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Sample records for rice germin-like proteins

  1. Overexpression of Arabidopsis plasmodesmata germin-like proteins disrupts root growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Byung-Kook; Li, Gang; Kang, Byung-Ho; Zeng, Fanchang; Lucas, William J

    2012-09-01

    In plants, a population of non-cell-autonomous proteins (NCAPs), including numerous transcription factors, move cell to cell through plasmodesmata (PD). In many cases, the intercellular trafficking of these NCAPs is regulated by their interaction with specific PD components. To gain further insight into the functions of this NCAP pathway, coimmunoprecipitation experiments were performed on a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plasmodesmal-enriched cell wall protein preparation using as bait the NCAP, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) PHLOEM PROTEIN16 (Cm-PP16). A Cm-PP16 interaction partner, Nt-PLASMODESMAL GERMIN-LIKE PROTEIN1 (Nt-PDGLP1) was identified and shown to be a PD-located component. Arabidopsis thaliana putative orthologs, PDGLP1 and PDGLP2, were identified; expression studies indicated that, postgermination, these proteins were preferentially expressed in the root system. The PDGLP1 signal peptide was shown to function in localization to the PD by a novel mechanism involving the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi secretory pathway. Overexpression of various tagged versions altered root meristem function, leading to reduced primary root but enhanced lateral root growth. This effect on root growth was corrected with an inability of these chimeric proteins to form stable PD-localized complexes. PDGLP1 and PDGLP2 appear to be involved in regulating primary root growth by controlling phloem-mediated allocation of resources between the primary and lateral root meristems.

  2. Comparative analysis of regulatory elements in different germin-like ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    INTRODUCTION. Germin and germin-like proteins (GLPs) is a member of ..... analysis of germin-like protein gene 2 promoter from Oryza sativa L. ssp. Indica. ... esculenta Crantz) root proteome: Protein identification and differential expression.

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of novel Morus alba germin-like protein gene which encodes for a silkworm gut digestion-resistant antimicrobial protein.

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    Bharat Bhusan Patnaik

    Full Text Available Silkworm fecal matter is considered one of the richest sources of antimicrobial and antiviral protein (substances and such economically feasible and eco-friendly proteins acting as secondary metabolites from the insect system can be explored for their practical utility in conferring broad spectrum disease resistance against pathogenic microbial specimens.Silkworm fecal matter extracts prepared in 0.02 M phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4, at a temperature of 60°C was subjected to 40% saturated ammonium sulphate precipitation and purified by gel-filtration chromatography (GFC. SDS-PAGE under denaturing conditions showed a single band at about 21.5 kDa. The peak fraction, thus obtained by GFC wastested for homogeneityusing C18reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The activity of the purified protein was tested against selected Gram +/- bacteria and phytopathogenic Fusarium species with concentration-dependent inhibitionrelationship. The purified bioactive protein was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS and N-terminal sequencing by Edman degradation towards its identification. The N-terminal first 18 amino acid sequence following the predicted signal peptide showed homology to plant germin-like proteins (Glp. In order to characterize the full-length gene sequence in detail, the partial cDNA was cloned and sequenced using degenerate primers, followed by 5'- and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR. The full-length cDNA sequence composed of 630 bp encoding 209 amino acids and corresponded to germin-like proteins (Glps involved in plant development and defense.The study reports, characterization of novel Glpbelonging to subfamily 3 from M. alba by the purification of mature active protein from silkworm fecal matter. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified protein was found similar to the deduced amino acid sequence (without the transit

  4. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Novel Morus alba Germin-Like Protein Gene Which Encodes for a Silkworm Gut Digestion-Resistant Antimicrobial Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Kim, Dong Hyun; Oh, Seung Han; Song, Yong-Su; Chanh, Nguyen Dang Minh; Kim, Jong Sun; Jung, Woo-jin; Saha, Atul Kumar; Bindroo, Bharat Bhushan; Han, Yeon Soo

    2012-01-01

    Background Silkworm fecal matter is considered one of the richest sources of antimicrobial and antiviral protein (substances) and such economically feasible and eco-friendly proteins acting as secondary metabolites from the insect system can be explored for their practical utility in conferring broad spectrum disease resistance against pathogenic microbial specimens. Methodology/Principal Findings Silkworm fecal matter extracts prepared in 0.02 M phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4), at a temperature of 60°C was subjected to 40% saturated ammonium sulphate precipitation and purified by gel-filtration chromatography (GFC). SDS-PAGE under denaturing conditions showed a single band at about 21.5 kDa. The peak fraction, thus obtained by GFC wastested for homogeneityusing C18reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activity of the purified protein was tested against selected Gram +/− bacteria and phytopathogenic Fusarium species with concentration-dependent inhibitionrelationship. The purified bioactive protein was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and N-terminal sequencing by Edman degradation towards its identification. The N-terminal first 18 amino acid sequence following the predicted signal peptide showed homology to plant germin-like proteins (Glp). In order to characterize the full-length gene sequence in detail, the partial cDNA was cloned and sequenced using degenerate primers, followed by 5′- and 3′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR). The full-length cDNA sequence composed of 630 bp encoding 209 amino acids and corresponded to germin-like proteins (Glps) involved in plant development and defense. Conclusions/Significance The study reports, characterization of novel Glpbelonging to subfamily 3 from M. alba by the purification of mature active protein from silkworm fecal matter. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified protein was found

  5. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV

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    Laura Mejía-Teniente

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Germin-like proteins (GLPs are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession.

  6. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP) in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Teniente, Laura; Joaquin-Ramos, Ahuizolt de Jesús; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G

    2015-11-25

    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession.

  7. Characterization of paralogous protein families in rice

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    Zhu Wei

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High gene numbers in plant genomes reflect polyploidy and major gene duplication events. Oryza sativa, cultivated rice, is a diploid monocotyledonous species with a ~390 Mb genome that has undergone segmental duplication of a substantial portion of its genome. This, coupled with other genetic events such as tandem duplications, has resulted in a substantial number of its genes, and resulting proteins, occurring in paralogous families. Results Using a computational pipeline that utilizes Pfam and novel protein domains, we characterized paralogous families in rice and compared these with paralogous families in the model dicotyledonous diploid species, Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis, which has undergone genome duplication as well, has a substantially smaller genome (~120 Mb and gene complement compared to rice. Overall, 53% and 68% of the non-transposable element-related rice and Arabidopsis proteins could be classified into paralogous protein families, respectively. Singleton and paralogous family genes differed substantially in their likelihood of encoding a protein of known or putative function; 26% and 66% of singleton genes compared to 73% and 96% of the paralogous family genes encode a known or putative protein in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. Furthermore, a major skew in the distribution of specific gene function was observed; a total of 17 Gene Ontology categories in both rice and Arabidopsis were statistically significant in their differential distribution between paralogous family and singleton proteins. In contrast to mammalian organisms, we found that duplicated genes in rice and Arabidopsis tend to have more alternative splice forms. Using data from Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing, we show that a significant portion of the duplicated genes in rice show divergent expression although a correlation between sequence divergence and correlation of expression could be seen in very young genes. Conclusion

  8. A rice kinase-protein interaction map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaodong; Richter, Todd; Chen, Mei; Fujii, Hiroaki; Seo, Young Su; Xie, Mingtang; Zheng, Xianwu; Kanrar, Siddhartha; Stevenson, Rebecca A; Dardick, Christopher; Li, Ying; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Fahong; Bartley, Laura E; Chern, Mawsheng; Bart, Rebecca; Chen, Xiuhua; Zhu, Lihuang; Farmerie, William G; Gribskov, Michael; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Fromm, Michael E; Ronald, Pamela C; Song, Wen-Yuan

    2009-03-01

    Plants uniquely contain large numbers of protein kinases, and for the vast majority of the 1,429 kinases predicted in the rice (Oryza sativa) genome, little is known of their functions. Genetic approaches often fail to produce observable phenotypes; thus, new strategies are needed to delineate kinase function. We previously developed a cost-effective high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system. Using this system, we have generated a protein interaction map of 116 representative rice kinases and 254 of their interacting proteins. Overall, the resulting interaction map supports a large number of known or predicted kinase-protein interactions from both plants and animals and reveals many new functional insights. Notably, we found a potential widespread role for E3 ubiquitin ligases in pathogen defense signaling mediated by receptor-like kinases, particularly by the kinases that may have evolved from recently expanded kinase subfamilies in rice. We anticipate that the data provided here will serve as a foundation for targeted functional studies in rice and other plants. The application of yeast two-hybrid and TAPtag analyses for large-scale plant protein interaction studies is also discussed.

  9. Salinity alters the protein composition of rice endosperm and the physicochemical properties of rice flour.

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    Baxter, Graeme; Zhao, Jian; Blanchard, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Salinity is one of the major threats to production of rice and other agricultural crops worldwide. Although numerous studies have shown that salinity can severely reduce rice yield, little is known about its impact on the chemical composition, processing and sensory characteristics of rice. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of salinity on the pasting and textural properties of rice flour as well as on the protein content and composition of rice endosperm. Rice grown under saline conditions had significantly lower yields but substantially higher protein content. The increase in protein content was mainly attributed to increases in the amount of glutelin, with lesser contributions from albumin. Salinity also altered the relative proportions of the individual peptides within the glutelin fraction. Flours obtained from rice grown under saline conditions showed significantly higher pasting temperatures, but lower peak and breakdown viscosities. Rice gels prepared from the flour showed significantly higher hardness and adhesiveness values, compared to the freshwater controls. Salinity can significantly affect the pasting and textural characteristics of rice flour. Although some of the effects could be attributed to changes in protein content of the rice flour, especially the increased glutelin level, the impact of salinity on the physicochemical properties of rice is rather complex and may involve the interrelated effects of other rice components such as starch and lipids. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Interaction between Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf pigment and rice proteins.

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    Wang, Li; Xu, Yuan; Zhou, Sumei; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang; Fan, Meihua

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the interaction of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf (VBTL) pigment and rice proteins. In the presence of rice protein, VBTL pigment antioxidant activity and free polyphenol content decreased by 67.19% and 68.11%, respectively, and L(∗) of the protein-pigment complex decreased significantly over time. L(∗) values of albumin, globulin and glutelin during 60-min pigment exposure decreased by 55.00, 57.14, and 54.30%, respectively, indicating that these proteins had bound to the pigment. A significant difference in protein surface hydrophobicity was observed between rice proteins and pigment-protein complexes, indicating that hydrophobic interaction is a major binding mechanism between VBTL pigment and rice proteins. A significant difference in secondary structures between proteins and protein-pigment complexes was also uncovered, indicating that hydrogen bonding may be another mode of interaction between VBTL pigment and rice proteins. Our results indicate that VBTL pigment can stain rice proteins with hydrophobic and hydrogen interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization and Preparation of Broken Rice Proteins Modified by Proteases

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    Lixia Hou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broken rice is an underutilized by-product of milling. Proteins prepared from broken rice by treatments with alkaline protease and papain have been characterized with regard to nutritional and functional properties. The protein content and the protein recovery were 56.45 and 75.45 % for alkaline protease treatment, and 65.45 and 46.32 % for papain treatment, respectively. Protease treatment increased the lysine and valine content, leading to a more balanced amino acid profile. Broken rice proteins had high emulsifying capacity, 58.3–71.6 % at neutral pH, and adequate water holding capacity, ranging from 1.96 to 2.93 g/g of proteins. At pH=7.0, the broken rice protein had the highest water holding capacity and the best interfacial activities (emulsifying capacity, emulsifying stability, foaming capacity and foaming stability, which may be the result of the higher solubility at pH=7.0. The interfacial activities increased with the increase in the mass fraction of broken rice proteins. The proteins prepared by the papain treatment had higher water holding capacity (p>0.05, emulsifying capacity (p0.05 than alkaline protease treatment at the same pH or mass fraction. To test the fortification of food products with broken rice proteins, pork sausages containing the proteins were prepared. Higher yield of the sausages was obtained with the increased content of broken rice proteins, in the range of 2.0–9.0 %. The results indicate that broken rice proteins have potential to be used as the protein fortification ingredient for food products.

  12. In vitro binding of germanium to proteins of rice shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hideaki; Takahashi, Eiichi

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of in vitro binding between proteins of rice shoots and germanium (Ge) was investigated. The proteins in mixtures of aqueous extracts of rice shoots and radioactive germanium ( 68 GeO 2 ) were fractionated. The binding of radioactivity to the proteins was observed even after 5 successive fractionation steps from the original mixtures. At the final fractionation step using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, a constant proportionality between protein concentration and associated radioactivity was found in most samples although not all. These results indicate that the binding of 68 Ge to proteins is not due to the simple adsorption by proteins. (auth.)

  13. Gene, protein, and network of male sterility in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kun; Peng, Xiaojue; Ji, Yanxiao; Yang, Pingfang; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well-exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male-sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and prot...

  14. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF RICE PROTEIN CONCENTRATES

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    V. V. Kolpakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally rice and products of its processing are used to cook porridge, pilaf, lettuce, confectionery, fish, dairy and meat products. At the same time new ways of its processing with releasing of protein products for more effective using, including the use of a glutenfree diet, are developing. The task of this study was a comparative research of nutrition and biological value and functional properties of protein and protein-calcium concentrates produced from rice flour milled from white and brown rice. The traditional and special methods were used. Concentrates were isolated with enzyme preparations of xylanase and amylolytic activity with the next dissolution of protein in diluted hydrochloric acid. Concentrates differed in the content of mineral substances (calcium, zinc, iron and other elements, amino acids and functional properties. The values of the functional properties and indicators of the nutritional value of concentrates from white rice show the advisability of their using in food products, including gluten-free products prepared on the basis of the emulsion and foam systems, and concentrates from brown rice in food products prepared on the basis of using of the emulsion systems. Protein concentrates of brown rice have a low foaming capacity and there is no foam stability at all.

  15. Food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome caused by rice beverage.

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    Caminiti, Lucia; Salzano, Giuseppina; Crisafulli, Giuseppe; Porcaro, Federica; Pajno, Giovanni Battista

    2013-05-14

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an uncommon and potentially severe non IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy. It is usually caused by cow's milk or soy proteins, but may also be triggered by ingestion of solid foods. The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical history and symptoms. Management of acute phase requires fluid resuscitation and intravenous steroids administration, but avoidance of offending foods is the only effective therapeutic option.Infant with FPIES presented to our emergency department with vomiting, watery stools, hypothension and metabolic acidosis after ingestion of rice beverage. Intravenous fluids and steroids were administered with good clinical response. Subsequently, a double blind placebo control food challenge (DBPCFC) was performed using rice beverage and hydrolyzed formula (eHF) as placebo. The "rice based formula" induced emesis, diarrhoea and lethargy. Laboratory investigations reveal an increase of absolute count of neutrophils and the presence of faecal eosinophils. The patient was treated with both intravenous hydration and steroids. According to Powell criteria, oral food challenge was considered positive and diagnosis of FPIES induced by rice beverage was made. Patient was discharged at home with the indication to avoid rice and any rice beverage as well as to reintroduce hydrolyzed formula. A case of FPIES induced by rice beverage has never been reported. The present case clearly shows that also beverage containing rice proteins can be responsible of FPIES. For this reason, the use of rice beverage as cow's milk substitute for the treatment of non IgE-mediated food allergy should be avoided.

  16. Gene, protein and network of male sterility in rice

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    Wang eKun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and proteins related to cytoplasmic male sterility, photoperiod sensitive male sterility, self-incompatibility and other types of microspores deterioration have been characterized through genetics or proteomics. Especially the latter, offers us a powerful and high throughput approach to discern the novel proteins involving in male-sterile pathways which may help us to breed artificial male-sterile system. This represents an alternative tool to meet the critical challenge of further development of hybrid rice. In this paper, we reviewed the recent developments in our understanding of male sterility in rice hybrid production across gene, protein and integrated network levels, and also, present a perspective on the engineering of male sterile lines for hybrid rice production.

  17. Fungal Biomass Protein Production from Trichoderma harzianum Using Rice Polishing.

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    Ahmed, Sibtain; Mustafa, Ghulam; Arshad, Muhammad; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Industrially important enzymes and microbial biomass proteins have been produced from fungi for more than 50 years. High levels of crude protein as much as 45% are present in fungal biomass with balanced essential amino acids. The aim of this study was to access the potential of Trichoderma harzianum to produce fungal biomass protein from rice polishings. Maximum biomass yield was obtained at 5% (w/v) rice polishings after 72 h of incubation at 28°C at pH 4. Carbon and nitrogen ratio of 20 : 1 gave significantly higher production of fungal biomass protein. The FBP in the 75 L fermenter contained 49.50% crude protein, 32.00% true protein, 19.45% crude fiber, 9.62% ash, 11.5% cellulose content, and 0.325% RNA content. The profile of amino acids of final FBP exhibited that all essential amino acids were present in great quantities. The FBP produced by this fungus has been shown to be of good nutritional value for supplementation to poultry. The results presented in this study have practical implications in that the fungus T. harzianum could be used successfully to produce fungal biomass protein using rice polishings.

  18. Maillard reaction products of rice protein hydrolysates with mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides

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    Rice protein, a byproduct of rice syrup production, is abundant but, its lack of functionality prevents its wide use as a food ingredient. Maillard reaction products of (MRPs) hydrolysates from the limited hydrolysis of rice protein (LHRP) and various mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides were evaluat...

  19. Proteomic identification of rhythmic proteins in rice seedlings.

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    Hwang, Heeyoun; Cho, Man-Ho; Hahn, Bum-Soo; Lim, Hyemin; Kwon, Yong-Kook; Hahn, Tae-Ryong; Bhoo, Seong Hee

    2011-04-01

    Many aspects of plant metabolism that are involved in plant growth and development are influenced by light-regulated diurnal rhythms as well as endogenous clock-regulated circadian rhythms. To identify the rhythmic proteins in rice, periodically grown (12h light/12h dark cycle) seedlings were harvested for three days at six-hour intervals. Continuous dark-adapted plants were also harvested for two days. Among approximately 3000 reproducible protein spots on each gel, proteomic analysis ascertained 354 spots (~12%) as light-regulated rhythmic proteins, in which 53 spots showed prolonged rhythm under continuous dark conditions. Of these 354 ascertained rhythmic protein spots, 74 diurnal spots and 10 prolonged rhythmic spots under continuous dark were identified by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The rhythmic proteins were functionally classified into photosynthesis, central metabolism, protein synthesis, nitrogen metabolism, stress resistance, signal transduction and unknown. Comparative analysis of our proteomic data with the public microarray database (the Plant DIURNAL Project) and RT-PCR analysis of rhythmic proteins showed differences in rhythmic expression phases between mRNA and protein, suggesting that the clock-regulated proteins in rice are modulated by not only transcriptional but also post-transcriptional, translational, and/or post-translational processes. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Proteomic analysis of seed storage proteins in wild rice species of the Oryza genus.

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    Jiang, Chunmiao; Cheng, Zaiquan; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Tengqiong; Zhong, Qiaofang; Shen, J Qingxi; Huang, Xingqi

    2014-01-01

    The total protein contents of rice seeds are significantly higher in the three wild rice species (Oryza rufipogon Grill., Oryza officinalis Wall. and Oryza meyeriana Baill.) than in the cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, there is still no report regarding a systematic proteomic analysis of seed proteins in the wild rice species. Also, the relationship between the contents of seed total proteins and rice nutritional quality has not been thoroughly investigated. The total seed protein contents, especially the glutelin contents, of the three wild rice species were higher than those of the two cultivated rice materials. Based on the protein banding patterns of SDS-PAGE, O. rufipogon was similar to the two cultivated rice materials, followed by O. officinalis, while O. meyeriana exhibited notable differences. Interestingly, O. meyeriana had high contents of glutelin and low contents of prolamine, and lacked 26 kDa globulin band and appeared a new 28 kDa protein band. However, for O. officinali a 16 kDa protein band was absent and a row of unique 32 kDa proteins appeared. In addition, we found that 13 kDa prolamine band disappeared while special 14 kDa and 12 kDa protein bands were present in O. officinalis. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis revealed remarkable differences in protein profiles of the wild rice species and the two cultivated rice materials. Also, the numbers of detected protein spots of the three wild rice species were significantly higher than those of two cultivated rice. A total of 35 differential protein spots were found for glutelin acidic subunits, glutelin precursors and glutelin basic subunits in wild rice species. Among those, 18 protein spots were specific and 17 major spots were elevated. Six differential protein spots for glutelin acidic subunits were identified, including a glutelin type-A 2 precursor and five hypothetical proteins. This was the first report on proteomic analysis of the three wild rice species

  1. Impact of SNPs on Protein Phosphorylation Status in Rice (Oryza sativa L.

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    Shoukai Lin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are widely used in functional genomics and genetics research work. The high-quality sequence of rice genome has provided a genome-wide SNP and proteome resource. However, the impact of SNPs on protein phosphorylation status in rice is not fully understood. In this paper, we firstly updated rice SNP resource based on the new rice genome Ver. 7.0, then systematically analyzed the potential impact of Non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs on the protein phosphorylation status. There were 3,897,312 SNPs in Ver. 7.0 rice genome, among which 9.9% was nsSNPs. Whilst, a total 2,508,261 phosphorylated sites were predicted in rice proteome. Interestingly, we observed that 150,197 (39.1% nsSNPs could influence protein phosphorylation status, among which 52.2% might induce changes of protein kinase (PK types for adjacent phosphorylation sites. We constructed a database, SNP_rice, to deposit the updated rice SNP resource and phosSNPs information. It was freely available to academic researchers at http://bioinformatics.fafu.edu.cn. As a case study, we detected five nsSNPs that potentially influenced heterotrimeric G proteins phosphorylation status in rice, indicating that genetic polymorphisms showed impact on the signal transduction by influencing the phosphorylation status of heterotrimeric G proteins. The results in this work could be a useful resource for future experimental identification and provide interesting information for better rice breeding.

  2. Proteomic Analysis to Identify Tightly-Bound Cell Wall Protein in Rice Calli

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Won Kyong; Hyun, Tae Kyung; Kumar, Dhinesh; Rim, Yeonggil; Chen, Xiong Yan; Jo, Yeonhwa; Kim, Suwha; Lee, Keun Woo; Park, Zee-Yong; Lucas, William J.; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2015-01-01

    Rice is a model plant widely used for basic and applied research programs. Plant cell wall proteins play key roles in a broad range of biological processes. However, presently, knowledge on the rice cell wall proteome is rudimentary in nature. In the present study, the tightly-bound cell wall proteome of rice callus cultured cells using sequential extraction protocols was developed using mass spectrometry and bioinformatics methods, leading to the identification of 1568 candidate proteins. Ba...

  3. Enhanced disease resistance and drought tolerance in transgenic rice plants overexpressing protein elicitors from Magnaporthe oryzae.

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    Wang, Zhenzhen; Han, Qiang; Zi, Qian; Lv, Shun; Qiu, Dewen; Zeng, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    Exogenous application of the protein elicitors MoHrip1 and MoHrip2, which were isolated from the pathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae), was previously shown to induce a hypersensitive response in tobacco and to enhance resistance to rice blast. In this work, we successfully transformed rice with the mohrip1 and mohrip2 genes separately. The MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 transgenic rice plants displayed higher resistance to rice blast and stronger tolerance to drought stress than wild-type (WT) rice and the vector-control pCXUN rice. The expression of salicylic acid (SA)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-related genes was also increased, suggesting that these two elicitors may trigger SA signaling to protect the rice from damage during pathogen infection and regulate the ABA content to increase drought tolerance in transgenic rice. Trypan blue staining indicated that expressing MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 in rice plants inhibited hyphal growth of the rice blast fungus. Relative water content (RWC), water usage efficiency (WUE) and water loss rate (WLR) were measured to confirm the high capacity for water retention in transgenic rice. The MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 transgenic rice also exhibited enhanced agronomic traits such as increased plant height and tiller number.

  4. Silencing of a Germin-Like Gene in Nicotiana attenuata Improves Performance of Native Herbivores1[W

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    Lou, Yonggen; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2006-01-01

    Germins and germin-like proteins (GLPs) are known to function in pathogen resistance, but their involvement in defense against insect herbivores is poorly understood. In the native tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, attack from the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta or elicitation by adding larval oral secretions (OS) to wounds up-regulates transcripts of a GLP. To understand the function of this gene, which occurs as a single copy, we cloned the full-length NaGLP and silenced its expression in N. attenuata by expressing a 250-bp fragment in an antisense orientation with an Agrobacterium-based transformation system and by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Homozygous lines harboring a single insert and VIGS plants had significantly reduced constitutive (measured in roots) and elicited NaGLP transcript levels (in leaves). Silencing NaGLP improved M. sexta larval performance and Tupiocoris notatus preference, two native herbivores of N. attenuata. Silencing NaGLP also attenuated the OS-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), diterpene glycosides, and trypsin proteinase inhibitor responses, which may explain the observed susceptibility of antisense or VIGS plants to herbivore attack and increased nicotine contents, but did not influence the OS-elicited jasmonate and salicylate bursts, or the release of the volatile organic compounds (limonene, cis-α-bergamotene, and germacrene-A) that function as an indirect defense. This suggests that NaGLP is involved in H2O2 production and might also be related to ethylene production and/or perception, which in turn influences the defense responses of N. attenuata via H2O2 and ethylene-signaling pathways. PMID:16461381

  5. Mutation induction of protein variability in wheat and rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narahari, P.; Bhatia, C.R.; Gopalakrishna, T.; Mitra, R.K.

    1976-01-01

    No high protein mutants of wheat have been obtained without depression of grain yield after screening a few thousand lines. The best wheat mutant identified in our programme so far is an erectoid mutant that has consistently shown about 1.5-2% points increase in protein over Kalyan sona for the last four years. Grain yield of the mutant is about 89% of the parent. No significant variation in amino composition is noted in the mutant. Preliminary analysis of over 200 macro mutants in three varieties of rice has resulted in identification of mutants with high protein content (10-22%) compared with 8.0 to 8.5% in the high yielding controls. The amino-acid composition of some of the mutant kernels do not show great deviation from the controls. All the high protein percentage mutants are lower in grain yield. Despite very high F 1 sterility in a cross involving the high protein genotype GMPR-51 and high yielding IR-8, several fertile F 2 plants resembling IR-8 have been isolated which on preliminary analysis have shown still higher protein content than GMPR-51, suggesting a transgressive mode of inheritance of this trait. (author)

  6. Characterization of Mediator Complex and its Associated Proteins from Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Subhasis; Thakur, Jitendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Mediator complex is a multi-protein complex that acts as a molecular bridge conveying transcriptional messages from the cis element-bound transcription factor to the RNA Polymerase II machinery. It is found in all eukaryotes including members of the plant kingdom. Increasing number of reports from plants regarding different Mediator subunits involved in a multitude of processes spanning from plant development to environmental interactions have firmly established it as a central hub of plant regulatory networks. Routine isolation of Mediator complex in a particular species is a necessity because of many reasons. First, composition of the Mediator complex varies from species to species. Second, the composition of the Mediator complex in a particular species is not static under all developmental and environmental conditions. Besides this, at times, Mediator complex is used in in vitro transcription systems. Rice, a staple food crop of the world, is used as a model monocot crop. Realizing the need of a reliable protocol for the isolation of Mediator complex from plants, we describe here the isolation of Mediator complex from rice.

  7. The effect of gamma irradiation on rice protein aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccaro, Stefania; Bal, Oya; Cemmi, Alessia; Di Sarcina, Ilaria

    2018-05-01

    The use of proteins as natural biopolymers are sensibly increasing in several application fields such as food industry, packaging and environment protection. In particular, rice proteins (RP) present good nutritional, hypoallergenic and healthful properties very interesting for human consumption. Since ionizing radiation can be successfully applied on protein containing systems involved in different industrial processes, this work aims to determine the effect of gamma radiation on 5 wt%-7.5 wt% RP aqueous solutions in a wide range of absorbed doses up to around 40 kGy. The changes of RP secondary and tertiary structures and their chemical composition were followed by UV-VIS absorbance spectroscopy, luminescence analysis and pH measurements. The experimental data showed the occurrence of the unfolding of RP chains with the increase of the absorbed dose and the formation of new molecules, due to the reaction among tryptophane and tyrosine amino acids and the radical species induced by gamma radiation. The results are also confirmed by the modification of the pH values measured for the irradiated solutions.

  8. Effects of organic and conventional rice on protein efficiency ratio and pesticide residue in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanpen Mesomya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The comparative effects of organic rice and conventional rice on the protein efficiency ratio (PER in rats were investigated by feeding 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats for four weeks with three experimental diets containing polished conventional rice (PCR, unpolished conventional rice (UCR, unpolished organic rice (UOR and a control protein diet (casein under standardised conditions. All diets were prepared according to AOAC guidelines. The results showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05 among the values of PER (2.75 ± 0.14 - 2.80 ± 0.09 in rats fed with diets containing PCR, UCR or UOR. Similar growth was also observed among the three groups fed with different experimental diets. Additionally, residues of pesticides, viz. carbofuran, methyl parathion, p-nitrophenol and -cyfluthrin, in rat blood and rice samples were determined using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Pesticide residues were not detected in all serum samples of experimental rats and only p-nitrophenol was found (8.23 ± 0.65 - 12.84 ± 2.58 mg/kg in all samples of the cooked rice diets, indicating that organic rice produced similar effect as conventional rice on PER and growth in rats.

  9. Rice Dwarf Virus P2 Protein Hijacks Auxin Signaling by Directly Targeting the Rice OsIAA10 Protein, Enhancing Viral Infection and Disease Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Jin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone auxin plays critical roles in regulating myriads of plant growth and developmental processes. Microbe infection can disturb auxin signaling resulting in defects in these processes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Auxin signaling begins with perception of auxin by a transient co-receptor complex consisting of an F-box transport inhibitor response 1/auxin signaling F-box (TIR1/AFB protein and an auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA protein. Auxin binding to the co-receptor triggers ubiquitination and 26S proteasome degradation of the Aux/IAA proteins, leading to subsequent events, including expression of auxin-responsive genes. Here we report that Rice dwarf virus (RDV, a devastating pathogen of rice, causes disease symptoms including dwarfing, increased tiller number and short crown roots in infected rice as a result of reduced sensitivity to auxin signaling. The RDV capsid protein P2 binds OsIAA10, blocking the interaction between OsIAA10 and OsTIR1 and inhibiting 26S proteasome-mediated OsIAA10 degradation. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing wild-type or a dominant-negative (degradation-resistant mutant of OsIAA10 phenocopy RDV symptoms are more susceptible to RDV infection; however, knockdown of OsIAA10 enhances the resistance of rice to RDV infection. Our findings reveal a previously unknown mechanism of viral protein reprogramming of a key step in auxin signaling initiation that enhances viral infection and pathogenesis.

  10. Interspecific variation of total seed protein in wild rice germplasm using SDS-Page

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.M.A.; Hidayat-ur-Rahman; Abbasi, F.M.; Ashiq, M.; Rabbani, A.M.; Khan, I.A.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Shah, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Variation in seed protein of 14 wild rice species (Oryza spp.) along with cultivated rice species (O. sativa) was studied using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to assess genetic diversity in the rice germplasm. SDS bands were scored as present (1) or absent (0) for protein sample of each genotype. On the basis of cluster analysis, four clusters were identified at a similarity level of 0.85. O. nivara, O. rufipogon and O. sativa with AA genomes constituted the first cluster. The second cluster comprised O. punctata of BB genome and wild rice species of CC genome i.e., O. rhizomatis and O. officinalis. However, it also contained O. barthii and O. glumaepatula of AA genome. O. australiensis with EE genome, and O. latifolia, O. alta and O. grandiglumis having CCDD genomes comprised the third cluster. The fourth cluster consisted of wild rice species, O. brachyantha with EE genome along with two other wild rice species, O. longistaminata and O. meridionalis of AA genome. Overall, on the basis of total seed protein, the grouping pattern of rice genotypes was mostly compatible with their genome status. The results of the present work depicted considerable interspecific genetic variation in the investigated germplasm for total seed protein. Moreover, the results obtained in this study also suggest that analysis of seed protein can also provide a better understanding of genetic affinity of the germplasm. (author)

  11. Effect of endogenous proteins and lipids on starch digestibility in rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiangping; Hu, Xiuting; Luo, Shunjing; McClements, David Julian; Liang, Lu; Liu, Chengmei

    2018-04-01

    The composition and structure of the food matrix can have a major impact on the digestion. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of endogenous proteins and lipids on starch digestibility in rice flour, with an emphasis on establishing the underlying physicochemical mechanisms involved. Native long-grain indica rice flour and rice flour with the lipids and/or proteins removed were subjected to a simulated digestion in vitro. A significant increase in starch digestibility was observed after removal of proteins, lipids, or both. The starch digestibility of the rice flour without lipids was slightly lower than that without proteins, even though the proteins content was about 10-fold higher than the lipids content. Microstructural analysis suggested that the proteins and lipids were normally attached to the surfaces of the starch granules in the native rice flour, thus inhibiting their contact with digestive enzymes. Moreover, the proteins and lipids restricted the swelling of the starch granules, which may have decreased their digestion by reducing their surface areas. In addition, amylose-lipid complex was detected in the rice flour, which is also known to slow down starch digestion. These results have important implications for the design of foods with improved nutritional profiles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of gibberellin acid-responsive proteins in rice leaf sheath using proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jia-Yu; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Shi-Hua; Gao, Yin; An, Cheng-Cai

    2010-06-01

    The phytohormone gibberellin acid (GA) controls many aspects of plant development. In this study, we identified proteins that are differentially expressed between the rice (Oryza sativa L.) GA-deficient cultivar, Aijiaonante, and its parental line, Nante. Proteins were extracted from rice leaf sheath and examined by 2DGE. Among more than 1200 protein spots reproducibly detected on each gel, 29 were found to be highly up-regulated by GAs in Nante, and 6 were down-regulated by GAs in Aijiaonante. These 35 proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and were classified into three groups based on their putative function in metabolism, stress/defense processes and signal transduction. These data suggest that metabolic pathways are the main target of regulation by GAs during rice development. Our results provide new information about the involvement of GAs in rice development.

  13. Analysis of Recombinant Proteins in Transgenic Rice Seeds: Identity, Localization, Tolerance to Digestion, and Plant Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakasa, Yuhya; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Rice seeds are an ideal production platform for high-value recombinant proteins in terms of economy, scalability, safety, and stability. Strategies for the expression of large amounts of recombinant proteins in rice seeds have been established in the past decade and transgenic rice seeds that accumulate recombinant products such as bioactive peptides and proteins, which promote the health and quality of life of humans, have been generated in many laboratories worldwide. One of the most important advantages is the potential for direct oral delivery of transgenic rice seeds without the need for recombinant protein purification (downstream processing), which has been attributed to the high expression levels of recombinant products. Transgenic rice will be beneficial as a delivery system for pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals in the future. This chapter introduces the strategy for producing recombinant protein in the edible part (endosperm) of the rice grain and describes methods for the analysis of transgenic rice seeds in detail.

  14. Immunotoxicological Evaluation of Genetically Modified Rice Expressing Cry1Ab/Ac Protein (TT51-1) by a 6-Month Feeding Study on Cynomolgus Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Xiaobing; Tang, Yao; Lv, Jianjun; Zhang, Lin; Sun, Li; Yang, Yanwei; Miao, Yufa; Jiang, Hua; Chen, Gaofeng; Huang, Zhiying; Wang, Xue

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the food safety of TT51-1, a new type of genetically modified rice that expresses the Cry1Ab/Ac protein (Bt toxin) and is highly resistant to most lepidopteran pests. Sixteen male and 16 female cynomolgus monkeys were randomly divided into four groups: conventional rice (non-genetically modified rice, non-GM rice), positive control, 17.5% genetically modified rice (GM rice) and 70% GM rice. Monkeys in the non-GM rice, positive control, and GM rice g...

  15. Microarray and Proteomic Analysis of Brassinosteroid- and Gibberellin-Regulated Gene and Protein Expression in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Guangxiao; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) are two groups of plant growth regulators essential for normal plant growth and development. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism by which BR and GA regulate the growth and development of plants, especially the monocot plant rice, it is necessary to identify and analyze more genes and proteins that are regulated by them. With the availability of draft sequences of two major types, japonica and indica rice, it has become possible to analyze exp...

  16. The trafficking pathway of a wheat storage protein in transgenic rice endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszvald, Maria; Tamas, Laszlo; Shewry, Peter R; Tosi, Paola

    2014-04-01

    The trafficking of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of plant cells is a topic of considerable interest since this organelle serves as an entry point for proteins destined for other organelles, as well as for the ER itself. In the current work, transgenic rice was used to study the pattern and pathway of deposition of the wheat high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin sub-unit (GS) 1Dx5 within the rice endosperm using specific antibodies to determine whether it is deposited in the same or different protein bodies from the rice storage proteins, and whether it is located in the same or separate phases within these. The protein distribution and the expression pattern of HMW sub-unit 1Dx5 in transgenic rice endosperm at different stages of development were determined using light and electron microscopy after labelling with antibodies. The use of HMW-GS-specific antibodies showed that sub-unit 1Dx5 was expressed mainly in the sub-aleurone cells of the endosperm and that it was deposited in both types of protein body present in the rice endosperm: derived from the ER and containing prolamins, and derived from the vacuole and containing glutelins. In addition, new types of protein bodies were also formed within the endosperm cells. The results suggest that the HMW 1Dx5 protein could be trafficked by either the ER or vacuolar pathway, possibly depending on the stage of development, and that its accumulation in the rice endosperm could compromise the structural integrity of protein bodies and their segregation into two distinct populations in the mature endosperm.

  17. Preparation, aroma characteristics and volatile compounds of flavorings from enzymatic hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsa, Supeeraya; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2018-02-19

    Rice bran is a by-product obtained from the rice milling industry. The aims of this research were to add value to rice bran by preparation of enzymatic hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate (HRPC) as a flavoring agent and the flavoring which was produced by HRPC has not been investigated. Different drying methods (freeze-drying and spray-drying) and fructose additions were studied for improvement of rice bran protein sensorial aroma characteristics. The most abundant amino acids in liquid HRPC (LH) were glutamic acid, arginine, aspartic acid and leucine. The intensity of desirable aromas, such as cereal-like, nut-like, milk-powder-like, sweet, and cocoa-like aroma, were higher in spray-dried HRPC powder (SHP) than in LH and freeze-dried HRPC. Volatile compounds, such as aldehydes, pyrazines and ketones, were significantly increased in HRPC powders in which fructose was added before spray-drying (SHP-F). Higher amounts of 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, phenylacetaldehyde, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, vanillin, 2-acetylpyrrole and maltol were detected in SHP-F. Moreover, these compounds had high odor active values, which accounted for the cocoa-like, sweet, nut-like, and milk-powder-like characteristics of SHP-F. These findings could lead to the creation of desirable aroma characteristics of rice bran protein concentrate by different preparation methods. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Functions of the CCCH type zinc finger protein OsGZF1 in regulation of the seed storage protein GluB-1 from rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Sun, A.; Wang, M.; Zhu, Z.; Ouwerkerk, P.B.F.

    2014-01-01

    Glutelins are the most abundant storage proteins in rice grain and can make up to 80 % of total protein content. The promoter region of GluB-1, one of the glutelin genes in rice, has been intensively used as a model to understand regulation of seed-storage protein accumulation. In this study, we

  19. Estimating rice grain protein contents with SPOT/HRV data acquired at maturing stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaka, D.; Shiga, H.

    2003-01-01

    Rice grain protein contents that play an important role in the eating quality of rice can be estimated from leaf color in maturing stage. In order to investigate the distribution of paddy rice grain protein of a wide area, we employed SPOT/HRV data from August to September for successive 4 years, selecting the Naganuma town, Hokkaido as the study area. The relationship between each spectral bands and ground survey data were examined. The result showed that the grain protein contents could be estimated using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with the absolute root mean square error less than 0.4% under the condition that the time lag between the satellite observation date and the maturing stage was within 20 days. In this period, we would have enough chance to get clear observation data every year under the weather conditions in the study area using the SPOT/HRV sensors that has pointing ability. For major rice varieties cultivated in Hokkaido, the same relationship between NDVI and protein contents was observed. Thus, we conclude that the method proposed in this study is operational in rice production

  20. Transgenic rice plants expressing a fused protein of Cry1Ab/Vip3H has resistance to rice stem borers under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Tian, Jun-Ce; Shen, Zhi-Chen; Peng, Yu-Fa; Hu, Cui; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2010-08-01

    Six transgenic rice, Oryza sativa L., lines (G6H1, G6H2, G6H3, G6H4, G6H5, and G6H6) expressing a fused Cry1Ab/Vip3H protein, were evaluated for resistance against the Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and the stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the laboratory and field. The bioassay results indicated that the mortality of Asiatic rice borer and S. inferens neonate larvae on six transgenic lines from seedling to filling stage was up to 100% at 168 h after infestation. The cumulative feeding area by Asiatic rice borer neonate larvae on all transgenic lines was significantly reduced compared with the untransformed parental 'Xiushui 110' rice. A 2-yr field evaluation showed that damage during the vegetative stage (deadheart) or during the reproductive stage (whitehead) caused by Asiatic rice borer and S. inferens for transgenic lines was much lower than the control. For three lines (G6H1, G6H2, and G6H6), no damage was found during the entire growing period. Estimation of fused Cry1Ab/Vip3H protein concentrations using PathoScreen kit for Bt-Cry1Ab/1Ac protein indicated that the expression levels of Cry1Ab protein both in main stems (within the average range of 0.006-0.073% of total soluble protein) and their flag leaves (within the average range of 0.001-0.038% of total soluble protein) were significantly different among six transgenic lines at different developmental stages. Both laboratory and field researches suggested that the transgenic rice lines have considerable potential for protecting rice from attack by both stem borers.

  1. Jasmonate induction of the monoterpene linalool confers resistance to rice bacterial blight and its biosynthesis is regulated by JAZ protein in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Shiduku; Hosokawa-Shinonaga, Yumi; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Yamada, Shoko; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in the regulation of host immunity in plants. Recently, we demonstrated that JA signalling has an important role in resistance to rice bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) in rice. Here, we report that many volatile compounds accumulate in response to exogenous application of JA, including the monoterpene linalool. Expression of linalool synthase was up-regulated by JA. Vapour treatment with linalool induced resistance to Xoo, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing linalool synthase were more resistance to Xoo, presumably due to the up-regulation of defence-related genes in the absence of any treatment. JA-induced accumulation of linalool was regulated by OsJAZ8, a rice jasmonate ZIM-domain protein involving the JA signalling pathway at the transcriptional level, suggesting that linalool plays an important role in JA-induced resistance to Xoo in rice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Sensory optimization of broken-rice based snacks fortified with protein and fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwattana, S; Laokuldilok, N; Prinyawiwatkul, W

    2008-08-01

    A 3-component mixture experiment was used to optimize the formulation of broken-rice based snack fortified with protein and fiber based on consumer sensory acceptability. Soy protein isolate and guar gum were used as a good source of protein and fiber, respectively, according to DRV (daily reference value) based on a 2000-calorie diet. A consumer panel evaluated sensory acceptability of color, crispness, and flavor, and overall liking of 12 experimental broken-rice based snack formulations. Predicted models derived from the restricted nonintercept regression analysis were used to plot mixture response surfaces (MRS) of each sensory attribute. Areas within the MRS plots having predicted acceptability scores of at least 6.5 (on a 9-point hedonic scale) for color, crispness, flavor, and overall liking were selected to derive a predicted optimum formulation range. Flavor acceptability was a limiting factor in attaining the optimum formulation range, which consisted of 40% to 48% broken-rice flour, 8% to 16% guar gum, and 20% to 33% soy protein isolate. To verify the obtained predicted models, the formulation containing 48% broken-rice flour, 8% guar gum, and 20% soy protein isolate, which was located in the optimum area, was chosen to support our effort to utilize and add value to broken rice. Selected physicochemical measurements of the chosen optimized formulation were determined. One serving size (30 g) of the chosen optimized snack product provided 6.58 g protein and 3.80 g dietary fiber, which met the US FDA definition of a good source of protein and dietary fiber.

  3. Utilization of agriculture wastes. part I. production of fungal protein from rice and wheat straws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtaza, N.; Hussain, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural Agricultural waste of rice and wheat straws were studied for the production of protein and biomass. As these wastes have low protein contents as attempt is made to increase the protein and biomass content of these wastes so as to produce a better product for consumption as food. The studies were conducted using various media and various incubation periods. Some inorganic salts and molasses were added to improve the cultivation of fungi. Aspergillus oryzae produced the results due to its rapid growth which minimized the chance of contamination. Seven days incubation gave the most favourable results in both the agricultural wastes. The maximum production of biomass (33.33%) with a protein value of 20% was obtained with 450 g of rice straw in media no. 2 whereas 400 g of wheat straw on 6 litres of medium produced the best results with 20% biomass and a protein value of 20%. (author)

  4. Trichoderma Reesei single cell protein production from rice straw pulp in solid state fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, M.; Said, S. D.

    2018-04-01

    The dependency on fish meal as a major protein source for animal feed can lead toit priceinstability in line with the increasing in meat production and consumption in Indonesia. In order todeal with this problem, an effort to produce an alternative protein sources production is needed. This scenario is possible due to the abundantavailability of agricultural residues such as rice straw whichcould be utilized as substrate for production of single cell proteins as an alternative proteinsource. This work investigated the potential utilization of rice straw pulp and urea mixture as substrate for the production of local Trichoderma reesei single cell protein in solid state fermentation system. Some parameters have been analyzed to evaluate the effect of ratio of rice straw pulp to urea on mixed single cell protein biomass (mixed SCP biomass) composition, such as total crude protein (analyzed by kjedhal method) and lignin content (TAPPI method).The results showed that crude protein content in mixed SCP biomassincreases with the increasing in fermentation time, otherwise it decreases with the increasing insubstrate carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio. Residual lignin content in mixed SCP biomass decreases from 7% to 0.63% during fermentationproceeded of 21 days. The highest crude protein content in mixed SCP biomasswas obtained at substrate C/N ratio 20:1 of 25%.

  5. Inter-laboratory optimization of protein extraction, separation, and fluorescent detection of endogenous rice allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Rie; Teshima, Reiko; Kitta, Kazumi; Lang, Gang-Hua; Schegg, Kathleen; Blumenthal, Kenneth; Hicks, Leslie; Labory-Carcenac, Bénédicte; Rouquié, David; Herman, Rod A; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Ladics, Gregory S; McClain, Scott; Poulsen, Lars K; Privalle, Laura; Ward, Jason M; Doerrer, Nancy; Rascle, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-07-11

    In rice, several allergens have been identified such as the non-specific lipid transfer protein-1, the α-amylase/trypsin-inhibitors, the α-globulin, the 33 kDa glyoxalase I (Gly I), the 52-63 kDa globulin, and the granule-bound starch synthetase. The goal of the present study was to define optimal rice extraction and detection methods that would allow a sensitive and reproducible measure of several classes of known rice allergens. In a three-laboratory ring-trial experiment, several protein extraction methods were first compared and analyzed by 1D multiplexed SDS-PAGE. In a second phase, an inter-laboratory validation of 2D-DIGE analysis was conducted in five independent laboratories, focusing on three rice allergens (52 kDa globulin, 33 kDa glyoxalase I, and 14-16 kDa α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family members). The results of the present study indicate that a combination of 1D multiplexed SDS-PAGE and 2D-DIGE methods would be recommended to quantify the various rice allergens.

  6. Inter-laboratory optimization of protein extraction, separation, and fluorescent detection of endogenous rice allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satoh, Rie; Teshima, Reiko; Kitta, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    In rice, several allergens have been identified such as the non-specific lipid transfer protein-1, the α-amylase/trypsin-inhibitors, the α-globulin, the 33 kDa glyoxalase I (Gly I), the 52-63 kDa globulin, and the granule-bound starch synthetase. The goal of the present study was to define optima...

  7. Lack of Globulin Synthesis during Seed Development Alters Accumulation of Seed Storage Proteins in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jung Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The major seed storage proteins (SSPs in rice seeds have been classified into three types, glutelins, prolamins, and globulin, and the proportion of each SSP varies. It has been shown in rice mutants that when either glutelins or prolamins are defective, the expression of another type of SSP is promoted to counterbalance the deficit. However, we observed reduced abundances of glutelins and prolamins in dry seeds of a globulin-deficient rice mutant (Glb-RNAi, which was generated with RNA interference (RNAi-induced suppression of globulin expression. The expression of the prolamin and glutelin subfamily genes was reduced in the immature seeds of Glb-RNAi lines compared with those in wild type. A proteomic analysis of Glb-RNAi seeds showed that the reductions in glutelin and prolamin were conserved at the protein level. The decreased pattern in glutelin was also significant in the presence of a reductant, suggesting that the polymerization of the glutelin proteins via intramolecular disulfide bonds could be interrupted in Glb-RNAi seeds. We also observed aberrant and loosely packed structures in the storage organelles of Glb-RNAi seeds, which may be attributable to the reductions in SSPs. In this study, we evaluated the role of rice globulin in seed development, showing that a deficiency in globulin could comprehensively reduce the expression of other SSPs.

  8. Immunotoxicological Evaluation of Genetically Modified Rice Expressing Cry1Ab/Ac Protein (TT51-1) by a 6-Month Feeding Study on Cynomolgus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Xiaobing; Tang, Yao; Lv, Jianjun; Zhang, Lin; Sun, Li; Yang, Yanwei; Miao, Yufa; Jiang, Hua; Chen, Gaofeng; Huang, Zhiying; Wang, Xue

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the food safety of TT51-1, a new type of genetically modified rice that expresses the Cry1Ab/Ac protein (Bt toxin) and is highly resistant to most lepidopteran pests. Sixteen male and 16 female cynomolgus monkeys were randomly divided into four groups: conventional rice (non-genetically modified rice, non-GM rice), positive control, 17.5% genetically modified rice (GM rice) and 70% GM rice. Monkeys in the non-GM rice, positive control, and GM rice groups were fed on diets containing 70% non-GM rice, 17.5% GM rice or 70% GM rice, respectively, for 182 days, whereas animals in the positive group were intravenously injected with cyclophosphamide every other day for a total of four injections before the last treatment. Six months of treatment did not yield abnormal observations. Specifically, the following parameters did not significantly differ between the non-GM rice group and GM rice groups: body weight, food consumption, electrocardiogram, hematology, immuno-phenotyping of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, mitogen-induced peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation, splenocyte proliferation, KLH-T cell-dependent antibody response, organ weights and ratios, and histological appearance (p>0.05). Animals from the GM rice group differed from animals in the non-GM rice group (pGM rice. In conclusion, a 6-month feeding study of TT51-1 did not show adverse immunotoxicological effects on cynomolgus monkeys. PMID:27684490

  9. Improvement of seed protein in rice through mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monyo, J.H.; Sugiyama, T.

    1978-01-01

    Mutants selected from an M 4 generation on the basis of high yield potential and high grain protein content were grown in a preliminary yield trial. The two parent varieties, Faya Theresa and Kihogo Red, were grown as controls. Thirteen mutants originating from Faya Theresa and three mutants derived from Kihogo Red were found to be equal or superior in yield to the controls. The best improvement in protein content through mutagen treatment was 44% increase in a Faya Theresa mutant and 35% increase in a Kihogo Red mutant. The protein values obtained for the same mutants in the M 3 , M 4 and M 5 generations were found to be consistently higher than in the check varieties. Correlations between grain yield and yield attributes including seed protein per cent and protein per grain showed that these were mutagen-dependent. Grain yield showed negative correlations with protein per cent and protein per grain. However, a few mutants were found which combined high grain yield and high protein per cent. The correlation between protein per cent and protein per grain was positive and very highly significant. It was concluded that despite the high negative correlations between grain protein per cent and grain yield screening for high protein per cent in high-yielding mutants provides a great scope for the identification of the correlation breakers which combine high grain yield potential and high protein content. (author)

  10. The agronomic characters of a high protein rice mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harn, C.; Won, J.L.; Choi, K.T.

    1975-01-01

    Mutant lines (M 5 -M 9 ) of macro-phenotypic traits from several varieties were screened for the protein content. Mutant 398 (M 9 ) is one of the high protein mutants selected from Hokwang. Three years' tests revealed that it has a high protein line under any condition of cultivation. Except for early maturity and short culmness, other agronomic and yield characters were similar to the original variety. There was no difference between the mutant 398 and its mother variety in grain shape and weight, and also the size and protein content of the embryo. The high protein content of the mutant is attributable to the increase of protein in the endosperm. About 150 normal-looking or a few days-earlier-maturing selections were made from Jinheung variety in the M 3 and screened for protein. Promising lines in terms of the plant type, yield and protein were obtained. (author)

  11. Microbial Protein Production and Nitrogen Balance of Local Steer Fed Ammoniated Rice Straws Added

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    H Hindratiningrum

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to investigate the kind of energy source feedstuffs on nutrient balance and microbial protein synthesis in local male beef cattle fed with ammoniated rice straws Twenty steers Peranakan Ongole (PO with average age 1-2 years old were used. They were divided 5 groups based on initial body weight as block. Therefore, Completely Randomised Block Design (CBRD was used for this experiment. Data were analysed by analysis variance and continued honestly significant different (HSD to test the differences between means. The result showed that the range MCP and eficiency MCP were 154,61 g/d until 226,54 g/d and 54,08 gMCP/kg DOMR until 62,64 gMCP/kg DOMR. The range of nitrogen balance were 72,28 gram until 111,67 gram. MCP and efficiency MCP were not affected (P>0,05 by the treatments but balance of nitrogen was affected (P<0,05. Diet containing fresh cassava waste as energy source (R2 was lower (P<0,05 than R1 and R4 while between R1,R3 and R4 was similar. This results indicate that feed source of energy (rice brand, wet cassava waste, dry cassava waste and corn can be used in steers with rice straw ensilage as forage. (Animal Production 11(2: 116-121 (2009 Key Words : Microbial protein production, nitrogen balance, rice straw, ensilage

  12. Textural behavior of gels formed by rice starch and whey protein isolate: Concentration and crosshead velocities

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    Thiago Novaes Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fabricated food gels involving the use of hydrocolloids are gaining polpularity as confectionery/convenience foods. Starch is commonly combined with a hydrocolloid (protein our polyssacharides, particularly in the food industry, since native starches generally do not have ideal properties for the preparation of food products. Therefore the texture studies of starch-protein mixtures could provide a new approach in producing starch-based food products, being thus acritical attribute that needs to be carefully adjusted to the consumer liking. This work investigated the texture and rheological properties of mixed gels of different concentrations of rice starch (15%, 17.5%, and 20% and whey protein isolate (0%, 3%, and 6% with different crosshead velocities (0.05, 5.0, and 10.0 mm/s using a Box-Behnken experimental design. The samples were submitted to uniaxial compression tests with 80% deformation in order to determinate the following rheological parameters: Young’s modulus, fracture stress, fracture deformation, recoverable energy, and apparent biaxial elongational viscosity. Gels with a higher rice starch concentration that were submitted to higher test velocities were more rigid and resistant, while the whey protein isolate concentration had little influence on these properties. The gels showed a higher recoverable energy when the crosshead velocity was higher, and the apparent biaxial elongational viscosity was also influenced by this factor. Therefore, mixed gels exhibit different properties depending on the rice starch concentration and crosshead velocity.

  13. Cry1Ab protein from Bt transgenic rice does not residue in rhizosphere soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haiyan; Ye Qingfu; Wang Wei; Wu Licheng; Wu Weixiang

    2006-01-01

    Expression of Cry1Ab protein in Bt transgenic rice (KMD) and its residue in the rhizosphere soil during the whole growth in field, as well as degradation of the protein from KMD straw in five soils under laboratory incubation were studied. The residue of Cry1Ab protein in KMD rhizosphere soil was undetectable (below the limit of 0.5 ng/g air-dried soil). The Cry1Ab protein contents in the shoot and root of KMD were 3.23-8.22 and 0.68-0.89 μg/g (fresh weight), respectively. The half-lives of the Cry1Ab protein in the soils amended with KMD straw (4%, w/w) ranged from 11.5 to 34.3 d. The residence time of the protein varied significantly in a Fluvio-marine yellow loamy soil amended with KMD straw at the rate of 3, 4 and 7%, with half-lives of 9.9, 13.8 and 18 d, respectively. In addition, an extraction method for Cry1Ab protein in soil was developed, with extraction efficiencies of 46.4-82.3%. - Cry1Ab protein was not detected in the rhizosphere soil of field-grown Bt transgenic rice

  14. Comparative transcriptome profiling of resistant and susceptible rice genotypes in response to the seedborne pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi.

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    Matić, Slavica; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Biselli, Chiara; Orru', Luigi; Amaral Carneiro, Greice; Siciliano, Ilenia; Valé, Giampiero; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Spadaro, Davide

    2016-08-11

    Fusarium fujikuroi is the causal agent of bakanae, the most significant seed-borne disease of rice. Molecular mechanisms regulating defence responses of rice towards this fungus are not yet fully known. To identify transcriptional mechanisms underpinning rice resistance, a RNA-seq comparative transcriptome profiling was conducted on infected seedlings of selected rice genotypes at one and three weeks post germination (wpg). Twelve rice genotypes were screened against bakanae disease leading to the identification of Selenio and Dorella as the most resistant and susceptible cultivars, respectively. Transcriptional changes were more appreciable at 3 wpg, suggesting that this infection stage is essential to study the resistance mechanisms: 3,119 DEGs were found in Selenio and 5,095 in Dorella. PR1, germin-like proteins, glycoside hydrolases, MAP kinases, and WRKY transcriptional factors were up-regulated in the resistant genotype upon infection with F. fujikuroi. Up-regulation of chitinases and down-regulation of MAP kinases and WRKY transcriptional factors were observed in the susceptible genotype. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analyses detected in Selenio GO terms specific to response to F. fujikuroi: 'response to chitin', 'jasmonic acid biosynthetic process', and 'plant-type hypersensitive response', while Dorella activated different mechanisms, such as 'response to salicylic acid stimulus' and 'gibberellin metabolic process', which was in agreement with the production of gibberellin A3 in Dorella plants. RNA-seq profiling was performed for the first time to analyse response of rice to F. fujikuroi infection. Our findings allowed the identification of genes activated in one- and three- week-old rice seedlings of two genotypes infected with F. fujikuroi. Furthermore, we found the pathways involved in bakanae resistance, such as response to chitin, JA-dependent signalling and hypersensitive response. Collectively, this provides important information to elucidate the

  15. Instrumental and sensory properties of pea protein-fortified extruded rice snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Claudia; Buckow, Roman; Silcock, Pat; Oey, Indrawati

    2017-12-01

    Characteristic attributes of pea-protein fortified, extruded rice snacks were evaluated by mechanical, acoustic and descriptive sensory analysis. The addition of pea protein isolate (0 to 45% (w/w)) to rice flour and extruder screw speed strongly affected the expansion behaviour and therefore, textural attributes of extruded snack products. The sensory panel described the texture of highly expanded extrudates as crisp, while low expanded extrudates were perceived as hard, crunchy and non-crisp. Results of the instrumental and sensory analysis were compared and showed a high correlation between mechanical and sensory hardness (r=0.98), as well as acoustic and sensory crispness (r=0.88). However, poor and/or negative correlations between acoustic and sensory hardness and crunchiness were observed (r=-0.35 and -0.84, respectively). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficient Secretion of Recombinant Proteins from Rice Suspension-Cultured Cells Modulated by the Choice of Signal Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Fen; Tan, Chia-Chun; Yeh, Ju-Fang; Liu, Hsin-Yi; Liu, Yu-Kuo; Ho, Shin-Lon; Lu, Chung-An

    2015-01-01

    Plant-based expression systems have emerged as a competitive platform in the large-scale production of recombinant proteins. By adding a signal peptide, αAmy3sp, the desired recombinant proteins can be secreted outside transgenic rice cells, making them easy to harvest. In this work, to improve the secretion efficiency of recombinant proteins in rice expression systems, various signal peptides including αAmy3sp, CIN1sp, and 33KDsp have been fused to the N-terminus of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and introduced into rice cells to explore the efficiency of secretion of foreign proteins. 33KDsp had better efficiency than αAmy3sp and CIN1sp for the secretion of GFP from calli and suspension-cultured cells. 33KDsp was further applied for the secretion of mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) from transgenic rice suspension-cultured cells; approximately 76%-92% of total rice-derived mGM-CSF (rmGM-CSF) was detected in the culture medium. The rmGM-CSF was bioactive and could stimulate the proliferation of a murine myeloblastic leukemia cell line, NSF-60. The extracellular yield of rmGM-CSF reached 31.7 mg/L. Our study indicates that 33KDsp is better at promoting the secretion of recombinant proteins in rice suspension-cultured cell systems than the commonly used αAmy3sp.

  17. Effect of gluten, egg and soy proteins on the rheological and thermo-mechanical properties of wholegrain rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pătraşcu, Livia; Banu, Iuliana; Vasilean, Ina; Aprodu, Iuliana

    2017-03-01

    The effect of protein addition on the rheological, thermo-mechanical and baking properties of wholegrain rice flour was investigated. Gluten, powdered eggs and soy protein concentrate were first analyzed in terms of rheological properties, alone and in admixture with rice flour. The temperature ramp tests showed clear differences in the rheological behavior of the batters supplemented with different proteins. The highest thermal stability was observed in case of soy protein samples. Frequency sweep tests indicated significant improvements of the rheological properties of rice flour supplemented with 15% gluten or soy proteins. The thermo-mechanical tests showed that, due to the high fat contents and low level of free water, the dough samples containing powdered eggs exhibited the highest stability. Addition of gluten resulted in a significant decrease of the dough development time, whereas samples with powdered eggs and soy proteins were more difficult to hydrate. The incorporation of proteins into the rice flour-based dough formulations significantly affected starch behavior by decreasing the peak consistency values. Concerning the quality of the rice flour-based breads, soy protein addition resulted in lighter crumb color and increased texture attributes, samples with gluten had better resilience and adhesiveness, whereas breads with egg protein were less brittle.

  18. Overexpression of a Pathogenesis-Related Protein 10 Enhances Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Rice

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    Jingni Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis-related proteins play multiple roles in plant development and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we characterize a rice defense related gene named “jasmonic acid inducible pathogenesis-related class 10” (JIOsPR10 to gain an insight into its functional properties. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed up-regulation of JIOsPR10 under salt and drought stress conditions. Constitutive over-expression JIOsPR10 in rice promoted shoot and root development in transgenic plants, however, their productivity was unaltered. Further experiments exhibited that the transgenic plants showed reduced susceptibility to rice blast fungus, and enhanced salt and drought stress tolerance as compared to the wild type. A comparative proteomic profiling of wild type and transgenic plants showed that overexpression of JIOsPR10 led to the differential modulation of several proteins mainly related with oxidative stresses, carbohydrate metabolism, and plant defense. Taken together, our findings suggest that JIOsPR10 plays important roles in biotic and abiotic stresses tolerance probably by activation of stress related proteins.

  19. The rice dwarf virus P2 protein interacts with ent-kaurene oxidases in vivo, leading to reduced biosynthesis of gibberellins and rice dwarf symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shifeng; Gao, Feng; Cao, Xuesong; Chen, Mao; Ye, Gongyin; Wei, Chunhong; Li, Yi

    2005-12-01

    The mechanisms of viral diseases are a major focus of biology. Despite intensive investigations, how a plant virus interacts with host factors to cause diseases remains poorly understood. The Rice dwarf virus (RDV), a member of the genus Phytoreovirus, causes dwarfed growth phenotypes in infected rice (Oryza sativa) plants. The outer capsid protein P2 is essential during RDV infection of insects and thus influences transmission of RDV by the insect vector. However, its role during RDV infection within the rice host is unknown. By yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays, we report that P2 of RDV interacts with ent-kaurene oxidases, which play a key role in the biosynthesis of plant growth hormones gibberellins, in infected plants. Furthermore, the expression of ent-kaurene oxidases was reduced in the infected plants. The level of endogenous GA1 (a major active gibberellin in rice vegetative tissues) in the RDV-infected plants was lower than that in healthy plants. Exogenous application of GA3 to RDV-infected rice plants restored the normal growth phenotypes. These results provide evidence that the P2 protein of RDV interferes with the function of a cellular factor, through direct physical interactions, that is important for the biosynthesis of a growth hormone leading to symptom expression. In addition, the interaction between P2 and rice ent-kaurene oxidase-like proteins may decrease phytoalexin biosynthesis and make plants more competent for virus replication. Moreover, P2 may provide a novel tool to investigate the regulation of GA metabolism for plant growth and development.

  20. The Rice Dwarf Virus P2 Protein Interacts with ent-Kaurene Oxidases in Vivo, Leading to Reduced Biosynthesis of Gibberellins and Rice Dwarf Symptoms1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shifeng; Gao, Feng; Cao, Xuesong; Chen, Mao; Ye, Gongyin; Wei, Chunhong; Li, Yi

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms of viral diseases are a major focus of biology. Despite intensive investigations, how a plant virus interacts with host factors to cause diseases remains poorly understood. The Rice dwarf virus (RDV), a member of the genus Phytoreovirus, causes dwarfed growth phenotypes in infected rice (Oryza sativa) plants. The outer capsid protein P2 is essential during RDV infection of insects and thus influences transmission of RDV by the insect vector. However, its role during RDV infection within the rice host is unknown. By yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays, we report that P2 of RDV interacts with ent-kaurene oxidases, which play a key role in the biosynthesis of plant growth hormones gibberellins, in infected plants. Furthermore, the expression of ent-kaurene oxidases was reduced in the infected plants. The level of endogenous GA1 (a major active gibberellin in rice vegetative tissues) in the RDV-infected plants was lower than that in healthy plants. Exogenous application of GA3 to RDV-infected rice plants restored the normal growth phenotypes. These results provide evidence that the P2 protein of RDV interferes with the function of a cellular factor, through direct physical interactions, that is important for the biosynthesis of a growth hormone leading to symptom expression. In addition, the interaction between P2 and rice ent-kaurene oxidase-like proteins may decrease phytoalexin biosynthesis and make plants more competent for virus replication. Moreover, P2 may provide a novel tool to investigate the regulation of GA metabolism for plant growth and development. PMID:16299167

  1. A 52-week safety study in cynomolgus macaques for genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jie; Sun, Xing; Cheng, Jian-Hua; Shi, Yong-Jie; Wang, Xin-Zheng; Qin, Jun-Jie; Sang, Zhi-Hong; He, Kun; Xia, Qing

    2016-09-01

    A 52-week feeding study in cynomolgus macaques was carried out to evaluate the safety of Bt rice Huahui 1 (HH1), a transgenic rice line expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein. Monkeys were fed a diet with 20% or 60% HH1 rice, 20% or 60% parental rice (Minghui 63, MH63), normal diet, normal diet spiked with purified recombinant Cry1Ab/1Ac fusion protein or bovine serum albumin (BSA) respectively. During the feeding trail, clinical observations were conducted daily, and multiple parameters, including body weight, body temperature, electrocardiogram, hematology, blood biochemistry, serum metabolome and gut microbiome were examined at regular intervals. Upon sacrifice, the organs were weighted, and the macroscopic, microscopic and electron microscopic examinations were performed. The results show no adverse or toxic effects of Bt rice HH1 or Cry1Ab/1Ac fusion protein on monkeys. Therefore, the present 52-week primate feeding study suggests that the transgenic rice containing Cry 1Ab/1Ac is equivalent to its parental rice line MH63. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Understanding the molecular basis of plant growth promotional effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens on rice through protein profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Saveetha; Loganathan, Karthiba; Muthuraj, Raveendran; Duraisamy, Saravanakumar; Seetharaman, Suresh; Thiruvengadam, Raguchander; Ponnusamy, Balasubramanian; Ramasamy, Samiyappan

    2009-12-24

    Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KH-1 was found to exhibit plant growth promotional activity in rice under both in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. But the mechanism underlying such promotional activity of P. fluorescens is not yet understood clearly. In this study, efforts were made to elucidate the molecular responses of rice plants to P. fluorescens treatment through protein profiling. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis strategy was adopted to identify the PGPR responsive proteins and the differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Priming of P. fluorescens, 23 different proteins found to be differentially expressed in rice leaf sheaths and MS analysis revealed the differential expression of some important proteins namely putative p23 co-chaperone, Thioredoxin h- rice, Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase large chain precursor, Nucleotide diPhosphate kinase, Proteosome sub unit protein and putative glutathione S-transferase protein. Functional analyses of the differential proteins were reported to be directly or indirectly involved in growth promotion in plants. Thus, this study confirms the primary role of PGPR strain KH-1 in rice plant growth promotion.

  3. Understanding the molecular basis of plant growth promotional effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens on rice through protein profiling

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    Thiruvengadam Raguchander

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR, Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KH-1 was found to exhibit plant growth promotional activity in rice under both in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. But the mechanism underlying such promotional activity of P. fluorescens is not yet understood clearly. In this study, efforts were made to elucidate the molecular responses of rice plants to P. fluorescens treatment through protein profiling. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis strategy was adopted to identify the PGPR responsive proteins and the differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Results Priming of P. fluorescens, 23 different proteins found to be differentially expressed in rice leaf sheaths and MS analysis revealed the differential expression of some important proteins namely putative p23 co-chaperone, Thioredoxin h- rice, Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase large chain precursor, Nucleotide diPhosphate kinase, Proteosome sub unit protein and putative glutathione S-transferase protein. Conclusion Functional analyses of the differential proteins were reported to be directly or indirectly involved in growth promotion in plants. Thus, this study confirms the primary role of PGPR strain KH-1 in rice plant growth promotion.

  4. Potential allergenicity research of Cry1C protein from genetically modified rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Sishuo; He, Xiaoyun; Xu, Wentao; Luo, Yunbo; Ran, Wenjun; Liang, Lixing; Dai, Yunqing; Huang, Kunlun

    2012-07-01

    With the development of genetically modified crops, there has been a growing interest in available approaches to assess the potential allergenicity of novel gene products. We were not sure whether Cry1C could induce allergy. We examined the protein with three other proteins to determine the potential allergenicity of Cry1C protein from genetically modified rice. Female Brown Norway (BN) rats received 0.1 mg peanut agglutinin (PNA), 1mg potato acid phosphatase (PAP), 1mg ovalbumin (OVA) or 5 mg purified Cry1C protein dissolved in 1 mL water by daily gavage for 42 days to test potential allergenicity. Ten days after the last gavage, rats were orally challenged with antigens, and physiologic and immunologic responses were studied. In contrast to sensitization with PNA, PAP and OVA Cry1C protein did not induce antigen-specific IgG2a in BN rats. Cytokine expression, serum IgE and histamine levels and the number of eosinophils and mast cells in the blood of Cry1C group rats were comparable to the control group rats, which were treated with water alone. As Cry1C did not show any allergenicity, we make the following conclusion that the protein could be safety used in rice or other plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of algal biofertilizer on yield and protein content of rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antarikanonda, P.; Amarit, P.; Chetsumon; Tancharoenrat, P.

    Four strains of nitrogen fixing blue-green algae, namely Anabaena siamensis, Anabaena lutea, Nostoc sp. 46 and Nostoc sp. 79. Mixed cultures were applied as biofertilizers to four paddy soil samples, taken from Rangsit, Khok Sumrong, Sakhon Nakorn and Surin areas. Pots which were arranged in completely randomized design consisted of 3 replications and 2 treatment in each replication. These treatments comprise an unbiofertilizer and a biofertilizer which biofertilizer rate was applied equally at 4 grams of blue green algae per 10 kilograms of soil sample. The results showed that algal biofertilizer enhanced the growth and yield of the rice significantly, which was noticeable in the dry weight of the straw and grain of rice, for all sources of soil. Grain yield of rice in these soils increased form the check of 32.07, 34.87, 8.86 and 21.49 to 53.14, 49.53, 20.02, and 49.60 grams per pot, respectively. The responsiveness of rice which received algal biofertilizer was different. The percentage increase in yield ranged from 42% in Khok Sumrong soil and 66% in Rangsit soil, to 126 and 131% in Sakhon Nakorn and Surin soil, respectively. Significant increase in protein content of rice with the application of algal biofertilizer was from the check of 5.03, 5.14, 6.75 and 5.25 to 6.45, 6.53, 7.80 and 7.11 percent respectively. The difference in plant N-uptake level, after the application algal biofertilizer gave 383.50, 310.00, 222.20 and 480.70 milligrams per pot, respectively.

  6. Binding constants of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus Coat Protein with ferulic acid derivatives

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    Longlu Ran

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data present binding constants between ferulic acid derivatives and the Coat Protein (P10 by fluorescence titration in this article, which is hosted in the research article entitled “Interaction Research on an Antiviral Molecule that Targets the Coat Protein of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus’’ (Ran et al., 2017 [1]. The data include fluorescence quenching spectrum, Stern–Volmer quenching constants, and binding parameters. In this article, a more comprehensive data interpretation and analysis is explained.

  7. Improvement of Rice Straw for Ruminant Feed Through Unconventional Alkali Treatment and Supplementation of Various Protein Sources

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    SNO Suwandyastuti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical treatments were conducted to increase the utilization of rice straw as feed for ruminant animals. Various sources of protein, minerals and energy should be added to improve the nutritive value of feeds. Two experiments were conducted in this study. The objective of the first experiments was to study the effect of chemical treatment on the ruminal fermentation products in cattle. Unconventional alkali treatment made from filtrate of a 10% rice hulls ash solution enriched with urea and minerals (treatment 1 increased volatile fatty acid (VFA production, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N and rumen microbial protein synthesis (MPS. The maximum values of NH3-N production and rumen microbial protein synthesis were reached at 4 hours after incubation, while VFA was reached at 6 hours. The second experiment was conducted to study the increase of nutritive value of rice straw previously treated in experiment 1 through supplementation with various protein sources. Protein sources from the residues of vegetative oil production such as coconut, peanut and soybean showed higher responses compared to soy-sauce making residue and tofu making residue. The protein effluent production was highest (2.19 g/d at a VFA/NH3-N ration of 37.74 (r = 0.912. It can be recommended that protein sources from agro-industrial wastes can be used to increase the nutritive value and utilization of rice straw as ruminant feed. (Animal Production 12(2: 82-85 (2010Key Words: rice straw, rumen, fermentation

  8. Polycomb Protein OsFIE2 Affects Plant Height and Grain Yield in Rice.

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    Xianbo Liu

    Full Text Available Polycomb group (PcG proteins have been shown to affect growth and development in plants. To further elucidate their role in these processes in rice, we isolated and characterized a rice mutant which exhibits dwarfism, reduced seed setting rate, defective floral organ, and small grains. Map-based cloning revealed that abnormal phenotypes were attributed to a mutation of the Fertilization Independent Endosperm 2 (OsFIE2 protein, which belongs to the PcG protein family. So we named the mutant as osfie2-1. Histological analysis revealed that the number of longitudinal cells in the internodes decreased in osfie2-1, and that lateral cell layer of the internodes was markedly thinner than wild-type. In addition, compared to wild-type, the number of large and small vascular bundles decreased in osfie2-1, as well as cell number and cell size in spikelet hulls. OsFIE2 is expressed in most tissues and the coded protein localizes in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays demonstrated that OsFIE2 interacts with OsiEZ1 which encodes an enhancer of zeste protein previously identified as a histone methylation enzyme. RNA sequencing-based transcriptome profiling and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that some homeotic genes and genes involved in endosperm starch synthesis, cell division/expansion and hormone synthesis and signaling are differentially expressed between osfie2-1 and wild-type. In addition, the contents of IAA, GA3, ABA, JA and SA in osfie2-1 are significantly different from those in wild-type. Taken together, these results indicate that OsFIE2 plays an important role in the regulation of plant height and grain yield in rice.

  9. Effects of 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene and Mercury Ion Stress on Ca2+ Fluxion and Protein Phosphorylation in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-lin GE

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of 5 mg/L 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB and 0.1 mmol/L mercury ion (Hg2+ stresses on Ca2+ fluxion and protein phosphorylation in rice seedlings were investigated by isotope exchange kinetics and in vitro phosphorylation assay. The Ca2+ absorption in rice leaves and Ca2+ transportation from roots to leaves were promoted significantly in response to Hg2+ and TCB treatments for 4-48 h. The Ca2+ absorption peaks presented in the leaves when the rice seedlings were exposed to Hg2+ for 8-12 h or to TCB for 12-24 h. Several Ca2+ absorption peaks presented in the roots during rice seedlings being exposed to Hg2+ and TCB, and the first Ca2+ absorption peak was at 8 h after being exposed to Hg2+ and TCB. The result of isotope exchange kinetic analysis confirmed that short-term (8 h Hg2+ and TCB stresses caused Ca2+ channels or pumps located on plasmalemma to open transiently. The phosphorylation assay showed that short-term TCB stress enhanced protein phosphorylation in rice roots (TCB treatment for 4-8 h and leaves (TCB treatment for 4-24 h, and short-term (4-8 h Hg2+ stress also enhanced protein phosphorylation in rice leaves. The enhancement of protein phosphorylation in both roots and leaves corresponded with the first Ca2+ absorption peak, which confirmed that the enhancement of protein phosphorylation caused by TCB or Hg2+ stress might be partly triggered by the increases of cytosolic calcium. TCB treatment over 12 h inhibited protein phosphorylation in rice roots, which might be partly due to that TCB stress suppressed the protein kinase activity. Whereas, Hg2+ treatment inhibited protein phosphorylation in rice roots, and Hg2+ treatment over 12 h inhibited protein phosphorylation in rice leaves. This might be attributed to that not only the protein kinase activity, but also the expressions of phosphorylation proteins were restrained by Hg2+ stress.

  10. Improving the quality of rice straw by urea and calcium hydroxide on rumen ecology, microbial protein synthesis in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyorach, S; Wanapat, M

    2015-06-01

    Four rumen-fistulated beef cattle were randomly assigned to four treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study the influence of urea and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ] treatment of rice straw to improve the nutritive value of rice straw. Four dietary treatments were as follows: untreated rice straw, 50 g/kg urea-treated rice straw, 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw and 30 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw. All animals were kept in individual pens and fed with concentrate at 0.5 g/kg of BW (DM), rice straw was fed ad libitum. The experiment was conducted for four periods, and each period lasted for 21 days. During the first 14 days, DM feed intake measurements were made while during the last 7 days, all cattle were moved to metabolism crates for total faeces and urine collections. The results revealed that 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw improved the nutritive value of rice straw, in terms of dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal volatile fatty acids, population of bacteria and fungi, nitrogen retention and microbial protein synthesis. Based on this study, it could be concluded that using urea plus calcium hydroxide was one alternative method to improve the nutritive value of rice straw, rumen ecology and fermentation and thus a reduction of treatment cost. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Protein disulfide isomerase-like protein 1-1 controls endosperm development through regulation of the amount and composition of seed proteins in rice.

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    Yeon Jeong Kim

    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI is a chaperone protein involved in oxidative protein folding by acting as a catalyst and assisting folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. A genome database search showed that rice contains 19 PDI-like genes. However, their functions are not clearly identified. This paper shows possible functions of rice PDI-like protein 1-1 (PDIL1-1 during seed development. Seeds of the T-DNA insertion PDIL1-1 mutant, PDIL1-1Δ, identified by genomic DNA PCR and western blot analysis, display a chalky phenotype and a thick aleurone layer. Protein content per seed was significantly lower and free sugar content higher in PDIL1-1Δ mutant seeds than in the wild type. Proteomic analysis of PDIL1-1Δ mutant seeds showed that PDIL1-1 is post-translationally regulated, and its loss causes accumulation of many types of seed proteins including glucose/starch metabolism- and ROS (reactive oxygen species scavenging-related proteins. In addition, PDIL1-1 strongly interacts with the cysteine protease OsCP1. Our data indicate that the opaque phenotype of PDIL1-1Δ mutant seeds results from production of irregular starch granules and protein body through loss of regulatory activity for various proteins involved in the synthesis of seed components.

  12. XA23 is an executor R protein and confers broad-spectrum disease resistance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlian; Zhang, Xiaoping; Fan, Yinglun; Gao, Ying; Zhu, Qinlong; Zheng, Chongke; Qin, Tengfei; Li, Yanqiang; Che, Jinying; Zhang, Mingwei; Yang, Bing; Liu, Yaoguang; Zhao, Kaijun

    2014-11-09

    The majority of plant disease resistance (R) genes encode proteins that share common structural features. However, the transcription activator-like effector (TALE) associated executor type R genes show no considerable sequence homology to any known R genes. We adopted a map-based cloning approach and TALE-based technology to isolate and characterize Xa23, a new executor R gene derived from the wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) that confers an extremely broad spectrum of resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Xa23 encodes a 113-amino acid protein that shares 50% identity to the known executor R protein XA10. The predicted transmembrane helices in XA23 also overlap with those of XA10. Unlike Xa10, however, Xa23 transcription is specifically activated by AvrXa23, a TALE present in all examined Xoo field isolates. Moreover, the susceptible xa23 allele has an identical open reading frame of Xa23, but differs in promoter region by lacking the TALE binding-element (EBE) for AvrXa23. XA23 can trigger strong hypersensitive response in rice, tobacco and tomato. Our results provide the first evidence that plant genomes have an executor R gene family in which members execute their function and spectrum of disease resistance by recognizing the cognate TALEs in pathogen. © The Author 2014. Published by the Molecular Plant Shanghai Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of CSPB and IPPE, SIBS, CAS.

  13. CHR729 Is a CHD3 Protein That Controls Seedling Development in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoding; Ma, Jian; Zhai, Honghong; Xin, Peiyong; Chu, Jinfang; Qiao, Yongli; Han, Longzhi

    2015-01-01

    CHD3 is one of the chromatin-remodeling factors that contribute to controlling the expression of genes associated with plant development. Loss-of-function mutants display morphological and growth defects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CHD3 regulation of plant development remain unclear. In this study, a rice CHD3 protein, CHR729, was identified. The corresponding mutant line (t483) exhibited late seed germination, low germination rate, dwarfism, low tiller number, root growth inhibition, adaxial albino leaves, and short and narrow leaves. CHR729 encoded a nuclear protein and was expressed in almost all organs. RNA-sequencing analysis showed that several plant hormone-related genes were up- or down-regulated in t483 compared to wild type. In particular, expression of the gibberellin synthetase gibberellin 20 oxidase 4 gene was elevated in the mutant. Endogenous gibberellin assays demonstrated that the content of bioactive GA3 was reduced in t483 compared to wild type. Moreover, the seedling dwarfism, late seed germination, and short root length phenotypes of t483 were partially rescued by treatment with exogenous GA3. These results suggest that the rice CHD3 protein CHR729 plays an important role in many aspects of seedling development and controls this development via the gibberellin pathway.

  14. CHR729 Is a CHD3 Protein That Controls Seedling Development in Rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoding Ma

    Full Text Available CHD3 is one of the chromatin-remodeling factors that contribute to controlling the expression of genes associated with plant development. Loss-of-function mutants display morphological and growth defects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CHD3 regulation of plant development remain unclear. In this study, a rice CHD3 protein, CHR729, was identified. The corresponding mutant line (t483 exhibited late seed germination, low germination rate, dwarfism, low tiller number, root growth inhibition, adaxial albino leaves, and short and narrow leaves. CHR729 encoded a nuclear protein and was expressed in almost all organs. RNA-sequencing analysis showed that several plant hormone-related genes were up- or down-regulated in t483 compared to wild type. In particular, expression of the gibberellin synthetase gibberellin 20 oxidase 4 gene was elevated in the mutant. Endogenous gibberellin assays demonstrated that the content of bioactive GA3 was reduced in t483 compared to wild type. Moreover, the seedling dwarfism, late seed germination, and short root length phenotypes of t483 were partially rescued by treatment with exogenous GA3. These results suggest that the rice CHD3 protein CHR729 plays an important role in many aspects of seedling development and controls this development via the gibberellin pathway.

  15. Increasing the genetic variance of rice protein through mutation breeding techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismachin, M.

    1975-01-01

    Recommended rice variety in Indonesia, Pelita I/1 was treated with gamma rays at the doses of 20 krad, 30 krad, and 40 krad. The seeds were also treated with EMS 1%. In M 2 generation, the protein content of seeds from the visible mutants and from the normal looking plants were analyzed by DBC method. No significant increase in the genetic variance was found on the samples treated with 20 krad gamma, and on the normal looking plants treated by EMS 1%. The mean value of the treated samples were mostly significant decrease compared with the mean value of the protein distribution in untreated samples (control). Since significant increase in genetic variance was also found in M 2 normal looking plants - treated with gamma at the doses of 30 krad and 40 krad -selection of protein among these materials could be more valuable. (author)

  16. A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Malene; Poulsen, Morten; Wilcks, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    An animal model for safety assessment of genetically modified foods was tested as part of the SAFOTEST project. In a 90-day feeding study on Wistar rats, the transgenic KMD1 rice expressing Cry1Ab protein was compared to its non-transgenic parental wild type, Xiushui 11. The KMD1 rice contained 15......, macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with only minor changes to report. The aim of the study was to use a known animal model in performance of safety assessment of a GM crop, in this case KMD1 rice. The results show no adverse or toxic effects of KMD1 rice when tested in the design...... used in this 90-day study. Nevertheless the experiences from this study lead to the overall conclusion that safety assessment for unintended effects of a GM crop cannot be done without additional test group(s)....

  17. A salivary EF-hand calcium-binding protein of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens functions as an effector for defense responses in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Wenfeng; Yu, Haixin; Jian, Yukun; Zeng, Jiamei; Ji, Rui; Chen, Hongdan; Lou, Yonggen

    2017-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (St?l) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a major pest of rice in Asia, is able to successfully puncture sieve tubes in rice with its piercing stylet and then to ingest phloem sap. How BPH manages to continuously feed on rice remains unclear. Here, we cloned the gene NlSEF1, which is highly expressed in the salivary glands of BPH. The NlSEF1 protein has EF-hand Ca2+-binding activity and can be secreted into rice plants when BPH feed. Infestation of rice ...

  18. Enhanced resistance to blast fungus in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by expressing the ribosome-inactivating protein α-momorcharin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qian; Huang, Lin; Yi, Rong; Wang, Shuzhen; Ding, Yi

    2014-03-01

    Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe grisea is one of the three major diseases that seriously affect the rice production. Alpha-momorcharin (α-MC), a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) isolated from Momordica charantia seeds, has antifungal effects in vitro. In this study, the α-MC gene was constitutively expressed under the control of the 2×35S promoter in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method. The nine transgenic plants were obtained and confirmed by PCR and RT-PCR, and the four (B2, B4, B7 and B9) of them whose copy numbers were 1, 2, 3 and 3, respectively, were shown to express the α-MC protein by Western blot. The molecular weight of α-MC in transgenic plants was approximately 38 kDa larger than the purified α-MC protein (28 kDa) in vitro. When the confirmed T1 generations were inoculated with a suspension of M. grisea spores for ten days, the lesions on leaves of transgenic plants were much lesser than those found on wild type (WT). According to the criteria of International Rice Research Institute standard, the mean values for morbidity and disease index numbers were 29.8% and 14.9%, respectively, which were lower than for WT. It is unclear whether RIPs could impact plant fitness and however our results suggest that the α-MC protein is an effective antifungal protein preventing rice blast in transgenic rice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploitation of starch industry liquid by-product to produce bioactive peptides from rice hydrolyzed proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei Piu', Lucilla; Tassoni, Annalisa; Serrazanetti, Diana Isabella; Ferri, Maura; Babini, Elena; Tagliazucchi, Davide; Gianotti, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    Small peptides show higher antioxidant capacity than native proteins and may be absorbed in the intestine without further digestion. In our study, a protein by-product from rice starch industry was hydrolyzed with commercial proteolytic enzymes (Alcalase, Neutrase, Flavourzyme) and microbial whole cells of Bacillus spp. and the released peptides were tested for antioxidant activity. Among enzymes, Alcalase was the most performing, while microbial proteolytic activity was less efficient. Conversely, the antioxidant activity was higher in the samples obtained by microbial hydrolysis and particularly with Bacillus pumilus AG1. The sequences of low molecular weight antioxidant peptides were determined and analyzed for aminoacidic composition. The results obtained so far suggest that the hydrolytic treatment of this industrial by-product, with selected enzymes and microbial systems, can allow its exploitation for the production of functional additives and supplements rich in antioxidant peptides, to be used in new food formulas for human consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hybrid Sterility in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Involves the Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domain Containing Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zhao, Zhigang; Shi, Yanrong; Tian, Hua; Liu, Linglong; Bian, Xiaofeng; Xu, Yang; Zheng, Xiaoming; Gan, Lu; Shen, Yumin; Wang, Chaolong; Yu, Xiaowen; Wang, Chunming; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiuping; Wang, Jiulin; Ikehashi, Hiroshi; Jiang, Ling; Wan, Jianmin

    2016-07-01

    Intersubspecific hybrid sterility is a common form of reproductive isolation in rice (Oryza sativa L.), which significantly hampers the utilization of heterosis between indica and japonica varieties. Here, we elucidated the mechanism of S7, which specially causes Aus-japonica/indica hybrid female sterility, through cytological and genetic analysis, map-based cloning, and transformation experiments. Abnormal positioning of polar nuclei and smaller embryo sac were observed in F1 compared with male and female parents. Female gametes carrying S7(cp) and S7(i) were aborted in S7(ai)/S7(cp) and S7(ai)/S7(i), respectively, whereas they were normal in both N22 and Dular possessing a neutral allele, S7(n) S7 was fine mapped to a 139-kb region in the centromere region on chromosome 7, where the recombination was remarkably suppressed due to aggregation of retrotransposons. Among 16 putative open reading frames (ORFs) localized in the mapping region, ORF3 encoding a tetratricopeptide repeat domain containing protein was highly expressed in the pistil. Transformation experiments demonstrated that ORF3 is the candidate gene: downregulated expression of ORF3 restored spikelet fertility and eliminated absolutely preferential transmission of S7(ai) in heterozygote S7(ai)/S7(cp); sterility occurred in the transformants Cpslo17-S7(ai) Our results may provide implications for overcoming hybrid embryo sac sterility in intersubspecific hybrid rice and utilization of hybrid heterosis for cultivated rice improvement. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  1. Overexpression of a New Zinc Finger Protein Transcription Factor OsCTZFP8 Improves Cold Tolerance in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Mei Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses in rice. C2H2 zinc finger proteins play important roles in response to abiotic stresses in plants. In the present study, we isolated and functionally characterized a new C2H2 zinc finger protein transcription factor OsCTZFP8 in rice. OsCTZFP8 encodes a C2H2 zinc finger protein, which contains a typical zinc finger motif, as well as a potential nuclear localization signal (NLS and a leucine-rich region (L-box. Expression of OsCTZFP8 was differentially induced by several abiotic stresses and was strongly induced by cold stress. Subcellular localization assay and yeast one-hybrid analysis revealed that OsCTZFP8 was a nuclear protein and has transactivation activity. To characterize the function of OsCTZFP8 in rice, the full-length cDNA of OsCTZFP8 was isolated and transgenic rice with overexpression of OsCTZFP8 driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter was generated using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Among 46 independent transgenic lines, 6 single-copy homozygous overexpressing lines were selected by Southern blot analysis and Basta resistance segregation assay in both T1 and T2 generations. Transgenic rice overexpressing OsCTZFP8 exhibited cold tolerant phenotypes with significantly higher pollen fertilities and seed setting rates than nontransgenic control plants. In addition, yield per plant of OsCTZFP8-expressing lines was significantly (p<0.01 higher than that of nontransgenic control plants under cold treatments. These results demonstrate that OsCTZFP8 was a C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor that plays an important role in cold tolerance in rice.

  2. Adsorption, desorption and biodegradation in soil of CrylAb toxin protein from Bt transgenic rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haiyan; Ye Qingfu

    2004-01-01

    The equilibrium adsorption and binding of CrylAb toxin from Bt transgenic rice, to 7 different soils and the biodegradation of the bound toxin were studied. The adsorption rate of Bt in soils improved with decreasing of the added Bt purified protein concentration. Adsorption rate (125 and 780 nm/ml) in powdery-muddy paddy soil, Fluvio-marine yellow loamy and Coastal saline soil were 24.85% and 40.81%, 9.1% and 31.67%, 12.47% and 30.75%, respectively. Desorption rate in the soils dropped with content of soil-absorbed protein decreased. Its adsorption ratio in powdery-muddy paddy soil was 12.95% and 5.88%, respectively. The relationship between adsorption amount and concentration of Bt purified protein in different soils was notably positive correlation (P 0 e -λt ); Half life of Bt protein in soils was among 15.2-97.6 d; Degradation of pruified Bt protein was rapid at the initial incubation time (30 d), but slow at 150d incubation; The degradation of purified Bt protein in Intertidal sandy soil was the slowest with half-life of 97.6d. The protein in the soil amended with 1.25 μg/g could be still detectable after incubation of 345d; the degradation of purified Bt protein in Coastal saline soil and Aquic light saline sandy soil were faster. Their half-lives were 19.6 d and 15.2 d, respecitvely. The residue time of Bt purified protein in the soils was all more than 150 d. (authors)

  3. Rice early flowering1, a CKI, phosphorylates DELLA protein SLR1 to negatively regulate gibberellin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cheng; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2010-06-02

    The plant hormone gibberellin (GA) is crucial for multiple aspects of plant growth and development. To study the relevant regulatory mechanisms, we isolated a rice mutant earlier flowering1, el1, which is deficient in a casein kinase I that has critical roles in both plants and animals. el1 had an enhanced GA response, consistent with the suppression of EL1 expression by exogenous GA(3). Biochemical characterization showed that EL1 specifically phosphorylates the rice DELLA protein SLR1, proving a direct evidence for SLR1 phosphorylation. Overexpression of SLR1 in wild-type plants caused a severe dwarf phenotype, which was significantly suppressed by EL1 deficiency, indicating the negative effect of SLR1 on GA signalling requires the EL1 function. Further studies showed that the phosphorylation of SLR1 is important for maintaining its activity and stability, and mutation of the candidate phosphorylation site of SLR1 results in the altered GA signalling. This study shows EL1 a novel and key regulator of the GA response and provided important clues on casein kinase I activities in GA signalling and plant development.

  4. Optimisation of near-infrared reflectance model in measuring protein and amylose content of rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, L H; Tang, S Q; Chen, N; Luo, J; Jiao, G A; Shao, G N; Wei, X J; Hu, P S

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to predict the cooking quality parameters of rice, such as the protein (PC) and amylose content (AC). Using brown and milled flours from 519 rice samples representing a wide range of grain qualities, this study was to compare the calibration models generated by different mathematical, preprocessing treatments, and combinations of different regression algorithm. A modified partial least squares model (MPLS) with the mathematic treatment "2, 8, 8, 2" (2nd order derivative computed based on 8 data points, and 8 and 2 data points in the 1st and 2nd smoothing, respectively) and inverse multiplicative scattering correction preprocessing treatment was identified as the best model for simultaneously measurement of PC and AC in brown flours. MPLS/"2, 8, 8, 2"/detrend preprocessing was identified as the best model for milled flours. The results indicated that NIRS could be useful in estimation of PC and AC of breeding lines in early generations of the breeding programs, and for the purposes of quality control in the food industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Alkali solution extraction of rice residue protein isolates: Influence of alkali concentration on protein functional, structural properties and lysinoalanine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Furong; Ding, Wenhui; Qu, Wenjuan; Oladejo, Ayobami Olayemi; Xiong, Feng; Zhang, Weiwei; He, Ronghai; Ma, Haile

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the nutrient property and safety of the rice residue protein isolates (RRPI) product (extracted by different alkali concentrations) by exploring the protein functional, structural properties and lysinoalanine (LAL) formation. The results showed that with the rising of alkali concentration from 0.03M to 0.15M, the solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties of RRPI increased at first and then descended. When the alkali concentration was greater than 0.03M, the RRPI surface hydrophobicity decreased and the content of thiol and disulfide bond, Lys and Cys significantly reduced. By the analysis of HPLC, the content of LAL rose up from 276.08 to 15,198.07mg/kg and decreased to 1340.98mg/kg crude protein when the alkali concentration increased from 0.03 to 0.09M and until to 0.15M. These results indicated that RRPI alkaline extraction concentration above 0.03M may cause severe nutrient or safety problems of protein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A salivary EF-hand calcium-binding protein of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens functions as an effector for defense responses in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wenfeng; Yu, Haixin; Jian, Yukun; Zeng, Jiamei; Ji, Rui; Chen, Hongdan; Lou, Yonggen

    2017-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a major pest of rice in Asia, is able to successfully puncture sieve tubes in rice with its piercing stylet and then to ingest phloem sap. How BPH manages to continuously feed on rice remains unclear. Here, we cloned the gene NlSEF1, which is highly expressed in the salivary glands of BPH. The NlSEF1 protein has EF-hand Ca2+-binding activity and can be secreted into rice plants when BPH feed. Infestation of rice by BPH nymphs whose NlSEF1 was knocked down elicited higher levels of Ca2+ and H2O2 but not jasmonic acid, jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) and SA in rice than did infestation by control nymphs; Consistently, wounding plus the recombination protein NlSEF1 suppressed the production of H2O2 in rice. Bioassays revealed that NlSEF1-knockdown BPH nymphs had a higher mortality rate and lower feeding capacity on rice than control nymphs. These results indicate that the salivary protein in BPH, NlSEF1, functions as an effector and plays important roles in interactions between BPH and rice by mediating the plant’s defense responses. PMID:28098179

  7. Adsorptive loss of secreted recombinant proteins in transgenic rice cell suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jun-Young; Lee, Kyoung-Hoon; Cheon, Su-Hwan; Ryu, Hyun-Nam; Kim, Sun Jin; Kim, Dong-Il

    2012-03-01

    Adsorptive loss of human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4-immunoglobulin (hCTLA4Ig) in transgenic rice cell suspension cultures was investigated using glass flasks, plastic flasks, disposable vessels, and stainless steel vessels. When hCTLA4Ig was added to the glass flasks containing sterile AA medium, a rapid decrease in the concentration of hCTLA4Ig, independent on pH, was observed resulting in more than 90% of the protein loss within 1 h due to the surface adsorption. When the same experiments were performed on four different types of culture equipments mentioned above, the lowest adsorption level was observed in the plastic flasks and the highest level was observed in the glass flasks. The use of the plastic flasks retarded the adsorptive loss of hCTLA4Ig at the early stage of the protein production. There was a significant increase in the production of hCTLA4Ig when the flasks were coated with bovine serum albumin. However, the spike test of purified hCTLA4Ig at two different concentrations of 15 and 100 mg L(-1) in 500-mL spinner flasks confirmed that the amount of hCTLA4Ig adsorbed was dependent on the surface area of the flasks but not on the concentrations. In conclusion, although the protein adsorption affected the total amount of the protein yielded to some extent, it could be regarded as a minor factor in transgenic plant cell cultures with higher titer.

  8. High Temperature During Rice Grain Filling Enhances Aspartate Metabolism in Grains and Results in Accumulation of Aspartate-Family Amino Acids and Protein Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-gang LIANG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Global warming causes the exacerbation of rice growing environment, which seriously affects rice growth and reproduction, and finally results in the decrease of rice yield and quality. We investigated the activities of aspartate metabolism enzymes in grains, and the contents of Aspartate-family amino acids and protein components to further understand the effects of high temperature (HT on rice nutritional quality during rice grain filling. Under HT, the average activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AAT and aspartokinase (AK in grains significantly increased, the amino acid contents of aspartate (Asp, lysine (Lys, threonine (Thr, methionine (Met and isoleucine (Ile and the protein contents of albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin also significantly increased. The results indicated that HT enhanced Asp metabolism during rice grain filling and the enhancement of Asp metabolism might play an important role in the increase of Asp-family amino acids and protein components in grains. In case of the partial appraisal of the change of Asp-family amino acids and protein components under HT, we introduced eight indicators (amino acid or protein content, ratio of amino acid or protein, amino acid or protein content per grain and amino acid or protein content per panicle to estimate the effects of HT. It is suggested that HT during rice grain filling was benefit for the accumulation of Asp-family amino acids and protein components. Combined with the improvement of Asp-family amino acid ratio in grains under HT, it is suggested that HT during grain filling may improve the rice nutritional quality. However, the yields of parts of Asp-family amino acids and protein components were decreased under HT during rice grain filling.

  9. Semi-solid microbial fermentation of rice and wheat straw for protein enrichment and increased digestibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanya, R.H.; Bhatawdekar, S.P.

    1980-12-01

    Rice and wheat straws were hydrolyzed in various concentrations of sulfuric acid at different temperatures and different water: substrate ratios. The maximum amount of sugars of about 30-34% was released when heated at 121 degrees C with 0.5 N H2SO4 at a water: substrate ratio of 3:1. The pH of the hydrolyzed straws was raised to 5.0-5.5 with 5 N NH4OH. Such ammoniated straws were inoculated with the cultures of Penicillium funiculosum Thom. and Candida utilis (Henneb.) Lodder and Kreger-van Rij, and fermentation was carried out on semi-solid substrate for 5-7 days at room temperature. The fermentation resulted in 37-180% increase in crude protein, 23-100% increase in crude fat and 20-30% increase in the digestibility. (Refs. 29).

  10. Copper and ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis transport protein COPT1 alter iron homeostasis in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Bordería, Amparo; Andrés, Fernando; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Perea-García, Ana; Domingo, Concha; Puig, Sergi; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2017-09-01

    Copper deficiency and excess differentially affect iron homeostasis in rice and overexpression of the Arabidopsis high-affinity copper transporter COPT1 slightly increases endogenous iron concentration in rice grains. Higher plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to efficiently acquire and use micronutrients such as copper and iron. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between both metals remain poorly understood. In the present work, we study the effects produced on iron homeostasis by a wide range of copper concentrations in the growth media and by altered copper transport in Oryza sativa plants. Gene expression profiles in rice seedlings grown under copper excess show an altered expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis compared to standard control conditions. Thus, ferritin OsFER2 and ferredoxin OsFd1 mRNAs are down-regulated whereas the transcriptional iron regulator OsIRO2 and the nicotianamine synthase OsNAS2 mRNAs rise under copper excess. As expected, the expression of OsCOPT1, which encodes a high-affinity copper transport protein, as well as other copper-deficiency markers are down-regulated by copper. Furthermore, we show that Arabidopsis COPT1 overexpression (C1 OE ) in rice causes root shortening in high copper conditions and under iron deficiency. C1 OE rice plants modify the expression of the putative iron-sensing factors OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 and enhance the expression of OsIRO2 under copper excess, which suggests a role of copper transport in iron signaling. Importantly, the C1 OE rice plants grown on soil contain higher endogenous iron concentration than wild-type plants in both brown and white grains. Collectively, these results highlight the effects of rice copper status on iron homeostasis, which should be considered to obtain crops with optimized nutrient concentrations in edible parts.

  11. The DELLA Protein SLR1 Integrates and Amplifies Salicylic Acid- and Jasmonic Acid-Dependent Innate Immunity in Rice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Seifi, Hamed Soren; Haeck, Ashley; Huu, Son Nguyen; Demeestere, Kristof

    2016-01-01

    Gibberellins are a class of tetracyclic plant hormones that are well known to promote plant growth by inducing the degradation of a class of nuclear growth-repressing proteins, called DELLAs. In recent years, GA and DELLAs are also increasingly implicated in plant responses to pathogen attack, although our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still limited, especially in monocotyledonous crop plants. Aiming to further decipher the molecular underpinnings of GA- and DELLA-modulated plant immunity, we studied the dynamics and impact of GA and DELLA during infection of the model crop rice (Oryza sativa) with four different pathogens exhibiting distinct lifestyles and infection strategies. Opposite to previous findings in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), our findings reveal a prominent role of the DELLA protein Slender Rice1 (SLR1) in the resistance toward (hemi)biotrophic but not necrotrophic rice pathogens. Moreover, contrary to the differential effect of DELLA on the archetypal defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in Arabidopsis, we demonstrate that the resistance-promoting effect of SLR1 is due at least in part to its ability to boost both SA- and JA-mediated rice defenses. In a reciprocal manner, we found JA and SA treatment to interfere with GA metabolism and stabilize SLR1. Together, these findings favor a model whereby SLR1 acts as a positive regulator of hemibiotroph resistance in rice by integrating and amplifying SA- and JA-dependent defense signaling. Our results highlight the differences in hormone defense networking between rice and Arabidopsis and underscore the importance of GA and DELLA in molding disease outcomes. PMID:26829979

  12. The DELLA Protein SLR1 Integrates and Amplifies Salicylic Acid- and Jasmonic Acid-Dependent Innate Immunity in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Seifi, Hamed Soren; Filipe, Osvaldo; Haeck, Ashley; Huu, Son Nguyen; Demeestere, Kristof; Höfte, Monica

    2016-03-01

    Gibberellins are a class of tetracyclic plant hormones that are well known to promote plant growth by inducing the degradation of a class of nuclear growth-repressing proteins, called DELLAs. In recent years, GA and DELLAs are also increasingly implicated in plant responses to pathogen attack, although our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still limited, especially in monocotyledonous crop plants. Aiming to further decipher the molecular underpinnings of GA- and DELLA-modulated plant immunity, we studied the dynamics and impact of GA and DELLA during infection of the model crop rice (Oryza sativa) with four different pathogens exhibiting distinct lifestyles and infection strategies. Opposite to previous findings in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), our findings reveal a prominent role of the DELLA protein Slender Rice1 (SLR1) in the resistance toward (hemi)biotrophic but not necrotrophic rice pathogens. Moreover, contrary to the differential effect of DELLA on the archetypal defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in Arabidopsis, we demonstrate that the resistance-promoting effect of SLR1 is due at least in part to its ability to boost both SA- and JA-mediated rice defenses. In a reciprocal manner, we found JA and SA treatment to interfere with GA metabolism and stabilize SLR1. Together, these findings favor a model whereby SLR1 acts as a positive regulator of hemibiotroph resistance in rice by integrating and amplifying SA- and JA-dependent defense signaling. Our results highlight the differences in hormone defense networking between rice and Arabidopsis and underscore the importance of GA and DELLA in molding disease outcomes. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Influence of transgenic rice expressing a fused Cry1Ab/1Ac protein on frogs in paddy fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Mei; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Liang, Yu-Yong; Zhu, Hao-Jun; Ding, Jia-Tong; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2014-11-01

    As genetic engineering in plants is increasingly used to control agricultural pests, it is important to determine whether such transgenic plants adversely affect non-target organisms within and around cultivated fields. The cry1Ab/1Ac fusion gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has insecticidal activity and has been introduced into rice line Minghui 63 (MH63). We evaluated the effect of transgenic cry1Ab/1Ac rice (Huahui 1, HH1) on paddy frogs by comparing HH1 and MH63 rice paddies with and without pesticide treatment. The density of tadpoles in rice fields was surveyed at regular intervals, and Cry1Ab/1Ac protein levels were determined in tissues of tadpoles and froglets collected from the paddy fields. In addition, Rana nigromaculata froglets were raised in purse nets placed within these experimental plots. The survival, body weight, feeding habits, and histological characteristics of the digestive tract of these froglets were analyzed. We found that the tadpole density was significantly decreased immediately after pesticide application, and the weight of R. nigromaculata froglets of pesticide groups was significantly reduced compared with no pesticide treatment, but we found no differences between Bt and non-Bt rice groups. Moreover, no Cry1Ab/1Ac protein was detected in tissue samples collected from 192 tadpoles and froglets representing all four experimental groups. In addition, R. nigromaculata froglets raised in purse seines fed primarily on stem borer and non-target insects, and showed no obvious abnormality in the microstructure of their digestive tracts. Based on these results, we conclude that cultivation of transgenic cry1Ab/1Ac rice does not adversely affect paddy frogs.

  14. Effects of a diet containing genetically modified rice expressing the Cry1Ab/1Ac protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) on broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zeyang; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Minhong; Feng, Jinghai; Xiong, Yandan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice expressing the Cry1Ab/1Ac protein on broiler chicken. The genetically modified (GM) Bt rice was compared with the corresponding non-GM rice regarding performance of feeding groups, their health status, relative organ weights, biochemical serum parameters and occurrence of Cry1Ab/1Ac gene fragments. One hundred and eighty day-old Arbor Acres female broilers with the same health condition were randomly allocated to the two treatments (6 replicate cages with 15 broilers in each cage per treatment). They received diets containing GM rice (GM group) or its parental non-GM rice (non-GM group) at 52-57% of the air-dried diet for 42 days. The results show that the transgenic rice had a similar nutrient composition as the non-GM rice and had no adverse effects on chicken growth, biochemical serum parameters and necropsy during the 42-day feeding period. In birds fed the GM rice, no transgenic gene fragments were detected in the samples of blood, liver, kidneys, spleen, jejunum, ileum, duodenum and muscle tissue. In conclusion, the results suggest that Bt rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein has no adverse effects on broiler chicken. Therefore, it can be considered as safe and used as feed source for broiler chicken.

  15. Rice hypersensitive induced reaction protein 1 (OsHIR1) associates with plasma membrane and triggers hypersensitive cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; Cheung, Ming-Yan; Li, Man-Wah; Fu, Yaping; Sun, Zongxiu; Sun, Sai-Ming; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2010-12-30

    In plants, HIR (Hypersensitive Induced Reaction) proteins, members of the PID (Proliferation, Ion and Death) superfamily, have been shown to play a part in the development of spontaneous hypersensitive response lesions in leaves, in reaction to pathogen attacks. The levels of HIR proteins were shown to correlate with localized host cell deaths and defense responses in maize and barley. However, not much was known about the HIR proteins in rice. Since rice is an important cereal crop consumed by more than 50% of the populations in Asia and Africa, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms of disease responses in this plant. We previously identified the rice HIR1 (OsHIR1) as an interacting partner of the OsLRR1 (rice Leucine-Rich Repeat protein 1). Here we show that OsHIR1 triggers hypersensitive cell death and its localization to the plasma membrane is enhanced by OsLRR1. Through electron microscopy studies using wild type rice plants, OsHIR1 was found to mainly localize to the plasma membrane, with a minor portion localized to the tonoplast. Moreover, the plasma membrane localization of OsHIR1 was enhanced in transgenic rice plants overexpressing its interacting protein partner, OsLRR1. Co-localization of OsHIR1 and OsLRR1 to the plasma membrane was confirmed by double-labeling electron microscopy. Pathogen inoculation studies using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing either OsHIR1 or OsLRR1 showed that both transgenic lines exhibited increased resistance toward the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. However, OsHIR1 transgenic plants produced more extensive spontaneous hypersensitive response lesions and contained lower titers of the invading pathogen, when compared to OsLRR1 transgenic plants. The OsHIR1 protein is mainly localized to the plasma membrane, and its subcellular localization in that compartment is enhanced by OsLRR1. The expression of OsHIR1 may sensitize the plant so that it is more prone to HR and hence can react more

  16. Rice Ovate Family Protein 2 (OFP2) alters hormonal homeostasis and vasculature development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Aaron J; Begcy, Kevin; Sarath, Gautam; Walia, Harkamal

    2015-12-01

    OFP (Ovate Family Protein) is a transcription factor family found only in plants. In dicots, OFPs control fruit shape and secondary cell wall biosynthesis. OFPs are also thought to function through interactions with KNOX and BELL transcription factors. Here, we have functionally characterized OsOFP2, a member of the OFP subgroup associated with regulating fruit shape. OsOFP2 was found to localize to the nucleus and to the cytosol. A putative nuclear export signal was identified within the OVATE domain and was required for the localization of OsOFP2 to distinct cytosolic spots. Rice plants overexpressing OsOFP2 were reduced in height and exhibited altered leaf morphology, seed shape, and positioning of vascular bundles in stems. Transcriptome analysis indicated disruptions of genes associated with vasculature development, lignin biosynthesis, and hormone homeostasis. Reduced expression of the gibberellin biosynthesis gene GA 20-oxidase 7 coincided with lower gibberellin content in OsOFP2 overexpression lines. Also, we found that OsOFP2 was expressed in plant vasculature and determined that putative vascular development KNOX and BELL proteins interact with OsOFP2. KNOX and BELL genes are known to suppress gibberellin biosynthesis through GA20ox gene regulation and can restrict lignin biosynthesis. We propose that OsOFP2 could modulate KNOX-BELL function to control diverse aspects of development including vasculature development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rice bran protein hydrolysates attenuate diabetic nephropathy in diabetic animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonloh, Kampeebhorn; Lee, Eun Soo; Kim, Hong Min; Kwon, Mi Hye; Kim, You Mi; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Lee, Eun Young; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Chung, Choon Hee

    2018-03-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is an important microvascular complication of uncontrolled diabetes. The features of DN include albuminuria, extracellular matrix alterations, and progressive renal insufficiency. Rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPs) have been reported to have antihyperglycemic, lipid-lowering, and anti-inflammatory effects in diabetic rats. Our study was to investigate the renoprotective effects of RBP in diabetic animals and mesangial cultured cells. Eight-week-old male db/m and db/db mice were orally treated with tap water or RBP (100 or 500 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, diabetic nephropathy in kidney tissues was investigated for histological, ultrastructural, and clinical chemistry changes, and biomarkers of angiogenesis, fibrosis, inflammation, and antioxidant in kidney were analyzed by Western blotting. Protection against proangiogenic proteins and induction of cytoprotection by RBP in cultured mesangial cells was evaluated. RBP treatment improved insulin sensitivity, decreased elevated fasting serum glucose levels, and improved serum lipid levels and urinary albumin/creatinine ratios in diabetic mice. RBP ameliorated the decreases in podocyte slit pore numbers, thickening of glomerular basement membranes, and mesangial matrix expansion and suppressed elevation of MCP-1, ICAM-1, HIF-1α, VEGF, TGF-β, p-Smad2/3, and type IV collagen expression. Moreover, RBP restored suppressed antioxidant Nrf2 and HO-1 expression. In cultured mesangial cells, RBP inhibited high glucose-induced angiogenic protein expression and induced the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1. RBP attenuates the progression of diabetic nephropathy and restored renal function by suppressing the expression of proangiogenic and profibrotic proteins, inhibiting proinflammatory mediators, and restoring the antioxidant and cytoprotective system.

  18. A recruiting protein of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase controls metabolic flux toward chlorophyll biosynthesis in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fei; Wang, Cheng-Yuan; Gutensohn, Michael; Jiang, Ling; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Dabing; Dudareva, Natalia; Lu, Shan

    2017-06-27

    In plants, geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) is produced by plastidic GGPP synthase (GGPPS) and serves as a precursor for vital metabolic branches, including chlorophyll, carotenoid, and gibberellin biosynthesis. However, molecular mechanisms regulating GGPP allocation among these biosynthetic pathways localized in the same subcellular compartment are largely unknown. We found that rice contains only one functionally active GGPPS, OsGGPPS1, in chloroplasts. A functionally active homodimeric enzyme composed of two OsGGPPS1 subunits is located in the stroma. In thylakoid membranes, however, the GGPPS activity resides in a heterodimeric enzyme composed of one OsGGPPS1 subunit and GGPPS recruiting protein (OsGRP). OsGRP is structurally most similar to members of the geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit type II subfamily. In contrast to members of this subfamily, OsGRP enhances OsGGPPS1 catalytic efficiency and specificity of GGPP production on interaction with OsGGPPS1. Structural biology and protein interaction analyses demonstrate that affinity between OsGRP and OsGGPPS1 is stronger than between two OsGGPPS1 molecules in homodimers. OsGRP determines OsGGPPS1 suborganellar localization and directs it to a large protein complex in thylakoid membranes, consisting of geranylgeranyl reductase (OsGGR), light-harvesting-like protein 3 (OsLIL3), protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (OsPORB), and chlorophyll synthase (OsCHLG). Taken together, genetic and biochemical analyses suggest OsGRP functions in recruiting OsGGPPS1 from the stroma toward thylakoid membranes, thus providing a mechanism to control GGPP flux toward chlorophyll biosynthesis.

  19. Analysis of Protein Content in Rices Using Fast Neutron Reaction 14N(n,2 n) N13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri-Sulamdari; Elin-Nuraini; Chotimah

    2000-01-01

    Protein content in rices such as IR 33 , Cisadane, and Rojolele has beendetermined using fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA). The existence ofprotein is characterized using E γ = 0.511 MeV from nuclear reaction 14 N (n,2 n) N 13 . Two methods of FNAA for quantification were used. Inabsolute method, the protein content was determined by measuring the neutronflux using Al foil, and in comparative additive method it was determined bycomparing to the known N standard which was additive to the samples. Theexperimental results show that the protein content in those rices ranges from(6.33 ± 0.05) % to (6.9 ± 0.11) % in weight. From the reference, thegrained rices contained 6.8 % in weight of protein. The value of the proteinstandard from the reference was in range of the experimental result. Howeverthere were still differences due to nuclear data stability of flux neutron,flux sample composition and the utilization of detector. (author)

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutritional components and Cry1Ab protein in the transgenic rice with a synthetic cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dianxing; Ye Qingfu; Wang Zhonghua; Xia Yingwu

    2004-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on the transgenic rice containing a synthetic cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis were investigated. There was almost no difference in the content of the major nutritional components, i.e. crude protein, crude lipid, eight essential amino acids and total ash between the irradiated grains and the non-irradiated transgenic rice. However, the amounts of Cry1Ab protein and apparent amylose in the irradiated transgenic rice were reduced significantly by the doses higher than 200 Gy. In vivo observation showed that Cry1Ab protein contents also decreased in the fresh leaf tissues of survival seedlings after irradiation with 200 Gy or higher doses and showed inhibition of seedling growth. The results indicate that gamma irradiation might improve the quality of transgenic rice due to removal of the toxic Cry1Ab protein

  1. Comparative proteomics and protein profile related to phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in germinated Oryza sativa 'KDML105' and Thai brown rice 'Mali Daeng' for better nutritional value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksup, Sarunyaporn; Pongpakpian, Sarintip; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Cha-Um, Suriyan; Supaibulwatana, Kanyaratt

    2018-01-01

    Brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) are considered as prime sources of carbohydrate and bioactive compounds for more than half of the populations worldwide. Several studies have reported on the proteomics of BR and GBR; however, the proteomic profiles related to the synthesis of bioactive compounds are less well documented. In the present study, BR and GBR were used in a comparative analysis of the proteomic and bioactive compound profiles for two famous Thai rice varieties: Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML) and Mali Daeng (MD). The proteomes of KDML and MD revealed differences in the expression patterns of proteins after germination. Total phenolic compound content, anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activity of red rice MD was approximately 2.6-, 2.2- and 9.2-fold higher, respectively, compared to that of the white rice KDML. Moreover, GBR of MD showed higher total anthocyanin content and greater antioxidant activity, which is consistent with the increase expression of several proteins involved in the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and protection against oxidative stress. Red rice MD exhibits higher nutrient values compared to white rice KDML and the appropriate germination of brown rice could represent a method for improving health-related benefits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Intercellular production of tamavidin 1, a biotin-binding protein from Tamogitake mushroom, confers resistance to the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Yoshimitsu; Oka, Naomi; Suzuki, Junko; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Ishida, Yuji

    2012-05-01

    The blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, one of the most devastating rice pathogens in the world, shows biotin-dependent growth. We have developed a strategy for creating disease resistance to M. oryzae whereby intercellular production of tamavidin 1, a biotin-binding protein from Pleurotus cornucopiae occurs in transgenic rice plants. The gene that encodes tamavidin 1, fused to the sequence for a secretion signal peptide derived from rice chitinase gene, was connected to the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, and the resultant construct was introduced into rice. The tamavidin 1 was accumulated at levels of 0.1-0.2% of total soluble leaf proteins in the transgenic rice and it was localized in the intercellular space of rice leaves. The tamavidin 1 purified from the transgenic rice was active, it bound to biotin and inhibited in vitro growth of M. oryzae by causing biotin deficiency. The transgenic rice plants showed a significant resistance to M. oryzae. This study shows the possibility of a new strategy to engineer disease resistance in higher plants by taking advantage of a pathogen's auxotrophy.

  3. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry ( Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Yulistiani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS. The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05 among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW0.75 and DM, organic matter (OM, and crude protein (CP digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP. The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber was significantly lower (p<0.05 for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively. Nitrogen (N intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05 higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d. In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05 higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05 in T1 (120.3 mM, whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%. However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05 higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of

  4. Fortification of lysine for improving protein quality in multiple-fortified quick cooking rice : Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wongmetinee, T.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Chavasit, V.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies in Thailand indicated that rice-based complementary foods of breast-fed infants normally provided inadequate iron and calcium. Quick-cooking rice fortified with different nutrients was therefore developed. The idea of lysine fortification was based on the fact that lysine is a

  5. Expression of hybrid fusion protein (Cry1Ac::ASAL) in transgenic rice plants imparts resistance against multiple insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddupally, Dayakar; Tamirisa, Srinath; Gundra, Sivakrishna Rao; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2018-05-31

    To evolve rice varieties resistant to different groups of insect pests a fusion gene, comprising DI and DII domains of Bt Cry1Ac and carbohydrate binding domain of garlic lectin (ASAL), was constructed. Transgenic rice lines were generated and evaluated to assess the efficacy of Cry1Ac::ASAL fusion protein against three major pests, viz., yellow stem borer (YSB), leaf folder (LF) and brown planthopper (BPH). Molecular analyses of transgenic plants revealed stable integration and expression of the fusion gene. In planta insect bioassays on transgenics disclosed enhanced levels of resistance compared to the control plants. High insect mortality of YSB, LF and BPH was observed on transgenics compared to that of control plants. Furthermore, honeydew assays revealed significant decreases in the feeding ability of BPH on transgenic plants as compared to the controls. Ligand blot analysis, using BPH insects fed on cry1Ac::asal transgenic rice plants, revealed a modified receptor protein-binding pattern owing to its ability to bind to additional receptors in insects. The overall results authenticate that Cry1Ac::ASAL protein is endowed with remarkable entomotoxic effects against major lepidopteran and hemipteran insects. As such, the fusion gene appears promising and can be introduced into various other crops to control multiple insect pests.

  6. Production of single-cell protein from enzymatic hydrolyzate of rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, M.; Kometani, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Matsuno, R.; Kamikubo, T.

    1982-01-01

    The components of rice straw, pretreated with sodium chlorite, cellulose and hemicellulose were solubilized with culture filtrate of Pellicularia filamentosa or Trichoderma reesei. The ratio of glucose to total sugar in the solution obtained from the cellulose component with the culture filtrate of Pellicularia filamentosa was approximately twice that of Trichoderma reesei. Ten yeast strains (Candida utilis, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, C. parapsilosis, Torulopsis xylinus, Trichosporon cutaneum, Debaryomyces hansenii, Rhodotorula glutinis, Saccharomyces fragilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were cultivated as test organisms for single-cell protein (SCP) production on sugar solutions obtained from the straw, cellulose and hemicellulose components, pretreated with the culture filtrate of Pellicularia filamentosa. Sugar consumption, in terms of total sugar and cell yield, of the culture with the sugar solution obtained from pretreated straw were; 70% and 6.8 g/l for Candida tropicalis, 56% and 6.4 g/l for Torulopsis xylinus, 76% and 10.1 g/l for Trichosporon cutaneum, and 74% and 7.6 g/l for Candida guilliermondii. In addition, the highest consumption with respect to total sugar (87%) and the best dry cell yield (15.6 g/l) were observed with the culture of Trichosporon cutaneum using the sugar solution obtained from the hemicellulose component. (Refs. 17).

  7. Brassinosteroids Regulate OFP1, a DLT Interacting Protein, to Modulate Plant Architecture and Grain Morphology in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhua Xiao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs regulate important agronomic traits in rice, including plant height, leaf angle, and grain size. However, the underlying mechanisms remain not fully understood. We previously showed that GSK2, the central negative regulator of BR signaling, targets DLT, the GRAS family protein, to regulate BR responses. Here, we identified Ovate Family Protein 1 (OFP1 as a DLT interacting protein. OFP1 was ubiquitously expressed and the protein was localized in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Overexpression of OFP1 led to enlarged leaf angles, reduced plant height, and altered grain shape, largely resembled DLT overexpression plants. Genetic analysis showed that the regulation of plant architecture by OFP1 depends on DLT function. In addition, we found OFP1 was greatly induced by BR treatment, and OsBZR1, the critical transcription factor of BR signaling, was physically associated with the OFP1 promoter. Moreover, we showed that gibberellin synthesis was greatly repressed in OFP1 overexpression plants, suggesting OFP1 participates in the inhibition of plant growth by high BR or elevated BR signaling. Furthermore, we revealed that OFP1 directly interacts with GSK2 kinase, and inhibition of the kinase activity significantly promotes OFP1 protein accumulation in plant. Taken together, we identified OFP1 as an additional regulator of BR responses and revealed how BRs promote OFP1 at both transcription and protein levels to modulate plant architecture and grain morphology in rice.

  8. Quality improvement of a rice-substituted fried noodle by utilizing the protein-polyphenol interaction between a pea protein isolate and green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youngwoon; Yoo, Sang-Ho

    2017-11-15

    The quality of rice-substituted fried noodles was improved by applying interaction between pea protein isolate (PPI) and green tea extract (GTE). Radical-scavenging activities of GTE were stably maintained when exposed to acidic pH, UV light, and fluorescent light, but decreased by approximately 65% when exposed to 80°C for 168h. The RVA profiles of noodle dough showed that peak viscosity and breakdown increased significantly but that setback and final viscosity remained unchanged with 20% rice flour replacement. PPI significantly decreased the viscosity parameters of rice-supplemented dough, and the addition of GTE recovered these values significantly. The cooking loss and viscoelasticity (R max ) of cooked rice-supplemented noodles were fully restored by combined treatment of PPI and GTE. GTE decreased the peroxide value of fried noodles by 14% after storage at 63°C for 16days. Therefore, PPI+GTE treatment has great potential for use in fried noodles owing to the reinforced network and antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Amino Acid Composition of an Organic Brown Rice Protein Concentrate and Isolate Compared to Soy and Whey Concentrates and Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S. Kalman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A protein concentrate (Oryzatein-80™ and a protein isolate (Oryzatein-90™ from organic whole-grain brown rice were analyzed for their amino acid composition. Two samples from different batches of Oryzatein-90™ and one sample of Oryzatein-80™ were provided by Axiom Foods (Los Angeles, CA, USA. Preparation and analysis was carried out by Covance Laboratories (Madison, WI, USA. After hydrolysis in 6-N hydrochloric acid for 24 h at approximately 110 °C and further chemical stabilization, samples were analyzed by HPLC after pre-injection derivitization. Total amino acid content of both the isolate and the concentrate was approximately 78% by weight with 36% essential amino acids and 18% branched-chain amino acids. These results are similar to the profiles of raw and cooked brown rice except in the case of glutamic acid which was 3% lower in the isolate and concentrate. The amino acid content and profile of the Oryzatein-90™ isolate was similar to published values for soy protein isolate but the total, essential, and branched-chain amino acid content of whey protein isolate was 20%, 39% and 33% greater, respectively, than that of Oryzatein-90™. These results provide a valuable addition to the nutrient database of protein isolates and concentrates from cereal grains.

  10. Amino Acid Composition of an Organic Brown Rice Protein Concentrate and Isolate Compared to Soy and Whey Concentrates and Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Douglas S

    2014-06-30

    A protein concentrate (Oryzatein-80™) and a protein isolate (Oryzatein-90™) from organic whole-grain brown rice were analyzed for their amino acid composition. Two samples from different batches of Oryzatein-90™ and one sample of Oryzatein-80™ were provided by Axiom Foods (Los Angeles, CA, USA). Preparation and analysis was carried out by Covance Laboratories (Madison, WI, USA). After hydrolysis in 6-N hydrochloric acid for 24 h at approximately 110 °C and further chemical stabilization, samples were analyzed by HPLC after pre-injection derivitization. Total amino acid content of both the isolate and the concentrate was approximately 78% by weight with 36% essential amino acids and 18% branched-chain amino acids. These results are similar to the profiles of raw and cooked brown rice except in the case of glutamic acid which was 3% lower in the isolate and concentrate. The amino acid content and profile of the Oryzatein-90™ isolate was similar to published values for soy protein isolate but the total, essential, and branched-chain amino acid content of whey protein isolate was 20%, 39% and 33% greater, respectively, than that of Oryzatein-90™. These results provide a valuable addition to the nutrient database of protein isolates and concentrates from cereal grains.

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of RGA1 encoding a G protein alpha subunit from rice (Oryza sativa L. IR-36).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, H S; Kim, H Y; Jeong, J Y; Lee, S Y; Cho, M J; Bahk, J D

    1995-03-01

    A cDNA clone, RGA1, was isolated by using a GPA1 cDNA clone of Arabidopsis thaliana G protein alpha subunit as a probe from a rice (Oryza sativa L. IR-36) seedling cDNA library from roots and leaves. Sequence analysis of genomic clone reveals that the RGA1 gene has 14 exons and 13 introns, and encodes a polypeptide of 380 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 44.5 kDa. The encoded protein exhibits a considerable degree of amino acid sequence similarity to all the other known G protein alpha subunits. A putative TATA sequence (ATATGA), a potential CAAT box sequence (AGCAATAC), and a cis-acting element, CCACGTGG (ABRE), known to be involved in ABA induction are found in the promoter region. The RGA1 protein contains all the consensus regions of G protein alpha subunits except the cysteine residue near the C-terminus for ADP-ribosylation by pertussis toxin. The RGA1 polypeptide expressed in Escherichia coli was, however, ADP-ribosylated by 10 microM [adenylate-32P] NAD and activated cholera toxin. Southern analysis indicates that there are no other genes similar to the RGA1 gene in the rice genome. Northern analysis reveals that the RGA1 mRNA is 1.85 kb long and expressed in vegetative tissues, including leaves and roots, and that its expression is regulated by light.

  12. Cloning and characterization of stress responsive Glp genes and their promotor regions from rice (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, S.M.S.; Mahmood, T.

    2005-01-01

    Plants respond to a number of environmental stimuli by modulating expression of genes. One such family of genes is now known as germin/germin-like protein genes (Glps). In order to detect any Glp gene response in rice, a pair of degenerate primers was designed based on consensus region from Glp sequences in Genbank. Using these primers a DNA fragment of about 550 bp was obtained by PCR amplification from genomic template. This 550 bp DNA was used as probe in Northern analysis. These studies provided evidence pointing to differential response of Glp expression to salt stress. RNA obtained from the roots was used for synthesis of cDNA. This cDNA was amplifiable with sense primer (RGLP1) from above mentioned pair and oligo-(dt) yielding a fragment of approx. 800 bp. Restriction analysis revealed that the PCR product was heterogeneous. After establishing that 800 bp fragment was the desired product, it was cloned in pCRII-TOPO. Five clones were picked up and analyzed by restriction analysis and sequencing. Two different Glp cDNAs were represented by these partial clones. Remaining sequence of the 5' end for clone 4 and 16 was obtained by Rapid Amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The resultant sequences have been submitted to Genbank as Oryza sativa Rice Germin-like Protein 1 and 2 (osRGLP1 and 2). When full length genes corresponding to these sequences were amplified from genomic templates, resulting fragments were nearly 150 by larger than cDNAs. Cloning of structural genes for osRGLP1 revealed presence of a 162 bp intron in the coding region near 3' end. Preliminary evidence shows that expression of both osRGLP1 and 2 is severely reduced during salt stress. Another approach to establish both osRGLP1 and 2 genes involvement in stress tolerance is to study the ability of their promotor regions to drive expression of some reporter gene during stress. Promotor regions of about 1100 bp has been amplified and cloned and has been confirmed by restriction analysis and nested

  13. Effects of surface proteins and lipids on molecular structure, thermal properties, and enzymatic hydrolysis of rice starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan HU

    Full Text Available Abstract Rice starches with different amylose contents were treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS to deplete surface proteins and lipids, and the changes in molecular structure, thermal properties, and enzymatic hydrolysis were evaluated. SDS treatment did not significantly change the molecular weight distribution, crystalline structure, short-range ordered degree, and gelatinization properties of starch, but significantly altered the pasting properties and increased the swelling power of starch. The removal of surface proteins and lipids increased the enzymatic hydrolysis and in vitro digestion of starch. The influences of removing surface proteins and lipids from starch on swelling power, pasting properties, and enzymatic hydrolysis were different among the various starches because of the differences in molecular structures of different starch styles. The aforementioned results indicated that removing the surface proteins and lipids from starch did not change the molecular structure but had significant effects on some functional properties.

  14. Use of seed protein polymorphism for discrimination of improvement level and geographic origin of upland rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Montalván

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Grain proteins from 58 Brazilian and nine Japanese upland rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L. were electrophoretically separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Densitometric scanning of the electrophoretic profiles permitted the estimation of the relative concentration of 16 protein fractions, which were used as variables for the calculation of Fisher's canonical discriminating functions. Significant differences between mean values of protein fractions were useful in distinguishing Brazilian and Japanese cultivars, as well as improved and non-improved Brazilian rice cultivars in scattered plots. Electrophoretically detectable protein polymorphism in rice grain can indicate geographic origin as well as breeding improvement level of a cultivar. Improved cultivars were those released by plant breeding institutes.Proteínas de grão de 58 genótipos de arroz brasileiro e nove japoneses foram separadas por meio de eletroforese (SDS-PAGE. A observação densitométrica dos perfis eletroforéticos permitiu avaliar as concentrações relativas de 16 frações protéicas que foram usadas como variáveis para a estimativa de funções discriminantes de Fisher. Diferenças significantes foram encontradas entre as frações protéicas dos grupos brasileiros e japoneses, assim como entre os genótipos melhorados e não melhorados. O polimorfismo protéico detectável eletroforetica-mente nos grãos de arroz pode indicar a origem geográfica e o nível de melhoramento dos cultivares.

  15. Comparative proteomic analyses reveal that the regulators of G-protein signaling proteins regulate amino acid metabolism of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Ma, Hongyu; Xie, Xin; Ji, Jun; Dong, Yanhan; Du, Yan; Tang, Wei; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2014-11-01

    The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae encodes eight regulators of G-protein (GTP-binding protein) signaling (RGS) proteins MoRgs1-MoRgs8 that orchestrate the growth, asexual/sexual production, appressorium differentiation, and pathogenicity. To address the mechanisms by which MoRgs proteins function, we conducted a 2DE proteome study and identified 82 differentially expressed proteins by comparing five ∆Morgs mutants with wild-type Guy11 strain. We found that the abundances of eight amino acid (AA) biosynthesis or degradation associated proteins were markedly altered in five ∆Morgs mutants, indicating one of the main collective roles for the MoRgs proteins is to influence AA metabolism. We showed that MoRgs proteins have distinct roles in AA metabolism and nutrient responses from growth assays. In addition, we characterized MoLys20 (Lys is lysine), a homocitrate synthase, whose abundance was significantly decreased in the ∆Morgs mutants. The ∆Molys20 mutant is auxotrophic for lys and exogenous lys could partially rescue its auxotrophic defects. Deletion of MoLYS20 resulted in defects in conidiation and infection, as well as pathogenicity on rice. Overall, our results indicate that one of the critical roles for MoRgs proteins is to regulate AA metabolism, and that MoLys20 may be directly or indirectly regulated by MoRgs and participated in lys biosynthesis, thereby affecting fungal development and pathogenicity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Genome-wide identification of heat shock proteins (Hsps) and Hsp interactors in rice: Hsp70s as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongfei; Lin, Shoukai; Song, Qi; Li, Kuan; Tao, Huan; Huang, Jian; Chen, Xinhai; Que, Shufu; He, Huaqin

    2014-05-07

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) perform a fundamental role in protecting plants against abiotic stresses. Although researchers have made great efforts on the functional analysis of individual family members, Hsps have not been fully characterized in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and little is known about their interactors. In this study, we combined orthology-based approach with expression association data to screen rice Hsps for the expression patterns of which strongly correlated with that of heat responsive probe-sets. Twenty-seven Hsp candidates were identified, including 12 small Hsps, six Hsp70s, three Hsp60s, three Hsp90s, and three clpB/Hsp100s. Then, using a combination of interolog and expression profile-based methods, we inferred 430 interactors of Hsp70s in rice, and validated the interactions by co-localization and function-based methods. Subsequent analysis showed 13 interacting domains and 28 target motifs were over-represented in Hsp70s interactors. Twenty-four GO terms of biological processes and five GO terms of molecular functions were enriched in the positive interactors, whose expression levels were positively associated with Hsp70s. Hsp70s interaction network implied that Hsp70s were involved in macromolecular translocation, carbohydrate metabolism, innate immunity, photosystem II repair and regulation of kinase activities. Twenty-seven Hsps in rice were identified and 430 interactors of Hsp70s were inferred and validated, then the interacting network of Hsp70s was induced and the function of Hsp70s was analyzed. Furthermore, two databases named Rice Heat Shock Proteins (RiceHsps) and Rice Gene Expression Profile (RGEP), and one online tool named Protein-Protein Interaction Predictor (PPIP), were constructed and could be accessed at http://bioinformatics.fafu.edu.cn/.

  17. Rice calcium-dependent protein kinase OsCPK17 targets plasma membrane intrinsic protein and sucrose phosphate synthase and is required for a proper cold stress response

    KAUST Repository

    Almadanim, M. Cecília

    2017-01-19

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are involved in plant tolerance mechanisms to abiotic stresses. Although CDPKs are recognized as key messengers in signal transduction, the specific role of most members of this family remains unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that OsCPK17 plays a role in rice cold stress response by analyzing OsCPK17 knockout, silencing, and overexpressing rice lines under low temperature. Altered OsCPK17 gene expression compromises cold tolerance performance, without affecting the expression of key cold stress-inducible genes. A comparative phosphoproteomic approach led to the identification of six potential in vivo OsCPK17 targets, which are associated with sugar and nitrogen metabolism, and with osmotic regulation. To test direct interaction, in vitro kinase assays were performed, showing that the sucrose phosphate synthase OsSPS4, and the aquaporin OsPIP2;1/OsPIP2;6 are phosphorylated by OsCPK17 in a calcium-dependent manner. Altogether, our data indicates that OsCPK17 is required for a proper cold stress response in rice, likely affecting the activity of membrane channels and sugar metabolism.

  18. Finding the Subcellular Location of Barley, Wheat, Rice and Maize Proteins: The Compendium of Crop Proteins with Annotated Locations (cropPAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Cornelia M; Castleden, Ian R; Aryamanesh, Nader; Jacoby, Richard P; Millar, A Harvey

    2016-01-01

    Barley, wheat, rice and maize provide the bulk of human nutrition and have extensive industrial use as agricultural products. The genomes of these crops each contains >40,000 genes encoding proteins; however, the major genome databases for these species lack annotation information of protein subcellular location for >80% of these gene products. We address this gap, by constructing the compendium of crop protein subcellular locations called crop Proteins with Annotated Locations (cropPAL). Subcellular location is most commonly determined by fluorescent protein tagging of live cells or mass spectrometry detection in subcellular purifications, but can also be predicted from amino acid sequence or protein expression patterns. The cropPAL database collates 556 published studies, from >300 research institutes in >30 countries that have been previously published, as well as compiling eight pre-computed subcellular predictions for all Hordeum vulgare, Triticum aestivum, Oryza sativa and Zea mays protein sequences. The data collection including metadata for proteins and published studies can be accessed through a search portal http://crop-PAL.org. The subcellular localization information housed in cropPAL helps to depict plant cells as compartmentalized protein networks that can be investigated for improving crop yield and quality, and developing new biotechnological solutions to agricultural challenges. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Breeding elite japonica-type soft rice with high protein content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... hygromycin-resistant calli and regeneration of transgenic plants were performed ... Thirty rice seeds at the top of the ears of transgenic plants and the .... greater effect on the GC than the GT apart from its ability .... Cell Physiol.

  20. Effects of whey protein concentrate, feed moisture and temperature on the physicochemical characteristics of a rice-based extruded flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teba, Carla da Silva; Silva, Erika Madeira Moreira da; Chávez, Davy William Hidalgo; Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei Piler de; Ascheri, José Luis Ramírez

    2017-08-01

    The influence of whey protein concentrate (WPC), feed moisture and temperature on the physicochemical properties of rice-based extrudates has been investigated. WPC (0.64-7.36g/100g rice) was extruded under 5 moisture (16.64-23.36g/100g) and 5 temperature (106.36-173.64°C) established by a 3 2 central composite rotational design. Physicochemical properties [color, porosimetry, crystallinity, water solubility and absorption, pasting properties, reconstitution test, proximate composition, amino acids, minerals and electrophoresis] were determined. WPC and feed moisture increased redness, yellowness and decreased luminosity. Feed moisture and temperature increased density and total volume pore. WPC and moisture increased crystallinity, but only WPC increased solubility and decrease the retrogradation tendency. Increasing temperature increased the viscosity of the extrudates. The addition of WPC improved the nutritional composition of the extrudates, especially proteins. It is suggested that the extrusion process positively affected the retention of most of the polypeptides chains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A 90 day safety assessment of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein using an aquatic animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao-Jun; Chen, Yi; Li, Yun-He; Wang, Jia-Mei; Ding, Jia-Tong; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2015-04-15

    In fields of transgenic Bt rice, frogs are exposed to Bt proteins through consumption of both target and nontarget insects. In the present study, we assessed the risk posed by transgenic rice expressing a Cry1Ab/1Ac fusion protein (Huahui 1, HH1) on the development of Xenopus laevis. For 90 days, froglets were fed a diet with 30% HH1 rice, 30% parental rice (Minghui 63, MH63), or no rice as a control. Body weight and length were measured every 15 days. After sacrificing the froglets, we performed a range of biological, clinical, and pathological assessments. No significant differences were found in body weight (on day 90: 27.7 ± 2.17, 27.4 ± 2.40, and 27.9 ± 1.67 g for HH1, MH63, and control, respectively), body length (on day 90: 60.2 ± 1.55, 59.3 ± 2.33, and 59.7 ± 1.64 mm for HH1, MH63, and control, respectively), animal behavior, organ weight, liver and kidney function, or the microstructure of some tissues between the froglets fed on the HH1-containing diet and those fed on the MH63-containing or control diets. This indicates that frog development was not adversely affected by dietary intake of Cry1Ab/1Ac protein.

  2. Consumption of Bt Rice Pollen Containing Cry1C or Cry2A Protein Poses a Low to Negligible Risk to the Silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombyxidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Liu, Yue; Cao, Fengqin; Chen, Xiuping; Cheng, Lisheng; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa

    2014-01-01

    By consuming mulberry leaves covered with pollen from nearby genetically engineered, insect-resistant rice lines producing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), larvae of the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Bombyxidae), could be exposed to insecticidal proteins. Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the potential effects of Cry1C- or Cry2A-producing transgenic rice (T1C-19, T2A-1) pollen on B. mori fitness. In a short-term assay, B. mori larvae were fed mulberry leaves covered with different densities of pollen from Bt rice lines or their corresponding near isoline (control) for the first 3 d and then were fed mulberry leaves without pollen. No effect was detected on any life table parameter, even at 1800 pollen grains/cm2 leaf, which is much higher than the mean natural density of rice pollen on leaves of mulberry trees near paddy fields. In a long-term assay, the larvae were fed Bt and control pollen in the same way but for their entire larval stage (approximately 27 d). Bt pollen densities ≥150 grains/cm2 leaf reduced 14-d larval weight, increased larval development time, and reduced adult eclosion rate. ELISA analyses showed that 72.6% of the Cry protein was still detected in the pollen grains excreted with the feces. The low exposure of silkworm larvae to Cry proteins when feeding Bt rice pollen may be the explanation for the relatively low toxicity detected in the current study. Although the results demonstrate that B. mori larvae are sensitive to Cry1C and Cry2A proteins, the exposure levels that harmed the larvae in the current study are far greater than natural exposure levels. We therefore conclude that consumption of Bt rice pollen will pose a low to negligible risk to B. mori. PMID:25014054

  3. Analyses of advanced rice anther transcriptomes reveal global tapetum secretory functions and potential proteins for lipid exine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Der; Wei, Fu-Jin; Wu, Cheng-Cheih; Hsing, Yue-Ie Caroline; Huang, Anthony H C

    2009-02-01

    The anthers in flowers perform important functions in sexual reproduction. Several recent studies used microarrays to study anther transcriptomes to explore genes controlling anther development. To analyze the secretion and other functions of the tapetum, we produced transcriptomes of anthers of rice (Oryza sativa subsp. japonica) at six progressive developmental stages and pollen with sequencing-by-synthesis technology. The transcriptomes included at least 18,000 unique transcripts, about 25% of which had antisense transcripts. In silico anther-minus-pollen subtraction produced transcripts largely unique to the tapetum; these transcripts include all the reported tapetum-specific transcripts of orthologs in other species. The differential developmental profiles of the transcripts and their antisense transcripts signify extensive regulation of gene expression in the anther, especially the tapetum, during development. The transcriptomes were used to dissect two major cell/biochemical functions of the tapetum. First, we categorized and charted the developmental profiles of all transcripts encoding secretory proteins present in the cellular exterior; these transcripts represent about 12% and 30% of the those transcripts having more than 100 and 1,000 transcripts per million, respectively. Second, we successfully selected from hundreds of transcripts several transcripts encoding potential proteins for lipid exine synthesis during early anther development. These proteins include cytochrome P450, acyltransferases, and lipid transfer proteins in our hypothesized mechanism of exine synthesis in and export from the tapetum. Putative functioning of these proteins in exine formation is consistent with proteins and metabolites detected in the anther locule fluid obtained by micropipetting.

  4. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z A; Liang, J B; Yaakub, H; Abdullah, N

    2015-04-01

    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW(0.75)) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (penergy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of supplementation is 1.2% of BW or 32% of the total diet since it resulted in similar effects on the intake of DM, OM, and NDF, digestibility of DM, OM, and CP, N utilization and microbial supply when compared to rice bran and urea supplementation.

  5. Major haplotype divergence including multiple germin-like protein genes, at the wheat Sr2 adult plant stem rust resistance locus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mago, R.; Tabe, L.; Vautrin, S.; Šimková, Hana; Kubaláková, Marie; Upadhyaya, N.; Berges, H.; Kong, X.Y.; Breen, J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Appels, R.; Ellis, J.G.; Spielmeyer, W.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 379 (2014) ISSN 1471-2229 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Adult plant resistance (APR) * Map-based cloning * Sr2 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.813, year: 2014

  6. A Point Mutation in an F-Box Domain-Containing Protein Is Responsible for Brown Hull Phenotype in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of pigments affects the color of rice hulls while only limited information is known about its underlying mechanisms. In the present study, a rice brown hull 6 (bh6 mutant was isolated from an ethane methyl sulfonate (EMS-induced IR64 mutant bank. Brown pigments started to accumulate in bh6 rice hulls after heading and reached a higher level in mature seeds. Some major agronomic traits including panicle length and 1000-grain weight in bh6 were significantly lower than those in its corresponding wild type IR64, while other agronomic traits such as plant height, growth duration and seed-setting rate were largely similar between the two genotypes. The analysis of pigment content showed that the contents of total flavonoids and anthocyanin in bh6 hulls were significantly higher than those in IR64 hulls. Our results showed that the brown hull phenotype in bh6 was controlled by a single recessive gene which locates on the long arm of chromosome 9. Sequencing analysis detected a single base substitution (G/A at position 1013 of the candidate gene (LOC_Os09g12150 encoding an F-box domain-containing protein (FBX310. Functional complementation experiment using the wild type allele can rescue the phenotype in bh6. Thus, we named this mutated gene as OsFBX310bh6, an allele of OsFBX310 functioning as an inhibitor of brown hull. The isolation of OsFBX310bh6 and its wild type allele can provide useful experimental materials and will facilitate the studies on revealing the mechanisms of flavonoid metabolism in monocot plants.

  7. Identification of Rice Proteins Recognized by the IgE Antibodies of Patients with Food Allergies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goliáš, Jaroslav; Humlová, Z.; Halada, Petr; Hábová, Věra; Janatková, I.; Tučková, Ludmila

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 37 (2013), s. 8851-8860 ISSN 0021-8561 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/0414; GA ČR GD310/08/H077; GA AV ČR IAA500200801; GA TA ČR TA01010737 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : food allergy * thermal processing * potential rice allergens Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.107, year: 2013

  8. Subchronic toxicity study in vivo and allergenicity study in vitro for genetically modified rice that expresses pharmaceutical protein (human serum albumin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yao; Qi, Xiaozhe; Liu, Yifei; Guo, Mingzhang; Chen, Siyuan; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2014-10-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops that express pharmaceutical proteins have become an important focus of recent genetic engineering research. Food safety assessment is necessary for the commercial development of these crops. Subchronic toxicity study in vivo and allergenicity study in vitro were designed to evaluate the food safety of the rice variety expressing human serum albumin (HSA). Animals were fed rodent diets containing 12.5%, 25.0% and 50.0% GM or non-GM rice for 90 days. The composition analysis of the GM rice demonstrated several significant differences. However, most of the differences remained within the ranges reported in the literature. In the animal study, a range of indexes including clinical observation, feed efficiency, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights and histopathology were examined. Random changes unrelated to the GM rice exposure, within the range of historical control values and not associated with any signs of illness were observed. The results of heat stability and in vitro digestion of HSA indicated no evidence of potential allergenicity of the protein. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that the GM rice appears to be safe as a dietary ingredient when it is used at up to 50% in the diet on a subchronic basis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nutritional test of rice in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horii, Masaji; Yoshikawa, Seiji

    1980-01-01

    Behaviors on N derived from rice were followed up by means of 15 N-labeled rice. In the first test, the single unpolished rice diet and the diet of rice and bean lecithin (4.5%) produced urinary excretion of 10 - 12% of 15 N, and that of rice and mannan from devil's tongue (3%), 16 - 20%. The single unpolished rice diet showed slightly more urinary excretion of 15 N, and the other 2 diets showed a similar proportion of 15 N in 3 days. The results indicated that the diet containing mannan from devil's tongue resulted in a poor N absorption by rice, a large quantity of N being excreted over a long period of time. This suggested differences and time lags in the excretion of rice N into the stool and urine depending on the diet constitution. With the unpolished rice diet, a small quantity of rice protein was not absorbed, but was excreted. In the 2nd test with 15 N-polished rice, the urinary excretion rate was 11.44% for a single rice diet, 11.16% for a mixed diet of rice and bean (1:1 in protein), 10.99% for rice and egg yolk, 9.66% for rice, bean and egg yolk and 8.10% for rice and bean lecithin. This decrease in urinary excretion indicated a corresponding increase in absorption of rice protein. (Chiba, N.)

  10. The rice F-box protein KISS ME DEADLY2 functions as a negative regulator of cytokinin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo Jung; Kieber, Joseph J; Schaller, G Eric

    2013-01-01

    Cytokinins are plant hormones that play critical roles in growth and development. We recently determined that the transcriptional response to cytokinin of Arabidopsis is modulated by the KISS ME DEADLY (KMD) family of F-box proteins. Here we demonstrate a conserved function for a member of the rice KMD family. Ectopic overexpression of OsKMD2 in Arabidopsis results in decreased cytokinin sensitivity based on a hypocotyl growth response assay, the decrease in sensitivity correlating with a decrease in the levels of the transcriptional regulator AtARR12. Furthermore, OsKMD2 directly interacts with AtARR12 based on yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays. These results indicate that both monocots and dicots employ a similar KMD-dependent mechanism to regulate the transcriptional response to cytokinin.

  11. Bph32, a novel gene encoding an unknown SCR domain-containing protein, confers resistance against the brown planthopper in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Juansheng; Gao, Fangyuan; Wu, Xianting; Lu, Xianjun; Zeng, Lihua; Lv, Jianqun; Su, Xiangwen; Luo, Hong; Ren, Guangjun

    2016-01-01

    An urgent need exists to identify more brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH) resistance genes, which will allow the development of rice varieties with resistance to BPH to counteract the increased incidence of this pest species. Here, using bioinformatics and DNA sequencing approaches, we identified a novel BPH resistance gene, LOC_Os06g03240 (MSU LOCUS ID), from the rice variety Ptb33 in the interval between the markers RM19291 and RM8072 on the short arm of chromosome 6, where a gene for resistance to BPH was mapped by Jirapong Jairin et al. and renamed as “Bph32”. This gene encodes a unique short consensus repeat (SCR) domain protein. Sequence comparison revealed that the Bph32 gene shares 100% sequence identity with its allele in Oryza latifolia. The transgenic introgression of Bph32 into a susceptible rice variety significantly improved resistance to BPH. Expression analysis revealed that Bph32 was highly expressed in the leaf sheaths, where BPH primarily settles and feeds, at 2 and 24 h after BPH infestation, suggesting that Bph32 may inhibit feeding in BPH. Western blotting revealed the presence of Pph (Ptb33) and Tph (TN1) proteins using a Penta-His antibody, and both proteins were insoluble. This study provides information regarding a valuable gene for rice defence against insect pests. PMID:27876888

  12. Bph32, a novel gene encoding an unknown SCR domain-containing protein, confers resistance against the brown planthopper in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Juansheng; Gao, Fangyuan; Wu, Xianting; Lu, Xianjun; Zeng, Lihua; Lv, Jianqun; Su, Xiangwen; Luo, Hong; Ren, Guangjun

    2016-11-23

    An urgent need exists to identify more brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH) resistance genes, which will allow the development of rice varieties with resistance to BPH to counteract the increased incidence of this pest species. Here, using bioinformatics and DNA sequencing approaches, we identified a novel BPH resistance gene, LOC_Os06g03240 (MSU LOCUS ID), from the rice variety Ptb33 in the interval between the markers RM19291 and RM8072 on the short arm of chromosome 6, where a gene for resistance to BPH was mapped by Jirapong Jairin et al. and renamed as "Bph32". This gene encodes a unique short consensus repeat (SCR) domain protein. Sequence comparison revealed that the Bph32 gene shares 100% sequence identity with its allele in Oryza latifolia. The transgenic introgression of Bph32 into a susceptible rice variety significantly improved resistance to BPH. Expression analysis revealed that Bph32 was highly expressed in the leaf sheaths, where BPH primarily settles and feeds, at 2 and 24 h after BPH infestation, suggesting that Bph32 may inhibit feeding in BPH. Western blotting revealed the presence of Pph (Ptb33) and Tph (TN1) proteins using a Penta-His antibody, and both proteins were insoluble. This study provides information regarding a valuable gene for rice defence against insect pests.

  13. Rice MEL2, the RNA recognition motif (RRM) protein, binds in vitro to meiosis-expressed genes containing U-rich RNA consensus sequences in the 3'-UTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Saori; Sato, Yutaka; Asano, Tomoya; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Nonomura, Ken-Ichi

    2015-10-01

    Post-transcriptional gene regulation by RNA recognition motif (RRM) proteins through binding to cis-elements in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) is widely used in eukaryotes to complete various biological processes. Rice MEIOSIS ARRESTED AT LEPTOTENE2 (MEL2) is the RRM protein that functions in the transition to meiosis in proper timing. The MEL2 RRM preferentially associated with the U-rich RNA consensus, UUAGUU[U/A][U/G][A/U/G]U, dependently on sequences and proportionally to MEL2 protein amounts in vitro. The consensus sequences were located in the putative looped structures of the RNA ligand. A genome-wide survey revealed a tendency of MEL2-binding consensus appearing in 3'-UTR of rice genes. Of 249 genes that conserved the consensus in their 3'-UTR, 13 genes spatiotemporally co-expressed with MEL2 in meiotic flowers, and included several genes whose function was supposed in meiosis; such as Replication protein A and OsMADS3. The proteome analysis revealed that the amounts of small ubiquitin-related modifier-like protein and eukaryotic translation initiation factor3-like protein were dramatically altered in mel2 mutant anthers. Taken together with transcriptome and gene ontology results, we propose that the rice MEL2 is involved in the translational regulation of key meiotic genes on 3'-UTRs to achieve the faithful transition of germ cells to meiosis.

  14. SMALL GRAIN 1, which encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4, influences grain size in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Penggen; Rao, Yuchun; Zeng, Dali; Yang, Yaolong; Xu, Ran; Zhang, Baolan; Dong, Guojun; Qian, Qian; Li, Yunhai

    2014-02-01

    Although grain size is one of the most important components of grain yield, little information is known about the mechanisms that determine final grain size in crops. Here we characterize rice small grain1 (smg1) mutants, which exhibit small and light grains, dense and erect panicles and comparatively slightly shorter plants. The short grain and panicle phenotypes of smg1 mutants are caused by a defect in cell proliferation. The smg1 mutations were identified, using a map-based cloning approach, in mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (OsMKK4). Relatively higher expression of OsMKK4/SMG1 was detected in younger organs than in older ones, consistent with its role in cell proliferation. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-OsMKK4/SMG1 fusion proteins appear to be distributed ubiquitously in plant cells. Further results revealed that OsMKK4 influenced brassinosteroid (BR) responses and the expression of BR-related genes. Thus, our findings have identified OsMKK4 as a factor for grain size, and suggest a possible link between the MAPK pathways and BRs in grain growth. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins inhibit flowering under long-day conditions in rice

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, SoonKap

    2015-11-05

    OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response through the modulation of three flowering-time genes ( Ehd1, Hd3a , and RFT1 ) in rice. Plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factors control numerous developmental processes by forming heterotrimeric complexes, but little is known about their roles in flowering in rice. In this study, it is shown that some subunits of OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC interact with each other, and among them, OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response of rice. Protein interaction studies showed that the physical interactions occurred between the three OsNF-YC proteins (OsNF-YC2, OsNF-YC4 and OsNF-YC6) and three OsNF-YB proteins (OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10 and OsNF-YB11). Repression and overexpression of the OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 genes revealed that they act as inhibitors of flowering only under long-day (LD) conditions. Overexpression of OsNF-YC6, however, promoted flowering only under LD conditions, suggesting it could function as a flowering promoter. These phenotypes correlated with the changes in the expression of three rice flowering-time genes [Early heading date 1 (Ehd1), Heading date 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1)]. The diurnal and tissue-specific expression patterns of the subsets of OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes were similar to those of CCT domain encoding genes such as OsCO3, Heading date 1 (Hd1) and Ghd7. We propose that OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response by interacting directly with OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10 or OsNF-YB11 proteins in rice.

  16. Genetic variation of coat protein gene among the isolates of Rice tungro spherical virus from tungro-endemic states of the India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Malathi, P; Agarwal, Surekha; Ramkumar, G; Krishnaveni, D; Neeraja, C N; Madhav, M Sheshu; Ladhalakshmi, D; Balachandran, S M; Viraktamath, B C

    2012-06-01

    Rice tungro disease, one of the major constraints to rice production in South and Southeast Asia, is caused by a combination of two viruses: Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) and Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV). The present study was undertaken to determine the genetic variation of RTSV population present in tungro endemic states of Indian subcontinent. Phylogenetic analysis based on coat protein sequences showed distinct divergence of Indian RTSV isolates into two groups; one consisted isolates from Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh), Cuttack (Orissa), and Puducherry and another from West Bengal, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu), and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu). The results obtained from phylogenetic study were further supported with the SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism), INDELs (insertion and deletion) and evolutionary distance analysis. In addition, sequence difference count matrix revealed 2-68 nucleotides differences among all the Indian RTSV isolates taken in this study. However, at the protein level these differences were not significant as revealed by Ka/Ks ratio calculation. Sequence identity at nucleotide and amino acid level was 92-100% and 97-100%, respectively, among Indian isolates of RTSV. Understanding of the population structure of RTSV from tungro endemic regions of India would potentially provide insights into the molecular diversification of this virus.

  17. Comparisons of protein, lipid, phenolics, γ-oryzanol, vitamin E, and mineral contents in bran layer of sodium azide-induced red rice mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Toong Long; Ho, Pei Tzu; Shih, Yi Ju; Lai, Chia Chi; Wu, Min Tze; Sung, Jih Min

    2011-06-01

    The bran part of red rice grain is concentrated with many phytochemicals, including proanthocyanidins, oryzanol and vitamin E, that exert beneficial effects on human health, but it contains low levels of essential minerals such as Fe and Zn. In the present study, the protein, lipid, phytochemicals and mineral contents in bran samples were compared among red rice SA-586 and its NaN₃-induced mutants. The plant heights of NaN₃-induced mutants were decreased. The contents of protein, lipid, total phenolics, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins, total proanthocyanidins, total γ-oryzanol, total tocopherols and total tocotrienols also varied among the tested mutants. The brans of mutants M-18, M-56 and M-50 contained more proanthocyanidins, γ-oryzanol, vitamin E than that of SA-586, respectively. M-54 accumulated more Fe content (588.7 mg kg⁻¹ bran dry weight) than SA-586 (100.1 mg kg⁻¹ bran dry weight). The brans of M-18, M-50 and M-56 are good sources of proanthocyanidins, vitamin E and γ-oryzanol, respectively, while the bran of M-54 is rich in Fe. Thus these mutants could be used to produce high-value phytochemicals or Fe byproducts from bran during rice grain milling or as genetic resources for rice improvement programs. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Amino acids composition of mycelial protein of penicillium expansum grown in acid treated rice husk mineral medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.Y.; Dahot, M.U.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the amino acids composition of single cell protein of Penicillium expansum . Mycelial biomass was produced when fungus was grown in 0.6N H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ pretreated rice husk mineral medium incorporated with 0.5% and 1% of nitrogen sources like potassium nitrate, sodium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, peptone, yeast extract, urea, corn steep liquor and ammonium sulphate. It was observed that the growth rate of Penicillium expansum increased with 0.5% sodium nitrate produces 1.390 +- 0.084g/l of mycelial biomass. In the subsequent experiment, fermentation medium was supplemented with 0.5% and 1.0% different sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltose, galactose, lactose, carboxymethyl-cellulose, starch, mannose, and molasses) at pH 6.0 for 240 hours at 35 +- 2 deg. C in a fermenter. The highest amount of mycelial biomass (5.107 +- 0.169g/l) was obtained with 1% sucrose and followed by 4.953 +- 0.17g/l, 4.808 +- 0.14g/l and 4.844 +- 0.10g/l mycelial biomass using glucose, maltose and galactose, respectively. The mycelial biomass of Penicillium expansum contains essential and non essential amino acids like phospho-serine, serine, valine, aspartic acid, threonine, glutamic acid, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, alo-lysine, halo-lysine, lysine and arginine. The glutamic acid (3355.0 +- 19.798 mu mol/g mycelia) and proline (785.0 +- 9.899 mu mol/g mycelia) were found in higher concentration than other amino acids produced by Penicillium expansum grown on rice husk supplemented with lactose. (author)

  19. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase1 coordinates with TOR-Raptor2 to regulate thylakoid membrane biosynthesis in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Linxiao; Yu, Yonghua; Hu, Weiqin; Min, Qiming; Kang, Huiling; Li, Yilu; Hong, Yue; Wang, Xuemin; Hong, Yueyun

    2016-07-01

    Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) functions as a key component in the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway involved in multiple processes in eukaryotes. The role and regulation of TOR-S6K in lipid metabolism remained unknown in plants. Here we provide genetic and pharmacological evidence that TOR-Raptor2-S6K1 is important for thylakoid galactolipid biosynthesis and thylakoid grana modeling in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Genetic suppression of S6K1 caused pale yellow-green leaves, defective thylakoid grana architecture. S6K1 directly interacts with Raptor2, a core component in TOR signaling, and S6K1 activity is regulated by Raptor2 and TOR. Plants with suppressed Raptor2 expression or reduced TOR activity by inhibitors mimicked the S6K1-deficient phenotype. A significant reduction in galactolipid content was found in the s6k1, raptor2 mutant or TOR-inhibited plants, which was accompanied by decreased transcript levels of the set of genes such as lipid phosphate phosphatase α5 (LPPα5), MGDG synthase 1 (MGD1), and DGDG synthase 1 (DGD1) involved in galactolipid synthesis, compared to the control plants. Moreover, loss of LPPα5 exhibited a similar phenotype with pale yellow-green leaves. These results suggest that TOR-Raptor2-S6K1 is important for modulating thylakoid membrane lipid biosynthesis, homeostasis, thus enhancing thylakoid grana architecture and normal photosynthesis ability in rice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification and characterization of a gibberellin-regulated protein, which is ASR5, in the basal region of rice leaf sheaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Hironori; Mahmood, Tariq; Matsuoka, Makoto; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2008-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) regulate growth and development in higher plants. To identify GA-regulated proteins during rice leaf sheath elongation, a proteomic approach was used. Proteins from the basal region of leaf sheath in rice seedling treated with GA(3) were analyzed by fluorescence two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. The levels of abscisic acid-stress-ripening-inducible 5 protein (ASR5), elongation factor-1 beta, translationally controlled tumor protein, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and a novel protein increased; whereas the level of RuBisCO subunit binding-protein decreased by GA(3) treatment. ASR5 out of these six proteins was significantly regulated by GA(3) at the protein level but not at the mRNA level in the basal region of leaf sheaths. Since this protein is regulated not only by abscisic acid but also by GA(3), these results indicate that ASR5 might be involved in plant growth in addition to stress in the basal regions of leaf sheaths.

  1. Rheology and microstructure of binary mixed gel of rice bran protein-whey: effect of heating rate and whey addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafe, Ali; Vahedi, Elnaz; Hasan-Sarei, Azadeh Ghorbani

    2016-08-01

    Rice bran protein (RBP) is a valuable plant protein which has unique nutritional and hypoallergenic properties. Whey proteins have wide applications in the food industry, such as in dairy, meat and bakery products. Whey protein concentrate (WPC), RBP and their mixtures at different ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10 w/w) were heated from 20 to 90 °C at different heating rates (0.5, 1, 5 and 10 °C min(-1) ). The storage modulus (G') and gelling point (Tgel ) of WPC were higher than those of RBP, indicating the good ability of WPC to develop stiffer networks. By increasing the proportion of WPC in mixed systems, G' was increased and Tgel was reduced. Nevertheless, the elasticity of all binary mixtures was lower than that of WPC alone. Tgel and the final G' of RBP-WPC blends were increased by raising the heating rate. The RBP-WPC mixtures developed more elastic gels than RBP alone at different heating rates. RBP had a fibrillar and lentil-like structure whose fibril assembly had smaller structures than those of WPC. The gelling structure of the mixed gel of WPC-RBP was improved by adding WPC. Indeed, by adding WPC, gels tended to show syneresis and had lower water-holding capacity. Furthermore, the gel structure was produced by adding WPC to the non-gelling RBP, which is compatible with whey and can be applied as a functional food for infants and/or adults. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. WHITE PANICLE3, a Novel Nucleus-Encoded Mitochondrial Protein, Is Essential for Proper Development and Maintenance of Chloroplasts and Mitochondria in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongchang Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria and chloroplasts are interacting organelles that play important roles in plant development. In addition to a small number proteins encoded by their own genomes, the majority of mitochondrial and chloroplast proteins are encoded in the cell nucleus and imported into the organelle. As a consequence, coordination between mitochondria, chloroplasts, and the nucleus is of crucial importance to plant cells. Variegated mutants are chloroplast-defective mutants and are considered to be ideal models for studying the intercommunication between these organelles. Here, we report the isolation of WHITE PANICLE3 (WP3, a nuclear gene involved in variegation, from a naturally occurring white panicle rice mutant. Disrupted expression of WP3 in the mutant leads to severe developmental defects in both chloroplasts and mitochondria, and consequently causes the appearance of white-striped leaves and white panicles in the mutant plants. Further investigation showed that WP3 encodes a protein most likely targeted to mitochondria and is specifically expressed in rice panicles. Interestingly, we demonstrate that the recessive white-panicle phenotype in the wp3 mutant is inherited in a typical Mendelian manner, while the white-striped leaf phenotype in wp3 is maternally inherited. Our data collectively suggest that the nucleus-encoded mitochondrial protein, WP3, plays an essential role in the regulation of chloroplast development in rice panicles by maintaining functional mitochondria. Therefore, the wp3 mutant is an excellent model in which to explore the communication between the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts in plant cells.

  3. A Nucleotide Phosphatase Activity in the Nucleotide Binding Domain of an Orphan Resistance Protein from Rice*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyk, Stepan; de San Eustaquio Campillo, Alba; Pohl, Ehmke; Hussey, Patrick J.; Cann, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Plant resistance proteins (R-proteins) are key components of the plant immune system activated in response to a plethora of different pathogens. R-proteins are P-loop NTPase superfamily members, and current models describe their main function as ATPases in defense signaling pathways. Here we show that a subset of R-proteins have evolved a new function to combat pathogen infection. This subset of R-proteins possesses a nucleotide phosphatase activity in the nucleotide-binding domain. Related R-proteins that fall in the same phylogenetic clade all show the same nucleotide phosphatase activity indicating a conserved function within at least a subset of R-proteins. R-protein nucleotide phosphatases catalyze the production of nucleoside from nucleotide with the nucleotide monophosphate as the preferred substrate. Mutation of conserved catalytic residues substantially reduced activity consistent with the biochemistry of P-loop NTPases. Kinetic analysis, analytical gel filtration, and chemical cross-linking demonstrated that the nucleotide-binding domain was active as a multimer. Nuclear magnetic resonance and nucleotide analogues identified the terminal phosphate bond as the target of a reaction that utilized a metal-mediated nucleophilic attack by water on the phosphoester. In conclusion, we have identified a group of R-proteins with a unique function. This biochemical activity appears to have co-evolved with plants in signaling pathways designed to resist pathogen attack. PMID:22157756

  4. A nucleotide phosphatase activity in the nucleotide binding domain of an orphan resistance protein from rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyk, Stepan; Campillo, Alba de San Eustaquio; Pohl, Ehmke; Hussey, Patrick J; Cann, Martin J

    2012-02-03

    Plant resistance proteins (R-proteins) are key components of the plant immune system activated in response to a plethora of different pathogens. R-proteins are P-loop NTPase superfamily members, and current models describe their main function as ATPases in defense signaling pathways. Here we show that a subset of R-proteins have evolved a new function to combat pathogen infection. This subset of R-proteins possesses a nucleotide phosphatase activity in the nucleotide-binding domain. Related R-proteins that fall in the same phylogenetic clade all show the same nucleotide phosphatase activity indicating a conserved function within at least a subset of R-proteins. R-protein nucleotide phosphatases catalyze the production of nucleoside from nucleotide with the nucleotide monophosphate as the preferred substrate. Mutation of conserved catalytic residues substantially reduced activity consistent with the biochemistry of P-loop NTPases. Kinetic analysis, analytical gel filtration, and chemical cross-linking demonstrated that the nucleotide-binding domain was active as a multimer. Nuclear magnetic resonance and nucleotide analogues identified the terminal phosphate bond as the target of a reaction that utilized a metal-mediated nucleophilic attack by water on the phosphoester. In conclusion, we have identified a group of R-proteins with a unique function. This biochemical activity appears to have co-evolved with plants in signaling pathways designed to resist pathogen attack.

  5. A new Em-like protein from Lactuca sativa, LsEm1, enhances drought and salt stress tolerance in Escherichia coli and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dian-Jun; Man, Li-Li; Zhang, Chun-Lan; Peng-Liu; Li, Zhi-Gang; Zheng, Gen-Chang

    2018-02-07

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are closely related to abiotic stress tolerance of plants. In the present study, we identified a novel Em-like gene from lettuce, termed LsEm1, which could be classified into group 1 LEA proteins, and shared high homology with Cynara cardunculus Em protein. The LsEm1 protein contained three different 20-mer conserved elements (C-element, N-element, and M-element) in the C-termini, N-termini, and middle-region, respectively. The LsEm1 mRNAs were accumulated in all examined tissues during the flowering and mature stages, with a little accumulation in the roots and leaves during the seedling stage. Furthermore, the LsEm1 gene was also expressed in response to salt, dehydration, abscisic acid (ABA), and cold stresses in young seedlings. The LsEm1 protein could effectively reduce damage to the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and protect LDH activity under desiccation and salt treatments. The Escherichia coli cells overexpressing the LsEm1 gene showed a growth advantage over the control under drought and salt stresses. Moreover, LsEm1-overexpressing rice seeds were relatively sensitive to exogenously applied ABA, suggesting that the LsEm1 gene might depend on an ABA signaling pathway in response to environmental stresses. The transgenic rice plants overexpressing the LsEm1 gene showed higher tolerance to drought and salt stresses than did wild-type (WT) plants on the basis of the germination performances, higher survival rates, higher chlorophyll content, more accumulation of soluble sugar, lower relative electrolyte leakage, and higher superoxide dismutase activity under stress conditions. The LsEm1-overexpressing rice lines also showed less yield loss compared with WT rice under stress conditions. Furthermore, the LsEm1 gene had a positive effect on the expression of the OsCDPK9, OsCDPK13, OsCDPK15, OsCDPK25, and rab21 (rab16a) genes in transgenic rice under drought and salt stress conditions, implying that overexpression of these

  6. Evolution of rice and pulse varieties with improved quality through induced mutations. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of nuclear techniques for seed protein improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mia, M.M.

    1980-03-01

    Three mutant varieties, 16 hybrids of advanced generation, 6 recommended varieties and many local collections of rice in Bangladesh were screened for protein content. The 25 varieties or strains showed a variation of protein content between 8.9 - 11.7% and also wide ranges of variation in amylose content, starch-iodine-blue value and water absorption by grain. Amino acid compositions of some promising varieties were also investigated. 60 rice germplasms tested also showed a wide range of variation in protein content (6-13%) and variations of other seed characteristics. 3000 local collections showed a variation range of 5-13% protein content. Mutation breedings were carried out on chickpeas and lentils on a large scale. Dry seed was treated with 60 Co gamma ray and mutants were detected, selected, particularly for high protein content, and evaluated in M 2 -M 8 generations. Of the 10 selected mutant lines of each of the pulses, variations of various agronomic characters were observed. However, induced variation in protein content was only remarkable in chickpea. The most promising chickpea mutant showed 19% higher yield and 12% higher protein content than the mother variety, and was proposed to be released as a variety

  7. Changes in Moisture, Protein, and Fat Content of Fish and Rice Flour Coextrudates during Single-Screw Extrusion Cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Sukumar Bandyopadhyay; A. S. Bawa

    2013-02-01

    Changes in proximate composition of fish and rice flour coextrudates like moisture, protein, and fat content were studied with respect to extrusion process v ariables like barrel temperature, x1 (100–200 degrees C); screw speed, x2 (70–110 rpm); fish content of the feed, x3 (5–45 percent); and feed moisture content, x4 (20–60 percent). Experiments were conducted at five levels of the process variables based on rotatable experimental design. Response surface models (RSM) were developed that adequately described the changes in moisture, protein, and fat content of the extrudates based on the coeff icient of determination (R2) values of 0.95, 0.99, and 0.94. ANOVA analysis indicated that extrudate moisture content was influenced by x4, protein content by x1 and x3, and fat content by x3 and x4 at P < 0.001. Trends based on response surf ace plots indicated that the x1 of about 200 degrees C, x2 of about 90 rpm, x3 of about 25%, and x4 of about 20% minimized the moisture in the extrudates. Protein content was maximized at x1 of 100 degrees C, x2 > 80 rpm, x3 of about 45 percent, and x4 > 50 percent, and fat content was minimized at x1 of about 200 degrees C, x2 of about 85–95 rpm, x3 < 15 percent, and x4 of about >50 percent. Optimized process variables based on a genetic algorithm (GA) for minimum moisture and fat content and maximum protein content were x1 = 199.86, x2 = 109.86, x3 = 32.45, x4 = 20.03; x1 = 199.71, x2 = 90.09, x3 = 15.27, x4 = 58.47; and x1 = 102.97, x2 = 107.67, x3 = 44.56, x4 = 59.54. The predicted values were 17.52 percent, 0.57 percent, and 46.65 percent. Based on the RSM and GA analy sis, extrudate moisture and protein content was influenced by x1, x3, and x4 and fat content by x2, x3, and x4.

  8. A 90-day dietary toxicity study of genetically modified rice T1C-1 expressing Cry1C protein in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueming Tang

    Full Text Available In a 90-day study, Sprague Dawley rats were fed transgenic T1C-1 rice expressing Cry1C protein and were compared with rats fed non-transgenic parental rice Minghui 63 and rats fed a basal diet. No adverse effects on animal behavior or weight gain were observed during the study. Blood samples were collected and analyzed, and standard hematological and biochemical parameters were compared. A few of these parameters were found to be significantly different, but were within the normal reference intervals for rats of this breed and age, and were thus not considered to be treatment-related. Following sacrifice, a large number of organs were weighed, and macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with no changes reported. The aim of this study was to use a known animal model to determine the safety of the genetically modified (GM rice T1C-1. The results showed no adverse or toxic effects due to T1C-1 rice when tested in this 90-day study.

  9. A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing rhIGF-1 protein in C57BL/6J rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Maoxue; Xie, Tingting; Cheng, Wenke; Qian, Lili; Yang, Shulin; Yang, Daichang; Cui, Wentao; Li, Kui

    2012-06-01

    Genetically modified plants expressing disease resistance traits offer new treatment strategies for human diseases, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. The present 90-day feeding study was designed to assess the safety of transgenic rice expressing the recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 (rhIGF-1) compared to its parental wild rice. Male and female C57BL/6J rats were given a nutritionally balanced purified diet with 20% transgenic rhIGF-1 rice or 20% parental rice for 90 days. This corresponds to a mean daily rhIGF-1 protein intake of approximately 217.6 mg/kg body weight based on the average feed consumption. In the animal study a range of biological, biochemical, clinical, microbiological and pathological parameters were examined and several significant differences were observed between groups, but none of the effects were considered to be adverse. In conclusion, no adverse or toxic effects on C57BL/6J rats were observed in the design used in this 90-day study. These results will provide valuable information for the safety assessment of genetically modified food crops.

  10. A 90-day dietary toxicity study of genetically modified rice T1C-1 expressing Cry1C protein in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xueming; Han, Fangting; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Yan; Wu, Xiao; Wang, Jinbin; Jiang, Lingxi; Shi, Wei

    2012-01-01

    In a 90-day study, Sprague Dawley rats were fed transgenic T1C-1 rice expressing Cry1C protein and were compared with rats fed non-transgenic parental rice Minghui 63 and rats fed a basal diet. No adverse effects on animal behavior or weight gain were observed during the study. Blood samples were collected and analyzed, and standard hematological and biochemical parameters were compared. A few of these parameters were found to be significantly different, but were within the normal reference intervals for rats of this breed and age, and were thus not considered to be treatment-related. Following sacrifice, a large number of organs were weighed, and macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with no changes reported. The aim of this study was to use a known animal model to determine the safety of the genetically modified (GM) rice T1C-1. The results showed no adverse or toxic effects due to T1C-1 rice when tested in this 90-day study.

  11. The Mitochondrion-Located Protein OsB12D1 Enhances Flooding Tolerance during Seed Germination and Early Seedling Growth in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli He

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available B12D belongs to a function unknown subgroup of the Balem (Barley aleurone and embryo proteins. In our previous work on rice seed germination, we identified a B12D-like protein encoded by LOC_Os7g41350 (named OsB12D1. OsB12D1 pertains to an ancient protein family with an amino acid sequence highly conserved from moss to angiosperms. Among the six OsB12Ds, OsB12D1 is one of the major transcripts and is primarily expressed in germinating seed and root. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that OsB12D1 is an anoxic or submergence resistance-related gene. RT-PCR results showed OsB12D1 is induced remarkably in the coleoptiles or roots by flooding during seed germination and early seedling growth. The OsB12D1-overexpressed rice seeds could protrude radicles in 8 cm deep water, further exhibiting significant flooding tolerance compared to the wild type. Moreover, this tolerance was not affected by the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. OsB12D1 was identified in the mitochondrion by subcellular localization analysis and possibly enhances electron transport through mediating Fe and oxygen availability under flooded conditions. This work indicated that OsB12D1 is a promising gene that can help to enhance rice seedling establishment in farming practices, especially for direct seeding.

  12. Seed storage protein polymorphism in ten elite rice (Oryza sativa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... for several economical traits by conserving landrace genotypes and ... plasm, seed storage protein analysis represents a valid alternative ... of each variety was taken and ground into fine powder using pestle and mortal and ...

  13. The genotype-environment interaction variance in rice-seed protein determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismachin, M.

    1976-01-01

    Many environmental factors influence the protein content of cereal seed. This fact procured difficulties in breeding for protein. Yield is another example on which so many environmental factors are of influence. The length of time required by the plant to reach maturity, is also affected by the environmental factors; even though its effect is not too decisive. In this investigation the genotypic variance and the genotype-environment interaction variance which contribute to the total variance or phenotypic variance was analysed, with purpose to give an idea to the breeder how selection should be made. It was found that genotype-environment interaction variance is larger than the genotypic variance in contribution to total variance of protein-seed determination or yield. In the analysis of the time required to reach maturity it was found that genotypic variance is larger than the genotype-environment interaction variance. It is therefore clear, why selection for time required to reach maturity is much easier than selection for protein or yield. Selected protein in one location may be different from that to other locations. (author)

  14. A novel RNA-recognition-motif protein is required for premeiotic G1/S-phase transition in rice (Oryza sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Ichi Nonomura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanism for meiotic entry remains largely elusive in flowering plants. Only Arabidopsis SWI1/DYAD and maize AM1, both of which are the coiled-coil protein, are known to be required for the initiation of plant meiosis. The mechanism underlying the synchrony of male meiosis, characteristic to flowering plants, has also been unclear in the plant kingdom. In other eukaryotes, RNA-recognition-motif (RRM proteins are known to play essential roles in germ-cell development and meiosis progression. Rice MEL2 protein discovered in this study shows partial similarity with human proline-rich RRM protein, deleted in Azoospermia-Associated Protein1 (DAZAP1, though MEL2 also possesses ankyrin repeats and a RING finger motif. Expression analyses of several cell-cycle markers revealed that, in mel2 mutant anthers, most germ cells failed to enter premeiotic S-phase and meiosis, and a part escaped from the defect and underwent meiosis with a significant delay or continued mitotic cycles. Immunofluorescent detection revealed that T7 peptide-tagged MEL2 localized at cytoplasmic perinuclear region of germ cells during premeiotic interphase in transgenic rice plants. This study is the first report of the plant RRM protein, which is required for regulating the premeiotic G1/S-phase transition of male and female germ cells and also establishing synchrony of male meiosis. This study will contribute to elucidation of similarities and diversities in reproduction system between plants and other species.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis and protein structure modelling identifies distinct Ca(2+)/Cation antiporters and conservation of gene family structure within Arabidopsis and rice species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Jon K; Hirschi, Kendal D

    2016-12-01

    The Ca(2+)/Cation Antiporter (CaCA) superfamily is an ancient and widespread family of ion-coupled cation transporters found in nearly all kingdoms of life. In animals, K(+)-dependent and K(+)-indendent Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCKX and NCX) are important CaCA members. Recently it was proposed that all rice and Arabidopsis CaCA proteins should be classified as NCX proteins. Here we performed phylogenetic analysis of CaCA genes and protein structure homology modelling to further characterise members of this transporter superfamily. Phylogenetic analysis of rice and Arabidopsis CaCAs in comparison with selected CaCA members from non-plant species demonstrated that these genes form clearly distinct families, with the H(+)/Cation exchanger (CAX) and cation/Ca(2+) exchanger (CCX) families dominant in higher plants but the NCKX and NCX families absent. NCX-related Mg(2+)/H(+) exchanger (MHX) and CAX-related Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger-like (NCL) proteins are instead present. Analysis of genomes of ten closely-related rice species and four Arabidopsis-related species found that CaCA gene family structures are highly conserved within related plants, apart from minor variation. Protein structures were modelled for OsCAX1a and OsMHX1. Despite exhibiting broad structural conservation, there are clear structural differences observed between the different CaCA types. Members of the CaCA superfamily form clearly distinct families with different phylogenetic, structural and functional characteristics, and therefore should not be simply classified as NCX proteins, which should remain as a separate gene family.

  16. Transgenic rice seed expressing flavonoid biosynthetic genes accumulate glycosylated and/or acylated flavonoids in protein bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogo, Yuko; Mori, Tetsuya; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Saito, Kazuki; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Plant-specialized (or secondary) metabolites represent an important source of high-value chemicals. In order to generate a new production platform for these metabolites, an attempt was made to produce flavonoids in rice seeds. Metabolome analysis of these transgenic rice seeds using liquid chromatography-photodiode array-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was performed. A total of 4392 peaks were detected in both transgenic and non-transgenic rice, 20–40% of which were only detected in transgenic rice. Among these, 82 flavonoids, including 37 flavonols, 11 isoflavones, and 34 flavones, were chemically assigned. Most of the flavonols and isoflavones were O-glycosylated, while many flavones were O-glycosylated and/or C-glycosylated. Several flavonoids were acylated with malonyl, feruloyl, acetyl, and coumaroyl groups. These glycosylated/acylated flavonoids are thought to have been biosynthesized by endogenous rice enzymes using newly synthesized flavonoids whose biosynthesis was catalysed by exogenous enzymes. The subcellular localization of the flavonoids differed depending on the class of aglycone and the glycosylation/acylation pattern. Therefore, flavonoids with the intended aglycones were efficiently produced in rice seeds via the exogenous enzymes introduced, while the flavonoids were variously glycosylated/acylated by endogenous enzymes. The results suggest that rice seeds are useful not only as a production platform for plant-specialized metabolites such as flavonoids but also as a tool for expanding the diversity of flavonoid structures, providing novel, physiologically active substances. PMID:26438413

  17. Evolutionary plasticity of restorer-of-fertility-like proteins in rice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melonek, J.; Stone, James D.; Small, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Oct 24 (2016), s. 1-12, č. článku 35152. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : cytoplasmic male-sterility * genome-wide analysis * PPR protein Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  18. Identification of oxidised proteins in the matrix of rice leaf mitochondria by immunoprecipitation and two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Askerlund, P.; Bykova, N.V.

    2004-01-01

    .2 mM CuSO4 for 10 min at room temperature). The oxidised proteins in both samples were tagged with dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNP), which forms a covalent bond with carbonyl groups. The DNP-tagged proteins were immunoprecipitated using anti-DNP antibodies and digested with trypsin. The mixture...... of peptides was analysed by nano-HPLC coupled online to an ESI-Quad-TOF mass spectrometer. The peptides were separated by stepwise ion exchange chromatography followed by reverse phase chromatography (2D-LC), and analysed by MS/MS. Proteins were identified by un-interpreted fragment ion database searches...... blots showed that neither the isolation of mitochondria, nor their subfractionation introduced carbonyl groups. We therefore conclude that a number of proteins are oxidised in the matrix of rice leaf mitochondria in vivo and further identify a group of proteins that are particularly susceptible to mild...

  19. Interaction study of rice stripe virus proteins reveals a region of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) required for NP self-interaction and nuclear localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Sen; Cho, Won Kyong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2014-04-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV), which belongs to the genus Tenuivirus, is an emergent virus problem. The RSV genome is composed of four single-strand RNAs (RNA1-RNA4) and encodes seven proteins. We investigated interactions between six of the RSV proteins by yeast-two hybrid (Y2H) assay in vitro and by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) in planta. Y2H identified self-interaction of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) and NS3, while BiFC revealed self-interaction of NP, NS3, and NCP. To identify regions(s) and/or crucial amino acid (aa) residues required for NP self-interaction, we generated various truncated and aa substitution mutants. Y2H assay showed that the N-terminal region of NP (aa 1-56) is necessary for NP self-interaction. Further analysis with substitution mutants demonstrated that additional aa residues located at 42-47 affected their interaction with full-length NP. These results indicate that the N-terminal region (aa 1-36 and 42-47) is required for NP self-interaction. BiFC and co-localization studies showed that the region required for NP self-interaction is also required for NP localization at the nucleus. Overall, our results indicate that the N-terminal region (aa 1-47) of the NP is important for NP self-interaction and that six aa residues (42-47) are essential for both NP self-interaction and nuclear localization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Transcriptional profiling of rice treated with MoHrip1 reveal the function of protein elicitor in enhancement of disease resistance and plant growth

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    Shun Lv

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available MoHrip1 is a protein elicitor isolated from Magnaporthe oryzae and was found to induce blast-resistance in rice. To investigate the comprehensive functions of MoHrip1, next-generation sequencing (NGS-based digital gene expression (DGE profiling was performed to collect the transcriptional data of differentially expressed genes induced by MoHrip1. A total of 308 genes were identified with differential expression, and 80 genes were predicted to be induced specifically by MoHrip1. Among these 308 genes, a series of genes associated with the salicylic acid (SA pathway, phytoalexin, transcription factors and pathogen-related proteins were identified. Both the SA signaling pathway and the gibberellin (GA pathway were activated, while the jasmonic acid (JA signaling pathway was repressed. The contents of endogenous SA and GA and the morphological characteristics of the rice after treatment were measured to provide evidence supporting the predictions made based on the DGE data. The 80 genes mentioned above might be candidate genes for studying interactions with MoHrip1. The transcriptional data provided global effect information in rice induced by MoHrip1, and all the results demonstrated that MoHrip1 could induce pathogen resistance and promote plant growth by regulating the contents of SA and GA directly or indirectly.

  1. A wide reprogramming of histone H3 modifications during male meiosis I in rice is dependent on the Argonaute protein MEL1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Nonomura, Ken-Ichi

    2016-10-01

    The roles of epigenetic mechanisms, including small-RNA-mediated silencing, in plant meiosis largely remain unclear, despite their importance in plant reproduction. This study unveiled that rice chromosomes are reprogrammed during the premeiosis-to-meiosis transition in pollen mother cells (PMCs). This large-scale meiotic chromosome reprogramming (LMR) continued throughout meiosis I, during which time H3K9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) was increased, and H3K9 acetylation and H3S10 phosphorylation were broadly decreased, with an accompanying immunostaining pattern shift of RNA polymerase II. LMR was dependent on the rice Argonaute protein, MEIOSIS ARRESTED AT LEPTOTENE1 (MEL1), which is specifically expressed in germ cells prior to meiosis, because LMR was severely diminished in mel1 mutant anthers. Pivotal meiotic events, such as pre-synaptic centromere association, DNA double-strand break initiation and synapsis of homologous chromosomes, were also disrupted in this mutant. Interestingly, and as opposed to the LMR loss in most chromosomal regions, aberrant meiotic protein loading and hypermethylation of H3K9 emerged on the nucleolar organizing region in the mel1 PMCs. These results suggest that MEL1 plays important roles in epigenetic LMR to promote faithful homologous recombination and synapsis during rice meiosis. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Overexpression of Rice Auxilin-Like Protein, XB21, Induces Necrotic Lesions, up-Regulates Endocytosis-Related Genes, and Confers Enhanced Resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Jin; Wei, Tong; Sharma, Rita; Ronald, Pamela C

    2017-12-01

    The rice immune receptor XA21 confers resistance to the bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). To elucidate the mechanism of XA21-mediated immunity, we previously performed a yeast two-hybrid screening for XA21 interactors and identified XA21 binding protein 21 (XB21). Here, we report that XB21 is an auxilin-like protein predicted to function in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We demonstrate an XA21/XB21 in vivo interaction using co-immunoprecipitation in rice. Overexpression of XB21 in rice variety Kitaake and a Kitaake transgenic line expressing XA21 confers a necrotic lesion phenotype and enhances resistance to Xoo. RNA sequencing reveals that XB21 overexpression results in the differential expression of 8735 genes (4939 genes up- and 3846 genes down-regulated) (≥2-folds, FDR ≤0.01). The up-regulated genes include those predicted to be involved in 'cell death' and 'vesicle-mediated transport'. These results indicate that XB21 plays a role in the plant immune response and in regulation of cell death. The up-regulation of genes controlling 'vesicle-mediated transport' in XB21 overexpression lines is consistent with a functional role for XB21 as an auxilin.

  3. Transcriptional Profiling of Rice Treated with MoHrip1 Reveal the Function of Protein Elicitor in Enhancement of Disease Resistance and Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shun; Wang, Zhenzhen; Yang, Xiufen; Guo, Lihua; Qiu, Dewen; Zeng, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    MoHrip1 is a protein elicitor isolated from Magnaporthe oryzae and was found to induce blast-resistance in rice. To investigate the comprehensive functions of MoHrip1, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based digital gene expression (DGE) profiling was performed to collect the transcriptional data of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) induced by MoHrip1. A total of 308 genes were identified with differential expression, and 80 genes were predicted to be induced specifically by MoHrip1. Among these 308 genes, a series of genes associated with the salicylic acid (SA) pathway, phytoalexin, transcription factors, and pathogen-related proteins were identified. Both the SA signaling pathway and the gibberellin (GA) pathway were activated, while the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway was repressed. The contents of endogenous SA and GA and the morphological characteristics of the rice after treatment were measured to provide evidence supporting the predictions made based on the DGE data. The 80 genes mentioned above might be candidate genes for studying interactions with MoHrip1. The transcriptional data provided global effect information in rice induced by MoHrip1, and all the results demonstrated that MoHrip1 could induce pathogen resistance and promote plant growth by regulating the contents of SA and GA directly or indirectly.

  4. Suppressive effects of mycoviral proteins encoded by Magnaporthe oryzae chrysovirus 1 strain A on conidial germination of the rice blast fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urayama, Syun-Ichi; Kimura, Yuri; Katoh, Yu; Ohta, Tomoko; Onozuka, Nobuya; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Arie, Tsutomu; Teraoka, Tohru; Komatsu, Ken; Moriyama, Hiromitsu

    2016-09-02

    Magnaporthe oryzae chrysovirus 1 strain A (MoCV1-A) is the causal agent of growth repression and attenuated virulence (hypovirulence) of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. We previously revealed that heterologous expression of the MoCV1-A ORF4 protein resulted in cytological damage to the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Cryptococcus neoformans. Since the ORF4 protein is one of the components of viral particles, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of the purified virus particle against the conidial germination of M. oryzae, and confirmed its suppressive effects. Recombinant MoCV1-A ORF4 protein produced in Pichia pastoris was also effective for suppression of conidial germination of M. oryzae. MoCV1-A ORF4 protein sequence showed significant similarity to 6 related mycoviral proteins; Botrysphaeria dothidea chrysovirus 1, two Fusarium graminearum viruses, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi mycovirus 1, Penicillium janczewski chrysovirus and Agaricus bisporus virus 1 in the Chrysoviridae family. Multiple alignments of the ORF4-related protein sequences showed that their central regions (210-591 aa in MoCV1-A ORF4) are relatively conserved. Indeed, yeast transformants expressing the conserved central region of MoCV1-A ORF4 protein (325-575 aa) showed similar impaired growth phenotypes as those observed in yeasts expressing the full-length MoCV1-A ORF4 protein. These data suggest that the mycovirus itself and its encoded viral protein can be useful as anti-fungal proteins to control rice blast disease caused by M. oryzae and other pathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Release of the repressive activity of rice DELLA protein SLR1 by gibberellin does not require SLR1 degradation in the gid2 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Hirano, Ko; Hasegawa, Yasuko; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2008-09-01

    The rice (Oryza sativa) DELLA protein SLR1 acts as a repressor of gibberellin (GA) signaling. GA perception by GID1 causes SLR1 protein degradation involving the F-box protein GID2; this triggers GA-associated responses such as shoot elongation and seed germination. In GA-insensitive and GA biosynthesis mutants, SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1) accumulates to high levels, and the severity of dwarfism is usually correlated with the level of SLR1 accumulation. An exception is the GA-insensitive F-box mutant gid2, which shows milder dwarfism than mutants such as gid1 and cps even though it accumulates higher levels of SLR1. The level of SLR1 protein in gid2 was decreased by loss of GID1 function or treatment with a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, and dwarfism was enhanced. Conversely, overproduction of GID1 or treatment with GA(3) increased the SLR1 level in gid2 and reduced dwarfism. These results indicate that derepression of SLR1 repressive activity can be accomplished by GA and GID1 alone and does not require F-box (GID2) function. Evidence for GA signaling without GID2 was also provided by the expression behavior of GA-regulated genes such as GA-20oxidase1, GID1, and SLR1 in the gid2 mutant. Based on these observations, we propose a model for the release of GA suppression that does not require DELLA protein degradation.

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Copper-Binding Proteins in Excess Copper-Stressed Roots of Two Rice (Oryza sativa L. Varieties with Different Cu Tolerances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chen

    Full Text Available To better understand the mechanisms involved in the heavy metal stress response and tolerance in plants, a proteomic approach was used to investigate the differences in Cu-binding protein expression in Cu-tolerant and Cu-sensitive rice varieties. Cu-binding proteins from Cu-treated rice roots were separated using a new IMAC method in which an IDA-sepharose column was applied prior to the Cu-IMAC column to remove metal ions from protein samples. More than 300 protein spots were reproducibly detected in the 2D gel. Thirty-five protein spots exhibited changes greater than 1.5-fold in intensity compared to the control. Twenty-four proteins contained one or more of nine putative metal-binding motifs reported by Smith et al., and 19 proteins (spots contained one to three of the top six motifs reported by Kung et al. The intensities of seven protein spots were increased in the Cu-tolerant variety B1139 compared to the Cu-sensitive variety B1195 (p<0.05 and six protein spots were markedly up-regulated in B1139, but not detectable in B1195. Four protein spots were significantly up-regulated in B1139, but unchanged in B1195 under Cu stress. In contrast, two protein spots were significantly down-regulated in B1195, but unchanged in B1139. These Cu-responsive proteins included those involved in antioxidant defense and detoxification (spots 5, 16, 21, 22, 28, 29 and 33, pathogenesis (spots 5, 16, 21, 22, 28, 29 and 33, regulation of gene transcription (spots 8 and 34, amino acid synthesis (spots 8 and 34, protein synthesis, modification, transport and degradation (spots 1, 2, 4, 10, 15, 19, 30, 31, 32 and 35, cell wall synthesis (spot 14, molecular signaling (spot 3, and salt stress (spots 7, 9 and 27; together with other proteins, such as a putative glyoxylate induced protein, proteins containing dimeric alpha-beta barrel domains, and adenosine kinase-like proteins. Our results suggest that these proteins, together with related physiological processes, play

  7. A Rice gid1 Suppressor Mutant Reveals That Gibberellin Is Not Always Required for Interaction between Its Receptor, GID1, and DELLA Proteins[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuko; Hirai, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Eiji; Kawamura, Mayuko; Sato, Tomomi; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako

    2010-01-01

    To investigate gibberellin (GA) signaling using the rice (Oryza sativa) GA receptor GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) mutant gid1-8, we isolated a suppressor mutant, Suppressor of gid1-1 (Sgd-1). Sgd-1 is an intragenic mutant containing the original gid1-8 mutation (L45F) and an additional amino acid substitution (P99S) in the loop region. GID1P99S interacts with the rice DELLA protein SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1), even in the absence of GA. Substitution of the 99th Pro with other amino acids revealed that substitution with Ala (P99A) caused the highest level of GA-independent interaction. Physicochemical analysis using surface plasmon resonance revealed that GID1P99A has smaller Ka (association) and Kd (dissociation) values for GA4 than does wild-type GID1. This suggests that the GID1P99A lid is at least partially closed, resulting in both GA-independent and GA-hypersensitive interactions with SLR1. One of the three Arabidopsis thaliana GID1s, At GID1b, can also interact with DELLA proteins in the absence of GA, so we investigated whether GA-independent interaction of At GID1b depends on a mechanism similar to that of rice GID1P99A. Substitution of the loop region or a few amino acids of At GID1b with those of At GID1a diminished its GA-independent interaction with GAI while maintaining the GA-dependent interaction. Soybean (Glycine max) and Brassica napus also have GID1s similar to At GID1b, indicating that these unique GID1s occur in various dicots and may have important functions in these plants. PMID:21098733

  8. A rice gid1 suppressor mutant reveals that gibberellin is not always required for interaction between its receptor, GID1, and DELLA proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuko; Hirai, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Eiji; Kawamura, Mayuko; Sato, Tomomi; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako

    2010-11-01

    To investigate gibberellin (GA) signaling using the rice (Oryza sativa) GA receptor GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) mutant gid1-8, we isolated a suppressor mutant, Suppressor of gid1-1 (Sgd-1). Sgd-1 is an intragenic mutant containing the original gid1-8 mutation (L45F) and an additional amino acid substitution (P99S) in the loop region. GID1(P99S) interacts with the rice DELLA protein SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1), even in the absence of GA. Substitution of the 99th Pro with other amino acids revealed that substitution with Ala (P99A) caused the highest level of GA-independent interaction. Physicochemical analysis using surface plasmon resonance revealed that GID1(P99A) has smaller K(a) (association) and K(d) (dissociation) values for GA(4) than does wild-type GID1. This suggests that the GID1(P99A) lid is at least partially closed, resulting in both GA-independent and GA-hypersensitive interactions with SLR1. One of the three Arabidopsis thaliana GID1s, At GID1b, can also interact with DELLA proteins in the absence of GA, so we investigated whether GA-independent interaction of At GID1b depends on a mechanism similar to that of rice GID1(P99A). Substitution of the loop region or a few amino acids of At GID1b with those of At GID1a diminished its GA-independent interaction with GAI while maintaining the GA-dependent interaction. Soybean (Glycine max) and Brassica napus also have GID1s similar to At GID1b, indicating that these unique GID1s occur in various dicots and may have important functions in these plants.

  9. Expression of cold and drought regulatory protein (CcCDR) of pigeonpea imparts enhanced tolerance to major abiotic stresses in transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunitha, Mellacheruvu; Srinath, Tamirisa; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha; Rao, Khareedu Venkateswara

    2017-06-01

    Transgenic rice expressing pigeonpea Cc CDR conferred high-level tolerance to different abiotic stresses. The multiple stress tolerance observed in CcCDR -transgenic lines is attributed to the modulation of ABA-dependent and-independent signalling-pathway genes. Stable transgenic plants expressing Cajanus cajan cold and drought regulatory protein encoding gene (CcCDR), under the control of CaMV35S and rd29A promoters, have been generated in indica rice. Different transgenic lines of CcCDR, when subjected to drought, salt, and cold stresses, exhibited higher seed germination, seedling survival rates, shoot length, root length, and enhanced plant biomass when compared with the untransformed control plants. Furthermore, transgenic plants disclosed higher leaf chlorophyll content, proline, reducing sugars, SOD, and catalase activities, besides lower levels of MDA. Localization studies revealed that the CcCDR-GFP fusion protein was mainly present in the nucleus of transformed cells of rice. The CcCDR transgenics were found hypersensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) and showed reduced seed germination rates as compared to that of control plants. When the transgenic plants were exposed to drought and salt stresses at vegetative and reproductive stages, they revealed larger panicles and higher number of filled grains compared to the untransformed control plants. Under similar stress conditions, the expression levels of P5CS, bZIP, DREB, OsLEA3, and CIPK genes, involved in ABA-dependent and-independent signal transduction pathways, were found higher in the transgenic plants than the control plants. The overall results amply demonstrate that the transgenic rice expressing CcCDR bestows high-level tolerance to drought, salt, and cold stress conditions. Accordingly, the CcCDR might be deployed as a promising candidate gene for improving the multiple stress tolerance of diverse crop plants.

  10. Rice microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of plant structure is desirable to obtain a clear idea of the overall impact of a crop. A mature rice plant consists of leafy components (left in the field post-harvest) and paddy rice (collected). The rice plant is supported by a hollow stem (culm) with leaf sheaths attached to nod...

  11. Calcium-dependent protein kinase 21 phosphorylates 14-3-3 proteins in response to ABA signaling and salt stress in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixing; Zhou, Xiaojin; Chang, Shu; Chu, Zhilin; Wang, Hanmeng; Han, Shengcheng; Wang, Yingdian

    2017-12-02

    The calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are a class of plant-specific kinase that directly bind Ca 2+ and mediate the calcium-signaling pathways to play important physiological roles in growth and development. The rice genome contains 31 CDPK genes, one of which, OsCPK21, is known to modulate the abscisic acid (ABA) and salt stress responses in this crop; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation are largely unknown. In the present study, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening, glutathione S-transferase pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays to confirm the interaction between OsCPK21 and one of its putative targets, Os14-3-3 (OsGF14e). We used an in vitro kinase assay and site-directed mutagenesis to verify that OsCPK21 phosphorylates OsGF14e at Tyr-138. We used real-time PCR to reveal that several ABA and salt inducible genes were more highly expressed in the OsCPK21-OE and OsGF14e WT-OE plants than in the mutant OsGF14e Y138A-OE and wild-type plants. These results suggest that OsCPK21 phosphorylates OsGF14e to facilitate the response to ABA and salt stress. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of water management practices on residue decomposition and degradation of Cry1Ac protein from crop-wild Bt rice hybrids and parental lines during winter fallow season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Manqiu; Dong, Shanshan; Li, Zhaolei; Tang, Xu; Chen, Yi; Yang, Shengmao; Wu, Chunyan; Ouyang, Dongxin; Fang, Changming; Song, Zhiping

    2015-12-01

    Rice is the staple diet of over half of the world's population and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice expressing insecticidal Cry proteins is ready for deployment. An assessment of the potential impact of Bt rice on the soil ecosystem under varied field management practices is urgently required. We used litter bags to assess the residue (leaves, stems and roots) decomposition dynamics of two transgenic rice lines (Kefeng6 and Kefeng8) containing stacked genes from Bt and sck (a modified CpTI gene encoding a cowpea trypsin inhibitor) (Bt/CpTI), a non-transgenic rice near-isoline (Minghui86), wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) and crop-wild Bt rice hybrid under contrasting conditions (drainage or continuous flooding) in the field. No significant difference was detected in the remaining mass, total C and total N among cultivars under aerobic conditions, whereas significant differences in the remaining mass and total C were detected between Kefeng6 and Kefeng8 and Minghui86 under the flooded condition. A higher decomposition rate constant (km) was measured under the flooded condition compared with the aerobic condition for leaf residues, whereas the reverse was observed for root residues. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which was used to monitor the changes in the Cry1Ac protein in Bt rice residues, indicated that (1) the degradation of the Cry1Ac protein under both conditions best fit first-order kinetics, and the predicted DT50 (50% degradation time) of the Cry1Ac protein ranged from 3.6 to 32.5 days; (2) the Cry1Ac protein in the residue degraded relatively faster under aerobic conditions; and (3) by the end of the study (~154 days), the protein was present at a low concentration in the remaining residues under both conditions. The degradation rate constant was negatively correlated with the initial carbon content and positively correlated with the initial Cry1Ac protein concentration, but it was only correlated with the mass decomposition rate constants under

  13. Expression of the rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV non-structural protein 3 (NS3 in Escherichia coli and its in situ localization in RHBV-infected rice tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Muñoz

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The non-structural NS3 protein gene from the rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV was fused to the glutathione- S-transferase carboxilic end and expressed in Escherichia coli strain JM83. Large quantities of fusion protein were produced in insoluble form. The fusion protein was fractionated in SDS-PAGE and purified by electroelution, polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbit and the antiserum was absorbed with bacterial crude extract. A band of similar size as that of NS3 protein was observed in Western blots using extracts from RHBV-infected rice plants. Immunoelectron microscopy with colloidal gold-labeled antibodies against NS3 protein and the viral nucleocapsid protein revealed in situ accumulation of NS3 protein in the cytoplasm but not in the viral inclusion bodies, vacuoles or chloroplasts of RHBV-infected plants, following the same pattern of distribution as the RHBV nucleocapsid protein. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 765-775. Epub 2004 Dic 15.El gen que codifica por la proteína no estructural NS3 del virus de la hoja blanca de arroz (RHBV se fusionó al extremo carboxilo del gen de la glutationa-S-transferasa y se expresó en la cepa JM83 de Escherichia coli. Se obtuvieron altas concentraciones de la proteína de fusion (GST-NS3 en forma insoluble. La proteína de fusión se fraccionó en geles de SDS-PAGE, se purificó por electroelución, y se utilizó para producir anticuerpos policlonales en conejo . El antisuero producido se absorbió con extractos crudos de E. coli. Extractos crudos de plantas de arroz sanas e infectadas con el RHBV se evaluaron por Western blots detectándose una banda de peso molecular similar al estimado para la proteína NS3 (23KDa en las plantas infectadas con el virus. Los tejidos provenientes de plantas infectadas con el RHBV se analizaron por medio de microscopia inmunoelectrónica con oro colloidal marcado con anticuerpos contra la proteína NS3 y la nucleoproteína viral N. Se observó una acumulación in situ de la

  14. Interaction Research on the Antiviral Molecule Dufulin Targeting on Southern Rice Black Streaked Dwarf Virus P9-1 Nonstructural Protein

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    Zhenchao Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV causes severe harm to rice production. Unfortunately, studies on effective antiviral drugs against SRBSDV and interaction mechanism of antiviral molecule targeting on SRBSDV have not been reported. This study found dufulin (DFL, an ideal anti-SRBSDV molecule, and investigated the interactions of DFL targeting on the nonstructural protein P9-1. The biological sequence information and bonding characterization of DFL to four kinds of P9-1 protein were described with fluorescence titration (FT and microscale thermophoresis (MST assays. The sequence analysis indicated that P9-1 had highly-conserved C- and N-terminal amino acid residues and a hypervariable region that differed from 131 aa to 160 aa. Consequently, wild-type (WT-His-P9-1, 23 C-terminal residues truncated (TR-ΔC23-His-P9-1, 6 N-terminal residues truncated (TR-ΔN6-His-P9-1, and Ser138 site-directed (MU-138-His-P9-1 mutant proteins were expressed. The FT and MST assay results indicated that DFL bounded to WT-His-P9-1 with micromole affinity and the 23 C-terminal amino acids were the potential targeting site. This system, which combines a complete sequence analysis, mutant protein expression, and binding action evaluating system, could further advance the understanding of the interaction abilities between antiviral drugs and their targets.

  15. The pepper Bs4C proteins are localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and confer disease resistance to bacterial blight in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zeng, Xuan; Tian, Dongsheng; Yang, Xiaobei; Wang, Lanlan; Yin, Zhongchao

    2018-03-30

    Transcription activator-like effector (TALE)-dependent dominant disease resistance (R) genes in plants, also referred to as executor R genes, are induced on infection by phytopathogenic bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas harbouring the corresponding TALE genes. Unlike the traditional R proteins, the executor R proteins do not determine the resistance specificity and may function broadly in different plant species. The executor R gene Bs4C-R in the resistant genotype PI 235047 of the pepper species Capsicum pubescens (CpBs4C-R) confers disease resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) harbouring the TALE genes avrBsP/avrBs4. In this study, the synthetic genes of CpBs4C-R and two other Bs4C-like genes, the susceptible allele in the genotype PI585270 of C. pubescens (CpBs4C-S) and the CaBs4C-R homologue gene in the cultivar 'CM334' of Capsicum annum (CaBs4C), were characterized in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) and rice (Oryza sativa). The Bs4C genes induced cell death in N. benthamiana. The functional Bs4C-eCFP fusion proteins were localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane in the leaf epidermal cells of N. benthamiana. The Xa10 promoter-Bs4C fusion genes in transgenic rice conferred strain-specific disease resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal agent of bacterial blight in rice, and were specifically induced by the Xa10-incompatible Xoo strain PXO99 A (pHM1avrXa10). The results indicate that the Bs4C proteins from pepper species function broadly in rice and the Bs4C protein-mediated cell death from the ER is conserved between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, which can be utilized to engineer novel and enhanced disease resistance in heterologous plants. © 2018 TEMASEK LIFE SCIENCES LABORATORY. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2018 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  16. An A20/AN1-type zinc finger protein modulates gibberellins and abscisic acid contents and increases sensitivity to abiotic stress in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Lan, Hongxia; Shao, Qiaolin; Wang, Ruqin; Chen, Hui; Tang, Haijuan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Huang, Ji

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormones gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) play important roles in plant development and stress responses. Here we report a novel A20/AN1-type zinc finger protein ZFP185 involved in GA and ABA signaling in the regulation of growth and stress response. ZFP185 was constitutively expressed in various rice tissues. Overexpression of ZFP185 in rice results in a semi-dwarfism phenotype, reduced cell size, and the decrease of endogenous GA3 content. By contrast, higher GA3 content was observed in RNAi plants. The application of exogenous GA3 can fully rescue the semi-dwarfism phenotype of ZFP185 overexpressing plants, suggesting the negative role of ZFP185 in GA biosynthesis. Besides GA, overexpression of ZFP185 decreased ABA content and expression of several ABA biosynthesis-related genes. Moreover, it was found that ZFP185, unlike previously known A20/AN1-type zinc finger genes, increases sensitivity to drought, cold, and salt stresses, implying the negative role of ZFP185 in stress tolerance. ZFP185 was localized in the cytoplasm and lacked transcriptional activation potential. Our study suggests that ZFP185 regulates plant growth and stress responses by affecting GA and ABA biosynthesis in rice. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. An alternatively spliced heat shock transcription factor, OsHSFA2dI, functions in the heat stress-induced unfolded protein response in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Q; Zhou, Y; Liu, Z; Zhang, L; Song, G; Guo, Z; Wang, W; Qu, X; Zhu, Y; Yang, D

    2015-03-01

    As sessile organisms, plants have evolved a wide range of defence pathways to cope with environmental stress such as heat shock. However, the molecular mechanism of these defence pathways remains unclear in rice. In this study, we found that OsHSFA2d, a heat shock transcriptional factor, encodes two main splice variant proteins, OsHSFA2dI and OsHSFA2dII in rice. Under normal conditions, OsHSFA2dII is the dominant but transcriptionally inactive spliced form. However, when the plant suffers heat stress, OsHSFA2d is alternatively spliced into a transcriptionally active form, OsHSFA2dI, which participates in the heat stress response (HSR). Further study found that this alternative splicing was induced by heat shock rather than photoperiod. We found that OsHSFA2dI is localised to the nucleus, whereas OsHSFA2dII is localised to the nucleus and cytoplasm. Moreover, expression of the unfolded protein response (UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE) sensors, OsIRE1, OsbZIP39/OsbZIP60 and the UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE marker OsBiP1, was up-regulated. Interestingly, OsbZIP50 was also alternatively spliced under heat stress, indicating that UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE signalling pathways were activated by heat stress to re-establish cellular protein homeostasis. We further demonstrated that OsHSFA2dI participated in the unfolded protein response by regulating expression of OsBiP1. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. Genetically modified rice Bt-Shanyou63 expressing Cry1Ab/c protein does not harm Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Ruqing; Fang, Zhixiang; Liu, Biao

    2016-10-01

    The genetically modified (GM) rice Bt-ShanYou63 (Bt-SY63) received an official biosafety certificate while its safety remained in dispute. In a lifelong study, Daphnia magna were experimentally fed a basal diet of rice flours from Bt-SY63 or its parental rice ShanYou63 (SY63) at concentrations of 0.2mg, 0.3mg, or 0.4mgC (per individual per day). Overall the survival, body size, and reproduction of the animals were comparable between Bt-SY63 and ShanYou63.. The results showed that no significant differences were observed in growth and reproduction parameters between D. magna fed GM and non-GM flour and no dose-related changes occurred in all the values. Based on the different parameters assessed, the GM rice Bt-SY63 is a safe food source for D. magna that does not differ in quality from non-GM rice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. The dynamic changes of the plasma membrane proteins and the protective roles of nitric oxide in rice subjected to heavy metal cadmium stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming eYang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metal cadmium is a common environmental contaminant in soils and has adverse effects on crop growth and development. The signaling processes in plants that initiate cellular responses to environmental stress have been shown to be located in the plasma membrane (PM. A better understanding of the PM proteome in response to environmental stress might provide new insights for improving stress-tolerant crops. Nitric oxide (NO is reported to be involved in the plant response to cadmium (Cd stress. To further investigate how NO modulates protein changes in the plasma membrane during Cd stress, a quantitative proteomics approach based on isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ was used to identify differentially regulated proteins from the rice plasma membrane after Cd or Cd and NO treatment. Sixty-six differentially expressed proteins were identified, of which, many function as transporters, ATPases, kinases, metabolic enzymes, phosphatases and phospholipases. Among these, the abundance of phospholipase D (PLD was altered substantially after the treatment of both Cd and Cd and NO. Transient expression of the PLD fused with green fluorescent peptide (GFP in rice protoplasts showed that the Cd and NO treatment promoted the accumulation of PLD in the plasma membrane. Addition of NO also enhanced Cd-induced PLD activity and the accumulation of phosphatidic acid (PA produced through PLD activity. Meanwhile, NO elevated the activities of antioxidant enzymes and caused the accumulation of glutathione both which function to reduce Cd-induced H2O2 accumulation. Taken together, we suggest that NO signaling is associated with the accumulation of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione and PA which increases cadmium tolerance in rice via the antioxidant defense system.

  20. Concentrated Protein Body Product Derived from Rice Endosperm as an Oral Tolerogen for Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy—A New Mucosal Vaccine Formulation against Japanese Cedar Pollen Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakasa, Yuhya; Takagi, Hidenori; Watanabe, Nobumasa; Kitamura, Noriko; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Ogo, Yuko; Hayashi, Shimpei; Yang, Lijun; Ohta, Masaru; Thet Tin, Wai Wai; Sekikawa, Kenji; Takano, Makoto; Ozawa, Kenjirou; Hiroi, Takachika; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum-derived type-I protein body (PB-I) from rice endosperm cells is an ideal candidate formulation for the oral delivery of bioencapsulated peptides as tolerogens for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In the present study, PBs containing the deconstructed Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cryptomeria japonica 1 (Cry j 1) and Cry j 2 were concentrated by treatment with thermostable α-amylase at 90°C to remove the starch from milled rice powder, which resulted in a 12.5-fold reduction of dry weight compared to the starting material. The modified Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens in this concentrated PB product were more resistant to enzymatic digestion than those in the milled seed powder despite the absence of intact cell wall and starch, and remained stable for at least 10 months at room temperature without detectable loss or degradation. The high resistance of these allergens could be attributed to changes in protein physicochemical properties induced by the high temperature concentration process, as suggested by the decreased solubility of the antigens and seed proteins in PBs in step-wise-extraction experiments. Confocal microscopy showed that the morphology of antigen-containing PB-Is was preserved in the concentrated PB product. The concentrated PB product induced specific immune tolerance against Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 in mice when orally administered, supporting its potential use as a novel oral tolerogen formulation. PMID:25774686

  1. Effect of inclusion of different levels of silage on rumen microbial population and microbial protein synthesis in dairy steers fed on rice straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Truong Giang Nguyen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena is a perennial tropical legume that can be directly grazed or harvested and offered to ruminants as hay, silage, or fresh. However, Leucaena contain phenolic compounds, which are considered anti-nutritional factors as these may reduce intake, digestibility and thus animal performance. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS feeding levels on rumen microbial populations, N-balance and microbial protein synthesis in dairy steers. Methods Four, rumen fistulated dairy steers with initial weight of 167±12 kg were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4×4 Latin square design. Treatments were as followings: T1 = untreated rice straw (RS; Control, T2 = 70% RS+30% LS, T3 = 40% RS+60% LS, and T4 = 100% LS. Dairy steers were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum and supplemented with concentrate at 0.2% of body weight/d. Results Results revealed that the rumen microbial population, especially cellulolytic, proteolytic bacteria and fungal zoospores were enhanced in steers that received 60% of LS (p0.05. Protozoal population was linearly decreased with increasing level of LS (p<0.05. Moreover, N-balance and microbial protein synthesis were enhanced by LS feeding (p<0.05 and were the highest in 60% LS group. Conclusion Based on this study, it could be concluded that replacement of RS with 60% LS significantly improved microbial population and microbial protein synthesis in diary steers.

  2. Overexpression of rice thaumatin-like protein (Ostlp gene in transgenic cassava results in enhanced tolerance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. manihotis

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    Patroba Odeny Ojola

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is the most important staple food for more than 300 million people in Africa, and anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. manihotis is the most destructive fungal disease affecting cassava production in sub-Saharan Africa. The main objective of this study was to improve anthracnose resistance in cassava through genetic engineering. Transgenic cassava plants harbouring rice thaumatin-like protein (Ostlp gene, driven by the constitutive CaMV35S promoter, were generated using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable embryogenic calli (FEC of cultivar TMS 60444. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence, integration, copy number of the transgene all the independent transgenic events. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed high expression levels of Ostlp in six transgenic lines tested. The antifungal activity of the transgene against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides pathogen was evaluated using the leaves and stem cuttings bioassay. The results demonstrated significantly delayed disease development and reduced size of necrotic lesions in leaves and stem cuttings of all transgenic lines compared to the leaves and stem cuttingss of non-transgenic control plants. Therefore, constitutive overexpression of rice thaumatin-like protein in transgenic cassava confers enhanced tolerance to the fungal pathogen C. gloeosporioides f. sp. manihotis. These results can therefore serve as an initial step towards genetic engineering of farmer-preffered cassava cultivars for resistance to anthracnose disease. Keywords: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. manihotis, Thaumatin-like protein, Transgenic cassava

  3. Concentrated protein body product derived from rice endosperm as an oral tolerogen for allergen-specific immunotherapy--a new mucosal vaccine formulation against Japanese cedar pollen allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhya Wakasa

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum-derived type-I protein body (PB-I from rice endosperm cells is an ideal candidate formulation for the oral delivery of bioencapsulated peptides as tolerogens for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In the present study, PBs containing the deconstructed Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cryptomeria japonica 1 (Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 were concentrated by treatment with thermostable α-amylase at 90°C to remove the starch from milled rice powder, which resulted in a 12.5-fold reduction of dry weight compared to the starting material. The modified Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens in this concentrated PB product were more resistant to enzymatic digestion than those in the milled seed powder despite the absence of intact cell wall and starch, and remained stable for at least 10 months at room temperature without detectable loss or degradation. The high resistance of these allergens could be attributed to changes in protein physicochemical properties induced by the high temperature concentration process, as suggested by the decreased solubility of the antigens and seed proteins in PBs in step-wise-extraction experiments. Confocal microscopy showed that the morphology of antigen-containing PB-Is was preserved in the concentrated PB product. The concentrated PB product induced specific immune tolerance against Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 in mice when orally administered, supporting its potential use as a novel oral tolerogen formulation.

  4. Effects of processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein in extruded brown rice and pinto bean composite flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumargo, Franklin; Gulati, Paridhi; Weier, Steven A; Clarke, Jennifer; Rose, Devin J

    2016-11-15

    The influence of pinto bean flour and processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of rice-bean extrudates has been investigated. Brown rice: pinto bean flour (0%, 15%, 30%, and 45% bean flour) were extruded under 5 moisture conditions (17.2%, 18.1%, 18.3%, 19.5%, and 20.1%). Physical properties [bulk density, unit density, radial expansion, axial expansion, overall expansion, specific volume, hardness, color, water solubility index, and water absorption index] and in vitro starch and protein digestibilities were determined. Increasing bean flour and processing moisture increased density and hardness while decreasing expansion. Rapidly digestible starch decreased and resistant starch increased as bean substitution and processing moisture increased. In vitro protein digestibility increased with increasing bean flour or with decreasing processing moisture. Incorporating bean flour into extruded snacks can negatively affect physical attributes (hardness, density, and expansion) while positively affecting in vitro starch (decrease) and protein (increase) digestibilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. indica rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... fresh weight, regeneration, proline level and total protein content in salt sensitive indica rice cv. IR 64. For callus ... INTRODUCTION. Salinity is one of the ... Proline is reported to reduce the enzyme denaturation caused due.

  6. Teor de proteína e qualidade fisiológica de sementes de arroz Protein content and physiological quality of rice seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pivotto Bortolotto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o teor de proteína como elemento auxiliar na determinação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de arroz, além de correlacioná-la com a emergência em campo. Foram utilizados seis lotes de sementes de arroz, sendo três lotes da cultivar IRGA 417 e três lotes da cultivar IRGA 422 CL, submetidas ao conjunto de testes, para caracterizar o potencial fisiológico dos lotes: germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, envelhecimento acelerado, frio sem terra, comprimento de plântula e massa seca de plântula. Após a determinação da qualidade inicial dos lotes foi aplicado novo conjunto de testes, composto pelo teor de proteína bruta e pelas avaliações das plântulas e plantas em campo. Conclui-se que o teor de proteína bruta é capaz de identificar diferenças entre lotes de arroz, em função da qualidade das sementes, e correlacionar-se com a emergência em campo, quando ocorre em condições desfavoráveis; portanto, trata-se de uma determinação promissora para associação aos testes convencionais a fim de avaliar o potencial fisiológico das sementes de arroz.This work aimed to evaluate the protein content as an aiding tool in the determination of the physiological quality of rice seeds, as well as to correlate the results with field emergence. Six lots of rice seeds were used, i. e., three lots were of cultivar IRGA 417 and three of IRGA 422 CL, which were submitted to a set of tests in order to measure the following physiological qualities of the lots: germination, first count germination, accelerated aging, cold test (without soil, length and dry mass of seedlings. After determining the initial quality of the lots, a new set of tests such as crude protein content and seedlings and plants evaluations in the field were carried out. It was concluded that crude protein content is capable to identify differences between rice lots with different seed quality and to correlate with field

  7. Impact of bio-processing on rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLAU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The usual way of preparing rice is boiling, thermal process that gives it a lower digestibility as compared to instantiation, extrusion or expandation. Having in view this fact, the possibility to biotechnologically improve the boiled rice digestibility was investigated in a laboratory study. In this respect, boiled rice wassolid state fermented using a strain of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, an amylase producing yeast originating from ragi. Fermented rice was then analyzed from the point of view of its content in easily assimilable sugars, protein, amino-acids, phosphorus and vitamins from B group. Biochemical analyses revealed that the fermented rice has a ten times higher content of reducing sugars than boiled rice, due to starch hydrolysis, while chromatographic studies proved that the fermented rice contains glucose, maltose, maltotriose and maltotetrose that are easily assimilable carbohydrates.Fermented rice has a protein content that is two times higher than that of boiled rice because it contains the yeast biomass, and is enriched in vitamins from B group (B1, B2, and B6 that are synthesized by the yeast. Inorganic phosphorus present in rice doubles its concentration in fermented rice, which means thatphosphorus bioavailability is increased.The sensorial profile of boiled rice is also improved by fermentation.This study proves the possibility to have a processing method which is relatively cheap, practical and of which the resulting product has good nutritive qualities and does not pose safety problems due to pure culture utilization as starter.

  8. Small kernel 1 encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat protein required for mitochondrial nad7 transcript editing and seed development in maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Jie; Zhang, Ya-Feng; Hou, Mingming; Sun, Feng; Shen, Yun; Xiu, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Xiaomin; Chen, Zong-Liang; Sun, Samuel S M; Small, Ian; Tan, Bao-Cai

    2014-09-01

    RNA editing modifies cytidines (C) to uridines (U) at specific sites in the transcripts of mitochondria and plastids, altering the amino acid specified by the DNA sequence. Here we report the identification of a critical editing factor of mitochondrial nad7 transcript via molecular characterization of a small kernel 1 (smk1) mutant in Zea mays (maize). Mutations in Smk1 arrest both the embryo and endosperm development. Cloning of Smk1 indicates that it encodes an E-subclass pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein that is targeted to mitochondria. Loss of SMK1 function abolishes the C → U editing at the nad7-836 site, leading to the retention of a proline codon that is edited to encode leucine in the wild type. The smk1 mutant showed dramatically reduced complex-I assembly and NADH dehydrogenase activity, and abnormal biogenesis of the mitochondria. Analysis of the ortholog in Oryza sativa (rice) reveals that rice SMK1 has a conserved function in C → U editing of the mitochondrial nad7-836 site. T-DNA knock-out mutants showed abnormal embryo and endosperm development, resulting in embryo or seedling lethality. The leucine at NAD7-279 is highly conserved from bacteria to flowering plants, and analysis of genome sequences from many plants revealed a molecular coevolution between the requirement for C → U editing at this site and the existence of an SMK1 homolog. These results demonstrate that Smk1 encodes a PPR-E protein that is required for nad7-836 editing, and this editing is critical to NAD7 function in complex-I assembly in mitochondria, and hence to embryo and endosperm development in maize and rice. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Natural variation of rice blast resistance gene Pi-d2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studying natural variation of rice resistance (R) genes in cultivated and wild rice relatives can predict resistance stability to rice blast fungus. In the present study, the protein coding regions of rice R gene Pi-d2 in 35 rice accessions of subgroups, aus (AUS), indica (IND), temperate japonica (...

  10. A 90-day subchronic feeding study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huan; He, Xiaoyun; Zou, Shiying; Zhang, Teng; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun; Zhu, Zhen; Xu, Wentao

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic rice line (mfb-MH86) expressing a synthetic cry1Ab gene can be protected against feeding damage from Lepidopteran insects, including Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. Rice flour from mfb-MH86 and its near-isogenic control MH86 was separately formulated into rodent diets at concentrations of 17.5, 35 and 70 % (w/w) for a 90-day feeding test with rats, and all of the diets were nutritionally balanced. In this study, the responses of rats fed diets containing mfb-MH86 were compared to those of rats fed flour from MH86. Overall health, body weight and food consumption were comparable between groups fed diets containing mfb-MH86 and MH86. Blood samples were collected prior to sacrifice and a few significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in haematological and biochemical parameters between rats fed genetically modified (GM) and non-GM diets. However, the values of these parameters were within the normal ranges of values for rats of this age and sex, thus not considered treatment related. In addition, upon sacrifice a large number of organs were weighed, macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with only minor changes to report. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that no toxic effect was observed in the conditions of the experiment, based on the different parameters assessed. GM rice mfb-MH86 is as safe and nutritious as non-GM rice.

  11. A late embryogenesis abundant protein HVA1 regulated by an inducible promoter enhances root growth and abiotic stress tolerance in rice without yield penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Shih; Lo, Shuen-Fang; Sun, Peng-Kai; Lu, Chung-An; Ho, Tuan-Hua D; Yu, Su-May

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of root architecture is essential for maintaining plant growth under adverse environment. A synthetic abscisic acid (ABA)/stress-inducible promoter was designed to control the expression of a late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1) in transgenic rice. The background of HVA1 is low but highly inducible by ABA, salt, dehydration and cold. HVA1 was highly accumulated in root apical meristem (RAM) and lateral root primordia (LRP) after ABA/stress treatments, leading to enhanced root system expansion. Water-use efficiency (WUE) and biomass also increased in transgenic rice, likely due to the maintenance of normal cell functions and metabolic activities conferred by HVA1 which is capable of stabilizing proteins, under osmotic stress. HVA1 promotes lateral root (LR) initiation, elongation and emergence and primary root (PR) elongation via an auxin-dependent process, particularly by intensifying asymmetrical accumulation of auxin in LRP founder cells and RAM, even under ABA/stress-suppressive conditions. We demonstrate a successful application of an inducible promoter in regulating the spatial and temporal expression of HVA1 for improving root architecture and multiple stress tolerance without yield penalty. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Degradation and detection of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis DNA and proteins in flour of three genetically modified rice events submitted to a set of thermal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofu; Chen, Xiaoyun; Xu, Junfeng; Dai, Chen; Shen, Wenbiao

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the degradation of three transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes (Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1Ab/Ac) and the corresponding encoded Bt proteins in KMD1, KF6, and TT51-1 rice powder, respectively, following autoclaving, cooking, baking, or microwaving. Exogenous Bt genes were more stable than the endogenous sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene, and short DNA fragments were detected more frequently than long DNA fragments in both the Bt and SPS genes. Autoclaving, cooking (boiling in water, 30 min), and baking (200 °C, 30 min) induced the most severe Bt protein degradation effects, and Cry1Ab protein was more stable than Cry1Ac and Cry1Ab/Ac protein, which was further confirmed by baking samples at 180 °C for different periods of time. Microwaving induced mild degradation of the Bt and SPS genes, and Bt proteins, whereas baking (180 °C, 15 min), cooking and autoclaving led to further degradation, and baking (200 °C, 30 min) induced the most severe degradation. The findings of the study indicated that degradation of the Bt genes and proteins somewhat correlated with the treatment intensity. Polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and lateral flow tests were used to detect the corresponding transgenic components. Strategies for detecting transgenic ingredients in highly processed foods are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional conservation of rice OsNF-YB/YC and Arabidopsis AtNF-YB/YC proteins in the regulation of flowering time

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Yoon-Hyung; Kim, SoonKap; Lee, Keh Chien; Chung, Young Soo; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Kook

    2016-01-01

    Plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factors play important roles in plant development and abiotic stress. In Arabidopsis thaliana, two NF-YB (AtNF-YB2 and AtNF-YB3) and five NF-YC (AtNF-YC1, AtNF-YC2, AtNF-YC3, AtNF-YC4, and AtNF-YC9) genes regulate photoperiodic flowering by interacting with other AtNF-Y subunit proteins. Three rice NF-YB (OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10, and OsNF-YB11) and five rice OsNF-YC (OsNF-YC1, OsNF-YC2, OsNF-YC4, OsNF-YC6, and OsNF-YC7) genes are clustered with two AtNF-YB and five AtNF-YC genes, respectively. To investigate the functional conservation of these NF-YB and NF-YC genes in rice and Arabidopsis, we analyzed the flowering phenotypes of transgenic plants overexpressing the respective OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes in Arabidopsis mutants. Overexpression of OsNF-YB8/10/11 and OsNF-YC2 complemented the late flowering phenotype of Arabidopsis nf-yb2 nf-yb3 and nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 mutants, respectively. The rescued phenotype of 35S::OsNF-YC2 nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 plants was attributed to the upregulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1). In vitro and in planta protein–protein analyses revealed that OsNF-YB8/10/11 and OsNF-YC1/2/4/6/7 interact with AtNF-YC3/4/9 and AtNF-YB2/3, respectively. Our data indicate that some OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes are functional equivalents of AtNF-YB2/3 and AtNF-YC3/4/9 genes, respectively, and suggest functional conservation of Arabidopsis and rice NF-Y genes in the control of flowering time.

  14. Functional conservation of rice OsNF-YB/YC and Arabidopsis AtNF-YB/YC proteins in the regulation of flowering time

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Yoon-Hyung

    2016-01-11

    Plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factors play important roles in plant development and abiotic stress. In Arabidopsis thaliana, two NF-YB (AtNF-YB2 and AtNF-YB3) and five NF-YC (AtNF-YC1, AtNF-YC2, AtNF-YC3, AtNF-YC4, and AtNF-YC9) genes regulate photoperiodic flowering by interacting with other AtNF-Y subunit proteins. Three rice NF-YB (OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10, and OsNF-YB11) and five rice OsNF-YC (OsNF-YC1, OsNF-YC2, OsNF-YC4, OsNF-YC6, and OsNF-YC7) genes are clustered with two AtNF-YB and five AtNF-YC genes, respectively. To investigate the functional conservation of these NF-YB and NF-YC genes in rice and Arabidopsis, we analyzed the flowering phenotypes of transgenic plants overexpressing the respective OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes in Arabidopsis mutants. Overexpression of OsNF-YB8/10/11 and OsNF-YC2 complemented the late flowering phenotype of Arabidopsis nf-yb2 nf-yb3 and nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 mutants, respectively. The rescued phenotype of 35S::OsNF-YC2 nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 plants was attributed to the upregulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1). In vitro and in planta protein–protein analyses revealed that OsNF-YB8/10/11 and OsNF-YC1/2/4/6/7 interact with AtNF-YC3/4/9 and AtNF-YB2/3, respectively. Our data indicate that some OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes are functional equivalents of AtNF-YB2/3 and AtNF-YC3/4/9 genes, respectively, and suggest functional conservation of Arabidopsis and rice NF-Y genes in the control of flowering time.

  15. OsDOG, a gibberellin-induced A20/AN1 zinc-finger protein, negatively regulates gibberellin-mediated cell elongation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaju; Xu, Yunyuan; Xiao, Jun; Ma, Qibin; Li, Dan; Xue, Zhen; Chong, Kang

    2011-07-01

    The A20/AN1 zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs) play pivotal roles in animal immune responses and plant stress responses. From previous gibberellin (GA) microarray data and A20/AN1 ZFP family member association, we chose Oryza sativa dwarf rice with overexpression of gibberellin-induced gene (OsDOG) to examine its function in the GA pathway. OsDOG was induced by gibberellic acid (GA(3)) and repressed by the GA-synthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. Different transgenic lines with constitutive expression of OsDOG showed dwarf phenotypes due to deficiency of cell elongation. Additional GA(1) and real-time PCR quantitative assay analyses confirmed that the decrease of GA(1) in the overexpression lines resulted from reduced expression of GA3ox2 and enhanced expression of GA2ox1 and GA2ox3. Adding exogenous GA rescued the constitutive expression phenotypes of the transgenic lines. OsDOG has a novel function in regulating GA homeostasis and in negative maintenance of plant cell elongation in rice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. A dominant mutation of TWISTED DWARF 1 encoding an alpha-tubulin protein causes severe dwarfism and right helical growth in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunohara, Hidehiko; Kawai, Takayuki; Shimizu-Sato, Sae; Sato, Yutaka; Sato, Kanna; Kitano, Hidemi

    2009-06-01

    Dwarfism is a common type of mutation in many plant species. The pathways and factors regulating biosynthesis and signaling of several plant growth regulators have been clarified through analyses of dwarf mutants in rice, Arabidopsis, pea, and maize. However, the genetic mechanisms controlling dwarfism are not well characterized, and the causal genes underlying most dwarf mutants are still uncovered. Here, we report a dominant mutant, Twisted dwarf 1-1 (Tid1-1), showing dwarfism and twisted growth in rice. Tid1-1 exhibit right helical growth of the leaves and stem and shortening of the roots. They also show an increased number of cells in the shoot apical meristem. Cells in the leaves of Tid1-1 are often ill-shapen, possibly owing to irregular cell division. Cell elongation in roots is suppressed in the elongation zone, and cells in the root apical meristem are enlarged. Map-based cloning of TID1 revealed that it encodes an alpha-tubulin protein comprising microtubules and is an ortholog of Arabidopsis LEFTY genes. Our analysis of the Tid1-1 mutant revealed that the dynamics of microtubules affects not only anisotropic growth in both dicots and monocots, but also meristematic activity and gross plant morphology.

  17. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-ping LIU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. direct sowing rice 10–20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting, ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting, PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting, and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting, were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002, there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003. Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments

  18. A Computational analysis on Lectin and Histone H1 protein of different pulse species as well as comparative study with rice for balanced diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md Anayet; Mannan, Adnan; Alam, Rashel; Islam, Md Taohidul; Amin, Mohammad Al; Khan, Md Sarowar Jahan; Islam, Md Ashraful; Muzahid, Nazmul Hasan

    2012-01-01

    The issue of balanced nutrition is of great concern to human. Meat and fish are the best sources of protein. The affordability of these resources for people in developing countries is less. Thus, there is an increasing interest in pulses and its derivates as an alternative to fish and meat. Lectin and histone H1 are the most common proteins in various pulses and our interest is in identifying the dominant essential amino acids in them for use as supplements. However, actin and lectin are common among Oryza Sativa and cicer arietinum. We describe the amount of lectin and histone H1 in cicer arietinum, Lens culinaris and Pisum sativum in a comparative manner. cicer arietinum was found to contain more essential amino acids than Lens culinaris and Pisum sativum. The secondary structures of lectin and histone H1 protein were analyzed to gain functional inferences in these species. The comparative study shows the relatively poor presence of the amino acid methionine in most pulses. However, Oryza Sativa was found to contain sufficient methionine. The study shows that pulses (especially cicer arietinum) were a suitable alternative source to meat and fish for Lectin and Histone H1 balance. Hence, pulses could be suggested with rice for balanced protein diet.

  19. Enhanced cadmium accumulation and tolerance in transgenic tobacco overexpressing rice metal tolerance protein gene OsMTP1 is promising for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Natasha; Bhattacharya, Surajit; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2016-08-01

    One of the most grievous heavy metal pollutants in the environment is cadmium (Cd), which is not only responsible for the crop yield loss owing to its phytotoxicity, but also for the human health hazards as the toxic elements usually accumulate in the consumable parts of crop plants. In the present study, we aimed to isolate and functionally characterize the OsMTP1 gene from indica rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR64) to study its potential application for efficient phytoremediation of Cd. The 1257 bp coding DNA sequence (CDS) of OsMTP1 encodes a ∼46 kDa protein belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) or metal tolerance/transport protein (MTP) family. The OsMTP1 transcript in rice plant was found to respond during external Cd stress. Heterologous expression of OsMTP1 in tobacco resulted in the reduction of Cd stress-induced phytotoxic effects, including growth inhibition, lipid peroxidation, and cell death. Compared to untransformed control, the transgenic tobacco plants showed enhanced vacuolar thiol content, indicating vacuolar localization of the sequestered Cd. The transgenic tobacco plants exhibited significantly higher biomass growth (2.2-2.8-folds) and hyperaccumulation of Cd (1.96-2.22-folds) compared to untransformed control under Cd exposure. The transgenic plants also showed moderate tolerance and accumulation of arsenic (As) upon exogenous As stress, signifying broad substrate specificity of OsMTP1. Together, findings of our research suggest that the transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing OsMTP1 with its hyperaccumulating activity and increased growth rate could be useful for future phytoremediation applications to clean up the Cd-contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Preliminary Study on Function of Calcineurin B-Like Protein Gene OsCBL8 in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-jun MA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The homozygous T3 transgenic lines with sense OsCBL8 gene and antisense OsCBL8 gene obtained by agro-transformation were used to investigate the function of OsCBL8 in rice. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that the expression of OsCBL8 extremely increased in sense transgenic lines, and decreased to some extents in antisense transgenic lines. Such up- and down-regulation of the OsCBL8 gene in these transgenic lines had little effects on main agronomic traits, but significantly decreased the number of filled grains per panicle and seed setting rate in some of transgenic lines. By evaluation of the tolerance to 150 mmol/L NaCl, 20% PEG6000 and low temperature treatments, and relevant physiological indices, 8F12, a sense transgenic line with high salt tolerance, and 8R14, an antisense transgenic line with high drought tolerance, were obtained, which suggests that the OsCBL8 gene is involved in the response of rice to abiotic stresses.

  1. [Obtention and evaluation of a precooked flour of auyama (Cucurbita maxima) and rice, enriched with oleaginous proteins and/or skim milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido de Cayuela, R; Guaipo, B; Villavicencio, D

    1988-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was the production of a precooked blend made of pumpkin squash and rice flour (PRB), processed with drum dyer. The blend was supplemented with different protein sources: soy, sesame and deffated milk. The following formulations were obtained: I) PRB + 10.5% deffated soy flour; II) PRB + 15% deffated milk; III) PRB + 5% deffated sesame flour + 10% deffated milk; IV) PRB + 5% deffated soy flour + 10% deffated sesame flour, and V) PRB + 9.5% deffated soy flour + 9.5% deffated milk. All formulations were submitted to physico-chemical, nutritional and sensorial evaluation. The protein content of the formulations varied from 14.6% to 17.9%. Rat assays gave satisfactory net protein ratio values. Soups prepared with the formulations were qualified as having good organoleptic characteristics. The production of some of the formulations described above, would contribute to a larger utilization of pumpkin, as it would allow the easy preparation of salted and sweet dishes (soups, cakes, etc).

  2. In silico analysis, mapping of regulatory elements and corresponding dna-protein interaction in polyphenol oxidase gene promoter from different rice varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, T.; Rehman, M.; Aziz, E.

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an important enzyme that has positive impact regarding plant resistance against different biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study PPO promoter from six different rice varieties was amplified and then analyzed for cis- and trans-acting elements. The study revealed a total of 79 different cis-acting regulatory elements including 11 elements restricted to only one or other variety. Among six varieties Pakhal-Basmati had highest number (5) of these elements, whereas C-622 and Rachna-Basmati have no such sequences. Rachna-Basmati, IR-36-Basmati and Kashmir- Basmati had 1, 2 and 3 unique elements, respectively. Different elementsrelated to pathogen, salt and water stresses were found, which may be helpful in controlling PPO activity according to changing environment. Moreover, HADDOCK was used to understand molecular mechanism of PPO regulation and it was found that DNA-protein interactions are stabilized by many potential hydrogen bonds. Adenine and arginine were the most reactive residues in DNA and proteins respectively.Structural comparison of different protein-DNA complexes show that even a highly conserved transcriptional factor can adopt different conformations when they contact a different DNA binding sequence, however their stable interactions depend on the number of hydrogen bonds formed and distance. (author)

  3. TaCPK2-A, a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene that is required for wheat powdery mildew resistance enhances bacterial blight resistance in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shuaifeng; Li, Aili; Tang, Lichuan; Yin, Lingjie; Wu, Liang; Lei, Cailin; Guo, Xiuping; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Guanghuai; Zhai, Wenxue; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, Youliang; Lan, Xiujin; Mao, Long

    2013-08-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) are important Ca2+ signalling components involved in complex immune and stress signalling networks; but the knowledge of CPK gene functions in the hexaploid wheat is limited. Previously, TaCPK2 was shown to be inducible by powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis tritici, Bgt) infection in wheat. Here, its functions in disease resistance are characterized further. This study shows the presence of defence-response and cold-response cis-elements on the promoters of the A subgenome homoeologue (TaCPK2-A) and D subgenome homoeologue (TaCPK2-D), respectively. Their expression patterns were then confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) using genome-specific primers, where TaCPK2-A was induced by Bgt treatment while TaCPK2-D mainly responded to cold treatment. Downregulation of TaCPK2-A by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) causes loss of resistance to Bgt in resistant wheat lines, indicating that TaCPK2-A is required for powdery mildew resistance. Furthermore, overexpression of TaCPK2-A in rice enhanced bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Xoo) resistance. qRT-PCR analysis showed that overexpression of TaCPK2-A in rice promoted the expression of OsWRKY45-1, a transcription factor involved in both fungal and bacterial resistance by regulating jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signalling genes. The opposite effect was found in wheat TaCPK2-A VIGS plants, where the homologue of OsWRKY45-1 was significantly repressed. These data suggest that modulation of WRKY45-1 and associated defence-response genes by CPK2 genes may be the common mechanism for multiple disease resistance in grass species, which may have undergone subfunctionalization in promoters before the formation of hexaploid wheat.

  4. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae TALE proteins recruit OsTFIIAγ1 to compensate for the absence of OsTFIIAγ5 in bacterial blight in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenxiu; Zou, Lifang; Ji, Zhiyuan; Xu, Xiameng; Xu, Zhengyin; Yang, Yangyang; Alfano, James R; Chen, Gongyou

    2018-04-28

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), causal agent of bacterial blight (BB) of rice, uses transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) to interact with the basal transcription factor gama subunit OsTFIIAγ5 (Xa5) and activates transcription of host genes. However, how OsTFIIAγ1, the other OsTFIIAγ protein, functions in the presence of TALEs remains unclear. In this study, we show that OsTFIIAγ1 plays a compensatory role in the absence of Xa5. The expression of OsTFIIAγ1, which is activated by TALE PthXo7, increased the expression of host genes targeted by avirulent and virulent TALEs. Defective OsTFIIAγ1 rice lines showed reduced expression of the TALE-targeted susceptibility (S) genes, OsSWEET11 and OsSWEET14, which resulted in increased BB resistance. Selected TALEs (PthXo1, AvrXa7, and AvrXa27) were evaluated for interactions with OsTFIIAγ1, Xa5 and xa5 (naturally-occurring mutant form of Xa5) using biomolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and microscale thermophoresis (MST). BiFC and MST demonstrated that the three TALEs bind Xa5 and OsTFIIAγ1 with a stronger affinity than xa5. These results provide insight into the complex roles of OsTFIIAγ1 and OsTFIIAγ5 in TALE-mediated host gene transcription. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Smoke Priming, a Potent Protective Agent Against Salinity: Effect on Proline Accumulation, Elemental Uptake, Pigmental Attributes and Protein Banding Patterns of Rice (Oryza Sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil, Muhammad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The exogenous application of plant derived smoke solution through seed pre treatment is consider to create tolerance in the plant against salinity, for this purpose different dilution of plant derived smoke solution as 1:5000 Buhania, 1:1000 Buhania, 1:1000 Cymbopogon, 1:500 Cymbopogon were used against 0 mM, 50, 100 and 150mM NaCl solution in the medium. The effect was observed on total proline accumulation, heavy metals uptake, photosynthetic pigments and protein polypeptide bands intensity in two rice varieties as Basmati 385 (B-385 and Shaheen Basmati (S. Basmati. Proline concentration increases while chlorophyll “a” chlorophyll “b” and carotene level decreases with increasing salinity. On other hand zinc concentration increases while cadmium and lead concentration decrease in the crop under saline conditions. Intensity of protein polypeptides bands decreases gradually with increasing salinity level but plants from the seeds soaked with smoke solution alleviate the drastic affect of salinity, and intensity of bands is quite good by comparing with non primed seeds. It is concluded that seed priming with plant derived smoke solution show beneficial effect on crop to protect them from salinity.

  6. (PGMS) rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... tics, led us to predict that pollen cell abortion in this type of rice when ... averages of natural day-light-lengths and temperatures were used. A natural long ... blocks were allowed to grow under natural growth conditions (which.

  7. Effect of lead on nucleic acid and protein contents of rice (Oryza sativa L. ) seedlings and its interaction with IAA and GA/sub 3/ in different plant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maitra, P.; Mukherh, S.

    1979-09-01

    Activity of lead acetate, (CH/sub 3/COO)/sub 2/Pb, 3 H/sub 2/O, was studied in germinating rice seedlings with respect to RNA, DNA and alkali soluble protein contents. RNA, DNA and protein contents greatly reduced both in embryo and endosperm with increasing concentrations of lead and with concomitant increase in amino acid content in embryo. When IAA was supplied in combination with lead acetate, variable amounts of relief of elongation inhibition of wheat coleoptile sections were noticed. With GA/sub 3/, however, lead-induced inhibition of either lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) hypocotyl elongation or ..cap alpha..-amylase production in rice half seeds was largely overcome.

  8. Enhancement of naphthalene tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the ferredoxin-like protein (ADI1) from rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Bo; Han, Hong-Juan; Zhao, Wei; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Peng, Ri-He; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The ADI1 Arabidopsis plants enhanced tolerance and degradation efficiency to naphthalene and had great potential for phytoremediation of naphthalene in the plant material before composting or harvesting and removal. Naphthalene is a global environmental concern, because this substance is assumed to contribute considerably to human cancer risk. Cleaning up naphthalene contamination in the environment is crucial. Phytoremediation is an efficient technology to clean up contaminants. However, no gene that can efficiently degrade exogenous recalcitrant naphthalene in plants has yet been discovered. Ferredoxin (Fd) is a key player of biological electron transfer reaction in the PAH degradation process. The biochemical pathway for bacterial degradation of naphthalene has been well investigated. In this study, a rice gene, ADI1, which codes for a putative photosynthetic-type Fd, has been transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana. The transgenic Arabidopsis plants enhanced tolerance and degradation efficiency of naphthalene. Compared with wild-type plants, transgenic plants assimilated naphthalene from the culture media faster and removed more of this substance. When taken together, our findings suggest that breeding plants with overexpressed ADI1 gene is an effective strategy to degrade naphthalene in the environment.

  9. PhosphoRice: a meta-predictor of rice-specific phosphorylation sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Que Shufu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of the growing body of protein phosphorylation sites data, the number of phosphoprotein databases is constantly increasing, and dozens of tools are available for predicting protein phosphorylation sites to achieve fast automatic results. However, none of the existing tools has been developed to predict protein phosphorylation sites in rice. Results In this paper, the phosphorylation site predictors, NetPhos 2.0, NetPhosK, Kinasephos, Scansite, Disphos and Predphosphos, were integrated to construct meta-predictors of rice-specific phosphorylation sites using several methods, including unweighted voting, unreduced weighted voting, reduced unweighted voting and weighted voting strategies. PhosphoRice, the meta-predictor produced by using weighted voting strategy with parameters selected by restricted grid search and conditional random search, performed the best at predicting phosphorylation sites in rice. Its Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC and Accuracy (ACC reached to 0.474 and 73.8%, respectively. Compared to the best individual element predictor (Disphos_default, PhosphoRice archieved a significant increase in MCC of 0.071 (P Conclusions PhosphoRice is a powerful tool for predicting unidentified phosphorylation sites in rice. Compared to the existing methods, we found that our tool showed greater robustness in ACC and MCC. PhosphoRice is available to the public at http://bioinformatics.fafu.edu.cn/PhosphoRice.

  10. Inhibition of human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and HT-29 colon cancer cells by rice-produced recombinant human insulin-like growth binding protein-3 (rhIGFBP-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley C K Cheung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 is a multifunctional molecule which is closely related to cell growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis, metabolism and senescence. It combines with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I to form a complex (IGF-I/IGFBP-3 that can treat growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (GHIS and reduce insulin requirement in patients with diabetes. IGFBP-3 alone has been shown to have anti-proliferation effect on numerous cancer cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reported here an expression method to produce functional recombinant human IGFBP-3 (rhIGFBP-3 in transgenic rice grains. Protein sorting sequences, signal peptide and endoplasmic reticulum retention tetrapeptide (KDEL were included in constructs for enhancing rhIGFBP-3 expression. Western blot analysis showed that only the constructs with signal peptide were successfully expressed in transgenic rice grains. Both rhIGFBP-3 proteins, with or without KDEL sorting sequence inhibited the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells (65.76 ± 1.72% vs 45.00 ± 0.86%, p < 0.05; 50.84 ± 1.97% vs 45.00 ± 0.86%, p < 0.01 respectively and HT-29 colon cancer cells (65.14 ± 3.84% vs 18.01 ± 13.81%, p < 0.05 and 54.7 ± 9.44% vs 18.01 ± 13.81%, p < 0.05 respectively when compared with wild type rice. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrated the feasibility of producing biological active rhIGFBP-3 in rice using a transgenic approach, which will definitely encourage more research on the therapeutic use of hIGFBP-3 in future.

  11. Medicinal and nutritional importance of rice bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.; Salim, M.; Rauf, R.; Baloach, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Rice-bran is produced from the outer layer of brown rice and is stabilized through steam-heating. The rice-bran and its products are safe for human and animal consumption. The microbiological safety and rigorous quality-control practices merits its use as nutritional and dietary supplement for overall health-maintenance and as a part of a healthy diet and life-style, as it contributes to the reduction of certain diseases and health-related conditions. Stabilized rice-barn contain 15% of high nutritional- value protein, 20% of high-quality fat with Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids, and nutritional dietary fiber. In addition to several phytonutrients, rice-bran contains vitamins and minerals, while over 100 potent antioxidants have been identified to date. Several scientific papers have reported the analysis and bioavailibility of rice-bran nutrients. Various chemical studies demonstrated the biological effects of the nutrients found in rice-bran. So far, more than 250 scientific publications are available on rice-bran, establishing the striking medicinal properties of rice-bran products. The oil-fraction of rice-bran has concentrated all tire fat-soluble phytonutrient in it, making itself an excellent health-promoting edible oil, as well as message oil The fiber-fraction of rice-bran has a profound effect on the gastrointestinal health, and improves bowel function. Rice-bran fiber along with phytonutrients was found to reduce cholesterol and lipid levels and maintain cardiovascular function. It has beneficial effect on tire kidney and urinary tract health and is helpful in weight-management and fiber replacement diets. (author)

  12. Extração enzimática das proteínas da farinha de arroz Enzymatic extraction of proteins from rice flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Vieira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo extrair enzimaticamente as proteínas de uma farinha comercial de arroz. Visando aumentar o Rendimento de Extração Protéica (REP, os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: tipo de enzima (protease alcalina e neutra; temperatura (40, 50 e 60 °C; pH (9,5, 10,5 e 11,0; tratamento físico da amostra (sem tratamento, ultra-turrax a 16.000 rpm e ultra-som a 120 W, ambos por 5, 10 e 15 minutos; relação Enzima:Substrato (E:S de 5:100 e 10:100; e concentração inicial de matéria-prima (1:3, 1:5 e 1:10 p/v. Os teores de proteínas da farinha de arroz e dos resíduos foram determinados para o cálculo do REP. Os resultados mostraram que a melhor condição de extração protéica, que levou ao maior REP, foi a que empregou a concentração inicial de matéria-prima a 1:10 (p/v, sem tratamento físico, com pH 10,5, com a protease alcalina na relação E:S de 10:100, a 50 °C, tendo atingido um REP de 63,4%.The enzymatic extraction of proteins from a commercial rice flour was studied in this work. In order to increase the Protein Extraction Yield (PEY, the following parameters were evaluated: enzyme type (alkaline and neutral protease; temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C; pH (9.5, 10.5 and 11.0; physical treatment of the sample (no treatment; Ultra-Turrax at 16.000 rpm and ultrasound at 120 W, both for 5, 10 and 15 minutes; enzyme:substrate ratio (E:S of 5:100 and 10:100 and initial concentration of raw material (1:3, 1:5 and 1:10 w/v. The PEY was calculated using the protein contents of rice flour and the extraction residues. The results showed that the best condition for protein extraction, which gave the highest PEY (63.4%, was that using an initial concentration of raw material of 1:10 (w/v, no physical treatment, pH 10.5, the alkaline protease, an E:S of 10:100, at 50 °C.

  13. Effect of germination on the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of rice flour from three rice varieties from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinma, Chiemela Enyinnaya; Anuonye, Julian Chukwuemeka; Simon, Omotade Comfort; Ohiare, Raliat Ozavize; Danbaba, Nahemiah

    2015-10-15

    This study determined the effect of germination (48 h) on the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of rice flour from three rice varieties from Nigeria. Local rice varieties (Jamila, Jeep and Kwandala) were evaluated and compared to an improved variety (MR 219). Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of flours were determined using standard methods. Protein, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and antioxidant properties of rice flours increased after germination while phytic acid and total starch contents decreased. Foaming capacity and stability of rice flours increased after germination. Germination resulted to changes in pasting and thermal characteristics of rice flours. Germinated rice flours had better physicochemical and antioxidant properties with reduced phytic acid and starch contents compared to MR 219, which can be utilized as functional ingredients in the preparation of rice-based products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic Basis of Variation in Rice Seed Storage Protein (Albumin, Globulin, Prolamin, and Glutelin) Content Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pingli; Shen, Zhikang; Ming, Luchang; Li, Yibo; Dan, Wenhan; Lou, Guangming; Peng, Bo; Wu, Bian; Li, Yanhua; Zhao, Da; Gao, Guanjun; Zhang, Qinglu; Xiao, Jinghua; Li, Xianghua; Wang, Gongwei; He, Yuqing

    2018-01-01

    Rice seed storage protein (SSP) is an important source of nutrition and energy. Understanding the genetic basis of SSP content and mining favorable alleles that control it will be helpful for breeding new improved cultivars. An association analysis for SSP content was performed to identify underlying genes using 527 diverse Oryza sativa accessions grown in two environments. We identified more than 107 associations for five different traits, including the contents of albumin (Alb), globulin (Glo), prolamin (Pro), glutelin (Glu), and total SSP (Total). A total of 28 associations were located at previously reported QTLs or intervals. A lead SNP sf0709447538, associated for Glu content in the indica subpopulation in 2015, was further validated in near isogenic lines NIL(Zhenshan97) and NIL(Delong208), and the Glu phenotype had significantly difference between two NILs. The association region could be target for map-based cloning of the candidate genes. There were 13 associations in regions close to grain-quality-related genes; five lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were located less than 20 kb upstream from grain-quality-related genes ( PG5a , Wx , AGPS2a , RP6 , and, RM1 ). Several starch-metabolism-related genes ( AGPS2a , OsACS6 , PUL , GBSSII , and ISA2 ) were also associated with SSP content. We identified favorable alleles of functional candidate genes, such as RP6 , RM1 , Wx , and other four candidate genes by haplotype analysis and expression pattern. Genotypes of RP6 and RM1 with higher Pro were not identified in japonica and exhibited much higher expression levels in indica group. The lead SNP sf0601764762, repeatedly detected for Alb content in 2 years in the whole association population, was located in the Wx locus that controls the synthesis of amylose. And Alb content was significantly and negatively correlated with amylose content and the level of 2.3 kb Wx pre-mRNA examined in this study. The associations or candidate genes identified would

  15. Genetic Basis of Variation in Rice Seed Storage Protein (Albumin, Globulin, Prolamin, and Glutelin Content Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingli Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice seed storage protein (SSP is an important source of nutrition and energy. Understanding the genetic basis of SSP content and mining favorable alleles that control it will be helpful for breeding new improved cultivars. An association analysis for SSP content was performed to identify underlying genes using 527 diverse Oryza sativa accessions grown in two environments. We identified more than 107 associations for five different traits, including the contents of albumin (Alb, globulin (Glo, prolamin (Pro, glutelin (Glu, and total SSP (Total. A total of 28 associations were located at previously reported QTLs or intervals. A lead SNP sf0709447538, associated for Glu content in the indica subpopulation in 2015, was further validated in near isogenic lines NIL(Zhenshan97 and NIL(Delong208, and the Glu phenotype had significantly difference between two NILs. The association region could be target for map-based cloning of the candidate genes. There were 13 associations in regions close to grain-quality-related genes; five lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were located less than 20 kb upstream from grain-quality-related genes (PG5a, Wx, AGPS2a, RP6, and, RM1. Several starch-metabolism-related genes (AGPS2a, OsACS6, PUL, GBSSII, and ISA2 were also associated with SSP content. We identified favorable alleles of functional candidate genes, such as RP6, RM1, Wx, and other four candidate genes by haplotype analysis and expression pattern. Genotypes of RP6 and RM1 with higher Pro were not identified in japonica and exhibited much higher expression levels in indica group. The lead SNP sf0601764762, repeatedly detected for Alb content in 2 years in the whole association population, was located in the Wx locus that controls the synthesis of amylose. And Alb content was significantly and negatively correlated with amylose content and the level of 2.3 kb Wx pre-mRNA examined in this study. The associations or candidate genes identified would provide

  16. Different roles suggested by sex-biased expression and pheromone binding affinity among three pheromone binding proteins in the pink rice borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun-Yan; Li, Zhao-Qun; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Liu, Nai-Yong; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2014-07-01

    Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to bind and transport hydrophobic sex pheromone molecules across the aqueous sensillar lymph to specific pheromone receptors on the dendritic membrane of olfactory neurons. A maximum of 3 PBP genes have been consistently identified in noctuid species, and each of them shares high identity with its counterparts in other species within the family. The functionality differences of the 3 proteins are poorly understood. In the present study, 3 PBP cDNAs (SinfPBP1, 2, 3) were identified from the pink rice borer, Sesamia inferens, for the first time. The quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the 3 PBPs displayed similar temporal but very different sex related expression profiles. Expression of SinfPBP1 and SinfPBP2 were highly and moderately male biased, respectively, while SinfPBP3 was slightly female biased, as SinfPBPs were expressed at very different levels (PBP1>PBP2≫PBP3) in male antennae, but at similar levels in female antennae. Furthermore, the 3 SinfPBPs displayed different ligand binding profiles in fluorescence competitive binding assays. SinfPBP1 exhibited high and similar binding affinities to all 3 sex pheromone components (Ki=0.72-1.60 μM), while SinfPBP2 showed selective binding to the alcohol and aldehyde components (Ki=0.78-1.71 μM), and SinfPBP3 showed no obvious binding to the 3 sex pheromone components. The results suggest that SinfPBP1 plays a major role in the reception of female sex pheromones in S. inferens, while SinfPBP3 plays a least role (if any) and SinfPBP2 functions as a recognizer of alcohol and aldehyde components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rice bran protein hydrolysates reduce arterial stiffening, vascular remodeling and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaphan, Ketmanee; Sangartit, Weerapon; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Greenwald, Stephen E; Kukongviriyapan, Upa

    2018-02-01

    Rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPH) contain highly nutritional proteins and antioxidant compounds which show benefits against metabolic syndrome (MetS). Increased arterial stiffness and the components of MetS have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate whether RBPH could alleviate the metabolic disorders, arterial stiffening, vascular remodeling, and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-carbohydrate and high-fat (HCHF) diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard chow and tap water or a HCHF diet and 15 % fructose solution for 16 weeks. HCHF rats were treated orally with RBPH (250 or 500 mg/kg/day) for the final 6 weeks of the experimental period. Rats fed with HCHF diet had hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, increased aortic pulse wave velocity, aortic wall hypertrophy and vascular remodeling with increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. RBPH supplementation significantly alleviated these alterations (P stress was also alleviated after RBPH treatment by decreasing plasma malondialdehyde, reducing superoxide production and suppressing p47 phox NADPH oxidase expression in the vascular tissues of HCHF rats. RBPH increased plasma nitrate/nitrite level and up-regulated eNOS expression in the aortas of HCHF-diet-fed rats, indicating that RBPH increased NO production. RBPH mitigate the deleterious effects of HCHF through potential mechanisms involving enhanced NO bioavailability, anti-ACE, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. RBPH could be used as dietary supplements to minimize oxidative stress and vascular alterations triggered by MetS.

  18. Rice calcium-dependent protein kinase OsCPK17 targets plasma membrane intrinsic protein and sucrose phosphate synthase and is required for a proper cold stress response

    KAUST Repository

    Almadanim, M. Cecí lia; Alexandre, Bruno M.; Rosa, Margarida T.G.; Sapeta, Helena; Leitã o, Antó nio E.; Ramalho, José C.; Lam, TuKiet T.; Negrã o, Só nia; Abreu, Isabel A.; Oliveira, M. Margarida

    2017-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are involved in plant tolerance mechanisms to abiotic stresses. Although CDPKs are recognized as key messengers in signal transduction, the specific role of most members of this family remains unknown. Here

  19. Effects of Synchronization of Carbohydrate and Protein Supply in Total Mixed Ration with Korean Rice Wine Residue on Ruminal Fermentation, Nitrogen Metabolism and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Holstein Steers

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    Min Yu Piao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Three Holstein steers in the growing phase, each with a ruminal cannula, were used to test the hypothesis that the synchronization of the hourly rate of carbohydrate and nitrogen (N released in the rumen would increase the amount of retained nitrogen for growth and thus improve the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS. In Experiment 1, in situ degradability coefficients of carbohydrate and N in feeds including Korean rice wine residue (RWR were determined. In Experiment 2, three total mixed ration (TMR diets having different rates of carbohydrate and N release in the rumen were formulated using the in situ degradability of the feeds. All diets were made to contain similar contents of crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF but varied in their hourly pattern of nutrient release. The synchrony index of the three TMRs was 0.51 (LS, 0.77 (MS and 0.95 (HS, respectively. The diets were fed at a restricted level (2% of the animal’s body weight in a 3×3 Latin-square design. Synchronizing the hourly supply of energy and N in the rumen did not significantly alter the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, NDF or acid detergent fiber (ADF (p>0.05. The ruminal NH3-N content of the LS group at three hours after feeding was significantly higher (p0.05. In addition, the purine derivative (PD excretion in urine and microbial-N production (MN among the three groups were not significantly different (p>0.05. In conclusion, synchronizing dietary energy and N supply to the rumen did not have a major effect on nutrient digestion or microbial protein synthesis (MPS in Holstein steers.

  20. Rice black streaked dwarf virus P7-2 forms a SCF complex through binding to Oryza sativa SKP1-like proteins, and interacts with GID2 involved in the gibberellin pathway.

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    Tao Tao

    Full Text Available As a core subunit of the SCF complex that promotes protein degradation through the 26S proteasome, S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1 plays important roles in multiple cellular processes in eukaryotes, including gibberellin (GA, jasmonate, ethylene, auxin and light responses. P7-2 encoded by Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, a devastating viral pathogen that causes severe symptoms in infected plants, interacts with SKP1 from different plants. However, whether RBSDV P7-2 forms a SCF complex and targets host proteins is poorly understood. In this study, we conducted yeast two-hybrid assays to further explore the interactions between P7-2 and 25 type I Oryza sativa SKP1-like (OSK proteins, and found that P7-2 interacted with eight OSK members with different binding affinity. Co-immunoprecipitation assay further confirmed the interaction of P7-2 with OSK1, OSK5 and OSK20. It was also shown that P7-2, together with OSK1 and O. sativa Cullin-1, was able to form the SCF complex. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid assays revealed that P7-2 interacted with gibberellin insensitive dwarf2 (GID2 from rice and maize plants, which is essential for regulating the GA signaling pathway. It was further demonstrated that the N-terminal region of P7-2 was necessary for the interaction with GID2. Overall, these results indicated that P7-2 functioned as a component of the SCF complex in rice, and interaction of P7-2 with GID2 implied possible roles of the GA signaling pathway during RBSDV infection.

  1. Rice black streaked dwarf virus P7-2 forms a SCF complex through binding to Oryza sativa SKP1-like proteins, and interacts with GID2 involved in the gibberellin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Tao; Zhou, Cui-Ji; Wang, Qian; Chen, Xiang-Ru; Sun, Qian; Zhao, Tian-Yu; Ye, Jian-Chun; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Zong-Ying; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Guo, Ze-Jian; Wang, Xian-Bing; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2017-01-01

    As a core subunit of the SCF complex that promotes protein degradation through the 26S proteasome, S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1) plays important roles in multiple cellular processes in eukaryotes, including gibberellin (GA), jasmonate, ethylene, auxin and light responses. P7-2 encoded by Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a devastating viral pathogen that causes severe symptoms in infected plants, interacts with SKP1 from different plants. However, whether RBSDV P7-2 forms a SCF complex and targets host proteins is poorly understood. In this study, we conducted yeast two-hybrid assays to further explore the interactions between P7-2 and 25 type I Oryza sativa SKP1-like (OSK) proteins, and found that P7-2 interacted with eight OSK members with different binding affinity. Co-immunoprecipitation assay further confirmed the interaction of P7-2 with OSK1, OSK5 and OSK20. It was also shown that P7-2, together with OSK1 and O. sativa Cullin-1, was able to form the SCF complex. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid assays revealed that P7-2 interacted with gibberellin insensitive dwarf2 (GID2) from rice and maize plants, which is essential for regulating the GA signaling pathway. It was further demonstrated that the N-terminal region of P7-2 was necessary for the interaction with GID2. Overall, these results indicated that P7-2 functioned as a component of the SCF complex in rice, and interaction of P7-2 with GID2 implied possible roles of the GA signaling pathway during RBSDV infection.

  2. Rice black-streaked dwarf virus P6 self-interacts to form punctate, viroplasm-like structures in the cytoplasm and recruits viroplasm-associated protein P9-1

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    Yu Jialin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, a member of the genus Fijivirus within the family Reoviridae, can infect several graminaceous plant species including rice, maize and wheat, and is transmitted by planthoppers. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, functions of the nonstructural protein P6 are still largely unknown. Results In the current study, we employed yeast two-hybrid assays, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and subcellular localization experiments to show that P6 can self-interact to form punctate, cytoplasmic viroplasm-like structures (VLS when expressed alone in plant cells. The region from residues 395 to 659 is necessary for P6 self-interaction, whereas two polypeptides (residues 580-620 and 615-655 are involved in the subcellular localization of P6. Furthermore, P6 strongly interacts with the viroplasm-associated protein P9-1 and recruits P9-1 to localize in VLS. The P6 395-659 region is also important for the P6-P9-1 interaction, and deleting any region of P9-1 abolishes this heterologous interaction. Conclusions RBSDV P6 protein has an intrinsic ability to self-interact and forms VLS without other RBSDV proteins or RNAs. P6 recruits P9-1 to VLS by direct protein-protein interaction. This is the first report on the functionality of RBSDV P6 protein. P6 may be involved in the process of viroplasm nucleation and virus morphogenesis.

  3. Effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice lines on mortality and feeding behavior of rice stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Guoan; Zhang, Qifa; Lin, Yongjun

    2008-02-01

    Ten transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis Bt rice, Oryza sativa L., lines with different Bt genes (two Cry1Ac lines, three Cry2A lines, and five Cry9C lines) derived from the same variety Minghui 63 were evaluated in both the laboratory and the field. Bioassays were conducted by using the first instars of two main rice lepidopteran insect species: yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) and Asiatic rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker). All transgenic lines exhibited high toxicity to these two rice borers. Field evaluation results also showed that all transgenic lines were highly insect resistant with both natural infestation and manual infestation of the neonate larvae of S. incertulas compared with the nontransformed Minghui63. Bt protein concentrations in leaves of 10 transgenic rice lines were estimated by the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cry9C gene had the highest expression level, next was cry2A gene, and the cry1Ac gene expressed at the lowest level. The feeding behavior of 7-d-old Asiatic rice borer to three classes of Bt transgenic rice lines also was detected by using rice culm cuttings. The results showed that 7-d-old larvae of Asiatic rice borer have the capacity to distinguish Bt and non-Bt culm cuttings and preferentially fed on non-Bt cuttings. When only Bt culm cuttings with three classes of different Bt proteins (CrylAc, Cry2A, and Cry9C) were fed, significant distribution difference of 7-d-old Asiatic rice borer in culm cuttings of different Bt proteins also was found. In the current study, we evaluate different Bt genes in the same rice variety in both the laboratory and the field, and also tested feeding behavior of rice insect to these Bt rice. These data are valuable for the further development of two-toxin Bt rice and establishment of appropriate insect resistance management in the future.

  4. [Quality of pastas supplemented with rice bran].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangronis, E; Rebolledo, M A

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the potential of using rice bran as an ingredient in pastas spaghetti type. Two of the pastas were made with semolina from durum as raw material, supplemented with 10 and 20% rice bran. The other two were made with granular flour and the same percentage of rice bran. Proximate composition of raw material was analyzed. Pastas were elaborated in a local industry. Composition, proximal, color, texture, and sensorial quality of pastas were determined. Protein content (13.9-15.0%), ash (1.47-3.09%) and dietary fiber (6.71-8.45%) of pastas increased according to the percentage of rice bran added. The hardest pastas were those elaborated with semolina from durum wheat and with a 10% of substitution. Also, they were the most yellow. The sensory panel found differences in quality among the pastas evaluated. Pastas with 10% rice bran had the best quality. The results demonstrated that is possible to elaborate pastas with 20% as maximum of rice bran resulting products with high protein, ash and dietetic fiber content, but some undesirable characteristics were given by the rice bran as white spots, wrinkles and color changes.

  5. Creation of transgenic rice plants producing small interfering RNA of Rice tungro spherical virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dung Tien; Chu, Ha Duc; Sasaya, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV), also known as Rice waika virus, does not cause visible symptoms in infected rice plants. However, the virus plays a critical role in spreading Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV), which is the major cause of severe symptoms of rice tungro disease. Recent studies showed that RNA interference (RNAi) can be used to develop virus-resistance transgenic rice plants. In this report, we presented simple procedures and protocols needed for the creation of transgenic rice plants capable of producing small interfering RNA specific against RTSV sequences. Notably, our study showed that 60 out of 64 individual hygromycin-resistant lines (putative transgenic lines) obtained through transformation carried transgenes designed for producing hairpin double-stranded RNA. Northern blot analyses revealed the presence of small interfering RNA of 21- to 24-mer in 46 out of 56 confirmed transgenic lines. Taken together, our study indicated that transgenic rice plants carrying an inverted repeat of 500-bp fragments encoding various proteins of RTSV can produce small interfering RNA from the hairpin RNA transcribed from that transgene. In light of recent studies with other viruses, it is possible that some of these transgenic rice lines might be resistant to RTSV.

  6. USING RICE BRAN IN LAYING HEN DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H ERSIN SAMLI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is an energy and protein rich ingredient used in poultry feeding. To balance energy and protein requirements. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rice bran on performance and egg quality during peak production of a commercial White laying strain of 22 week of age. Dietary treatments were consisted by inclusion of rice bran at 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels. Each treatment had 6 reps in which 12 birds were randomly assigned in wired fl oor battery cages equipped with nipple drinkers and through feeders. Layers accessed to feed and water freely. Lighting regimen was adjusted to 16h light/8h dark. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. Overall results of the present experiment indicated that rice bran could be included up to 10% without any adverse affect on laying performance, egg quality and digestive organs.

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of recombinant betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (OsBADH2), a protein involved in jasmine aroma, from Thai fragrant rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuaprasert, Buabarn; Silprasit, Kun; Horata, Natharinee; Khunrae, Pongsak; Wongpanya, Ratree; Boonyalai, Nonlawat; Vanavichit, Apichart; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee

    2011-01-01

    Crystals of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 from rice (O. sativa L.) belonged to a C-centred orthorhombic space group and diffraceted X-rays to 2.6 Å resolution. Fragrant rice (Oryza sativa L.) betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (OsBADH2) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of fragrance aroma compounds. The extremely low activity of OsBADH2 in catalyzing the oxidation of acetaldehyde is believed to be crucial for the accumulation of the volatile compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) in many scented plants, including fragrant rice. Recombinant fragrant rice OsBADH2 was expressed in Escherichia coli as an N-terminal hexahistidine fusion protein, purified using Ni Sepharose affinity chromatography and crystallized using the microbatch method. Initial crystals were obtained within 24 h using 0.1 M Tris pH 8.5 with 30%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 0.2 M magnesium chloride as the precipitating agent at 291 K. Crystal quality was improved when the enzyme was cocrystallized with NAD + . Improved crystals were grown in 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.4, 24%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 0.2 M ammonium chloride and diffracted to beyond 2.95 Å resolution after being cooled in a stream of N 2 immediately prior to X-ray diffraction experiments. The crystals belonged to space group C222 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 66.03, b = 183.94, c = 172.28 Å. An initial molecular-replacement solution has been obtained and refinement is in progress

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals a dynamic pollen plasma membrane protein map and the membrane landscape of receptor-like kinases and transporters important for pollen tube growth and interaction with pistils in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning; Wang, Tai

    2017-01-05

    The coordination of pollen tube (PT) growth, guidance and timely growth arrest and rupture mediated by PT-pistil interaction is crucial for the PT to transport sperm cells into ovules for double fertilization. The plasma membrane (PM) represents an important interface for cell-cell interaction, and PM proteins of PTs are pioneers for mediating PT integrity and interaction with pistils. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying these events is important for proteomics. Using the efficient aqueous polymer two-phase system and alkali buffer treatment, we prepared high-purity PM from mature and germinated pollen of rice. We used iTRAQ quantitative proteomic methods and identified 1,121 PM-related proteins (PMrPs) (matched to 899 loci); 192 showed differential expression in the two pollen cell types, 119 increased and 73 decreased in abundance during germination. The PMrP and differentially expressed PMrP sets all showed a functional skew toward signal transduction, transporters, wall remodeling/metabolism and membrane trafficking. Their genomic loci had strong chromosome bias. We found 37 receptor-like kinases (RLKs) from 8 kinase subfamilies and 209 transporters involved in flux of diversified ions and metabolites. In combination with the rice pollen transcriptome data, we revealed that in general, the protein expression of these PMrPs disagreed with their mRNA expression, with inconsistent mRNA expression for 74% of differentially expressed PMrPs. This study identified genome-wide pollen PMrPs, and provided insights into the membrane profile of receptor-like kinases and transporters important for pollen tube growth and interaction with pistils. These pollen PMrPs and their mRNAs showed discordant expression. This work provides resource and knowledge to further dissect mechanisms by which pollen or the PT controls PMrP abundance and monitors interactions and ion and metabolite exchanges with female cells in rice.

  9. Defensive Responses of Rice Genotypes for Resistance Against Rice Leaffolder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PUNITHAVALLI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to assess the reaction of different categories of rice genotypes viz., resistant, susceptible, hybrid, scented, popular and wild in response to the infestation by rice leaffolder (RLF, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee and to explore the possible use of these genotypes in developing RLF-resistant rice varieties. The changes of various biochemical constituents such as leaf soluble protein, phenol, ortho-dihydroxy phenol, tannin and enzymes viz., peroxidase, phenyl alanine ammonia lyase (PAL were assessed spectrophotometrically in all the rice genotypes before and after RLF infestation. The protein profile was analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulphate-poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE method. A significant constituent of biochemical content such as tannin, phenol and ortho-dihydroxy phenol has been increased along with enzyme activities of peroxidase and PAL in the infested resistant (Ptb 33, TKM6 and LFR831311 and wild rice genotypes (Oryza minuta and O. rhizomatis. A decrease in leaf protein content was evident invariably in all the infested rice genotypes. It is also evident that the contents of biochemicals such as phenol, ortho-dihydroxy phenol and tannin were negatively correlated with leaffolder damage. However, leaf protein content was positively correlated with the damage by rice leaffolder. SDS-PAGE analysis for total protein profiling of healthy and C. medinalis-infested genotypes revealed the enhanced expression of a high molecular weight (> 97 kDa protein in all the genotypes. Besides, there was also an increased induction of a 38 kDa protein in C. medinalis infested resistant genotypes, which was absent in uninfested plants. The present investigation proved that the elevated levels of biochemicals and enzymes may play a vital role in rice plants resistance to RLF.

  10. Mutation of Rice BC12/GDD1, Which Encodes a Kinesin-Like Protein That Binds to a GA Biosynthesis Gene Promoter, Leads to Dwarfism with Impaired Cell Elongation[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Jiang, Jiafu; Qian, Qian; Xu, Yunyuan; Zhang, Cui; Xiao, Jun; Du, Cheng; Luo, Wei; Zou, Guoxing; Chen, Mingluan; Huang, Yunqing; Feng, Yuqi; Cheng, Zhukuan; Yuan, Ming; Chong, Kang

    2011-01-01

    The kinesins are a family of microtubule-based motor proteins that move directionally along microtubules and are involved in many crucial cellular processes, including cell elongation in plants. Less is known about kinesins directly regulating gene transcription to affect cellular physiological processes. Here, we describe a rice (Oryza sativa) mutant, gibberellin-deficient dwarf1 (gdd1), that has a phenotype of greatly reduced length of root, stems, spikes, and seeds. This reduced length is due to decreased cell elongation and can be rescued by exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment. GDD1 was cloned by a map-based approach, was expressed constitutively, and was found to encode the kinesin-like protein BRITTLE CULM12 (BC12). Microtubule cosedimentation assays revealed that BC12/GDD1 bound to microtubules in an ATP-dependent manner. Whole-genome microarray analysis revealed the expression of ent-kaurene oxidase (KO2), which encodes an enzyme involved in GA biosynthesis, was downregulated in gdd1. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that GDD1 bound to the element ACCAACTTGAA in the KO2 promoter. In addition, GDD1 was shown to have transactivation activity. The level of endogenous GAs was reduced in gdd1, and the reorganization of cortical microtubules was altered. Therefore, BC12/GDD1, a kinesin-like protein with transcription regulation activity, mediates cell elongation by regulating the GA biosynthesis pathway in rice. PMID:21325138

  11. Effects of octacosanol extracted from rice bran on blood hormone levels and gene expressions of glucose transporter protein-4 and adenosine monophosphate protein kinase in weaning piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Long

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to explore the regulatory mechanism of octacosanol to the body of animals and the effects of octacosanol on blood hormone levels and gene expressions of glucose transporter protein (GLUT-4 and adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (AMPK in liver and muscle tissue of weaning piglets. A total of 105 crossbred piglets ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc with an initial BW of 5.70 ± 1.41 kg (21 d of age were used in a 6-wk trial to evaluate the effects of octacosanol and tiamulin supplementation on contents of triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxine (T4, growth hormone (GH, glucagon (GU and adrenaline (AD in blood and gene expressions of GLUT-4 and AMPK in liver and muscle. Piglets were randomly distributed into 3 dietary treatments on the basis of BW and sex. Each treatment had 7 replicate pens with 5 piglets per pen. Treatments were as followed: control group, tiamulin group and octacosanol group. The results showed that compared with control group and tiamulin group, octacosanol greatly promoted the secretion of T3, GH, GU and AD (P  0.05. Results of the present study has confirmed that octacosanol affects energy metabolism of body by regulating secretion of blood hormones and related gene expression in tissue of weaning piglets, which can reduce stress response and has an impact on performance.

  12. [Cooking quality of pastas supplemented with rice bran].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangronis, E; Cafiero, J; Mosqueda, M

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality during and after cooking of four pastas spaghetti type. Rice bran was used as ingredient in order to increase protein and dietetic fiber content. In two of the four formulation, semolina durum was supplemented with 10 and 20% rice bran. In the other two formulation granular flour was supplemented with 10 and 20% rice bran. Time cooking, water absorbtion, solid loss, color and hardness, (instrumental and sensory), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) and Apparent Digestibility in vivo were determined. Acceptability was evaluated by a 35-member consumer panel. Rice bran improved solid loss during cooking and increased cooking time, PERs were not affected significantly but Apparent Digestibility decreased when rice bran was increased. Sensory quality was affected because rice bran made pastas hard and dark but they were comparable to high fiber pasta existing in market.

  13. Iron biofortification of Myanmar rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sann Aung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency causes elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75% and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high yields and/or qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  14. Indica rice (Oryza sativa, BR29 and IR64).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Karabi; Datta, Swapan Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Rice is the world's most important food crop. Indica-type rice provides the staple food for more than half of the world population. To satisfy the growing demand of the ever-increasing population, more sustained production of indica-type rice is needed. In addition, because of the high per capita consumption of indica rice, improvement of any traits including its nutritive value may have a significant positive health outcome for the rice-consuming population. Rice yield productivity is greatly affected by different biotic stresses, like diseases and insect pests, and abiotic stresses like drought, cold, and salinity. Attempts to improve resistance in rice to these stresses by conventional breeding through introgression of traits have limited success owing to a lack of resistance germplasm in the wild relatives. Gene transfer technology with genes from other sources can be used to make rice plants resistant or tolerant to insect pests, diseases, and different environmental stresses. For improving the nutritional value of the edible endosperm part of the rice, genes for increasing iron, beta-carotene, or better quality protein can be introduced in rice plants by genetic engineering. Different crops have been transformed using various gene transfer methods, such as protoplast transformation, biolistic, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This chapter describes the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for indica-type rice. The selectable marker genes used are hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt), neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII), or phosphomannose isomerase (pmi), and, accordingly, the selection agents are hygromycin, kanamycin (G418), or mannose, respectively.

  15. Effect of rice bran supplementation on cookie baking quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, A.; Bhatti, M.S.; Ahmed, A

    2011-01-01

    Rice bran, a by-product obtained during polishing of un-milled rice, contains a large quantity of essential nutrients such as minerals, vitamins, fiber, amino acids and antioxidants. Supplementation of rice bran in cookies can improve their nutritional value. In the present study, cookies were prepared from wheat flour with supplementation of rice bran at the rate of 5, 10, 15 and 20 percent. The rice bran was stabilized with acid and dry heat treatment before supplementation. Chemical analysis of the cookies revealed that there was no significant difference in chemical and physical properties of cookies supplemented with acid stabilized rice bran (ASRB) and heat stabilized rice bran (HSRB). The moisture, crude protein, fat and mineral contents were significantly increased with the increment of rice bran. Average width, thickness and spread factor of cookies also increased with the increase in percentage of rice bran. Sensory evaluation of cookies showed that scores for color of cookies decreased significantly with increase in level of rice bran and sensory scores were significantly higher in the cookies prepared with HSRB. However the decrease was non-significant at 10 percent level of substitution. Highest scores for overall acceptability of supplemented cookies was recorded at 15 percent level of substitution as compared to other treatments. Hence it is concluded from the results that supplementation of HSRB at the rate of 10 percent is more suitable for production of rice bran supplemented cookies. (author)

  16. Rice DB: an Oryza Information Portal linking annotation, subcellular location, function, expression, regulation, and evolutionary information for rice and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsai, Reena; Devenish, James; Castleden, Ian; Narsai, Kabir; Xu, Lin; Shou, Huixia; Whelan, James

    2013-12-01

    Omics research in Oryza sativa (rice) relies on the use of multiple databases to obtain different types of information to define gene function. We present Rice DB, an Oryza information portal that is a functional genomics database, linking gene loci to comprehensive annotations, expression data and the subcellular location of encoded proteins. Rice DB has been designed to integrate the direct comparison of rice with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), based on orthology or 'expressology', thus using and combining available information from two pre-eminent plant models. To establish Rice DB, gene identifiers (more than 40 types) and annotations from a variety of sources were compiled, functional information based on large-scale and individual studies was manually collated, hundreds of microarrays were analysed to generate expression annotations, and the occurrences of potential functional regulatory motifs in promoter regions were calculated. A range of computational subcellular localization predictions were also run for all putative proteins encoded in the rice genome, and experimentally confirmed protein localizations have been collated, curated and linked to functional studies in rice. A single search box allows anything from gene identifiers (for rice and/or Arabidopsis), motif sequences, subcellular location, to keyword searches to be entered, with the capability of Boolean searches (such as AND/OR). To demonstrate the utility of Rice DB, several examples are presented including a rice mitochondrial proteome, which draws on a variety of sources for subcellular location data within Rice DB. Comparisons of subcellular location, functional annotations, as well as transcript expression in parallel with Arabidopsis reveals examples of conservation between rice and Arabidopsis, using Rice DB (http://ricedb.plantenergy.uwa.edu.au). © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. [The main nutrients digestibility of genetically modified rice and parental rice in the terminal ileum of pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Hu, Yi-chun; Piao, Jian-hua; Yang, Xiao-guang

    2010-10-01

    To compare the digestibility of main nutrients in genetically modified rice with double antisense starch-branching enzyme gene and parental rice. Seven Wuzhishan healthy adult barrows were surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the terminal ileum. After surgery, seven pigs were randomly divided into two groups, and fed genetically modified rice and parental rice by a crossover model. Ileal digesta were collected for analysis of main nutrient digestibility. The apparent digestibility levels of protein in genetically modified rice and parental rice were 69.50% ± 4.50%, 69.61% ± 8.40%, respectively (t = 0.01, P = 0.994); true digestibility levels of protein were 87.55% ± 4.95%, 87.64% ± 9.40%, respectively (t = 0.01, P = 0.994); fat digestibility levels were 72.86% ± 0.34%, 77.89% ± 13.09%, respectively (t = 0.95, P = 0.378); carbohydrate digestibility levels were 72.92% ± 7.43%, 92.35% ± 5.88%, respectively (t = 4.27, P = 0.005). The apparent and true digestibility of 17 amino acids had no significant difference in the two rice. Carbohydrate digestibility in genetically modified rice was significantly lower than that in non-genetically modified rice, other main nutrients digestibility in the two rice have substantial equivalence.

  18. Rice Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.A. Counce; Davidi R. Gealy; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2002-01-01

    Physiology occurs tn physical space through chemical reactions constrained by anatomy and morphology, yet guided by genetics. Physiology has been called the logic of life. Genes encode structural and fimcdonal proteins. These proteins are subsequently processed to produce enzymes that direct and govern the biomechanical processes involved in the physiology of the...

  19. Genomic dissection of small RNAs in wild rice (Oryza rufipogon): lessons for rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Yan, Chenghai; Gui, Yiejie; Wei, Xinghua; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Guo, Longbiao; Fan, Longjiang

    2012-11-01

    The lack of a MIRNA set and genome sequence of wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) has prevented us from determining the role of MIRNA genes in rice domestication. In this study, a genome, three small RNA populations and a degradome of O. rufipogon were sequenced by Illumina platform and the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) were investigated by miRNA chips. A de novo O. rufipogon genome was assembled using c. 55× coverage of raw sequencing data and a total of 387 MIRNAs were identified in the O. rufipogon genome based on c. 5.2 million unique small RNA reads from three different tissues of O. rufipogon. Of these, O. rufipogon MIRNAs, 259 were not found in the cultivated rice, suggesting a loss of these MIRNAs in the cultivated rice. We also found that 48 MIRNAs were novel in the cultivated rice, suggesting that they were potential targets of domestication selection. Some miRNAs showed significant expression differences between wild and cultivated rice, suggesting that expression of miRNA could also be a target of domestication, as demonstrated for the miR164 family. Our results illustrated that MIRNA genes, like protein-coding genes, might have been significantly shaped during rice domestication and could be one of the driving forces that contributed to rice domestication. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of rice kernels and flours: Measurement of surface chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Malik A; Gaiani, Claire; Fukai, Shu; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the ability of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to differentiate rice macromolecules and to calculate the surface composition of rice kernels and flours. The uncooked kernels and flours surface composition of the two selected rice varieties, Thadokkham-11 (TDK11) and Doongara (DG) demonstrated an over-expression of lipids and proteins and an under-expression of starch compared to the bulk composition. The results of the study showed that XPS was able to differentiate rice polysaccharides (mainly starch), proteins and lipids in uncooked rice kernels and flours. Nevertheless, it was unable to distinguish components in cooked rice samples possibly due to complex interactions between gelatinized starch, denatured proteins and lipids. High resolution imaging methods (Scanning Electron Microscopy and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy) were employed to obtain complementary information about the properties and location of starch, proteins and lipids in rice kernels and flours. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Effect of Black Rice Powder Levels on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Sausage

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sin-Young; Kim, Hack-Youn

    2016-01-01

    The effects of black rice powder on the quality of sausage were investigated. Samples were prepared with 0% (control), 1%, 3%, and 5% black rice powder. With increasing black rice powder content, the moisture and ash content of sausage increased, while protein content was significantly less than that observed for the control (p

  2. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp

  3. RICD: A rice indica cDNA database resource for rice functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qifa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Oryza sativa L. indica subspecies is the most widely cultivated rice. During the last few years, we have collected over 20,000 putative full-length cDNAs and over 40,000 ESTs isolated from various cDNA libraries of two indica varieties Guangluai 4 and Minghui 63. A database of the rice indica cDNAs was therefore built to provide a comprehensive web data source for searching and retrieving the indica cDNA clones. Results Rice Indica cDNA Database (RICD is an online MySQL-PHP driven database with a user-friendly web interface. It allows investigators to query the cDNA clones by keyword, genome position, nucleotide or protein sequence, and putative function. It also provides a series of information, including sequences, protein domain annotations, similarity search results, SNPs and InDels information, and hyperlinks to gene annotation in both The Rice Annotation Project Database (RAP-DB and The TIGR Rice Genome Annotation Resource, expression atlas in RiceGE and variation report in Gramene of each cDNA. Conclusion The online rice indica cDNA database provides cDNA resource with comprehensive information to researchers for functional analysis of indica subspecies and for comparative genomics. The RICD database is available through our website http://www.ncgr.ac.cn/ricd.

  4. Effects of the components in rice flour on thermal radical generation under microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lufen; Huang, Luelue; Fan, Daming; Hu, Bo; Gao, Yishu; Lian, Huizhang; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-12-01

    The relationships between radical generation under microwave irradiation and the components of various types of rice flour were investigated. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to characterize the radicals found in rice flour samples. The EPR spectra revealed that several types of radical (carbon-centered, tyrosyl and semiquinone) were localized in the starch and protein fractions of the rice flour. The signal intensity of the free radicals was observed to increase exponentially with increasing microwave power and residence time. The rice bran samples exhibited the greatest free radical signal intensity, followed by the brown rice samples and the white rice samples. This finding was consistent for both the native and the microwaved samples. The ratio of rice starch to rice protein also played an important role in the generation of radicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression profiling of Ribosomal Protein gene family in dehydration stress responses and characterization of transgenic rice plants overexpressing RPL23A for water-use efficiency and tolerance to drought and salt stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moin, Mazahar; Bakshi, Achala; Madhav, M. S.; Kirti, P. B.

    2017-11-01

    Our previous findings on the screening of a large-pool of activation tagged rice plants grown under limited water conditions revealed the activation of Ribosomal Protein Large (RPL) subunit genes, RPL6 and RPL23A in two mutants that exhibited high water-use efficiency (WUE) with the genes getting activated by the integrated 4x enhancers (Moin et al., 2016a). In continuation of these findings, we have comprehensively characterized the Ribosomal Protein (RP) gene family including both small (RPS) and large (RPL) subunits, which have been identified to be encoded by at least 70 representative genes; RP-genes exist as multiple expressed copies with high nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarity. The differential expression of all the representative genes in rice was performed under limited water and drought conditions at progressive time intervals in the present study. More than 50% of the RP genes were upregulated in both shoot and root tissues. Some of them exhibited an overlap in the upregulation under both the treatments indicating that they might have a common role in inducing tolerance under limited water and drought conditions. Among the genes that became significantly upregulated in both the tissues and under both the treatments are RPL6, 7, 23A, 24 and 31 and RPS4, 10 and 18a. To further validate the role of RP genes in WUE and inducing tolerance to other stresses, we have raised transgenic plants overexpressing RPL23A in rice. The high expression lines of RPL23A exhibited low Δ13C, increased quantum efficiency along with suitable growth and yield parameters with respect to negative control under the conditions of limited water availability. The constitutive expression of RPL23A was also associated with transcriptional upregulation of many other RPL and RPS genes. The seedlings of RPL23A high expression lines also showed a significant increase in fresh weight, root length, proline and chlorophyll contents under simulated drought and salt stresses. Taken

  6. Tolerance, quality and storability of gamma-irradiated Egyptian rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, F.A.; El-Wakeil, F.A.; El-Dash, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on some organoleptic and physico-chemical properties and the storability of Egyptian rice was investigated. Radiation up to 50krad was chosen as an adequate dose causing non-significant changes in eating and cooking qualities. The effect of irradiation on degradation of starch and protein molecules is demonstrated on the basis of studies on the viscosity and solubility of rice paste. Irradiation at relatively low dose levels up to 50krad did not affect the chemical and nutritional qualities of rice regarding amino acids and B vitamins. It was also found that irradiation maintains better storability of rice under ambient temperature. (author)

  7. The Rice Mitochondria Proteome and its Response During Development and to the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobai eHuang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is both a major crop species and the key model grass for molecular and physiological research. Mitochondria are important in rice, as in all crops, as the main source of ATP for cell maintenance and growth. However, the practical significance of understanding the function of mitochondria in rice is increased by the widespread farming practice of using hybrids to boost rice production. This relies on cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS lines with abortive pollen caused by dysfunctional mitochondria. We provide an overview of what is known about the mitochondrial proteome of rice seedlings. To date, more than 320 proteins have been identified in purified rice mitochondria using mass spectrometry. The insights from this work include a broad understanding of the major subunits of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and TCA cycle enzymes, carbon and nitrogen metabolism enzymes as well as details of the supporting machinery for biogenesis and the subset of stress-responsive mitochondrial proteins. Many proteins with unknown functions have also been found in rice mitochondria. Proteomic analysis has also revealed the features of rice mitochondrial protein presequences required for mitochondrial targeting, as well as cleavage site features for processing of precursors after import. Changes in the abundance of rice mitochondrial proteins in response to different stresses, especially anoxia and light, are summarized. Future research on quantitative analysis of the rice mitochondrial proteomes at the spatial and developmental level, its response to environmental stresses and recent advances in understanding of basis of rice CMS systems are highlighted.

  8. Induced Mutations in Thai Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klakhaeng, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Rice is the primary source of food for more than half of the world's population. It benefits greatly from technological inputs in the area of breeding such as induced mutation. Induced mutation can produce mutants with significant improvement in plant type, maturity, yields and protein ratio when compared to the parent. These improved traits enable the mutants to fit into farming systems with either shorter or longer growing seasons. Three induced mutant rice varieties, including RD6, RD10 and RD15, are well accepted by farmers and consumers in Thailand. RD6 and RD15 were aromatic, photosensitive varieties which were derived from KDML105 by acute irradiation of 20 and 15 kilorad gamma ray, respectively. After induced mutation, pedigree selection was applied. RD6 showed drought tolerance and also good grain quality including softness and good aroma with a higher average yield than the famous glutinous variety, San-Pah-Tong. Additionally, it was resistant to blast and brown spot diseases with an average yield of 4.19 tons/ha. RD15 showed drought tolerance and resistance to brown spot disease with the highest yield of 3.5 tons/ha. These two mutant varieties are currently the most famous aromatic rice varieties in Thailand. On the other hand, RD10 is a glutinous, photoperiod insensitive rice variety which was derived from RD1 by irradiation of 1 kilorad fast neutrons. RD10 showed good grain quality such as softness and stickiness with the yield of 4.25 tons/ha. As an on-going project, recommended rice varieties were irradiated with electron beam for anaerobic germination ability, submergence tolerance, stagnant-flood tolerance and also internode elongation.

  9. Studies on the Ecological Adaptability of Growing Rice with Floating Bed on the Dilute Biogas Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qi; Cheng, Bowen; Liao, Zhiqi; Sun, Chengcheng

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the ecological adaptability and the possibility of growing rice with floating bed on the dilute biogas slurry. The results of the experiments show that the growth stage, rice plant height, and rice yield and quality were significantly affected by multiple dilutions; rice plants cultivated with 45 multiple dilutions had better ecological adaptability than others. In the 45 multiple dilutions' group, the yield of rice was 13.3 g/bucket (8 rice plants), milled rice rate was 63.1%, and the content of crude protein in the rice was 6.3%. The concentrations of heavy metals in the rice cultivated with 30 multiple dilutions' slurry, such as total lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic, were all below the national standard. The study shows that it is possible and safe to cultivate rice plants with no soil but diluted biogas slurry. In the experiments, the yield, milled rice rate, and crude protein of the rice cultivated with slurry were not as much as those of rice cultivated with regular way in soil. This study provides the basic theoretical support for the development of biogas projects and the potential achievement of organic farming in special agricultural facilities and circular economy. PMID:27882324

  10. Studies on the Ecological Adaptability of Growing Rice with Floating Bed on the Dilute Biogas Slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qun; Li, Rui; Du, Qi; Cheng, Bowen; Liao, Zhiqi; Sun, Chengcheng; Li, Zhaohua

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the ecological adaptability and the possibility of growing rice with floating bed on the dilute biogas slurry. The results of the experiments show that the growth stage, rice plant height, and rice yield and quality were significantly affected by multiple dilutions; rice plants cultivated with 45 multiple dilutions had better ecological adaptability than others. In the 45 multiple dilutions' group, the yield of rice was 13.3 g/bucket (8 rice plants), milled rice rate was 63.1%, and the content of crude protein in the rice was 6.3%. The concentrations of heavy metals in the rice cultivated with 30 multiple dilutions' slurry, such as total lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic, were all below the national standard. The study shows that it is possible and safe to cultivate rice plants with no soil but diluted biogas slurry. In the experiments, the yield, milled rice rate, and crude protein of the rice cultivated with slurry were not as much as those of rice cultivated with regular way in soil. This study provides the basic theoretical support for the development of biogas projects and the potential achievement of organic farming in special agricultural facilities and circular economy.

  11. Field trial of GABA-fortified rice plants and oral administration of milled rice in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowaka, Emi; Shimajiri, Yasuka; Kawakami, Kouhei; Tongu, Miki; Akama, Kazuhito

    2015-06-01

    Hypertension is one of the most critical risk factors accompanying cardiovascular diseases. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid that functions as a major neurotransmitter in mammals and also as a blood-pressure lowering agent. We previously produced GABA-fortified rice lines of a popular Japonica rice cultivar 'Koshihikari' by genetic manipulation of GABA shunt-related genes. In the study reported here, we grew these same novel rice lines in a field trial and administered the milled rice orally to rats. The yield parameters of the transgenic rice plants were almost unchanged compared to those of untransformed cv. 'Koshihikari' plants, while the rice grains of the transgenic plants contained a high GABA content (3.5 g GABA/kg brown rice; 0.75-0.85 GABA g/kg milled rice) in a greenhouse trial. Oral administration of a diet containing 2.5% GABA-fortified rice, with a daily intake for 8 weeks, had an approximately 20 mmHg anti-hypertensive effect in spontaneous hypertensive rats but not in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. These results suggest that GABA-fortified rice may be applicable as a staple food to control or prevent hypertension.

  12. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two rice varieties in response to rice stripe virus and small brown planthoppers during early interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zheng

    Full Text Available Rice stripe, a virus disease, transmitted by a small brown planthopper (SBPH, has greatly reduced production of japonica rice in East Asia, especially in China. Although we have made great progress in mapping resistance genes, little is known about the mechanism of resistance. By de novo transcriptome assembling, we gained sufficient transcript data to analyze changes in gene expression of early interaction in response to SBPH and RSV infection in rice. Respectively 648 and 937 DEGs were detected from the disease-resistant (Liaonong 979 and the susceptible (Fengjin varieties, most of which were up-regulated. We found 37 genes related to insect resistance, which mainly included genes for jasmonate-induced protein, TIFY protein, lipoxygenase, as well as trypsin inhibitor genes and transcription factor genes. In the interaction process between RSV and rice, 87 genes were thought to be related to RSV resistance; these primarily included 12 peroxidase biosynthesis genes, 12 LRR receptor-like protein kinase genes, 6 genes coding pathogenesis-related proteins, 4 glycine-rich cell wall structural protein genes, 2 xyloglucan hydrolase genes and a cellulose synthase. The results indicate that the rice-pathogen interaction happened both in disease-resistant and susceptible varieties, and some genes related to JA biosynthesis played key roles in the interaction between SBPHs and rice. When rice was infected by RSV a hypersensitive reaction (HR in the disease-resistant variety was suppressed, which resulted from an increase in peroxidase expression and down-regulation of LRR receptor-like protein kinase and pathogenesis-related proteins, while, the changes of peroxidase biosynthesis, glycine-rich cell wall structural protein, cellulose synthase and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase could lead to the strengthening of physical barriers of rice, which may be an important resistance mechanism to RSV in rice.

  13. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two rice varieties in response to rice stripe virus and small brown planthoppers during early interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenjing; Ma, Li; Zhao, Jiaming; Li, Zhiqiang; Sun, Fuyu; Lu, Xiaochun

    2013-01-01

    Rice stripe, a virus disease, transmitted by a small brown planthopper (SBPH), has greatly reduced production of japonica rice in East Asia, especially in China. Although we have made great progress in mapping resistance genes, little is known about the mechanism of resistance. By de novo transcriptome assembling, we gained sufficient transcript data to analyze changes in gene expression of early interaction in response to SBPH and RSV infection in rice. Respectively 648 and 937 DEGs were detected from the disease-resistant (Liaonong 979) and the susceptible (Fengjin) varieties, most of which were up-regulated. We found 37 genes related to insect resistance, which mainly included genes for jasmonate-induced protein, TIFY protein, lipoxygenase, as well as trypsin inhibitor genes and transcription factor genes. In the interaction process between RSV and rice, 87 genes were thought to be related to RSV resistance; these primarily included 12 peroxidase biosynthesis genes, 12 LRR receptor-like protein kinase genes, 6 genes coding pathogenesis-related proteins, 4 glycine-rich cell wall structural protein genes, 2 xyloglucan hydrolase genes and a cellulose synthase. The results indicate that the rice-pathogen interaction happened both in disease-resistant and susceptible varieties, and some genes related to JA biosynthesis played key roles in the interaction between SBPHs and rice. When rice was infected by RSV a hypersensitive reaction (HR) in the disease-resistant variety was suppressed, which resulted from an increase in peroxidase expression and down-regulation of LRR receptor-like protein kinase and pathogenesis-related proteins, while, the changes of peroxidase biosynthesis, glycine-rich cell wall structural protein, cellulose synthase and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase could lead to the strengthening of physical barriers of rice, which may be an important resistance mechanism to RSV in rice.

  14. Bt rice in China - focusing the nontarget risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunhe; Zhang, Qingling; Liu, Qingsong; Meissle, Michael; Yang, Yan; Wang, Yanan; Hua, Hongxia; Chen, Xiuping; Peng, Yufa; Romeis, Jörg

    2017-10-01

    Bt rice can control yield losses caused by lepidopteran pests but may also harm nontarget species and reduce important ecosystem services. A comprehensive data set on herbivores, natural enemies, and their interactions in Chinese rice fields was compiled. This together with an analysis of the Cry protein content in arthropods collected from Bt rice in China indicated which nontarget species are most exposed to the insecticidal protein and should be the focus of regulatory risk assessment. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Current Insights into Research on Rice stripe virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Kyong Cho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice stripe virus (RSV is one of the most destructive viruses of rice, and greatly reduces rice production in China, Japan, and Korea, where mostly japonica cultivars of rice are grown. RSV is transmitted by the small brown plant-hopper (SBPH in a persistent and circulative-propagative manner. Several methods have been developed for detection of RSV, which is composed of four single-stranded RNAs that encode seven proteins. Genome sequence data and comparative phylogenetic analysis have been used to identify the origin and diversity of RSV isolates. Several rice varieties resistant to RSV have been selected and QTL analysis and fine mapping have been intensively performed to map RSV resistance loci or genes. RSV genes have been used to generate several genetically modified transgenic rice plants with RSV resistance. Recently, genome-wide transcriptome analyses and deep sequencing have been used to identify mRNAs and small RNAs involved in RSV infection; several rice host factors that interact with RSV proteins have also been identified. In this article, we review the current statues of RSV research and propose integrated approaches for the study of interactions among RSV, rice, and the SBPH.

  16. Rice-Fish Culture in China

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Bumper harvests of both rice and fish provided more protein, improved ...... and photosynthesizing bacteria are the primary producers and the raw materials used ... 5-cm deep in the booting and earing stages, and about 6-cm deep in the milk ...... of fish have different shapes and feeding habits, fat contents, and distributions.

  17. Secretome of Aspergillus oryzae in Shaoxing rice wine koji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Guan, Zheng-Bing; Cao, Yu; Xie, Guang-Fa; Lu, Jian

    2012-04-16

    Shaoxing rice wine is the most famous and representative Chinese rice wine. Aspergillus oryzae SU16 is used in the manufacture of koji, the Shaoxing rice wine starter culture. In the current study, a comprehensive analysis of the secretome profile of A. oryzae SU16 in Shaoxing rice wine koji was performed for the first time. The proteomic analysis for the identification of the secretory proteins was done using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time of flight mass spectrometry based on the annotated A. oryzae genome sequence. A total of 41 unique proteins were identified from the secretome. These proteins included 17 extracellular proteins following the classical secretory pathway, and 10 extracellular proteins putatively secreted by the non-classical secretory pathway. The present secretome profile greatly differed from previous reports on A. oryzae growing in other solid-state nutrient sources. Several new secretory or putative secretory proteins were also found. These proteomic data will significantly aid the advancement of research on the secretome of A. oryzae, especially in solid-state cultures, and in elucidating the production process mechanism of Shaoxing rice wine koji. The findings may promote the technological development and innovation of the Shaoxing rice wine industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The utilization of alkali-treated rice straw supplemented with cheap non-protein nitrogen in buffalo production in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.; Karunaratne, M.

    1984-01-01

    Two experiments were undertaken to evaluate the feeding value of rice straw, with special emphasis on rumen function, on swamp buffalo in Sri Lanka. In Experiment 1 three rumen-fistulated buffaloes of average live weight 240 kg were used to compare three rations containing straw supplemented with 4% urea, straw 'ensiled' for 21 days with a solution of 4% urea (urea/ammonia treatment) and straw treated with a 4% solution of sodium hydroxide. The urea-ammonia and sodium hydroxide treatments were superior to urea supplementation in increasing apparent digestibility of the diet, total volatile fatty acid concentrations and acetate production rate in the rumen. In Experiment 2 three treatments were compared using the same three fistulated buffaloes. Treatments 1 and 2 were as in Experiment 1, but for treatment 3, to 4% urea ensiled straw as in Experiment 1 was added 5 wt% finely chopped, fresh glyricidia leaves prior to ensiling to supply urease, enhancing ammonia production from urea. The digestibility of the glyricidia-containing ration was similar to that of the ration with straw treated for 21 days. Acetate production and total volatile fatty acid concentration were also similar for the two treatments. The increased digestibility of the diet and the apparent increased volatile fatty acid production in the rumen explain the increases in live weight gain and milk production in cattle and buffalo fed urea-ammonia treated rice straw. Adding glyricidia at the commencement of ensiling can be recommended to reduce the ensiling time of treated straw. (author)

  19. Transgenic rice plants expressing synthetic cry2AX1 gene exhibits resistance to rice leaffolder (Cnaphalocrosis medinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, R; Balakrishnan, N; Sudhakar, D; Udayasuriyan, V

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a major source of insecticidal genes imparting insect resistance in transgenic plants. Level of expression of transgenes in transgenic plants is important to achieve desirable level of resistance against target insects. In order to achieve desirable level of expression, rice chloroplast transit peptide sequence was fused with synthetic cry2AX1 gene to target its protein in chloroplasts. Sixteen PCR positive lines of rice were generated by Agrobacterium mediated transformation using immature embryos. Southern blot hybridization analysis of T 0 transgenic plants confirmed the integration of cry2AX1 gene in two to five locations of rice genome and ELISA demonstrated its expression. Concentration of Cry2AX1 in transgenic rice events ranged 5.0-120 ng/g of fresh leaf tissue. Insect bioassay of T 0 transgenic rice plants against neonate larvae of rice leaffolder showed larval mortality ranging between 20 and 80 % in comparison to control plant. Stable inheritance and expression of cry2AX1 gene was demonstrated in T 1 progenies through Southern and ELISA. In T 1 progenies, the highest concentration of Cry2AX1 and mortality of rice leaffolder larvae were recorded as 150 ng/g of fresh leaf tissue and 80 %, respectively. The Cry2AX1 expression even at a very low concentration (120-150 ng/g) in transgenic rice plants was found effective against rice leaffolder larvae.

  20. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli eHe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the development of mass spectrometry (MS technology, proteomics has been widely applied in analyzing the mechanisms of different biological processes, and proved to be very powerful. Regulation of rice seed germination is critical for rice cultivation. In recent years, a lot of proteomic studies have been conducted in exploring the gene expression regulation, reserves mobilization and metabolisms reactivation, which brings us new insights on the mechanisms of metabolism regulation during this process. Nevertheless, it also invokes a lot of questions. In this mini-review, we summarized the progress in the proteomic studies of rice seed germination. The current challenges and future perspectives were also discussed, which might be helpful for the following studies.

  1. Thermoplastic starch materials prepared from rice starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontes, Barbara R.B.; Curvelo, Antonio A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Rice starch is a source still little studied for the preparation of thermoplastic materials. However, its characteristics, such as the presence of proteins, fats and fibers may turn into thermoplastics with a better performance. The present study intends the evaluation of the viability of making starch thermoplastic from rice starch and glycerol as plasticizer. The results of X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy demonstrate the thermoplastic acquisition. The increase of plasticizer content brings on more hydrophilic thermoplastics with less resistance to tension and elongation at break. (author)

  2. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  3. Conserved Transcriptional Regulatory Programs Underlying Rice and Barley Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Tian, Shulan; Kaeppler, Shawn; Liu, Zongrang; An, Yong-Qiang (Charles)

    2014-01-01

    Germination is a biological process important to plant development and agricultural production. Barley and rice diverged 50 million years ago, but share a similar germination process. To gain insight into the conservation of their underlying gene regulatory programs, we compared transcriptomes of barley and rice at start, middle and end points of germination, and revealed that germination regulated barley and rice genes (BRs) diverged significantly in expression patterns and/or protein sequences. However, BRs with higher protein sequence similarity tended to have more conserved expression patterns. We identified and characterized 316 sets of conserved barley and rice genes (cBRs) with high similarity in both protein sequences and expression patterns, and provided a comprehensive depiction of the transcriptional regulatory program conserved in barley and rice germination at gene, pathway and systems levels. The cBRs encoded proteins involved in a variety of biological pathways and had a wide range of expression patterns. The cBRs encoding key regulatory components in signaling pathways often had diverse expression patterns. Early germination up-regulation of cell wall metabolic pathway and peroxidases, and late germination up-regulation of chromatin structure and remodeling pathways were conserved in both barley and rice. Protein sequence and expression pattern of a gene change quickly if it is not subjected to a functional constraint. Preserving germination-regulated expression patterns and protein sequences of those cBRs for 50 million years strongly suggests that the cBRs are functionally significant and equivalent in germination, and contribute to the ancient characteristics of germination preserved in barley and rice. The functional significance and equivalence of the cBR genes predicted here can serve as a foundation to further characterize their biological functions and facilitate bridging rice and barley germination research with greater confidence. PMID

  4. Late-maturing cooking rice Sensyuraku has excellent properties, equivalent to sake rice, for high-quality sake brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzawa, Yoshihiko; Satoh, Kenji; Satoh, Yuko; Ohno, Satomi; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Katsumata, Kazuaki; Kume, Kazunori; Watanabe, Ken-Ichi; Mizunuma, Masaki; Hirata, Dai

    2014-01-01

    Low protein content and sufficient grain rigidity are desired properties for the rice used in high-quality sake brewing such as Daiginjo-shu (polishing ratio of the rice, less than 50%). Two kinds of rice, sake rice (SR) and cooking rice (CR), have been used for sake brewing. Compared with those of SR, analyses of CR for high-quality sake brewing using highly polished rice have been limited. Here we described the original screening of late-maturing CR Sensyuraku (SEN) as rice with low protein content and characterization of its properties for high-quality sake brewing. The protein content of SEN was lower than those of SR Gohyakumangoku (GOM) and CR Yukinosei (YUK), and its grain rigidity was higher than that of GOM. The excellent properties of SEN with respect to both water-adsorption and enzyme digestibility were confirmed using a Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA). Further, we confirmed a clear taste of sake produced from SEN by sensory evaluation. Thus, SEN has excellent properties, equivalent to those of SR, for high-quality sake brewing.

  5. Impact of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium on Brown Planthopper and Tolerance of Its Host Rice Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mamunur Rashid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål, appeared as a devastating pest of rice in Asia. Experiments were conducted to study the effects of three nutrients, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K, on BPH and its host rice plants. Biochemical constituents of BPH and rice plants with varying nutrient levels at different growth stages, and changes in relative water content (RWC of rice plants were determined in the laboratory. Feeding of BPH and the tolerance of rice plants to BPH with different nutrient levels were determined in the nethouse. Concentrations of N and P were found much higher in the BPH body than in its host rice plants, and this elemental mismatch is an inherent constraint on meeting nutritional requirements of BPH. Nitrogen was found as a more limiting element for BPH than other nutrients in rice plants. Application of N fertilizers to the rice plants increased the N concentrations both in rice plants and BPH while application of P and K fertilizers increased their concentrations in plant tissues only but not in BPH. Nitrogen application also increased the level of soluble proteins and decreased silicon content in rice plants, which resulted in increased feeding of BPH with sharp reduction of RWC in rice plants ultimately caused susceptible to the pest. P fertilization increased the concentration of P in rice plant tissues but not changed N, K, Si, free sugar and soluble protein contents, which indicated little importance of P to the feeding of BPH and tolerance of plant against BPH. K fertilization increased K content but reduced N, Si, free sugar and soluble protein contents in the plant tissues which resulted in the minimum reduction of RWC in rice plants after BPH feeding, thereby contributed to higher tolerance of rice plants to brown planthopper.

  6. Comparative analysis of regulatory elements in different germin-like ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was observed that these promoters have important regulatory elements, which are involved in various important functions. These elements have been compared on the basis of location, copy number, and distributed on positive and negative strands. It was also observed that some of these elements are common and ...

  7. Enhanced leaf photosynthesis as a target to increase grain yield: insights from transgenic rice lines with variable Rieske FeS protein content in the cytochrome b6 /f complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamori, Wataru; Kondo, Eri; Sugiura, Daisuke; Terashima, Ichiro; Suzuki, Yuji; Makino, Amane

    2016-01-01

    Although photosynthesis is the most important source for biomass and grain yield, a lack of correlation between photosynthesis and plant yield among different genotypes of various crop species has been frequently observed. Such observations contribute to the ongoing debate whether enhancing leaf photosynthesis can improve yield potential. Here, transgenic rice plants that contain variable amounts of the Rieske FeS protein in the cytochrome (cyt) b6 /f complex between 10 and 100% of wild-type levels have been used to investigate the effect of reductions of these proteins on photosynthesis, plant growth and yield. Reductions of the cyt b6 /f complex did not affect the electron transport rates through photosystem I but decreased electron transport rates through photosystem II, leading to concomitant decreases in CO2 assimilation rates. There was a strong control of plant growth and grain yield by the rate of leaf photosynthesis, leading to the conclusion that enhancing photosynthesis at the single-leaf level would be a useful target for improving crop productivity and yield both via conventional breeding and biotechnology. The data here also suggest that changing photosynthetic electron transport rates via manipulation of the cyt b6 /f complex could be a potential target for enhancing photosynthetic capacity in higher plants. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Assessment of suitability of selected rice varieties for production of expanded rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi Kamaraddi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Expanded rice, prepared from pre-gelatinized milled rice by sand roasting method, is a popular snack food of India. Five high-yielding rice varieties of Hill zone of Karnataka state, viz., IET-13901, KHP-2, KHP-5, KHP-10, and Intan were screened for puffing quality based on their physicochemical, functional, nutritional and organoleptic parameters with Rajamudi as local check. The effect of varietal differences on expansion/puffing quality parameters, in vitro digestibility of starch and protein as well as bioaccessibility of iron, zinc, and calcium were determined. Results indicated a strong positive correlation between amylose content and expansion ratio and a negative correlation between protein and amylose content, length expansion ratio and volume expansion ratio. Expansion characteristics showed that the varieties suitable for production of puffed rice were KHP-2, IET-13901 and Intan. Nutritional analysis showed following ranges of nutrient content in expanded rice: protein, 6.22–8.17%; fat, 0.06–0.14%; and as mg/100 g calcium, 20.5–23.5; iron, 2.01–2.72; zinc, 1.22–1.82; thiamine, 0.315–0.470; riboflavin, 0.051–0.069; and niacin, 3.18–4.68. Nearly 80.3–80.8% starch and 67.6–83.2% protein was digestible. Among all varieties, KHP-2 had lowest amount of rapidly digestible starch (61.4%. Mineral bioaccessibility ranged from 42.7 to 52.1%. Sensory analysis indicated that Intan and KHP-2 were superior and suited for production of expanded rice.

  9. Phloem-exudate proteome analysis of response to insect brown plant-hopper in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ba; Wei, Zhe; Wang, Zhanqi; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Peng, Xinxin; Du, Bo; Chen, Rongzhi; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2015-07-01

    Brown plant-hopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH), one of the most devastating agricultural insect pests of rice throughout Asia, ingests nutrients from rice sieve tubes and causes a dramatic yield loss. Planting resistant variety is an efficient and economical way to control this pest. Understanding the mechanisms of host resistance is extremely valuable for molecular design of resistant rice variety. Here, we used an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics approach to perform analysis of protein expression profiles in the phloem exudates of BPH-resistant and susceptible rice plants following BPH infestation. A total of 238 proteins were identified, most of which were previously described to be present in the phloem of rice and other plants. The expression of genes for selected proteins was confirmed using a laser capture micro-dissection method and RT-PCR. The mRNAs for three proteins, RGAP, TCTP, and TRXH, were further analyzed by using in situ mRNA hybridization and localized in the phloem cells. Our results showed that BPH feeding induced significant changes in the abundance of proteins in phloem sap of rice involved in multiple pathways, including defense signal transduction, redox regulation, and carbohydrate and protein metabolism, as well as cell structural proteins. The results presented provide new insights into rice resistance mechanisms and should facilitate the breeding of novel elite BPH-resistant rice varieties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of Mineral Contents in Unpolished Rice and Bean Samples by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Baek, S. Y.; Chung, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    As scientists have focused their researches on the health impacts caused by mineral nutrient deficiencies and hazardous elements, public concern regarding mineral intake from dietary food is rising. In this reason, the dietary habits of Koreans have been shifted from white rice to more nutrient rice like unpolished rice and rice mixed with beans. It is known that unpolished rice and beans contain more protein, vitamin and mineral contents than white rice and are more beneficial to human health, even though they sometimes cause indigestion or allergy. The objectives of this study were to determine the mineral contents in unpolished rice and bean samples by a neutron activation analysis (NAA) and to compare the level of mineral contents between the samples

  11. Determination of Mineral Contents in Unpolished Rice and Bean Samples by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Baek, S. Y.; Chung, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    As scientists have focused their researches on the health impacts caused by mineral nutrient deficiencies and hazardous elements, public concern regarding mineral intake from dietary food is rising. In this reason, the dietary habits of Koreans have been shifted from white rice to more nutrient rice like unpolished rice and rice mixed with beans. It is known that unpolished rice and beans contain more protein, vitamin and mineral contents than white rice and are more beneficial to human health, even though they sometimes cause indigestion or allergy. The objectives of this study were to determine the mineral contents in unpolished rice and bean samples by a neutron activation analysis (NAA) and to compare the level of mineral contents between the samples

  12. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of early seed development in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiehua; Hou, Yuxuan; Tong, Xiaohong; Wang, Yifeng; Lin, Haiyan; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Zhiyong; Nallamilli, Babi R; Zhang, Jian

    2016-02-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed serves as a major food source for over half of the global population. Though it has been long recognized that phosphorylation plays an essential role in rice seed development, the phosphorylation events and dynamics in this process remain largely unknown so far. Here, we report the first large scale identification of rice seed phosphoproteins and phosphosites by using a quantitative phosphoproteomic approach. Thorough proteomic studies in pistils and seeds at 3, 7 days after pollination resulted in the successful identification of 3885, 4313 and 4135 phosphopeptides respectively. A total of 2487 proteins were differentially phosphorylated among the three stages, including Kip related protein 1, Rice basic leucine zipper factor 1, Rice prolamin box binding factor and numerous other master regulators of rice seed development. Moreover, differentially phosphorylated proteins may be extensively involved in the biosynthesis and signaling pathways of phytohormones such as auxin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and brassinosteroid. Our results strongly indicated that protein phosphorylation is a key mechanism regulating cell proliferation and enlargement, phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling, grain filling and grain quality during rice seed development. Overall, the current study enhanced our understanding of the rice phosphoproteome and shed novel insight into the regulatory mechanism of rice seed development.

  13. Transfer of gaseous iodine from atmosphere to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiya, Misako; Uchida, Shigeo; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohmomo, Yoichiro; Yamaguchi, Shuho; Obata, Hitoshi.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in order to obtain information required for establishing transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine (I 2 ) to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice. The gaseous iodine deposited on young rice plants before the heading period was scarcely found in the rough rice harvested at the full ripe stage. The biological half life of iodine in hull, however, was much slower than that in leaves of 14 days. The translocation of iodine from leaves and stalks to rough rice was not clearly recognized. Therefore, it was deduced that iodine found in brown rice mainly should originate from that deposited on the hull. The distribution ratios of iodine between rough rice and brown rice, and between brown rice and polished rice were 100:4 and 100:30 on 100 grains basis, respectively. If average normalized deposition velocity (V d(m) ) or derived deposition velocity (V s ) are given, the transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine to rough rice (TF r ), brown rice (TF b ) and polished rice (TF p ) could be calculated. (author)

  14. Endophytic Colonization and In Planta Nitrogen Fixation by a Herbaspirillum sp. Isolated from Wild Rice Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbeltagy, Adel; Nishioka, Kiyo; Sato, Tadashi; Suzuki, Hisa; Ye, Bin; Hamada, Toru; Isawa, Tsuyoshi; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria were isolated from the stems of wild and cultivated rice on a modified Rennie medium. Based on 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences, the diazotrophic isolates were phylogenetically close to four genera: Herbaspirillum, Ideonella, Enterobacter, and Azospirillum. Phenotypic properties and signature sequences of 16S rDNA indicated that three isolates (B65, B501, and B512) belong to the Herbaspirillum genus. To examine whether Herbaspirillum sp. strain B501 isolated from wild rice, Oryza officinalis, endophytically colonizes rice plants, the gfp gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was introduced into the bacteria. Observations by fluorescence stereomicroscopy showed that the GFP-tagged bacteria colonized shoots and seeds of aseptically grown seedlings of the original wild rice after inoculation of the seeds. Conversely, for cultivated rice Oryza sativa, no GFP fluorescence was observed for shoots and only weak signals were observed for seeds. Observations by fluorescence and electron microscopy revealed that Herbaspirillum sp. strain B501 colonized mainly intercellular spaces in the leaves of wild rice. Colony counts of surface-sterilized rice seedlings inoculated with the GFP-tagged bacteria indicated significantly more bacterial populations inside the original wild rice than in cultivated rice varieties. Moreover, after bacterial inoculation, in planta nitrogen fixation in young seedlings of wild rice, O. officinalis, was detected by the acetylene reduction and 15N2 gas incorporation assays. Therefore, we conclude that Herbaspirillum sp. strain B501 is a diazotrophic endophyte compatible with wild rice, particularly O. officinalis. PMID:11679357

  15. Transcriptional changes of rice in response to rice black-streaked dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed M S; Ji, Wen; Wang, Muyue; Bian, Shiquan; Xu, Meng; Wang, Weiyun; Zhang, Jiangxiang; Xu, Zhihao; Yu, Meimei; Liu, Qiaoquan; Zhang, Changquan; Zhang, Honggen; Tang, Shuzhu; Gu, Minghong; Yu, Hengxiu

    2017-09-10

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, causes significant economic losses in rice production in China and many other Asian countries. Although a great deal of effort has been made to elucidate the interactions among the virus, insect vectors, host and environmental conditions, few RBSDV proteins involved in pathogenesis have been identified, and the biological basis of disease development in rice remains largely unknown. Transcriptomic information associated with the disease development in rice would be helpful to unravel the biological mechanism. To determine how the rice transcriptome changes in response to RBSDV infection, we carried out RNA-Seq to perform a genome-wide gene expression analysis of a susceptible rice cultivar KTWYJ3. The transcriptomes of RBSDV-infected samples were compared to those of RBSDV-free (healthy) at two time points (time points are represented by group I and II). The results derived from the differential expression analysis in RBSDV-infected libraries vs. healthy ones in group I revealed that 102 out of a total of 281 significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were up-regulated and 179 DEGs were down-regulated. Of the 2592 identified DEGs in group II, 1588 DEGs were up-regulated and 1004 DEGs were down-regulated. A total of 66 DEGs were commonly identified in both groups. Of these 66 DEGs, expression patterns for 36 DEGs were similar in both groups. Our analysis demonstrated that some genes related to disease defense and stress resistance were up-regulated while genes associated with chloroplast were down-regulated in response to RBSDV infection. In addition, some genes associated with plant-height were differentially expressed. This result indicates those genes might be involved in dwarf symptoms caused by RBSDV. Taken together, our results provide a genome-wide transcriptome analysis for rice plants in response to RBSDV infection which may contribute to the

  16. Studies on the effect of brown rice and maize flour on the quality of bread

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M.Z; Shams, M.

    2011-01-01

    Breads were prepared with various combinations of maize, brown rice and wheat flours in the basic formulation of bread. The baking properties and chemical composition of bread were evaluated and analysed, respectively. The bread volume decreased, where as bread weight and moisture content increased with the increasing level of maize and brown rice flour. The crumb and crust colour of breads were improved with addition of 8% maize and 8% brown rice flour in bread formulation. The protein conte...

  17. Variation in Yield and Physicochemical Quality Traits among Mutants of Japonica Rice Cultivar Wuyujing 3

    OpenAIRE

    Abacar, Jose Daniel; Zhao-miao, Lin; Xin-cheng, Zhang; Cheng-qiang, Ding; She, Tang; Zheng-hui, Liu; Shao-hua, Wang; Yan-feng, Ding

    2016-01-01

    To select elite germplasms, 112 mutants derived from japonica rice cultivar Wuyujing 3 were evaluated. The yield components such as panicle number per square meter, grain number per panicle, and grain weight were measured. The quality traits such as percentage of chalky grains (PCG), brown rice yield (BRY), milled rice yield (MRY), degree of milling (DM), amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), and relationships among traits were inverstigated. Results showed that grain yield ranged from ...

  18. Rice Yellow Mottle Virus stress responsive genes from susceptible and tolerant rice genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siré Christelle

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of viral infection involve concomitant plant gene variations and cellular changes. A simple system is required to assess the complexity of host responses to viral infection. The genome of the Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV is a single-stranded RNA with a simple organisation. It is the most well-known monocotyledon virus model. Several studies on its biology, structure and phylogeography have provided a suitable background for further genetic studies. 12 rice chromosome sequences are now available and provide strong support for genomic studies, particularly physical mapping and gene identification. Results The present data, obtained through the cDNA-AFLP technique, demonstrate differential responses to RYMV of two different rice cultivars, i.e. susceptible IR64 (Oryza sativa indica, and partially resistant Azucena (O. s. japonica. This RNA profiling provides a new original dataset that will enable us to gain greater insight into the RYMV/rice interaction and the specificity of the host response. Using the SIM4 subroutine, we took the intron/exon structure of the gene into account and mapped 281 RYMV stress responsive (RSR transcripts on 12 rice chromosomes corresponding to 234 RSR genes. We also mapped previously identified deregulated proteins and genes involved in partial resistance and thus constructed the first global physical map of the RYMV/rice interaction. RSR transcripts on rice chromosomes 4 and 10 were found to be not randomly distributed. Seven genes were identified in the susceptible and partially resistant cultivars, and transcripts were colocalized for these seven genes in both cultivars. During virus infection, many concomitant plant gene expression changes may be associated with host changes caused by the infection process, general stress or defence responses. We noted that some genes (e.g. ABC transporters were regulated throughout the kinetics of infection and differentiated susceptible and

  19. An N-terminal region of a Myb-like protein is involved in its intracellular localization and activation of a gibberellin-inducible proteinase gene in germinated rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutoh, Keita; Washio, Kenji; Imai, Ryozo; Wada, Masamitsu; Nakai, Tomonori; Yamauchi, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    The expression of the gene for a proteinase (Rep1) is upregulated by gibberellins. The CAACTC regulatory element (CARE) of the Rep1 promoter is involved in the gibberellin response. We isolated a cDNA for a CARE-binding protein containing a Myb domain in its carboxyl-terminal region and designated the gene Carboxyl-terminal Myb1 (CTMyb1). This gene encodes two polypeptides of two distinctive lengths, CTMyb1L and CTMyb1S, which include or exclude 213 N-terminal amino acid residues, respectively. CTMyb1S transactivated the Rep1 promoter in the presence of OsGAMyb, but not CTMyb1L. We observed an interaction between CTMyb1S and the rice prolamin box-binding factor (RPBF). A bimolecular fluorescence complex analysis detected the CTMyb1S and RPBF complex in the nucleus, but not the CTMyb1L and RPBF complex. The results suggest that the arrangement of the transfactors is involved in gibberellin-inducible expression of Rep1.

  20. Prevalence of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) on Rice Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Incidence of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) on rice plants (ofada) grown in two local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State had been evaluated during a two year field survey. Six month old rice plants were observed for symptom expression and leaf samples collected for serological indexing. Of the 60 leaf ...

  1. Degree of Milling Effect on Cold Water Rice Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjwol Subedi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of degree of milling on various rice parameters such as proximate composition, and cooking properties using mathematical model. The experiments were performed in the laboratory of Food Research Division, Nepal Agricultural Research Council. The three different medium type rice varieties of Nepal (Lumle-2, Chhomrong and Machhapuchre-3 were exposed to five different degrees of milling (0%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12%. The degree of milling (DM level significantly (P≤0.05 affected the milling recovery; head rice yield, nutrient content as well as cooking properties of the rice. Increase in DM resulted in further reduction of protein content, fat content, minerals, milled rice and head rice yield after bran layer was further removed. A positive correlation between DM used in present model, amylose content, kernel elongation and gruel solid loss was observed, however, with an increase in DM; amylose content, kernel elongation and gruel solid loss were found to be increased. Adopting 6 to 8% DM for commercial milling of rice might help to prevent quantitative, qualitative and nutritional loss along with retention of good cooking characteristics.

  2. Mitochondrial ORF79 levels determine pollen abortion in cytoplasmic male sterile rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Tomohiko; Itabashi, Etsuko; Fujii, Shinya; Nakamura, Takahiro; Toriyama, Kinya

    2016-03-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an important agricultural trait characterized by lack of functional pollen, and caused by ectopic and defective mitochondrial gene expression. The pollen function in CMS plants is restored by the presence of nuclear-encoded restorer of fertility (Rf) genes. Previously, we cloned Rf2, which restores the fertility of Lead Rice (LD)-type CMS rice. However, neither the function of Rf2 nor the identity of the mitochondrial gene causing CMS has been determined in LD-CMS rice. Here, we show that the mitochondrial gene orf79 acts as a CMS-associated gene in LD-CMS rice, similar to its role in BT-CMS rice originating from Chinsurah Boro II, and Rf2 weakly restores fertility in BT-CMS rice. We also show that RF2 promotes degradation of atp6-orf79 RNA in a different manner from that of RF1, which is the Rf gene product in BT-CMS rice. The amount of ORF79 protein in LD-CMS rice was one-twentieth of the amount in BT-CMS rice. The difference in ORF79 protein levels probably accounts for the mild and severe pollen defects in LD-CMS and BT-CMS rice, respectively. In the presence of Rf2, accumulation of ORF79 was reduced to almost zero and 25% in LD-CMS and BT-CMS rice, respectively, which probably accounts for the complete and weak fertility restoration abilities of Rf2 in LD-CMS and BT-CMS rice, respectively. These observations indicate that the amount of ORF79 influences the pollen fertility in two strains of rice in which CMS is induced by orf79. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Hydrophobicity of stored (15, 35 °C), or dry-heated (120 °C) rice flour and deteriorated breadmaking properties baked with these treated rice flour/fresh gluten flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Mariko; Tabara, Aya; Ushijima, Yuki; Matsunaga, Kotaro; Seguchi, Masaharu

    2016-05-01

    Rice flour was stored at 15 °C/9 months, at 35 °C/14 days, or dry-heated at 120 °C/20 min. The breadmaking properties baked with this rice flour/fresh gluten flour deteriorated. In addition, the rice flour was mixed with oil in water vigorously, and oil-binding ability was measured. Every rice flour subjected to storage or dry-heated at 120 °C showed higher hydrophobicity, owing to changes in proteins. Then, proteins in the stored rice flour were excluded with NaOH solution, and bread baked with the deproteinized rice flour showed the same breadmaking properties as unstored rice flour/fresh gluten flour. The viscoelasticity of wheat glutenin fraction decreased after the addition of dry-heated rice flour in a mixograph profile. DDD staining increased Lab in color meter, which suggested an increase in SH groups in rice protein. The increase in SH groups caused a reduction in wheat gluten protein resulting in a deterioration of rice bread quality. .

  4. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  5. Extraction of rice bran oil from local rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Zaman, W.; Salman, M.; Jabeen, N.

    2006-01-01

    Rice Bran Oil is widely used in pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries due to its unique properties and high medicinal value. In the present work, extraction of rice bran oil from different samples of rice husk collected from local rice shellers by solvent extraction method has been studied. Experiments were conducted using a soxhelt apparatus, to extract rice bran oil using hexane, petroleum ether, ethanol and methanol as the solvents and the yields obtained under different conditions were compared. Batch extraction tests showed that the rate of extraction decreases with time and the solution approaches saturation at an exponential rate. (author)

  6. Genomics of interaction between the brown planthopper and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Shengli; Zhao, Yan; Du, Bo; Chen, Rongzhi; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2017-02-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)) form a model system for dissection of the mechanism of interaction between insect pest and crop. In this review, we focus on the genomics of BPH-rice interaction. On the side of rice, a number of BPH-resistance genes have been identified genetically. Thirteen of these genes have been cloned which shed a light on the molecular basis of the interaction. On the aspect of BPH, a lot of salivary proteins have been identified using transcriptome and proteome techniques. The genetic loci of virulence were mapped in BPH genome based on the linkage map. The understanding of interaction between BPH and rice will provide novel insights into efficient control of this pest. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Plant Pathology: A Life and Death Struggle in Rice Blast Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-Min

    2016-09-26

    The fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae causes severe disease symptoms and yield losses on rice plants. A new study shows that this fungus elicits disease lesions by co-opting a host protein and reveals how rice plants fight back. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gamma radiation effects on rice, substrate for Sitophilus oryzae (L.) rearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, F.M.; Arthur, V.; Walder, J.M.M.; Domarco, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    The gamma radiation effects (800 Krad, 60 Co) on rice are studied. Degraded substances by the radiation and how this degradation affects the biology of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) are searched. The vitamins, proteins and stard of the rice are affected by the radiation. (M.A.C.) [pt

  9. Gasification of rice husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzetti, P. (ENEA, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Fonti Alternative e Risparmio Energetico)

    The paper outlines the thermochemical processes and equipment involved in the gasification of rice husks. An assessment is made of the feasibility (availability, technology requirements, economics of production and marketing) of this renewable energy source. Results, reported here in tabular form, of experimental trials at an Italian pilot plant (producing, with the use of 165 kg/h of rice husks, 350,000 kcal/h of gas with a conversion yield of 70%) indicated good feasibility. More research is required to improve the combustion qualities of the final product.

  10. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) containing the bar gene is compositionally equivalent to the nontransgenic counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberdoerfer, Regina B; Shillito, Raymond D; de Beuckeleer, Marc; Mitten, Donna H

    2005-03-09

    This publication presents an approach to assessing compositional equivalence between grain derived from glufosinate-tolerant rice grain, genetic event LLRICE62, and its nontransgenic counterpart. Rice was grown in the same manner as is common for commercial production, using either conventional weed control practices or glufosinate-ammonium herbicide. A two-season multisite trial design provided a robust data set to evaluate environmental effects between the sites. Statistical comparisons to test for equivalence were made between glufosinate-tolerant rice and a conventional counterpart variety. The key nutrients, carbohydrates, protein, iron, calcium, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin, for which rice can be the principal dietary source, were investigated. The data demonstrate that rice containing the genetic locus LLRICE62 has the same nutritional value as its nontransgenic counterpart, and most results for nutritional components fall within the range of values reported for rice commodities in commerce.

  11. Proximate Nutritional Evaluation of Gamma Irradiated Black Rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Cempo ireng)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyatun; Suharyana; Ramelan, A. H.; Sutarno; Saputra, O. A.; Suryanti, V.

    2018-03-01

    Black rice is a type of pigmented rice with black bran covering the endosperm of the rice kernel. The main objective of the present study was to provide details information on the proximate composition of third generation of gamma irradiated black rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Cempo ireng). In respect to the control, generally speaking, there were no significant changes of moisture, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and fibers contents have been observed for the both gamma irradiated black rice. However, the 200-BR has slightly better nutritional value than that of 300-BR and the control. The mineral contents of 200-BR increased significantly of about 35% than the non-gamma irradiated black rice.

  12. Transgenic rice plants harboring an introduced potato proteinase inhibitor II gene are insect resistant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, X; Li, X; Xue, Q; Abo-el-Saad, M; Xu, D; Wu, R

    1996-04-01

    We introduced the potato proteinase inhibitor II (PINII) gene (pin2) into several Japonica rice varieties, and regenerated a large number of transgenic rice plants. Wound-inducible expression of the pin2 gene driven by its own promoter, together with the first intron of the rice actin 1 gene (act1), resulted in high-level accumulation of the PINII protein in the transgenic plants. The introduced pin2 gene was stably inherited in the second, third, and fourth generations, as shown by molecular analyses. Based on data from the molecular analyses, several homozygous transgenic lines were obtained. Bioassay for insect resistance with the fifth-generation transgenic rice plants showed that transgenic rice plants had increased resistance to a major rice insect pest, pink stem borer (Sesamia inferens). Thus, introduction of an insecticidal proteinase inhibitor gene into cereal plants can be used as a general strategy for control of insect pests.

  13. Effect of polishing time and pressure on quality characteristics of rice grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Since totally unpolished rice has poor cooking quality, a certain amount of polishing for the removal of the outermost bran layers is essential. To determine the best combination of polishing time and pressure with respect to obtaining optimum quantity/quality, the brown rice (head grains) of a rice strain 4048 was milled for 10, 20, 30 and 40 seconds against 1,2,3,4 and 5 lbs pressure in a Burrows McGill Polisher No. 3. the quality characteristics studied were: total milling recovery, head rice recovery, whiteness of milled rice, protein content of grain, grain length and bursting upon cooking. Both, total milled rice and head rice reduced while the whiteness of milled rice improved significantly with an increase in polishing time and or pressure. The protein content decreased gradually with an increase in time and pressure of milling but the effect was non significant. The cooked grain length increased with an increase in milling degree up to a stage, beyond which it declined. The increase in bursting of grains on cooking. A combination of 20 seconds polishing time with 2 lbs pressure or 20 seconds polishing time with 3 lbs pressure was found to be the best combination of obtaining the optimum quality as well as the quality of milled rice.(author)

  14. Variation in cooking and eating quality traits in Japanese rice germplasm accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Kiyosumi; Suzuki, Keitaro; Iijima, Ken; Ebana, Kaworu

    2016-03-01

    The eating quality of cooked rice is important and determines its market price and consumer acceptance. To comprehensively describe the variation of eating quality in 183 rice germplasm accessions, we evaluated 33 eating-quality traits including amylose and protein contents, pasting properties of rice flour, and texture of cooked rice grains. All eating-quality traits varied widely in the germplasm accessions. Principal-components analysis (PCA) revealed that allelic differences in the Wx gene explained the largest proportion of phenotypic variation of the eating-quality traits. In 146 accessions of non-glutinous temperate japonica rice, PCA revealed that protein content and surface texture of the cooked rice grains significantly explained phenotypic variations of the eating-quality traits. An allelic difference based on simple sequence repeats, which was located near a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the short arm of chromosome 3, was associated with differences in the eating quality of non-glutinous temperate japonica rice. These results suggest that eating quality is controlled by genetic factors, including the Wx gene and the QTL on chromosome 3, in Japanese rice accessions. These genetic factors have been consciously selected for eating quality during rice breeding programs in Japan.

  15. Effect of fertiliser on functional properties of flour from four rice varieties grown in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Anil; Sirisena, Nihal; Ratnayaka, Upul Kumari; Ratnayaka, Jennet; Kong, Xiangli; Vidhana Arachchi, Lal Peruma; Corke, Harold

    2011-05-01

    Fertiliser is an essential agro-chemical input in modern rice farming. Fertiliser affects the grain quality and yield of rice. Although much research has been carried out to investigate the influence of fertiliser (recommended NPK addition) on yield and quality of rice grain, little is known about the effect of fertiliser on thermal, pasting, gelling and retrogradation properties of rice flour. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of recommended fertilisation on functional properties of rice flour from four popular high yielding rice varieties grown in Sri Lanka. Fertiliser (recommended NPK addition) increased the protein content but reduced the apparent amylose content in rice flour except in BG 357. Swelling power and amylose leaching were decreased by fertilizer. [corrected] Pasting onset temperature, cold paste viscosity and setback were increased but peak viscosity and granular breakdown decreased. In response to the fertiliser application, gelatinisation peak temperature was reduced in all varieties except BG 300. However, compared to pasting properties, gelatinisation parameters were not much affected by fertilisation. The extent of amylopectin retrogradation was decreased by fertiliser in BG 305 and BG 352 but unchanged in the other two varieties. Except in BG 305, fertiliser reduced the gel hardness of rice flour but increased the gel cohesiveness. It is apparent that the increased protein and reduced amylose content caused by fertiliser affect the functional properties of rice flour. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Soybean-Enriched Snacks Based on African Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Marengo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Snacks were produced by extruding blends of partially-defatted soybean flour with flours from milled or parboiled African-grown rice. The interplay between composition and processing in producing snacks with a satisfactory sensory profile was addressed by e-sensing, and by molecular and rheological approaches. Soybean proteins play a main role in defining the properties of the protein network in the products. At the same content in soybean flour, use of parboiled rice flour increases the snack’s hardness. Electronic nose and electronic tongue discriminated samples containing a higher amount of soybean flour from those with a lower soybean flour content.

  17. Soybean-Enriched Snacks Based on African Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Mauro; Akoto, Hannah F.; Zanoletti, Miriam; Carpen, Aristodemo; Buratti, Simona; Benedetti, Simona; Barbiroli, Alberto; Johnson, Paa-Nii T.; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther O.; Saalia, Firibu K.; Bonomi, Francesco; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Manful, John; Iametti, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Snacks were produced by extruding blends of partially-defatted soybean flour with flours from milled or parboiled African-grown rice. The interplay between composition and processing in producing snacks with a satisfactory sensory profile was addressed by e-sensing, and by molecular and rheological approaches. Soybean proteins play a main role in defining the properties of the protein network in the products. At the same content in soybean flour, use of parboiled rice flour increases the snack’s hardness. Electronic nose and electronic tongue discriminated samples containing a higher amount of soybean flour from those with a lower soybean flour content. PMID:28231133

  18. Identification of major rice allergen and their clinical significance in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Hoon Jeon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Recently, an increase in the number of patients sensitized to rice allergen with or without clinical symptoms has been reported. This study was designed to determine the major allergens in rice and their clinical significance. Methods : Twenty-four children (15 boys and 9 girls; mean age, 16.3 months with allergic disease, who were sensitized to rice antigen (by UniCAP in the Pediatric Allergy Respiratory Center at Soonchunhyang University Hospital, were enrolled in this study. The allergenicity of various types of rice (raw, cooked, and heat-treated, simulated gastric fluid [SGF], and simulated intestinal fluid [SIF] was investigated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and immunoglobulin E (IgE immunoblots. The patients’ medical records, including laboratory data and allergy symptoms after ingestion of rice were reviewed. Results : Patients were sensitized to an average of 13.5 food antigens and their mean total IgE was 6,888.7 kU/L. In SDS-PAGE, more than 16 protein bands were observed in the raw rice, whereas only 14-16 kDa and 31-35 kDa protein bands were observed in cooked rice. The common SDS-PAGE protein bands observed in SGF-, SIF-, and heattreated rice were 9, 14, and 31 kDa. In a heated-rice IgE immunoblot, protein bands of 9, 14, and 31-33 kDa were found in 27.8%, 38.9%, and 38.9% of all sera, respectively, and in 50%, 50%, and 75%, of ser a from the 4 symptomatic patients, respectively. Conclusion : The 9-, 14-, and 31-kDa protein bands appeared to be the major allergens responsible for rice allergy symptoms.

  19. Rice as commodity and anti-commodity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    2016-01-01

    On the Upper West Africa coast rice belongs to two species — African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) and Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.). African rice was domesticated in the region, perhaps three millennia ago, from a presumed wild ancestor, O. barthii. Asian rice was introduced via trans-Saharan

  20. [Exposure degree of important non-target arthropods to Cry2Aa in Bt rice fields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Ling; Li, Yun-He; Hua, Hong-Xia; Yang, Chang-Ju; Wu, Hong-Jin; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2013-06-01

    Based on the principle of "risk = hazard x exposure", the selected representative nontarget organisms in the assessment of the potential effects of insect-resistant genetically modified (GM) crops on non-target arthropods in laboratory are generally the arthropod species highly exposed to the insecticidal proteins expressed by the GM crops in farmland ecosystem. In order to understand the exposure degree of the important arthropod species to Cry proteins in Bt rice fields, and to select the appropriate non-target arthropods in the risk assessment of insect-resistant GM crops, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted to measure the Cry2Aa protein concentration in the arthropods collected from the cry2Aa rice fields at different rice growth stages. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the Cry2Aa content protein concentration in different arthropod species. Some species did not contain Cry2Aa protein, while some species contained larger amounts of Cry2Aa protein. Relative to the arthropods colleted after rice anthesis, the arthropods colleted in rice anthesis contained relative higher concentrations of Cry2Aa protein, especially for the predacious arthropods. No Cry proteins were detected in parasitic arthropods. This study provided references for the laboratory assessment of the effects of GM rice on nontarget arthropods.

  1. Diseases of wild rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases are much more pronounced in cultivated wild rice than in natural stands, most likely due to the narrower genetic base of the populations, plant stress due to high planting density and floodwater removal prior to harvest, and high relative humidity in the plant canopy. Yield losses occur as ...

  2. Promising rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Two induced mutants namely, Mut NS 1 (tall) and Mut NS 5 (semi-dwarf) derived from rice variety Nizersail were evaluated for various agronomic characters at four locations in Bangladesh. Both the mutants matured about three weeks earlier and yielded significantly higher than the parent variety Nizersail. (author). 3 tabs., 9 refs

  3. Assessment of the quality of bran and bran oil produced from some Egyptian rice varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Eglal G; El Hissewy, Ahmed; Agamy, Neveen F; Abd El Barry, Doaa

    2014-04-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the leading food crops of the world, the staple food of over half the world's population. The bran, which is an important byproduct obtained during rice milling, constitutes about 1/10 of the weight of the rice grain. Rice bran is the outer brown layer including the rice germ that is removed during the milling process of brown grain. This milling byproduct is reported to be high in natural vitamins and minerals, particularly vitamin E. The present study was conducted to determine the chemical composition of bran and bran oil of 13 different rice varieties commonly produced in Egypt, to study the utilization of rice bran in bread production, and to assess the quality and acceptance of the rice bran edible oil produced. Rice bran was produced from 13 Egyptian varieties of recently harvested rice as well as from paddy rice stored for 1 year. The extracted bran was immediately stabilized then subjected to chemical analysis (such as moisture content, protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber, and ash) as well as trace and heavy metals determination (P, K, Na, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mg). Bread was produced by adding Giza172 rice bran at three different concentrations to wheat flour then subjected to chemical analysis, caloric content, and organoleptic examination. Bran oil was extracted from the different varieties of rice bran (recently harvested and stored) then subjected to chemical and organoleptic examinations as well as vitamin E and oryzanol determination. The percentage of rice bran of newly harvested Egyptian rice was 11.68% and was 10.97% in stored rice. The analysis showed mean values of 5.91 and 5.53% for moisture, 14.60 and 14.40% for crude protein, 14.83 and 15.20% for fat, 44.77 and 45.40% for carbohydrates, 6.55 and 7.06% for crude fiber, and 8.87 and 8.50% for ash for newly harvested and stored rice bran, respectively. Bread containing 15% rice bran showed the highest score percentages for organoleptic quality compared with the

  4. Investigating differences in light stable isotopes between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukusamude, C.; Kongsri, S.

    2017-10-01

    We report the differences in light stable isotopes between two kinds of Thai rice (Thai jasmine and Sungyod rice). Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice were cultivated in the northeast and the south of Thailand. Light isotopes including 13C, 15N and 18O of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice samples were carried out using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Thai jasmine rice (Khao Dawk Mali 105) was cultivated from Thung Kula Rong Hai area, whereas Sungyod rice was cultivated from Phathalung province. Hypothesis testing of difference of each isotope between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice was also studied. The study was the feasibility test whether the light stable isotopes can be the variables to identify Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. The result shows that there was difference in the isotope patterns of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. Our results may provide the useful information in term of stable isotope profiles of Thai rice.

  5. Radiation disinfestation of Basmati rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.S.; Gholap, A.S.; Adhikari, H.R.; Nair, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Effect of low dose γ-radiation on prepackaged Basmati rice was studied in order to achieve disinfestation of rice. Basmati rice procured from local market was repacked in 1 kg pouches made from high density polyethylene (HDP) and biaxially oriented polypropylene: low density polyethylene (BOPP/LDP) laminate and irradiated at doses from 0.25-1.0 kGy. Within one month of storage at room temperature, unirradiated (control) Basmati rice developed heavy infestation. No infestation was observed in any of the irradiated samples even at 0.25 kGy and the rice could be stored for 6 months in a clean state. Irradiation (at 0.25 kGy) did not alter the moisture content of the rice. Likewise, no significant change was noted due to irradiation in the functional properties of rice such as swelling index and water absorption and in total volatile components responsible for flavour of Basmati rice. In organoleptic evaluation, no significant difference was found between the acceptability of irradiated (0.25 kGy) and control rice. These results are significant in view of the high export potential of Basmati rice and the transit losses at present due to infestation. (author). 24 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  6. Induction of rice mutations by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xuncheng; Zheng, Feng; Zeng, Songjun; Wu, Kunlin; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Duan, Jun

    2013-09-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is an extreme thermo-physical factor that affects the synthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins and induces mutagenesis in microorganisms. Our previous studies showed that exposure to 25-100 MPa HHP for 12 h retarded the germination and affected the viability of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds, increased the tolerance of rice plants to cold stress and altered gene expression patterns in germinating rice seeds. However, the mutagenic effect of HHP on rice remains unknown. In this study, exposure to 25, 50, 75 or 100 MPa for 12 h HHP could efficiently induce variation in rice plants. Furthermore, presoaking time and HHP strength during HHP treatment affected the efficiency of mutation. In addition, the Comet assay revealed that exposure to 25-100 MPa HHP for 12 h induced DNA strand breakage in germinating seeds and may have been the source of mutations. Our results suggest that HHP is a promising physical mutagen in rice breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Genome-wide analysis of potential cross-reactive endogenous allergens in rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chao Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The proteins in the food are the source of common allergic components to certain patients. Current lists of plant endogenous allergens were based on the medical/clinical reports as well as laboratory results. Plant genome sequences made it possible to predict and characterize the genome-wide of putative endogenous allergens in rice (Oryza sativa L.. In this work, we identified and characterized 122 candidate rice allergens including the 22 allergens in present databases. Conserved domain analysis also revealed 37 domains among rice allergens including one novel domain (histidine kinase-, DNA gyrase B-, and HSP90-like ATPase, PF13589 adding to the allergen protein database. Phylogenetic analysis of the allergens revealed the diversity among the Prolamin superfamily and DnaK protein family, respectively. Additionally, some allergens proteins clustered on the rice chromosome might suggest the molecular function during the evolution.

  8. Evaluation of Rice Resistance to Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus and Rice Ragged Stunt Virus through Combined Field Tests, Quantitative Real-Time PCR, and Proteome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenchao; Yu, Lu; Jin, Linhong; Wang, Wenli; Zhao, Qi; Ran, Longlu; Li, Xiangyang; Chen, Zhuo; Guo, Rong; Wei, Yongtian; Yang, Zhongcheng; Liu, Enlong; Hu, Deyu; Song, Baoan

    2017-02-22

    Diseases caused by southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) and rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) considerably decrease grain yield. Therefore, determining rice cultivars with high resistance to SRBSDV and RRSV is necessary. In this study, rice cultivars with high resistance to SRBSDV and RRSV were evaluated through field trials in Shidian and Mangshi county, Yunnan province, China. SYBR Green I-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was used to quantitatively detect virus gene expression levels in different rice varieties. The following parameters were applied to evaluate rice resistance: acre yield (A.Y.), incidence of infected plants (I.I.P.), virus load (V.L.), disease index (D.I.), and insect quantity (I.Q.) per 100 clusters. Zhongzheyou1 (Z1) and Liangyou2186 (L2186) were considered the most suitable varieties with integrated higher A.Y., lower I.I.P., V.L., D.I. and I.Q. In order to investigate the mechanism of rice resistance, comparative label-free shotgun liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomic approaches were applied to comprehensively describe the proteomics of rice varieties' SRBSDV tolerance. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR)-related proteins in Z1 and L2186 may result in the superior resistance of these varieties compared with Fengyouxiangzhan (FYXZ).

  9. Radioactive probes as diagnostic tools for rice tungro viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzam, O.; Arboleda, M.; Reyes. J. de los

    1996-01-01

    Rice tungro bacilliform (RTBV) and rice tungro spherical viruses (RTSV) are the two viral components responsible for rice tungro disease which has seriously affected the irrigated rice ecosystem in Southeast Asia for the last 30 years. RTBV has an 8 Kb double-stranded DNA circular genome, and it is primarily responsible for induction of symptoms in infected plants. RTSV has a 12 kb single-stranded RNA genome. It does not induce any apparent symptoms in the infected plant, and it is transmitted by greenleafhopper. RTBV depends upon RTSV for its own transmission. The two viruses are limited to the vascular tissue of the rice plant and are present at a low titer. Most of the detection methods used for the identification of these viruses have relied on the virus protein properties and therefore, early detection of the virus activity was not possible. We were interested in evaluating tissue printing, dot blot, and southern techniques for early detection of virus nucleic acids in rice plant using radioactive and non radioactive probes. 32 P-labeled T7 or SP6 RNA polymerase transcripts complementary to the RTBV genome and RTSV coat protein genes were used as probes of the positive stand of both viruses. For nonradioactive probes, RTBV DNA genome was labeled using the ECL detection kit (Amersham). Preliminary results show that viral nucleic acids of RTBV and RTSV could be detected using both labelling systems. Non radioactive probes were comparable in their sensitivity to the radioactive probes. Less than 100 pg of viral DNA was detected in the dot-blot assays. More data will be presented to compare the efficiency and reliability of these two techniques in detecting early virus activity in the rice plant. (author)

  10. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Feizabadi, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  11. Manganese-induced regulations in growth, yield formation, quality characters, rice aroma and enzyme involved in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline biosynthesis in fragrant rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meijuan; Ashraf, Umair; Tian, Hua; Mo, Zhaowen; Pan, Shenggang; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Duan, Meiyang; Tang, Xiangru

    2016-06-01

    Micro-nutrient application is essential for normal plant growth while a little is known about manganese (Mn)-induced regulations in morpho-physiological attributes, aroma formation and enzyme involved in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) biosynthesis in aromatic rice. Present study aimed to examine the influence of four levels of Mn i.e., Mn1 (100 mg MnSO4 pot(-1)), Mn2 (150 mg MnSO4 pot(-1)), Mn3 (200 mg MnSO4 pot(-1)), and Mn4 (250 mg MnSO4 pot(-1)) on the growth, yield formation, quality characters, rice aroma and enzyme involved in 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline biosynthesis in two fragrant rice cultivars i.e., Meixiangzhan and Nongxiang 18. Pots without Mn application were served as control (Ck). Each pot contained 15 kg of soil. Effects on agronomic characters, quality attributes, 2-AP contents and enzymes involved in 2-AP biosynthesis have been studied in early and late season rice. Results depicted that Mn improved rice growth, yield and related characters, and some quality attributes significantly. It further up-regulated proline, pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid (P5C) (precursors of 2-AP), soluble proteins and activities of proline dehydrogenase (ProDH), Δ(1) pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid synthetase (P5CS) ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) that led to enhanced 2-AP production in rice grains. Moreover, higher Mn levels resulted in increased grain Mn contents in both rice cultivars. Along with growth and yield improvement, Mn application significantly improved rice aromatic contents. Overall, Nongxiang 18 accumulated more 2-AP contents than Meixiangzhan in both seasons under Mn application. This study further explored the importance of Mn in rice aroma formation and signifies that micro-nutrients can play significant roles in rice aroma synthesis; however, intensive studies at molecular levels are still needed to understand the exact mechanisms of Mn to improve rice aroma formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. A label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics analysis of rice grain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Hee-Jong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a great deal of rice proteomic research has been conducted, there are relatively few studies specifically addressing the rice grain proteome. The existing rice grain proteomic researches have focused on the identification of differentially expressed proteins or monitoring protein expression patterns during grain filling stages. Results Proteins were extracted from rice grains 10, 20, and 30 days after flowering, as well as from fully mature grains. By merging all of the identified proteins in this study, we identified 4,172 non-redundant proteins with a wide range of molecular weights (from 5.2 kDa to 611 kDa and pI values (from pH 2.9 to pH 12.6. A Genome Ontology category enrichment analysis for the 4,172 proteins revealed that 52 categories were enriched, including the carbohydrate metabolic process, transport, localization, lipid metabolic process, and secondary metabolic process. The relative abundances of the 1,784 reproducibly identified proteins were compared to detect 484 differentially expressed proteins during rice grain development. Clustering analysis and Genome Ontology category enrichment analysis revealed that proteins involved in the metabolic process were enriched through all stages of development, suggesting that proteome changes occurred even in the desiccation phase. Interestingly, enrichments of proteins involved in protein folding were detected in the desiccation phase and in fully mature grain. Conclusion This is the first report conducting comprehensive identification of rice grain proteins. With a label free shotgun proteomic approach, we identified large number of rice grain proteins and compared the expression patterns of reproducibly identified proteins during rice grain development. Clustering analysis, Genome Ontology category enrichment analysis, and the analysis of composite expression profiles revealed dynamic changes of metabolisms during rice grain development. Interestingly, we

  13. Proposal of a growth chamber for growing Super-Dwarf Rice in Space Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Tsukamoto, Koya; Yamashita, Youichirou; Hirai, Takehiro

    Space agriculture needs to be considered to supply food for space crew who stay in space over an extended time period. So far crops such as wheat, onion, oat, pea and lettuce grew to explore the possibility of space agriculture. Although rice is a staple food for most of the world, research on rice cultivation in space has not been done much. Rice grains are nutrient-rich with carbohydrate, protein and dietary fiber. Moreover, rice is a high yield crop and harvested grains have a long shelf life. However, the plant height of standard rice cultivars is relatively long, requiring much space. In addition, rice plants require higher light intensities for greater yield. For these reasons, it is difficult to establish facilities for rice culture in a limited space with a low cost. We propose to employee a super-dwarf cultivar and a small growth chamber with a new type of LEDs. The super-dwarf rice is a short-grain japonica variety and the plant height is approximately 20 cm that is one-fifth as tall as standard cultivars. The LED light used as a light source for this study can provide full spectrum of 380 nm to 750 nm. Air temperature and humidity were controlled by a Peltier device equipped in the chamber. The characteristics of the new type of LEDs and other equipments of the chamber and the ground based performance of super-dwarf rice plants grown in the chamber will be reported.

  14. Nicaragua - Rice and Banana Farmers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report is an impact evaluation of two components of the Rural Business Development Program (RBD) in Nicaragua, specifically the components benefitting rice and...

  15. Physiological and molecular characterization of Si uptake in wild rice species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani-Ueno, Namiki; Ogai, Hisao; Yamaji, Naoki; Ma, Jian Feng

    2014-07-01

    Cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) accumulates high concentration of silicon (Si), which is required for its high and sustainable production. High Si accumulation in cultivated rice is achieved by a high expression of both influx (Lsi1) and efflux (Lsi2) Si transporters in roots. Herein, we physiologically investigated Si uptake, isolated and functionally characterized Si transporters in six wild rice species with different genome types. Si uptake by the roots was lower in Oryza rufipogon, Oryza barthii (AA genome), Oryza australiensis (EE genome) and Oryza punctata (BB genome), but similar in Oryza glumaepatula and Oryza meridionalis (AA genome) compared with the cultivated rice (cv. Nipponbare). However, all wild rice species and the cultivated rice showed similar concentration of Si in the shoots when grown in a field. All species with AA genome showed the same amino acid sequence of both Lsi1 and Lsi2 as O. sativa, whereas species with EE and BB genome showed several nucleotide differences in both Lsi1 and Lsi2. However, proteins encoded by these genes also showed transport activity for Si in Xenopus oocyte. The mRNA expression of Lsi1 in all wild rice species was lower than that in the cultivated rice, whereas the expression of Lsi2 was lower in O. rufipogon and O. barthii but similar in other species. Similar cellular localization of Lsi1 and Lsi2 was observed in all wild rice as the cultivated rice. These results indicate that superior Si uptake, the important trait for rice growth, is basically conserved in wild and cultivated rice species. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  16. Sorghum and rice: Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Agriculture is the mainstay of the Malian economy and yet cereal imports absorb 6.5% of GDP. Food self-sufficiency is therefore a national priority. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division is supporting a programme to improve local varieties of sorghum and rice by using nuclear techniques to develop new cultivars that will produce higher yields under Mali's semi-arid climatic conditions. (IAEA)

  17. Overexpression of rice serotonin N-acetyltransferase 1 in transgenic rice plants confers resistance to cadmium and senescence and increases grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungjin; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2017-04-01

    While ectopic overexpression of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) in plants has been accomplished using animal SNAT genes, ectopic overexpression of plant SNAT genes in plants has not been investigated. Because the plant SNAT protein differs from that of animals in its subcellular localization and enzyme kinetics, its ectopic overexpression in plants would be expected to give outcomes distinct from those observed from overexpression of animal SNAT genes in transgenic plants. Consistent with our expectations, we found that transgenic rice plants overexpressing rice (Oryza sativa) SNAT1 (OsSNAT1) did not show enhanced seedling growth like that observed in ovine SNAT-overexpressing transgenic rice plants, although both types of plants exhibited increased melatonin levels. OsSNAT1-overexpressing rice plants did show significant resistance to cadmium and senescence stresses relative to wild-type controls. In contrast to tomato, melatonin synthesis in rice seedlings was not induced by selenium and OsSNAT1 transgenic rice plants did not show tolerance to selenium. T 2 homozygous OsSNAT1 transgenic rice plants exhibited increased grain yield due to increased panicle number per plant under paddy field conditions. These benefits conferred by ectopic overexpression of OsSNAT1 had not been observed in transgenic rice plants overexpressing ovine SNAT, suggesting that plant SNAT functions differently from animal SNAT in plants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Inhibition effects of black rice pericarp extracts on cell proliferation of PC-3 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiwei; Yu, Xudong; Ren, Guofeng

    2013-05-01

    To observe the inhibitive effects of black rice pericarp extracts on cell proliferation of human prostate cancer cell PC-3 and to explore its effecting mechanism. The black rice pericarp extract was used to treat the PC-3 cells. The inhibitory effect of black rice pericarp extract on cells proliferation of PC-3 was tested by MTT method. Cell apoptosis rates and cell cycle were measured by flow cytometric assay (FCM). Western blot was used to study the protein expression levels of p38, p-p38, JNK, p-JNK. A dose-dependent and time-dependent proliferation inhibition of black rice pericarp extract was demonstrated in PC-3. The most prominent experiment condition was inhibitory concentration with 300microg/ml and treated for 72 h. The experiment result of flow cytometry analysis demonstrates that the apoptosis rate of PC-3 cells increased along with the increasing of black rice pericarp extract concentration, and a G1-S cell cycle arrest was induced in a dose-dependent manner. After PC-3 cell was treated with black rice pericarp extract for 72 h, the expressions of p-p38, p-JNK protein increased. Black rice pericarp extract could inhibit proliferation, change the cell cycle distributions and induce apoptosis in human prostatic cancer cell PC-3. Its inhibitory effect may be through promoting activation of the JNK, p38 signaling pathway. These results suggest that black rice pericarp extract maybe has an inhibitory effect on prostatic cancer.

  19. Optimization of Rice Bran Fermentation Conditions Enhanced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rice bran fermentation conditions for extraction of protein concentrate was enhanced by the use of baker's yeast at optimized conditions using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design with three independent variables: fermentation temperature (25 to 35oC), yeast concentration (1 to 5%) and ...

  20. Rhizosphere of rice plants harbor bacteria with multiple plant growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhizosphere of rice plants harbor bacteria with multiple plant growth promoting features. ... 45 (39.46%) isolates were capable of producing siderophore, the range of production being 4.50 to 223.26 μg mg-1 protein. Analysis of molecular diversity was made by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and ...

  1. Mapping QTLs for submergence tolerance during germination in rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... Key words: Oryza sativa L, anaerobic germination, QTL analysis. INTRODUCTION. Two main ... The study was conducted at NG-01 greenhouse, Genome and. Mapping (GML), the .... ABC transporter family protein ..... differences of germination habits in rice seeds with special reference to plant breeding (in ...

  2. Rice-Fish Culture in China | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Raising fish in rice paddies brings to farmers in Asia an important source of protein, as well as extra income. Rice–Fish Culture in China is an important addition to the English language literature in this area. Along with biological and ecological aspects of rice–fish culture, the book addresses its economic and social ...

  3. Diversity of some endophytic fungi associated with rice black bug Paraeucosmetus pallicornis on rice plant

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Amin; La Daha; Nurariaty, Agus; Ade, Rosmana; Muh., Fadlan

    2015-01-01

    A new rice insect pest was sighted in some rice producing areas of South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This pest is rice black bugs Paraeucosmetus pallicornis. The research aimed to isolation of fungi associated with rice black bugs Paraeucosmetus pallicornis, so as to know the cause of a bitter taste to the rice. The isolation of the fungi consist of three kinds of treatment, namely rice black bugs without sterilization, with sterilization and rice black bugs cut and sterilized. The resul...

  4. RNAi-mediated resistance to rice black-streaked dwarf virus in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed M S; Bian, Shiquan; Wang, Muyue; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Bingwei; Liu, Qiaoquan; Zhang, Changquan; Tang, Shuzhu; Gu, Minghong; Yu, Hengxiu

    2017-04-01

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, causes significant economic losses in rice production in China and many other Asian countries. Development of resistant varieties by using conventional breeding methods is limited, as germplasm with high level of resistance to RBSDV have not yet been found. One of the most promising methods to confer resistance against RBSDV is the use of RNA interference (RNAi) technology. RBSDV non-structural protein P7-2, encoded by S7-2 gene, is a potential F-box protein and involved in the plant-virus interaction through the ubiquitination pathway. P8, encoded by S8 gene, is the minor core protein that possesses potent active transcriptional repression activity. In this study, we transformed rice calli using a mini-twin T-DNA vector harboring RNAi constructs of the RBSDV genes S7-2 or S8, and obtained plants harboring the target gene constructs and the selectable marker gene, hygromycin phosphotransferase (HPT). From the offspring of these transgenic plants, we obtained selectable marker (HPT gene)-free plants. Homozygous T 5 transgenic lines which harbored either S7-2-RNAi or S8-RNAi exhibited high level resistance against RBSDV under field infection pressure from indigenous viruliferous small brown planthoppers. Thus, our results showed that RNA interference with the expression of S7-2 or S8 genes seemed an effective way to induce high level resistance in rice against RBSD disease.

  5. Broken rice kernels and the kinetics of rice hydration and texture during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed; Meullenet, Jean-Francois

    2013-05-01

    During rice milling and processing, broken kernels are inevitably present, although to date it has been unclear as to how the presence of broken kernels affects rice hydration and cooked rice texture. Therefore, this work intended to study the effect of broken kernels in a rice sample on rice hydration and texture during cooking. Two medium-grain and two long-grain rice cultivars were harvested, dried and milled, and the broken kernels were separated from unbroken kernels. Broken rice kernels were subsequently combined with unbroken rice kernels forming treatments of 0, 40, 150, 350 or 1000 g kg(-1) broken kernels ratio. Rice samples were then cooked and the moisture content of the cooked rice, the moisture uptake rate, and rice hardness and stickiness were measured. As the amount of broken rice kernels increased, rice sample texture became increasingly softer (P hardness was negatively correlated to the percentage of broken kernels in rice samples. Differences in the proportions of broken rice in a milled rice sample play a major role in determining the texture properties of cooked rice. Variations in the moisture migration kinetics between broken and unbroken kernels caused faster hydration of the cores of broken rice kernels, with greater starch leach-out during cooking affecting the texture of the cooked rice. The texture of cooked rice can be controlled, to some extent, by varying the proportion of broken kernels in milled rice. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Susceptible and Resistant Rice Plants during Early Infestation by Small Brown Planthopper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén, Homoptera, Delphacidae-SBPH is one of the major destructive pests of rice (Oryza sativa L.. Understanding on how rice responds to SBPH infestation will contribute to developing strategies for SBPH control. However, the response of rice plant to SBPH is poorly understood. In this study, two contrasting rice genotypes, Pf9279-4 (SBPH-resistant and 02428 (SBPH-susceptible, were used for comparative analysis of protein profiles in the leaf sheath of rice plants in responses to SBPH infestation. One hundred and thirty-two protein spots that were differentially expressed between the resistant and susceptible rice lines were identified with significant intensity differences (≥2-fold, P < 0.05 at 0, 6, and 12 h after SBPH infestation. Protein expression profile analysis in the leaf sheath of SBPH-resistant and SBPH-susceptible rice lines after SBPH infestation showed that proteins induced by SBPH feeding were involved mainly in stress response, photosynthesis, protein metabolic process, carbohydrate metabolic process, energy metabolism, cell wall-related proteins, amino acid metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Gene expression analysis of 24 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs showed that more than 50% DEPs were positively correlated with their mRNA levels. Analysis of some physiological indexes mainly involved in the removal of oxygen reactive species showed that the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione (GSH were considerably higher in Pf9279-4 than 02428 during SBPH infestation. The catalase (CAT activity and hydroxyl radical inhibition were lower in Pf9279-4 than 02428. Analysis of enzyme activities indicates that Pf9279-4 rice plants defend against SBPH through the activation of the pathway of the salicylic acid (SA-dependent systemic acquired resistance. In conclusion, this study provides some insights into the molecular networks involved on cellular and

  7. The Haitian Rice Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundahl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se ha argumentado que los problemas agríco-las de Haití derivan de la tarifa del arroz de a mediados de los años noventa. Antes, supues-tamente, Haití fue autosuficiente, abastecida por su producción doméstica. Después de la reducción, el mercado haitiano se inundó en importaciones de arroz barato de los EEUU, lo cual despojó a los campesinos de sus fincas, convirtiendolos en migrantes internos, hacia los empleos de bajo pago de las ciudades. El artículo rechaza ese argumento y demuestra que es falso. La malnutrición fue un fenómeno extendido en Haití mucho antes de la reducción de la tarifa del arroz, la cual tampoco tuvo un gran impacto en la importación y la producción doméstica del arroz. Lo que sí impulsó el aumento de las importaciones fue el crecimiento de la población. También el artículo argumenta que un aumento de la tarifa del arroz no solucionará el problema de la alimentación que sufre Haití. English: It has been argued that Haiti’s agricultural problems derive from the reduction of the rice tariff in the mid-1990s. Before that Haiti was allegedly able to meet its food needs by domestic production. After the reduction the Haitian market was swamped by imports of cheap American rice which drove the farmers off their lands and forced them to migrate to low-wage industrial jobs in the cities. The article demonstrates that the argument is false. Malnutrition was widespread in Haiti long before the rice tariff reduction, and the latter did not have much of an impact on rice imports and domestic production. Instead, the main driving force behind imports appears to be population growth. It is also shown that an increase of the rice tariff will not solve Haiti’s food problem.

  8. Farinha de mandioca enriquecida com bioproteínas (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, em associação ao feijão e arroz, na dieta de ratos em crescimento Cassava flour enriched with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein, in association with beans and rice, in the diet of growing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastácia Cavalcanti Metri

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da mistura de feijão, arroz e farinha de mandioca enriquecida com bioproteína (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, em ratos wistar machos recém-desmamados (n=60, durante 28 dias. Foram utilizadas as seguintes dietas: experimentais (feijão, arroz e farinha de mandioca enriquecida com leveduras; feijão, arroz e farinha de mandioca comum; controle (farinha de mandioca enriquecida com levedura; e padrão (caseína. Determinaram-se os testes biológicos. Os orgãos foram removidos para análise de pesos úmido e seco (rim esquerdo, baço e amostras do fígado e cérebro, teor de proteína (fígado e cérebro e histopatologia (fígado, coração e rim direito. Foram ainda quantificados os lipídios totais da carcaça dos animais. Os dados foram estatisticamente avaliados pelo teste Não Paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis e pelo teste de Comparações Múltiplas (pThe effect of a mixture of beans, rice and cassava flour enriched with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein was assessed in weanling male Wistar rats (n=60, during 28 days. The following diets were used: experimental (beans, rice and manioc flour with yeast protein; beans, rice and cassava flour without yeast protein; control (cassava flour with yeast protein; and standard (casein. The biological test were determined. The organs were removed for evaluation of wet and dry weights (left kidney, spleen and liver and brain samples, protein levels (liver and brain, and histopathology (heart, right kidney and liver. Carcass total lipids were also recorded. Results were statistically analyzed by the Nonparametric Test of Kruskal-Wallis and the Test of Multiple Comparisons (p<0.05. The highest values for all investigated parameters were found in the casein-fed group, followed by the experimental groups. Data suggest that flour enriched with yeast protein can be recommended as a dietary supplement to eradicate the nutritional deficiency in the poor population.

  9. Deciphering the Environmental Impacts on Rice Quality for Different Rice Cultivated Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiukun; Wu, Lian; Geng, Xin; Xia, Xiuhong; Wang, Xuhong; Xu, Zhengjin; Xu, Quan

    2018-01-19

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is cultivated in a wide range of climatic conditions, and is one of mankind's major staple foods. The interaction of environmental factors with genotype effects major agronomic traits such as yield, quality, and resistance in rice. However, studies on the environmental factors affecting agronomic traits are often difficult to conduct because most environmental factors are dynamic and constantly changing. A series of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an indica/japonica cross were planted into four typical rice cultivated areas arranging from latitude N22° to N42°. The environmental data from the heading to mature (45 days) stages were recorded for each RIL in the four areas. We determined that light, temperature, and humidity significantly affected the milling quality and cooking quality overall the four areas. Within each area, these environmental factors mainly affected the head rice ratio, grain length, alkali consumption, and amylose and protein content. Moreover, the effect of these environmental factors dynamically changed from heading to mature stage. Compared to light and humidity, temperature was more stable and predictable, and night temperature showed a stronger correlation efficiency to cooking quality than day temperature, and the daily temperature range had contrary effects compared to day and night temperature on grain quality. The present study evaluated the critical phase during the grain filling stage by calculating the dynamic changes of correlation efficiency between the quality traits and climate parameters. Our findings suggest that the sowing date could be adjusted to improve rice quality so as to adjust for environmental changes.

  10. Genome wide re-sequencing of newly developed Rice Lines from common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) for the identification of NBS-LRR genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Ghouri, Fozia; Yu, Hang; Li, Xiang; Yu, Shuhong; Shahid, Muhammad Qasim; Liu, Xiangdong

    2017-01-01

    Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) is an important germplasm for rice breeding, which contains many resistance genes. Re-sequencing provides an unprecedented opportunity to explore the abundant useful genes at whole genome level. Here, we identified the nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) encoding genes by re-sequencing of two wild rice lines (i.e. Huaye 1 and Huaye 2) that were developed from common wild rice. We obtained 128 to 147 million reads with approximately 32.5-fold coverage depth, and uniquely covered more than 89.6% (> = 1 fold) of reference genomes. Two wild rice lines showed high SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) variation rate in 12 chromosomes against the reference genomes of Nipponbare (japonica cultivar) and 93-11 (indica cultivar). InDels (insertion/deletion polymorphisms) count-length distribution exhibited normal distribution in the two lines, and most of the InDels were ranged from -5 to 5 bp. With reference to the Nipponbare genome sequence, we detected a total of 1,209,308 SNPs, 161,117 InDels and 4,192 SVs (structural variations) in Huaye 1, and 1,387,959 SNPs, 180,226 InDels and 5,305 SVs in Huaye 2. A total of 44.9% and 46.9% genes exhibited sequence variations in two wild rice lines compared to the Nipponbare and 93-11 reference genomes, respectively. Analysis of NBS-LRR mutant candidate genes showed that they were mainly distributed on chromosome 11, and NBS domain was more conserved than LRR domain in both wild rice lines. NBS genes depicted higher levels of genetic diversity in Huaye 1 than that found in Huaye 2. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction analysis showed that NBS genes mostly interacted with the cytochrome C protein (Os05g0420600, Os01g0885000 and BGIOSGA038922), while some NBS genes interacted with heat shock protein, DNA-binding activity, Phosphoinositide 3-kinase and a coiled coil region. We explored abundant NBS-LRR encoding genes in two common wild rice lines through genome wide re

  11. Analysis of QTLs Associated with the Rice Quality Related Gene by Double Haploid Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyu-Ho; Yun, Byung-Wook

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the growth characteristics and analyzed the physicochemical properties of a doubled haploid population derived from a cross between “Cheongcheong” and “Nagdong” to breed a rice variety that tastes good after cooking and to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the taste of cooked rice. The results showed that these compounds also represent a normal distribution. Correlation analysis of the amylose, protein, and lipid contents indicated that each compound is related to the taste of cooked rice. The QTLs related to amylose content were 4 QTLs, protein content was 2 QTLs, and lipid content was 2 QTLs. Four of the QTLs associated with amylose content were detected on chromosomes 7 and 11. The index of coincidence for the QTLs related to amylose, protein, and lipid content was 70%, respectively. These markers showing high percentage of coincidence can be useful to select desirable lines for rice breeding. PMID:25478566

  12. Analysis of QTLs Associated with the Rice Quality Related Gene by Double Haploid Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-Ho Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the growth characteristics and analyzed the physicochemical properties of a doubled haploid population derived from a cross between “Cheongcheong” and “Nagdong” to breed a rice variety that tastes good after cooking and to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs associated with the taste of cooked rice. The results showed that these compounds also represent a normal distribution. Correlation analysis of the amylose, protein, and lipid contents indicated that each compound is related to the taste of cooked rice. The QTLs related to amylose content were 4 QTLs, protein content was 2 QTLs, and lipid content was 2 QTLs. Four of the QTLs associated with amylose content were detected on chromosomes 7 and 11. The index of coincidence for the QTLs related to amylose, protein, and lipid content was 70%, respectively. These markers showing high percentage of coincidence can be useful to select desirable lines for rice breeding.

  13. [Development of bakery products for greater adult consumption based on wheat and rice flour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Aguilar, María José; Palomo, Patricia de; Bressani, Ricardo

    2004-09-01

    The present investigation was developed as a contribution to Guatemalan's elderly food and nutrition. Its main objective was to evaluate the chemical, nutritional and sensory quality of bread prepared from the partial substitution of wheat flour with rice flour. Wheat flour substitutions with rice flour in the order of 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60% were evaluated. Differences with the control (100% wheat bread) were found during the process of preparation, as well as texture, volume, height, weight and specific volume. Important effects in dough handling were noted specifically in the 40, 50 and 60% rice bread. Thus, a sandy texture was found in breads of higher rice levels. The bread protein quality increased with the level of substitution; however the protein quality difference between the wheat bread and the bread with 60% rice flour did not achieve statistical significance. Based on a statistical analysis of the physical properties the bread with 30 and 40% rice flour was selected, and through a preference test between these last two, the 30% rice flour bread was selected as the sample best suited to the present study's purposes. This bread was not different to wheat bread in many nutritional parameters, although in others it showed to be superior. Each serving size of bread has a weight of 80 grams (2 slices) that contributes adequate quantity of calories, protein and sodium, although a little less dietary fiber than 100% wheat bread.

  14. Rice starch vs. rice flour: differences in their properties when modified by heat-moisture treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncha-arnon, Santhanee; Uttapap, Dudsadee

    2013-01-02

    Starch and flour from the same rice grain source (with 20, 25 and 30% moisture content) were exposed to heat-moisture treatment (HMT) at 100 °C for 16 h in order to investigate whether there were differences in their susceptibility to modification by HMT and, if any, to determine the main causes of the differences. HMT had a far greater effect on paste viscosity of flour than of starch. A significant increase in paste viscosity after removal of proteins from HMT flour - as well as images of fast green-stained HMT flour gels - indicated that an important role was played by proteins in affecting properties of the modified samples. Greater effects of HMT on thermal parameters of gelatinization and gel hardness values of flours were observed - more so than those for starches. Following this observation, it was ascertained that components in rice flour other than rice starch granules also underwent alterations during HMT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [In vivo digestibility of rice genetically modified with CpTI in WZS mini-pig].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiong; Liu, Haibo; Zhi, Yuan; Gao, Peng; Yy, Zhou; Liu, Shan; Xu, Haibin

    2011-11-01

    To establish a stable in vivo gastrointestinal model of WZS mini-pig to evaluate the digestibility of rice genetically modified with CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor). METHODS; Three WZS mini-pigs were surgically fitted with O-stomach cannula and T-ileum cannula, and fed with soybean (positive control), CpTI rice and its parental rice meals. The pH value of gastric and intestinal fluid was monitored at different time points. The digested protein products were measured with protein gel electrophoresis at different time points. The pH value of gastric contents was rapidly neutralized by the meal to approximately 6.0, then the pH was reduced by HCl secretion,and it subsequently was increased after 4-6 hours. Compared with rice,the increase or decrease of pH after soybean being fed was later. Soybean protein segments 13kD,17kD, 34kD and 50kD could be highly detected in gastric and intestinal fluid at 5-6h after soybean being introduced. The segment 13kD was digested in intestine. However, no any protein segment was found in the gastric fluid 0.25h after rice being fed. There was no any difference in digestibility between the rice genetically modified with CpTI and its parental rice. It is practicable to establish a in vivo model of WZS mini-pig for digestibility. The digestibility of CpTI rice and its parental rice in gastric and intestinal tract in vivo is equivalent.

  16. Safety assessment of lepidopteran insect-protected transgenic rice with cry2A* gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shiying; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao; Luo, Yunbo; He, Xiaoyun

    2016-04-01

    Numerous genetically modified (GM) crops expressing proteins for insect resistance have been commercialized following extensive testing demonstrating that the foods obtained from them are as safe as that obtained from their corresponding non-GM varieties. In this paper, we report the outcome of safety studies conducted on a newly developed insect-resistant GM rice expressing the cry2A* gene by a subchronic oral toxicity study on rats. GM rice and non-GM rice were incorporated into the diet at levels of 30, 50, and 70% (w/w), No treatment-related adverse or toxic effects were observed based on an examination of the daily clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, hematology, serum biochemistry, and organ weight or based on gross and histopathological examination. These results demonstrate that the GM rice with cry2A* gene is as safe for food as conventional non-GM rice.

  17. Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on yield and quality of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Hong; Guo Wei; Mao Xiaoyan

    2009-01-01

    The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on yield and quality of two rice cuhivars(ShenNong 6014 and ShenNong 265) are studied in potted method. There were three treatments including natural light (TCK), enhanced 5% UV-B radiation (T) and enhanced 10% (T). The results showed that enhanced UV-B radiation decreases yield components, the percentage of brown rice (0.66%-7.06%), head rice rate (5.65%-18.88%), the rate of white rice (22.17%-40.16%), grain area (2.61%-6.25%), fatty acid contents (1.23%-54.19%) and eating quality (1.07%-16.78%) but increasea protein content (4.65%-10.71%) and amylose content of rice (0.56%-4.81%). The effects of T2 was stronger than T1

  18. Tailoring Grain Storage Reserves for a Healthier Rice Diet and its Comparative Status with Other Cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butardo, Vito M; Sreenivasulu, Nese

    2016-01-01

    A global rise of diet-related noncommunicable diseases calls for a focus on diet-based nutritional intervention across the entire socioeconomic consumer spectrum. We review recent reports in the area of healthier rice aimed at developing rice grains with improved dietary fiber compositions (increased amounts of nonstarch polysaccharides and resistant starch), and less digestible starch (higher amylose and phospholipid complex in the endosperm) resulting in reduced glycemic impact upon grain consumption. We furthermore elaborate on the interconnections of elevated amounts of protein and a balanced composition of essential amino acids. The importance of a nutritious aleurone layer and its role in lipid storage and micronutrient composition is discussed briefly in the context of brown rice benefits. We identify gene targets for precision breeding that will facilitate the production of rice grains and rice-based products to mitigate the impact of nutrition-related preventable diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Site-directed Mutagenesis Shows the Significance of Interactions with Phospholipids and the G-protein OsYchF1 for the Physiological Functions of the Rice GTPase-activating Protein 1 (OsGAP1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Yuk-Lin; Cheung, Ming-Yan; Miao, Rui; Fong, Yu-Hang; Li, Kwan-Pok; Yu, Mei-Hui; Chye, Mee-Len; Wong, Kam-Bo; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2015-09-25

    The C2 domain is one of the most diverse phospholipid-binding domains mediating cellular signaling. One group of C2-domain proteins are plant-specific and are characterized by their small sizes and simple structures. We have previously reported that a member of this group, OsGAP1, is able to alleviate salt stress and stimulate defense responses, and bind to both phospholipids and an unconventional G-protein, OsYchF1. Here we solved the crystal structure of OsGAP1 to a resolution of 1.63 Å. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we successfully differentiated between the clusters of surface residues that are required for binding to phospholipids versus OsYchF1, which, in turn, is critical for its role in stimulating defense responses. On the other hand, the ability to alleviate salt stress by OsGAP1 is dependent only on its ability to bind OsYchF1 and is independent of its phospholipid-binding activity. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose and...

  1. Overexpression of maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc affects rice fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Zhang, Tao; Shen, Zhong-Wei; Xu, Yu; Li, Jian-Yue

    2013-01-01

    Seventeen independent transgenic rice plants with the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc under control of the CaMV 35S promoter were obtained and verified by molecular identification. Ten plants showed red spikelets during early development of florets, and the degenerate florets were still red after heading. Additionally, these plants exhibited intense pigmentation on the surface of the anther and the bottom of the ovary. They were unable to properly bloom and were completely sterile. Following pollination with normal pollen, these plants yielded red caryopses but did not mature normally. QRT-PCR analysis indicated that mRNA accumulation of the CHS-like gene encoding a chalcone synthase-related protein was increased significantly in the sterile plant. This is the first report to suggest that upregulation of the CHS gene expression may result in rice sterility and affect the normal development of rice seeds.

  2. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuff Oladosu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw.

  3. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladosu, Yusuff; Rafii, Mohd Y; Abdullah, Norhani; Magaji, Usman; Hussin, Ghazali; Ramli, Asfaliza; Miah, Gous

    2016-01-01

    Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw.

  4. The New Transgenic cry1Ab/vip3H Rice Poses No Unexpected Ecological Risks to Arthropod Communities in Rice Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zengbin; Dang, Cong; Han, Naishun; Shen, Zhicheng; Peng, Yufa; Stanley, David; Ye, Gongyin

    2016-04-01

    The ecological risks to nontarget organisms should be rigorously assessed before Bt crops are released. Here, the impacts of a new Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice line on arthropod communities in rice agroecosystems were evaluated across 3 yr. Arthropods collected via vacuum were sorted into five guilds. The abundance and proportion of each guild as well as community-level parameters were determined in Cry1Ab/Vip3H and control rice fields. Changes in arthropod species assemblage over sampling dates were investigated by principal response curves (PRCs). Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice did not exert significant impacts on the seasonal density and proportion of each guild, except parasitoids. Detritivore seasonal density, but not its relative abundance, was significantly affected by Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice. Four community indices (species richness S, Shannon-Wiener index H', Simpson index D, and evenness index J') were similar between rice types. PRCs revealed a slight community difference between rice types in the past two tested years, with rice types accounting for 1.0-3.5% of the variance among arthropod communities. However, sampling dates explain 32.1-67.6% for these community differences. Of the 46 taxa with higher species weights, 26.1% of the taxa were significantly different, including seven taxa with higher abundance and five with lower density in Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice fields. These differences may be attributed to change in abundance of prey or hosts but not to direct effects of Bt proteins. We infer that this new Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice line poses no unintended ecological risks to the arthropod community. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Solubilidade de nitrogênio, dispersibilidade de proteína e propriedades emulsificantes dos extratos hidrossolúveis desidratados de arroz e soja Nitrogen solubility, protein dispersibility and emulsifying properties of dehydrated aqueous extracts of rice-soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin H. WANG

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar a possibilidade do uso dos extratos hidrossolúveis desidratados elaborados com arroz e soja em diferentes proporções (100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 e 50:50% em produtos alimentícios, foram estudadas solubilidade e propriedades emulsificantes das misturas. Os processos utilizados para a obtenção foram: maceração do arroz e da soja, desintegração, centrifugação, adição de ácido cítrico, fervura e secagem por atomização. Através das análises, foi verificado que o aumento das proporções de soja (0 a 50% resultou, num aumento do nitrogênio solúvel em água, da atividade emulsificante e da estabilidade de emulsão, bem como numa diminuição do índice de solubilidade de nitrogênio e do índice de dispersibilidade de proteína. Contudo, a proteína dispersível em água aumentou até um máximo na proporção de 10% de soja, além do qual, diminuiu com o aumento das proporções de soja (10 a 50%. Portanto, os extratos hidrossolúveis desidratados das misturas de arroz e soja com 10, 20 e 30% de soja, são recomendados para o uso em produtos cárneos, de confeitaria e de chocolataria, sopas, molhos, cremes e bebidas, enquanto que aqueles com 40 e 50% de soja, são considerados mais adequados para uso como extensores de carne, queijos processados e maioneses.Dehydrated aqueous extracts of rice-soybean at different proportions (100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50% were assessed for nitrogen solubility index (NSI, protein dispersibility index (PDI, emulsifying activity (EA and emulsion stability (ES in order to verify their potential use as food ingredients. Dehydrated aqueous extracts was manufactured by soaking, disintegration, centrifugation, addition of citric acid, boiling and spray-drying. The results indicated that increasing soybean proportion from 0 to 50% showed an increase in the soluble nitrogen in water, EA and ES, and a decrease in the NSI and PDI. However, the dispersible

  6. Improvement of nitrogen accumulation and metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by the endophyte Phomopsis liquidambari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Ma, Hai-Yan; Wang, Xiao-Mi; Jia, Yong; Hu, Jing; Li, Xia; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2014-09-01

    The fungal endophyte Phomopsis liquidambari can enhance nitrogen (N) uptake and metabolism of rice plants under hydroponic conditions. To investigate the effects of P. liquidambari on N accumulation and metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under field conditions during the entire growing season (S1, the seedling stage; S2, the tillering stage; S3, the heading stage; S4, the ripening stage), we utilized pot experiments to examine metabolic and physiological levels in both shoot and root tissues of rice, with endophyte (E+) and without endophyte (E-), in response to three different N levels. We found that under low-N treatment, P. liquidambari symbiosis increased the rice yield and N use efficiency by 12% and by 11.59%, respectively; that the total N contents in E+ rice plants at the four growth stages were separately increased by 29.05%, 14.65%, 21.06% and 18.38%, respectively; and that the activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase in E+ rice roots and shoots were significantly increased by fungal infection during the S1 to S3 stages. Moreover, P. liquidambari significantly increased the free NH4(+), NO3(-), amino acid and soluble protein contents in infected rice tissues under low-N treatment during the S1 to S3 stages. The obtained results offer novel data concerning the systemic changes induced by P. liquidambari in rice during the entire growth period and confirm the hypothesis that the rice-P. liquidambari interaction improved the N accumulation and metabolism of rice plants, consequently increasing rice N utilization in nutrient-limited soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding rice plant resistance to the Brown Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens): a proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhe; Hu, Wei; Lin, Qishan; Cheng, Xiaoyan; Tong, Mengjie; Zhu, Lili; Chen, Rongzhi; He, Guangcun

    2009-05-01

    Engineering and breeding resistant plant varieties are the most effective and environmentally friendly ways to control agricultural pests and improve crop performance. However, the mechanism of plant resistance to pests is poorly understood. Here we used a quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomic approach for comparative analysis of expression profiles of proteins in rice leaf sheaths in responses to infestation by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH), which is a serious rice crop pest. Proteins involved in multiple pathways showed significant changes in expression in response to BPH feeding, including jasmonic acid synthesis proteins, oxidative stress response proteins, beta-glucanases, protein; kinases, clathrin protein, glycine cleavage system protein, photosynthesis proteins and aquaporins. The corresponding genes of eight important proteins were further analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Proteomic and transcript responses that were related to wounding, oxidative and pathogen stress overlapped considerably between BPH-resistant (carrying the resistance gene BPH15) and susceptible rice lines. In contrast, proteins and genes related to callose metabolism remained unchanged and glycine cleavage system protein was up-regulated in the BPH-resistant lines, indicating that they have an efficient and specific defense mechanism. Our results provide new information about the interaction between rice and the BPH.

  8. PENGEMBANGAN BERAS ANALOG DENGAN MEMANFAATKAN JAGUNG PUTIH [Development of White Corn-Based Rice Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Noviasari*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available White corn can be utilized as a source of non-rice carbohydrate in the manufacture of rice analogues. The rice analogues with rice-like characteristics were produced by an extrusion technique. The aim of this research was to develop rice analogues from white corn and to evaluate their physicochemical and sensory properties. The study was conducted in several stages, i.e. preparation, formulation, and physicochemical and sensory properties evaluation. The physicochemical properties of rice analogues evaluated included proximate nutritional composition, dietary fiber concentration, cooking time, water loss rate, color, and whiteness percentage, while their sensory preferences were evaluated using hedonic scale test. The rice analogues made of Pulut Harapan and Lokal Purbalingga corns (4.34:65.66% added with 30% sago starch, was found to be the most preferred. The moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate, and dietary fiber composition of this rice analog was 9.32, 0.38, 6.86, 1.22, 91.54, and 5.35%, respectively.

  9. Photosynthetic Characteristics of Flag Leaves in Rice White Stripe Mutant 6001 During Senescence Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-hui ZHEN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Physiological, biochemical and electron microscopy analyses were used to investigate the photosynthetic performance of flag leaves in rice white stripe mutant 6001 during the senescence process. Results showed that the chlorophyll content at the heading and milk-ripe stages in rice mutant 6001 were about 34.78% and 3.00% less than those in wild type 6028, respectively. However, the chlorophyll content at the fully-ripe stage in rice mutant 6001 was higher than that in wild type 6028. At the heading stage, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn in rice mutant 6001 was lower than that in wild type 6028. Rice mutant 6001 also exhibited a significantly slower decrease rate of Pn than wild type 6028 during the senescence progress, especially at the later stage. Furthermore, Ca2+-ATPase, Mg2+-ATPase and photophosphorylation activities exhibited the similar trends as the Pn. During the senescence process, the 68 kDa polypeptide concentrations in the thylakoid membrane proteins exhibited a significant change, which was one of the critical factors that contributed to the observed change in photosynthesis. We also observed that the chloroplasts of rice mutant 6001 exhibited higher integrity than those of wild type 6028, and the chloroplast membrane of rice mutant 6001 disintegrated more slow during the senescence process. In general, rice mutant 6001 had a relatively slower senescence rate than wild type 6028, and exhibited anti-senescence properties.

  10. Asian wild rice is a hybrid swarm with extensive gene flow and feralization from domesticated rice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hongru; Garrett Vieira, Filipe Jorge; Crawford, Jacob E.; Chu, Chengcai; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    The domestication history of rice remains controversial, with multiple studies reaching different conclusions regarding its origin(s). These studies have generally assumed that populations of living wild rice, O. rufipogon, are descendants of the ancestral population that gave rise to domesticated rice, but relatively little attention has been paid to the origins and history of wild rice itself. Here, we investigate the genetic ancestry of wild rice by analyzing a diverse panel of rice genome...

  11. Zinc fertilization of flooded rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Local scientists studied Zn fertilization of flooded rice soils in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Egypt, the Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. Diagnosis of Zn deficiency was carried out for submerged rice soils. Soil maps were prepared, designating areas as low, medium and high in Zn, based on Zn extraction with DTPA and HCl solutions and on rice leaf analysis. The effectiveness of various Zn fertilizer sources and methods of application in field and greenhouse experiments was measured, using 65 Zn. The percent Zn derived from fertilizer was shown to be a much more sensitive measure of efficiency than yield or total uptake

  12. Photochemical oxidants injury in rice plants. III. Effect of ozone on physiological activities in rice plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H; Saka, H

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were made to determine the effect of photochemical oxidants on physiological activities of rice plants. Rice plants were fumigated with ozone at concentrations of 0.12-0.20 ppm for 2-3 hr to investigate acute injury and at 0.05 and 0.09 ppm for daily exposure from 3.0 leaf stage to assess the effect of ozone on growth. It was observed that malondialdehyde produced by disruption of the components of the membrane increased in the leaves exposed to ozone. Ozone reduced the RuBP-carboxylase activity in both young and old leaves 12-24 hr after fumigation. In the young leaves the activity of this enzyme recovered to some extent after 48 hr, but it did not show any recovery in the old leaves. On the other hand, ozone remarkably increased the peroxidase activity and slightly increased acid phosphatase in all leaves. Abnormally high ethylene evolution and oxygen uptake were detected in leaves soon after ozone fumigation. In general, high molecular protein and chlorophyll contents in the detached leaves decreased with incubation in dark, particularly in the old ones. These phenomena were more accelerated by ozone fumigation. Kinetin and benzimidazole showed significant effects on chlorophyll retention in ozone-exposed leaves. Reduction of plant growth and photosynthetic rate was recognized even in low concentration of ozone in daily exposure at 0.05 and 0.09 ppm. From these results it was postulated that ozone may cause the senescence of leaves in rice plants.

  13. The ascorbate peroxidase APX1 is a direct target of a zinc finger transcription factor ZFP36 and a late embryogenesis abundant protein OsLEA5 interacts with ZFP36 to co-regulate OsAPX1 in seed germination in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liping; Jia, Jing; Zhao, Xixi; Zhang, MengYao; Huang, Xingxiu; E Ji; Ni, Lan; Jiang, Mingyi

    2018-01-01

    Seed germination is a vital developmental process. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential repressor of seed germination, while ROS (reactive oxygen species) also plays a vital role in regulating seed germination. ABA could inhibit the production of ROS in seed germination, but the mechanism of ABA reduced ROS production in seed germination was hitherto unknown. Here, by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation)-seq, we found that ZFP36, a rice zinc finger transcription factor, could directly bind to the promoter of OsAPX1, coding an ascorbate peroxidase (APX) which has the most affinity for H 2 O 2 (substrate; a type of ROS), and act as a transcriptional activator of OsAPX1 promoter. Moreover, ZFP36 could interact with a late embryogenesis abundant protein OsLEA5 to co-regulate the promoter activity of OsAPX1. The seed germination is highly inhibited in ZFP36 overexpression plants under ABA treatment, while an RNA interference (RNAi) mutant of OsLEA5 rice seeds were less sensitive to ABA, and exogenous ASC (ascorbate acid) could alleviate the inhibition induced by ABA. Thus, our conclusion is that OsAPX1 is a direct target of ZFP36 and OsLEA5 could interact with ZFP36 to co-regulate ABA-inhibited seed germination by controlling the expression of OsAPX1. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Chitosan Oligosaccharide-Treated Rice Infected with Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Anming; Yu, Lu; Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Shanxue; Shi, Jing; Zhao, Xiaozhen; Yang, Yuanyou; Hu, Deyu; Song, Baoan

    2017-05-18

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) has spread from thesouth of China to the north of Vietnam in the past few years and severelyinfluenced rice production. Its long incubation period and early symptoms are not evident; thus, controlling it is difficult. Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) is a green plant immunomodulator. Early studies showed that preventing and controlling SRBSDV have a certain effect and reduce disease infection rate, but its underlying controlling and preventing mechanism is unclear. In this study, label-free proteomics was used to analyze differentially expressed proteins in rice after COS treatment. The results showed that COS can up-regulate the plant defense-related proteins and down-regulate the protein expression levels of SRBSDV. Meanwhile, quantitative real-time PCR test results showed that COS can improve defense gene expression in rice. Moreover, COS can enhance the defense enzymatic activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase through mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade pathway, and enhance the rice disease resistance.

  15. A novel method for transmitting southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus to rice without insect vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Shi, Jing; Cao, Lianlian; Zhang, Guoping; Wang, Wenli; Hu, Deyu; Song, Baoan

    2017-08-15

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) has spread from the south of China to the north of Vietnam in the past few years, and has severely influenced rice production. However, previous study of traditional SRBSDV transmission method by the natural virus vector, the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera), in the laboratory, researchers are frequently confronted with lack of enough viral samples due to the limited life span of infected vectors and rice plants and low virus acquisition and inoculation efficiency by the vector. Meanwhile, traditional mechanical inoculation of virus only apply to dicotyledon because of the higher content of lignin in the leaves of the monocot. Therefore, establishing an efficient and persistent-transmitting model, with a shorter virus transmission time and a higher virus transmission efficiency, for screening novel anti-SRBSDV drugs is an urgent need. In this study, we firstly reported a novel method for transmitting SRBSDV in rice using the bud-cutting method. The transmission efficiency of SRBSDV in rice was investigated via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and the replication of SRBSDV in rice was also investigated via the proteomics analysis. Rice infected with SRBSDV using the bud-cutting method exhibited similar symptoms to those infected by the WBPH, and the transmission efficiency (>80.00%), which was determined using the PCR method, and the virus transmission time (30 min) were superior to those achieved that transmitted by the WBPH. Proteomics analysis confirmed that SRBSDV P1, P2, P3, P4, P5-1, P5-2, P6, P8, P9-1, P9-2, and P10 proteins were present in infected rice seedlings infected via the bud-cutting method. The results showed that SRBSDV could be successfully transmitted via the bud-cutting method and plants infected SRBSDV exhibited the symptoms were similar to those transmitted by the WBPH. Therefore, the use of the bud-cutting method to generate a cheap, efficient, reliable supply of

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis provides new insights into cadmium accumulation in rice grain under cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Dawei, E-mail: dwxue@hznu.edu.cn [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Jiang, Hua [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Science, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Deng, Xiangxiong; Zhang, Xiaoqin [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Wang, Hua [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Science, Hangzhou 310021 (China); Xu, Xiangbin [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Hu, Jiang; Zeng, Dali [State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Guo, Longbiao, E-mail: guolongbiao@caas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Qian, Qian, E-mail: qianqian188@hotmail.com [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou 310006 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Cd is the most toxic heavy metal and is a major pollutant in rice grains. • The mechanism of Cd accumulation in rice grains has not been well demonstrated. • Proteomics analysis is carried out and the verification is implemented by QPCR. • Proteins associated with ROS and photosynthesis showed large variation in expression. - Abstract: Rice is one of the most important staple crops. During the growth season, rice plants are inevitably subjected to numerous stresses, among which heavy metal stress represented by cadmium contamination not only hindering the yield of rice but also affecting the food safety by Cd accumulating in rice grains. The mechanism of Cd accumulation in rice grains has not been well elucidated. In this study, we compare the proteomic difference between two genotypes with different Cd accumulation ability in grains. Verification of differentially expressed protein-encoding genes was analyzing by quantitative PCR (QPCR) and reanalysis of microarray expression data. Forty-seven proteins in total were successfully identified through proteomic screening. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed Cd accumulation triggered stress-related pathways in the cells, and strongly affecting metabolic pathways. Many proteins associated with nutrient reservoir and starch-related enzyme were identified in this study suggesting that a considerably damage on grain quality was caused. The results also implied stress response was initiated by the abnormal cells and the transmission of signals may mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our research will provide new insights into Cd accumulation in rice grain under Cd stress.

  17. Influence of moisture content and temperature on thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of rice flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of four types of rice flours and one type of rice protein were determine at temperatures ranging from 4.8 to 36.8 C, bulk densities 535 to 875.8 kg/m3, and moisture contents 2.6 to 16.7 percent (w.b.), using a KD2 Thermal Properties Analyzer. It was ...

  18. Effect of Flour Concentration and Retrogradation Treatment on Physical Properties of Instant Sinlek Brown Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Supat Chaiyakul; Direk Sukkasem; Patnachapa Natthapanpaisith

    2016-01-01

    Sinlek rice flour beverage or instant product is a dietary supplement for dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing. It is also consumed by individuals who need to consume supplements to maintain their calorific needs. This product provides protein, fat, iron, and a high concentration of carbohydrate from rice flour. However, the application of native flour is limited due to its high viscosity. Starch modification by controlling starch retrogradation was used in this study. The research studies the...

  19. Rice vaikib salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopasse visiidile sõitev USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice külastab Saksamaad, Rumeeniat, Ukrainat ja Belgiat. Süüdistusi CIA lennukite maandumiste ja salavanglate kohta ei olevat tal kavas kommenteerida

  20. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rice are used in food products in Chinese cuisine, including Peking duck. Others have been sold as ... Medicine . 2010;170(19):1722–1727. Halbert SC, French B, Gordon RY, et al. Tolerability of red ...

  1. Effect of gamma-irradiation on rice seed DNA. Pt. 1. Yield and molecular size of DNA extracted from irradiated rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Konishi, Akihiro; Yamada, Takashi; Saito, Yukio

    1995-01-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on the DNA of hulled rice seeds was investigated. The cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method was preferred for the extraction of DNA from rice seeds because of its high quality and good yield. The yield of DNA that was determined by gel electrophoresis, decreased as the irradiation dose increased from 1 kGy. DNA extracted from rice seeds irradiated with a 30 kGy dose showed a molecular size of less than 20 kb, while that from unirradiated rice showed more than 100 kb in electrophoretic profiles. It can be assumed that the decrease in yield was mainly induced by the crosslinking between protein and DNA, and the reduction in molecular size was induced by double-strand breaks. (J.P.N.)

  2. Does Bt rice pose risks to non-target arthropods? Results of a meta-analysis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic Bt rice expressing the protoxin proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) have been developed since 1989. Their ecological risks toward non-target organisms have been investigated. However, these studies were conducted individually, yielding inconsistent conclusions and u...

  3. Mutant heterosis in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In the variety TKM6 a high yielding semidwarf mutant has been induced. This TKM6 mutant was used in test crosses with a number of other varieties and mutants to examine the extent of heterosis of dwarfs in rice and to select superior crosses. An excerpt of the published data is given. It appears from the backcross of the mutant with its original variety, that an increase in number of productive tillers occurs in the hybrid, leading to a striking grain yield increase, while the semi-dwarf culm length (the main mutant character) reverts to the normal phenotype. In the cross with IR8 on the other hand, there is only a minimal increase in tiller number but a substantial increase in TGW leading to more than 30% yield increase over the better parent

  4. Effects of Bt-transgenic rice cultivation on planktonic communities in paddy fields and adjacent ditches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yongbo; Liu, Fang; Wang, Chao; Quan, Zhanjun; Li, Junsheng

    2016-01-01

    The non-target effects of transgenic plants are issues of concern; however, their impacts in cultivated agricultural fields and adjacent natural aquatic ecosystems are poorly understood. We conducted field experiments during two growing seasons to determine the effects of cultivating Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice on the phytoplankton and zooplankton communities in a paddy field and an adjacent ditch. Bt toxin was detected in soil but not in water. Water quality was not significantly different between non-Bt and Bt rice fields, but varied among up-, mid- and downstream locations in the ditch. Cultivation of Bt-transgenic rice had no effects on zooplankton communities. Phytoplankton abundance and biodiversity were not significantly different between transgenic and non-transgenic rice fields in 2013; however, phytoplankton were more abundant in the transgenic rice field than in the non-transgenic rice field in 2014. Water quality and rice type explained 65.9% and 12.8% of this difference in 2014, respectively. Phytoplankton and zooplankton were more abundant in mid- and downstream, than upstream, locations in the ditch, an effect that we attribute to water quality differences. Thus, the release of Bt toxins into field water during the cultivation of transgenic crops had no direct negative effects on plankton community composition, but indirect effects that alter environmental conditions should be taken into account during the processes of management planning and policymaking. - Highlights: • We detect fusion Cry1Ab/1Ac proteins from Bt rice entering into aquatic ecosystems. • Bt-transgenic rice cultivation have no significant effect on zooplankton community. • Bt-transgenic rice cultivation have indirect effect on phytoplankton community. • Water quality explains the difference of plankton communities in adjacent ditches.

  5. Effects of Bt-transgenic rice cultivation on planktonic communities in paddy fields and adjacent ditches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yongbo, E-mail: liuyb@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Fang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang, Chao [Pearl River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Science, Guangzhou 510380 (China); Quan, Zhanjun [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Junsheng, E-mail: lijsh@creas.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-09-15

    The non-target effects of transgenic plants are issues of concern; however, their impacts in cultivated agricultural fields and adjacent natural aquatic ecosystems are poorly understood. We conducted field experiments during two growing seasons to determine the effects of cultivating Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice on the phytoplankton and zooplankton communities in a paddy field and an adjacent ditch. Bt toxin was detected in soil but not in water. Water quality was not significantly different between non-Bt and Bt rice fields, but varied among up-, mid- and downstream locations in the ditch. Cultivation of Bt-transgenic rice had no effects on zooplankton communities. Phytoplankton abundance and biodiversity were not significantly different between transgenic and non-transgenic rice fields in 2013; however, phytoplankton were more abundant in the transgenic rice field than in the non-transgenic rice field in 2014. Water quality and rice type explained 65.9% and 12.8% of this difference in 2014, respectively. Phytoplankton and zooplankton were more abundant in mid- and downstream, than upstream, locations in the ditch, an effect that we attribute to water quality differences. Thus, the release of Bt toxins into field water during the cultivation of transgenic crops had no direct negative effects on plankton community composition, but indirect effects that alter environmental conditions should be taken into account during the processes of management planning and policymaking. - Highlights: • We detect fusion Cry1Ab/1Ac proteins from Bt rice entering into aquatic ecosystems. • Bt-transgenic rice cultivation have no significant effect on zooplankton community. • Bt-transgenic rice cultivation have indirect effect on phytoplankton community. • Water quality explains the difference of plankton communities in adjacent ditches.

  6. Progress and challenges in improving the nutritional quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birla, Deep Shikha; Malik, Kapil; Sainger, Manish; Chaudhary, Darshna; Jaiwal, Ranjana; Jaiwal, Pawan K

    2017-07-24

    Rice is a staple food for more than 3 billion people in more than 100 countries of the world but ironically it is deficient in many bioavailable vitamins, minerals, essential amino- and fatty-acids and phytochemicals that prevent chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes, heart disease, cancers, and obesity. To enhance the nutritional and other quality aspects of rice, a better understanding of the regulation of the processes involved in the synthesis, uptake, transport, and metabolism of macro-(starch, seed storage protein and lipid) and micronutrients (vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals) is required. With the publication of high quality genomic sequence of rice, significant progress has been made in identification, isolation, and characterization of novel genes and their regulation for the nutritional and quality enhancement of rice. During the last decade, numerous efforts have been made to refine the nutritional and other quality traits either by using the traditional breeding with high through put technologies such as marker assisted selection and breeding, or by adopting the transgenic approach. A significant improvement in vitamins (A, folate, and E), mineral (iron), essential amino acid (lysine), and flavonoids levels has been achieved in the edible part of rice, i.e., endosperm (biofortification) to meet the daily dietary allowance. However, studies on bioavailability and allergenicity on biofortified rice are still required. Despite the numerous efforts, the commercialization of biofortified rice has not yet been achieved. The present review summarizes the progress and challenges of genetic engineering and/or metabolic engineering technologies to improve rice grain quality, and presents the future prospects in developing nutrient dense rice to save the everincreasing population, that depends solely on rice as the staple food, from widespread nutritional deficiencies.

  7. Alterations in growth, oxidative damage, and metal uptake of five aromatic rice cultivars under lead toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Umair; Hussain, Saddam; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Abbas, Farhat; Tanveer, Mohsin; Noor, Mehmood Ali; Tang, Xiangru

    2017-06-01

    Lead (Pb) affects plant growth and its related physio-biochemical functions negatively. The present study investigated the responses of five different fragrant rice cultivars viz., Meixiangzhan (MXZ-2), Xiangyaxiangzhan (XYXZ), Guixiangzhan (GXZ), Basmati-385 (B-385), and Nongxiang-18 (NX-18) to four different Pb concentrations viz., 0, 400, 800 and 1200 μM. Results depicted that Pb toxicity significantly (P rice plants; nonetheless, a significant variation was found in the sensitivity of rice cultivars to Pb toxicity. Soluble sugars increased significantly only at 1200 μM in GXZ and 800 μM in B-385, whilst the maximum reductions in protein contents were observed at 1200 μM Pb for all rice cultivars. Proline contents were reduced for XYXZ and NX-18 at Pb1200 μM. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) showed differential behavior among Pb treatments and rice cultivars. Among rice cultivars, GXZ showed better antioxidative defense system under Pb toxicity compared with all other cultivars. For all rice cultivars, the trend for Pb accumulation was recorded as: roots > stems > leaves. Furthermore, significant but negative correlations among Pb uptake and plant height (r = -0.79), tillers per plant (r = -0.91) and plant dry biomass (r = -0.81) were recorded for all rice cultivars whereas the values of translocation factor (TF) from stems to leaves were higher than roots to stems. In sum, Pb reduced the early growth and caused physio-biochemical changes in all rice cultivars, nonetheless, GXZ proved better able to tolerate Pb stress than all other rice cultivars under study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A rare sugar, d-allose, confers resistance to rice bacterial blight with upregulation of defense-related genes in Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Akihito; Gomi, Kenji; Yamasaki-Kokudo, Yumiko; Satoh, Masaru; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Ohtani, Kouhei; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Izumori, Ken; Tanaka, Keiji; Ishida, Yutaka; Tada, Yasuomi; Nishizawa, Yoko; Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2010-01-01

    We investigated responses of rice plant to three rare sugars, d-altrose, d-sorbose, and d-allose, due to establishment of mass production methods for these rare sugars. Root growth and shoot growth were significantly inhibited by d-allose but not by the other rare sugars. A large-scale gene expression analysis using a rice microarray revealed that d-allose treatment causes a high upregulation of many defense-related, pathogenesis-related (PR) protein genes in rice. The PR protein genes were not upregulated by other rare sugars. Furthermore, d-allose treatment of rice plants conferred limited resistance of the rice against the pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae but the other tested sugars did not. These results indicate that d-allose has a growth inhibitory effect but might prove to be a candidate elicitor for reducing disease development in rice.

  9. Realistic Simulation of Rice Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-long DING

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The existing research results of virtual modeling of rice plant, however, is far from perfect compared to that of other crops due to its complex structure and growth process. Techniques to visually simulate the architecture of rice plant and its growth process are presented based on the analysis of the morphological characteristics at different stages. Firstly, the simulations of geometrical shape, the bending status and the structural distortion of rice leaves are conducted. Then, by using an improved model for bending deformation, the curved patterns of panicle axis and various types of panicle branches are generated, and the spatial shape of rice panicle is therefore created. Parametric L-system is employed to generate its topological structures, and finite-state automaton is adopted to describe the development of geometrical structures. Finally, the computer visualization of three-dimensional morphologies of rice plant at both organ and individual levels is achieved. The experimental results showed that the proposed methods of modeling the three-dimensional shapes of organs and simulating the growth of rice plant are feasible and effective, and the generated three-dimensional images are realistic.

  10. Changes in Activities of Glutamine Synthetase during Grain Filling and Their Relation to Rice Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-xun JIN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Four japonica rice varieties differed in cooking and eating qualities were used in a pot experiment to study the relationship between the activities of glutamine synthetase during grain filling and rice quality. The activities of glutamine synthetase gradually increased and then declined as a single peak curve in the course of grain filling. The 15th day after heading was a turning point, before which the enzymatic activities in the inferior rice varieties with high protein content were higher than those in the superior rice varietie with low protein content, and after which it was converse. The activity of glutamine synthetase in grain was correlated with the taste meter value, peak viscosity and breakdown negatively at the early stage of grain filling whereas positively at the middle and late stages. Moreover, it was correlated with the protein content of rice grain and setback positively at the early stage and negatively at the middle and late stages. The correlation degree varied with the course of grain filling. From 15 days to 20 days after heading was a critical stage, in which the direction of correlation between the activity of glutamine synthetase and taste meter value and RVA properties of rice changed.

  11. Functional analysis of the rice rubisco activase promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhipan; Lu, Qingtao; Wen, Xiaogang [Key Laboratory of Photobiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Chen, Fan [Key Laboratory of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Lu, Congming, E-mail: lucm@ibcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Photobiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rice rubisco activase promoter was analyzed in transgenic Arabidopsis system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Region conferring tissue specific and light inducible expression of Rca was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer -58 to +43 bp region mediates tissue-specific expression of rice Rca. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Light inducible expression of rice Rca is mediated by -297 to -58 bp region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rice nuclear proteins bind specifically with the light inducible region. -- Abstract: To gain a better understanding of the regulatory mechanism of the rice rubisco activase (Rca) gene, variants of the Rca gene promoter (one full-length and four deletion mutants) fused to the coding region of the bacterial reporter gene {beta}-glucuronidase (GUS) were introduced into Arabidopsis via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Our results show that a 340 bp fragment spanning from -297 to +43 bp relative to the transcription initiation site is enough to promote tissue-specific and light-inducible expression of the rice Rca gene as done by the full-length promoter (-1428 to +43 bp). Further deletion analysis indicated that the region conferring tissue-specificity of Rca expression is localized within a 105 bp fragment from -58 to +43 bp, while light-inducible expression of Rca is mediated by the region from -297 to -58 bp. Gel shift assays and competition experiments demonstrated that rice nuclear proteins bind specifically with the fragment conferring light responsiveness at more than one binding site. This implies that multiple cis-elements may be involved in light-induced expression of the rice Rca gene. These works provide a useful reference for understanding transcriptional regulation mechanism of the rice Rca gene, and lay a strong foundation for further detection of related cis-elements and trans-factors.

  12. Functional analysis of the rice rubisco activase promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhipan; Lu, Qingtao; Wen, Xiaogang; Chen, Fan; Lu, Congming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Rice rubisco activase promoter was analyzed in transgenic Arabidopsis system. ► Region conferring tissue specific and light inducible expression of Rca was identified. ► −58 to +43 bp region mediates tissue-specific expression of rice Rca. ► Light inducible expression of rice Rca is mediated by −297 to −58 bp region. ► Rice nuclear proteins bind specifically with the light inducible region. -- Abstract: To gain a better understanding of the regulatory mechanism of the rice rubisco activase (Rca) gene, variants of the Rca gene promoter (one full-length and four deletion mutants) fused to the coding region of the bacterial reporter gene β-glucuronidase (GUS) were introduced into Arabidopsis via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Our results show that a 340 bp fragment spanning from −297 to +43 bp relative to the transcription initiation site is enough to promote tissue-specific and light-inducible expression of the rice Rca gene as done by the full-length promoter (−1428 to +43 bp). Further deletion analysis indicated that the region conferring tissue-specificity of Rca expression is localized within a 105 bp fragment from −58 to +43 bp, while light-inducible expression of Rca is mediated by the region from −297 to −58 bp. Gel shift assays and competition experiments demonstrated that rice nuclear proteins bind specifically with the fragment conferring light responsiveness at more than one binding site. This implies that multiple cis-elements may be involved in light-induced expression of the rice Rca gene. These works provide a useful reference for understanding transcriptional regulation mechanism of the rice Rca gene, and lay a strong foundation for further detection of related cis-elements and trans-factors.

  13. Grain, milling, and head rice yields as affected by nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed FIROUZI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application on grain, milling, and head rice yields, a field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Station of Tonekabon, Iran, in 2013. The experimental design was a factorial treatment arrangement in a randomized complete block with three replicates. Factors were three N rates (0, 75, and 150 kg ha-1 and two bio-fertilizer applications (inoculation and uninoculation with Nitroxin, a liquid bio-fertilizer containing Azospirillum spp. and Azotobacter spp. bacteria. Analysis of variance showed that rice grain yield, panicle number per m2, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, grains N concentration and uptake, grain protein concentration, and head rice yield were significantly affected by N rate, while bio-fertilizer application had significant effect on rice grain yield, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, harvest index, grains N concentration and uptake, and grain protein concentration. Results showed that regardless of bio-fertilizer application, rice grain and biological yields were significantly increased as N application rate increased from 0 to 75 kg ha-1, but did not significantly increase at the higher N rate (150 kg ha-1. Grain yield was significantly increased following bio-fertilizer application when averaged across N rates. Grains N concentration and uptake were significantly increased as N rate increased up to 75 kg ha-1, but further increases in N rate had no significant effect on these traits. Bio-fertilizer application increased significantly grains N concentration and uptake, when averaged across N rates. Regardless of bio-fertilizer application, head rice yield was significantly increased from 56 % to 60 % when N rate increased from 0 to 150 kg ha-1. Therefore, this experiment illustrated that rice grain and head yields increased with increasing N rate, while bio-fertilizer application increased only rice grain

  14. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  15. Storage stability of flour-blasted brown rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rice was blasted with rice flour rather than sand in a sand blaster to make microscopic nicks and cuts so that water can easily penetrate into the brown rice endosperm and cook the rice in a shorter time. The flour-blasted American Basmati brown rice, long grain brown rice, and parboiled long...

  16. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Grande, Genelou; Oreiro, Eula Gems; Borja, Frances Nikki; Dossa, Gerbert Sylvestre; Mauleon, Ramil; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI) and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments. PMID:26422147

  17. Comparison of physicochemical characteristics and consumer perception of rice samples with different countries of origin and prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun-Hee; Lim, Seung-Taik; Kim, Sang Sook

    2012-06-01

    Rice is the only food item which is not liberalized in Korea. To prepare for future liberalization of the rice market in Korea, the physicochemical characteristics and consumer perception of four domestic rice samples were compared with those of 11 foreign rice samples. Additionally, the influences of country of origin (CO) and price on purchase intent (PI) and willingness to pay (WTP) were investigated. Consumer acceptance of rice samples from Japan was generally higher than that of rice samples from other countries. In an informed test, PI was affected by price and CO, while WTP was affected mostly by price. The PI decreased with the price provided while the WTP increased. In a blind test, consumers evaluated PI and WTP according to sensory liking. The PI was higher in the informed test than in the blind test in all domestic samples. Generally, consumer acceptance was highly correlated with fat acidity (r = - 0.76), protein content (r = - 0.72), and b value (r = - 0.64) of the rice samples. Further efforts to increase the quality of rice are recommended for survival in the global market after liberalization of rice, even though consumers showed loyalty for PI of domestic samples. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. EFFECTS OF VARIOUS STABILIZATION TECHNIQUES ON THE NUTRITIONAL QUALITY AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF BREWER’S RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIK NOR ADILAH MUHAMAD NORDIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Brewer’s rice is a nutritionally rich by-product of rice milling industries but remained unutilized due to its high susceptibility to lipid oxidation. Thus, it is desirable to develop certain strategies to stabilize the brewer’s rice for food application. In the present study, the effects of microwave heating, gamma irradiation, and chemical (hydrochloric acid treatments in stabilizing brewer’s rice were investigated. Result showed that microwave-heated brewer’s rice contained lower FFA content as compared with control and irradiation. However, FFA content in brewer’s rice increased significantly (p < 0.05 during storage for all methods, except for hydrochloric acid (HCl treatment. All the stabilizations methods showed non-significant (p < 0.05 effect on protein, fat, and ash content. However, microwave and chemical treatment significantly (p < 0.05 reduced moisture content. All methods showed no significant (p < 0.05 reduction on phenolic contents but significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the γ-oryzanol and α-tocopherol contents. Microwave heating was able to reduce the oxidation of brewer’s rice without affecting other bioactive molecules present in brewer’s rice. Therefore, microwave heating can be considered as the most suitable technique for stabilizing brewer’s rice.

  19. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Nakamura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR, germinated brown rice (GBR and partially-milled rice (PMR contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR. Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled, and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society.

  20. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg -1 , dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and rice samples, respectively, median PA concentrations were 5438 and 1906 mg kg -1 , and median PA:Zn molar ratios were 29 and 13. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements (mg kg -1 , dry weight) in brown and white rice samples, respectively, were: As = 0.030 and 0.006; Cd  ≤ 0.002 and 0.006; Pb = 0.008 and 0.008. Approximately 95 % of As was found to be inorganic As, where this could be quantified. Malawian rice, like the more widely consumed staple grain maize, contains inadequate Ca, I, Se or Zn to meet dietary requirements. Biofortification strategies could significantly increase Se and Zn concentrations and require further investigation. Concentrations of Fe in rice grain varied

  1. 75 FR 56911 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and... reviewing the United States Standards and grading procedures for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice under the Agriculture Marketing Act of 1946 (AMA). Since the standards were last revised...

  2. Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and can be increased by diet like white rice (WR). Though brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) have high antioxidant potentials as a result of their bioactive compounds, reports of their effects on oxidative stress-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes are lacking. We hypothesized therefore that if BR and GBR were to improve antioxidant status, they would be better for rice consuming populations inst...

  3. Diversity of global rice markets and the science required for consumer-targeted rice breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of different quality traits that make up the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice ...

  4. Urea-ensiled rice straw as a feed for cattle in Thailand

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    straw. Rice straw contains about 3% crude protein (air- dry basis), 35% crude fiber and 1900kcal DE/kg of straw. Because of its low energy and protein content, ... corn, 9,4 kg soybean meal, 10 kg coconut meal, 2 kg mineral, 2 kg bone meal and 1 kg salt. Table 3 Performance of crossbred heifers fed with different roughages.

  5. Arsenic Accumulation in Rice and Probable Mitigation Approaches: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindita Mitra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available According to recent reports, millions of people across the globe are suffering from arsenic (As toxicity. Arsenic is present in different oxidative states in the environment and enters in the food chain through soil and water. In the agricultural field, irrigation with arsenic contaminated water, that is, having a higher level of arsenic contamination on the top soil, which may affects the quality of crop production. The major crop like rice (Oryza sativa L. requires a considerable amount of water to complete its lifecycle. Rice plants potentially accumulate arsenic, particularly inorganic arsenic (iAs from the field, in different body parts including grains. Different transporters have been reported in assisting the accumulation of arsenic in plant cells; for example, arsenate (AsV is absorbed with the help of phosphate transporters, and arsenite (AsIII through nodulin 26-like intrinsic protein (NIP by the silicon transport pathway and plasma membrane intrinsic protein aquaporins. Researchers and practitioners are trying their level best to mitigate the problem of As contamination in rice. However, the solution strategies vary considerably with various factors, such as cultural practices, soil, water, and environmental/economic conditions, etc. The contemporary work on rice to explain arsenic uptake, transport, and metabolism processes at rhizosphere, may help to formulate better plans. Common agronomical practices like rain water harvesting for crop irrigation, use of natural components that help in arsenic methylation, and biotechnological approaches may explore how to reduce arsenic uptake by food crops. This review will encompass the research advances and practical agronomic strategies on arsenic contamination in rice crop.

  6. Karakterisasi Mutu dan Nilai Gizi Nasi Mocaf dari Beras Analog - (Characterization of Quality and Nutrition Value of Cooked Rice Mocaf from Rice Analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enny Hawani Loebis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dependence on rice consumption needs to be reduced to overcome the problems of rice supply and health problems. Alternative proposed is producing mocaf-based rice analog. This research aims to study the quality characterization and nutritional value of mocaf-based rice analog. Rice mocaf was made based on mixture of mocaf, rice flour, water and palm oil using variable: 50, 60 and 70% mocaf.  Mocaf rice then cooked by using rice cooker, steamer or microwave. The results showed mocaf rice 60% yield highest calorific value.  The best cooking method  was steaming that resulted nutrient content and calorific value consisting of 49.15% water; 2.05% fat; 2.09% protein; 46.45% carbohydrate; 35.8 mg/kg of iron; 403.4 mg/kg of potassium; 193.8 mg/kg of calcium, 2.0 mg/kg of vitamin B1 and 212.53 ca/100 g calorific value.Keywords: mocaf, nutritional value, quality characterisation, rice ABSTRAKKetergantungan pada konsumsi beras perlu dikurangi untuk mengatasi permasalahan pasokan beras dan masalah kesehatan. Alternatif yang dapat diusulkan adalah dengan pembuatan beras analog berbasis mocaf. Penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari karakterisasi mutu dan nilai gizi nasi mocaf dari beras analog. Beras mocaf dibuat berdasarkan campuran mocaf, tepung beras, air dan minyak goreng sawit, dengan komposisi mocaf  50, 60 dan 70%. Beras mocaf kemudian dimasak dengan cara menggunakan rice cooker, pengukusan atau microwave. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan beras mocaf 60% menghasilkan nasi mocaf dengan nilai kalori tertinggi. Pemasakan terbaik adalah dengan cara pengukusan dengan kandungan gizi dan nilai kalori yang dihasilkan terdiri dari 49,15%  air; 2,05% lemak; 2,09% protein; 46,45% karbohidrat; 35,8 mg/kg besi; 403,4 mg/kg kalium; 193,8 mg/kg kalsium, 2,0 mg/kg vitamin B1 dan 212,53 kal/100 g nilai kalori.Kata kunci: beras, karakterisasi mutu, mocaf, nilai gizi

  7. Rice varieties in relation to rice bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hye Min; Cho, Jun Hyeon; Kang, Hang Won; Koh, Bong Kyung

    2012-05-01

    It is difficult to predict rice bread quality only from the amylose content (AC) or dough characteristics of new lines produced by rice breeding programmes. This study investigated the AC relative to bread baking quality of rice varieties developed in Korea, and identified specific characteristics that contribute to rice bread quality. Manmibyeo, Jinsumi, Seolgaeng and Hanareumbyeo were classified as low AC, YR24088 Acp9, Suweon517, Chenmaai and Goamibyeo as intermediate AC and Milyang261 as high AC. Suweon517, Milyang261 and Manmibyeo had a high water absorption index (WAI), while Goamibyeo, YR24088 Acp9, Jinsumi, Seolgaeng, Hanareumbyeo and Chenmaai had a low WAI. The gelatinisation enthalpy of flour varied from 9.2 J g(-1) in Milyang261 to 14.8 J g(-1) in YR24088 Acp9. After 7 days of storage the rate of flour retrogradation and crumb firmness were weakly correlated, with the exception of Jinsumi. Bread volumes of Jinsumi, Chenmaai, YR24088 Acp9 and Goamibyeo were comparable to that of wheat flour, but the rest were unsuited to bread making because of their low volume and hard crumb texture. Based on volume, texture and crumb firmness ratio, Chenmaai and Goamibyeo were the most appropriate varieties for making bread. An intermediate AC and low WAI were the primary indicators of rice bread flour quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Multi Stakeholders' Attitudes toward Bt rice in Southwest, Iran: Application of TPB and Multi Attribute Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoochani, Omid M; Ghanian, Mansour; Baradaran, Masoud; Azadi, Hossein

    2017-03-01

    Organisms that have been genetically engineered and modified (GM) are referred to as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Bt crops are plants that have been genetically modified to produce certain proteins from the soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which makes these plants resistant to certain lepidopteran and coleopteran species. Genetically Modified (GM) rice was produced in 2006 by Iranian researchers from Tarom Mowla'ii and has since been called 'Bt rice'. As rice is an important source of food for over 3 billion inhabitants on Earth, this study aims to use a correlational survey in order to shed light on the predicting factors relating to the extent of stakeholders' behavioral intentions towards Bt rice. It is assumed and the results confirm that "attitudes toward GM crops" can be used as a bridge in the Attitude Model and the Behavioral Intention Model in order to establish an integrated model. To this end, a case study was made of the Southwest part of Iran in order to verify this research model. This study also revealed that as a part of the integrated research framework in the Behavior Intention Model both constructs of attitude and the subjective norm of the respondents serve as the predicting factors of stakeholders' intentions of working with Bt rice. In addition, the Attitude Model, as the other part of the integrated research framework, showed that the stakeholders' attitudes toward Bt rice can only be determined by the perceived benefits (e.g. positive outcomes) of Bt rice.

  9. A Non-destructive and Continuous Measurement of Gelatinization of Rice in Rice Cooking Process

    OpenAIRE

    Hagura, Yoshio; Suzuki, Kanichi

    2002-01-01

    A non-destructive and continuous method to measure gelatinization of rice samples in a rice-water system during rice cooking process was examined. An aluminum pot and a lid of a rice cooker were used as two electrode plates, and changes in dielectric properties (capacitance : C, and dielectric dissipation factor : tan δ) of the samples in the rice cooking process were measured by a capacitance meter. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure gelatinization enthalpy and to de...

  10. Effect of Rice bran on the Quality of Rice Flour Breads (Gluten-free)

    OpenAIRE

    仲上, 晴世; 矢部, えん; Haruyo, Nakagami; En, Yabe

    2016-01-01

    Over recent years progress has been made in the development of substitute foods for allergy patients. One such is rice flour bread. However, typically rice flour bread uses polysaccharide thickener in substitution for the gluten in wheat. Most polysaccharide thickeners are of dietary fiber origin, and the nutritive value is poor. Therefore, in this study, I made rice flour bread adding rice bran in place of polysaccharide thickener. Various nutrients are included in rice bran, including vitam...

  11. Characterization of pre-gelatinized rice and bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a pre-gelatinized flour using a mixture of broken rice and split beans by thermoplastic extrusion, and to evaluate the physicochemical, nutritional, and technological quality of the final product. The extrusion parameters were maintained using three heating zones with temperatures of 30 ºC, 40 ºC, and 70 ºC; screw speed of 177 rpm; feed rate of 257 g/m, and circular matrix of 3.85 mm. The following characterization analyses were performed: physicochemical, nutritional, water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index (WSI, and paste viscosity. The pre-gelatinized rice and bean flour had an intermediate value of WAI, 7.51 g/g, and high WSI value, 24.61%. Regarding proteins, it was verified an average content of 12.9% in the final product. The amino acid contents found in the pre-gelatinized flour indicate that the mixture has the essential amino acids. It was also found that the pre-gelatinized flour supplies more than 60% of the essential amino acids recommended for children aged one to three years old. The gelatinized flour composed of broken rice and split beans is an alternative to the use of these by-products of the manufacture process of rice and beans to obtain a product with viable technological characteristics and high nutritional value.

  12. Physicochemical and sensory profile of rice bran roasted in microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Costa Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, chemical, and sensory changes in bran from three rice cultivars according to microwave roasting time. This study analyzed three rice cultivars, BRS Sertaneja (S, BRS Primavera (P, and IRGA 417 (I determining the color parameters (L*, a*, and b * at 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 minutes of roasting time. After applying the difference from control test, the rice brans with different characteristics aroma and flavor were selected: S and P roasted for 9 and 15 minutes and IRGA 417 roasted for 9, 12, and 15 minutes. These samples were characterized by Free-Choice Profile descriptive sensory analysis, and their chemical composition was also determined. The longer the roasting process, the higher the roasted flavor intensity and aroma. The IRG 417 cultivar roasted for 12 minutes showed a sweeter flavor and aroma. After roasting, the brans remained rich in protein and lipid and presented higher fiber content and lower reducing sugar and phytic acid content. Microwave roasting for 12 minutes can be a viable option for improving the sensory functional and nutritional characteristics of the rice bran considering its use in food products.

  13. FLUORIDE LEVELS IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE RICE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2013-05-05

    May 5, 2013 ... Rice is one of the commonly consumed cereals for more than half of the ... also used as flour, for making rice wine, as ingredient for beer and liquor, ... Fluoride is a necessary element to human health, and a moderate amount of fluoride intake ... For Ethiopian red rice (ERR) Fogera was selected to collect.

  14. PICTORIAL INTERLUDES Flake-shaped rice bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    removing the rice bodies and the bursa.3. In summary: rice bodies can occur without underlying systemic disorder, have different shapes and sizes, and have specific signal characteristics on. MRI that allow discrimination from synovial chondromatosis. 1. Cheung HS, Ryan LM, Kozin F, McCarty DJ. Synovial origins of rice ...

  15. New market opportunities for rice grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding efforts for rice have been focusing on increasing yield and improving quality (milling yield and grain quality), while maintaining cooked rice sensory properties to meet consumer preferences. These breeding targets will no doubt continue as the main foci for the rice industry. However, the ...

  16. Arsenic in rice: A cause for concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all rice products, stri...

  17. Consumer preference mapping for rice product concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Chaveesuk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries is decreasing constantly, but American and European citizens are eating more rice nowadays. A preference study among consumers was carried out with the aim of determining new rice product characteristics in order to support export of Thai

  18. Effect of Substituting Purple Rice Flour for Wheat Flour on Physicochemical Characteristics, In Vitro Digestibility, and Sensory Evaluation of Biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warinporn Klunklin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple rice flour contains high levels of a number of antioxidant compounds; however, it has seldom been used as an ingredient in bakery products. The aim was to increase the nutritional value of biscuits by adding purple rice flour to a basic wheat flour biscuit. The substitution of purple rice flour in place of wheat flour modified the characteristics of the biscuits in terms of increasing the nutritional values. They contained high fiber, antioxidants, and antioxidant activities, while slightly changing the physical properties such as hardness and spread ratio. The study showed that the protein digestibility increased as the content of the purple rice flour was increased in the biscuit mix. The 100% purple rice flour biscuits had the lowest predicted glycemic index (pGI of all the biscuits. Sensory analysis showed that the overall acceptability of the blended flour biscuits at 25 and 50% substitution levels was slightly less than that of the control biscuits with only 9%; however, the scores were above 5 which means the panelists still liked the biscuits a lot. Overall, the inclusion of purple rice flour in biscuits mix increased crude protein content, protein digestibility, and bioactive compounds with acceptable sensory scores from consumers up to 50% substitution of purple rice.

  19. Embryo-specific expression of soybean oleosin altered oil body morphogenesis and increased lipid content in transgenic rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen Xian; Liu, Hua Liang; Qu, Le Qing

    2013-09-01

    Oleosin is the most abundant protein in the oil bodies of plant seeds, playing an important role in regulating oil body formation and lipid accumulation. To investigate whether lipid accumulation in transgenic rice seeds depends on the expression level of oleosin, we introduced two soybean oleosin genes encoding 24 kDa proteins into rice under the control of an embryo-specific rice promoter REG-2. Overexpression of soybean oleosin in transgenic rice leads to an increase of seed lipid content up to 36.93 and 46.06 % higher than that of the non-transgenic control, respectively, while the overall fatty acid profiles of triacylglycerols remained unchanged. The overexpression of soybean oleosin in transgenic rice seeds resulted in more numerous and smaller oil bodies compared with wild type, suggesting that an inverse relationship exists between oil body size and the total oleosin level. The increase in lipid content is accompanied by a reduction in the accumulation of total seed protein. Our results suggest that it is possible to increase rice seed oil content for food use and for use as a low-cost feedstock for biodiesel by overexpressing oleosin in rice seeds.

  20. Asian wild rice is a hybrid swarm with extensive gene flow and feralization from domesticated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongru; Vieira, Filipe G; Crawford, Jacob E; Chu, Chengcai; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-06-01

    The domestication history of rice remains controversial, with multiple studies reaching different conclusions regarding its origin(s). These studies have generally assumed that populations of living wild rice, O. rufipogon , are descendants of the ancestral population that gave rise to domesticated rice, but relatively little attention has been paid to the origins and history of wild rice itself. Here, we investigate the genetic ancestry of wild rice by analyzing a diverse panel of rice genomes consisting of 203 domesticated and 435 wild rice accessions. We show that most modern wild rice is heavily admixed with domesticated rice through both pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow. In fact, much presumed wild rice may simply represent different stages of feralized domesticated rice. In line with this hypothesis, many presumed wild rice varieties show remnants of the effects of selective sweeps in previously identified domestication genes, as well as evidence of recent selection in flowering genes possibly associated with the feralization process. Furthermore, there is a distinct geographical pattern of gene flow from aus , indica , and japonica varieties into colocated wild rice. We also show that admixture from aus and indica is more recent than gene flow from japonica , possibly consistent with an earlier spread of japonica varieties. We argue that wild rice populations should be considered a hybrid swarm, connected to domesticated rice by continuous and extensive gene flow. © 2017 Wang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  1. Effects of Extraction Methods on Phytochemicals of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Singanusong, Riantong; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kimura, Fumiko; Ito, Junya

    2018-02-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) especially from colored rice is rich in phytochemicals and has become popular in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications owing to its offering health benefits. This study determined the contents of phytochemicals including oryzanols, phytosterols, tocopherols (Toc) and tocotrienols (T3) in RBOs extracted using different methods namely cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO 2 extraction (SC-CO 2 ). Two colored rice, Red Jasmine rice (RJM, red rice) and Hom-nin rice (HN, black rice), were studied in comparison with the popular Thai fragrant rice Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105, white rice). RBOs were found to be the rich source of oryzanols, phytosterols, Toc and T3. Rice varieties had a greater effect on the phytochemicals concentrations than extraction methods. HN rice showed the significantly highest concentration of all phytochemicals, followed by RJM and KDML 105 rice, indicating that colored rice contained high concentration of phytochemicals in the oil than non-colored rice. The RBO samples extracted by the CPE method had a greater concentration of the phytochemicals than those extracted by the SC-CO 2 and SE methods, respectively. In terms of phytochemical contents, HN rice extracted using CPE method was found to be the best.

  2. Quantitative proteomic analysis of CMS-related changes in Honglian CMS rice anther.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingping; Hu, Chaofeng; Hu, Jun; Li, Shaoqing; Zhu, Yingguo

    2009-10-01

    Honglian (HL) cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is one of the rice CMS types and has been widely used in hybrid rice production in China. The CMS line (Yuetai A, YTA) has a Yuetai B (maintainer line, YTB) nuclear genome, but has a rearranged mitochondrial (mt) genome consisting of Yuetai B. The fertility of hybrid (HL-6) was restored by restorer gene in nuclear genome of restorer line (9311). We used isotope-code affinity tag (ICAT) technology to perform the protein profiling of uninucleate stage rice anther and identify the CMS-HL related proteins. Two separate ICAT analyses were performed in this study: (1) anthers from YTA versus anthers from YTB, and (2) anthers from YTA versus anthers from HL-6. Based on the two analyses, a total of 97 unique proteins were identified and quantified in uninucleate stage rice anther under the error rate of less than 10%, of which eight proteins showed abundance changes of at least twofold between YTA and YTB. Triosephosphate isomerase, fructokinase II, DNA-binding protein GBP16 and ribosomal protein L3B were over-expressed in YTB, while oligopeptide transporter, floral organ regulator 1, kinase and S-adenosyl-L: -methionine synthetase were over-expressed in YTA. Reduction of the proteins associated with energy production and lesser ATP equivalents detected in CMS anther indicated that the low level of energy production played an important role in inducing CMS-HL.

  3. Induction of Xa10-like Genes in Rice Cultivar Nipponbare Confers Disease Resistance to Rice Bacterial Blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Tian, Dongsheng; Gu, Keyu; Yang, Xiaobei; Wang, Lanlan; Zeng, Xuan; Yin, Zhongchao

    2017-06-01

    Bacterial blight of rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, is one of the most destructive bacterial diseases throughout the major rice-growing regions in the world. The rice disease resistance (R) gene Xa10 confers race-specific disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains that deliver the corresponding transcription activator-like (TAL) effector AvrXa10. Upon bacterial infection, AvrXa10 binds specifically to the effector binding element in the promoter of the R gene and activates its expression. Xa10 encodes an executor R protein that triggers hypersensitive response and activates disease resistance. 'Nipponbare' rice carries two Xa10-like genes in its genome, of which one is the susceptible allele of the Xa23 gene, a Xa10-like TAL effector-dependent executor R gene isolated recently from 'CBB23' rice. However, the function of the two Xa10-like genes in disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains has not been investigated. Here, we designated the two Xa10-like genes as Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni and characterized their function for disease resistance to rice bacterial blight. Both Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni provided disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains that deliver the matching artificially designed TAL effectors (dTALE). Transgenic rice plants containing Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni under the Xa10 promoter provided specific disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains that deliver AvrXa10. Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni knock-out mutants abolished dTALE-dependent disease resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Heterologous expression of Xa10-Ni and Xa23-Ni in Nicotiana benthamiana triggered cell death. The 19-amino-acid residues at the N-terminal regions of XA10 or XA10-Ni are dispensable for their function in inducing cell death in N. benthamiana and the C-terminal regions of XA10, XA10-Ni, and XA23-Ni are interchangeable among each other without affecting their function. Like XA10, both XA10-Ni and XA23-Ni locate to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane

  4. Chinese red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus-fermented rice promotes bone formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabie Bakr

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statin can induce the gene expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2. Red yeast rice (RYR, Hongqu, i.e. rice fermented with Monascus purpureus, contains a natural form of statin. This study demonstrates the effects of RYR extract on bone formation. Methods Bone defects were created in the parietal bones of two New Zealand white rabbits. In the test animal, two defects were grafted with collagen matrix mixed with RYR extract. In the control animal, two defects were grafted with collagen matrix alone. UMR 106 cell line was used to test RYR extract in vitro. In the control group, cells were cultured for three durations (24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours without any intervention. In the RYR group, cells were cultured for the same durations with various concentrations of RYR extract (0.001 g/ml, 0.005 g/ml and 0.01 g/ml. Bicinchoninic acid (BCA assay, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase (ALP assay were performed to measure total protein, mitochondrial activity and bone cell formation respectively. Results The test animal showed more formation of new bone in the defects than the control animal. RYR significantly increased the optical density in the MTT assay and ALP activity in vitro. Conclusion RYR extract stimulated new bone formation in bone defects in vivo and increased bone cell formation in vitro.

  5. Caracterização da fração protéica da cianobactéria Aphanothece Microscopica Nägeli cultivada no efluente da parboilização do arroz Protein characterisation of the Aphanothece Microscopica Nägeli cyanobacterium cultivated in parboiled rice effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Jacob-Lopes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a fração protéica da cianobactéria Aphanothece microscopica Nägeli cultivada no efluente da parboilização do arroz quando submetida a diferentes condições de secagem. A produção da biomassa foi realizada a partir da água residuária do processo de parboilização do arroz em bioreatores de coluna de bolhas. A biomassa foi separada do efluente por centrifugação e desidratada em secador descontínuo de bandejas nas condições de 40, 50 e 60ºC e espessuras de bandejas de 5 e 7 mm. O comportamento eletroforético das proteínas da biomassa foi analisado por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamamida na presença de dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE e apresentou bandas com peso molecular de 15 kDa a 62,5 kDa. O perfil aminoacídico mostrou teores superiores aos recomendados pelo padrão FAO, com exceção dos aminoácidos lisina e dos sulfurados (MET+CYS. A caracterização funcional, expressa em termos de solubilidade e capacidade emulsificante, demonstrou a influência da condição de secagem na funcionalidade protéica da biomassa.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the protein fraction of Aphanothece microscopica Nägeli cyanobacteria cultivated in the parboiled rice effluent, submitted to different drying conditions. The production of the biomass was done by using wastewater from the process of rice parboiling in a bubble column bioreactor. The biomass was separated from the effluent by centrifugation and dehydrated in a tray dryer at 40, 50 and 60ºC and thicknesses of 5 and 7 mm. The eletroforetic profile of proteins of the biomass was analysed by SDS-PAGE and presented bands with molecular weight between 62.5-15kDa. The amino acid profile was higher than the concentrations recommended by standard FAO, with the exception of the amino acids (LYS and the sulphurated (MET+CYS. The functional properties characterisation in terms of protein solubility and emulsification

  6. Two rice plasma membrane intrinsic proteins, OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7, are involved in transport and providing tolerance to boron toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kundan; Mosa, Kareem A; Chhikara, Sudesh; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2014-01-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is responsible for low cereal crop production in a number of regions worldwide. In this report, we characterized two rice genes, OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7, for their involvement in B permeability and tolerance. Transcript analysis demonstrated that the expression of OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 were downregulated in shoots and strongly upregulated in rice roots by high B treatment. Expression of both OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 in yeast HD9 strain lacking Fps1, ACR3, and Ycf1 resulted in an increased B sensitivity. Furthermore, yeast HD9 strain expressing OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 accumulated significantly higher B as compared to empty vector control, which suggests their involvement in B transport. Overexpression of OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 in Arabidopsis imparted higher tolerance under B toxicity. Arabidopsis lines overexpressing OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 showed significantly higher biomass production and greater root length, however there was no difference in B accumulation in long term uptake assay. Short-term uptake assay using tracer B (¹⁰B) in shoots and roots demonstrated increased ¹⁰B accumulation in Arabidopsis lines expressing OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7, compare to wild type control plants. Efflux assay of B in the roots showed that ¹⁰B was effluxed from the Arabidopsis transgenic plants overexpressing OsPIP2;4 or OsPIP2;7 during the initial 1-h of assay. These data indicate that OsPIP2;4 and OsPIP2;7 are involved in mediating B transport in rice and provide tolerance via efflux of excess B from roots and shoot tissues. These genes will be highly useful in developing B tolerant crops for enhanced yield in the areas affected by high B toxicity.

  7. Isotope studies on rice fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the report is to provide practical information on the efficient utilization of nitrogen fertilizers in rice production. Results obtained from field investigations during the years 1970 to 1974 in ten countries (Bangladesh, Burma, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Philippines), using 15 N-labelled nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, urea) are given. The experiments, which were conducted both during the dry and wet seasons, included comparison of varieties, effect of placement, source and time of nitrogen fertilizer application on the yield and quality of rice. The data from the project is presented in table form. In most of the experiments, the addition of nitrogen increased the rice grain yield. The role of soil nitrogen vs. fertilizer nitrogen is compared, and it is concluded that the physiological growth stage at which fertilizer-derived nitrogen is absorbed is of great importance

  8. Evaluation of the protein quality of cereal mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggum, B.O.

    1984-01-01

    Protein content, true protein digestibility, biological value, net protein utilization, and utilizable protein in several varieties of barley, wheat and rice were determined in nitrogen-balance trials with rats. It appeared that protein quality varied significantly between these three cereal grains, with the lowest values for wheat. However, the protein content was markedly higher in wheat; consequently, utilizable protein was highest in this cereal grain. The different varieties within barley, wheat and rice varied considerably in protein quality. This demonstrates a large variation in the potential for protein synthesis. The main problem with rice and barley is the low protein concentration, whereas with wheat the biggest problem seems to be the quality of the protein. As the lysine level in all cereal grains, expressed in percentage of the protein, cannot meet the requirements for either man or domestic animals efforts should be made to increase the lysine concentration in these food sources. (author)

  9. RiceFOX: a database of Arabidopsis mutant lines overexpressing rice full-length cDNA that contains a wide range of trait information to facilitate analysis of gene function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Tetsuya; Kondou, Youichi; Akiyama, Kenji; Kurotani, Atsushi; Higuchi, Mieko; Ichikawa, Takanari; Kuroda, Hirofumi; Kusano, Miyako; Mori, Masaki; Saitou, Tsutomu; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Sugano, Shoji; Suzuki, Makoto; Takahashi, Hideki; Takahashi, Shinya; Takatsuji, Hiroshi; Yokotani, Naoki; Yoshizumi, Takeshi; Saito, Kazuki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Oda, Kenji; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Matsui, Minami

    2011-02-01

    Identification of gene function is important not only for basic research but also for applied science, especially with regard to improvements in crop production. For rapid and efficient elucidation of useful traits, we developed a system named FOX hunting (Full-length cDNA Over-eXpressor gene hunting) using full-length cDNAs (fl-cDNAs). A heterologous expression approach provides a solution for the high-throughput characterization of gene functions in agricultural plant species. Since fl-cDNAs contain all the information of functional mRNAs and proteins, we introduced rice fl-cDNAs into Arabidopsis plants for systematic gain-of-function mutation. We generated >30,000 independent Arabidopsis transgenic lines expressing rice fl-cDNAs (rice FOX Arabidopsis mutant lines). These rice FOX Arabidopsis lines were screened systematically for various criteria such as morphology, photosynthesis, UV resistance, element composition, plant hormone profile, metabolite profile/fingerprinting, bacterial resistance, and heat and salt tolerance. The information obtained from these screenings was compiled into a database named 'RiceFOX'. This database contains around 18,000 records of rice FOX Arabidopsis lines and allows users to search against all the observed results, ranging from morphological to invisible traits. The number of searchable items is approximately 100; moreover, the rice FOX Arabidopsis lines can be searched by rice and Arabidopsis gene/protein identifiers, sequence similarity to the introduced rice fl-cDNA and traits. The RiceFOX database is available at http://ricefox.psc.riken.jp/.

  10. Study on the Long Term Effects of Radiation on Irradiated Manawthukha Rice Grain (Mahsuri-M)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aye Aye Mar; Aye Aye Mon; Hnin Hnin Than; Ba Han; Tin Tin; Myint U

    2008-03-01

    Radioactivity monitoring of first and second generations Manawthukha paddy grain before cultivations were carried out. It was found out that there were no induced activity. Therefore it can be concluded that similarly it will be the same for third generation rice. The second generation rice was obtained from cultivation and harvesting of first generation [(i) non-irradiated (control), (ii) gamma-irradiated, (iii) neutron-one hour irradiated, (iv) neutron one-day irradiated rice]. Agronomical characteristics of three different types of generation of rice were studied. Morphological characteristics studies such as plant height, leaf width and panicle length,there was no large variation between three generations of rice. Phenotypes were found to be stable. Yield improvement was calculated. Nutritional values of rice generation were studied. They were (i) element analysis by different methods (NAA, EDXRF and AAS), vitamin determination and protein percent determination. There was no distinctive difference between first, second and third generation rice. In element analysis, eleven elements such as Mg, Mn, Na, K, Cl, Al, Ca, Fe, Zn, P and Cu were observed by NAA, AAS and EDXRF methods. Vitamin content (B1, B2) and protein content were also studied. Determination of amylose content, gel consistency and gelatinization temperature were involved in grain quality study. There was no large variation in three generations. Surface texture of first, second and third generation Manawthukha rice were studied by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It was observed that the change of texture from generation to generation tend to become more distinctive in third generation.

  11. Variation in Yield and Physicochemical Quality Traits among Mutants of Japonica Rice Cultivar Wuyujing 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Daniel Abacar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To select elite germplasms, 112 mutants derived from japonica rice cultivar Wuyujing 3 were evaluated. The yield components such as panicle number per square meter, grain number per panicle, and grain weight were measured. The quality traits such as percentage of chalky grains (PCG, brown rice yield (BRY, milled rice yield (MRY, degree of milling (DM, amylose content (AC, protein content (PC, and relationships among traits were inverstigated. Results showed that grain yield ranged from 2.15 to 12.49 t/hm2 with a mean of 6.4 t/hm2 and number of grains per square meter contributed for 94.64% in grain yield variation. For quality traits, all rice mutants had short size (grain length ≤ 5.5 mm and bold shape (grain length to width ratio = 1.10–2.00. Most of rice mutants (87.5% had PCG values below 20%. All mutants had MRY values above 50%, AC values below 20%, and PC values below 10%. Percentage of chalky grains was significantly negatively correlated with MRY and positively correlated with DM. BRY and MRY were significantly negatively correlated with DM. PC was significantly and positively correlated with MRY and negatively correlated with DM, while AC had no significant correlation with these quality traits. It was concluded that there were 25 rice mutants which fulfilled the major requirements of Jiangsu standard japonica rice such as low percentage of chalky grains, low amylose content, optimal protein content, and which could be used as elite germplasms. Thus the mutants identified may lead to significant progress in improvement of rice quality.

  12. Massive gene losses in Asian cultivated rice unveiled by comparative genome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itoh Takeshi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world. With increasing world demand for food crops, there is an urgent need to develop new cultivars that have enhanced performance with regard to yield, disease resistance, and so on. Wild rice is expected to provide useful genetic resources that could improve the present cultivated species. However, the quantity and quality of these unexplored resources remain unclear. Recent accumulation of the genomic information of both cultivated and wild rice species allows for their comparison at the molecular level. Here, we compared the genome sequence of Oryza sativa ssp. japonica with sets of bacterial artificial chromosome end sequences (BESs from two wild rice species, O. rufipogon and O. nivara, and an African rice species, O. glaberrima. Results We found that about four to five percent of the BESs of the two wild rice species and about seven percent of the African rice could not be mapped to the japonica genome, suggesting that a substantial number of genes have been lost in the japonica rice lineage; however, their close relatives still possess their counterpart genes. We estimated that during evolution, O. sativa has lost at least one thousand genes that are still preserved in the genomes of the other species. In addition, our BLASTX searches against the non-redundant protein sequence database showed that disease resistance-related proteins were significantly overrepresented in the close relative-specific genomic portions. In total, 235 unmapped BESs of the three relatives matched 83 non-redundant proteins that contained a disease resistance protein domain, most of which corresponded to an NBS-LRR domain. Conclusion We found that the O. sativa lineage appears to have recently experienced massive gene losses following divergence from its wild ancestor. Our results imply that the domestication process accelerated large-scale genomic deletions in the lineage of Asian

  13. Effect of Various Types of Herbs on Sensory Properties and Blood Glucosa Response Adan Instant Black Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernatal Saragih

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Management based on the carbohydrate diet is very important to do and not to be avoided but how diet and variations of carbohydrate consumed is set mainly the source of rice that does not fast respond to an increase in blood glucose. Therefore, Evaluation of nutritional and instant rice production that is the functional food and have a low glycemic index rice sourced locally as the East Kalimantan native rice black Adan will be very beneficial for health. The aim of this research was to evaluate of the nutritional and effect of various herbal on sensory properties and blood glucose response Adan instant black rice. Adan black rice has a protein content of 8.10%, Fe 3.61 mg/1000g and 3.33 g/100g total dietary fiber and includes a group of rice with low amylose. Organoleptic value of instant rice black Adan produced the most preferred by panellists also from the addition of ginger extract and pandan leaves , water, onion tiwai, tea and last turmeric. The digestibility of starch decreased 19.04 (mg/1000g after being a functional of instant rice black Adan. Difference in reduction of blood glucose levels in volunteers who consumed black Adan instant rice by 14.20 mg/dL, whereas the provision of a reference food (glucose of 71.50 mg/dL, this indicates of instant rice functional black Adan provide availability of glucose in the blood longer available.

  14. Dolce Vita in the Rice Paddy - Characterization of weedy rice groups in Northern Italy and investigation of their evolutionary origins

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Annabelle

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with the topic of the invasive rice form called weedy rice or red rice. Studies focused on the geographical area of Italy. Different populations of weedy rice in Italy were genetically characterized. The evolutionary origins of different weedy rice groups were investigated using molecular, morphological and physiological methods. Invasion of wild rice as well as de-domestication of cultivars could be identified as evolutionary sources of weedy rice in Northern Italy.

  15. Objective evaluation of whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes using a portable spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hajime; Asanome, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Keitaro; Sano, Tomoyoshi; Saito, Hiroshi; Abe, Yohei; Chuba, Masaru; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    The whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes was evaluated using a portable spectrophotometer with a whiteness index (WI). Also, by using boiled rice for measurement of Mido values by Mido Meter, it was possible to infer the whiteness of cooked rice without rice cooking. In the analysis of varietal differences of cooked rice, 'Tsuyahime', 'Koshihikari' and 'Koshinokaori' showed high whiteness, while 'Satonoyuki' had inferior whiteness. The whiteness of rice cakes made from 'Koyukimochi' and 'Dewanomochi' was higher than the whiteness of those made from 'Himenomochi' and 'Koganemochi'. While there was a significant correlation (r = 0.84) between WI values and whiteness scores of cooked rice by the sensory test, no correlation was detected between the whiteness scores and Mido values, indicating that the values obtained by a spectrophotometer differ from those obtained by a Mido Meter. Thus, a spectrophotometer may be a novel device for measurement of rice eating quality.

  16. RiceAtlas, a spatial database of global rice calendars and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborte, Alice G; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Balanza, Jane Girly; Saito, Kazuki; Zwart, Sander J; Boschetti, Mirco; Murty, M V R; Villano, Lorena; Aunario, Jorrel Khalil; Reinke, Russell; Koo, Jawoo; Hijmans, Robert J; Nelson, Andrew

    2017-05-30

    Knowing where, when, and how much rice is planted and harvested is crucial information for understanding the effects of policy, trade, and global and technological change on food security. We developed RiceAtlas, a spatial database on the seasonal distribution of the world's rice production. It consists of data on rice planting and harvesting dates by growing season and estimates of monthly production for all rice-producing countries. Sources used for planting and harvesting dates include global and regional databases, national publications, online reports, and expert knowledge. Monthly production data were estimated based on annual or seasonal production statistics, and planting and harvesting dates. RiceAtlas has 2,725 spatial units. Compared with available global crop calendars, RiceAtlas is nearly ten times more spatially detailed and has nearly seven times more spatial units, with at least two seasons of calendar data, making RiceAtlas the most comprehensive and detailed spatial database on rice calendar and production.

  17. Labelling of rice seedlings and rice plants with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Nasroh, K.

    1989-01-01

    Labelling of rice seedlings and rice plants with 32 P. Labelled rice seedlings can be used to tag insect pests that feed on. Radioactivity counting of 32 P in the endosperm and in the shoot of rice seeds that soaked for 72 hours in KH 2 32 PO 4 solution of 1 μCi/ml were 29,300 and 9,500 cpm respectively. When these labelled seedlings were grown in unlabelled medium the radioactivity in the shoot increased. It was due to the 32 P that was translocated to the shoot from the endosperm. The 32 P translocation reached maximum about one week after the seedling were grown in the unlabelled medium. Labelled seedlings could also be produced by growing 5, 10 and 15 days old seedlings hydroponically in Kimura B solution containing 32 P. Ten days after growing, the radioactivity concentration of the seedlings stem reached about 115,000; 85,000 and 170,000 cpm/mg dry weight for the 5, 10 and 15 days old seedlings respectively. For the implementation of this method, 20 ml labelled Kimura B was needed for labelling of one seedling. The seedlings should be prepared in tap water. During the growth the 32 P in the labelled seedlings was distributed throughout the plant, so that new leaves and tillers became also radioactive. (author). 5 refs

  18. Improved water and sodium absorption from oral rehydration solutions based on rice syrup in a rat model of osmotic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapnir, R A; Litov, R E; Zdanowicz, M M; Lifshitz, F

    1991-04-01

    Rice syrup solids, rice protein, and casein hydrolysate were added to experimental oral rehydration solutions in various combinations and tested in a rat intestinal perfusion system. Chronic osmotic diarrhea was induced in juvenile rats by supplying the cathartic agents, magnesium citrate and phenolphthalein, in their drinking water for 1 week. The experimental oral rehydration solutions were compared with standard oral rehydration solutions containing 20 gm/L or 30 gm/L of glucose and with each other to determine if there were significant differences in net water, sodium, or potassium absorption. An oral rehydration solution containing 30 gm/L of rice syrup solids had a net water absorption rate significantly higher than that of the standard 20 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution (2.1 +/- 0.62 versus 1.5 +/- 0.48 microliters/[min x cm], p less than 0.05). Casein hydrolysate did not significantly affect net water absorption. However, combinations of 30 gm/L rice syrup solids and 5 gm/L casein hydrolysate significantly increased (p less than 0.05) net sodium and potassium absorption compared with the 20 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution but not versus rice syrup solids alone. Oral rehydration solutions containing 30 gm/L rice syrup solids plus 5 gm/L rice protein, and 30 gm/L rice syrup solids plus 5 gm/L casein hydrolysate, had net water absorption rates significantly higher than the rate of a 30 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution (2.5 +/- 0.36 and 2.4 +/- 0.38, respectively, versus 0.87 +/- 0.40 microliters/[min x cm], p less than 0.05). Rice protein and casein hydrolysate, however, did not significantly affect net water, sodium, or potassium absorption when added to rice protein glucose-based oral rehydration solutions. An inverse correlation between osmolality and net water absorption was observed (r = -0.653, p less than 0.02). The data suggest that substitution of rice syrup solids for glucose in oral rehydration solutions will

  19. Identification of an abundant 56 kDa protein implicated in food allergy as granule-bound starch synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, the staple food of South and East Asian counties, is considered to be hypoallergenic. However, several clinical studies have documented rice-induced allergy in sensitive patients. Rice proteins with molecular weights of 14-16 kDa, 26 kDa, 33 kDa and 56 kDa have been identified as allergens. Re...

  20. Sustainable rice production in Malaysia beyond 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Ho Nai Kin; Ismail Sahid; Ahyaudin Ali; Lum Keng Yeang; Mashhor Mansor

    2002-01-01

    This book is a compendium of works carried out by various institutions on subjects related to sustainable rice production. The institutions comprise Department of Agriculture, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Muda Agricultural Development Authority, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, International Islamic University of Malaysia and the Agrochemical Company Mosanto. Integrated Biodiversity Management parallel with the Integrated Weed / Pest / Disease Management, rice-fish farming networking, agrochemical residue monitoring in rice and marine ecosystems, and application of biotechnology in rice productivity are taken as the future direction towards achieving sustainable rice production beyond 2000. Challenges from social and technical agroecosystem constraints, agricultural input management and maintenance of agroecosystem biodiversity are highlighted. It is imperative that the challenges are surmounted to attain the target that would be reflected by tangible rice output of 10 t/ha, and at the same time maintaining the well-being of rice-farmers. (Author)

  1. In silico Allergenicity Study of Insect resistant genetically Modified Rice (Oryza sativa L. for assessment of biosafety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Das

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available India is one of the world's largest producers of rice (Oryza sativa, accounting for 20% of all world rice production. However, lepidopteran pests severely impact the harvest of rice, which leads to environmental pollution and increase production cost. Alternatively, genetic engineering methods may be used to prevent rice pests and increase production of rice in a safe and environmentally friendly manner. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt genes have been widely used to generate genetically modified (GM crops because the expressed cry1Ab protein confers resistance to lepidopteron pests. The proteins expressed by these genes may lead to food safety problems. Thus, safety evaluations are necessary prior to commercialization. Bioinformatics analysis for allergenicity assessment of cry1Ab protein is performed using different allergen databases viz. FARRP SDAP, Allergome, and Algpred to identify any potential sequence matches to allergen proteins that might indicate allergenic cross-reactivity with the query sequence. A full FASTA search was performed to identify highly similar proteins. However; the full length search cannot identify discontinuous or conformational epitopes that depend upon the tertiary structure of the protein.So every possible contiguous 80-amino acid sequence of each query protein was searched for determining the similarity. The proteins sequence can be searched using FASTA/BLAST for broad homology to known allergens to identify any short sequence that might represent an allergenic epitope. The domains in the Cry protein sequences were searched using Interproscan for potential similarity at the domain level. The results showed neither significant alignment nor similarity of cry1Ab protein at full sequence, domain, and epitope level with any of the known allergen proteins in the full sequence matching. Matching the 80 amino acid and matching of 8 amino acids showed no similarity to determine the epitope potential. From literature survey

  2. Effect of Cooking on Speciation and In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Hg and As from Rice, Using Ordinary and Pressure Cookers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen; Wang, Guang; Li, Kaiming; Zhao, Wenbo; Wu, Ye

    2018-05-03

    Rice is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, and owing to environmental pollution, it is a major source of human exposure to mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As). We evaluated the impact of cooking on the speciation and bioaccessibility of Hg and As from rice in this study. Results show that the dominant Hg and As species in rice from Guangzhou market in China were their inorganic forms (iHg and iAs), respectively. The cooking process modified the levels of Hg and As. Average Hg and As bioaccessibility in raw rice was 69.74 and 80.32%, respectively. Hg bioaccessibility decreased to 46.22 and 42.37% for pressure- and ordinary-cooked rice, respectively. In contrast, As bioaccessibility remained unchanged except after cooking with a large amount of water. Protein denaturation and the amount of soluble and volatile forms determine the bioaccessibility of Hg and As in cooked rice by being released into the cooking water or into the air. From the bioaccessibility data, the average established daily intake (EDI) values of Hg and As from pressure-cooked rice for children and adults were 0.034 and 0.025 μg kg -1  day -1 (Hg), and 0.735 and 0.559 μg kg -1  day -1 (As), respectively. This study provides novel insights into Hg and As exposure due to rice cooking.

  3. Biofortification of essential nutritional compounds and trace elements in rice and cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, C; Poletti, S; Zhang, P; Gruissem, W

    2006-05-01

    Plant biotechnology can make important contributions to food security and nutritional improvement. For example, the development of 'Golden Rice' by Professor Ingo Potrykus was a milestone in the application of gene technology to deliver both increased nutritional qualities and health improvement to wide sections of the human population. Mineral nutrient and protein deficiency as well as food security remain the most important challenges for developing countries. Current projects are addressing these issues in two major staple crops, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and rice. The tropical root crop cassava is a major source of food for approximately 600 million of the population worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa >200 million of the population rely on cassava as their major source of dietary energy. The nutritional quality of the cassava root is not sufficient to meet all dietary needs. Rice is the staple food for half the world population, providing approximately 20% of the per capita energy and 13% of the protein for human consumption worldwide. In many developing countries the dietary contributions of rice are substantially greater (29.3% dietary energy and 29.1% dietary protein). The current six most popular 'mega' rice varieties (in terms of popularity and acreage), including Chinese hybrid rice, have an incomplete amino acid profile and contain limited amounts of essential micronutrients. Rice lines with improved Fe contents have been developed using genes that have functions in Fe absorption, translocation and accumulation in the plant, as well as improved Fe bioavailability in the human intestine. Current developments in biotechnology-assisted plant improvement are reviewed and the potential of the technology in addressing human nutrition and health are discussed.

  4. Effects of Transgenic cry1Ca Rice on the Development of Xenopus laevis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuping Chen

    Full Text Available In fields of genetically modified, insect-resistant rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt proteins, frogs are exposed to Bt Cry proteins by consuming both target and non-target insects, and through their highly permeable skin. In the present study, we assessed the potential risk posed by transgenic cry1Ca rice (T1C-19 on the development of a frog species by adding purified Cry1Ca protein or T1C-19 rice straw into the rearing water of Xenopus laevis tadpoles, and by feeding X. laevis froglets diets containing rice grains of T1C-19 or its non-transformed counterpart MH63. Our results showed that there were no significant differences among groups receiving 100 μg L-1 or 10 μg L-1 Cry1Ca and the blank control in terms of time to completed metamorphosis, survival rate, body weight, body length, organ weight and liver enzyme activity after being exposed to the Cry1Ca (P > 0.05. Although some detection indices in the rice straw groups were significantly different from those of the blank control group (P < 0.05, there was no significant difference between the T1C-19 and MH63 rice straw groups. Moreover, there were no significant differences in the mortality rate, body weight, daily weight gain, liver and fat body weight of the froglets between the T1C-19 and MH63 dietary groups after 90 days, and there were no abnormal pathological changes in the stomach, intestines, livers, spleens and gonads. Thus, we conclude that the planting of transgenic cry1Ca rice will not adversely affect frog development.

  5. A Quantitative Acetylomic Analysis of Early Seed Development in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Hou, Yuxuan; Qiu, Jiehua; Li, Zhiyong; Zhao, Juan; Tong, Xiaohong; Zhang, Jian

    2017-06-27

    PKA (protein lysine acetylation) is a critical post-translational modification that regulates various developmental processes, including seed development. However, the acetylation events and dynamics on a proteomic scale in this process remain largely unknown, especially in rice early seed development. We report the first quantitative acetylproteomic study focused on rice early seed development by employing a mass spectral-based (MS-based), label-free approach. A total of 1817 acetylsites on 1688 acetylpeptides from 972 acetylproteins were identified in pistils and seeds at three and seven days after pollination, including 268 acetyproteins differentially acetylated among the three stages. Motif-X analysis revealed that six significantly enriched motifs, such as (DxkK), (kH) and (kY) around the acetylsites of the identified rice seed acetylproteins. Differentially acetylated proteins among the three stages, including adenosine diphosphate (ADP) -glucose pyrophosphorylases (AGPs), PDIL1-1 (protein disulfide isomerase like 1-1), hexokinases, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) and numerous other regulators that are extensively involved in the starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and photosynthesis pathways during early seed development. This study greatly expanded the rice acetylome dataset, and shed novel insight into the regulatory roles of PKA in rice early seed development.

  6. γ-Oryzanol, tocol and mineral compositions in different grain fractions of giant embryo rice mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Toong Long; Shih, Yi Ju; Ho, Pei Tzu; Lai, Chia Chi; Lin, Yu Wen; Wang, Chang Sheng; Sung, Jih Min

    2012-05-01

    Rice embryo is concentrated with lipid, protein and some bioactive chemicals. Two rice mutants IR64-GE and TNG71-GE (M7 generation) were characterised by an enlarged embryo compared with their wild types. In the present study, distributions of protein, lipid, total phenolics, γ-oryzanol, tocols and some essential minerals in these two giant embryo mutants and their respective normal embryo wild types IR64 and TNG71 were compared. The embryo dry weights of giant embryo mutants IR64-GE and TNG71-GE were 0.92 and 1.32 mg per seed respectively. These values were higher than those of their respective normal embryo genotypes (0.50 and 0.62 mg per seed). Large variations in protein, lipid, phenolic, γ-oryzanol, tocol and minerals levels were found between mutant and wild-type pairs. The brown rice of TNG71-GE had higher total γ-oryzanol (average of 24% increase) and total tocol (average of 75% increase) levels than TNG71, IR64 and IR64-GE. The embryo and bran parts of giant embryo mutant TNG71-GE were found to be good sources of vitamin E and γ-oryzanol. Therefore it could be used to produce high-value by-products from milled embryo and bran parts and as a genetic resource for rice improvement programmes. TNG71-GE can also be used as a nutrient-fortified rice cultivar. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Transgene Flow from Glufosinate-Resistant Rice to Improved and Weedy Rice in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-liang LU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of transgenic rice with novel traits in China can increase rice productivity, but transgene flow to improved or weedy rice has become a major concern. We aimed to evaluate the potential maximum frequencies of transgene flow from glufosinate-resistant rice to improved rice cultivars and weedy rice. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete blocks with three replicates. Experiments were conducted between 2009 and 2010 at the Center for Environmental Safety Supervision and Inspection for Genetically Modified Plants, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou, China. Glufosinate-resistant japonica rice 99-1 was the pollen donor. The pollen recipients were two inbred japonica rice (Chunjiang 016 and Xiushui 09, two inbred indica rice (Zhongzu 14 and Zhongzao 22, two indica hybrid rice (Zhongzheyou 1 and Guodao 1, and one weedy indica rice (Taizhou weedy rice. The offspring of recipients were planted in the field and sprayed with a commercial dose of glufosinate. Leaf tissues of survivors were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of the transgene. The frequency of gene flow ranged from 0 to 0.488%. In 2009, the order of gene flow frequency was as follows: weedy rice > Chunjiang 016 > Xiushui 09 and Zhongzu 14 > Guodao 1, Zhongzheyou 1 and Zhongzao 22. Gene flow frequencies were generally higher in 2009 than in 2010, but did not differ significantly among rice materials. Gene flow frequency was the highest in weedy rice followed by the inbred japonica rice. The risk of gene flow differed significantly between years and year-to-year variance could mask risk differences among pollen recipients. Gene flow was generally lesser in taller pollen recipients than in shorter ones, but plant height only accounted for about 30% of variation in gene flow. When flowering synchrony was maximized, as in this study, low frequencies of gene flow occurred from herbicide-resistant japonica rice to other cultivars and

  8. High level expression of Acidothermus cellulolyticus β-1, 4-endoglucanase in transgenic rice enhances the hydrolysis of its straw by cultured cow gastric fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Hong L.; Dai, Ziyu; Hsieh, Chia W.; Ku, Maurice S.

    2011-12-10

    Large-scale production of effective cellulose hydrolytic enzymes is the key to the bioconversion of agricultural residues to ethanol. The goal of this study was to develop a rice plant as a bioreactor for the large-scale production of cellulose hydrolytic enzymes via genetic transformation, and to simultaneously improve rice straw as an efficient biomass feedstock for conversion of cellulose to glucose. In this study, the cellulose hydrolytic enzyme {beta}-1, 4-endoglucanase (E1) from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus was overexpressed in rice through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The expression of the bacterial gene in rice was driven by the constitutive Mac promoter, a hybrid promoter of Ti plasmid mannopine synthetase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer with the signal peptide of tobacco pathogenesis-related protein for targeting the protein to the apoplastic compartment for storage. A total of 52 transgenic rice plants from six independent lines expressing the bacterial enzyme were obtained, which expressed the gene at high levels with a normal phenotype. The specific activities of E1 in the leaves of the highest expressing transgenic rice lines were about 20 fold higher than those of various transgenic plants obtained in previous studies and the protein amounts accounted for up to 6.1% of the total leaf soluble protein. Zymogram and temperature-dependent activity analyses demonstrated the thermostability of the enzyme and its substrate specificity against cellulose, and a simple heat treatment can be used to purify the protein. In addition, hydrolysis of transgenic rice straw with cultured cow gastric fluid yielded almost twice more reducing sugars than wild type straw. Taken together, these data suggest that transgenic rice can effectively serve as a bioreactor for large-scale production of active, thermostable cellulose hydrolytic enzymes. As a feedstock, direct expression of large amount of cellulases in

  9. A built-in mechanism to mitigate the spread of insect-resistance and herbicide-tolerance transgenes into weedy rice populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyi Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The major challenge of cultivating genetically modified (GM rice (Oryza sativa at the commercial scale is to prevent the spread of transgenes from GM cultivated rice to its coexisting weedy rice (O. sativa f. spontanea. The strategic development of GM rice with a built-in control mechanism can mitigate transgene spread in weedy rice populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An RNAi cassette suppressing the expression of the bentazon detoxifying enzyme CYP81A6 was constructed into the T-DNA which contained two tightly linked transgenes expressing the Bt insecticidal protein Cry1Ab and the glyphosate tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS, respectively. GM rice plants developed from this T-DNA were resistant to lepidopteran pests and tolerant to glyphosate, but sensitive to bentazon. The application of bentazon of 2000 mg/L at the rate of 40 mL/m(2, which is approximately the recommended dose for the field application to control common rice weeds, killed all F(2 plants containing the transgenes generated from the Crop-weed hybrids between a GM rice line (CGH-13 and two weedy rice strains (PI-63 and PI-1401. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Weedy rice plants containing transgenes from GM rice through gene flow can be selectively killed by the spray of bentazon when a non-GM rice variety is cultivated alternately in a few-year interval. The built-in control mechanism in combination of cropping management is likely to mitigate the spread of transgenes into weedy rice populations.

  10. A Built-In Mechanism to Mitigate the Spread of Insect-Resistance and Herbicide-Tolerance Transgenes into Weedy Rice Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyi; Li, Jingjing; Gao, Jianhua; Shen, Zhicheng; Lu, Bao-Rong; Lin, Chaoyang

    2012-01-01

    Background The major challenge of cultivating genetically modified (GM) rice (Oryza sativa) at the commercial scale is to prevent the spread of transgenes from GM cultivated rice to its coexisting weedy rice (O. sativa f. spontanea). The strategic development of GM rice with a built-in control mechanism can mitigate transgene spread in weedy rice populations. Methodology/Principal Findings An RNAi cassette suppressing the expression of the bentazon detoxifying enzyme CYP81A6 was constructed into the T-DNA which contained two tightly linked transgenes expressing the Bt insecticidal protein Cry1Ab and the glyphosate tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), respectively. GM rice plants developed from this T-DNA were resistant to lepidopteran pests and tolerant to glyphosate, but sensitive to bentazon. The application of bentazon of 2000 mg/L at the rate of 40 mL/m2, which is approximately the recommended dose for the field application to control common rice weeds, killed all F2 plants containing the transgenes generated from the Crop-weed hybrids between a GM rice line (CGH-13) and two weedy rice strains (PI-63 and PI-1401). Conclusions/Significance Weedy rice plants containing transgenes from GM rice through gene flow can be selectively killed by the spray of bentazon when a non-GM rice variety is cultivated alternately in a few-year interval. The built-in control mechanism in combination of cropping management is likely to mitigate the spread of transgenes into weedy rice populations. PMID:22359609

  11. Evaluation of tall rice mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    One tall mutant (Mut NS1) of rice variety Nizersail was put to multilocation on-farm trial. It showed improvement over the parent in respect of by earlier maturity and higher grain yield at all locations and thus it appears as an improved mutant of Nizersail. (author). 6 refs

  12. Physico-chemical changes in grains of some advance lines/ varieties of rice (oryza sativa l.) after parboiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, M.; Haider, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Some of the advance lines/varieties developed at Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, including approved fragrant (Basmati) rice variety i.e., Basmati-2000, were used to assess interactive efficacy of parboiling on these varieties/lines and practical expediency of using standardized parboiling technique for improving nutritional, milling and cooking qualities of these lines/varieties. For this purpose, white milled and parboiled rice samples of ten lines/varieties were analyzed for nutritional quality parameters such as ash, dry matter, crude fat, crude protein, crude fiber, vitamin B6; milling quality parameters such as total milling recovery, head rice recovery, ratio of broken grains and cooking quality parameters such as curling, bursting and cooked grain length. The study showed significant variation in efficacy of parboiling to different varieties/lines. The results clearly showed average increase in mineral contents in terms of ash% increase, dry matter, longer cooked grain length and considerable rise in vitamin B6 contents, higher total milling recovery and head rice recovery in almost all the samples. While crude fiber, crude protein and crude fat decreased non-significantly. Furthermore, quality reducing factors such as number of broken grains, bursting and curling percentage of cooked rice were also reduced significantly in parboiled samples. It may, therefore, be suggested that parboiling offers a better alternative to conserve and increase nutritional, milling and cooking quality values of rice varieties/lines. Less percentage of broken, burst and curled grains may result in augmented net income. (author)

  13. Effect of Cold-Water Irrigation on Grain Quality Traits in japonica Rice Varieties from Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-zhen ZHAO

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The response of grain quality traits to cold-water irrigation and its correlation with cold tolerance were studied in 11 japonica rice varieties from Yunnan Province, China. The results indicated that the response of grain quality traits to the cold-water stress varied with rice varieties and grain quality traits. Under the cold-water stress, grain width, chalky rice rate, whiteness, 1000-grain weight, brown rice rate, taste meter value, peak viscosity, trough viscosity, breakdown viscosity and final viscosity significantly decreased, whereas grain length-width ratio, head rice rate, alkali digestion value, protein content and setback viscosity markedly increased. However, the other traits such as grain length, amylose content, milled rice rate, peak viscosity time and pasting temperature were not significantly affected by the cold-water stress. Significant correlations were discovered between phenotypic acceptability and cold response indices of taste meter value, protein content, peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity. Therefore, it would be very important to improve the cold tolerance of Yunnan rice varieties in order to stabilize and improve their eating quality.

  14. RISC-interacting clearing 3'- 5' exoribonucleases (RICEs) degrade uridylated cleavage fragments to maintain functional RISC in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghui; Hu, Fuqu; Sung, Min Woo; Shu, Chang; Castillo-González, Claudia; Koiwa, Hisashi; Tang, Guiliang; Dickman, Martin; Li, Pingwei; Zhang, Xiuren

    2017-05-02

    RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is composed of miRNAs and AGO proteins. AGOs use miRNAs as guides to slice target mRNAs to produce truncated 5' and 3' RNA fragments. The 5' cleaved RNA fragments are marked with uridylation for degradation. Here, we identified novel cofactors of Arabidopsis AGOs, named RICE1 and RICE2. RICE proteins specifically degraded single-strand (ss) RNAs in vitro; but neither miRNAs nor miRNA*s in vivo. RICE1 exhibited a DnaQ-like exonuclease fold and formed a homohexamer with the active sites located at the interfaces between RICE1 subunits. Notably, ectopic expression of catalytically-inactive RICE1 not only significantly reduced miRNA levels; but also increased 5' cleavage RISC fragments with extended uridine tails. We conclude that RICEs act to degrade uridylated 5' products of AGO cleavage to maintain functional RISC. Our study also suggests a possible link between decay of cleaved target mRNAs and miRNA stability in RISC.

  15. Rainfed Rice Production and there Germplasm Development in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyango, J.C.; Onyango, M.O.A.

    1999-01-01

    Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) has been grown in Kenya for several centuries and during this time has been locally selected by farmers for adaptation in the dry climate of Kenya highlands and coastal region. this history of selection by farmers has led to the concentration of genetic information for performance under drought conditions in locally-adapted rice types. Since water availability affects many processes in plants, drought tolerance is a complex character and due to the complex nature of the drought tolerance limited progress has been made in breeding for drought tolerance using simple screening methods. To produce drought tolerant cultivars, characters can used as parents in a breeding program, this is a two step process. Obviously, the root system is central to drought tolerance. The root system must be able to remove water efficiently from soils with low moisture and withstand the dynamics of soil during drought conditions will prevent stomata closure and maximise photosynthesis which is essential for high crop production. Over 365 cultivars of rainfed rice have been identified in Kenya and can be used in the two step process as source material for identifying characters related to drought tolerance and as parental lines. To advance the first step, research was conducted to identify drought tolerance characters in rainfed cultivars from Kenya. The study had a total of 580 mm of rainfall which was below the mean precipitation requirement of 750 mm. The drought sensitive variety IR20 was compared with drought tolerant IR52 and five KR (Kenya Rice) KR21, KR22, KR35,KR108 and KR135 cultivars. Plant biomass, plant height, leaf area, leaf length, protein: chlorophyll content ratio and grain yield were affected by limiting water availability and differences between cultivars were noted. The protein to chlorophyll ratio in leaves in the KR. cultivars increase from 18.4 to 28.0 as water deficient increases from -0.8 mpa to -1.4 Mpa allowing these cultivars to maintain

  16. Identification of phasiRNAs in wild rice (Oryza rufipogon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Fan, Longjiang

    2013-08-01

    Plant miRNAs can trigger the production of phased, secondary siRNAs from either non-coding or protein-coding genes. In this study, at least 864 and 3,961 loci generating 21-nt and 24-nt phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs),respectively, were identified in three tissues from wild rice. Of these phasiRNA-producing loci, or PHAS genes, biogenesis of phasiRNAs in at least 160 of 21-nt and 254 of 24-nt loci could be triggered by interaction with miRNA(s). Developing seeds had more PHAS genes than leaves and roots. Genetic constrain on miRNA-triggered PHAS genes suggests that phasiRNAs might be one of the driving forces contributed to rice domestication.

  17. Genome-wide transcription analyses in rice using tiling microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Xiangfeng; Stolc, Viktor

    2006-01-01

    . We report here a full-genome transcription analysis of the indica rice subspecies using high-density oligonucleotide tiling microarrays. Our results provided expression data support for the existence of 35,970 (81.9%) annotated gene models and identified 5,464 unique transcribed intergenic regions...... that share similar compositional properties with the annotated exons and have significant homology to other plant proteins. Elucidating and mapping of all transcribed regions revealed an association between global transcription and cytological chromosome features, and an overall similarity of transcriptional......Sequencing and computational annotation revealed several features, including high gene numbers, unusual composition of the predicted genes and a large number of genes lacking homology to known genes, that distinguish the rice (Oryza sativa) genome from that of other fully sequenced model species...

  18. Edible Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Rice T1C-1 for Sprague Dawley Rats through Horizontal Gene Transfer, Allergenicity and Intestinal Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    Full Text Available In this study, assessment of the safety of transgenic rice T1C-1 expressing Cry1C was carried out by: (1 studying horizontal gene transfer (HGT in Sprague Dawley rats fed transgenic rice for 90 d; (2 examining the effect of Cry1C protein in vitro on digestibility and allergenicity; and (3 studying the changes of intestinal microbiota in rats fed with transgenic rice T1C-1 in acute and subchronic toxicity tests. Sprague Dawley rats were fed a diet containing either 60% GM Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt rice T1C-1 expressing Cry1C protein, the parental rice Minghui 63, or a basic diet for 90 d. The GM Bt rice T1C-1 showed no evidence of HGT between rats and transgenic rice. Sequence searching of the Cry1C protein showed no homology with known allergens or toxins. Cry1C protein was rapidly degraded in vitro with simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. The expressed Cry1C protein did not induce high levels of specific IgG and IgE antibodies in rats. The intestinal microbiota of rats fed T1C-1 was also analyzed in acute and subchronic toxicity tests by DGGE. Cluster analysis of DGGE profiles revealed significant individual differences in the rats' intestinal microbiota.

  19. Edible Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Rice T1C-1 for Sprague Dawley Rats through Horizontal Gene Transfer, Allergenicity and Intestinal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Ren, Fangfang; Han, Fangting; Liu, Qiwen; Wu, Guogan; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Xiao; Wang, Jinbin; Li, Peng; Shi, Wei; Zhu, Hong; Lv, Jianjun; Zhao, Xiao; Tang, Xueming

    2016-01-01

    In this study, assessment of the safety of transgenic rice T1C-1 expressing Cry1C was carried out by: (1) studying horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in Sprague Dawley rats fed transgenic rice for 90 d; (2) examining the effect of Cry1C protein in vitro on digestibility and allergenicity; and (3) studying the changes of intestinal microbiota in rats fed with transgenic rice T1C-1 in acute and subchronic toxicity tests. Sprague Dawley rats were fed a diet containing either 60% GM Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice T1C-1 expressing Cry1C protein, the parental rice Minghui 63, or a basic diet for 90 d. The GM Bt rice T1C-1 showed no evidence of HGT between rats and transgenic rice. Sequence searching of the Cry1C protein showed no homology with known allergens or toxins. Cry1C protein was rapidly degraded in vitro with simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. The expressed Cry1C protein did not induce high levels of specific IgG and IgE antibodies in rats. The intestinal microbiota of rats fed T1C-1 was also analyzed in acute and subchronic toxicity tests by DGGE. Cluster analysis of DGGE profiles revealed significant individual differences in the rats' intestinal microbiota.

  20. CMYB1 Encoding a MYB Transcriptional Activator Is Involved in Abiotic Stress and Circadian Rhythm in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Duan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Through analysis of cold-induced transcriptome, a novel gene encoding a putative MYB transcription factor was isolated and designated Cold induced MYB 1 (CMYB1. Tissue-specific gene expression analysis revealed that CMYB1 was highly expressed in rice stems and nodes. qRT-PCR assay indicated that CMYB1 was dramatically induced by cold stress (>100-folds and induced by exogenous ABA and osmotic stress. Interestingly, CMYB1 showed rhythmic expression profile in rice leaves at different developmental stages. Subcellular localization assay suggested that CMYB1-GFP (green fluorescent protein fusion protein was localized in the nuclei. Moreover, CMYB1 exhibited the transcriptional activation activity when transiently expressed in rice protoplast cells. Taken together, CMYB1 probably functions as a transcriptional activator in mediating stress and rhythm responsive gene expression in rice.

  1. [Effects of fish on field resource utilization and rice growth in rice-fish coculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Hu, Liang Liang; Ren, Wei Zheng; Guo, Liang; Wu, Min Fang; Tang, Jian Jun; Chen, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Rice field can provide habitat for fish and other aquatic animals. Rice-fish coculture can increase rice yield and simultaneously reduce the use of chemicals through reducing rice pest occurrence and nutrient complementary use. However, how fish uses food sources (e.g. phytoplankton, weeds, duckweed, macro-algal and snail) from rice field, and whether the nutrients releasing from those food sources due to fish transforming can improve rice growth are still unknown. Here, we conducted two field experiments to address these questions. One was to investigate the pattern of fish activity in the field using the method of video recording. The other was to examine the utilization of field resources by fish using stable isotope technology. Rice growth and rice yield were also exa-mined. Results showed that fish tended to be more active and significantly expanded the activity range in the rice-fish coculture compared to fish monoculture (fish not living together with rice plants). The contributions of 3 potential aquatic organisms (duckweed, phytoplankton and snail) to fish dietary were 22.7%, 34.8% and 30.0% respectively under rice-fish coculture without feed. Under the treatment with feed, however, the contributions of these 3 aquatic organisms to the fish die-tary were 8.9%, 5.9% and 1.6% respectively. The feed contribution was 71.0%. Rice-fish coculture significantly increased the nitrogen concentration in rice leaves, prolonged tillering stage by 10-12 days and increased rice spike rate and yield. The results suggested that raising fish in paddy field may transform the nutrients contained in field resources to bioavailable for rice plants through fish feeding activity, which can improve rice growth and rice yield.

  2. [Nitrogen cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during double cropping rice growth season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Sui, Peng; Gao, Wang-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Raising duck in paddy rice field is an evolution of Chinese traditional agriculture. In May-October 2010, a field experiment was conducted in a double cropping rice region of Hunan Province, South-central China to study the nitrogen (N) cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during early rice and late rice growth periods, taking a conventional paddy rice field as the control. Input-output analysis method was adopted. The N output in the early rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 239.5 kg x hm(-2), in which, 12.77 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks, and the N output in the late rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 338.7 kg x hm(-2), in which, 23.35 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks. At the present N input level, there existed soil N deficit during the growth seasons of both early rice and late rice. The N input from duck sub-system was mainly from the feed N, and the cycling rate of the duck feces N recycled within the system was 2.5% during early rice growth season and 3.5% during late rice growth season. After late rice harvested, the soil N sequestration was 178.6 kg x hm(-2).

  3. A comparative study of competitiveness between different genotypes of weedy rice (Oryza sativa) and cultivated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Lu, Baorong; Qiang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Competition from weedy rice can cause serious yield losses to cultivated rice. However, key traits that facilitate competitiveness are still not well understood. To explore the mechanisms behind the strong growth and competitive ability, replacement series experiments were established with six genotypes of weedy rice from different regions and one cultivated rice cultivar. (1) Weedy rice from southern China had the greatest impact on growth and yield of cultivated rice throughout the entire growing season. Weedy rice from the northeast was very competitive during the early vegetative stage while the competitive effects of eastern weedy rice were more detrimental at later crop-growth stages. (2) As the proportion of weedy rice increased, plant height, tillers, above-ground biomass, and yield of cultivated rice significantly declined; the crop always being at disadvantage regardless of proportion. (3) Weedy biotypes with greater diversity as estimated by their Shannon indexes were more detrimental to the growth and yield of cultivated rice. Geographic origin (latitude) of weedy rice biotype, its mixture proportion under competition with the crop and its genetic diversity are determinant factors of the outcome of competition and the associated decline in the rice crop yield. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P < 0.01) between rice plant parameters, rice yield and soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal

  5. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  6. Rice agroecosystem and the maintenance of biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahyaudin Ali

    2002-01-01

    Rice fields are a special type of wetland. They are shallow, constantly disturbed and experience extremes in temperature and dissolved oxygen content. They receive nutrients in the form of fertilizers during rice cultivation. Rice fields; support a variety of flora and fauna that have adapted and adjusted themselves to the extreme conditions. Since rice fields also support populations of wild fish, rice?fish integration should be done in order to optimize land use and provide supplementary income to farmers. Rice?fish farming encourages farmers to judiciously apply pesticides and herbicides in their fields thus helping to control excessive and unwarranted use of these chemicals. Rice fields also support many migratory and nonmigratory bird species and provides habitat for small mammals. Thus the rice agroecosystem helps to maintain aquatic biodiversity. The Muda rice agroecosystem consists of a troika of interconnected ecosystems. The troika consisting of reservoirs, the connecting network of canals and the rice fields; should be investigated further. This data is needed for informed decision-making concerning development and management of the system so that productivity and biodiversity can be maintained and sustained. (Author)

  7. Characteristics of siRNAs derived from Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus in infected rice and their potential role in host gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Donglin; Zhou, Guohui

    2017-02-10

    Virus-derived siRNAs (vsiRNAs)-mediated RNA silencing plays important roles in interaction between plant viruses and their hosts. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a newly emerged devastating rice reovirus with ten dsRNA genomic segments. The characteristics of SRBSDV-derived siRNAs and their biological implications in SRBSDV-rice interaction remain unexplored. VsiRNAs profiling from SRBSDV-infected rice samples was done via small RNA deep sequencing. The putative rice targets of abundantly expressed vsiRNAs were bioinformatically predicted and subjected to functional annotation. Differential expression analysis of rice targets and RNA silencing components between infected and healthy samples was done using RT-qPCR. The vsiRNA was barely detectable at 14 days post infection (dpi) but abundantly present along with elevated expression level of the viral genome at 28 dpi. From the 28-dpi sample, 70,878 reads of 18 ~ 30-nt vsiRNAs were recognized (which mostly were 21-nt and 22-nt), covering 75 ~ 91% of the length of the ten genomic segments respectively. 86% of the vsiRNAs had a rice genes, including several types of host resistance or pathogenesis related genes encoding F-box/LRR proteins, receptor-like protein kinases, universal stress proteins, tobamovirus multiplication proteins, and RNA silencing components OsDCL2a and OsAGO17 respectively, some of which showed down regulation in infected plants in RT-qPCR. GO and KEGG classification showed that a majority of the predicted targets were related to cell parts and cellular processes and involved in carbohydrate metabolism, translation, and signal transduction. The silencing component genes OsDCL2a, OsDCL2b, OsDCL4, and OsAGO18 were down regulated, while OsAGO1d, OsAGO2, OsRDR1 and OsRDR6 were up regulated, significantly, upon SRBSDV infection. SRBSDV can regulate the expression of rice RNA silencing pathway components and the virus might compromise host defense and influence host

  8. Evaluating Crossbred Red Rice Variants for Postprandial Glucometabolic Responses: A Comparison with Commercial Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Hee Se

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of white rice predisposes some Asian populations to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We compared the postprandial glucometabolic responses to three newly-developed crossbred red rice variants (UKMRC9, UKMRC10, UKMRC11 against three selected commercial rice types (Thai red, Basmati white, Jasmine white using 50-g carbohydrate equivalents provided to 12 normoglycaemic adults in a crossover design. Venous blood was drawn fasted and postprandially for three hours. Glycaemic (GI and insulin (II indices, incremental areas-under-the-curves for glucose and insulin (IAUCins, indices of insulin sensitivity and secretion, lactate and peptide hormones (motilin, neuropeptide-Y, orexin-A were analyzed. The lowest to highest trends for GI and II were similar i.e., UKMRC9 < Basmati < Thai red < UKMRC10 < UKMRC11 < Jasmine. Postprandial insulinaemia and IAUCins of only UKMRC9 were significantly the lowest compared to Jasmine. Crude protein and fiber content correlated negatively with the GI values of the test rice. Although peptide hormones were not associated with GI and II characteristics of test rice, early and late phases of prandial neuropeptide-Y changes were negatively correlated with postprandial insulinaemia. This study indicated that only UKMRC9 among the new rice crossbreeds could serve as an alternative cereal option to improve diet quality of Asians with its lowest glycaemic and insulinaemic burden.

  9. A practicable detection system for genetically modified rice by SERS-barcoded nanosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Han, Heyou; Luo, Zhihui; Wang, Yanjun; Wang, Xiuping

    2012-04-15

    Since the global cultivation of genetically modified crops constantly expands, it remains a high demand to establish different ways to sort food and feed that consist or contain genetically modified organisms. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy is a flexible tool for biological analysis due to its excellent properties for detecting wide varieties of target biomolecules including nucleic acids. In the present study, a SERS-barcoded nanosensor was developed to detect Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene-transformed rice expressing insecticidal proteins. The barcoded sensor was designed by encapsulation of gold nanoparticles with silica and conjugation of oligonucleotide strands for targeting DNA strands. The transition between the cry1A(b) and cry1A(c) fusion gene sequence was used to construct a specific SERS-based detection method with a detection limit of 0.1 pg/mL. In order to build the determination models to screen transgene, a series mixture of Bt rice and normal rice were prepared for SERS assay, and the limit of detection was 0.1% (w/w) transgenic Bt rice relative to normal rice. The sensitivity and accuracy of the SERS-based assay was comparable with real-time PCR. The SERS-barcoded analytical method would provide precise detection of transgenic rice varieties but also informative supplement to avoid false positive outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The road to micronutrient biofortification of rice:Progress and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurram eBashir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biofortification (Increasing the contents of vitamins and minerals through plant breeding or biotechnology of food crops with micronutrient elements has the potential to combat widespread micronutrient deficiencies in humans. Rice (Oryza sativa L. feeds more than half of the world’s population and is used as a staple food in many parts of Asia. As in other plants, micronutrient transport in rice is controlled at several stages, including uptake from soil, transport from root to shoot, careful control of subcellular micronutrient transport, and finally, and most importantly, transport to seeds. To enhance micronutrient accumulation in rice seeds, we need to understand and carefully regulate all of these processes. During the last decade, numerous attempts such as increasing the contents/expression of genes encoding metal chelators (mostly phytosiderophores and metal transporters; overexpressing Fe storage protein ferritin and phytase were successfully undertaken to significantly increase the micronutrient content of rice. However, despite the rapid progress in biofortification of rice, the commercialization of biofortified crops has not yet been achieved. Here, we briefly review the progress in biofortification of rice with micronutrient elements (Fe, Zn and Mn and discuss future prospects to mitigate widespread micronutrient deficiencies in humans.

  11. Morphology, production, and chemical content performance of black rice Matesih accession with several comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandariyah; Purwanto, E.; Meidini, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important food crop in Indonesia. In Matesih area, Karanganyar, recently found new varieties of black rice cultured by local farmers which morphology and chemical content have not yet identified. The purpose of this research was to obtain information of morphology, production, and chemical content of black rice matesih accession and to compare the appearance in order to detect the superiority of black rice matesih accession with the comparison of other accession of black rice. There were four accessions of black rice tested, namely Matesih Accession, Klaten Accession, Toraja, and Cempo. Research data were divided into qualitative data which processed by scoring, and quantitative data are processed with simple descriptive statistic. The kinship test was done by using NTSYSpc program with SIMQual and SIMInt function. The observation of qualitative properties indicates that accession matesih has a form that is relatively similar to other accessions. Qualitatively, accession matesih superior at leaf length, leaf width, plant height and culm diameter. Klaten accession has higher production than accession matesih. Matesih accession has the advantage of having shorter period on heading time and harvest time than other accessions. Matesih accession has the highest amylose content, lower protein content than klaten accession and lower content of anthocyanin than toraja accession. The kinship analysis showed that matesih accession and klaten accession has close kinship.

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of Early Responsive Genes in Rice during Magnaporthe oryzae Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most serious diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L. in most rice-growing regions of the world. In order to investigate early response genes in rice, we utilized the transcriptome analysis approach using a 300 K tilling microarray to rice leaves infected with compatible and incompatible M. oryzae strains. Prior to the microarray experiment, total RNA was validated by measuring the differential expression of rice defense-related marker genes (chitinase 2, barwin, PBZ1, and PR-10 by RT-PCR, and phytoalexins (sakuranetin and momilactone A with HPLC. Microarray analysis revealed that 231 genes were up-regulated (>2 fold change, p < 0.05 in the incompatible interaction compared to the compatible one. Highly expressed genes were functionally characterized into metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction categories. The oxidative stress response was induced in both early and later infection stages. Biotic stress overview from MapMan analysis revealed that the phytohormone ethylene as well as signaling molecules jasmonic acid and salicylic acid is important for defense gene regulation. WRKY and Myb transcription factors were also involved in signal transduction processes. Additionally, receptor-like kinases were more likely associated with the defense response, and their expression patterns were validated by RT-PCR. Our results suggest that candidate genes, including receptor-like protein kinases, may play a key role in disease resistance against M. oryzae attack.

  13. Floating rice-culture system for nutrient remediation and feed production in a eutrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ankita; Chun, Seong-Jun; Ko, So-Ra; Kim, Junhwan; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2017-12-01

    The increased inputs of nutrients have been demonstrated to be a major contributing factor to the eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs which can lead to the production of harmful algal/cyanobacterial blooms and deleteriously affect the aesthetics of water-bodies. Floating plant-culture systems have been widely used for the ecological remediation of eutrophic water in a cost-effective manner. We investigated the applicability of Korean japonica rice variety 'Nampyeong' in a floating-culture system in a eutrophic lake for nutrient uptake and biomass production. Chemical and organic compound compositions were analyzed two times during the growth stages of the rice plant: 98 DAT (days after transplanting) and 165 DAT. Total nitrogen and phosphorus contributed around 1.36 and 0.15 (% dry weight), respectively, in rice plant components at 165 DAT. Crude protein, lipids, fiber and ash were 4.35, 1.91, 23.66 and 5.55 (% dry weight), respectively. In addition, microcystin levels in the rice plant components ranged from 0.0008 to 0.002 μg/g and did not exceed the recommended tolerable limits. These results suggested that the developed floating rice-culture system showed a good potential as a holistic management approach in terms of nutrient reduction, rice production for further use as feed and for bloom control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biosynthesis and emission of insect-induced methyl salicylate and methyl benzoate from rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Nan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guan, Ju [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ferrer, Jean-Luc [Universite Joseph Fourier, France; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Chern, Mawsheng [University of California, Davis; Ronald, Pamela [University of California, Davis; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Chen, Feng [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Two benzenoid esters, methyl salicylate (MeSA) and methyl benzoate (MeBA), were detected from insect-damaged rice plants. By correlating metabolite production with gene expression analysis, five candidate genes encoding putative carboxyl methyltransferases were identified. Enzymatic assays with Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant proteins demonstrated that only one of the five candidates, OsBSMT1, has salicylic acid (SA) methyltransferase (SAMT) and benzoic acid (BA) methyltransferase (BAMT) activities for producing MeSA and MeBA, respectively. Whereas OsBSMT1 is phylogenetically relatively distant from dicot SAMTs, the three-dimensional structure of OsBSMT1, which was determined using homology-based structural modeling, is highly similar to those of characterized SAMTs. Analyses of OsBSMT1 expression in wild-type rice plants under various stress conditions indicate that the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating the production and emission of MeSA in rice. Further analysis using transgenic rice plants overexpressing NH1, a key component of the SA signaling pathway in rice, suggests that the SA signaling pathway also plays an important role in governing OsBSMT1 expression and emission of its products, probably through a crosstalk with the JA signaling pathway. The role of the volatile products of OsBSMT1, MeSA and MeBA, in rice defense against insect herbivory is discussed.

  15. Biosynthesis and emission of insect-induced methyl salicylate and methyl benzoate from rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Guan, Ju; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Engle, Nancy; Chern, Mawsheng; Ronald, Pamela; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Chen, Feng

    2010-04-01

    Two benzenoid esters, methyl salicylate (MeSA) and methyl benzoate (MeBA), were detected from insect-damaged rice plants. By correlating metabolite production with gene expression analysis, five candidate genes encoding putative carboxyl methyltransferases were identified. Enzymatic assays with Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant proteins demonstrated that only one of the five candidates, OsBSMT1, has salicylic acid (SA) methyltransferase (SAMT) and benzoic acid (BA) methyltransferase (BAMT) activities for producing MeSA and MeBA, respectively. Whereas OsBSMT1 is phylogenetically relatively distant from dicot SAMTs, the three-dimensional structure of OsBSMT1, which was determined using homology-based structural modeling, is highly similar to those of characterized SAMTs. Analyses of OsBSMT1 expression in wild-type rice plants under various stress conditions indicate that the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating the production and emission of MeSA in rice. Further analysis using transgenic rice plants overexpressing NH1, a key component of the SA signaling pathway in rice, suggests that the SA signaling pathway also plays an important role in governing OsBSMT1 expression and emission of its products, probably through a crosstalk with the JA signaling pathway. The role of the volatile products of OsBSMT1, MeSA and MeBA, in rice defense against insect herbivory is discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Genotypic differences in arsenic, mercury, lead and cadmium in milled rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shuli; Shi, Chunhai; Wu, Jianguo

    2012-06-01

    The contents of arsenic, mercury, lead and cadmium in milled rice were determined. Among 216 genotypes, the As, Hg, Pb and Cd contents were ranged from 5.06 to 296.45, 2.46 to 65.85, 4.16 to 744.95 and 5.91 to 553.40 ng/g, respectively. Six genotypes with lower contents of toxic metal elements were selected. The averages of As and Pb contents for indica rice were higher than those of japonica rice, while the averages of Hg and Cd contents were in contrast. Compared with white brown rice, the milled rice from black and red brown rice contained lower contents of four elements. Significant negative correlation was found between As content and alkaline spread value. Significant correlations were observed between As and aspartic acid (Asp) content, Hg and Asp or leucine contents, Pb and cysteine or methionine contents. Cd content was significantly negatively correlated with protein and 14 amino acid contents.

  17. Assessment of Rice Associated Bacterial Ability to Enhance Rice Seed Germination and Rice Growth Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gholamalizadeh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The application of beneficial bacteria has recently been used for sustainable agriculture. In current research, 71 bacterial isolates were obtained from rice plant and the rhizosphere soil of different paddy fields in Guilan province, Iran. After primitive investigation, 40 bacteria with typical predominant characteristics were selected. By PCR-RFLP of their 16S r-DNA gene, 8 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs totally consisted of 33 isolates were obtained. From all of them, 8 isolates were selected for rice seed germination experiment, then, effective isolates were used for pot experiment to evaluate their ability for promoting rice growth. All of them were able to increase rice growth and yield, but in different potential. These tested isolates were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis (DEp8, O1R4, Pantoea ananatis (AEn1, Bacillus vietnamensis (MR5, Bacillus idriensis (MR2 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia by partial sequencing of their 16S r-DNA gene. Among them, AEn1 and MR5 produced indole-3- acetic acid (IAA in larger amounts than the other isolates and the isolates AEn1 and O1R4 were able to solubilize phosphate in higher amounts. According to the results obtained, it can be concluded that AEn1, O1R4 and MR5 can be considered as bacterial inoculants to use as alternatives for chemical fertilizers.

  18. Bt rice expressing Cry2Aa does not harm Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, a main predator of the nontarget herbivore Nilapavarta lugens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Han

    Full Text Available T2A-1 is a newly developed transgenic rice that expresses a synthesized cry2Aa gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. T2A-1 exhibits high resistance against lepidopteran pests of rice. The brown planthopper, Nilapavarta lugens (Stål, is a main nontarget sap-sucking insect pest of rice, and Cyrtorhinus lividipennis (Reuter is the major predator of the eggs and young nymphs of planthoppers. As C. lividipennis may expose to the Cry2Aa protein via N. lugens, it is therefore essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry2Aa rice on this predator. In the present study, three experiments were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of transgenic cry2Aa rice to C. lividipennis: (1 a direct feeding experiment in which C. lividipennis was fed an artificial diet containing Cry2Aa at the dose of 10-time higher than that it may encounter in the realistic field condition; (2 a tritrophic experiment in which the Cry2Aa protein was delivered to C. lividipennis indirectly through prey eggs or nymphs; (3 a realistic field experiment in which the population dynamics of C. lividipennis were investigated using vacuum-suction. Both direct exposure to elevated doses of the Cry2Aa protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein did not result in significant detrimental effects on the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of C. lividipennis. No significant differences in population density and population dynamics were observed between C. lividipennis in transgenic cry2Aa and nontransgenic rice fields. It may be concluded that transgenic cry2Aa rice had no detrimental effects on C. lividipennis. This study represents the first report of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry2Aa rice on C. lividipennis.

  19. Stability of gluten free sweet biscuit elaborated with rice bran, broken rice and okara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Oliveira TAVARES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A challenge to the food sector has been the development of new products incorporating co-products from the food processing industry with minimal impact on their pre-determined structures and adding nutritional quality. In order to add value and develop alternatives for the use of co-products generated during the agroindustrial processing, this work aimed to study the stability of gluten-free sweet biscuits developed with soybean okara, rice bran and broken rice. The formulations were elaborated with increasing percentages of these ingredients and compared with the standard (commercial sweet biscuit for ten months. The analyses were: weight, diameters (internal and external, thickness, specific volume, instrumental parameters of color, texture, scanning electron microscopy, water activity, proximal composition and isoflavones. The experimental sweet biscuits had characteristics of color, weight, volume and diameters (internal and external very similar to the commercial, whereas texture, lipids and energy value decreased, and aw, moisture and protein increased during storage. The sweet biscuits showed the same stability when compared to the standard, and the

  20. Effect of microwave and air drying of parboiled rice on stabilization of rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizk, Laila F.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Two rice varieties, Giza 175 (short grain and Giza 181 (long grain were partDoiled by soaking the grains at room temperature for 20 hours and steaming for 15 min then dried either at room temperature or by microwave. The results indicated that air and microwave drying significantly increased oil extraction in both rice bran varieties. Parboiling followed by air or microwave drying produced a slight change on protein, fiber and ash content of rice bran and reduced the development of free fatty acids (F.F.A. In oil bran. Microwave samples have less F.F.A. content than the corresponding samples air dried. Oils from the cold stored rice bran presented lower F.F.A. than the corresponding oil bran stored at room temperature. The ratio between total unsaturated fatty acids and total saturated ones (Tu/Ts decreased after air and microwave drying. Results also show that air drying increased the ratio of total hydrocarbons and total sterols (Tu/Ts in both varieties while microwave decreased it.

    Dos variedades de arroz, Giza 175 (grano corto y Giza 181 (grano largo se precocieron mediante la puesta en remojo de los granos a temperatura ambiente durante 20 horas y cocimiento al vapor durante 15 minutos, luego se secaron a temperatura ambiente o por microondas. Los resultados indicaron que el secado al aire y en microondas aumentó significativamente la extracción del aceite en ambas variedades de salvado de arroz. El precocido seguido del secado al aire o en microondas produjo un cambio pequeño en el contenido en proteína, fibra y ceniza y redujo el desarrollo de ácidos grasos libres (F.F.A. en el aceite de salvado. Las muestras secadas en microondas tuvieron un menor contenido en F.F.A. que las muestras correspondientes al secado en aire. Aceites de salvado de arroz almacenado en frió presentaron menor F.F.A. que los almacenados a temperatura ambiente. La relación entre ácidos grasos insaturados totales y los saturados totales (Tu/Ts disminuy

  1. Elucidating potential utilization of Portuguese common bean varieties in rice based processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbas, Bruna; Pathania, Shivani; Castanho, Ana; Lourenço, Diana; Veiga, Isabel Mota; Patto, Maria Carlota Vaz; Brites, Carla

    2018-03-01

    The present study was aimed at studying the physico-chemical and functional properties of 31 Portuguese common bean varieties. In addition, the whole bean flours (WBF) and starch isolates (SI) of three representative bean varieties and their rice: bean blends (70:30; 50:50) were assessed for amylose content, thermal and pasting properties in view of supplementation in rice based processed foods. Bean varieties showed significant differences in protein content (20.78-27.10%), fat content (1.16-2.18%), hydration capacity (95.90-149.30%), unhydrated seeds (4.00-40.00%), γ tocopherol (3.20-98.05 mg/100 g fat), δ tocopherol (0.06-4.72 mg/100 g fat) and pasting behavior. Amylose content of WBF (11.4-20.2%) was significantly lower than rice flour (23.51%) whereas SI of beans (40.00-47.26%) had significantly higher amylose content than SI of rice (28.13%). DSC results showed that WBF (11.4-20.2 °C) had significantly broader and lower gelatinization temperature range (∆Tr) than corresponding SI (20.9-23.1 °C). WBF had significantly lower pasting viscosity due to low starch content and compositional matrix effect as compared to SI. Setback viscosities of WBF and rice: bean blends was lower than rice flour. Low setback viscosities of rice:bean blends may be used to prevent syneresis and stabilizing the quality of frozen foods in