial population and microbial protein synthesis in diary steers.

  11. Effect of inclusion of different levels of Leucaena silage on rumen microbial population and microbial protein synthesis in dairy steers fed on rice straw.

    Nguyen, Thien Truong Giang; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang


    Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena) is a perennial tropical legume that can be directly grazed or harvested and offered to ruminants as hay, silage, or fresh. However, Leucaena contain phenolic compounds, which are considered anti-nutritional factors as these may reduce intake, digestibility and thus animal performance. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS) feeding levels on rumen microbial populations, N-balance and microbial protein synthesis in dairy steers. Four, rumen fistulated dairy steers with initial weight of 167±12 kg were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4×4 Latin square design. Treatments were as followings: T1 = untreated rice straw (RS; Control), T2 = 70% RS+30% LS, T3 = 40% RS+60% LS, and T4 = 100% LS. Dairy steers were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum and supplemented with concentrate at 0.2% of body weight/d. Results revealed that the rumen microbial population, especially cellulolytic, proteolytic bacteria and fungal zoospores were enhanced in steers that received 60% of LS (p0.05). Protozoal population was linearly decreased with increasing level of LS (p<0.05). Moreover, N-balance and microbial protein synthesis were enhanced by LS feeding (p<0.05) and were the highest in 60% LS group. Based on this study, it could be concluded that replacement of RS with 60% LS significantly improved microbial population and microbial protein synthesis in diary steers.

  12. Concentrated protein body product derived from rice endosperm as an oral tolerogen for allergen-specific immunotherapy--a new mucosal vaccine formulation against Japanese cedar pollen allergy.

    Yuhya Wakasa

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum-derived type-I protein body (PB-I from rice endosperm cells is an ideal candidate formulation for the oral delivery of bioencapsulated peptides as tolerogens for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In the present study, PBs containing the deconstructed Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cryptomeria japonica 1 (Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 were concentrated by treatment with thermostable α-amylase at 90°C to remove the starch from milled rice powder, which resulted in a 12.5-fold reduction of dry weight compared to the starting material. The modified Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens in this concentrated PB product were more resistant to enzymatic digestion than those in the milled seed powder despite the absence of intact cell wall and starch, and remained stable for at least 10 months at room temperature without detectable loss or degradation. The high resistance of these allergens could be attributed to changes in protein physicochemical properties induced by the high temperature concentration process, as suggested by the decreased solubility of the antigens and seed proteins in PBs in step-wise-extraction experiments. Confocal microscopy showed that the morphology of antigen-containing PB-Is was preserved in the concentrated PB product. The concentrated PB product induced specific immune tolerance against Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 in mice when orally administered, supporting its potential use as a novel oral tolerogen formulation.

  13. The Rice Dynamin-Related Protein OsDRP1E Negatively Regulates Programmed Cell Death by Controlling the Release of Cytochrome c from Mitochondria

    Zhou, Xueping


    Programmed cell death (PCD) mediated by mitochondrial processes has emerged as an important mechanism for plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. However, the role of translocation of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol during PCD remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the rice dynamin-related protein 1E (OsDRP1E) negatively regulates PCD by controlling mitochondrial structure and cytochrome c release. We used a map-based cloning strategy to isolate OsDRP1E from the lesion mimic mutant dj-lm and confirmed that the E409V mutation in OsDRP1E causes spontaneous cell death in rice. Pathogen inoculation showed that dj-lm significantly enhances resistance to fungal and bacterial pathogens. Functional analysis of the E409V mutation showed that the mutant protein impairs OsDRP1E self-association and formation of a higher-order complex; this in turn reduces the GTPase activity of OsDRP1E. Furthermore, confocal microscopy showed that the E409V mutation impairs localization of OsDRP1E to the mitochondria. The E409V mutation significantly affects the morphogenesis of cristae in mitochondria and causes the abnormal release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytoplasm. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the mitochondria-localized protein OsDRP1E functions as a negative regulator of cytochrome c release and PCD in plants. PMID:28081268

  14. Spectroscopic and molecular docking study on the interaction between salicylic acid and the induced disease-resistant protein OsAAA1 of rice

    Chen, Ya H.; Dai, Kang; Zhang, Hua; Wu, Yun H.; Wang, Chun T.; Liu, Xue Q.; Liu, Xin Q.


    The interaction between salicylic acid (SA) and the induced disease-resistant protein OsAAA1 in rice was studied using spectroscopy and molecular docking. Ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy demonstrated an interaction between OsAAA1 protein and SA. Spectroscopy showed that this interaction was a dynamic quenching process. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) further revealed that this interaction caused changes in the microenvironment of tyrosine and tryptophan and that the interaction site was closer to the tryptophan residue. The structural model of protein OsAAA1 was determined by homology modeling method, and the molecular docking simulation diagram of OsAAA1 with SA was obtained. These models, in combination with a Ramachandran plot analysis, showed amino acid residues ranging from position 240 to position 420 as the possible site interacting with SA. Among them, Gly389, Lys257 and Glu425 might be three key amino acids that can form hydrogen bonds with SA.

  15. Two highly similar DEAD box proteins, OsRH2 and OsRH34, homologous to eukaryotic initiation factor 4AIII, play roles of the exon junction complex in regulating growth and development in rice.

    Huang, Chun-Kai; Sie, Yi-Syuan; Chen, Yu-Fu; Huang, Tian-Sheng; Lu, Chung-An


    The exon junction complex (EJC), which contains four core components, eukaryotic initiation factor 4AIII (eIF4AIII), MAGO/NASHI (MAGO), Y14/Tsunagi/RNA-binding protein 8A, and Barentsz/Metastatic lymph node 51, is formed in both nucleus and cytoplasm, and plays important roles in gene expression. Genes encoding core EJC components have been found in plants, including rice. Currently, the functional characterizations of MAGO and Y14 homologs have been demonstrated in rice. However, it is still unknown whether eIF4AIII is essential for the functional EJC in rice. This study investigated two DEAD box RNA helicases, OsRH2 and OsRH34, which are homologous to eIF4AIII, in rice. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated that OsRH2 and OsRH34 had 99 % identity and 100 % similarity, and their gene expression patterns were similar in various rice tissues, but the level of OsRH2 mRNA was about 58-fold higher than that of OsRH34 mRNA in seedlings. From bimolecular fluorescence complementation results, OsRH2 and OsRH34 interacted physically with OsMAGO1 and OsY14b, respectively, which indicated that both of OsRH2 and OsRH34 were core components of the EJC in rice. To study the biological roles of OsRH2 and OsRH34 in rice, transgenic rice plants were generated by RNA interference. The phenotypes of three independent OsRH2 and OsRH34 double-knockdown transgenic lines included dwarfism, a short internode distance, reproductive delay, defective embryonic development, and a low seed setting rate. These phenotypes resembled those of mutants with gibberellin-related developmental defects. In addition, the OsRH2 and OsRH34 double-knockdown transgenic lines exhibited the accumulation of unspliced rice UNDEVELOPED TAPETUM 1 mRNA. Rice contains two eIF4AIII paralogous genes, OsRH2 and OsRH34. The abundance of OsRH2 mRNA was about 58-fold higher than that of OsRH34 mRNA in seedlings, suggesting that the OsRH2 is major eIF4AIII in rice. Both OsRH2 and OsRH34 are core components of the EJC

  16. OsHAL3, a Blue Light-Responsive Protein, Interacts with the Floral Regulator Hd1 to Activate Flowering in Rice.

    Su, Lei; Shan, Jun-Xiang; Gao, Ji-Ping; Lin, Hong-Xuan


    In flowering plants, photoperiodic flowering is controlled by a complicated network. Light is one of the most important environmental stimuli that control the timing of the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive development. Several photoreceptors, including PHYA, PHYB, CRY2, and FKF1 in Arabidopsis and their homologs (OsPHYA, OsPHYB, OsPHYC, and OsCRY2) in rice, have been identified to be related to flowering. Our previous study suggests that OsHAL3, a flavin mononucleotide-binding protein, may function as a blue-light sensor. Here, we report the identification of OsHAL3 as a positive regulator of flowering in rice. OsHAL3 overexpression lines exhibited an early flowering phenotype, whereas downregulation of OsHAL3 expression by RNA interference delayed flowering under an inductive photoperiod (short-day conditions). The change in flowering time was not accompanied by altered Hd1 expression but rather by reduced accumulation of Hd3a and MADS14 transcripts. OsHAL3 and Hd1 colocalized in the nucleus and physically interacted in vivo under the dark, whereas their interaction was inhibited by white or blue light. Moreover, OsHAL3 directly bound to the promoter of Hd3a, especially before dawn. We conclude that OsHAL3, a novel light-responsive protein, plays an essential role in photoperiodic control of flowering time in rice, which is probably mediated by forming a complex with Hd1. Our findings open up new perspectives on the photoperiodic flowering pathway.

  17. Small kernel 1 encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat protein required for mitochondrial nad7 transcript editing and seed development in maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa).

    Li, Xiao-Jie; Zhang, Ya-Feng; Hou, Mingming; Sun, Feng; Shen, Yun; Xiu, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Xiaomin; Chen, Zong-Liang; Sun, Samuel S M; Small, Ian; Tan, Bao-Cai


    RNA editing modifies cytidines (C) to uridines (U) at specific sites in the transcripts of mitochondria and plastids, altering the amino acid specified by the DNA sequence. Here we report the identification of a critical editing factor of mitochondrial nad7 transcript via molecular characterization of a small kernel 1 (smk1) mutant in Zea mays (maize). Mutations in Smk1 arrest both the embryo and endosperm development. Cloning of Smk1 indicates that it encodes an E-subclass pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein that is targeted to mitochondria. Loss of SMK1 function abolishes the C → U editing at the nad7-836 site, leading to the retention of a proline codon that is edited to encode leucine in the wild type. The smk1 mutant showed dramatically reduced complex-I assembly and NADH dehydrogenase activity, and abnormal biogenesis of the mitochondria. Analysis of the ortholog in Oryza sativa (rice) reveals that rice SMK1 has a conserved function in C → U editing of the mitochondrial nad7-836 site. T-DNA knock-out mutants showed abnormal embryo and endosperm development, resulting in embryo or seedling lethality. The leucine at NAD7-279 is highly conserved from bacteria to flowering plants, and analysis of genome sequences from many plants revealed a molecular coevolution between the requirement for C → U editing at this site and the existence of an SMK1 homolog. These results demonstrate that Smk1 encodes a PPR-E protein that is required for nad7-836 editing, and this editing is critical to NAD7 function in complex-I assembly in mitochondria, and hence to embryo and endosperm development in maize and rice.

  18. A 90-day subchronic feeding study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Song, Huan; He, Xiaoyun; Zou, Shiying; Zhang, Teng; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun; Zhu, Zhen; Xu, Wentao


    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic rice line (mfb-MH86) expressing a synthetic cry1Ab gene can be protected against feeding damage from Lepidopteran insects, including Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. Rice flour from mfb-MH86 and its near-isogenic control MH86 was separately formulated into rodent diets at concentrations of 17.5, 35 and 70 % (w/w) for a 90-day feeding test with rats, and all of the diets were nutritionally balanced. In this study, the responses of rats fed diets containing mfb-MH86 were compared to those of rats fed flour from MH86. Overall health, body weight and food consumption were comparable between groups fed diets containing mfb-MH86 and MH86. Blood samples were collected prior to sacrifice and a few significant differences (p genetically modified (GM) and non-GM diets. However, the values of these parameters were within the normal ranges of values for rats of this age and sex, thus not considered treatment related. In addition, upon sacrifice a large number of organs were weighed, macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with only minor changes to report. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that no toxic effect was observed in the conditions of the experiment, based on the different parameters assessed. GM rice mfb-MH86 is as safe and nutritious as non-GM rice.

  19. Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone encoding a major allergenic protein in rice seeds. Homology of the deduced amino acid sequence with members of alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family.

    Izumi, H; Adachi, T; Fujii, N; Matsuda, T; Nakamura, R; Tanaka, K; Urisu, A; Kurosawa, Y


    A cDNA clone of rice major allergenic protein (RAP) was isolated from a cDNA library of maturing rice seeds. The cDNA had an open reading frame (486 nucleotides) which coded a 162 amino acid residue polypeptide comprising a 27-residue signal peptide and a 135-residue mature protein of M(r) 14,764. The deduced amino acid sequence of RAP showed a considerable similarity to barley trypsin inhibitor [1983, J. Biol. Chem. 258, 7998-8003] and wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor [1981, Phytochemistry 20, 1781-1784].

  20. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality


    The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. directsowing rice 10-20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting), ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting), PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting), and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting), were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002), there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003). Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments. The rice in

  1. Impacts of Environmental Factors on Degradation of Cry1Ab Insecticidal Protein in Leaf-Blade Powders of Transgenic Bt Rice

    BAI Yao-yu; JIANG Ming-xing; CHENG Jia-an


    The determination of the environmental fate of Bt insecticidal protein released by Bt rice plants in paddy soils is a key issue in its ecological risk assessment. In this study, the impacts of soil water content, pH, and temperature on the degradation of Cry1Ab protein expressed in the leaves of Bt rice KMD2 were studied in the laboratory. Three types of paddy soils were used, i.e., blue clayey paddy soil, pale paddy soil on quaternary red soil, and marine-fluvigenic yellow loamy paddy soil. Ground powders of KMD2 leaf blades were mixed with each type of soil, and degradation dynamics of Cry1Ab were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The degradation rate of Cry1Ab was high at the early experimental stage, but slowed down steadily at middle and later stages, which could be described by exponential equations, with the half-life period of degradation determined as 1.8-4.0 d. The soil water content, pH, and temperature could affect the degradation of Cry1Ab, but the effects of soil pH and temperature were relatively greater. In general,Cry 1 Ab degradations were slower under lower soil pH and temperature conditions, especially for marine-fluvigenic yellow loamy paddy soil.

  2. Constitutive over-expression of rice ClpD1 protein enhances tolerance to salt and desiccation stresses in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Mishra, Ratnesh Chandra; Richa; Grover, Anil


    Caseinolytic proteases (Clps) perform the important role of removing protein aggregates from cells, which can otherwise prove to be highly toxic. ClpD system is a two-component protease complex composed of a regulatory ATPase module ClpD and a proteolytic component ClpP. Under desiccation stress condition, rice ClpD1 (OsClpD1) gene encoding for the regulatory subunit, was represented by four variant transcripts differing mainly in the expanse of their N-terminal amino acids. These transcripts were expressed in a differential manner in response to salt, mannitol and polyethylene glycol stresses in rice. Purified OsClpD1.3 protein exhibited intrinsic chaperone activity, shown using citrate synthase as substrate. Arabidopsis (Col-0) plants over-expressing OsClpD1.3 open reading frame downstream to CaMV35S promoter (ClpD1.3 plants) showed higher tolerance to salt and desiccation stresses as compared to wild type plants. ClpD1.3 seedlings also showed enhanced growth during the early stages of seed germination under unstressed, control conditions. The free proline levels and starch breakdown activities were higher in the ClpD1.3 seedlings as compared to the wild type Arabidopsis seedlings. It thus emerges that increasing the potential of ClpD1 chaperoning activity may be of advantage in protection against abiotic stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A late embryogenesis abundant protein HVA1 regulated by an inducible promoter enhances root growth and abiotic stress tolerance in rice without yield penalty.

    Chen, Yi-Shih; Lo, Shuen-Fang; Sun, Peng-Kai; Lu, Chung-An; Ho, Tuan-Hua D; Yu, Su-May


    Regulation of root architecture is essential for maintaining plant growth under adverse environment. A synthetic abscisic acid (ABA)/stress-inducible promoter was designed to control the expression of a late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1) in transgenic rice. The background of HVA1 is low but highly inducible by ABA, salt, dehydration and cold. HVA1 was highly accumulated in root apical meristem (RAM) and lateral root primordia (LRP) after ABA/stress treatments, leading to enhanced root system expansion. Water-use efficiency (WUE) and biomass also increased in transgenic rice, likely due to the maintenance of normal cell functions and metabolic activities conferred by HVA1 which is capable of stabilizing proteins, under osmotic stress. HVA1 promotes lateral root (LR) initiation, elongation and emergence and primary root (PR) elongation via an auxin-dependent process, particularly by intensifying asymmetrical accumulation of auxin in LRP founder cells and RAM, even under ABA/stress-suppressive conditions. We demonstrate a successful application of an inducible promoter in regulating the spatial and temporal expression of HVA1 for improving root architecture and multiple stress tolerance without yield penalty.

  4. Functional conservation of rice OsNF-YB/YC and Arabidopsis AtNF-YB/YC proteins in the regulation of flowering time

    Hwang, Yoon-Hyung


    Plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factors play important roles in plant development and abiotic stress. In Arabidopsis thaliana, two NF-YB (AtNF-YB2 and AtNF-YB3) and five NF-YC (AtNF-YC1, AtNF-YC2, AtNF-YC3, AtNF-YC4, and AtNF-YC9) genes regulate photoperiodic flowering by interacting with other AtNF-Y subunit proteins. Three rice NF-YB (OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10, and OsNF-YB11) and five rice OsNF-YC (OsNF-YC1, OsNF-YC2, OsNF-YC4, OsNF-YC6, and OsNF-YC7) genes are clustered with two AtNF-YB and five AtNF-YC genes, respectively. To investigate the functional conservation of these NF-YB and NF-YC genes in rice and Arabidopsis, we analyzed the flowering phenotypes of transgenic plants overexpressing the respective OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes in Arabidopsis mutants. Overexpression of OsNF-YB8/10/11 and OsNF-YC2 complemented the late flowering phenotype of Arabidopsis nf-yb2 nf-yb3 and nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 mutants, respectively. The rescued phenotype of 35S::OsNF-YC2 nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 plants was attributed to the upregulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1). In vitro and in planta protein–protein analyses revealed that OsNF-YB8/10/11 and OsNF-YC1/2/4/6/7 interact with AtNF-YC3/4/9 and AtNF-YB2/3, respectively. Our data indicate that some OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes are functional equivalents of AtNF-YB2/3 and AtNF-YC3/4/9 genes, respectively, and suggest functional conservation of Arabidopsis and rice NF-Y genes in the control of flowering time.

  5. Arsenic in rice: A cause for concern

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri


    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all rice products, strict...... regulation should be enforced regarding arsenic content. Moreover, infants and young children should consume a balanced diet including a variety of grains as carbohydrate sources. While rice protein based infant formulas are an option for infants with cows' milk protein allergy, the inorganic arsenic content...

  6. In silico identification of carboxylate clamp type tetratricopeptide repeat proteins in Arabidopsis and rice as putative co-chaperones of Hsp90/Hsp70.

    Bishun D Prasad

    Full Text Available The essential eukaryotic molecular chaperone Hsp90 operates with the help of different co-chaperones, which regulate its ATPase activity and serve as adaptors to recruit client proteins and other molecular chaperones, such as Hsp70, to the Hsp90 complex. Several Hsp90 and Hsp70 co-chaperones contain the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR domain, which interacts with the highly conserved EEVD motif at the C-terminal ends of Hsp90 and Hsp70. The acidic side chains in EEVD interact with a subset of basic residues in the TPR binding pocket called a 'carboxylate clamp'. Since the carboxylate clamp residues are conserved in the TPR domains of known Hsp90/Hsp70 co-chaperones, we carried out an in silico search for TPR proteins in Arabidopsis and rice comprising of at least one three-motif TPR domain with conserved amino acid residues required for Hsp90/Hsp70 binding. This approach identified in Arabidopsis a total of 36 carboxylate clamp (CC-TPR proteins, including 24 novel proteins, with potential to interact with Hsp90/Hsp70. The newly identified CC-TPR proteins in Arabidopsis and rice contain additional protein domains such as ankyrin, SET, octicosapeptide/Phox/Bem1p (Phox/PB1, DnaJ-like, thioredoxin, FBD and F-box, and protein kinase and U-box, indicating varied functions for these proteins. To provide proof-of-concept of the newly identified CC-TPR proteins for interaction with Hsp90, we demonstrated interaction of AtTPR1 and AtTPR2 with AtHsp90 in yeast two-hybrid and in vitro pull down assays. These findings indicate that the in silico approach used here successfully identified in a genome-wide context CC-TPR proteins with potential to interact with Hsp90/Hsp70, and further suggest that the Hsp90/Hsp70 system relies on TPR co-chaperones more than it was previously realized.

  7. Subcellular localization of the stripe disease-specific protein encoded by rice stripe virus (RSV) in its vector, the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus


    The stripe disease-specific protein (SP) encoded by the rice stripe virus (RSV) was successfully used as a localization signal of the virus in its vector, the small brown lanthopper, Laodelphax striatellus Fallen. Immunogold parficles in large numbers were detected in various parts of the viruliferous females: the ovum, surface of chorion, the midgut lumen, and the columnar cells. Whereas there was none of these particles in the non-viruliferous females and males,and testis of viruliferous males. Endosymbionts (mycetocytes)were abundant, harboring ovaries of both viruliferous and non-viruliferous females, but none in the testis of males. The results provided us with the direct proof that RSV is a ciruculative and propagative plant virus and it was transovarially transmitted alongside with endosymbionts of its vector. Therefore, we deem it a nice lead for future studies on the mechanism of RSV transmission and functioning of its viral proteins.

  8. Proteomic analysis of copper-binding proteins in excess copper-stressed rice roots by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    Song, Yufeng; Zhang, Hongxiao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Guiping; Zhuang, Kai; Cui, Jin; Shen, Zhenguo


    Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient required for plant growth and development. However, excess Cu can inactivate and disturb protein structure as a result of unavoidable binding to proteins. To understand better the mechanisms involved in Cu toxicity and tolerance in plants, we developed a new immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) method for the separation and isolation of Cu-binding proteins extracted from roots of rice seedling exposed to excess Cu. In our method, IDA-Sepharose or EDDS-Sepharose column (referred as pre-chromatography) and Cu-IDA-Sepharose column (referred as Cu-IMAC) were connected in tandem. Namely, protein samples were pre-chromatographed with IDA-Sepharose column to removal metal ions, then protein solution was flowed into Cu-IMAC column for enriching Cu-binding proteins in vitro. Compared with the control (Cu-IMAC without any pre-chromatography), IDA-Sepharose pre-chromatography method markedly increased yield of the Cu-IMAC-binding proteins, and number of protein spots and the abundance of 40 protein spots on two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gels. Thirteen protein spots randomly selected from 2-DE gel and 11 proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. These putative Cu-binding proteins included those involved in antioxidant defense, carbohydrate metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism, protein folding and stabilization, protein transport and cell wall synthesis. Ten proteins contained one or more of nine putative metal-binding motifs reported by Smith et al. (J Proteome Res 3:834-840, 2004) and seven proteins contained one or two of top six motifs reported by Kung et al. (Proteomics 6:2746-2758, 2006). Results demonstrated that more proteins specifically bound with Cu-IMAC could be enriched through removal of metal ions from samples by IDA-Sepharose pre-chromatography. Further studies are needed on metal-binding characteristics of these proteins in vivo and the relationship between Cu ions and protein biological

  9. The effects of nitrogen uptake before and after heading on grain protein content and the occurrence of basal- and back-white grains in rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Tadashi Tsukaguchi


    Full Text Available Chalky rice (Oryza sativa L. grains are induced by high temperature during the grain-filling period. Plant nitrogen status also affects the occurrence of basal- and back-white grains (BBWG. The objective of this study was to elucidate the relations between nitrogen availability per spikelet during the grain-filling period (NGF and each of the percentage of BBWG and grain protein content (GPC. We further compared the effect of the components of NGF determined before heading (NBH and after heading (NAH on BBWG and GPC. We grew the rice cultivar ‘Koshihikari’ in pots in 2012 and 2013, and top-dressed nitrogen at the panicle formation and heading stages, under two (2012 or three (2013 temperature regimes during the grain-filling period. GPC was explained well by NGF, but BBWG was not. BBWG was best explained in a multiple-regression equation by mean air temperature after heading and by NBH and NAH. The partial correlation coefficients for NBH were 1.6 and 3.0 times those for NAH in 2012 and 2013, respectively. On the other hand, in a multiple-regression equation for GPC, the partial correlation coefficients for NBH were 0.91 and 0.71 times those for NAH in 2012 and 2013, respectively. These results suggest that rice grains are most sensitive to plant nitrogen status before heading for BBWG but after heading for GPC, and that there is an optimal timing for nitrogen top-dressing that would maximize the reduction in BBWG per unit increment of GPC.

  10. Degradation and detection of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis DNA and proteins in flour of three genetically modified rice events submitted to a set of thermal processes.

    Wang, Xiaofu; Chen, Xiaoyun; Xu, Junfeng; Dai, Chen; Shen, Wenbiao


    This study aimed to investigate the degradation of three transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes (Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1Ab/Ac) and the corresponding encoded Bt proteins in KMD1, KF6, and TT51-1 rice powder, respectively, following autoclaving, cooking, baking, or microwaving. Exogenous Bt genes were more stable than the endogenous sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene, and short DNA fragments were detected more frequently than long DNA fragments in both the Bt and SPS genes. Autoclaving, cooking (boiling in water, 30 min), and baking (200 °C, 30 min) induced the most severe Bt protein degradation effects, and Cry1Ab protein was more stable than Cry1Ac and Cry1Ab/Ac protein, which was further confirmed by baking samples at 180 °C for different periods of time. Microwaving induced mild degradation of the Bt and SPS genes, and Bt proteins, whereas baking (180 °C, 15 min), cooking and autoclaving led to further degradation, and baking (200 °C, 30 min) induced the most severe degradation. The findings of the study indicated that degradation of the Bt genes and proteins somewhat correlated with the treatment intensity. Polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and lateral flow tests were used to detect the corresponding transgenic components. Strategies for detecting transgenic ingredients in highly processed foods are discussed.

  11. Gibberellin Signal Transduction in Rice

    Liu-Min Fan; Xiaoyan Feng; Yu Wang; Xing Wang Deng


    In the past decade, significant knowledge has accumulated regarding gibberellin (GA) signal transduction in rice as a result of studies using multiple approaches, particularly molecular genetics. The present review highlights the recent developments in the identification of GA signaling pathway components, the discovery of GA-induced destruction of GA signaling represser (DELLA protein), and the possible mechanism underlying the regulation of GA-responsive gene expression in rice.

  12. Rice zinc finger protein DST enhances grain production through controlling Gn1a/OsCKX2 expression.

    Li, Shuyu; Zhao, Bingran; Yuan, Dingyang; Duan, Meijuan; Qian, Qian; Tang, Li; Wang, Bao; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Jun; Sun, Jiaqiang; Liu, Zhao; Feng, Yu-Qi; Yuan, Longping; Li, Chuanyou


    The phytohormone cytokinin (CK) positively regulates the activity and function of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is a major parameter determining seed production. The rice (Oryza sativa L.) Gn1a/OsCKX2 (Grain number 1a/Cytokinin oxidase 2) gene, which encodes a cytokinin oxidase, has been identified as a major quantitative trait locus contributing to grain number improvement in rice breeding practice. However, the molecular mechanism of how the expression of OsCKX2 is regulated in planta remains elusive. Here, we report that the zinc finger transcription factor DROUGHT AND SALT TOLERANCE (DST) directly regulates OsCKX2 expression in the reproductive meristem. DST-directed expression of OsCKX2 regulates CK accumulation in the SAM and, therefore, controls the number of the reproductive organs. We identify that DST(reg1), a semidominant allele of the DST gene, perturbs DST-directed regulation of OsCKX2 expression and elevates CK levels in the reproductive SAM, leading to increased meristem activity, enhanced panicle branching, and a consequent increase of grain number. Importantly, the DST(reg1) allele provides an approach to pyramid the Gn1a-dependent and Gn1a-independent effects on grain production. Our study reveals that, as a unique regulator of reproductive meristem activity, DST may be explored to facilitate the genetic enhancement of grain production in rice and other small grain cereals.

  13. 转Bt基因水稻种子中Bt蛋白含量测定方法的研究%Protein Content in Bt- Gene Rice Seed

    陈笑芸; 汪小福; 周育; 缪青梅; 方敬; 徐俊锋


    采用ELISA技术检测转Bt基因水稻中Bt蛋白的含量,判断水稻样品中是否含有转基因成分.利用研磨、酶标、孵育等技术对样品进行前处理.采用阳性质控物浓度等倍稀释方法,建立标准曲线,相关系数为0.997 4.用一系列不同转基因含量的标准基体材料,分析方法的最低检测限,灵敏度达0.1%.通过对我国进入生产性试验的转Bt基因水稻品系TT51 -1和科丰6号的测试,表明该方法与普通PCR方法真实性和灵敏度一致,可以广泛应用于转Bt基因水稻及其粗加工产品的转基因成分检测.为转基因生物安全监管和安全性评价提供技术支撑.%In this study, the enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been develpoed for the detection of Bt protein content in transgenic Bt rice to evaluate the presence of genetically modified ingredients in rice samples. The sample pre -treatment step involved in grinding,enzymatic labeling reaction and incubation process. The standard curve was constructed by dilution of the the positive control material with the same dilution factor, and the correlation coefficient is 0. 997 4. A range of different standards containing of genetically modified ingredients were used to analyze the limit of detection method. The results showed the detection sensitivity is up to 0.1% . Through testing the transgenic Bt rice strain TT51-1 and Kefeng 6 which are putting into the production test in China, the ELISA method developed demonstrated consistency with ordinary PCR methods in both authenticity and sensitivity aspects. Therefore, this ELISA method could be widely applied to detect genetically modified ingredients in transgenic Bt rice or raw commodities, providng technical support for the safety regulation and evalution of genetically modified organisms.

  14. Calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinase OsCIPK23 functions in pollination and drought stress responses in rice(Oryza sativa L.)


    Droughtis very harmful to grain yield due to its adverse effect on reproduction,especially on pollination proeess in rice.However,the molecular basis of such an effect still remains largely unknown.Here,wereport the role of amember of CBL(Calcineurin B-Like)Interacting Protein Kinase(CIPK)family,OsCIPK23,in pollination and stress responses in dee.Molecular analyses revealed that it is mainly expressed in pistil and anther but up-regulated by pollination,as well as by treatments of various abiotic stresses and phytohormones.RNA interference-mediated suppression of OsCIPK23 expression significantly reduced seed set and conferred a hypersensitive response to drought stress,indicating its possible roles in pollination and drought stress.In consistent,overexpression of OsCIPK23 induced the expression of seVeral drought tolerance related genes.Taken together,these results indicate that OsCIPK23 is a multistress induced gene and likely mediatesa signaling pathway commonly shared by both pollination and drought stress responses in rice.

  15. Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates Improve Insulin Resistance and Decrease Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Rats Fed a High Carbohydrate-High Fat Diet.

    Boonloh, Kampeebhorn; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan


    A high carbohydrate-high fat (HCHF) diet causes insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS). Rice bran has been demonstrated to have anti-dyslipidemic and anti-atherogenic properties in an obese mouse model. In the present study, we investigated the beneficial effects of rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP) in HCHF-induced MS rats. After 12 weeks on this diet, the HCHF-fed group was divided into four subgroups, which were orally administered RBP 100 or 500 mg/kg, pioglitazone 10 mg/kg, or tap water for a further 6 weeks. Compared with normal diet control group, the MS rats had elevated levels of blood glucose, lipid, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Treatment with RBP significantly alleviated all those changes and restored insulin sensitivity. Additionally, RBP treatment increased adiponectin and suppressed leptin levels. Expression of Ppar-γ mRNA in adipose tissues was significantly increased whereas expression of lipogenic genes Srebf1 and Fasn was significantly decreased. Levels of mRNA of proinflammatory cytokines, Il-6, Tnf-α, Nos-2 and Mcp-1 were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the present findings support the consumption of RBP as a functional food to improve insulin resistance and to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  16. The promoter of the barley aleurone-specific gene encoding a putative 7 kDa lipid transfer protein confers aleurone cell-specific expression in transgenic rice.

    Kalla, R; Shimamoto, K; Potter, R; Nielsen, P S; Linnestad, C; Olsen, O A


    This paper describes the aleurone-specific gene Ltp2 from barley, which encodes a putative 7 kDa non-specific lipid transfer protein. As shown by Northern and in situ hybridization analyses, the Ltp2 transcript is present in barley aleurone cells shortly after the initiation of aleurone cell differentiation. The expression of Ltp2 increases until grain mid-maturity, but the mRNA is absent from mature grains. The Ltp2 transcript is undetectable in the embryo and vegetative tissues, confirming the aleurone specificity of the Ltp2 gene. The ability of the isolated 801 bp Ltp2 promoter to direct aleurone-specific expression in immature barley grains is demonstrated by particle bombardment experiments. In these experiments, the activity of the Ltp2 promoter is 5% of the activity of the strong constitutive Actin1 promoter from rice, as quantified by GUS activity measurements. In stably transformed rice plants containing the Ltp2 promoter-Gus construct, the specificity of the Ltp2 promoter is confirmed in vivo by the presence of GUS activity exclusively in the aleurone layer. This study demonstrates the conserved nature of the regulatory signals involved in aleurone-specific gene transcription in cereal grains.

  17. 不同NPK组合对几个早稻品种产量及蛋白质含量的影响%Effects of different ration of NPK fertilizer on the grain yield and protein content in forage rice



    @@ Different ratios of NPK were adopted in this research to study its effects on the objective traits of 2 early forage-rice varieties, and to obtain the optimum ratio to further improve the application technique in theory. At the same time, the possibility of increasing yield and protein content in the grain through cultivation technique was also studied. The conclusions were:

  18. The rice dynamin-related protein DRP2B mediates membrane trafficking, and thereby plays a critical role in secondary cell wall cellulose biosynthesis.

    Xiong, Guangyan; Li, Rui; Qian, Qian; Song, Xueqin; Liu, Xiangling; Yu, Yanchun; Zeng, Dali; Wan, Jianmin; Li, Jiayang; Zhou, Yihua


    Membrane trafficking between the plasma membrane (PM) and intracellular compartments is an important process that regulates the deposition and metabolism of cell wall polysaccharides. Dynamin-related proteins (DRPs), which function in membrane tubulation and vesiculation are closely associated with cell wall biogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which DRPs participate in cell wall formation are poorly understood. Here, we report the functional characterization of Brittle Culm3 (BC3), a gene encoding OsDRP2B. Consistent with the expression of BC3 in mechanical tissues, the bc3 mutation reduces mechanical strength, which results from decreased cellulose content and altered secondary wall structure. OsDRP2B, one of three members of the DRP2 subfamily in rice (Oryza sativa L.), was identified as an authentic membrane-associated dynamin via in vitro biochemical analyses. Subcellular localization of fluorescence-tagged OsDRP2B and several compartment markers in protoplast cells showed that this protein not only lies at the PM and the clathrin-mediated vesicles, but also is targeted to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). An FM4-64 uptake assay in transgenic plants that express green fluorescent protein-tagged OsDRP2B verified its involvement in an endocytic pathway. BC3 mutation and overexpression altered the abundance of cellulose synthase catalytic subunit 4 (OsCESA4) in the PM and in the endomembrane systems. All of these findings lead us to conclude that OsDRP2B participates in the endocytic pathway, probably as well as in post-Golgi membrane trafficking. Mutation of OsDRP2B disturbs the membrane trafficking that is essential for normal cellulose biosynthesis of the secondary cell wall, thereby leading to inferior mechanical properties in rice plants.

  19. Ultrasound Assisted Enzymatic Extraction of Protein from Broken Rice%超声波辅助酶法提取碎米中蛋白的研究

    朱建华; 钟瑞敏; 邹秀容


    研究利用超声波辅助酶法提取稻谷加工业碎米中蛋白的工艺条件。探讨了加酶量、酶解时间、固液比、超声波功率及超声时间对蛋白提取率的影响。在单因素试验的基础上,通过正交试验得到最优提取条件为:最佳提取工艺条件是高温α-淀粉酶加酶量为20μL/g、酶解时间为2.5 h、超声时间为24 min,超声功率为380 W,此条件下水溶性蛋白的提取率为91.19%。%Ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction of protein from broken rice byproduct of cereal industry was studied in this paper, and the effect of enzyme addition amount, enzymatic time, ratio of solid to liquid, ultrasonic power and ultrasonic power time on protein yield was investigated. Biased on the single factor test the optimal extraction conditions was obtained with orthogonal experiment as follows: 20 μL/g enzyme addition amount of thermo stableα-amylase, 2.5 h enzymatic time, 24 min ultrasonic time and 380 W ultrasonic power, at this optimal conditions broken rice protein extraction rate was 91.19%.

  20. Expression of the rgMT gene, encoding for a rice metallothionein-like protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Shumei Jin; Dan Sun; Ji Wang; Ying Li; Xinwang Wang; Shenkui Liu


    Metallothioneins (MTs) are cysteine-rich proteins of low molecular weight with many attributed functions, such as providing protection against metal toxicity, being involved in regulation of metal ions uptake that can impact plant physiology and providing protection against oxidative stress. However, the precise function of the metallothionein-like proteins such as the one coded for rgMT gene isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L.) is not completely understood. The whole genome analysis of rice (O. sativa) showed that the rgMT gene is homologue to the Os11g47809 on chromosome 11 of O. sativa sp. japonica genome. This study used the rgMT coding sequence to create transgenic lines to investigate the subcellular localization of the protein, as well as the impact of gene expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Arabidopsis thaliana under heavy metal ion, salt and oxidative stresses. The results indicate that the rgMT gene was expressed in the cytoplasm of transgenic cells. Yeast cells transgenic for rgMT showed vigorous growth compared to the nontransgenic controls when exposed to 7mM CuCl2, 10 mM FeCl2, 1 M NaCl, 24 mM NaHCO3 and 3.2 mM H2O2, but there was no significant difference for other stresses tested. Similarly, Arabidopsis transgenic for rgMT displayed significantly improved seed germination rates over that of the control when the seeds were stressed with 100 M CuCl2 or 1 mM H2O2. Increased biomass was observed in the presence of 100 M CuCl2, 220 M FeCl2, 3 mM Na2CO3, 5 mM NaHCO3 or 1 mM H2O2. These results indicate that the expression of the rice rgMT gene in transgenic yeast and Arabidopsis is implicated in improving their tolerance for certain salt and peroxide stressors.

  1. Guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 for Rab5 proteins coordinated with GLUP6/GEF regulates the intracellular transport of the proglutelin from the Golgi apparatus to the protein storage vacuole in rice endosperm.

    Wen, Liuying; Fukuda, Masako; Sunada, Mariko; Ishino, Sonoko; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Okita, Thomas W; Ogawa, Masahiro; Ueda, Takashi; Kumamaru, Toshihiro


    Rice glutelin polypeptides are initially synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane as a proglutelin, which are then transported to the protein storage vacuole (PSV) via the Golgi apparatus. Rab5 and its cognate activator guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) are essential for the intracellular transport of proglutelin from the Golgi apparatus to the PSV. Results from previous studies showed that the double recessive type of glup4/rab5a and glup6/gef mutant accumulated much higher amounts of proglutelin than either parent line. The present study demonstrates that the double recessive type of glup4/rab5a and glup6/gef mutant showed not only elevated proglutelin levels and much larger paramural bodies but also reduced the number and size of PSVs, indicating a synergistic mutation effect. These observations led us to the hypothesis that other isoforms of Rab5 and GEF also participate in the intracellular transport of rice glutelin. A database search identified a novel guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Rab5-GEF2. Like GLUP6/GEF, Rab5-GEF2 was capable of activating Rab5a and two other Rab5 isoforms in in vitro GTP/GDP exchange assays. GEF proteins consist of the helical bundle (HB) domain at the N-terminus, Vps9 domain, and a C-terminal region. By the deletion analysis of GEFs, the HB domain was found essential for the activation of Rab5 proteins.

  2. Changes in Thermostability of Photosystem Ⅱ and Leaf Lipid Composition of Rice Mutant with Deficiency of Light-harvesting Chlorophyll Protein Complexes

    Yunlai Tang; Mei Chen; Yinong Xu; Tingyun Kuang


    We studied the difference in thermostability of photosystem Ⅱ (PSⅡ) and leaf lipid composition between a T-DNA insertion mutant rice (Oryza sativa L.) VG28 and its wild type Zhonghua11. Native green gel and SDS-PAGE electrophoreses revealed that the mutant VG28 lacked all light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complexes. Both the mutant and wild type were sensitive to high temperatures, and the maximal efficiency of PSⅡ photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and oxygen-evolving activity of PSⅡ in leaves significantly decreased with increasing temperature. However, the PSⅡ activity of the mutant was markedly more sensitive to high temperatures than that of the wild type. Lipid composition analysis showed that the mutant had less phosphatidylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol compared with the wild type. Fatty acid analysis revealed that the mutant had an obvious decrease in the content of unsaturation of membrane lipids on the thermostability of PSll are discussed.

  3. Expression of Arabidopsis glycine-rich RNA-binding protein AtGRP2 or AtGRP7 improves grain yield of rice (Oryza sativa) under drought stress conditions.

    Yang, Deok Hee; Kwak, Kyung Jin; Kim, Min Kyung; Park, Su Jung; Yang, Kwang-Yeol; Kang, Hunseung


    Although posttranscriptional regulation of RNA metabolism is increasingly recognized as a key regulatory process in plant response to environmental stresses, reports demonstrating the importance of RNA metabolism control in crop improvement under adverse environmental stresses are severely limited. To investigate the potential use of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in developing stress-tolerant transgenic crops, we generated transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa) that express Arabidopsis thaliana glycine-rich RBP (AtGRP) 2 or 7, which have been determined to harbor RNA chaperone activity and confer stress tolerance in Arabidopsis, and analyzed the response of the transgenic rice plants to abiotic stresses. AtGRP2- or AtGRP7-expressing transgenic rice plants displayed similar phenotypes comparable with the wild-type plants under high salt or cold stress conditions. By contrast, AtGRP2- or AtGRP7-expressing transgenic rice plants showed much higher recovery rates and grain yields compared with the wild-type plants under drought stress conditions. The higher grain yield of the transgenic rice plants was due to the increases in filled grain numbers per panicle. Collectively, the present results show the importance of posttranscriptional regulation of RNA metabolism in plant response to environmental stress and suggest that GRPs can be utilized to improve the yield potential of crops under stress conditions.

  4. Relationship between PSII-D1-protein, xanthophyll cycle and the differences in capacities related to photodamage-resistance of indica and japonica subspecies of rice (O. sativa L.)


    @@ To explore the mechanisms of the differences in capacities related to photodamage-resistance of indica and japonica subspecies, the xanthophyll cycle components, violaxanthin (V), antheraxanthin (A), zeaxanthin (Z), PSⅡ-D1-protein contents, and PSⅡ photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) were measured in rice leaves pretreated by streptomycin(SM, a PSⅡ-D1-protein inhibitor) and dithiothreitol (DTT, an xanthophyll cycle inhibitor), respectively.

  5. Enhanced cadmium accumulation and tolerance in transgenic tobacco overexpressing rice metal tolerance protein gene OsMTP1 is promising for phytoremediation.

    Das, Natasha; Bhattacharya, Surajit; Maiti, Mrinal K


    One of the most grievous heavy metal pollutants in the environment is cadmium (Cd), which is not only responsible for the crop yield loss owing to its phytotoxicity, but also for the human health hazards as the toxic elements usually accumulate in the consumable parts of crop plants. In the present study, we aimed to isolate and functionally characterize the OsMTP1 gene from indica rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR64) to study its potential application for efficient phytoremediation of Cd. The 1257 bp coding DNA sequence (CDS) of OsMTP1 encodes a ∼46 kDa protein belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) or metal tolerance/transport protein (MTP) family. The OsMTP1 transcript in rice plant was found to respond during external Cd stress. Heterologous expression of OsMTP1 in tobacco resulted in the reduction of Cd stress-induced phytotoxic effects, including growth inhibition, lipid peroxidation, and cell death. Compared to untransformed control, the transgenic tobacco plants showed enhanced vacuolar thiol content, indicating vacuolar localization of the sequestered Cd. The transgenic tobacco plants exhibited significantly higher biomass growth (2.2-2.8-folds) and hyperaccumulation of Cd (1.96-2.22-folds) compared to untransformed control under Cd exposure. The transgenic plants also showed moderate tolerance and accumulation of arsenic (As) upon exogenous As stress, signifying broad substrate specificity of OsMTP1. Together, findings of our research suggest that the transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing OsMTP1 with its hyperaccumulating activity and increased growth rate could be useful for future phytoremediation applications to clean up the Cd-contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Phosphorus Content Determination in High Protein Rice Flour%高蛋白大米粉中磷含量测定

    李则均; 刘滨青


    This paper used vanadium ammonium molybdate color method in GB 5413.11-2010 to determine content of Phosphorus in the high-protein rice flour and the method had a good effect of display color, good linearity and high sensitivity. At a wavelength of 440nm conditions, photometric and phosphorus concentrations was a linear relationship in the 1-10 μg/mL level, and the detection limit was 0.223μg/mL. In the result of phosphorus in high protein rice flour, the calculation of standard deviation was 0.744, the relative deviation was 0.67%, and the total recovery rate was 95.2%.%采用GB5413.112010中钒钼酸铵显色法测定高蛋白大米粉中的磷,方法显色效果明显,线性好,灵敏度高。在波长为440nm条件下,分光度与磷浓度在110μg/mL范围内呈线性关系,检出限为0.223μg/mL,测定高蛋白大米粉中磷的计算标准偏差为0.744,相对偏差为0.67%,总回收率为95.2%。

  7. OsARID3, an AT-rich Interaction Domain-containing protein, is required for shoot meristem development in rice.

    Xu, Yan; Zong, Wei; Hou, Xin; Yao, Jialing; Liu, Hongbo; Li, Xianghua; Zhao, Yunde; Xiong, Lizhong


    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) produces all of the plant's aerial organs. The SAM is established either during embryogenesis or experimentally in in vitro tissue culture. Although several factors including the Class I KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEOBOX (KNOXI) proteins, auxin, and cytokinin are known to play essential roles in SAM development, the underlying mechanisms of SAM formation and maintenance are still largely not understood. Herein we demonstrate that OsARID3, a member of the rice (Oryza sativa) AT-rich Interaction Domain (ARID) family, is required for SAM development. Disruption of OsARID3 leads to a defective SAM, early seedling lethality, and impaired capacity of in vitro shoot regeneration. We show that the expression levels of several KNOXI genes and the biosynthetic genes for auxin and cytokinin are significantly altered in the Osarid3 mutant calli. Moreover, we determine that auxin concentrations are increased, whereas cytokinin levels are decreased, in Osarid3 calli. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation results demonstrate that OsARID3 binds directly to the KNOXI gene OSH71, the auxin biosynthetic genes OsYUC1 and OsYUC6, and the cytokinin biosynthetic genes OsIPT2 and OsIPT7. We also show through electrophoretic mobility shift assays that OsARID3 specifically binds to the AT-rich DNA sequences of the identified target genes. We conclude that OsARID3 is an AT-rich specific DNA-binding protein and that it plays a major role in SAM development in rice. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Comparison of Ileal Digested Production of Parental Rice and Rice Genetically Modified With Cowpeas Trypsin Inhibitor


    Objective To compare the ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in parental rice and rice genetically modified with sck gene. Methods Six experimental swines were surgically fixed with a simple T-cannula at the terminal ileum and fed with parental rice and rice genetically modified with sck gene alternately. The ileum digesta were collected and analyzed for determination of apparent and true digestibility of protein and amino acids. Results The apparent and true digestibility of protein was similar in these two types of rice. Except for the apparent digestibility of lysine, there was no difference in the apparent and true digestibility of the other 17 amino acids. Conclusion The digestibility of protein and amino acids is not changed by the insertion of foreign gene, so it can meet the request of "substantial equivalence" in digestibility of protein and amino acids.

  9. Rice Homeodomain Protein WOX11 Recruits a Histone Acetyltransferase Complex to Establish Programs of Cell Proliferation of Crown Root Meristem.

    Zhou, Shaoli; Jiang, Wei; Long, Fei; Cheng, Saifeng; Yang, Wenjing; Zhao, Yu; Zhou, Dao-Xiu


    Shoot-borne crown roots are the major root system in cereals. Previous work has shown that the Wuschel-related homeobox gene WOX11 is necessary and sufficient to promote rice (Oryza sativa) crown root emergence and elongation. Here, we show that WOX11 recruits the ADA2-GCN5 histone acetyltransferase module to activate downstream target genes in crown root meristem. Rice ADA2 and GCN5 genes are highly expressed in root meristem and are shown to be essential for cell division and growth. WOX11 and ADA2-GCN5 commonly target and regulate a set of root-specific genes involved in energy metabolism, cell wall biosynthesis, and hormone response, some of which are known to be important for root development. The results indicate that the recruitment of ADA2-GCN5 by WOX11 establishes gene expression programs of crown root meristem cell division and suggest that permissive chromatin modification involving histone acetylation is a strategy for WOX11 to stimulate root meristem development. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  10. Proteomic analysis for low and high nitrogen-responsive proteins in the leaves of rice genotypes grown at three nitrogen levels.

    Hakeem, Khalid Rehman; Chandna, Ruby; Ahmad, Altaf; Qureshi, Mohd Irfan; Iqbal, Muhammad


    Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient for plants. Increase in crop production is associated with increase in N fertilizers. Excessive use of N fertilizers and the low nitrogen utilization efficiency by crop plants is a major cause for environmental damage. Therefore, to reduce the N-fertilizer pollution, there is an urgent need to improve nitrogen use efficiency. Identification and/or development of genotypes which can grow and yield well at low nitrogen levels may provide a solution. Understanding the molecular mechanism of differential nitrogen use efficiency of the genotypes may provide some clues. Keeping the above facts in mind, in this study we have identified the high N-responsive and low N-responsive contrasting rice genotypes, out of 20 genotypes that were grown at low (1 mM), moderate (10 mM), and high (25 mM) levels of N (KNO(3)). Proteome analysis of leaves revealed that the proteins involved in the energy production/regulation and metabolism in plant leaf tissues are differentially expressed under N treatments. Moreover, some disease-resistant and stress-induced proteins were found to be overexpressed at high levels of N. The present study could be useful in identifying proteins responding to different levels of nitrogen fertilization, which may open new avenues for a better understanding of N use efficiency, and for developing new strategies to enhance N efficiency in cereal crops.

  11. Electron microscopic imaging revealed the flexible filamentous structure of the cell attachment protein P2 of Rice dwarf virus located around the icosahedral 5-fold axes.

    Miyazaki, Naoyuki; Higashiura, Akifumi; Higashiura, Tomoko; Akita, Fusamichi; Hibino, Hiroyuki; Omura, Toshihiro; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Iwasaki, Kenji


    The minor outer capsid protein P2 of Rice dwarf virus (RDV), a member of the genus Phytoreovirus in the family Reoviridae, is essential for viral cell entry. Here, we clarified the structure of P2 and the interactions to host insect cells. Negative stain electron microscopy (EM) showed that P2 proteins are monomeric and flexible L-shaped filamentous structures of ∼20 nm in length. Cryo-EM structure revealed the spatial arrangement of P2 in the capsid, which was prescribed by the characteristic virion structure. The P2 proteins were visualized as partial rod-shaped structures of ∼10 nm in length in the cryo-EM map and accommodated in crevasses on the viral surface around icosahedral 5-fold axes with hydrophobic interactions. The remaining disordered region of P2 assumed to be extended to the radial direction towards exterior. Electron tomography clearly showed that RDV particles were away from the cellular membrane at a uniform distance and several spike-like densities, probably corresponding to P2, connecting a viral particle to the host cellular membrane during cell entry. By combining the in vitro and in vivo structural information, we could gain new insights into the detailed mechanism of the cell entry of RDV.

  12. Study on stability of vegetable protein-based rice mixed beverage%植物蛋白米露稳定性研究

    郑丰杰; 高云; 杨立新; 张琦; 胡彪


    The production of a type of cereal–based health drink is mainly discussed namely vegetable protein–based rice mixed beverages making use of physical and biological processes. In this production process,rice as the main raw materials,multi–functional sweeteners are used in place of sucrose and add the value of nutrition and health care with juice mixed vegetable protein. By orthogonal test conditions of products and formulations are discussed to determine the best process parameters and the ratio,that is,using the 20 MPa two part of homogenization pressure,temperature 60 ℃,the optimum conditions for bactericidal 115 ℃,15 min. Vegetable protein–based rice mixed beverage for the best stabilizer formulations is:0.1 g/100mL xanthan gum,0.05 g/100mL locust bean gum,0.05 g/100mL gum acacia. Using of the above–mentioned conditions and the optimum ratio,these drinks which are soft taste、uniform appearance、no precipitation and stratification and good stability are mixed.%  以大米为主要原料,用功能性甜味剂代替蔗糖,并添加具营养保健价值植物蛋白,利用物理和生物方法制备植物蛋白型保健米露.通过正交试验对产品工艺条件和配方进行优化,确定最优工艺参数及配比;即采用20 MPa 二段均质压力、温度60℃,杀菌最佳条件为115℃、15 min;稳定剂配方为0.1 g/100mL 黄原胶、0.05 g/100mL 刺槐豆胶、0.05 g/100mL 阿拉伯胶;按上述工艺条件和最佳配比制作米露饮料口感柔和、外观均匀,且无沉淀、分层现象,稳定性良好.

  13. Separation, Purification, and Purity Identification of Cd-Binding Protein from Rice%大米镉结合蛋白的分离纯化及纯度鉴定

    陈露; 陈季旺; 蔡俊; 丁文平; 吴永宁


    采用石墨炉原子吸收光谱法(graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry,GFAAS)测定不同品种、不同加工精度大米及大米4种蛋白质中的镉含量。选用镉含量较高的大米为实验原料,采用Osborne分级法提取大米中的4种蛋白质(清蛋白、球蛋白、醇溶蛋白和谷蛋白),以及超滤、离子交换色谱从镉含量较高的大米蛋白中分离纯化出均一纯度的大米镉结合蛋白(rice Cd-binding protein,RCBP),十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis,SDS-PAGE)鉴定RCBP的纯度及测定分子质量。结果表明:籼米中镉含量高于糯米及粳米;随着加工精度的增加,同种大米中的镉含量依次降低。4种大米蛋白中的镉含量分别为0.66、0.31、0.63、0.23μg/g,清蛋白中镉含量最高。超滤分离大米清蛋白(rice albumin,RA)得到大米超滤清蛋白(rice ultrafiltration albumin,RUA),离子交换色谱纯化RUA得到目标镉结合蛋白(组分c), SDS-PAGE鉴定组分c为单一条带,分子质量为14 kD。%A graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) method was used to determine the cadmium content in rice grains from different varieties and at milling levels, as well as in four rice seed storage proteins (albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin) obtained through the Osborne sequential extraction method. Moreover, rice cadmium-binding protein (RCBP) was separated and purified to homogeneity by using ultrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography. The purity and molecular mass of RCBP were identified. The results showed that the cadmium content in indica rice was higher than that in glutinous rice and japonica rice and the cadmium content in rice decreased with the increase of milling level. The cadmium contents of rice albumin, globulin, prolamin, and glutelin were 0.66, 0.31, 0.63 and 0.23μg/g, respectively. RCBP

  14. Effects of Chalkiness on Cooking, Eating and Nutritional Qualities of Rice in Two indica Varieties

    LIU Qi-hua; ZHOU Xue-biao; YANG Lian-qun; LI Tian


    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of chalkiness on cooking, eating and nutrition qualities of rice using Gangyou 527 (indica hybrid rice) and Zhaiyeqing 8 (conventional indica rice) as materials. Compared with the milled rice without chalkiness, amylose content, final viscosity, setback and consistence increased significantly, while gel consistence, peak viscosity and breakdown decreased remarkably and other RVA values did not have significant changes in the chalky rice of Gangyou 527. The differences in the above indices between the chalky and non-chalky rice was not remarkable in Zhaiyeqing 8. The crude protein content of chalky rice in Zhaiyeqing 8 was significantly lower than that of non-chalky rice, but there was no remarkable change between the chalky and non-chalky rice in Gangyou 527. Glutelin content fell significantly, and albumin, globulin, prolamine and lysine contents did not change significantly in chalky rice compared with non-chalky rice in the two varieties.

  15. Characterization of a pollen-preferential gene OSIAGP from rice (Oryza sativa L. subspecies indica) coding for an arabinogalactan protein homologue, and analysis of its promoter activity during pollen development and pollen tube growth.

    Anand, Saurabh; Tyagi, Akhilesh K


    During differential screening of inflorescence-specific cDNA libraries from Oryza sativa indica, an arabinogalactan protein (OSIAGP) cDNA (586 bp) expressing preferentially in the inflorescence has been isolated. It encodes an arabinogalactan protein of 59 amino acids (6.4 kDa) with a transmembrane domain and a secretory domain at the N terminus. The protein shows homology with AGP23 from Arabidopsis, and its homologue in japonica rice is located on chromosome 6. OSIAGP transcripts also accumulate in shoots and roots of rice seedling grown in the dark, but light represses expression of the gene. Analysis of a genomic clone of OSIAGP revealed that its promoter contains several pollen-specificity and light-regulatory elements. The promoter confers pollen-preferential activity on gus, starting from the release of microspores to anther dehiscence in transgenic tobacco, and is also active during pollen tube growth. Analysis of pollen preferential activity of the promoter in the transgenic rice system revealed that even the approximately 300 bp fragment has activity in pollen and the anther wall and further deletion down to approximately 100 bp completely abolishes this activity, which is consistent with in-silico analysis of the promoter. Arabinogalactan proteins have been shown to be involved in the cell elongation process. The homology of OSIAGP with AGP23 and the fact that seedling growth in the dark and pollen tube growth are events based on cell elongation strengthen the possibility of OSIAGP performing a similar function.

  16. Rice PROTEIN l-ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE isoforms differentially accumulate during seed maturation to restrict deleterious isoAsp and reactive oxygen species accumulation and are implicated in seed vigor and longevity.

    Petla, Bhanu Prakash; Kamble, Nitin Uttam; Kumar, Meenu; Verma, Pooja; Ghosh, Shraboni; Singh, Ajeet; Rao, Venkateswara; Salvi, Prafull; Kaur, Harmeet; Saxena, Saurabh Chandra; Majee, Manoj


    PROTEIN l-ISOASPARTYL O-METHYLTRANSFERASE (PIMT) is a protein-repairing enzyme involved in seed vigor and longevity. However, the regulation of PIMT isoforms during seed development and the mechanism of PIMT-mediated improvement of seed vigor and longevity are largely unknown. In this study in rice (Oryza sativa), we demonstrate the dynamics and correlation of isoaspartyl (isoAsp)-repairing demands and PIMT activity, and their implications, during seed development, germination and aging, through biochemical, molecular and genetic studies. Molecular and biochemical analyses revealed that rice possesses various biochemically active and inactive PIMT isoforms. Transcript and western blot analyses clearly showed the seed development stage and tissue-specific accumulation of active isoforms. Immunolocalization studies revealed distinct isoform expression in embryo and aleurone layers. Further analyses of transgenic lines for each OsPIMT isoform revealed a clear role in the restriction of deleterious isoAsp and age-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation to improve seed vigor and longevity. Collectively, our data suggest that a PIMT-mediated, protein repair mechanism is initiated during seed development in rice, with each isoform playing a distinct, yet coordinated, role. Our results also raise the intriguing possibility that PIMT repairs antioxidative enzymes and proteins which restrict ROS accumulation, lipid peroxidation, etc. in seed, particularly during aging, thus contributing to seed vigor and longevity.

  17. Polishing and parboiling effect on the nutritional and technological properties of pigmented rice.

    Paiva, Flávia Fernandes; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Berrios, Jose De J; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Wood, Delilah; Williams, Tina; Pan, James; Elias, Moacir Cardoso


    This study aims to evaluate the effects of polishing and parboiling on proximate composition, structure, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, cooking time and hardness of IAC-600 black rice cultivar and MPB-10 red rice lineage. Proximate analysis and light micrographs revealed higher migration of red rice proteins than black rice proteins to the endosperm as a result of parboiling. Parboiling reduced the ash content of red rice while no difference was determined in black rice. Gelatinized starch granules from both genotypes showed similar appearance. There was a decrease in relative crystallinity on both black and red rice subjected to parboiling, which was an indicative of crystallites disruption. Polishing removed more than 90% of free phenolics for both genotypes, while parboiling allowed the partial preservation of free phenolics content in polished rice. Parboiling induced an increase in the cooking time of red rice, but a decrease in the cooking time of black rice.

  18. Smoke Priming, a Potent Protective Agent Against Salinity: Effect on Proline Accumulation, Elemental Uptake, Pigmental Attributes and Protein Banding Patterns of Rice (Oryza Sativa

    Jamil, Muhammad


    Full Text Available The exogenous application of plant derived smoke solution through seed pre treatment is consider to create tolerance in the plant against salinity, for this purpose different dilution of plant derived smoke solution as 1:5000 Buhania, 1:1000 Buhania, 1:1000 Cymbopogon, 1:500 Cymbopogon were used against 0 mM, 50, 100 and 150mM NaCl solution in the medium. The effect was observed on total proline accumulation, heavy metals uptake, photosynthetic pigments and protein polypeptide bands intensity in two rice varieties as Basmati 385 (B-385 and Shaheen Basmati (S. Basmati. Proline concentration increases while chlorophyll “a” chlorophyll “b” and carotene level decreases with increasing salinity. On other hand zinc concentration increases while cadmium and lead concentration decrease in the crop under saline conditions. Intensity of protein polypeptides bands decreases gradually with increasing salinity level but plants from the seeds soaked with smoke solution alleviate the drastic affect of salinity, and intensity of bands is quite good by comparing with non primed seeds. It is concluded that seed priming with plant derived smoke solution show beneficial effect on crop to protect them from salinity.

  19. Coat proteins of Rice tungro bacilliform virus and Mungbean yellow mosaic virus contain multiple nuclear-localization signals and interact with importin alpha.

    Guerra-Peraza, O; Kirk, D; Seltzer, V; Veluthambi, K; Schmit, A C; Hohn, T; Herzog, E


    Transport of the viral genome into the nucleus is an obligatory step in the replication cycle of plant pararetro- and geminiviruses. In both these virus types, the multifunctional coat protein (CP) is thought to be involved in this process. Here, a green fluorescent protein tagging approach was used to demonstrate nuclear import of the CPs of Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and Mungbean yellow mosaic virus--Vigna (MYMV) in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia protoplasts. In both cases, at least two nuclear localization signals (NLSs) were identified and characterized. The NLSs of RTBV CP are located within both N- and C-terminal regions (residues 479KRPK/497KRK and 744KRK/758RRK), and those of MYMV CP within the N-terminal part (residues 3KR and 41KRRR). The MYMV and RTBV CP NLSs resemble classic mono- and bipartite NLSs, respectively. However, the N-terminal MYMV CP NLS and both RTBV CP NLSs show peculiarities in the number and position of basic residues. In vitro pull-down assays revealed interaction of RTBV and MYMV CPs with the nuclear import factor importin alpha, suggesting that both CPs are imported into the nucleus via an importin alpha-dependent pathway. The possibility that this pathway could serve for docking of virions to the nucleus is discussed.

  20. Adenosine Diphosphate Ribosylation Factor-GTPaseActivating Protein Stimulates the Transport of AUX1Endosome, Which Relies on Actin Cytoskeletal Organization in Rice Root DevelopmentF

    Cheng Du; Yunyuan XU; Yingdian Wang; Kang Chong


    Polar auxin transport,which depends on polarized subcellular distribution of AUXIN RESISTANT 1/LIKE AUX1 (AUX1/LAX) influx carriers and PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers,mediates various processes of plant growth and development.Endosomal recycling of PIN1 is mediated by an adenosine diphosphate (ADP)ribosylation factor (ARF)-GTPase exchange factor protein,GNOM.However,the mediation of auxin influx carrier recycling is poorly understood.Here,we report that overexpression of OsAGAP,an ARF-GTPase-activating protein in rice,stimulates vesicle transport from the plasma membrane to the Golgi apparatus in protoplasts and transgenic plants and induces the accumulation of early endosomes and AUX1.AUX1 endosomes could partially colocalize with FM4-64 labeled early endosome after actin disruption.Furthermore,OsAGAP is involved in actin cytoskeletal organization,and its overexpression tends to reduce the thickness and bundling of actin filaments.Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis revealed exocytosis of the AUX1 recycling endosome was not affected in the OsAGAP overexpression cells,and was only slightly promoted when the actin filaments were completely disrupted by Lat B.Thus,we propose that AUX1 accumulation in the OsAGAP overexpression and actin disrupted cells may be due to the fact that endocytosis of the auxin influx carrier AUX1 early endosome was greatly promoted by actin cytoskeleton disruption.

  1. Induction of immune responses in mice and pigs by oral administration of classical swine fever virus E2 protein expressed in rice calli.

    Jung, Myunghwan; Shin, Yun Ji; Kim, Ju; Cha, Seung-Bin; Lee, Won-Jung; Shin, Min-Kyoung; Shin, Seung Won; Yang, Moon-Sik; Jang, Yong-Suk; Kwon, Tae-Ho; Yoo, Han Sang


    Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by the CSF virus (CSFV), is a highly contagious disease in pigs. In Korea, vaccination using a live-attenuated strain (LOM strain) has been used to control the disease. However, parenteral vaccination using a live-attenuated strain still faces a number of problems related to storage, cost, injection stress, and differentiation of CSFV infected and vaccinated pigs. Therefore, two kinds of new candidates for oral vaccination have been developed based on the translation of the E2 gene of the SW03 strain, which was isolated from an outbreak of CSF in 2002 in Korea, in transgenic rice calli (TRCs) from Oriza sativa L. cv. Dongjin to express a recombinant E2 protein (rE2-TRCs). The expression of the recombinant E2 protein (rE2) in rE2-TRCs was confirmed using Northern blot, SDS-PAGE, and Western blot analysis. Immune responses to the rE2-TRC in mice and pigs were investigated after oral administration. The administration of rE2-TRCs increased E2-specific antibodies titers and antibody-secreting cells when compared to animals receiving the vector alone (p Pigs receiving rE2-TRCs also showed an increase in IL-8, CCL2, and the CD8+ subpopulation in response to stimulation with prE2. These results suggest that oral administration of rE2-TRCs can induce E2-specific immune responses.

  2. Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment on Enzymolysis Characteristics of Thermo-Denatured Rice Protein%高压处理对热变性米蛋白酶解特性的影响

    王章存; 田卫环; 赵学伟; 郑坚强; 李昌文; 崔胜文


    Some enzymolysis properties such as solubility, hydrolysis degree, — SH content, molecular characteristics and microcosmic morphology of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treated thermal denatured rice protein during hydrolysis with alcalase were investigated. The results showed that the contents of soluble rice protein and free —SH in samples pretreated at high pressure 100-700 MPa were both increased (especially at 500 MPa), compared with that of untreated samples. The ratio of soluble rice protein in the hydrolysate obtained after HHP treatment at 500 MPa followed by 120 min of hydrolysis was 73. 0% compared with only 53.6% for that obtained for non-HHP treated rice protein. However, no obvious difference in the degree of hydrolysis was found. The gel filtration chromatographic analysis indicated that soluble hydrolysates with lower relative molecular mass were obtained using HHP treatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis compared to direct enzymatic hydrolysis. The SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the content of high-molecular-mass components in insoluble hydrolysates of HHP treated rice protein decreased notably, while that of low-molecular-mass components increased distinctly. As observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM), the morphology of HHP treated rice protein was relatively loose. Therefore, the appropriate HHP treatment was beneficial to the hydrolysis of rice protein and enzymatic hydrolysis characteristics were directly associated with structural changes in rice protein caused by HHP treatment.%研究高压处理热变性米蛋白俚碱性蛋白酶酶解时其溶解性、水解度、—SH含量、分子特征和微观形态的变化特征。结果显示:米蛋白经100-700MPa处理后酶解所得可溶性蛋白的含量均高于未高压处理者,其中500MPa时增加幅度最大,一SH含量也最高。当酶解120min时,高压处理米蛋白可溶性米蛋白的比例达73.0%,而未高压处理米蛋

  3. A previously unknown zinc finger protein, DST, regulates drought and salt tolerance in rice via stomatal aperture control.

    Huang, Xin-Yuan; Chao, Dai-Yin; Gao, Ji-Ping; Zhu, Mei-Zhen; Shi, Min; Lin, Hong-Xuan


    Abiotic stresses, such as drought and salinity, lead to crop growth damage and a decrease in crop yields. Stomata control CO(2) uptake and optimize water use efficiency, thereby playing crucial roles in abiotic stress tolerance. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is an important signal molecule that induces stomatal closure. However, the molecular pathway that regulates the H(2)O(2) level in guard cells remains largely unknown. Here, we clone and characterize DST (drought and salt tolerance)-a previously unknown zinc finger transcription factor that negatively regulates stomatal closure by direct modulation of genes related to H(2)O(2) homeostasis-and identify a novel pathway for the signal transduction of DST-mediated H(2)O(2)-induced stomatal closure. Loss of DST function increases stomatal closure and reduces stomatal density, consequently resulting in enhanced drought and salt tolerance in rice. These findings provide an interesting insight into the mechanism of stomata-regulated abiotic stress tolerance, and an important genetic engineering approach for improving abiotic stress tolerance in crops.

  4. Teores de proteína, óleo, lisina e triptofano em grãos integrais de diversos cultivares de arroz Oil, protein, lysine, and triptophan content of some rice cultivars

    J. P. F. Teixeira


    Full Text Available Tendo em vista futuros programas de melhoramento da qualidade nutritiva do arroz, foram determinados os teores de óleo, proteína e dos aminoácidos essenciais lisina e triptofano nos grãos descascados dos principais cultivares desse cereal cultivados no Estado de São Paulo. Foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os teores desses constituintes, nos diferentes cultivares estudados. A interação variedade-ambiente teve efeito marcante nos teores de proteína dos grãos, com exceção do IAC-47. De uma maneira geral, os teores de lisina e de triptofano foram mais elevados nos materiais que apresentaram teores mais baixos de proteína. Dentre os principais cultivares de arroz atualmente em plantio, o IAC-47 apresentou características promissoras para futuros programas de melhoramento visando melhoria da qualidade nutricional desse cereal.The purpose of this study was to determine the content of oil, protein, lysine, and triptophan of 12 rice cultivars of the State of São Paulo. These data are of large interest as a support for the future rice breeding program in order to improve the nutritional value of this cereal. Significant differences were found for all the characteristics caused by vari-etal effects. Environmental factors, such as the year and the location where the rice grew, severely affected the protein content of all the cultivars, but for the IAC-47. In general, the low protein cultivars showed higher levels of lysine and triptophan. The IAC-47 cultivar revealed the most stable chemical composition and very promising to be used in the breeding for high-protein rices.

  5. Obese women on a low energy rice and bean diet: effects of leucine, arginine or glycine supplementation on protein turnover

    J.S. Marchini


    Full Text Available This study examined if leucine, arginine or glycine supplementation in adult obese patients (body mass index of 33 ± 4 kg/m² consuming a Brazilian low energy and protein diet (4.2 MJ/day and 0.6 g protein/kg affects protein and amino acid metabolism. After four weeks adaptation to this diet, each subject received supplements of these amino acids (equivalent to 0.2 g protein kg-1 day-1 in random order. On the seventh day of each amino acid supplementation, a single-dose 15N-glycine study was carried out. There were no significant differences in protein flux, synthesis or breakdown. The protein flux (grams of nitrogen, gN/9 h was 55 ± 24 during the nonsupplemented diet intake and 39 ± 10, 44 ± 22 and 58 ± 35 during the leucine-, glycine- and arginine-supplemented diet intake, respectively; protein synthesis (gN/9 h was 57 ± 24, 36 ± 10, 41 ± 22 and 56 ± 36, respectively; protein breakdown (gN/9 h was 51 ± 24, 34 ± 10, 32 ± 28 and 53 ± 35, respectively; kinetic balance (gN/9 h was 3.2 ± 1.8, 4.1 ± 1.7, 3.4 ± 2.9 and 3.9 ± 1.6. There was no difference in amino acid profiles due to leucine, arginine or glycine supplementation. The present results suggest that 0.6 g/kg of dietary protein is enough to maintain protein turnover in obese women consuming a reduced energy diet and that leucine, arginine or glycine supplementation does not change kinetic balance or protein synthesis.

  6. Molecular recognition of avirulence protein (avrxa5) by eukaryotic transcription factor xa5 of rice (Oryza sativa L.): insights from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Dehury, Budheswar; Maharana, Jitendra; Sahoo, Bikash Ranjan; Sahu, Jagajjit; Sen, Priyabrata; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Barooah, Madhumita


    The avirulence gene avrxa5 of bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) recognized by the resistant rice lines having corresponding resistance (xa5) gene in a gene-for-gene manner. We used a combinatorial approach involving protein-protein docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and binding free energy calculations to gain novel insights into the gene-for-gene mechanism that governs the direct interaction of R-Avr protein. From the best three binding poses predicted by molecular docking, MD simulations were performed to explore the dynamic binding mechanism of xa5 and avrxa5. Molecular Mechanics/Poisson Boltzmann Surface Area (MM/PBSA) techniques were employed to calculate the binding free energy and to uncover the thriving force behind the molecular recognition of avrxa5 by eukaryotic transcription factor xa5. Binding free energy analysis revealed van der Waals term as the most constructive component that favors the xa5 and avrxa5 interaction. In addition, hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) and essential electrostatic interactions analysis highlighted amino acid residues Lys54/Asp870, Lys56/Ala868, Lys56/Ala866, Lys56/Glu871, Ile59/His862, Gly61/Phe858, His62/Arg841, His62/Leu856, Ser101/Ala872 and Ser105/Asp870 plays pivotal role for the energetically stability of the R-Avr complex. Insights gained from the present study are expected to unveil the molecular mechanisms that define the transcriptional activator mediated transcriptome modification in host plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 米渣蛋白肽的新型酶解工艺及产品结构表征%Characterization of rice residue protein peptide made by a new enzymolysis process

    董瑞晨; 王深旗; 熊华; 黎文建; 赵士强; 张忠


    米渣经过前处理去除糖类、脂质后得到米渣蛋白,再经酶解、脱色等处理后喷雾干燥得到米蛋白肽粉 以溶解性蛋白含量为指标,采用正交实验法对酶解工艺进行优化,得到最佳条件为:胰蛋白酶与复合蛋白酶配比为3∶2、酶解固液比1∶9、温度50 ℃、pH8.0、时间3.0h,蛋白肽产品溶解性蛋白、短肽含量分别从酶解前的4.35%、0.97%提高至23.49%、16.35% 采用红外光谱、粒径分布和扫描电镜对产品米渣蛋白肤分子进行了表征,表明此工艺制得的蛋白肽纯度较高.%The rice protein peptide powder was obtained by the pretreatment of rice dreg for removing saccharides and lipids,and then by the enzymolysis and decolorization to the rice residue protein followed by spray drying. Using the contents of dissolubility protein and oligopeptide as indicators,an orthogonal experimental method was adopted to optimize the enzymolysis technology. The optimum conditions were attained:the ratio of trypsin and protamex 3:2,the proportion of enzymolysis solid to liquid 1:9,temperature 50℃,.pH8.0 and time 3.0h. The contents of dissolubility protein and oligopeptide were 23.49% and 16.35% respectively,compared with 4.35% and 0.97% which weren't treated with enzyme. And the product of rice residue protein peptide was characterized including infrared spectrometry,size distribution and scanning electron microscope,which proved the rice residue protein peptide made by method purity was high.

  8. Inhibition of human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and HT-29 colon cancer cells by rice-produced recombinant human insulin-like growth binding protein-3 (rhIGFBP-3.

    Stanley C K Cheung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 is a multifunctional molecule which is closely related to cell growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis, metabolism and senescence. It combines with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I to form a complex (IGF-I/IGFBP-3 that can treat growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (GHIS and reduce insulin requirement in patients with diabetes. IGFBP-3 alone has been shown to have anti-proliferation effect on numerous cancer cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reported here an expression method to produce functional recombinant human IGFBP-3 (rhIGFBP-3 in transgenic rice grains. Protein sorting sequences, signal peptide and endoplasmic reticulum retention tetrapeptide (KDEL were included in constructs for enhancing rhIGFBP-3 expression. Western blot analysis showed that only the constructs with signal peptide were successfully expressed in transgenic rice grains. Both rhIGFBP-3 proteins, with or without KDEL sorting sequence inhibited the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells (65.76 ± 1.72% vs 45.00 ± 0.86%, p < 0.05; 50.84 ± 1.97% vs 45.00 ± 0.86%, p < 0.01 respectively and HT-29 colon cancer cells (65.14 ± 3.84% vs 18.01 ± 13.81%, p < 0.05 and 54.7 ± 9.44% vs 18.01 ± 13.81%, p < 0.05 respectively when compared with wild type rice. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrated the feasibility of producing biological active rhIGFBP-3 in rice using a transgenic approach, which will definitely encourage more research on the therapeutic use of hIGFBP-3 in future.

  9. Taste of Super-Dwarf Rice Cultured in Space

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki


    The interest of food production for lunar base and manned Mars mission has increased recently. So far, plants cultured long duration in space were leafy vegetables, arabidopsis, wheat, barley and so on. Although rice is a staple food for most of the world, research on rice cultivation in space has not been done much. Rice grains are nutrient-rich with carbohydrate, protein and dietary fiber. Moreover, rice is a high yield crop and harvested grains have a long shelf life. Rice symbolizes the rice-eating culture of Japan, is extremely useful as a specific cultured plant candidate of Japan in space. In the previous report, 'Kozo-no-sumika' found from seedlings in raising of seedling was introduced as a super-dwarf rice to culture in space. Considering this rice as food in space, we investigate the taste characteristics of this rice. At present, waxy 'Kozo-no-sumika' and nonwaxy 'Hosetsu dwarf' of super-dwarf rice and 'Nipponbare' of previous standard rice for sensory test are cultured in paddy field. Hereafter, we will harvest rice, investigate yield, evaluate taste.

  10. A Nucleus-Encoded Chloroplast Protein YL1 Is Involved in Chloroplast Development and Efficient Biogenesis of Chloroplast ATP Synthase in Rice

    Chen, Fei; Dong, Guojun; Wu, Limin; Wang, Fang; Yang, Xingzheng; Ma, Xiaohui; Wang, Haili; Wu, Jiahuan; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Huizhong; Qian, Qian; Yu, Yanchun


    Chloroplast ATP synthase (cpATPase) is an importance thylakoid membrane-associated photosynthetic complex involved in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. In this study, we isolated and characterized a rice (Oryza sativa) mutant yellow leaf 1 (yl1), which exhibits chlorotic leaves throughout developmental stages. The YL1 mutation showed reduced chlorophyll contents, abnormal chloroplast morphology, and decreased photochemical efficiency. Moreover, YL1 deficiency disrupts the expression of genes associated with chloroplast development and photosynthesis. Molecular and genetic analyses revealed that YL1 is a nucleus-encoded protein with a predicted transmembrane domain in its carboxyl-terminus that is conserved in the higher plant kingdom. YL1 localizes to chloroplasts and is preferentially expressed in green tissues containing chloroplasts. Immunoblot analyses showed that inactivation of YL1 leads to drastically reduced accumulation of AtpA (α) and AtpB (β), two core subunits of CF1αβ subcomplex of cpATPase, meanwhile, a severe decrease (ca. 41.7%) in cpATPase activity was observed in the yl1-1 mutant compared with the wild type. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays revealed a specific interaction between YL1 and AtpB subunit of cpATPase. Taken together, our results suggest that YL1 is a plant lineage-specific auxiliary factor involved in the biogenesis of the cpATPase complex, possibly via interacting with the β-subunit. PMID:27585744

  11. Effect of ionizing radiation on the protein and lipid quality characteristics of mutton kheema treated with rice bran oil and sunflower oil

    Jalarama Reddy, K.; Jayathilakan, K.; Pandey, M. C.


    Effect of rice bran oil (RBO) and irradiation (0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy) on lipid and protein quality of ready-to-eat mutton kheema were established during refrigerated storage (4±1 °C). Total carbonyls, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), non-heme iron and total volatiles in irradiated RBO samples were significantly lower (psunflower oil (SFO) treated samples initially and during storage. Product with RBO and Flaxseed oil (FSO) at the optimized level yielded a designer meat product having an SFA:MUFA:PUFA and n-6/n-3 ratio of 1:1.3:1.3 and 3.6:1 respectively. Degradation in PUFA levels in SFO samples were significantly higher (p<0.05) and an increase of 31% in metmyoglobin after 50 days was noticed in comparison with RBO samples. Non-linear correlation analysis of chemical markers established polynomial fit equations. 2 kGy radiation processing with RBO yielded a product having 50 days of shelf stability in terms of its chemical characteristics.

  12. Comparison of Near Infrared Spectroscopy Models for Determining Protein and Amylose Contents Between Calibration Samples of Recombinant Inbred Lines and Conventional Varieties of Rice

    ZHANG Hong-jiang; WU Jin-hong; LUO Li-jun; LI Ying; YANG Hua; YU Xin-qiao; WANG Xiao-shan; CHEN Liang; MEI Han-wei


    The near infrared spectra of 178 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the cross of Ⅱ-32B/Yuezaoxian 6 (YZX6) and 511 varieties in rice were acquired. A total of 80 RILs and 96 cultivars were selected as modeling samples by comparing the spectra similarity primarily. Three partial least square (PLS) regression models were developed, based on the RILs (RIL-model), the varieties (Var-model) and their mixture (Mix-model), for protein content (PC) and amylose content (AC),respectively. Cross validation and outer prediction showed that the models were largely influenced by the range and distribution of modeling samples. The regression model of PC based on the cultivars and the model of AC based on RILs had higher coefficient of determination (r2 ≥ 0.9) and lower root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECVs). The disadvantages of RIL samples for PC model and variety samples for AC model were probably caused by the narrow range of variance. Aberrant predictions were obtained for outer sample with PC or AC outside the range or within the distribution gap of modeling samples. The Mix-models gave more reliable prediction as the distribution of RIL and variety modeling samples were complementary to each other.

  13. The use of tropical protein-rich leaves as supplements to Thai swamp buffalo receiving a basal diet of rice straw and treated leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala).

    Jetana, T; Vongpipatana, C; Usawang, S; Thongruay, S


    Two experiments were conducted to determine (i) the effects of protein-rich trees (PRTs) and (ii) the effects of leucaena treated with NaOH solution and leucaena plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, urinary purine derivatives excretion and blood metabolites in Thai swamp buffaloes. In Experiment 1, animals were fed with rice straw as a basal diet and one of the four PRT supplements: (i) oven-dried rain tree pods (RTPP, control); (ii) sun-dried leucaena leaves; (iii) sun-dried cassia leaves and (iv) sun-dried mulberry leaves. Fibre digestibility and N balance were lower (P leucaena were treated in one of three ways: (i) untreated (control), (ii) leucaena treated with NaOH solution and (iii) leucaena + PEG. Fibre digestibility and N balance in the rumen improved (P leucaena + PEG, but microbial N was not increased. The study demonstrated a way of using local PRTs for a suitable and worthwhile method to improve the quality of buffalo feeding systems in the tropics.

  14. Extração enzimática das proteínas da farinha de arroz Enzymatic extraction of proteins from rice flour

    Claudia Regina Vieira


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo extrair enzimaticamente as proteínas de uma farinha comercial de arroz. Visando aumentar o Rendimento de Extração Protéica (REP, os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: tipo de enzima (protease alcalina e neutra; temperatura (40, 50 e 60 °C; pH (9,5, 10,5 e 11,0; tratamento físico da amostra (sem tratamento, ultra-turrax a 16.000 rpm e ultra-som a 120 W, ambos por 5, 10 e 15 minutos; relação Enzima:Substrato (E:S de 5:100 e 10:100; e concentração inicial de matéria-prima (1:3, 1:5 e 1:10 p/v. Os teores de proteínas da farinha de arroz e dos resíduos foram determinados para o cálculo do REP. Os resultados mostraram que a melhor condição de extração protéica, que levou ao maior REP, foi a que empregou a concentração inicial de matéria-prima a 1:10 (p/v, sem tratamento físico, com pH 10,5, com a protease alcalina na relação E:S de 10:100, a 50 °C, tendo atingido um REP de 63,4%.The enzymatic extraction of proteins from a commercial rice flour was studied in this work. In order to increase the Protein Extraction Yield (PEY, the following parameters were evaluated: enzyme type (alkaline and neutral protease; temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C; pH (9.5, 10.5 and 11.0; physical treatment of the sample (no treatment; Ultra-Turrax at 16.000 rpm and ultrasound at 120 W, both for 5, 10 and 15 minutes; enzyme:substrate ratio (E:S of 5:100 and 10:100 and initial concentration of raw material (1:3, 1:5 and 1:10 w/v. The PEY was calculated using the protein contents of rice flour and the extraction residues. The results showed that the best condition for protein extraction, which gave the highest PEY (63.4%, was that using an initial concentration of raw material of 1:10 (w/v, no physical treatment, pH 10.5, the alkaline protease, an E:S of 10:100, at 50 °C.

  15. Special rice in China


    Xianggu Rice: The rice originated from Jiangyong County, Hunan Province. Its characteristics were: even in grain shape, white in color, special fragrant in taste, and sticky in quality. Handongzao: It was from Wannian County, Jiangxi Province. The rice had big, fertile, and white grain, which was soft with fragrant smell, and it had high head rice rate. So, the local peasants liked to plant it. It was one of the "Tribute rice " in old time. Shizhu "Imperial Rice": The rice was also called "Fragrant Rice", was from Siyuan Village, Yuelai Town, Shizhu County, Sichuan Province. It was the treasure among the rices. The grain was bright in color. When it was cooked, the smell was fragrant. It was said that the rice was from "Han Dynasty", and has become the "Tribute Rice " since then. Blood Glutinous Rice: Originated from Changshu City, Jiangsu Province, the rice has been cultivated more than one hundred years. It had high nutrition value. Among the people, the Blood Glutinous Rice was often used as health food for lying-in women and patients. Qufu Fragrant Rice: Its characteristics were: clean, bright, and translucent in grain color, sticky in quality. It was suitable for cooking gruel and was also called "Fragrant Rice" in the local due to its strong fragrance. It was one of the "Tribute Rice" in old time. Taihu Lake Fragrant Japonica: The rice was from the Region of Taihu Lake, Jiangsu Province. The characteristics were: even and big in grain shape, soft in quality, white in color, fragrant in taste. The local people liked to plant and eat it.□ (To be continued) Translated by CHEN Wenhua, From "China Rice",No.1,1994

  16. Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica.

    Das, Joy; Ramesh, K V; Maithri, U; Mutangana, D; Suresh, C K


    Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomusfasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P. indica resembling "Mayan temple" was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza.




    Full Text Available Rice bran is an energy and protein rich ingredient used in poultry feeding. To balance energy and protein requirements. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rice bran on performance and egg quality during peak production of a commercial White laying strain of 22 week of age. Dietary treatments were consisted by inclusion of rice bran at 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels. Each treatment had 6 reps in which 12 birds were randomly assigned in wired fl oor battery cages equipped with nipple drinkers and through feeders. Layers accessed to feed and water freely. Lighting regimen was adjusted to 16h light/8h dark. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. Overall results of the present experiment indicated that rice bran could be included up to 10% without any adverse affect on laying performance, egg quality and digestive organs.

  18. Reduction of 13 kD prolamins increases recombinant protein yield and recovery rate in rice endosperm.

    Kawakatsu, Taiji; Takaiwa, Fumio


    RNA silencing inducible sequence (RSIS) causes post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of 5' or 3' flanking sequence-containing genes by inhibiting proper transcriptional termination. Exploiting this nature, 13 kD Pro-less, in which major seed storage protein (SSP) 13 kD prolamins are reduced, has been generated. In 13 kD Pro-less, other SSPs, such as glutelins, are increased as a compensation effect to maintain amino acid pool. 7Crp is the seven-linked epitope peptide derived from major cedar pollen allergens Cry j 1 and Cry j 2. When 7Crp is expressed in 13 kD Pro-less endosperm, accumulation level of 7Crp increased. Furthermore, recovery rate of 7Crp without reducing reagent increased. These findings indicate that 13 kD Pro-less endosperm provides a good production platform for recombinant proteins.

  19. A Novel C2-Domain Phospholipid-Binding Protein,OsPBP1.Is Required for Pollen Fertility in Rice

    Wen-Qiang Yang; Ying Lai; Mei-Na Li; Wen-Ying Xu; Yong-Biao Xue


    Pollen fertility is a crucial factor for successful pollination and essential for seed formation.Recent studies have suggested that a diverse range of internal and external factors,signaling components and their related pathways are likely involved in pollen fertility.Here,we reporta single C2-domain containing protein.OsPBPl.initially identified through cDNA microarray analysis.OsP8P1 is a single copy gene and preferentially expressed in pistil and pollen but downregulated by pollination.OsPBP1 had a calcium concentration-dependent phospholipid-binding activity and was localized mainly in cytoplasm and nucleus,but translocated onto the plasma membrane in response to an intracellular Ca2+increase.Pollen grains of antisense OsPBP1 transgenic Iines were largely nonviable.germinated poorly in vitro and of low fertility,OsPBP1 protein was localized in a region peripheral to pollen wall and vesicles of elongating pollen tube.and its repressed expression reduced substantially this association and led to alteration of microfilament polymerization during pollen germination.Taken together,these results indicate that OsPBP1 is a novel functional C2-domain phosphoIipids-binding protein that is required for pollen fertility likely by regulating Ca2+ and phospholipid signaling pathways.

  20. The World of Rice



    @@ Pilafs, risottos, soups, snacks, paellas,stuffing, vinegars, wines and desserts-rice is used all over the world in myriad ways as food and drink.Although rice is one of the world's most ancient foods and it is impossible to know exactly where and when cultivation of this marvelous grain began, China is popularly acknowledged as the homeland of rice. Chinese people have many legends about rice. Some describe a benevolent goddess in silk robes whose gown accidentally picked up stray rice grains, which she dropped from the heavens to humans below. It's also said that Shennong, the Divine Farmer in Chinese myth, sowed the first rice on earth.

  1. Storage protein profile and amino acid content in wild rice Oryza glumaepatula Perfil da proteína de reserva e conteúdo de aminoácidos no arroz silvestre Oryza glumaepatula

    Karina Freire D'eça Nogueira Santos


    Full Text Available - The objective of this work was to determine the total protein profile and the contents of the four major protein fractions (albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin and of the amino acids in the endosperm of the rice wild species Oryza glumaepatula. The experiment was performed with 29 accessions of this species, collected from 13 Brazilian locations, and two commercial cultivars. Protein samples were prepared using dried, polished, and ground grains to obtain homogeneous, dry flour used in the preparation of extracts. Oryza glumaepatula accessions were identified with the highest levels of total protein, albumin and glutelin protein fractions, and amino acids (with the exception of tryptophan in comparison to the two analized rice cultivars. The albumin and glutelin profiles in SDS-Page were distinct between rice cultivars and O. glumaepatula. This wild species has the potential to increase the nutritional quality of rice storage protein through interspecific crosses.- O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os perfis de proteína total e o conteúdo das quatro principais frações proteicas (albumina, globulina, prolamina e glutelina e de aminoácidos no endosperma da espécie de arroz silvestre Oryza glumaepatula. O experimento foi realizado com 29 acessos dessa espécie, coletados em 13 locais no Brasil, e duas cultivares comerciais. Amostras de proteínas foram preparadas com grãos secos, polidos e moídos, para obtenção de uma farinha seca e homogênea, usada no preparo dos estratos. Acessos de O. glumaepatula foram identificados com os maiores níveis de proteína total, frações proteicas de albumina e glutelina, e aminoácidos (com exceção do triptofano, em comparação às duas cultivares de arroz avaliadas. Os perfis de albumina e glutelina em SDS-PAGE foram distintos entre as cultivares de arroz e O. glumaepatula. Essa espécie silvestre tem o potencial de aumentar a qualidade nutricional da proteína de reserva do arroz por

  2. Iron biofortification of Myanmar rice

    May Sann Aung


    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency causes elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75% and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high yields and/or qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  3. The use of rice seeds to produce human pharmaceuticals for oral therapy.

    Wakasa, Yuhya; Takaiwa, Fumio


    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the major staple food consumed by half of the world's population. Rice seeds have gained recent attention as bioreactors for the production of human pharmaceuticals such as therapeutic proteins or peptides. Rice seed production platforms have many advantages over animal cell or microbe systems in terms of cost-effectiveness, scalability, safety, product stability and productivity. Rice seed-based human pharmaceuticals are expected to become innovative therapies as edible drugs. Therapeutic proteins can be sequestered within natural cellular compartments in rice seeds and protected from harsh gastrointestinal environments. This review presents the state-of-the-art on the construction of gene cassettes for accumulation of pharmaceutical proteins or peptides in rice seeds, the generation of transgenic rice plants, and challenges involved in the use of rice seeds to produce human pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. 碎米蛋白可食用膜制备工艺的优化%Optimization for preparation of broken rice protein edible film

    艾丹; 胡秋林; 王双; 高俊


    With broken rice protein as raw material to prepare edible films, the effects of pH, protein concentration, glycerol addition and the reaction temperature had been studied individually. Based on the single factor experiment, the method of response surface analysis(RSA) was adopted to optimize the preparing technology. The results were as that:pHll. 5,protein concentration of 5 g/(100 ml), glycerol addition of 2. 09 g/(100 ml), reaction temperature of 87℃. Under these conditions,for the films,the tension strength was 2. 47 MPa, the elongation at break was 175.68%, the water vapor permeability was 4. 84 g ·mm/(kPa ·d ·m2), the transparency was 86. 1 % , the solubility was 27. 88% and the synthesizing evaluation score was 78. 44. The difference was 0. 24% with the predicted value(78. 63).%以碎米蛋白为原材料制备可食用膜,分别探讨了膜液pH值、碎米蛋白溶液浓度、甘油添加量和热反应温度对蛋白膜性能的影响.在单因素实验的基础上,利用响应面法对碎米蛋白可食用膜的制备工艺进行优化,得到最佳工艺条件为:pH11.5、碎米蛋白溶液浓度为5 g/(100ml)、甘油添加量2.09 g/(100ml)、温度87℃.该条件下,蛋白膜的抗拉强度为2.47MPa,断裂伸长率为175.68%,水蒸气透过率为4.84 g·mm/(kPa·d·m2),透光率为86.1%,溶解性为27.88%,综合评分为78.44,与模型预测值(78.63)相差0.24%.

  5. Impact of second line limiting amino acids’ deficiency in broilers fed low protein diets with rapeseed meal and de-oiled rice bran

    C. Basavanta Kumar


    Full Text Available Aim: To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. Materials and Methods: A control (T1 corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a ‘moderate SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a ‘high SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% de-oiled rice bran. Each of these treatments was allotted to six replicates of ten chicks each. During the 42 days experimental period, growth performance, carcass parameters and intake of metabolizable energy (ME, crude protein (CP and AA were studied. Results: The cumulative body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass cut weights and yields of carcass, breast and thighs were decreased (p<0.05 in T3 compared to T1. The absolute intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine and threonine were not affected while intake of CP and all SLAA were reduced in SLAA deficit diets. The relative intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine, threonine and SLAA reduced in T3 in comparison to T1. The relative weights of internal organs were not affected by treatments while the abdominal fat percentage was increased linearly to the magnitude of SLAA deficiency. Conclusion: The deficiency of SLAA decreased performance, carcass yields and impaired utilization of ME, CP and AA linearly to the magnitude of the deficiency.

  6. 葵花粕分离蛋白对黑米面包面团粉质特性的影响%Effect of Sunflower Meal Isolated Protein on the Farinograph Characteristics of Black Rice Bread Dough

    李云玲; 朱效兵; 郭淑文; 石晶红


    研究添加葵花粕分离蛋白对黑米面包混粉面团粉质特性的影响,为葵花粕分离蛋白作为功能性材料开发功能性食品提供理论依据。以面包粉和黑米粉为原料,添加一定比例葵花粕分离蛋白,利用布拉本德(Brabender)粉质仪测定面团吸水率、形成时间、稳定时间和弱化度。面包粉中添加30%黑米粉、4%谷朊粉、1%~5%的葵花粕分离蛋白后,混粉面团的吸水率增加,形成时间和稳定时间先增加后减少,弱化度先下降后上升。添加1%~3%的葵花粕分离蛋白,可以改善黑米面包混粉的粉质特性,进而改变其加工特性。%The effect of adding sunflower meal isolated protein on the farinograph characteristics of black rice bread dough were studied,it provided a theoretical basis for sunflower meal isolated protein as a functional mate-rial to develop functional foods. Bread flour and black rice flour as raw materials,adding the right amount of sunflower meal isolated protein,Brabender farinograph was used to determination dough water absorption,devel-opment time,stability time,softening degree of mixed dough. Adding 30%black rice flour,4%gluten flour, 1 %-5%sunflower meal isolated protein in the bread flour,the water absorption of mixed dough increased,the development time and the stability time increased first and then decreased,the softening degree decreased first and then increased. Adding 1%-3%sunflower meal isolated protein could improve the farinograph properties of black rice bread mixed dough,and then change the processing characteristics.

  7. Special rice in China


    @@Mingshui Rice: It originated from Zhangqiu County, Shandong Province. The characteristics of Mingshui Rice were: absorbing more water, swelling up greatly after being soaked, and being sticky and smelling fragrant after cooked.

  8. 微波场中大米蛋白-糊精接枝反应的工艺研究%Study on rice protein-maltodextrin graft reaction under microwave radiation

    李超; 程云辉; 黄强; 罗发兴


    Rice protein was grafted with maltodextrin by using microwave radiation to modify its properties.Based on the recovery and solubility,the single factors affecting the graft reaction were tested.Under the conditions of the microwave power 200~500W and quality of rice protein and maltodextrin ratio of 1:5,optimum reaction conditions determined by RSM test using solubility as index were as follows:total reaction time 9.90min,the reaction temperature 79.73℃ and reaction pH 11.18,the solubility of rice protein increased from 7.95% to 35.82%.%采用微波加热技术对大米蛋白与麦芽糊精进行接枝改性,通过接枝物回收率和溶解度的测定,对其工艺进行优化。以溶解度为响应值,在微波功率200~500W、大米蛋白-麦芽糊精质量配比为1:5的条件下,采用响应面法对其工艺进行优化,最佳工艺条件为:累计加热时间9.90min、反应温度79.73℃、反应pH11.18,此时大米蛋白溶解度从7.95%提高至35.82%。


    张晔; 张欢


    Protein content in rice was determined by Kjeldahl method, the first method of GB/T5009.5-2003,the measurement uncertainty was tracked from such experimental processes as sample weighing, digestion,volume, pipet digestion, distillation and titration etc.. By calculation and synthesis of each component uncertainty, it figured out the factors affected the measurement uncertainty, and evaluated the uncertainty of each component, analyzed the standard uncertainty and expanded uncertainty of protein in rice samples,and described the relative contributions which affected various components results of rice protein on its uncertainty.%采用GB/T5009.5-2003第一法,凯氏定氮法测定大米中蛋白质的含量,其测量不确定度来源于样品称量、消化、定容、移取消化液、蒸馏及滴定等过程.通过对各个不确定度分量的计算合成,找出影响测量不确定度的因素,并对各个不确定度分量进行评估,最终分析出样品大米中蛋白质的标准不确定度及扩展不确定度并描述了影响大米蛋白质测定结果各分量对其不确定度的相对贡献.

  10. Genomic dissection of small RNAs in wild rice (Oryza rufipogon): lessons for rice domestication.

    Wang, Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Yan, Chenghai; Gui, Yiejie; Wei, Xinghua; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Guo, Longbiao; Fan, Longjiang


    The lack of a MIRNA set and genome sequence of wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) has prevented us from determining the role of MIRNA genes in rice domestication. In this study, a genome, three small RNA populations and a degradome of O. rufipogon were sequenced by Illumina platform and the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) were investigated by miRNA chips. A de novo O. rufipogon genome was assembled using c. 55× coverage of raw sequencing data and a total of 387 MIRNAs were identified in the O. rufipogon genome based on c. 5.2 million unique small RNA reads from three different tissues of O. rufipogon. Of these, O. rufipogon MIRNAs, 259 were not found in the cultivated rice, suggesting a loss of these MIRNAs in the cultivated rice. We also found that 48 MIRNAs were novel in the cultivated rice, suggesting that they were potential targets of domestication selection. Some miRNAs showed significant expression differences between wild and cultivated rice, suggesting that expression of miRNA could also be a target of domestication, as demonstrated for the miR164 family. Our results illustrated that MIRNA genes, like protein-coding genes, might have been significantly shaped during rice domestication and could be one of the driving forces that contributed to rice domestication.

  11. Rice Price under Pressure

    Liu Xinwen


    @@ Early in April, the FOB (Free on Board) value of rice exported from Bangkok, Thailand, the biggest rice exporter of the world, surged to a new high of US$730per ton, representing an increase of 70 percent in recent years, and setting a new record over the past 34 years of Thailand rice exports.

  12. 不同黄酒部位的沉淀蛋白质氨基酸组成分析%Components of Amino Acids of Haze Protein from the Different Setting Fraction in Chinese Rice Wine

    黄雪松; 陈磊


    To investigate the causes of turbidity and sedimentation in Chinese rice wine, haze proteins were ob- tained through the absorbing effects in the rice wine and precipitate.. The hydrolysis amino acids of both the haze pro- teins and the precipitate were analyzed by amino acid auto - analyzer. The results show that the haze protein in rice wine is composed mainly of glutamic (41.33%) , proline ( 18.66% ) and phenylalanine (9.56%), haze protein in the precipitate is composed of luctamic ( 12.39% ) , aspartic ( 11.32% ) and leucine (8.02%) and those in the precipitate is composed of glutamic (16.57%), aspartic (10.91%) and leucine (7.14%). A conclusion can be drawn that glutamic acid is the main amino acid of haze proteins that caused the turbidity and sedimentation of rice wine.%为分析黄酒混浊与沉淀的原因,采用硅溶胶吸附分离法获得黄酒酒液和酒脚中易引起沉淀的蛋白,并一起分析测定这2个样品和酒脚的氨基酸组成。结果表明:酒液沉淀蛋白的主要氨基酸为谷氨酸、脯氨酸和苯丙氨酸,相对含量分别为41.33%、18.66%和9.56%;酒脚沉淀蛋白中主要氨基酸为谷氨酸、天门冬氨酸、亮氨酸,分别为12.39%、11.32%和8.02%;酒脚中主要氨基酸为谷氨酸、天门冬氨酸、亮氨酸,分别为16.57%、10.91%、7.14%。该结果显示黄酒所含醇溶蛋白质中的谷氨酸导致黄酒混浊、沉淀现象的主要氨基酸。

  13. Interaction between four rice proteins and P7-2, an unstructural viral protein encoded by Rice black streaked dwarf virus S7%四种水稻蛋白与水稻黑条矮缩病毒编码非结构蛋白 P7-2的互作分析

    张上林; 孙丽英; 陈剑平


    Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus, infects maize and rice plants and causes significant yield losses in Asia .RBSDV has a genome of 10 dsRNAs and encodes 12 proteins.Six of these proteins (P1, P2, P3, P4, P8 and P10) are structural components of the viral particle .There are six non-structural proteins, P5, P6, P7-1, P7-2, P9-1, and P9-2.Among those non-structural proteins, P5, P6 and P9-1 have been shown to involve in viroplasm formation and P 7-1 has been identified to form the cytoplasmic tubular-like structures that serve as a conduit for virion movement between cells .The function of P7-2 and P9-2 is still unknow . In this study , we utilized protein Pull-Down assay and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry ( LC-MS/MS) techniques to identify the proteins from rice ( Oryza sativa) that interact with P7-2.Four proteins were found to bind P7-2 by Pull-Down assay.Two of them are transcription-associated proteins, one is an aminotransferase and the other one is a putative chaperonin 60 beta precursor .Using real-time quantitative PCR , the transcript expression lev-els of transcription-associated protein and putative chaperonin 60 beta precursor were up-regulated by RBSDV infec-tion.In contrast , the transcript expression of aminotransferase protein was suppressed by RBSDV infection .%水稻黑条矮缩病毒( RBSDV)是斐济病毒属的成员之一,可侵染玉米和水稻等作物,给亚洲地区的田间生产带来严重的损失。 RBSDV有10条双链RNA(double strand RNA, dsRNA)基因组,编码12个蛋白。其中6个蛋白是病毒粒子的结构成分(P1,P2,P3,P4,P8,P10),6个非结构蛋白分别为P5,P6,P7-1,P7-2,P9-1, P9-2。在非结构蛋白中,P5,P6和P9-1已被证实参与形成毒质结构,P7-1被认为可在细胞质中形成类似管状的结构作为病毒胞间扩散的通道,P7-2和P9-2的功能目前尚不明确。

  14. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.


    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp i

  15. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.


    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp

  16. Special rice in China


    Wushan Rice: It grew in hilly land around Wu Mountain in Wang City, Hunan Province. Its grain is bright and transparent, and the cooked rice is soft, sticky, fragrant, and sweet in taste. It was a "Tribute Rice" in old time. Indian Indica: Growing in Wuchang City, Hubei Province, it was also called" Red Flower Rice" . It was characterized by its thin pericarp and soft, sticky, and oily quality. Its taste was delicious. Fragrant Rice 1: It was from Xinxiang and Hui counties, Henan Province. Its characteristics were: long-round in grain shape, white in color, soft and sticky in quality, and agreeable to the taste. It was usually used as a gift in the local. Baiyutang Rice: It originated from Gaozhuang Village, Beijing suburban district. It had good quality due to the irrigation of the spring water. The rice had even grain shape, white color, hard enough quality to be cooked, fragrant and sweet taste. It was one of the "Tribute Rice" in old time. Tian′e Indica Rice: Xianning and Wuchang counties, Hubei Province were its growing area. It also called "Double Grain" because of its big grain. The hull was red, while the grain was white. When cooked, it needed more water than normal rice, and the rice was agreeable to the taste. Baiyan Rice: It originated from Jishou County, Hunan Province. The grain was even in shape, white in color, and sticky in quality. The rice was easy to be cooked and was fragrant and sweet in taste. It was also a " Tribute Rice" in old time. □ (To be continued) Translated by CHEN Wenhua, From "China Rice", No. 1, 1994

  17. RICD: A rice indica cDNA database resource for rice functional genomics

    Zhang Qifa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Oryza sativa L. indica subspecies is the most widely cultivated rice. During the last few years, we have collected over 20,000 putative full-length cDNAs and over 40,000 ESTs isolated from various cDNA libraries of two indica varieties Guangluai 4 and Minghui 63. A database of the rice indica cDNAs was therefore built to provide a comprehensive web data source for searching and retrieving the indica cDNA clones. Results Rice Indica cDNA Database (RICD is an online MySQL-PHP driven database with a user-friendly web interface. It allows investigators to query the cDNA clones by keyword, genome position, nucleotide or protein sequence, and putative function. It also provides a series of information, including sequences, protein domain annotations, similarity search results, SNPs and InDels information, and hyperlinks to gene annotation in both The Rice Annotation Project Database (RAP-DB and The TIGR Rice Genome Annotation Resource, expression atlas in RiceGE and variation report in Gramene of each cDNA. Conclusion The online rice indica cDNA database provides cDNA resource with comprehensive information to researchers for functional analysis of indica subspecies and for comparative genomics. The RICD database is available through our website

  18. Studies on the rice prolamine compositions and contents

    LINGJiangqun; HEZhuhua; LIDebao


    Polamines are the major seed storage proteins in most of the sereals. The rice prolamines contain a high mole percentage of glutamine residues and low jevels of lysine, histidine,cystine, and methionine. Among the four coraponent of rice prolamiaes, 16KDa and 10KDa contsin more sulfate-riched amino acid residues.

  19. The NS3 protein of Rice hoja blanca tenuivirus suppresses RNA silencing in plant and insect hosts by efficiently binding both siRNAs and miRNAs

    Hemmes, J.C.; Lakatos, L.; Goldbach, R.W.; Burgyan, J.; Prins, M.W.


    RNA silencing plays a key role in antiviral defense as well as in developmental processes in plants and insects. Negative strand RNA viruses such as the plant virus Rice hoja blanca tenuivirus (RHBV) replicate in plants and in their insect transmission vector. Like most plant-infecting viruses, RHBV

  20. The NS3 protein of Rice hoja blanca tenuivirus suppresses RNA silencing in plant and insect hosts by efficiently binding both siRNAs and miRNAs

    Hemmes, J.C.; Lakatos, L.; Goldbach, R.W.; Burgyan, J.; Prins, M.W.


    RNA silencing plays a key role in antiviral defense as well as in developmental processes in plants and insects. Negative strand RNA viruses such as the plant virus Rice hoja blanca tenuivirus (RHBV) replicate in plants and in their insect transmission vector. Like most plant-infecting viruses, RHBV

  1. Studies on the Ecological Adaptability of Growing Rice with Floating Bed on the Dilute Biogas Slurry

    Qun Kang


    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the ecological adaptability and the possibility of growing rice with floating bed on the dilute biogas slurry. The results of the experiments show that the growth stage, rice plant height, and rice yield and quality were significantly affected by multiple dilutions; rice plants cultivated with 45 multiple dilutions had better ecological adaptability than others. In the 45 multiple dilutions’ group, the yield of rice was 13.3 g/bucket (8 rice plants, milled rice rate was 63.1%, and the content of crude protein in the rice was 6.3%. The concentrations of heavy metals in the rice cultivated with 30 multiple dilutions’ slurry, such as total lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic, were all below the national standard. The study shows that it is possible and safe to cultivate rice plants with no soil but diluted biogas slurry. In the experiments, the yield, milled rice rate, and crude protein of the rice cultivated with slurry were not as much as those of rice cultivated with regular way in soil. This study provides the basic theoretical support for the development of biogas projects and the potential achievement of organic farming in special agricultural facilities and circular economy.

  2. Studies on the Ecological Adaptability of Growing Rice with Floating Bed on the Dilute Biogas Slurry

    Du, Qi; Cheng, Bowen; Liao, Zhiqi; Sun, Chengcheng


    This study aimed to explore the ecological adaptability and the possibility of growing rice with floating bed on the dilute biogas slurry. The results of the experiments show that the growth stage, rice plant height, and rice yield and quality were significantly affected by multiple dilutions; rice plants cultivated with 45 multiple dilutions had better ecological adaptability than others. In the 45 multiple dilutions' group, the yield of rice was 13.3 g/bucket (8 rice plants), milled rice rate was 63.1%, and the content of crude protein in the rice was 6.3%. The concentrations of heavy metals in the rice cultivated with 30 multiple dilutions' slurry, such as total lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic, were all below the national standard. The study shows that it is possible and safe to cultivate rice plants with no soil but diluted biogas slurry. In the experiments, the yield, milled rice rate, and crude protein of the rice cultivated with slurry were not as much as those of rice cultivated with regular way in soil. This study provides the basic theoretical support for the development of biogas projects and the potential achievement of organic farming in special agricultural facilities and circular economy. PMID:27882324

  3. The Rice Mitochondria Proteome and its Response During Development and to the Environment

    Shaobai eHuang


    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is both a major crop species and the key model grass for molecular and physiological research. Mitochondria are important in rice, as in all crops, as the main source of ATP for cell maintenance and growth. However, the practical significance of understanding the function of mitochondria in rice is increased by the widespread farming practice of using hybrids to boost rice production. This relies on cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS lines with abortive pollen caused by dysfunctional mitochondria. We provide an overview of what is known about the mitochondrial proteome of rice seedlings. To date, more than 320 proteins have been identified in purified rice mitochondria using mass spectrometry. The insights from this work include a broad understanding of the major subunits of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and TCA cycle enzymes, carbon and nitrogen metabolism enzymes as well as details of the supporting machinery for biogenesis and the subset of stress-responsive mitochondrial proteins. Many proteins with unknown functions have also been found in rice mitochondria. Proteomic analysis has also revealed the features of rice mitochondrial protein presequences required for mitochondrial targeting, as well as cleavage site features for processing of precursors after import. Changes in the abundance of rice mitochondrial proteins in response to different stresses, especially anoxia and light, are summarized. Future research on quantitative analysis of the rice mitochondrial proteomes at the spatial and developmental level, its response to environmental stresses and recent advances in understanding of basis of rice CMS systems are highlighted.

  4. Study on the Effect of Sunflower Meal Protein Isolate on Extensograph Properties of Black Rice Bread Dough%葵花粕分离蛋白对黑米面包面团拉伸特性的影响

    李云玲; 孙世锴; 朱效兵; 石晶红


    以面包专用粉为对照,研究黑米粉、谷朊粉及葵花粕分离蛋白与面包专用粉不同配比混粉面团的拉伸特性,并对各混粉面团的理化指标与拉伸参数进行相关性分析,结果表明,当添加黑米粉的添加量为30%时,添加2%~4%的谷朊粉,1%~3%的葵花粕分离蛋白,能明显改善混粉面团的拉伸特性。%Taking the bread special flour as the contrast,the extensograph properties were studied on bread spe-cial flour dough mixed with different ratio of black rice flour, gluten flour and sunflower meal protein isolate, the correlation analysis of the physical and chemical indexes and extensograph parameters of the mixed flour was carried out, and the results showed that the addition of black rice flour was 30%, added 2%-4%of gluten powder and 1%-3%of sunflower meal protein isolate, could significantly improve the extensograph properties of mixed flour dough.

  5. 水稻螟虫神经肽 PBAN 及其受体序列的生物信息学分析%Bioinformatic analysis of PBAN and its receptor proteins in rice stem borers

    常菊花; 何月平


    【目的】性信息素合成激活肽(PBAN)是控制昆虫产生性信息素的激素,本文旨在分析水稻螟虫神经肽 PBAN 及其受体的序列。【方法】通过 tBlastn 同源检索从水稻螟虫基因组和转录组数据库中鉴定水稻螟虫 PBAN 神经肽及其受体序列,在此基础上进行序列比对及系统发生分析。【结果】发现二化螟 Chilo suppressalis、三化螟 Tryporyza incertulas 和大螟 Sesamia inferens 的 PBAN 成熟肽序列均含有33个氨基酸残基,其 C 端五肽序列完全相同,3种水稻螟虫 PBAN 多肽相似度为54.55%~63.64%;发现二化螟 PBAN 受体3个异构体全长氨基酸序列(PBANR-A、PBANR-B 和 PBANR-C),均含有7个跨膜区域。【结论】进化树分析发现不同昆虫 PBAN 神经肽及其受体存在一定的保守性和多样性,并且在进化树上的位置几乎与昆虫系统发育分类一致,推测 PBAN 神经肽和 PBAN 受体在昆虫系统进化过程中可能存在协同进化现象。本研究为水稻螟虫 PBAN 神经肽及其受体的结构和功能分析提供基础。%Objectives] To determine the amino acid sequences of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN), a hormone that controls the synthesis of insect sex pheromones, and its receptor proteins, in rice stem borers. [Methods] We used tBlastn searching of the rice pest genome and transcriptome databases to predict sequences of PBAN and its receptors in rice stem borers after which sequences were aligned and a phylogenetic tree constructed. [Results] The mature peptide sequences of PBAN in the rice stem borers, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas and Sesamia inferens, contain 33 amino acid residues, and have the same five peptide sequences in the C-terminal. The similarity of PBAN polypeptides in these three insects was 54.55%-63.64%. The sequences of three isoforms of the PBAN receptor (PBANR-A, PBANR-B and PBANR-C) in C. suppressalis were predicted from the C

  6. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two rice varieties in response to rice stripe virus and small brown planthoppers during early interaction.

    Wenjing Zheng

    Full Text Available Rice stripe, a virus disease, transmitted by a small brown planthopper (SBPH, has greatly reduced production of japonica rice in East Asia, especially in China. Although we have made great progress in mapping resistance genes, little is known about the mechanism of resistance. By de novo transcriptome assembling, we gained sufficient transcript data to analyze changes in gene expression of early interaction in response to SBPH and RSV infection in rice. Respectively 648 and 937 DEGs were detected from the disease-resistant (Liaonong 979 and the susceptible (Fengjin varieties, most of which were up-regulated. We found 37 genes related to insect resistance, which mainly included genes for jasmonate-induced protein, TIFY protein, lipoxygenase, as well as trypsin inhibitor genes and transcription factor genes. In the interaction process between RSV and rice, 87 genes were thought to be related to RSV resistance; these primarily included 12 peroxidase biosynthesis genes, 12 LRR receptor-like protein kinase genes, 6 genes coding pathogenesis-related proteins, 4 glycine-rich cell wall structural protein genes, 2 xyloglucan hydrolase genes and a cellulose synthase. The results indicate that the rice-pathogen interaction happened both in disease-resistant and susceptible varieties, and some genes related to JA biosynthesis played key roles in the interaction between SBPHs and rice. When rice was infected by RSV a hypersensitive reaction (HR in the disease-resistant variety was suppressed, which resulted from an increase in peroxidase expression and down-regulation of LRR receptor-like protein kinase and pathogenesis-related proteins, while, the changes of peroxidase biosynthesis, glycine-rich cell wall structural protein, cellulose synthase and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase could lead to the strengthening of physical barriers of rice, which may be an important resistance mechanism to RSV in rice.

  7. Study of rice. gamma. -irradiation

    Lien, J.J.; Chau, R.S.; Chen, S.C.; Chu, S.L.; Fu, Y.K.; Fang, C.K.; Fu, Y.H.


    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether the /sup 60/Co gamma-irradiated milled rice packed in economic and practical sealed bags could be preserved in common granaries in Taiwan for more than one year rather than slightly over one month without quality deterioration. As a result of this experiment we found that during the preservation of over a period of 18 months, the contents, such as moisture, ash, protein and fiber, of Tainan-5 Bon-Lai (Japonica Type) rice irradiated with 20 and 40 krad doses were quite stable, whereas reducing sugar showed slight fluctuations but did not vary significantly either. The fat, vitamin B/sub 1/ and niacin contents were found being reduced, while the increase in fatty acid content was an inevitable phenomenon along with the proceeding of the preservation.

  8. The Stay-Green Rice like (SGRL) gene regulates chlorophyll degradation in rice.

    Rong, Hong; Tang, Yongyan; Zhang, Hua; Wu, Pingzhi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Wu, Guojiang; Jiang, Huawu


    The Stay-Green Rice (SGR) protein is encoded by the SGR gene and has been shown to affect chlorophyll (Chl) degradation during natural and dark-induced leaf senescence. An SGR homologue, SGR-like (SGRL), has been detected in many plant species. We show that SGRL is primarily expressed in green tissues, and is significantly downregulated in rice leaves undergoing natural and dark-induced senescence. As the light intensity increases during the natural photoperiod, the intensity of SGRL expression declines while that of SGR expression increases. Overexpression of SGRL reduces the levels of Chl and Chl-binding proteins in leaves, and accelerates their degradation in dark-induced senescence leaves in rice. Our results suggest that the SGRL protein is also involved in Chl degradation. The relationship between SGRL and SGR and their effects on the degradation of the light-harvesting Chl a/b-binding protein are also discussed.

  9. Unravelling the proteomic profile of rice meiocytes during early meiosis

    Collado-Romero, Melania; Alós, Enriqueta; Prieto, Pilar


    Transfer of genetic traits from wild or related species into cultivated rice is nowadays an important aim in rice breeding. Breeders use genetic crosses to introduce desirable genes from exotic germplasms into cultivated rice varieties. However, in many hybrids there is only a low level of pairing (if existing) and recombination at early meiosis between cultivated rice and wild relative chromosomes. With the objective of getting deeper into the knowledge of the proteins involved in early meiosis, when chromosomes associate correctly in pairs and recombine, the proteome of isolated rice meiocytes has been characterized by nLC-MS/MS at every stage of early meiosis (prophase I). Up to 1316 different proteins have been identified in rice isolated meiocytes in early meiosis, being 422 exclusively identified in early prophase I (leptotene, zygotene, or pachytene). The classification of proteins in functional groups showed that 167 were related to chromatin structure and remodeling, nucleic acid binding, cell-cycle regulation, and cytoskeleton. Moreover, the putative roles of 16 proteins which have not been previously associated to meiosis or were not identified in rice before, are also discussed namely: seven proteins involved in chromosome structure and remodeling, five regulatory proteins [such as SKP1 (OSK), a putative CDK2 like effector], a protein with RNA recognition motifs, a neddylation-related protein, and two microtubule-related proteins. Revealing the proteins involved in early meiotic processes could provide a valuable tool kit to manipulate chromosome associations during meiosis in rice breeding programs. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with the PXD001058 identifier. PMID:25104955

  10. Rice that Filipinos Grow and Eat

    de Leon, John C.


    This paper introduces rice to the reader and analyzes the changes it has gone through these past 100 years in the shaping hands of varietal improvement science. Here, the richness of the crop as a genetic material and resource is revealed. Landrace rice, pureline selection rice, crossbred rice, semidwarf rice, hybrid rice, new plant type rice, designer rice - from the traditional to modern to futuristic - rice becomes all of these while traversing time in the Philippines. There is rice for th...

  11. Production of a saccharifying rice malt for brewing using different rice varieties and malting parameters.

    Mayer, Heidi; Marconi, Ombretta; Regnicoli, Gian Franco; Perretti, Giuseppe; Fantozzi, Paolo


    This study was conducted to produce rice malt suitable for beer brewing. An all-rice beer would be particularly appealing to individuals with celiac disease because rice does not contain gluten proteins. Furthermore, rice malt could also contribute to new beer flavors and brands. A screening of 10 rice varieties was conducted. The varieties Balilla and Centauro were found to be suitable for the production of an all-rice malt beer without the need of exogenous enzymes. They were characterized by a low diastatic power but nevertheless they saccharified well, likely due to other endogenous amylolytic enzymes such as limit dextrinase and α-glucosidase. The addition of CaCl2 and lactic acid during mashing lowered the pH value and increased saccharification. However, the Balilla variety saccharified without the need of these additives. We also show that the soluble nitrogen and free amino nitrogen content of rice malt wort can be increased by the incorporation of the acrospires and rootlets during mashing.

  12. 水稻异源三聚体G蛋白生理功能的研究进展%Research Progress in Physiologic Functions of Heterotrimeric G Protein in Rice

    崔永涛; 吴立文; 郭龙彪; 胡兴明


    由α、β和γ3个亚基组成的异源三聚体 G蛋白是真核生物中一类重要的信号传导分子,在生长发育中起重要的调控作用.G蛋白通过细胞表面的偶联受体感知细胞外刺激,并由 G 蛋白传送信号到胞内蛋白来影响细胞行为.植物与动物G蛋白虽然具有类似的分子结构,但植物信号的传递由非典型“自我激活”机制和效应蛋白来完成并控制植物生长发育.综述了植物 G蛋白的组成;重点介绍了水稻 G蛋白亚基编码基因 D1、GS3、DEP1和qNGR9参与激素、抗病、抗逆信号传导及水稻株型控制,粒型和N元素高效吸收利用的研究进展.另外,对G蛋白的偶联信号途径组分和功能、系统生物学和应用方面进行了展望.%The GTP-binding protein (G protein),consisting of three subunits ofα,βandγ,is an important signaling molecule,playing a key role in growth and development in organism.Through the coupled receptors on the surface of cells,G protein perceives stimulation outside,then delivers the signals to intracellular proteins,thus affects the behaviorof cells.G proteins share similar molecular structures in plants and animals,but signal transition in the former is completed by atypical “self activation”mechanism and effector proteins,regulating the growth and development.We review the structures and functions of G proteins,characters and differences in molecular regular mechanisms,and G protein subunits genes of D1 ,GS3 ,DEP1 and qNGR9 in rice,which involved in signal transduction of hormone, disease resistance and stress resistance, and controlling of rice plant types, grain types and nitrogen utilization efficiency.Additionally,the coupled signaling components and functions,systemic biology and applications of G protein were also prospected.

  13. Evaluating Kinetic Composing of Cell Wall for Low-Fiber Mutation Rice

    SHEN Heng-sheng; CHEN Jun-chen; ZENG Da-li; TU Jie-feng; TANG Bao-sha; TENG Sheng


    The work compared the differences of low fiber mutation rice (LF, Nendao) that selectedthrough gamma-ray (γ) with parental variety Shuangkezao (CK) on their biologicaldevelopment and cell wall composing after rice heading stage. Comparing with parentalrice, LF rice revealed an advantage on its vegetative growing by increasing the yieldsof leave blade, leave sheath and stem for 27.77, 30.19 and 37.96% respectively. And thecellulose content of LF rice straw was decreased remarkably for 23.9%, the hemicellulose,lignin and biogenic silicon contents were increased contrarily for 11.94, 8.79 and 5.60%respectively. Moreover, the crude protein content was increased by 20.71% for LF rice andwith an improvement on its solubility for 63.49% concomitantly. The results indicatedthat the Iow-fiber mutation rice exhibited its potential as a fodder-rice variety or asdual-purpose rice to improve fiber degradability of straw.

  14. Down-Regulated Expression of RACK1 Gene by RNA Interference Enhances Drought Tolerance in Rice

    LI Da-hong; LIU Hui; YANG Yan-li; ZHEN Ping-ping; LIANG Jian-sheng


    The receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1) is a highly conserved scaffold protein with versatile functions, and plays important roles in the regulation of plant growth and development. Transgenic rice plants, in which the expression of RACK1 gene was inhibited by RNA interference (RNAi), were studied to elucidate the possible functions of RACK1 in responses to drought stress in rice. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of RACK1 in transgenic rice plants was inhibited by more than 50%. The tolerance to drought stress of the transgenic rice plants was higher as compared with the non-transgenic rice plants. The peroxidation of membrane and the production of malondialdehyde were significantly lower, and the superoxide dismutase activity in transgenic rice plants was significantly higher than those in non-trangenic rice plants. It is suggested that RACK1 negatively regulated the redox system-related tolerance to drought stress of rice plants.

  15. Dietary effect of rice milling waste and supplementary enzyme on ...



    Aug 21, 2013 ... Key words: Rice milling waste, enzyme, diets, broiler chicks, growth performance ... greater than the supply. ... energy, 5.25% crude protein and as high as 33.1% fibre. ..... bacterial population by digesting the long chain carbo-.

  16. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Rice Shoots Exposed to High Arsenate

    Yanli Liu; Ming Li; Chao Han; Fengxia Wu; Bingkun Tu; Pingfang Yang


    Consumption of arsenic contaminated water and cereals is a serious threat to humans all over the world. Rice (Oryza sativa“Nipponbare”), as a main cereal crop, can accumulate arsenic more than 10-fold that of in other cereals. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the response of rice subjected to 100 mM arsenate stress, a comparative proteomic analysis of rice shoots in combination with morphological and biochemical investigations have been performed in this study. The results demonstrated that arsenate suppressed the growth of rice seedlings, destroyed the cellular ultra-structure and changed the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, a total of 38 differentially displayed proteins, which were mainly involved in metabolism, redox and protein-metabolism, were identified. The data suggest the arsenic can inhibit rice growth through negatively affecting chloroplast structure and photosynthesis. In addition, upregulation of the proteins involved in redox and protein metabolism might help the rice to be resistant or tolerant to arsenic toxicity. In general, this study improves our understanding about the rice arsenic responsive mechanism.

  17. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Dongli He; Chao Han; Xiaojian Yin; Hui Zhang; Pingfang Yang


    Seed germination is a complex physiological which starts from the uptake of water by the dry seeds and ends at the protrusion of the radicle.In order to elucidate the mechanism of rice seed germination,we have conducted a systematic proteomic analyses combining with 1-D via LC MS/MS,comparative 2-DE and iTRAQ techniques using the whole seed or dissected embryos and endosperm.During rice seed germination,the embryo and endosperm played different roles.The seed weight increased and complied by a triphasic model.Phase I accompanied with rapid seed water-up-take,the embryo produced gibberellic acid (GA) and diffused to aleurone and then prepared to initiate a signaling cascade to drive the reserves degradation in the starchy endosperm.Phase II is the most important stage for metabolic reactions reactivation,the reserves mobilization,cell construction respiration,cell wall loosening and coleoptile elongation,most of the metabolism related proteins sorted to different pathways were identified at 24 h after imbibition,but the metabolism of nucleotides was not active at this stage for few related proteins have been involved.The degradation of seed maturation and desiccation-associated proteins seemed to be earlier than that of the storage proteins and starch.The glycolysis was the main pathway for energy and substance providing.Phase III is another rapid water-uptake stage accompanying with TCA and aerobic respiration strengthening,cell division initiation and the radical protrusion.Interesting,both biosynthesis and degradation of the same macromolecule were concurrence even in the dry seed,which implied the sequentially matabolic and regulatory events triggered by water uptake during rice seed germination have been programmed during seed maturation.

  18. Proteomics of Rice Grain under High Temperature Stress

    Toshiaki eMitsui


    Full Text Available Recent proteomic analyses revealed dynamic changes of metabolisms during rice grain development. Interestingly, proteins involved in glycolysis, citric acid cycle, lipid metabolism, and proteolysis were accumulated at higher levels in mature grain than those of developing stages. High temperature stress in rice ripening period causes damaged (chalky grains which have loosely packed round shape starch granules. The high temperature stress response on protein expression is complicated, and the molecular mechanism of the chalking of grain is obscure yet. Here, the current state on the proteomics research of rice grain grown under high temperature stress is briefly overviewed.

  19. Complexity of rice Hsp100 gene family: lessons from rice genome sequence data

    Gaurav Batra; Vineeta Singh Chauhan; Amanjot Singh; Neelam K Sarkar; Anil Grover


    Elucidation of genome sequence provides an excellent platform to understand detailed complexity of the various gene families. Hsp100 is an important family of chaperones in diverse living systems. There are eight putative gene loci encoding for Hsp100 proteins in Arabidopsis genome. In rice, two full-length Hsp100 cDNAs have been isolated and sequenced so far. Analysis of rice genomic sequence by in silico approach showed that two isolated rice Hsp100 cDNAs correspond to Os05g44340 and Os02g32520 genes in the rice genome database. There appears to be three additional proteins (encoded by Os03g31300, Os04g32560 and Os04g33210 gene loci) that are variably homologous to Os05g44340 and Os02g32520 throughout the entire amino acid sequence. The above five rice Hsp100 genes show significant similarities in the signature sequences known to be conserved among Hsp100 proteins. While Os05g44340 encodes cytoplasmic Hsp100 protein, those encoded by the other four genes are predicted to have chloroplast transit peptides.

  20. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati


    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  1. Improvements in the bread-making quality of gluten-free rice batter by glutathione.

    Yano, Hiroyuki


    The wide prevalence of celiac disease and wheat allergy has led to a growing demand for gluten-free foods. Rice proteins do not possess the viscoelastic properties typically found in gluten, thus making rice flour unsuitable for the production of yeast-leavened products. In the present study, we found that the addition of glutathione to rice batter improves its gas-retaining properties. Glutathione was found to prevent the formation of the disulfide-linked macromolecular protein barrier, which is reported to confer resistance to the deformation of rice batter in the baking process. Also, glutathione appeared to gelatinize rice starch at lower temperatures. Microstructure analyses of glutathione-added rice bread revealed it to have a perforated structure like wheat bread but with a smoother-looking surface. These data collectively suggest that glutathione facilitates the deformation of rice batter, thus increasing its elasticity in the early stages of bread baking and the volume of the resulting bread.

  2. Recombinant protein expression plasmids optimized for industrial E. coli fermentation and plant systems produce biologically active human insulin-like growth factor-1 in transgenic rice and tobacco plants.

    Panahi, Mitra; Alli, Zaman; Cheng, Xiongying; Belbaraka, Loubaba; Belgoudi, Jaafar; Sardana, Ravinder; Phipps, Jenny; Altosaar, Illimar


    Human insulin-like growth factor-1 (hIGF-1) is a growth factor with clinical significance in medicine. The therapeutic potential of recombinant hIGF-1 (rthIGF-1) stems from the fact that hIGF-1 resembles insulin in many aspects of physiology. The expression of hIGF-1 in transgenic tobacco and rice plants using different expression cassettes is reported here. In the present study, two coding sequences were tested, one with the original human sequence, but partially optimized for expression in E. coli and the other with a plant-codon-optimized sequence that was expected to give a higher level of expression in plant systems. Three different hIGF-1 recombinant expression constructs were generated. All expression constructs utilized the maize ubiquitin 1 promoter with or without a signal sequence. Analyses conducted using a hIGF-1 specific ELISA kit showed all transgenic plants produced hIGF-1 and the accumulated hIGF-1 increased from the E. coli codon bias to higher levels when the hIGF-1 coding sequence was codon-optimized to match that of the maize zeamatin protein--the most transcribed gene in maize endosperm suspension cells. Further analyses that compared the functionality of the bacterial signal peptide Lam B in plants showed that this leader peptide led to lower expression levels when compared to transgenic plants that did not contain this sequence. This indicated that this expression construct was functional without removal of the bacterial signal sequence. The maize ubiquitin 1 promoter was found to be more active in rice plants than tobacco plants indicating that in this case, there was a class preference that was biased towards a monocot host. Biological analyses conducted using protein extracts from transgenic plants showed that the rthIGF-1 was effective in stimulating the in vitro growth and proliferation of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. This indicated that the plant-produced rthIGF-1 was stable and biologically active. As some plants have been

  3. Detection of GUS Protein and Its Expression Pattern in Transgenic Rice Plants%转基因水稻中GUS蛋白质的检测及其表达特征

    牛东东; 奚文辉; 武鹏程; 刘丽娟; 吴琳; 刘斯奇; 尹长城; 刘国振; 郝育杰; 荣瑞娟; 韦汉福; 兰金苹; 史佳楠; 魏健; 李雪姣; 杨烁


    Objective The objective of the current research is to establish a method for detecting GUS protein in transgenic rice via immunoassay and reveal the expression pattern of GUS protein driven by cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter.[Method]Genomic DNA isolated fromE. coli was used as template to amplifyGusgene, the PCR product was cloned into pET30a vector, sequencing verified recombinant was transferred intoE. coli expression strain BL21, recombinant protein was induced by adding IPTG and His-tag beads purified recombinant protein was used as immunogen to generate monoclonal antibody. The GUS protein-specific antibody was selected using western blot analysis. Broadford assay was used to quantify recombinant GUS protein, a standard curve of GUS protein concentration versus the signal intensity of western blot analysis was generated and the quantification of GUS protein in rice leaves was carried out by comparing its intensity with the standard curve. Total proteins were isolated from different tissues at different developmental stages, including shoot and root at seedling stage, stem, node sheath, cushion, upper, middle and lower part of leaves at tillering stage, stem, stalk, sheath, cushion, leaves, spike (1 cm, 2 cm, 10 cm and 20 cm in length, respectively) at booting state, stem, stalk, sheath, leaves and spike at flowering stage, stem, leaves, seed at different days after pollination (10 d, 20 d, 30 d and 40 d, respectively) at mature stage, embryo, endosperm and lemma at milky mature stage, whole seed, embryo, endosperm and lemma of mature seed, leaves and roots at different developmental stages. SDS-PAGE separated total proteins were detected by GUS-specific antibody to detect the abundance of GUS protein.[Result]An anti-GUS monoclonal antibody with high specificity was obtained (clone number #27), specific band was detected by western blot analysis using the antibody for GUS protein in transgenic rice or recombinant GUS protein, while no visible

  4. Characteristics of saccharide-protein linkage in the enzymatic hydrolysis of rice protein pretreated with high hydrostatic pressure%高压处理大米蛋白酶解过程中糖-蛋白结合特性的变化

    王章存; 崔胜文; 袁道强; 郑坚强; 安广杰; 赵学伟; 原媛


    研究了热变性大米蛋白经100MPa高压处理的酶解过程中蛋白质与糖结合特性的变化,并与未高压处理的酶解物进行了比较.凝胶色谱分析显示,经高压处理的大米蛋白可溶性酶解物中蛋白/糖含量比值低于常压处理者.β-消去反应证明了蛋白和糖的连接方式为N-糖肽键结合.FT-IR分析表明,高压和常压处理后大米蛋白的酶解残余物中均含有糖组分,且高压处理者的糖相对含量较低.SDS-PAGE和PAS-Schiff试剂染色显示,高压和未高压处理者的酶解残余物中14ku均是糖蛋白.上述结果表明,高压处理有利于糖蛋白的酶解,但部分糖蛋白仍呈不溶解状态.%The binding characteristics between protein and saccharide of enzymatic hydrolysates of rice protein pretreated by 100MPa were researched.The results showed that the ratio of protein/saccharide in the soluble hydrolysates pretreated by 100MPa was lower than that of unpretreated.β-elimination reaction showed that protein and saccharide was linked together by N-glycoside peptide bond.FT-IR spectrum proved the insoluble hydrolyzed rice protein was yet glycoprotein.The staining with Coomassie brilliant blue and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction in SDS-PAGE showed the 14ku subunit of insoluble hydrolyzed rice protein was yet glycoprotein.The results above indicated that high pressure treatment was helpful for the hydrolysis of rice glycoprotein,some of them was yet insoluble in water.

  5. Diversity in the Content of Some Nutritional Components in Husked Seeds of Three Wild Rice Species and Rice Varieties in Yunnan Province of China

    Zai-Quan CHENG; Xing-Qi HUANG; Yi-Zheng ZHANG; Jun QIAN; Ming-Zhi YANG; Cheng-Jun WU; Jia-Fu LIU


    In addition to rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, there are three wild rice species, namely O.rufipogon Griff, O. officinalis Wall and O. granulata Baill, in Yunnan Province, China. Each species has different subtypes and ecological distributions. Yunnan wild rice species are excellent genetic resources for developing new rice cultivars. The nutritional components of the husked seeds of wild rice have not been investigated thus far. Herein, we report on the contents of total protein, starch, amylose, 17 amino acids, and five macro and five trace mineral elements in husked seeds from three wild rice species and six O. sativa cultivars. The mean (± SD) protein content in the husked rice of O. rufipogon, O. officinalis, and O. granulata was (14.5 ± 0.6)%, (16.3 ± 1. 1)%, and (15.3 ± 0.5)%, respectively. O. officinalis Ⅲ originating from Gengma had the highest protein content (19.3%). In contrast, the average protein content of six O. sativa cultivars was only 9.15%. The total content of 17 amino acids of three wild rice species was 30%-50% higher than that of the six cultivars. Tyrosine, lysine, and valine content in the three wild rice species was 34%-209% higher than that of the cultivars. However, the difference in total starch content among different O. sativa varieties or types of wild rice species was very small. The average amylose content of O. rufipogon, O. officinalis,and O. granulata was 12.0%, 9.7%, and 11.3%, respectively, much lower than that of the indica and japonica varieties (14.37%-17.17%) but much higher than that of the glutinous rice cultivars (3.89%). The sulfur, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, and ferrite content in the three wild rice species was 30%-158% higher than that of the six cultivars. The considerable difference in some nutritional components among wild rice species and O. sativa cultivars represents a wide biodiversity of Yunnan Oryza species. Based on the results of the present study, it is predicted that some good genetic traits

  6. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  7. Mutations of the multi-drug resistance-associated protein ABC transporter gene 5 result in reduction of phytic acid in rice seeds.

    Xu, Xiu-Hong; Zhao, Hai-Jun; Liu, Qing-Long; Frank, Thomas; Engel, Karl-Heinz; An, Gynheung; Shu, Qing-Yao


    Phytic acid (PA, myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate) is important to the nutritional quality of cereal and legume seeds. PA and its salts with micronutrient cations, such as iron and zinc, cannot be digested by humans and non-ruminant animals, and hence may affect food/feed nutritional value and cause P pollution of groundwater from animal waste. We previously developed a set of low phytic acid (LPA) rice mutant lines with the aim of increasing the nutritional quality of rice. Two of these lines, Os-lpa-XS110-2 (homozygous non-lethal) Os-lpa-XS110-3 (homozygous lethal), contain two mutant alleles of a LPA gene (hereafter XS-lpa2-1 and XS-lpa2-2, respectively). In this study, we mapped the XS-lpa2-1 gene to a region on chromosome 3 between microsatellite markers RM14360 and RM1332, where the rice orthologue (OsMRP5) of the maize lpa1 gene is located. Sequence analysis of the OsMRP5 gene revealed a single base pair change (C/G-T/A transition) in the sixth exon of XS-lpa2-1 and a 5-bp deletion in the first exon of XS-lpa2-2. OsMRP5 is expressed in both vegetative tissues and developing seeds, and the two mutations do not change the level of RNA transcription. A T-DNA insertion line, 4A-02500, in which OsMRP5 was disrupted, also showed the same high inorganic phosphorus phenotype as Os-lpa-XS110-3 and appeared to be homozygous lethal. PA is significantly reduced in Os-lpa-XS110-2 (~20%) and in 4A-02500 (~90%) seeds compared with their wild type lines, and no PA was detected in Os-lpa-XS110-3 using HPLC analysis. This evidence indicates that the OsMRP5 gene plays an important role in PA metabolism in rice seeds.

  8. Super Rice Breeding in China


    @@I. Demand for super high yield rice in China   Rice is one of the main staple food in China. The performance of rice sector in production and yield had been very impressive in the last four decades. However, rice production and yield has stagnated since 1990.

  9. EffectsofDifferentEcologicalConditionsonGrainQualityandRVAProfileCharaCteriSticSofJaponicaRiceVarietiesfrOmYunnanPlateauofChinaandKorea

    Zhenhua ZHU; Pingrong YUAN; Guozhen ZHAO; Zhenxi SU; Xinhua LIAO; Seajun YANG; Luyuan DAI


    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the variation characteristics of Yunnan and Korean japonica rice quality under different environmental conditions in Yunnan Plateau. [Method] Ten Yunnan japonica rice varieties and six Korean japoni- ca rice varieties were selected to investigate the effects of ecological conditions on grain quality characteristics and starch RVA profile characteristic values of Yunnan and Korean japonica rice. [Result] The coefficient of variation of Yunnan and Korean japonica rice reached the maximum in setback viscosity (SBV). The coefficients of variation of brown rice length (BRL), chalkiness rate (CR), amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), alkali digestion value (ADV), final viscosity (FLV), setback vis- cosity (SBV) and peak time (PET) of Yunnan japonica rice varieties were significant- ly higher than those of Korean japonica rice, while other grain quality characteristics were contrary. With the increasing altitudes, BRL, brown rice width (BRW), length- width ratio (L/W), whiteness (WH), AC, ADV, FLV and consistence viscosity (CTV) of Yunnan japonica rice and BRL, BRW, WH, PC, peak viscosity (PKV), hot viscosi- ty (HTV) and breakdown viscosity (BDV) of Korean japonica rice were significantly reduced , while CR, PC, HTV and PeT of Yunnan japonica rice and L/W, AC, ADV and CTV of Korean japonica rice significantly increased, but CR of Korean japonica rice showed no significantly variation. PKV, BDV and pasting temperature (PAT) of Yunnan japonica rice and PaT of Korean japonica rice showed an upward trend af- ter an initial drop with the increasing altitudes, while SBV of Yunnan japonica rice and FLV and PeT of Korean japonica rice were contrary. [Conclusion] This study provided theoretical basis for breeding of japonica rice in Yunnan Plateau.

  10. 制备米糠蛋白降血压肽最佳用酶的筛选%Screening the Best Enzyme of the Preparation of Antihypertensive Peptides from Rice Bran Protein

    于靖; 翟爱华


    试验以筛选制备米糠蛋白降压肽最佳用酶为目的。选用碱性蛋白酶、碱性蛋白酶Alcalase 2.4 L、中性蛋白酶、木瓜蛋白酶、胰蛋白酶、胰凝乳蛋白酶、蛋白酶K和双酶复合水解米糠蛋白,以血管紧张素转化酶(ACE)抑制率为主要指标,筛选出制备米糠蛋白降压肽的最佳用酶。结果表明,米糠降压肽ACE抑制率的大小与酶的种类及配比有关,筛选出碱性蛋白酶Alcalase为试验用酶,在酶解温度45℃,加酶量3 000 U.g-1,酶解pH8.5,米糠蛋白底物浓度3%酶解2 h时达到最大抑制率为71.1%。%The aim of this study was to select the best enzyme for rice bran protein.Rice bran protein was enzymolysised by alkali protease,Alcalase 2.4 L,neutral protease,papain,trysase,chymotrypsin,proteinase K and double enzyme composite to produce antihypertensive peptides,with ACE inhibiting rate as major indicator.The results indicated that ACE inhibiting rate of antihypertensive peptides in rice bran was related to the kind of enzyme and their ratio,and the best enzyme was alkali protease,the enzyme hydrolysis conditions were: hydrolysis temperature 45 ℃,the enzyme addition 3 000 U·g-1,pH8.5,substrate concentration 3%,hydrolysis time 2 h,its highest inhibiting rate reached 71.1%.

  11. Studies on the characteristic differenced ofquality between new and stored grains in japonica rice

    Yan Wenchao; Jin Qingsheng; Yu Faming; Qiu Boqin; Kastsura Tomita; Hisamitsu Horiuch


    Changes in the milling quality, chemical characteristics, eating quality and dynamic viscoelasticities of seven cultivars of japoinica rice after about eight months storage at room temperature were studied. Comparisons between new and stored rices showed that no obvious changes in milling quality, amylose and protein content were found. Though there was varietal difference, the palatability of all cultivars deteriorated with storage.The overall eating quality of Koshihikari and Etsunan162 stored rice were almost the same as that of new rice of Nihonbare and Xiushui11. The deterioration in palatability was due to the deterioration of the appearance, taste and stickiness of cooked rice. New rice grain from cultivars with a good eating quality showed a relatively high palatability aS compare with stored rice. The moduli of cooked rice grains of stored rice were increased and values of loss tangent of cooked rice was lower than those of new rice, such cases in poor palatability cultivars were much more obvious. The eating quality of stored rice was generally poor for the cultivars with a high free fatty acid content. In addition, the breakdown and maximum viscosity values in amylographic characteristics were slightly increased.

  12. RiceGeneThresher: a web-based application for mining genes underlying QTL in rice genome.

    Thongjuea, Supat; Ruanjaichon, Vinitchan; Bruskiewich, Richard; Vanavichit, Apichart


    RiceGeneThresher is a public online resource for mining genes underlying genome regions of interest or quantitative trait loci (QTL) in rice genome. It is a compendium of rice genomic resources consisting of genetic markers, genome annotation, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), protein domains, gene ontology, plant stress-responsive genes, metabolic pathways and prediction of protein-protein interactions. RiceGeneThresher system integrates these diverse data sources and provides powerful web-based applications, and flexible tools for delivering customized set of biological data on rice. Its system supports whole-genome gene mining for QTL by querying using DNA marker intervals or genomic loci. RiceGeneThresher provides biologically supported evidences that are essential for targeting groups or networks of genes involved in controlling traits underlying QTL. Users can use it to discover and to assign the most promising candidate genes in preparation for the further gene function validation analysis. The web-based application is freely available at

  13. Late-maturing cooking rice Sensyuraku has excellent properties, equivalent to sake rice, for high-quality sake brewing.

    Anzawa, Yoshihiko; Satoh, Kenji; Satoh, Yuko; Ohno, Satomi; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Katsumata, Kazuaki; Kume, Kazunori; Watanabe, Ken-Ichi; Mizunuma, Masaki; Hirata, Dai


    Low protein content and sufficient grain rigidity are desired properties for the rice used in high-quality sake brewing such as Daiginjo-shu (polishing ratio of the rice, less than 50%). Two kinds of rice, sake rice (SR) and cooking rice (CR), have been used for sake brewing. Compared with those of SR, analyses of CR for high-quality sake brewing using highly polished rice have been limited. Here we described the original screening of late-maturing CR Sensyuraku (SEN) as rice with low protein content and characterization of its properties for high-quality sake brewing. The protein content of SEN was lower than those of SR Gohyakumangoku (GOM) and CR Yukinosei (YUK), and its grain rigidity was higher than that of GOM. The excellent properties of SEN with respect to both water-adsorption and enzyme digestibility were confirmed using a Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA). Further, we confirmed a clear taste of sake produced from SEN by sensory evaluation. Thus, SEN has excellent properties, equivalent to those of SR, for high-quality sake brewing.

  14. Homestyle quick-cooking rice meal products.

    Azanza, Ma Patricia V; Basman, Irenei Camila V; Tinsay, Cathrina B; Tasarra, Christy G


    The study developed processes for quick-cooking rice meal products (QCRMP) paella and bringhe originally based on homestyle recipes. These QCRMPs consisted of basal quick-cooking waxy Malagkit Sungsong and non-waxy irrigated rice (IR) 42 Philippine rice cultivars, dehydrated vegetables, textured vegetable proteins (TVPs) as meat analogs, and seasonings. The rehydrated QCRMP paella and bringhe were found to be more acceptable than their conventionally prepared counterparts at 5% level of significance based on results of sensory acceptability evaluation by 50 consumer panelists. Improvement of the sensory attributes of the QCRMPs was ascribed to the use of alternate concentrates and powdered ingredients which imparted more intense flavors to the developed products than their fresh counterparts.

  15. Transgenic rice homozygous lines expressing GNA showed enhanced resistance to rice brown planthopper


    Mature seed-derived calli from two elite Chinese japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars Eyi 105 and Ewan 5 were co-transformed with two plasmids, pWRG1515 and pRSSGNA1, containing the selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt), the reporter β-glucuronidase gene (gusA) and the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis)lectin gene (gna) via particle bombardment. 61 independent transgenic rice plants were regenerated from 329 bombarded calli. 79% transgenic plants contained all the three genes, revealed by PCR/Southern blot analysis. Western blot analysis revealed that 36 out of 48 gna-containing transgenic plants expressed GNA (75 %) at various levels with the highest expression being approximately 0.5% of total soluble protein. Genetic analysis confirmed Mendelian segregation of transgenes in progeny. From the R2 generations whose R1 parent plants showing 3:1 Mendelian segregation patterns,we identified five independent homozygous lines containing and expressing all the three transgenes. Insect bioassay and feeding tests showed that these homozygous lines had significant inhibition to rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH) by decreasing BPH survival and overall fecundity, retarding BPH development and declining BPH feeding.These BPH-resistant lines have been incorporated into rice insect resistance breeding program. This is the first report that homozygous transgenic rice lines expressing GNA, developed by genetic transformation and through genetic analysis-based selection, conferred enhanced resistance to BPH, one of the most damaging insect pests in rice.

  16. Rice Germplasm Resources in China



    China is one of the origin countries in Asia of cultiv ated rice (O. sativaL.), and rice is one of the aged-long food crops in the country. The results of the 14C evaluation on the carbonified rice grains unearthed from Hemudu in Yuyao County and Luojiajiao in Tongxiang County of Zhejiang Province indicated that rice in these area has been planted more than 7,000 yrs and indica (hsien) and japonica (keng) rices coexisted with each other.

  17. Impact of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on Brown Planthopper and Tolerance of Its Host Rice Plants

    Md Mamunur RASHID; Mahbuba JAHAN; Khandakar Shariful ISLAM


    The brown planthopper (BPH),Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), appeared as a devastating pest of rice in Asia. Experiments were conducted to study the effects of three nutrients, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), on BPH and its host rice plants. Biochemical constituents of BPH and rice plants with varying nutrient levels at different growth stages, and changes in relative water content (RWC) of rice plants were determined in the laboratory. Feeding of BPH and the tolerance of rice plants to BPH with different nutrient levels were determined in the nethouse. Concentrations of N and P were found much higher in the BPH body than in its host rice plants, and this elemental mismatch is an inherent constraint on meeting nutritional requirements of BPH. Nitrogen was found as a more limiting element for BPH than other nutrients in rice plants. Application of N fertilizers to the rice plants increased the N concentrations both in rice plants and BPH while application of P and K fertilizers increased their concentrations in plant tissues only but not in BPH. Nitrogen application also increased the level of soluble proteins and decreased silicon content in rice plants, which resulted in increased feeding of BPH with sharp reduction of RWC in rice plants ultimately caused susceptible to the pest. P fertilization increased the concentration of P in rice plant tissues but not changed N, K, Si, free sugar and soluble protein contents, which indicated little importance of P to the feeding of BPH and tolerance of plant against BPH. K fertilization increased K content but reduced N, Si, free sugar and soluble protein contents in the plant tissues which resulted in the minimum reduction of RWC in rice plants after BPH feeding, thereby contributed to higher tolerance of rice plants to brown planthopper.

  18. Impact of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on Brown Planthopper and Tolerance of Its Host Rice Plants

    Md Mamunur Rashid


    Full Text Available The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål, appeared as a devastating pest of rice in Asia. Experiments were conducted to study the effects of three nutrients, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K, on BPH and its host rice plants. Biochemical constituents of BPH and rice plants with varying nutrient levels at different growth stages, and changes in relative water content (RWC of rice plants were determined in the laboratory. Feeding of BPH and the tolerance of rice plants to BPH with different nutrient levels were determined in the nethouse. Concentrations of N and P were found much higher in the BPH body than in its host rice plants, and this elemental mismatch is an inherent constraint on meeting nutritional requirements of BPH. Nitrogen was found as a more limiting element for BPH than other nutrients in rice plants. Application of N fertilizers to the rice plants increased the N concentrations both in rice plants and BPH while application of P and K fertilizers increased their concentrations in plant tissues only but not in BPH. Nitrogen application also increased the level of soluble proteins and decreased silicon content in rice plants, which resulted in increased feeding of BPH with sharp reduction of RWC in rice plants ultimately caused susceptible to the pest. P fertilization increased the concentration of P in rice plant tissues but not changed N, K, Si, free sugar and soluble protein contents, which indicated little importance of P to the feeding of BPH and tolerance of plant against BPH. K fertilization increased K content but reduced N, Si, free sugar and soluble protein contents in the plant tissues which resulted in the minimum reduction of RWC in rice plants after BPH feeding, thereby contributed to higher tolerance of rice plants to brown planthopper.

  19. Nutritional constituents and health benefits of wild rice (Zizania spp.).

    Surendiran, Gangadaran; Alsaif, Maha; Kapourchali, Fatemeh Ramezani; Moghadasian, Mohammed H


    Wild rice (Zizania spp.) seems to have originated in North America and then dispersed into Eastern Asia and other parts of the world. Nutritional analysis shows that wild rice is rich in minerals, vitamins, protein, starch, dietary fiber, and various antioxidant phytochemicals, while it is low in fat. Wild rice has been recognized as a whole grain by the US Food and Drug Administration; in the North American marketplace it is currently sold as and considered to be a health-promoting food. Recent scientific studies have revealed antioxidant and lipid-lowering properties of wild rice, while others have documented cardiovascular benefits associated with the long-term consumption of wild rice in experimental settings. The present review article summarizes various features of wild rice and its cultivation, including its plantation, harvest, nutritional composition, and biological properties. While evidence for the cardiovascular benefits of wild rice consumption is accumulating, additional studies are warranted to determine the clinical benefits of regular consumption of wild rice.

  20. Identification and Analysis of Differentially Expressed Proteins of Host Rice (Oryza sativa) Infected withRice Grassy Stunt Virus%水稻草状矮化病毒侵染寄主水稻差异表达蛋白的鉴定和分析

    丁新伦; 谢荔岩; 吴祖建


    性和形成C-N键的连接酶活性,在细胞组件上,差异蛋白分布于不同的细胞位置,涉及细胞组分、细胞器、细胞、膜结合细胞器、囊(泡)、细胞部分、膜结合囊(泡)、胞内、胞内部分、胞内细胞器、细胞质、胞内膜结合细胞器、细胞质部分、质体、细胞质囊(泡)和细胞质膜结合囊(泡)。KEGG通路分析显示,差异蛋白参与了代谢途径、光合生物固碳反应、碳代谢、乙醛酸和二羧酸代谢、丙氨酸、天门冬氨酸和谷氨酸代谢、氨基酸生物合成、丙酮酸盐代谢、精氨酸和脯氨酸代谢、谷胱甘肽代谢和氮代谢途径等10个KEGG代谢通路。【结论】RGSV 侵染诱导了水稻差异蛋白质表达,获得了一些与 RGSV 侵染水稻相关的蛋白质分子,差异蛋白涉及到多个功能类别。其中与氮有关的生物学过程和光合作用过程变化较为明显。%Objective The objective of this study is to screen, identify and analyze the differentially expressed proteins in rice seedlings after infection withRice grassy stunt virus (RGSV), and to shed new lights on the understanding of molecular mechanisms of RGSV pathogenesis.[Method]Two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was used to analyze and identify differentially expressed protein spots. BioTools was used to search the matched proteins in NCBI database. Bioinformatics included GO (Gene ontology) terms and KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) pathway analysis.[Result]The proteomic profile of the leaves of rice cultivar Xianyou 63 infected with RGSV compared with the control healthy plants was explored by 2D-DIGE. One-hundred and seventy-three protein spots (differential ratio>1.5) were differentially expressed by RGSV infection over the healthy rice plants, including 72 up

  1. Four rice seed cDNA clones belonging to the alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor gene family encode potential rice allergens.

    Alvarez, A M; Fukuhara, E; Nakase, M; Adachi, T; Aoki, N; Nakamura, R; Matsuda, T


    Four rice seed proteins encoded by cDNAs belonging to the alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor gene family were overexpressed as TrpE-fusion proteins in E. coli. The expressed rice proteins were detected by SDS-PAGE as major proteins in bacterial cell lysates. Western blot analyses showed that all the recombinant proteins were immunologically reactive to rabbit polyclonal antibodies and to a mouse monoclonal antibody (25B9) specific for a previously isolated rice allergen of 16 kDa. Some truncated proteins from deletion mutants of the cDNAs retained their reactivity to the specific antibodies. These results suggest that the cDNAs encode potential rice allergens and that some epitopes of the recombinant proteins are still immunoreactive when they are expressed as their fragments.

  2. Determination of Mineral Contents in Unpolished Rice and Bean Samples by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Baek, S. Y.; Chung, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    As scientists have focused their researches on the health impacts caused by mineral nutrient deficiencies and hazardous elements, public concern regarding mineral intake from dietary food is rising. In this reason, the dietary habits of Koreans have been shifted from white rice to more nutrient rice like unpolished rice and rice mixed with beans. It is known that unpolished rice and beans contain more protein, vitamin and mineral contents than white rice and are more beneficial to human health, even though they sometimes cause indigestion or allergy. The objectives of this study were to determine the mineral contents in unpolished rice and bean samples by a neutron activation analysis (NAA) and to compare the level of mineral contents between the samples

  3. Comparative proteomic analysis of indica and japonica rice varieties

    Yanhua Yang


    Full Text Available Indica and japonica are two main subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L. that differ clearly in morphological and agronomic traits, in physiological and biochemical characteristics and in their genomic structure. However, the proteins and genes responsible for these differences remain poorly characterized. In this study, proteomic tools, including two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, were used to globally identify proteins that differed between two sequenced rice varieties (93-11 and Nipponbare. In all, 47 proteins that differed significantly between 93-11 and Nipponbare were identified using mass spectrometry and database searches. Interestingly, seven proteins were expressed only in Nipponbare and one protein was expressed specifically in 93-11; these differences were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and proteomic analysis of other indica and japonica rice varieties. This is the first report to successfully demonstrate differences in the protein composition of indica and japonica rice varieties and to identify candidate proteins and genes for future investigation of their roles in the differentiation of indica and japonica rice.

  4. Comparative nutritional compositions and proteomics analysis of transgenic Xa21 rice seeds compared to conventional rice.

    Gayen, Dipak; Paul, Soumitra; Sarkar, Sailendra Nath; Datta, Swapan K; Datta, Karabi


    Transgenic rice expressing the Xa21 gene have enhanced resistant to most devastating bacterial blight diseases caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). However, identification of unintended modifications, owing to the genetic modification, is an important aspect of transgenic crop safety assessment. In this study, the nutritional compositions of seeds from transgenic rice plants expressing the Xa21 gene were compared against non-transgenic rice seeds. In addition, to detect any changes in protein translation levels as a result of Xa21 gene expression, rice seed proteome analyses were also performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. No significant differences were found in the nutritional compositions (proximate components, amino acids, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients) of the transgenic and non-transgenic rice seeds. Although gel electrophoresis identified 11 proteins that were differentially expressed between the transgenic and non-transgenic seed, only one of these (with a 20-fold up-regulation in the transgenic seed) shows nutrient reservoir activity. No new toxins or allergens were detected in the transgenic seeds.

  5. Phospholipids in rice: significance in grain quality and health benefits: a review.

    Liu, Lei; Waters, Daniel L E; Rose, Terry J; Bao, Jinsong; King, Graham J


    Phospholipids (PLs) are a major class of lipid in rice grain. Although PLs are only a minor nutrient compared to starch and protein, they may have both nutritional and functional significance. We have systemically reviewed the literature on the class, distribution and variation of PLs in rice, their relation to rice end-use quality and human health, as well as available methods for analytical profiling. Phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and their lyso forms are the major PLs in rice. The deterioration of PC in rice bran during storage was considered as a trigger for the degradation of rice lipids with associated rancid flavour in paddy and brown rice. The lyso forms in rice endosperm represent the major starch lipid, and may form inclusion complexes with amylose, affecting the physicochemical properties and digestibility of starch, and hence its cooking and eating quality. Dietary PLs have a positive impact on several human diseases and reduce the side-effects of some drugs. As rice has long been consumed as a staple food in many Asian countries, rice PLs may have significant health benefits for those populations. Rice PLs may be influenced both by genetic (G) and environmental (E) factors, and resolving G×E interactions may allow future exploitation of PL composition and content, thus boosting rice eating quality and health benefits for consumers. We have identified and summarised the different methods used for rice PL analysis, and discussed the consequences of variation in reported PL values due to inconsistencies between methods. This review enhances the understanding of the nature and importance of PLs in rice and outlines potential approaches for manipulating PLs to improve the quality of rice grain and other cereals.


    Fertilizer was the only variable that significantly influenced rice yields on ... cultural production in Ghana (MOFA, 2002), [n 2002, the agricultural sector em- ..... The rapid growth of the population has culminated in undue pressure on agricultural.

  7. Glutinous Rice in Pineapple


    Ingredients: 50 grams glutinous rice, one pineapple, 20 grams dried fruits (raisins, walnuts. Chinese wolfberry, Chinese dates, lotus seeds, lily petals, kidney beans and peanuts) Seasonings: 5 grams rock sugar, 5 grams salad oil. Method:

  8. Iron homeostasis related genes in rice

    Gross Jeferson


    Full Text Available Iron is essential for plants. However, excess iron is toxic, leading to oxidative stress and decreased productivity. Therefore, plants must use finely tuned mechanisms to keep iron homeostasis in each of their organs, tissues, cells and organelles. A few of the genes involved in iron homeostasis in plants have been identified recently, and we used some of their protein sequences as queries to look for corresponding genes in the rice (Oryza sativa genome. We have assigned possible functions to thirty-nine new rice genes. Together with four previously reported sequences, we analyzed a total of forty-three genes belonging to five known protein families: eighteen YS (Yellow Stripe, two FRO (Fe3+-chelate reductase oxidase, thirteen ZIP (Zinc regulated transporter / Iron regulated transporter Protein, eight NRAMP (Natural Resistance - Associated Macrophage Protein, and two Ferritin proteins. The possible cellular localization and number of potential transmembrane domains were evaluated, and phylogenetic analysis performed for each gene family. Annotation of genomic sequences was performed. The presence and number of homologues in each gene family in rice and Arabidopsis is discussed in light of the established iron acquisition strategies used by each one of these two plants.

  9. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of early seed development in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Qiu, Jiehua; Hou, Yuxuan; Tong, Xiaohong; Wang, Yifeng; Lin, Haiyan; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Zhiyong; Nallamilli, Babi R; Zhang, Jian


    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed serves as a major food source for over half of the global population. Though it has been long recognized that phosphorylation plays an essential role in rice seed development, the phosphorylation events and dynamics in this process remain largely unknown so far. Here, we report the first large scale identification of rice seed phosphoproteins and phosphosites by using a quantitative phosphoproteomic approach. Thorough proteomic studies in pistils and seeds at 3, 7 days after pollination resulted in the successful identification of 3885, 4313 and 4135 phosphopeptides respectively. A total of 2487 proteins were differentially phosphorylated among the three stages, including Kip related protein 1, Rice basic leucine zipper factor 1, Rice prolamin box binding factor and numerous other master regulators of rice seed development. Moreover, differentially phosphorylated proteins may be extensively involved in the biosynthesis and signaling pathways of phytohormones such as auxin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and brassinosteroid. Our results strongly indicated that protein phosphorylation is a key mechanism regulating cell proliferation and enlargement, phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling, grain filling and grain quality during rice seed development. Overall, the current study enhanced our understanding of the rice phosphoproteome and shed novel insight into the regulatory mechanism of rice seed development.

  10. 碱性蛋白酶水解米糠蛋白动力学特性研究%Research on Kinetics Characteristics of Hydrolyzing Rice Bran Protein by Alkaline Protease

    翟爱华; 李新华


    The response mechanism and kinetic behavior of bioactive peptides by protease were studied. Rice bran protein was used as raw material. Based on the classic Michaelis - Menten equation, the enzymatic kinetics of the system of rice bran protein and alkaline protease was researched by the method of mathematical derivation combined with experiment. The mechanism model of single substrate hydrolysis of protein and inactivation of protease were considered to build the kinetics model of R =aexp[ -b(DH) ] ,and the parameters "a" and "b" of the kinetics model were determined. Origin 8. 0 software was applied to fit the deduced formula and calculate related parameters of enzyme kinetic model. It was shown that the rate of hydrolysis kinetic model was R = (94. 754e0 - 0. 0597s0 ) exp [ -0. 157 (DH)] and the kinetic model of degree of hydrolysis and time of hydrolysis was DH = 6. 37× ln[1 +(14. 88e0/s0 -0. 009)t]. The kinetic constants of the system of rice bran protein and alkaline protease were fitted by experiments and the results showed that the constant K4 of enzyme inactivation was 16. 144 min-1 and the constant k2 of enzymatic reaction rate was 94. 754 min-1 .%研究蛋白酶水解制备生物活性多肽反应机制与动力学行为,基于经典的米氏方程理论,应用数学推导结合试验研究的方法,以米糠蛋白为原料,对米糠蛋白-碱性蛋白酶体系进行酶解动力学研究.考虑蛋白质单底物水解、蛋白酶失活的机理模型,构建动力学模型R=aexp[-b(DH)],其中对参数a值和b值进行确定.利用Origin 8.0软件,对推导出的公式进行拟合得到水解速率动力学模型为R=(94.754e0-0.0597s0)exp[-0.157(DH)],水解度-水解时间的动力学模型:DH =6.37ln[1+(14.88e0/s0-0.009)t].对于米糠蛋白-碱性蛋白酶模型体系,经试验拟合,并求得该体系动力学常数:酶失活常数K4为16.144 min-1,酶解反应速率常数k2为94.754 min-1.

  11. Mlo, a modulator of plant defense and cell death, is a novel calmodulin-binding protein. Isolation and characterization of a rice Mlo homologue

    Kim, Min Chul; Lee, Sang Hyoung; Kim, Jong Kyong; Chun, Hyun Jin; Choi, Man Soo; Chung, Woo Sik; Moon, Byeong Cheol; Kang, Chang Ho; Park, Chan Young; Yoo, Jae Hyuk; Kang, Yun Hwan; Koo, Seong Cheol; Koo, Yoon Duck; Jung, Jae Cheol; Kim, Sun Tae; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Lee, Sang Yeol; Cho, Moo Je


    .... Because Ca(2+) signals are mediated by Ca(2+)-binding proteins, including calmodulin (CaM), identification and characterization of CaM-binding proteins elicited by pathogens should provide insights into the mechanism by which Ca...

  12. Recent Advances in Cloning and Characterization of Disease Resistance Genes in Rice

    Liang-Ying Dai; Xiong-Lun Liu; Ying-Hui Xiao; Guo-Liang Wang


    Rice diseases caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses are one of the major constraints for sustainable rice (Oryza sativa L.) production worldwide. The use of resistant cultivars is considered the most economical and effective method to control rice diseases. In the last decade, a dozen resistance genes against the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea and the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae have been cloned. Approximately half of them encode nuclear binding site (NBS) and leucine rich repeat (LRR)-containing proteins, the most common type of cloned plant resistance genes. Interestingly, four of them encode novel proteins which have not been identified in other plant species, suggesting that unique mechanisms might be involved in rice defense responses. This review summarizes the recent advances in cloning and characterization of disease resistance genes in rice and presents future perspectives for in-depth molecular analysis of the function and evolution of rice resistance genes and their interaction with avirulence genes in pathogens.

  13. Search for cell-wall-degrading enzymes of world-wide rice grains by PCR and their effects on the palatability of rice.

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Machida, Keisuke; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi


    Such rice cultivars as Japonica, Japonica-Indica hybrid, Javanica and Indica, were evaluated for their main chemical components (amylose content and protein content), pasting property of rice flour (consistency), physical property of the cooked rice grains (adhesion, L3), and enzyme activities (cellulase and xylanase). The amylose content, cellulase activity and xylanase activity showed significant positive or negative correlation with the pasting property (consistency) of rice flour (r = 0.89, r = 0.58, r = 0.70, respectively) and with the physical property of the cooked rice grains (adhesion, L3: r = -0.51, r = -0.61, r = -0.71, respectively) at the level of 1%. Endogenous xylanase and cellulase played important roles to determine the texture of the cooked rice grains similarly to the amylose content. Part of the DNA sequences of the α-glucosidase gene differed among the Japonica, Japonica-Indica hybrid and Indica subspecies. We found discriminative DNA bands appearing by PCR, corresponding to 1,4-β-xylanase and endo-1,4-β-glucanase 13 in the case of Indica rice, Indica-Japonica hybrid rice, and Javanica rice (non-Japonica subspecies). The equation for estimating the physical property (adhesion) of cooked rice grains by PCR was improved by adding novel primers related to the cell-wall-degrading enzymes.

  14. Construction of a Rice Glvcosvltransferase Phylogenomic Data base and Identification of Rice-Diverged Glvcosvltransferases

    Pei-Jian Cao; Laura E.Bartley; Ki-Hong Jung; Pamela C.Ronald


    GlycosyItransferases(GTs;Ec 2.4.x.y)constitute a large group of enzymes that form glycosidic bonds through transfer of sugars from activated donor molecules to acceptor molecules.GTs are critical to the biosynthesis of plant cell walls,among other diverse functions.Based on the Carbohydrate-Active enZymes(CAZy)database and sequence similarity searches,we have identified 609 potentiaI GT genes(loci)corresponding to 769 transcripts(gene models)in rice (Oryza sativa),the reference monocotyledonous species.Using domain composition and sequence similarity,these rice GTs were classified into 40 CAZy families plus an additionaI unknown class.We found that two Pfam domains of unknown function,PF04577 and PF04646,are associated with GT families GT61 and GT31,respectively.To facilitate functional analysis of this important and large gene family,we created a phylogenomic Rice GT Database( the database.severaI classes of functionaI genomic data,including mutant lines and gene expression data,can be displayed for each rice GT in the context of a phylogenetic tree,allowing for comparative analysis both within and between GT families.Comprehensive digital expression analysis of public gene expression data revealed that most(~80%)rice GTs are expressed.Based on analysis with Inparanoid,we identified 282'rice-diverged'GTs that lack orthologs in sequenced dicots(Arabidopsis thaliana,Populus tricocarpa,Medicago truncatula.and Ricinus communis).Combining these analyses,we identified 33 rice-diverged GT genes(45 gene models)that are highly expressed in above-ground,vegetative tissues.From the literature and this analysis,21 of these Ioci are excellent targets for functional examination toward understanding and manipuIating grass cell wall qualities.Study of the remainder may reveal aspects of hormone and protein metabolism that are critical for rice biology.This list of 33 genes and the Rice GT Database will facilitate the

  15. Enhanced leaf photosynthesis as a target to increase grain yield: insights from transgenic rice lines with variable Rieske FeS protein content in the cytochrome b6 /f complex.

    Yamori, Wataru; Kondo, Eri; Sugiura, Daisuke; Terashima, Ichiro; Suzuki, Yuji; Makino, Amane


    Although photosynthesis is the most important source for biomass and grain yield, a lack of correlation between photosynthesis and plant yield among different genotypes of various crop species has been frequently observed. Such observations contribute to the ongoing debate whether enhancing leaf photosynthesis can improve yield potential. Here, transgenic rice plants that contain variable amounts of the Rieske FeS protein in the cytochrome (cyt) b6 /f complex between 10 and 100% of wild-type levels have been used to investigate the effect of reductions of these proteins on photosynthesis, plant growth and yield. Reductions of the cyt b6 /f complex did not affect the electron transport rates through photosystem I but decreased electron transport rates through photosystem II, leading to concomitant decreases in CO2 assimilation rates. There was a strong control of plant growth and grain yield by the rate of leaf photosynthesis, leading to the conclusion that enhancing photosynthesis at the single-leaf level would be a useful target for improving crop productivity and yield both via conventional breeding and biotechnology. The data here also suggest that changing photosynthetic electron transport rates via manipulation of the cyt b6 /f complex could be a potential target for enhancing photosynthetic capacity in higher plants.

  16. Effects of rice or wheat residue retention on the quality of milled japonica rice in a rice–wheat rotation system in China

    Pengfu; Hou; Yanfeng; Ding; Guofa; Zhang; Quan; Li; Shaohua; Wang; She; Tang; Zhenghui; Liu; Chengqiang; Ding; Ganghua; Li


    In rice–wheat rotation systems, crop straw is usually retained in the field at land preparation in every, or every other, season. We conducted a 3-year-6-season experiment in the middle–lower Yangtze River Valley to compare the grain qualities of rice under straw retained after single or double seasons per year. Four treatments were designed as: both wheat and rice straw retained(WR), only rice straw retained(R), only wheat straw retained(W), and no straw retained(CK). The varieties were Yangmai 16 wheat and Wuyunjing 23 japonica rice. The results showed contrasting effects of W and R on rice quality. Amylopectin content, peak viscosity, cool viscosity, and breakdown viscosity of rice grain were significantly increased in W compared to the CK, whereas gelatinization temperature,setback viscosity, and protein content significantly decreased. In addition, the effect of WR on rice grain quality was similar to that of W, although soil fertility was enhanced in WR due to straw being retained in two cycles. The differences in protein and starch contents among the treatments might result from soil nitrogen supply. These results indicate that wheat straw retained in the field is more important for high rice quality than rice straw return, and straw from both seasons is recommended for positive effects on soil fertility.

  17. Effects of rice or wheat residue retention on the quality of milled japonica rice in a rice–wheat rotation system in China

    Pengfu Hou


    Full Text Available In rice–wheat rotation systems, crop straw is usually retained in the field at land preparation in every, or every other, season. We conducted a 3-year-6-season experiment in the middle–lower Yangtze River Valley to compare the grain qualities of rice under straw retained after single or double seasons per year. Four treatments were designed as: both wheat and rice straw retained (WR, only rice straw retained (R, only wheat straw retained (W, and no straw retained (CK. The varieties were Yangmai 16 wheat and Wuyunjing 23 japonica rice. The results showed contrasting effects of W and R on rice quality. Amylopectin content, peak viscosity, cool viscosity, and breakdown viscosity of rice grain were significantly increased in W compared to the CK, whereas gelatinization temperature, setback viscosity, and protein content significantly decreased. In addition, the effect of WR on rice grain quality was similar to that of W, although soil fertility was enhanced in WR due to straw being retained in two cycles. The differences in protein and starch contents among the treatments might result from soil nitrogen supply. These results indicate that wheat straw retained in the field is more important for high rice quality than rice straw return, and straw from both seasons is recommended for positive effects on soil fertility.

  18. Rice Yellow Mottle Virus stress responsive genes from susceptible and tolerant rice genotypes

    Siré Christelle


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of viral infection involve concomitant plant gene variations and cellular changes. A simple system is required to assess the complexity of host responses to viral infection. The genome of the Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV is a single-stranded RNA with a simple organisation. It is the most well-known monocotyledon virus model. Several studies on its biology, structure and phylogeography have provided a suitable background for further genetic studies. 12 rice chromosome sequences are now available and provide strong support for genomic studies, particularly physical mapping and gene identification. Results The present data, obtained through the cDNA-AFLP technique, demonstrate differential responses to RYMV of two different rice cultivars, i.e. susceptible IR64 (Oryza sativa indica, and partially resistant Azucena (O. s. japonica. This RNA profiling provides a new original dataset that will enable us to gain greater insight into the RYMV/rice interaction and the specificity of the host response. Using the SIM4 subroutine, we took the intron/exon structure of the gene into account and mapped 281 RYMV stress responsive (RSR transcripts on 12 rice chromosomes corresponding to 234 RSR genes. We also mapped previously identified deregulated proteins and genes involved in partial resistance and thus constructed the first global physical map of the RYMV/rice interaction. RSR transcripts on rice chromosomes 4 and 10 were found to be not randomly distributed. Seven genes were identified in the susceptible and partially resistant cultivars, and transcripts were colocalized for these seven genes in both cultivars. During virus infection, many concomitant plant gene expression changes may be associated with host changes caused by the infection process, general stress or defence responses. We noted that some genes (e.g. ABC transporters were regulated throughout the kinetics of infection and differentiated susceptible and

  19. Selenium Characterization in the Global Rice Supply Chain

    Williams, Paul N.; Lombi, Enzo; Sun, Guo-Xin; Scheckel, Kirk; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Feng, Xinbin; Zhu, Jianming; Carey, Anne-Marie; Adomako, Eureka; Lawgali, Youseff; Deacon, Claire; Meharg, Andrew A.; (UCopenhagen); (Aberdeen); (Chinese Aca. Sci.); (US EPA)


    For up to 1 billion people worldwide, insufficient dietary intake of selenium (Se) is a serious health constraint. Cereals are the dominant Se source for those on low protein diets, as typified by the global malnourished population. With crop Se content constrained largely by underlying geology, regional soil Se variations are often mirrored by their locally grown staples. Despite this, the Se concentrations of much of the world's rice, the mainstay of so many, is poorly characterized, for both total Se content and Se speciation. In this study, 1092 samples of market sourced polished rice were obtained. The sampled rice encompassed dominant rice producing and exporting countries. Rice from the U.S. and India were found to be the most enriched, while mean average levels were lowest in Egyptian rice: {approx}32-fold less than their North American equivalents. By weighting country averages by contribution to either global production or export, modeled baseline values for both were produced. Based on a daily rice consumption of 300 g day{sup -1}, around 75% of the grains from the production and export pools would fail to provide 70% of daily recommended Se intakes. Furthermore, Se localization and speciation characterization using X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF) and X-ray absorption near edge structure ({mu}-XANES) techniques were investigated in a Se-rich sample. The results revealed that the large majority of Se in the endosperm was present in organic forms.

  20. Effects of Cadmium Stress on the Quality of Rice Seeds

    Juan; CHEN; Hui; FANG; Ying; ZHANG; Yuanyuan; FAN


    Germination and hydroponic experiments are performed on rice seeds growing in soils treated with Cd stress,with rice seeds of the same variety that is not treated with Cd stress as a control,to study the effects of Cd stress on quality of rice seeds.The results have shown that:(1)Cd stress reduces the thousand grain weight of rice seeds,and higher Cd content means lower thousand grain weight;(2)The germination vigor and germination percentage of rice seeds under Cd stress as well as theirα-amylase activity andβ-amylase activity are all lower than those of the control.They decreases as the Cd stress increases;(3)For rice seeds under Cd stress,the height,fresh and dry weight of seedlings,as well as the chlorophyll content,photosynthetic rate and content of soluble protein of their leaves are all lower than those of the control.This indicates that Cd stress has certain effects on the germination and growth of the rice seeds.

  1. Expression and characterization of rice putative PAUSED gene

    Chengguo Yao; Liangfa Ge; Wei Li; Botao Zhao; Chaoqun Li; Kangcheng Ruan; Hongxuan Lin; Youxin Jin


    In Arab idopsis, PA USED ( PSD ) encodes the ortholog of loslp/ exportin-t, which mediates the nuclear export of transfer RNA (tRNA) in yeast and mammals. However, in monocot plants such as rice, knowledge of the corresponding ortholog is limited, and its effects on growth development and productivity remain unknown. In this study, we verified a rice transfer-DNA insertional mutantpsd line and analyzed its phenotypes;the mutant displayed severe morphological defects including retarded development and low fertility compared with wild-type rice. Examining intronless tRNA-Tyr and intron-containing pre-tRNA-Ala expression levels in cytoplasmic and nuclear fraction with Northern blot analysis between wild -type and mutant leaf tissue suggested that rice PSD might be involved in tRNA export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.Additionally, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that PSD transcript was expressed throughout normal rice plant development, and subcellular localization assays showed that rice PSD protein was present in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. In summary, our data implied that the putative PSD gene might be indispensable for normal rice development and its function might be the same as that ofArabidopsis PSD.

  2. Rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter while replacing white rice with brown rice.

    Manickavasagan, Annamalai; Al-Marhubi, Insaaf Mohd; Dev, Satyanarayan


    Rice-blackgram batter is a raw material for many traditional convenience foods in Asia. Reformulation of traditional convenience food by replacing white rice with whole rice (brown rice) is a novel method to reduce the consumption of refined grain and increase the intake of whole grain in our diet. In this study, rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter was investigated while replacing white rice with brown rice at five levels (T1--0% replacement (control), T2--25% replacement, T3--50% replacement, T4--75% replacement, and T5--100% replacement). The shear stress versus shear rate plot indicates that the rice-blackgram batter exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior (shear thinning property) even after 100% replacement of white rice with brown rice. The rheological characteristics of rice-blackgram batters fitted reasonably well in Cassan (r2 = 0.8521-0.9856) and power law (r2 = 0.8042-0.9823) models. Brown rice replacement at all levels did not affect the flow behavior index, yield stress, consistency coefficient, and apparent viscosity of batter at 25 degrees C. However, at higher temperature, the viscosity was greater for T4 and T5 (no difference between them) than T1, T2, and T3 (no difference between them) batters. Further research is required to determine the sensory attributes and acceptability of the cooked products with brown rice-blended batter.

  3. Construction of Seed Protein Body Targeted Expression Vector and Transformation Rice for Oral Recombinant Proinsulin%种子蛋白体靶向表达口服重组胰岛素原载体构建及转化水稻

    唐湧洲; 俞越; 赵艳


    Developent of oral recombinant proinsulin using rice seeds as bioreactor shows good application future.A fusion gene of the cholera toxin B subunit and human proinsulin (CTBIN )with an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal (KDEL)at C-terminus was designed for its self-maturation process in human gut and synthesized according to the optimized code usage bias of rice.The synthetic CTBIN was introduced to the vector pCAMBIA1302 and expressed under the 2.4 kb promoter sequence of rice glutelin GluB1 with its signal peptide (pGluB1sig),which was cloned by PCR from the japonica rice Nipponbare genome.Thus the rice seed protein body targeted expression vector pCAMBIA 1302-pGluB1sig-CTBIN-Nos for oral delivery of recombinant proinsulin was constructed and then transformed into Nipponbare via Agrobacterium-mediated method.Totally 46 transgenic rice plants were obtained and the expression of the fusion protein CTB::Human proinsulin in rice seeds was detected by Western-blot.%应用水稻种子生物反应器开发口服重组胰岛素原具有重要应用前景.通过分子设计保证重组胰岛素原在人体肠道内的自主加工成熟,根据水稻密码子偏爱性人工合成了霍乱毒素β亚基和人胰岛素原的融合基因(cholera toxin B subunit fused with human proinsulin,CTBIN),并在C末端添加内质网滞留信号 KDEL.通过 PCR技术从粳稻品种日本晴全基因组中克隆谷蛋白启动子及其信号肽序列 pGluB1 sig(GluB1 promoter and its signal peptide)用于驱动融合基因CTBIN 的表达,插入载体 pCAMBIA1302,构建了水稻种子蛋白体靶向表达口服重组胰岛素原的载体 pCAMBIA1302-pGluB1sig-CTBIN-Nos.采用农杆菌介导法转化日本晴,获得了46株转基因水稻植株,Western杂交检测到 CTB-人胰岛素原融合蛋白在水稻种子中表达.

  4. MicroRNA biogenesis factor DRB1 is a phosphorylation target of mitogen activated protein kinase MPK3 in both rice and Arabidopsis.

    Raghuram, Badmi; Sheikh, Arsheed H; Rustagi, Yashika; Sinha, Alok K


    MicroRNA (miRNA) biogenesis requires AtDRB1 (double-stranded RNA binding protein)/HYL1 (Hyponastic Leaves1) protein for processing and maturation of miRNA precursors. The AtDRB1/HYL1 protein associates with AtDCL1 (Dicer-Like1) and accurately processes primary-miRNAs (pri-mRNAs) first to precursor-miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) and finally to mature miRNAs. The dephosphorylation of AtDRB1/HYL1 protein is very important for the precise processing of miRNA precursors. The monocot model crop plant Oryza sativa encodes four orthologues of AtDRB1/HYL1 protein, the only one encoded by Arabidopsis thaliana. The present study focuses on the functionality of the O. sativa DRBs as the orthologues of AtDRB1/HYL1 by using RNA binding assays and in planta protein-protein interaction analysis. Further, mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK3 is established as the kinase phosphorylating DRB1 protein in both the model plants, O. sativa and Arabidopsis. MicroRNA microarray analysis in atmpk3 and atmpk6 mutants indicate the importance of AtMPK3 in maintaining the level of miRNAs in the plant.

  5. A hydroponic rice seedling culture model system for investigating proteome of salt stress in rice leaf.

    Kim, Dea-Wook; Rakwal, Randeep; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Jung, Young-Ho; Shibato, Junko; Jwa, Nam-Soo; Iwahashi, Yumiko; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Kim, Du Hyun; Shim, Ie-Sung; Usui, Kenji


    By using an in vivo hydroponic rice seedling culture system, we investigated the physiological and biochemical responses of a model rice japonica cultivar Nipponbare to salt stress using proteomics and classical biochemical methods. Yoshida's nutrient solution (YS) was used to grow rice seedlings. YS-grown 18-day-old seedlings manifested highly stable and reproducible symptoms, prominently the wilting and browning of the 3rd leaf, reduced photosynthetic activity, inhibition in overall seedling growth, and failure to develop new (5th) leaf, when subjected to salt stress by transferring them to YS containing 130 mM NaCl for 4 days. As leaf response to salt stress is least investigated in rice by proteomics, we used the 3rd leaf as source material. A comparison of 2-DE protein profiles between the untreated control and salt-stressed 3rd leaves revealed 55 differentially expressed CBB-stained spots, where 47 spots were increased over the control. Of these changed spots, the identity of 33 protein spots (27 increased and 5 decreased) was determined by nESI-LC-MS/MS. Most of these identified proteins belonged to major metabolic processes like photosynthetic carbon dioxide assimilation and photorespiration, suggesting a good correlation between salt stress-responsive proteins and leaf morphology. Moreover, 2-DE immunoblot and enzymatic activity analyses of 3rd leaves revealed remarkable changes in the key marker enzymes associated with oxidative damage to salt stress: ascorbate peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were induced, and catalase was suppressed. These results demonstrate that hydroponic culture system is best suited for proteomics of salt stress in rice seedling.

  6. Proteomic Study for Responses to Cadmium Stress in Rice Seedlings

    GE Cai-lin; WANG Ze-gang; WAN Ding-zhen; DING Yan; WANG Yu-long; SHANG Qi; LUO Shi-shi


    A proteomic approach including two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometric (MALDI-TOF MS) analyses was used to investigate the responses to cadmium (Cd) stress in seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties Shanyou 63 and Aizaizhan. Cd stress significantly inhibited root and shoot growth, and affected the global proteome in rice roots and leaves, which induced or upregulated the expression of corresponding proteins in rice roots and leaves when rice seedlings were exposed to 0.1 or 1.0 mmol/L Cd. The Cd-induced proteins are involved in chelation and compartmentation of Cd, elimination of active oxygen free radicals, detoxification of toxic substances, degradation of denatured proteins or inactivated enzymes, regulation of physiologic metabolism and induction of pathogenesis-related proteins. Comparing the Cd-induced proteins between the two varieties, the β-glucosidase and pathogenesis-related protein family 10 proteins were more drastically induced by Cd stress in roots and leaves of Aizaizhan, and the UDP-glucose protein transglucosylase and translational elongation factor Tu were induced by 0.1 mmol/L Cd stress in roots of Shanyou 63. This may be one of the important mechanisms for higher tolerance to Cd stress in Shanyou 63 than in Aizaizhan.

  7. 水稻OsMADS3融合蛋白的原核表达及纯化%The prokaryotic expression and purification of rice OsMADS3 fusion protein

    胡丽芳; 梁婉琪; 张大兵


    水稻OsMADS3基因编码一个MADS盒转录因子,在早期花器官决定过程中发挥着重要作用.为进一步研究OsMADS3的生物学功能,构建了pET32a-OsMADS3原核表达载体,在大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中成功表达了带有6×His标签的OsMADS3全长重组蛋白,占细胞总蛋白的60%,主要以包涵体形式存在,分子量为48 kD,与预期大小一致.%The rice OsMADS3 gene encodes a MADS-box transcription factor,which plays an important role in the early floral organ-determining process.To further reveal the biological function of OsMADS3,a prokaryotic expression vector of pET32a-OsMADS3 was constructed, and the OsMADS3 full length recombinant protein with a 6xHis label was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3).The fused protein, mainly existing as inclusion bodies, was nearly 60% of total cellular protein and about 48 kD in molecular weight,being in line with the expected size.

  8. Effects of different nitrogen and water treatments on phytic acid contents and protein components in rice grain%氮素和水分处理对稻米植酸含量和蛋白组分的影响

    张其芳; 刘奎刚; 苏达; 王复标; 程方民


    以直立密穗型粳稻品种"秀水110"和弯曲散穗型粳稻品种"春江15"为材料,对不同氮素水平处理和水分管理方式下稻米植酸含量和蛋白组分的影响及其互作效应进行了研究。结果表明,旱作栽培处理会导致水稻籽粒中植酸含量上升,而施氮处理对籽粒植酸含量的影响效应与水稻的水分管理方式有关,在常规水作条件下,高氮处理(N3)的籽粒植酸含量有所提高,但在旱作栽培方式下,中氮(N2)和低氮处理(N1,不施N)的籽粒植酸含量却略高于高氮处理(N3),氮素水平与水分管理方式间的互作效应明显;水稻籽粒植酸含量与粗蛋白总量、4种蛋白组分(清蛋白、球蛋白、醇溶蛋白和谷蛋白)及有关产量性状指标(有效穗数、每穗粒数、千粒重和结实率)在不同水肥处理间的相关性不显著,但氮肥用量过高不仅会导致水稻的产量水平下降,而且也不利于稻米营养品质的改良;水肥处理对水稻籽粒植酸含量、蛋白总量和4种蛋白组分穗内粒位分布也存在一定影响,着生在稻穗下部的弱势粒,其稻米植酸含量高于稻穗上部或中部的强势粒,因此改善弱势粒灌浆的水肥管理措施将有利于稻米植酸含量的降低。%Two rice genotypes (Xiushui 110 and Chunjiang 15 ) were used to analyze the influence of nitrogen treatments, water management methods and their interaction on grain phytic acid content and protein components by a field experiments of two water treatments, including traditional irrigated cultivation (C1) and dried stress cultivation (C2) with 3 level nitrogen fertilizers (N1, 0 kg/ha; N2, 100 kg/ha; N3, 200 kg/ha) for each water treatment. The results showed that C2 treatment (dried stress cultivation) had relatively higher phytic acid content in rice grain, while the effect of nitrogen treatments on grain phytic acid were water management-dependent, with slight

  9. Rice- Coconut Yoghurt: Preparation, Nutritional and Sensory Qualities

    Belewu, Moshood Adewale


    Full Text Available The efficacy of using rice milk and coconut milk in the preparation of yoghurt was evaluated in a completely randomized design model. Commercial yoghurt was the control Treatment (A while other Treatments were B (25% rice milk plus 75% coconut milk, C (50% rice milk plus 50% coconut milk and D (75% rice milk plus 25% coconut milk .The various yoghurt samples were analyzed for their proximate composition and sensory value. Higher crude protein content and solids not fat were recorded for Treatment C. The overall acceptability was greatest for Treatment C, greater for Treatment B, great for Treatment D and least for Treatment A (control. This type of yoghurt is recommended for weight watcher and lactose intolerance persons.

  10. A proteomic analysis of rice seedlings responding to 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene stress

    GE Cailin; WAN Dingzhen; WANG Zegang; DING Yan; WANG Yulong; SHANG Qi; MA Fai; LUO Shishi


    The proteomic analysis of rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots and leaves responding tol,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) stress was carried out by two dimensional gel electrophoresis,mass spectrometric (MS),and protein database analysis.The results showed that 5 mg/L TCB stress had a significant effect on global proteome in rice roots and leaves.The analysis of the category and function of TCB stress inducible proteins showed that different kinds of responses were produced in rice roots and leaves,when rice seedlings were exposed to 5 mg/L TCB stress.Most responses are essential for rice defending the damage of TCB stress.These responses include detoxication of toxic substances,expression of pathogenesis-related proteins,synthesis of cell wall substances and secondary compounds,regulation of protein and amino acid metabofism,activation of methiouine salvage pathway,and also include osmotic regulation and phytohormone metabolism.Comparing the TCB stress inducible proteins between the two cultivars,the β-glucosidasc and pathogenesis-related protein family 10 proteins were particularly induced by TCB stress in the roots of rice cultivar (Oryza sativa L.) Aizalzhan.and the glutathione S-transferase and aci-reductoue dioxygenase 4 were induced in the roots of rice cultivar Shanyou 63.This may be one of the important mechanisms for Shanyou 63 having higher tolerance to TCB stress than Aizaizhan.

  11. 水稻籽粒蛋白质含量选择对杂交后代蛋白质含量及氮代谢关键酶活性的影响%Effects of Grain Protein Content Selection on Protein Content and Key Enzymes Activities for Nitrogen Metabolism in Rice Hybrid Progenies

    黄星; 李晓光; 刘洪亮; 徐美兰; 张丰转; 张忠臣; 金正勋


    The japonica parents (Tong 769 and Xixuan 1) and their hybrid progenies, significantly differed in protein content in grains, were investigated to reveal the activities of protease in leaves and glutamine synthetase in grains and the dynamic alteration of soluble protein content in grains during grain filling. The results showed that the protein content in rice of the parents was near to each other, however, hybrid progenies with different contents of protein in grains and higher or lower activities of protease in leaves and glutamine synthetase in grains were acquired by consecutively directed selection of the grain protein content in their hybrid progenies. Moreover, the enzyme activity and protein content in grains exceled their parents during grain filling. The content of protein in rice and the activitiy of protease in leaves were positively related, and the content of soluble protein and activity of glutamine synthetase in grains were negatively related to some extent.%以籽粒蛋白质含量有显著差异的杂交后代及亲本为材料,分析了灌浆成熟过程中叶片蛋白水解酶和籽粒谷氨酰胺合成酶活性以及籽粒可溶性蛋白质含量的变化动态.结果表明,在籽粒蛋白质含量相近的亲本衍生的杂交后代中,通过籽粒蛋白质含量的连续定向选择不仅可以获得籽粒蛋白质含量和叶片蛋白水解酶活性及籽粒谷氨酰胺合成酶活性明显变高或变低的杂种后代,而且可获得蛋白质含量和酶活性超亲的后代;稻米蛋白质含量与灌浆过程中的叶片蛋白水解酶活性呈正相关, 籽粒可溶性蛋白质含量与籽粒谷氨酰胺合成酶活性呈显著负相关.

  12. Development of Gluten Free Cookies From Rice And Coconut Flour Blends

    Adriana PAUCEAN


    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the addition of rice and coconut flour blends on cookies formulation, composition and acceptability. For the cookie formulations the following ratios between coconut flour and rice flour were used: 100:0, 50:50, 30:70. Moisture, ash, fat, protein, total carbohydrates of raw flours and cookies were determined by AACC (2000 methods, while sensorial evaluation was carried out using a 9 points hedonic test. Coconut flour was characterized by a high content of ash (5.09% and proteins (17.2% comparatively to rice flour. Blending coconut and rice flours at different proportions led to cookies with enhanced protein, ash and fat content. Sensory analysis revealed that blends of rice and coconut flour can be successfully incorporated into gluten free cookies, resulting in products with pleasant flavor and taste. Coconut flour possesses good nutritional properties which could be utilized for value addition of baked goods.

  13. Productivity and biochemical properties of green tea in response to full-length and functional fragments of HpaGXooc, a harpin protein from the bacterial rice leaf streak pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola

    Xiaojing Wu; Tingquan Wu; Juying Long; Qian Yin; Yong Zhang; Lei Chen; Ruoxue Liu; Tongchun Gao; Hansong Dong


    Harpin proteins from plant pathogenic bacteria can stimulate hypersensitive cell death (HCD), drought tolerance, defence responses against pathogens and insects in plants, as well as enhance plant growth. Recently, we identified nine functional fragments of HpaGXooc, a harpin protein from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, the pathogen that causes bacterial leaf streak in rice. Fragments HpaG1–94, HpaG10–42, and HpaG62–138, which contain the HpaGXooc regions of the amino acid sequence as indicated by the number spans, exceed the parent protein in promoting growth, pathogen defence and HCD in plants. Here we report improved productivity and biochemical properties of green tea (Camellia sinensis) in response to the fragments tested in comparison with HpaGXooc and an inactive protein control. Field tests suggested that the four proteins markedly increased the growth and yield of green tea, and increased the leaf content of tea catechols, a group of compounds that have relevance in the prevention and treatment of human diseases. In particular, HpaG1–94 was more active than HpaGXooc in expediting the growth of juvenile buds and leaves used as green tea material and increased the catechol content of processed teas. When tea shrubs were treated with HpaHXooc and HpaG1–94 compared with a control, green tea yields were over 55% and 39% greater, and leaf catechols were increased by more than 64% and 72%, respectively. The expression of three homologues of the expansin genes, which regulate plant cell growth, and the CsCHS gene encoding a tea chalcone synthase, which critically regulates the biosynthesis of catechols, were induced in germinal leaves of tea plants following treatment with HpaG1–94 or HpaGXooc. Higher levels of gene expression were induced by the application of HpaG1–94 than HpaGXooc. Our results suggest that the harpin protein, especially the functional fragment HpaG1–94, can be used to effectively increase the yield and improve the biochemical

  14. Modeling taste score of rice by data mining from physicochemical parameters

    Li, K.; Onoda, K.; Kumazaki, T.


    The Rice quality evaluation is called the taste test (syokumi in Japanese) in Japan. The relationships between physicochemical parameters and taste scores are not fully understood. In this study, we propose a data mining approach to predict the taste of rice based on physicochemical parameters. The results show that SVM obtained the best prediction precision, and that the most important predictor is the protein parameter rather than the fatty acid, moisture, and amylose parameters. The taste score prediction model is useful to support the rice quality evaluation method and improve rice production.

  15. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of japonica Rice Varied with Production Areas in China

    YANG Xiao-yu; LIN Zhao-miao; LIU Zheng-hui; Md A Alim; BI Jun-guo; LI Gang-hua; WANG Qiang-sheng; WANG Shao-hua; DING Yan-feng


    Northeast of China and Jiangsu Province are major production areas of japonica rice in China. Rice from northeast of China is well-known for its good-eating and appearance quality, and that from Jiangsu Province is viewed as inferior. However, little is known concerning the difference in physicochemical and sensory properties of rice between the major two production areas. Analysis of 16 commercial rice samples showed marked differences in physicochemical properties, including chalky grain rate, contents of amylose and protein and pasting properties between the two main areas. Northeastern rice contained more short-chain amylopectin as compared with Jiangsu rice. However, Jiangsu rice is comparable to northeastern rice in terms of sensory quality including overall acceptability and textural properties of springiness, stickiness and hardness as evaluated by trained panel. Our results indicated the limitation of conventional index of physicochemical properties, and suggested the necessity of identiifcation of new factors controlling rice sensory property. In addition, the taste analyzer from Japan demonstrates limitation in distinguishing the differences between northeastern and Jiangsu rice, and therefore needs localization to ift China.

  16. The Enzymatic Extraction of Parboiled Rice Bran Protein was Analysed with Response Surface%酶法提取蒸谷米糠蛋白的响应面分析

    吕银德; 赵俊芳; 朱永义


    以脱脂蒸谷米糠为原料,采用酶法提取蒸谷米糠蛋白,结合响应面分析确定最佳工艺条件为:反应时间为2.4 h、反应温度为50℃、pH值为7.5、加酶量为1%、酶解率为53.8%.同时由响应面可知,时酶解效果影响最大的因素为温度,其它依次为pH值、加酶量、反应时间.%The extraction of parboiled rice bran protein with enzymatic treatment was introduced.Through with response surface analysis,the optimum conditions of enzymatic extraction were discussed.The results showed that under extraction time 2.4 h,temperature 50 ℃,pH value 7.5 and conditions of enzyme addition 1%,the enzyming yields were 53.8%.The biggest reason of enzymatic extraction Writ8 temperature and then pH.conditions of enzyme addition and extraction time.

  17. Effects of transgenic Bt rice on growth, reproduction, and superoxide dismutase activity of Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae) in laboratory studies.

    Bai, Yaoyu; Yan, Ruihong; Ke, Xin; Ye, Gongyin; Huang, Fangneng; Luo, Yongming; Cheng, Jiaan


    Transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) CrylAb protein is expected to be commercialized in China in the near future. The use of Bt rice for controlling insect pests sparks intensive debates regarding its biosafety. Folsomia candida is an euedaphic species and is often used as a "standard" test organism in assessing effects of environmental pollutants on soil organisms. In this study, growth, development, reproduction, and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) of F. candida were investigated in the laboratory for populations reared on leaf tissue or leaf-soil mixtures of two CrylAb rice lines and a non-Bt rice isoline. Two independent tests were performed: 1) a 35-d test using petri dishes containing yeast diet (positive control) or fresh rice leaf tissue, and 2) a 28-d test in soil-litter microcosms containing yeast or a mixture of soil and rice leaf tissue. Biological parameters measured in both tests were number of progeny production, population growth rate, and SOD activity. For the petri dish test, data measured also included insect body length and number of exuviation. There were no significant differences between the populations reared on Bt and non-Bt rice leaf tissue in all measured parameters in both tests and for both Bt rice lines, suggesting no significant effects of the CrylAb protein in Bt rice on F. candida in the laboratory studies. Results of this study should add additional biosafety proofs for use of Bt rice to manage rice pests in China.

  18. An anther-specific chalcone synthase-like gene D5 related to rice pollen development


    It was shown in a previous analysis that D5 gene from rice (Oryza sativa L.) was an anther-specific gene encoding a chalcone synthase-related protein. In this study, D5 gene was found specifically expressed in tapetum cells as well as in the peripheral cells of the vascular bundle of rice anthers by RNA in situ hybridization. In order to study its function, D5 was transformed into rice in both sense and antisense directions driven by a rice Actin 1 promoter. It has been observed that the pollen grains from the antisense D5 transgenic rice plants are abnormal, indicating that D5 plays a critical role in rice pollen development.

  19. Rice Quality Improvement in China


    @@ 1. Demand for high quality rice in China Rice is the leading cereal crop that contributes about 40% of the national grain production in China. The total output and areas rank the first and the second position in the world, respectively. In recent years, rice production grows steadily, but the quality improvement has been lagged and the quality becomes a limiting factor. As the grain supply exceeding the demand and the grain price plummeted, the State Council put forward expanding China′ s ongoing reform of the grain distribution system in 1998. Along with the foodstuff circulating system reform and market driving, the structure of rice production is adjusted,the planting acreage of early indica rice with poor quality decreased, and that of japonica rice in north China with good quality increased. With the challenge of China joining the WTO, Chinese government starts to pay premium on good quality rice.

  20. Expression of snowdrop lectin (GNA) in transgenic rice plants confers resistance to rice brown planthopper.

    Rao, K V; Rathore, K S; Hodges, T K; Fu, X; Stoger, E; Sudhakar, D; Williams, S; Christou, P; Bharathi, M; Bown, D P; Powell, K S; Spence, J; Gatehouse, A M; Gatehouse, J A


    Snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) has been shown previously to be toxic towards rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens; BPH) when administered in artificial diet. BPH feeds by phloem abstraction, and causes 'hopper burn', as well as being an important virus vector. To evaluate the potential of the gna gene to confer resistance towards BPH, transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants were produced, containing the gna gene in constructs where its expression was driven by a phloem-specific promoter (from the rice sucrose synthase RSs1 gene) and by a constitutive promoter (from the maize ubiquitin ubi1 gene). PCR and Southern analyses on DNA from these plants confirmed their transgenic status, and that the transgenes were transmitted to progeny after self-fertilization. Western blot analyses revealed expression of GNA at levels of up to 2.0% of total protein in some of the transgenic plants. GNA expression driven by the RSs1 promoter was tissue-specific, as shown by immunohistochemical localization of the protein in the non-lignified vascular tissue of transgenic plants. Insect bioassays and feeding studies showed that GNA expressed in the transgenic rice plants decreased survival and overall fecundity (production of offspring) of the insects, retarded insect development, and had a deterrent effect on BPH feeding. gna is the first transgene to exhibit insecticidal activity towards sap-sucking insects in an important cereal crop plant.

  1. Rice proteomics: a model system for crop improvement and food security.

    Kim, Sun Tae; Kim, Sang Gon; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Rakwal, Randeep


    Rice proteomics has progressed at a tremendous pace since the year 2000, and that has resulted in establishing and understanding the proteomes of tissues, organs, and organelles under both normal and abnormal (adverse) environmental conditions. Established proteomes have also helped in re-annotating the rice genome and revealing the new role of previously known proteins. The progress of rice proteomics had recognized it as the corner/stepping stone for at least cereal crops. Rice proteomics remains a model system for crops as per its exemplary proteomics research. Proteomics-based discoveries in rice are likely to be translated in improving crop plants and vice versa against ever-changing environmental factors. This review comprehensively covers rice proteomics studies from August 2010 to July 2013, with major focus on rice responses to diverse abiotic (drought, salt, oxidative, temperature, nutrient, hormone, metal ions, UV radiation, and ozone) as well as various biotic stresses, especially rice-pathogen interactions. The differentially regulated proteins in response to various abiotic stresses in different tissues have also been summarized, indicating key metabolic and regulatory pathways. We envision a significant role of rice proteomics in addressing the global ground level problem of food security, to meet the demands of the human population which is expected to reach six to nine billion by 2040.

  2. Impact of parboiling conditions on Maillard precursors and indicators in long-grain rice cultivars.

    Lamberts, Lieve; Rombouts, Ine; Brijs, Kristof; Gebruers, Kurt; Delcour, Jan A


    The effect of steaming conditions (mild, intermediate and severe) during parboiling of five different long-grain rice cultivars (brown rice cultivars Puntal, Cocodrie, XL8 and Jacinto, and a red rice) on rice colour, and Maillard precursors and indicators was investigated. Rice colour increased with severity of parboiling conditions. Redness increased more than yellowness when parboiling brown rice. Parboiling turned red rice black. It changed the levels of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and maltose. Losses of the non-reducing sugar, sucrose were caused by both leaching into the soaking water and enzymic conversion, rather than by thermal degradation during steaming. Concentrations of the reducing sugars, glucose and fructose, in intermediately parboiled rice were higher than those of mildly parboiled rice. After severe parboiling, glucose levels were lower than those of intermediately parboiled rice, while fructose levels were higher. These changes were ascribed to the sum of losses in the Maillard reaction (MR), formations as a result of starch degradation and isomerisation of glucose into fructose. It was clear that the ε-amino group of protein-bound lysine was more affected by parboiling conditions and loss in MRs, than that of free lysine. Low values of the MR indicators furosine and free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) in processed brown and red rices were related to mild parboiling, whereas high furosine and low free HMF levels were indicative of rices being subjected to intermediate processing conditions. High furosine and high free HMF contents corresponded to severe hydrothermal treatments. The strong correlation (r=0.89) between the free HMF levels and the increase in redness of parboiled brown rices suggested that Maillard browning was reflected more in the red than in the yellow colour.

  3. Workshop on hybrid rice



    FAO, in collaboration with FEDEARROZ in Colombia and EMBRAPA / CNPAF in Brail, organized a workshop on the Establishment of a Coorperative Research Network on Hybrid Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean held from Mar 16 to 18, 1994 at EMBRAPA/CNPAF in Brazil. Dr MAO Changxiang,

  4. Glutinous Rice Cakes


    CELEBRATING Spring Festival includes making glutinous rice cakes, or niangao in Chinese. Traditional and new methods of making niangao vary in taste according to different areas. No matter poor or rich. niangao is a must for every family during Spring Festival as it symbolizes auspiciousness. In Beijing, both northern and southernstyle niangao are available. After the Beginning of Autumn (13th solar term), the

  5. Exploring Japan through Rice.

    Wojtan, Linda S.


    Explores the role of rice in Japanese culture by presenting historical background and teaching activities in a variety of categories, such as language, sociology, history, and contemporary politics. Suggests teachers create cross-cultural comparisons; for example, the role of corn in the United States. Provides a list of teacher resources. (CMK)

  6. MoVrp1, a putative verprolin protein, is required for asexual development and infection in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    Huang, Lin; Zhang, Shengpei; Yin, Ziyi; Liu, Muxing; Li, Bing; Zhang, Haifeng; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zhengguang


    Endocytosis is a crucial cellular process in eukaryotic cells which involves clathrin and/or adaptor proteins, lipid kinases, phosphatases and the actin cytoskeleton. Verprolin proteins, such as Vrp1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are conserved family proteins that regulate actin binding and endocytosis. Here, we identified and characterized MoVrp1 as the yeast Vrp1 homolog in Magnaporthe oryzae. Deletion of the MoVRP1 gene resulted in defects in vegetative growth, asexual development, and infection of the host plant. The ∆Movrp1 mutants also exhibited decreased extracellular peroxidase and laccase activities and showed defects in colony pigmentation, hyphal surface hydrophobicity, cell wall integrity, autophagy, endocytosis, and secretion of avirulent effector. Our studies provided new evidences that MoVrp1 involved in actin cytoskeleton is important for growth, morphogenesis, cellular trafficking, and fungal pathogenesis. PMID:28117435

  7. Transgenic rice endosperm as a bioreactor for molecular pharming.

    Ou, Jiquan; Guo, Zhibin; Shi, Jingni; Wang, Xianghong; Liu, Jingru; Shi, Bo; Guo, Fengli; Zhang, Chufu; Yang, Daichnag


    Plants provide a promising expression platform for producing recombinant proteins with several advantages in terms of high expression level, lower production cost, scalability, and safety and environment-friendly. Molecular pharming has been recognized as an emerging industry with strategic importance that could play an important role in economic development and healthcare in China. Here, this review represents the significant advances using transgenic rice endosperm as bioreactor to produce various therapeutic recombinant proteins in transgenic rice endosperm and large-scale production of OsrHSA, and discusses the challenges to develop molecular pharming as an emerging industry with strategic importance in China.

  8. Identification of major rice allergen and their clinical significance in children

    You Hoon Jeon


    Full Text Available Purpose : Recently, an increase in the number of patients sensitized to rice allergen with or without clinical symptoms has been reported. This study was designed to determine the major allergens in rice and their clinical significance. Methods : Twenty-four children (15 boys and 9 girls; mean age, 16.3 months with allergic disease, who were sensitized to rice antigen (by UniCAP in the Pediatric Allergy Respiratory Center at Soonchunhyang University Hospital, were enrolled in this study. The allergenicity of various types of rice (raw, cooked, and heat-treated, simulated gastric fluid [SGF], and simulated intestinal fluid [SIF] was investigated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and immunoglobulin E (IgE immunoblots. The patients’ medical records, including laboratory data and allergy symptoms after ingestion of rice were reviewed. Results : Patients were sensitized to an average of 13.5 food antigens and their mean total IgE was 6,888.7 kU/L. In SDS-PAGE, more than 16 protein bands were observed in the raw rice, whereas only 14-16 kDa and 31-35 kDa protein bands were observed in cooked rice. The common SDS-PAGE protein bands observed in SGF-, SIF-, and heattreated rice were 9, 14, and 31 kDa. In a heated-rice IgE immunoblot, protein bands of 9, 14, and 31-33 kDa were found in 27.8%, 38.9%, and 38.9% of all sera, respectively, and in 50%, 50%, and 75%, of ser a from the 4 symptomatic patients, respectively. Conclusion : The 9-, 14-, and 31-kDa protein bands appeared to be the major allergens responsible for rice allergy symptoms.

  9. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...


    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â...) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF... classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  10. Study on red rice%赤米考



    'The red rice grain' recorded in the Chinese ancient books is neither a kind of good rice variety nor old rice grain or rotten rice grain, they are some rice varieties which have red-color grains and poor taste.

  11. TALEN utilization in rice genome modifications.

    Li, Ting; Liu, Bo; Chen, Chih Ying; Yang, Bing


    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), the newly developed and powerful genetic tools for precise genome editing, are fusion proteins of TAL effectors as DNA binding domains and the cleavage domain of FokI endonuclease. As a pair, the central repeat regions of TALENs determine the DNA binding specificity for the two sub-target sites; and the dimeric non-specific FokI cleavage domains cause a DNA double strand break (DSB) between the bound sequences. In vivo, cells repair the DSBs through either non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway or homologous recombination (HR) pathway. Various methods have been developed for easy and fast assembly of TALEN genes for their utilization in a variety of eukaryotic cells or organisms. Here we present a TALEN-based rice genome modification protocol including constructing modularly assembled TALENs, rice transformation, and mutant screening.

  12. Successfully introduce maize DNA fragments into rice



    The maize DNA fragments was successfully incorporated into rice by Associate Prof WAN Wenju's research team at Hunan Agricultural College, Changsha, China. The new gene transferring rice is named Genetic Engineered Rice (GER) line.

  13. [Exposure degree of important non-target arthropods to Cry2Aa in Bt rice fields].

    Zhang, Qing-Ling; Li, Yun-He; Hua, Hong-Xia; Yang, Chang-Ju; Wu, Hong-Jin; Peng, Yu-Fa


    Based on the principle of "risk = hazard x exposure", the selected representative nontarget organisms in the assessment of the potential effects of insect-resistant genetically modified (GM) crops on non-target arthropods in laboratory are generally the arthropod species highly exposed to the insecticidal proteins expressed by the GM crops in farmland ecosystem. In order to understand the exposure degree of the important arthropod species to Cry proteins in Bt rice fields, and to select the appropriate non-target arthropods in the risk assessment of insect-resistant GM crops, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted to measure the Cry2Aa protein concentration in the arthropods collected from the cry2Aa rice fields at different rice growth stages. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the Cry2Aa content protein concentration in different arthropod species. Some species did not contain Cry2Aa protein, while some species contained larger amounts of Cry2Aa protein. Relative to the arthropods colleted after rice anthesis, the arthropods colleted in rice anthesis contained relative higher concentrations of Cry2Aa protein, especially for the predacious arthropods. No Cry proteins were detected in parasitic arthropods. This study provided references for the laboratory assessment of the effects of GM rice on nontarget arthropods.

  14. Occurrence of metal ions in rice produced in Uruguay

    Mario Rivero


    Full Text Available The United Nations General Assembly declared the year 2004 the International Year of Rice under the concept "Rice is Life". The largest nutritional problems occurring globally are protein-energy malnutrition, Ca, Fe, I, Zn and vitamin A deficiencies. Being rice the staple food more consumed worldwide, outstanding care is taken on its composition levels.Uruguay has emerged as medium-size rice producer and Latin America's major rice exporter, and is now amongst the world's top ten. Thus, the knowledge of toxic as well as micronutrient elements is very important. Here is reported the determination in forty nine samples of rice (Oryza sativa L. of As, Cd, Cr, and Pb by ET AAS in samples digested by dry ashing, and Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Mn, Na, Ni and Zn by FAAS and Hg by CV AAS using microwave-assisted decomposition.The amount of all the metal ions studied in this work fall within the range typical of rice around the world. All the rice samples tested showed lower levels of As, Cd, Hg and Pb than the maximum limit permitted by governmental and international organizations.Potassium was the most abundant mineral followed by Mg and Ca and amongst microelements the presence of Cu, Fe, Mo, Mn, Na and Zn was outstanding.The milling process highly affects the contents of K, Mg, Mn, Na and Zn while little influence has on Ca, Co, Cu and Fe concentrations.Unexpected loss of Ca, Fe and Mn during parboiling process was detected. 

  15. Methionine-rich storage protein gene in the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, is expressed during diapause in response to cold acclimation.

    Sonoda, S; Fukumoto, K; Izumi, Y; Ashfaq, M; Yoshida, H; Tsumuki, H


    Gene expressions of acclimatized and non-acclimatized diapausing larvae were examined in Chilo suppressalis using a subtraction technique. A gene encoding a methionine-rich storage protein, CsSP1, was cloned and its complete cDNA sequence was determined. Potentially, CsSP1 encoded a 758-amino acid protein, with a calculated molecular weight of 88.8 kDa. The expression level of CsSP1 was higher in nondiapausing larvae than in diapausing ones. The CsSP1 expression was up-regulated in diapausing larvae when the temperature of cold acclimation was shifted to 5 degrees C. The up-regulated level was maintained at 40 days after incubation at 5 degrees C. In nondiapausing larvae, CsSP1 expression was down-regulated when the temperature was below developmental zero. Involvement of CsSP1 in diapause, cold tolerance acquisition and postdiapause development in C. suppressalis is discussed.

  16. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    Feizabadi, Yaser


    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  17. In vitro slow-release urea contained in rice straw-based diets to increase efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis

    Dede Kardaya; K. G. Wiryawan; A. Parakkasi; H.M Winugroho


    Effect of slow-release urea on efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis (EMPS) was examined using an in vitro technique. The objective of this experiment was to reveal the in vitro slow-release urea characteristics of zinc-urea, zeolites-urea, and zeolites-zinc-urea in relation to EMPS observed in different incubation time. The experimental design employed was randomized block design with 4 x 3 factorial plus a control treatment, and conducted in two replications. Factors were various ...

  18. Transformation of Arabidopsis by Rice OsWRKY78:: GFP Fusion Gene and Subcellular Localization of OsWRKY78 Protein

    Shunzhi LIU; Mei ZHANG; Xin TANG; Xiaolan WANG


    [Objective] The study was to understand the subcellular localization of OsWRKY78 protein in plants. [Method] Primers specific for OsWRKY78 gene were designed according to the OsWRKY78 full length sequence in Genbank. The gene was cloned by RT-PCR method. The gene was then recombined into a plasmid ex- pression vector carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, pBinGFP. The re- combinant was confirmed by PCR and enzyme digestion. The recombinant plasmid pBinGFP-OsWRKY was transformed into Arabidopsis through Agrobacterium tume- faciens strain GV3101 and transgenic plants were obtained. [Result] Measured by fluorescence microscopy, the expression of OsWRKY78 and GFP fusion protein in root tip cells was localized in the nucleus. [Conclusion] This study laid the foundation for further investigating the function of OsWRKY78 gene and its role in related sig- nal transduction and provided theoretical basis for exploring the relation between OsWRKY78 gene and brown planthoppers.

  19. Protein

    ... Food Service Resources Additional Resources About FAQ Contact Protein Protein is found throughout the body—in muscle, ... the heart and respiratory system, and death. All Protein Isn’t Alike Protein is built from building ...

  20. Molecular approaches to improve rice abiotic stress tolerance.

    Mizoi, Junya; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko


    Abiotic stress is a major factor limiting productivity of rice crops in large areas of the world. Because plants cannot avoid abiotic stress by moving, they have acquired various mechanisms for stress tolerance in the course of their evolution. Enhancing or introducing such mechanisms in rice is one effective way to develop stress-tolerant cultivars. Based on physiological studies on stress responses, recent progress in plant molecular biology has enabled discovery of many genes involved in stress tolerance. These genes include regulatory genes, which regulate stress response (e.g., transcription factors and protein kinases), and functional genes, which protect the cell (e.g., enzymes for generating protective metabolites and proteins). Both kinds of genes are used to increase stress tolerance in rice. In addition, several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with higher stress tolerance have been cloned, contributing to the discovery of significantly important genes for stress tolerance.

  1. Impact of insect-resistant transgenic rice on target insect pests and non-target arthropods in China



    Progress on the research and development of insect-resistant transgenic rice,especially expressing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt),in China has been rapid in recent years. A number of insect-resistant transgenic rice lines/varieties have passed restricted and enlarged field testing,and several have been approved for productive testing since 2002 in China,although none was approved for commercial use until 2006.Extensive laboratory and field trials have been conducted for evaluation of the efficiency of transgenic rice on target lepidoteran pests and potential ecological risks on non-target arthropods. The efficacy of a number of transgenic rice lines currently tested in China was excellent for control of the major target insect pests,the rice stem borers (Chilo suppressalis,Scirpophaga incertulas,Sesamia inferens) and leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis),and was better than most insecticides extensively used by millions of farmers at present in China.No significantly negative or unintended effects of transgenic rice on non-target arthropods were found compared with non-transgenic rice. In contrast,most of the current insecticides used for the control of rice stem borers and leaffolders proved harmful to natural enemies,and some insecticides may directly induce resurgence of rice planthoppers. Studies for developing a proactive insect resistance management of transgenic rice in the future are discussed to ensure the sustainable use of transgenic rice.

  2. Hd3a promotes lateral branching in rice.

    Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Chika; Tamaki, Shojiro; Taoka, Ken-Ichiro; Kyozuka, Junko; Shimamoto, Ko


    Accumulating evidence indicates that the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein is the mobile floral signal known as florigen. A rice FT homolog, Heading date 3a (Hd3a), is transported from the phloem to shoot apical cells, where it interacts with 14-3-3 proteins and transcription factor OsFD1 to form a florigen activation complex (FAC) that activates a rice homolog of the floral identity gene APETALA1. Recent studies showed that florigen has roles in plant development beyond flowering; however, the exact nature of these roles is not well understood. It is not clear whether FT is transported to organs outside the shoot apex, and whether FAC formation is required for processes other than flowering. We show here that the Hd3a protein accumulates in axillary meristems to promote branching, and that FAC formation is required. Analysis of transgenic plants revealed that Hd3a promotes branching through lateral bud outgrowth. Hd3a protein produced in the phloem reached the axillary meristem in the lateral bud, and its transport was required for promotion of branching. Moreover, mutant Hd3a proteins defective in FAC formation but competent with respect to transport did not promote branching. Finally, we show that Hd3a promotes branching independently from strigolactone and FC1, a transcription factor that inhibits branching in rice. Together, these results suggest that Hd3a functions as a mobile signal for branching in rice.

  3. Nutrient Contents per Serving of Twelve Varieties of Cooked Rice Marketed in Jordan

    Jafar M. El-Qudah


    Full Text Available Jordan imports rice from different countries without any quality preferences. Twelve varieties of cooked rice marketed in Jordan were analyzed. The content per serving of these varieties were computed for energy, protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, manganese, copper, iron and phosphorous. The protein content per serving found to range from 0.49 g for La Cigala rice to 6.2 g for Harvest rice. The fat content for all rice brands was less than 0.37 g per serving. The energy content ranged from 172.12 g/serving for Basmati rice to 212.25 g/serving for Sun White rice. Generally, all rice varieties contain significant amounts of minerals per serving. Ruzzana found to contain the highest level of calcium (38.2 mg/serving and Amber the lowest calcium content (6.7 mg/serving. Magnesium content found to range from 5.7 mg/serving for Royal Umberella rice to 16.3 mg/serving for Ruzzana rice. Consumption of one serving of Harvest cooked rice will cover 13.5% of the daily requirement of protein for females and 11.1% for males. Manganese content of one serving of Harvest, Sun White, Abu bent and La Cigala will cover 22.2% of the daily requirements for females and 14.7% for males, while consumption of one of Basmati, Sos rice or Amber will cover only 11.1% and 8.75 of requirement for females and males respectively. Planning a healthful diet is not a simple task. Dietary Reference Intake planning and assessing the diets of individuals or groups of healthy individuals according to their stage of life and sex. Food choice is a function of many factors, including personal preferences, habits, ethnic heritage and tradition. Dietary guidelines for Americans, consider whole grain products like rice are among the food groups that form the basis of a healthy diet. Including rice as part of a healthy, balanced diet can be linked to overall healthier eating patterns. Rice eaters are more likely to eat a diet consistent with the 2005 Dietary

  4. A Novel Rice Gene, NRR Responds to Macronutrient Deficiency and Regulates Root Growth

    Yu-Man Zhang; Xiao-Ying Chen; Yong-Sheng Yan; Li-Na Wang; Kun Yang; Na Xiao; Yun-Feng Liu; Ya-Ping Fu; Zong-Xiu Sun; Rong-Xiang Fang


    To better understand the response of rice to nutrient stress,we have taken a systematic approach to identify rice genes that respond to deficiency of macronutrients and affect rice growth.We report here the expression and biological functions of a previously uncharacterized rice gene that we have named NRR (nutrition response and root growth).NRR is alternatively spliced,producing two 5′-coterminal transcripts,NRRa and NRRb,encoding two proteins of 308 and 223 aa,respectively.Compared to NRRb,NRRa possesses an additional CCT domain at the C-terminus.Expression of NRR in rice seedling roots was significantly influenced by deficiency of macronutrients.Knock-down of expression of NRRa or NRRb by RNA interference resulted in enhanced rice root growth.By contrast,overexpression of NRRa in rice exhibited significantly retarded root growth.These results revealed that both NRRa and NRRb played negative regulatory roles in rice root growth.Our findings suggest that NRRa and NRRb,acting as the key components,modulate the rice root architecture with the availability of macronutrients.

  5. Proposal of a growth chamber for growing Super-Dwarf Rice in Space Agriculture

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Tsukamoto, Koya; Yamashita, Youichirou; Hirai, Takehiro

    Space agriculture needs to be considered to supply food for space crew who stay in space over an extended time period. So far crops such as wheat, onion, oat, pea and lettuce grew to explore the possibility of space agriculture. Although rice is a staple food for most of the world, research on rice cultivation in space has not been done much. Rice grains are nutrient-rich with carbohydrate, protein and dietary fiber. Moreover, rice is a high yield crop and harvested grains have a long shelf life. However, the plant height of standard rice cultivars is relatively long, requiring much space. In addition, rice plants require higher light intensities for greater yield. For these reasons, it is difficult to establish facilities for rice culture in a limited space with a low cost. We propose to employee a super-dwarf cultivar and a small growth chamber with a new type of LEDs. The super-dwarf rice is a short-grain japonica variety and the plant height is approximately 20 cm that is one-fifth as tall as standard cultivars. The LED light used as a light source for this study can provide full spectrum of 380 nm to 750 nm. Air temperature and humidity were controlled by a Peltier device equipped in the chamber. The characteristics of the new type of LEDs and other equipments of the chamber and the ground based performance of super-dwarf rice plants grown in the chamber will be reported.

  6. 不同杂交水稻籽粒灌浆期叶片蛋白的差异表达分析%Analysis of differential expression of leaf proteins in different hybrid rice during grain-filling

    黄锦文; 李忠; 陈军; 张志兴; 李奇松; 郑家团; 林文雄


    为明确超级杂交水稻高产形成的分子机理,以超级杂交水稻"Ⅱ优航2号"为试验材料,杂交水稻"汕优63"为对照,运用双向电泳结合质谱技术,比较分析了籽粒灌浆过程中两种不同"源"类型杂交水稻叶片蛋白的差异表达情况.结果显示,两种不同类型水稻叶片蛋白中共有22个蛋白点出现显著差异表达,其中有20个蛋白功能得到鉴定.通过对差异蛋白功能及表达丰度的分析,相对于"汕优63","Ⅱ优航2号"在灌浆期光合代谢、抗逆反应、基因转录表达、细胞生长、能量代谢等生理活动过程中表现出较大优势,是其叶片在籽粒灌浆期"源"优势的主要体现.本研究从差异蛋白水平明确了航天超级杂交稻高产形成的"源"特征,丰富了籽粒灌浆的"源、库、流"理论,为超级杂交水稻育种提供理论依据.%To further clarify molecular metabolism of high yield super-hybrid rice, this paper studied differential expression patterns of leaf proteins in super-hybrid combinations “Ⅱ Youhang No. 2” and hybrid combinations “Shanyou 63” during grain-filling. The proteomic approach, which was based on two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS) was used in the study.A total of 22 differentially expressed proteins (at a significant level) were noted, and 20 of which were eventually identified. Further analysis of relative functions and expression abundances showed advantages of “Ⅱ Youhang No. 2” in photosynthetic metabolism,defense, gene-transcript regulation, cell growth, energy metabolism, compared with “Xianyou 63”. The advantages maybe the internal agents of “source” property of “Ⅱ Youhang No. 2” leaf in grain-filling stage. The study revealed the source properties of high yield super-hybrid “Ⅱ Youhang No. 2” at differential proteomic levels. This, to some extent, enriched the source-sink-flow theory and provided a theoretical basis for super-hybrid rice

  7. Nicaragua - Rice and Banana Farmers

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report is an impact evaluation of two components of the Rural Business Development Program (RBD) in Nicaragua, specifically the components benefitting rice and...

  8. Small RNA in rice genome

    王凯; 朱小蓬; 钟兰; 陈润生


    Rice has many characteristics of a model plant. The recent completion of the draft of the rice genome represents an important advance in our knowledge of plant biology and also has an important contribution to the understanding of general genomic evolution. Besides the rice genome finishing map, the next urgent step for rice researchers is to annotate the genes and noncoding functional sequences. The recent work shows that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) play significant roles in biological systems. We have explored all the known small RNAs (a kind of ncRNA) within rice genome and other six species sequences, including Arabidopsis, maize, yeast, worm, mouse and pig. As a result we find 160 out of 552 small RNAs (sRNAs) in database have homologs in 108 rice scaffolds, and almost all of them (99.41%) locate in intron regions of rice by gene predication. 19 sRNAs only appear in rice. More importantly, we find two special U14 sRNAs: one is located in a set of sRNA ZMU14SNR9(s) which only appears in three plants, 86% sequences of them can be compared as the same sequence in rice, Arabidopsis and maize; the other conserved sRNA XLHS7CU14 has a segment which appears in almost all these species from plants to animals. All these results indicate that sRNA do not have evident borderline between plants and animals.

  9. Genome-wide analysis of potential cross-reactive endogenous allergens in rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Fang Chao Zhu


    Full Text Available The proteins in the food are the source of common allergic components to certain patients. Current lists of plant endogenous allergens were based on the medical/clinical reports as well as laboratory results. Plant genome sequences made it possible to predict and characterize the genome-wide of putative endogenous allergens in rice (Oryza sativa L.. In this work, we identified and characterized 122 candidate rice allergens including the 22 allergens in present databases. Conserved domain analysis also revealed 37 domains among rice allergens including one novel domain (histidine kinase-, DNA gyrase B-, and HSP90-like ATPase, PF13589 adding to the allergen protein database. Phylogenetic analysis of the allergens revealed the diversity among the Prolamin superfamily and DnaK protein family, respectively. Additionally, some allergens proteins clustered on the rice chromosome might suggest the molecular function during the evolution.

  10. Se14, encoding a JmjC domain-containing protein, plays key roles in long-day suppression of rice flowering through the demethylation of H3K4me3 of RFT1.

    Takayuki Yokoo

    Full Text Available Floral transition from the vegetative to the reproductive growth phase is a major change in the plant life cycle and a key factor in reproductive success. In rice (Oryza sativa L., a facultative short-day plant, numerous flowering time and flower formation genes that control floral transition have been identified and their physiological effects and biochemical functions have been clarified. In the present study, we used a Se14-deficient mutant line (HS112 and other flowering mutant lines to investigate the photoperiodic response, chromosomal location and function in the photoperiod sensitivity of the Se14 gene. We also studied the interactive effects of this locus with other crucial flowering time genes. We found that Se14 is independent of the known photoperiod-sensitive genes, such as Hd1 and Ghd7, and is identical to Os03g0151300, which encodes a Jumonji C (JmjC domain-containing protein. Expression analysis revealed that the expressions of RFT1, a floral initiator known as a "florigen-like gene", and Ehd1 were up-regulated in HS112, whereas this up-regulation was not observed in the original variety of 'Gimbozu'. ChIP assays of the methylation states of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4 revealed that the trimethylated H3K4 in the promoter region of the RFT1 chromatin was significantly increased in HS112. We conclude that Se14 is a novel photoperiod-sensitivity gene that has a suppressive effect on floral transition (flowering time under long day-length conditions through the modification of chromatin structure by H3K4me3 demethylation in the promoter region of RFT1.

  11. Rice proteomics: A move toward expanded proteome coverage to comparative and functional proteomics uncovers the mysteries of rice and plant biology.

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep


    Growing rice is an important socio-economic activity. Rice proteomics has achieved a tremendous progress in establishing techniques to proteomes of almost all tissues, organs, and organelles during the past one decade (year 2000-2010). We have compiled these progresses time to time over this period. The present compilation discusses proteomics research in rice published between 1st April 2008 and 30th July 2010. Progress continues mainly towards protein cataloging deep into the proteome with high-confident protein assignment and some functional significance than ever before by (i) identifying previously unreported/low-abundance proteins, (ii) quantifying relative/absolute values of proteins, (iii) assigning protein responses to biotic/abiotic stresses, (iv) protein localization into organelles, (v) validating previous proteomes and eliminating false-positive proteins, and (vi) discovering potential biomarkers for tissues, organs, organelles, and for screening transgenic plants and food-safety evaluation. The notable achievements in global mapping of phosphorylation sites and identifying several novel secreted proteins into the extracellular space are worth appreciating. Our ever-increasing knowledge on the rice proteomics is beginning to impact the biology of not only rice, but also crops and plants. These major achievements will be discussed in this review keeping in mind newcomers, young, and established scientists in proteomics and plants. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Ecosystem manipulation for increasing biological N2 fixation by blue-green algae (CYANOBACTERIA) in lowland rice fields

    Grant, I.F.; Roger, Pierre-Armand; Watanabe, I.


    An introduction to the soil/floodwater ecosystem of lowland rice fields is given. Two primary consumers are particularly important in limiting the growth and N2-fixing activities of blue-green algae in irrigated rice ; the OSTRACODA (Class CRUSTACEA) and the PULMONATA (MULUSCA). Control of grazing by neem seeds AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. Juss and cultural practices enhanced BGA biomass and increased N2-fixation ten fold. Significant increases in rice grain protein occur if heterocystous algae bloo...

  13. Screening of Rice Genes Interacting with p5b of Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus

    LU Ying; YANG Jian; ZHANG Heng-mu; CHEN Jian-ping


    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) is a recognized member of the genus Fijivirus,family Reoviridae.Its genome has ten double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments (S1-S10),in which the fifth genome segment (S5) contains two open reading frames (ORFs) with a partially overlapping region.The second ORF of RBSDV S5 encodes a viral nonstructural protein named p5b with unknown function.To reveal the function of p5b,its gene was ligated into the bait plasmid pGBKT7 and an expression library containing rice cDNAs was constructed using plasmid pGADT7 for yeast two-hybrid assay.The bait protein p5b was detected in yeast by western blot,and the result of an auto-activation test showed that p5b could not autonomously activate the expression of reporter genes in yeast.Then the bait protein p5b was used for screening the cDNA expression libraries of rice.Gene fragments of some pivotal enzymes involved in photosynthesis,respiration and other important metabolic processes,were identified to interact with p5b in yeast,suggesting that these interactions may play roles in symptom development in infected plants.

  14. 不同提取液提取水稻幼苗质外体蛋白效果的比较%Comparison of the Extraction Effects of Rice Seedling Apoplast Proteins Using Different Extraction Buffers

    周露; 刘进元


    To date, low extraction efficiency and cytoplasmic contamination is a great problem that apoplast protein extraction faces. To effectively extract apoplast proteins, using 12 day-old 93-11 rice seedlings, the extraction efficiency and cytoplasmic contamination ratio of the apoplast protein extracts by three different extraction buffers (Buffer A, Buffer B and Buffer C) were compared. The three buffers all contain 0. 1 mol/L Tris-HCl pH 7.6 and lmmol/L PMSF, however, Buffer A also contains 0.2mol/L KCI; Buffer B also contains 0. 2mol/L CaC12; and Buffer C also contains 0. 1 mol/L KCI and 0.1 mol/L CaCl2. The results showed that the protein yield of buffer A reached ( 0.49 ± 0.07 ) mg/g FW (leaf) and ( 0.83 ± 0. 06 ) mg/g FW ( root ), respectively, 122.7% (leaf) and 102.4% (root) greater than Buffer B, and 53.1% (leaf) and 59.6% (root) greater than Buffer C. The glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) enzyme assay showed that the cytoplasmic contamination ratios of these apoplast protein extracts were very low, below 1%, which could be considered as negligible contamination. Therefore, by optimizing the extraction buffer, an effective extraction method for apoplast proteins was established, which could be applied to the plant apoplast proteomic studies.%提取植物组织质外体蛋白质的主要困难是提取效率低且易被细胞质蛋白污染.为解决上述问题,以12天93-11水稻幼苗为试验材料,使用3种含不同浓度钾和钙离子的缓冲液作为提取液进行提取效果比较.3种提取液的相同成分都是0.1 mol/L Tris-HCl pH 7.6,1 mmol/L PMSF,区别点在于:Buffer A含0.2mol/L KCl;Bufffer B含0.2mol/L CaCl2;Buffer C含0.1mol/L KCl和0.1mol/L CaCl2.结果表明,Buffer A的蛋白产率达到了(0.49±0.07)mg/g FW(叶片)和(0.83±0.06)mg/g FW(根部),比Buffer B和Buffer C分别提高了122.7%和53.1%(叶片)以及102.4%和59.6%(根部).六磷酸葡萄糖脱氢酶活性检测的结果表明在这些蛋白质提取物中

  15. Protein Quality of Rice Drinks Fortified with Bovine and Porcine Blood Plasma / Calidad Proteica de Bebidas de Arroz Fortificadas con Plasma Sanguíneo de Bovino y Porcino

    Piedad Margarita Montero Castillo


    Full Text Available Abstract. The future of nutrition in Colombia, and perhaps inother developing countries, will depend in large part on the abilityof food technology to take full advantage of the food sourcesavailable in the country and to adapt and develop new productsthat will vary and complement the diets of the majority of thepopulation at a low cost. The objective of this study was to evaluatethe protein quality of rice-based drinks fortified with bovine andporcine blood plasma. Six treatments were prepared with differentlevels of fortification (14.5%, 18.5% and 29%. The effects of theplasma type and the addition levels on the protein content, theamino acid profile, and the in vitro digestibility of the drinks wereobserved. The AOAC method was employed for the determinationof the protein content; the amino acid profile was created usingHPLC. The protein digestibility was determined by subjecting adispersion of the drink to the action of a multi-enzymatic solution.The protein content increased with the level of fortification. Thedrinks fortified with bovine plasma (104% and porcine plasma(89% presented a better protein quality index than the unfortifieddrink. The digestibility of the fortified drinks did not demonstratesignificant improvements in comparison with the unfortified drink.The chemical score of the drinks fortified with porcine plasma(71.6 and bovine plasma (78.5 showed that the latter had thebest nutritional quality. / Resumen. El futuro de la alimentación en Colombia y quizás deotros países en desarrollo va a depender en gran parte de quela tecnología de alimentos sea capaz de aprovechar las fuentesdisponibles de alimentos en el país y de adaptar y desarrollarnuevos productos que permitan variar y complementar la dietade la mayoría de la población a bajo costo. El objetivo de estetrabajo fue evaluar la calidad proteica de bebidas a base dearroz fortificadas con plasma sanguíneo de bovino y porcino. Seprepararon seis tratamientos con

  16. Systematic Identification of Rice ABC1 Gene Family and Its Response to Abiotic Stress

    GAO Qing-song; ZHANG Dan; Xu Liang; XU Chen-wu


    Members of the activity of bc1 complex (ABC1) family are protein kinases that are widely found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.Previous studies showed that several plant ABC1 genes participated in the abiotic stress response.Here,we present the systematic identification of rice and Arabidopsis ABC1 genes and the expression analysis of rice ABC1 genes.A total of 15 and 17 ABC1 genes from the rice and Arabidopsis genomes,respectively,were identified using a bioinformatics approach.Phylogenetic analyses of these proteins suggested that the divergence of this family had occurred and their main characteristics were established before the monocot-dicot split.Indeed,species-specific expansion contributed to the evolution of this family in rice and Arabidopsis after the monocot-dicot split.Intron/exon structure analysis indicated that most of the orthologous genes had similar exon sizes,but diverse intron sizes,and the rice genes contained larger introns,moreover,intron gain was an important event accompanying the recent evolution of the rice ABC1 family.Multiple sequence alignment revealed one conserved amino acid segment and four conserved amino acids in the ABC1 domain.Online subcellular localization predicted that nine rice ABC1 proteins were localized in chloroplasts.Real-time RT-PCR established that the rice ABC1 genes were primarily expressed in leaves and the expression could be modulated by a broad range of abiotic factors such as H2O2,abscisic acid,low temperature,drought,darkness and high salinity.These results reveal that the rice ABC1 gene family plays roles in the environmental stress response and specific biological processes of rice.

  17. Impact of phytic acid on nutrient bioaccessibility and antioxidant properties of dehusked rice.

    Lee, H H; Loh, S P; Bong, C F J; Sarbini, S R; Yiu, P H


    Whole grains consumption promotes health benefits, but demonstrates controversial impacts from phytic acid in meeting requirements of good health. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the nutrient bioaccessibility and antioxidant properties of rice cultivars named "Adan" or "Bario" and deduce the nutritional impact of phytic acid. Majority of the dehusked rice in the collection showed an acceptable level of in-vitro starch digestibility and in-vitro protein digestibility, but were poor in antioxidant properties and bioaccessibility of minerals (Ca, Fe and Zn). The drawbacks identified in the rice cultivars were due to relatively high phytic acid content (2420.6 ± 94.6 mg/100 g) and low phenolic content (152.39 ± 18.84 μg GAE/g). The relationship between phytic acid content and mineral bioaccessibility was strongest in calcium (r = 0.60), followed by iron (r = 0.40) and zinc (r = 0.27). Phytic acid content did not significantly correlate with in-vitro starch digestibility and in-vitro protein digestibility but showed a weak relationship with antioxidant properties. These suggest that phytic acid could significantly impair the mineral bioaccessibility of dehusked rice, and also act as an important antioxidant in non-pigmented rice. Bario rice cultivars offered dehusked