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Sample records for rice flower development

  1. Phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains at four stages of development after flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yafang; Xu, Feifei; Sun, Xiao; Bao, Jinsong; Beta, Trust

    2014-01-15

    This study investigated differences in total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant capacity, and phenolic acids in free, conjugated and bound fractions of white (unpolished), red and black rice at 1-, 2-, and 3-weeks of grain development after flowering and at maturity. Unlike the TPC (mg/100g) of white rice (14.6-33.4) and red rice (66.8-422.2) which was significantly higher at 1-week than at later stages, the TPC of black rice (56.5-82.0) was highest at maturity. The antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH radical scavenging and ORAC methods generally followed a similar trend as TPC. Only black rice had detectable anthocyanins (26.5-174.7mg/100g). Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) and peonidin-3-glucoside (P3G) were the main anthocyanins in black rice showing significantly higher levels at 2- and 3-weeks than at 1-week development and at maturity. At all stages, the phenolic acids existed mainly in the bound form as detected by HPLC and confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Black rice (20.1-31.7mg/100g) had higher total bound phenolic acids than white rice and red rice (7.0-11.8mg/100g). Protocatechuic acid was detected in red rice and black rice with relatively high levels at 1-week development (1.41mg/100g) and at maturity (4.48mg/100g), respectively. Vanillic acid (2.4-5.4mg/100g) was detected only in black rice where it peaked at maturity. p-Coumaric acid (black rice. Ferulic acid (4.0-17.9mg/100g), the most abundant bound phenolic acid, had an inconsistent trend with higher levels being observed in black rice where it peaked at maturity. Isoferulic acid levels (0.8-1.6mg/100g) were generally low with slightly elevated values being observed at maturity. Overall black rice had higher total bound phenolic acids than white and red rice while white rice at all stages of development after flowering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Natural variation of the RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 contributes to flowering time divergence in rice.

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    Eri Ogiso-Tanaka

    Full Text Available In rice (Oryza sativa L., there is a diversity in flowering time that is strictly genetically regulated. Some indica cultivars show extremely late flowering under long-day conditions, but little is known about the gene(s involved. Here, we demonstrate that functional defects in the florigen gene RFT1 are the main cause of late flowering in an indica cultivar, Nona Bokra. Mapping and complementation studies revealed that sequence polymorphisms in the RFT1 regulatory and coding regions are likely to cause late flowering under long-day conditions. We detected polymorphisms in the promoter region that lead to reduced expression levels of RFT1. We also identified an amino acid substitution (E105K that leads to a functional defect in Nona Bokra RFT1. Sequencing of the RFT1 region in rice accessions from a global collection showed that the E105K mutation is found only in indica, and indicated a strong association between the RFT1 haplotype and extremely late flowering in a functional Hd1 background. Furthermore, SNPs in the regulatory region of RFT1 and the E105K substitution in 1,397 accessions show strong linkage disequilibrium with a flowering time-associated SNP. Although the defective E105K allele of RFT1 (but not of another florigen gene, Hd3a is found in many cultivars, relative rate tests revealed no evidence for differential rate of evolution of these genes. The ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions suggest that the E105K mutation resulting in the defect in RFT1 occurred relatively recently. These findings indicate that natural mutations in RFT1 provide flowering time divergence under long-day conditions.

  3. Conservation and diversification of QTGs involved in photoperiodic flowering between rice and Arabidopsis

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    Kazuki eMatsubara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time in rice (Oryza sativa L. is determined primarily by daylength (photoperiod, and natural variation in flowering time is due to quantitative trait loci involved in photoperiodic flowering. To date, genetic analysis of natural variants in rice flowering time has resulted in the positional cloning of at least 12 quantitative trait genes (QTGs, including our recently cloned QTGs, Hd17 and Hd16. The QTGs have been assigned to specific photoperiodic flowering pathways. Among them, 9 have homologs in the Arabidopsis genome, whereas it was evident that there are differences in the pathways between rice and Arabidopsis, such that the rice Ghd7–Ehd1–Hd3a/RFT1 pathway modulated by Hd16 is not present in Arabidopsis. In this review, we describe QTGs underlying natural variation in rice flowering time. Additionally, we discuss the implications of the variation in adaptive divergence and its importance in rice breeding.

  4. The COMPASS-Like Complex Promotes Flowering and Panicle Branching in Rice1[OPEN

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    Wang, Shiliang; Jiang, Haiyang; Cheng, Beijiu

    2018-01-01

    Flowering time (heading date) and panicle branch number are important agronomic traits that determine yield in rice (Oryza sativa). The activation of flowering requires histone methylation, but the roles of trimethylation of Lys 4 of histone 3 (H3K4me3) in modulating heading date and panicle development are unclear. Here, we showed that the COMPASS-like complex promotes flowering and panicle branching. The rice (Oryza sativa) WD40 protein OsWDR5a interacts with the TRITHORAX-like protein OsTrx1/SET domain group protein 723 (SDG723) to form the core components of the COMPASS-like complex. Plants in which OsWDR5a or OsTrx1 expression was decreased by RNA interference produced fewer secondary branches and less grain and exhibited a delayed heading date under long-day and short-day conditions, whereas loss of OsWDR5a function resulted in embryo lethality. OsWDR5a binds to Early heading date 1 to regulate its H3K4me3 and expression levels. Together, our results show that the COMPASS-like complex promotes flowering and panicle development and suggest that modulation of H3K4me3 levels by the COMPASS-like complex is critical for rice development. PMID:29440594

  5. A model for photothermal responses of flowering in rice. II. Model evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Kropff, M.J.; Nakagawa, H.; Horie, T.; Goudriaan, J.

    1997-01-01

    A detailed nonlinear model, the 3s-Beta model, for photothermal responses of flowering in rice (Oryza sativa L.) was evaluated for predicting rice flowering date in field conditions. This model was compared with other three models: a three-plane linear model and two nonlinear models, viz, the

  6. Identification and functional analysis of flowering related microRNAs in common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

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    Chen, Zongxiang; Li, Fuli; Yang, Songnan; Dong, Yibo; Yuan, Qianhua; Wang, Feng; Li, Weimin; Jiang, Ying; Jia, Shirong; Pei, Xinwu

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) is a class of non-coding RNAs involved in post- transcriptional control of gene expression, via degradation and/or translational inhibition. Six-hundred sixty-one rice miRNAs are known that are important in plant development. However, flowering-related miRNAs have not been characterized in Oryza rufipogon Griff. It was approved by supervision department of Guangdong wild rice protection. We analyzed flowering-related miRNAs in O. rufipogon using high-throughput sequencing (deep sequencing) to understand the changes that occurred during rice domestication, and to elucidate their functions in flowering. Three O. rufipogon sRNA libraries, two vegetative stage (CWR-V1 and CWR-V2) and one flowering stage (CWR-F2) were sequenced using Illumina deep sequencing. A total of 20,156,098, 21,531,511 and 20,995,942 high quality sRNA reads were obtained from CWR-V1, CWR-V2 and CWR-F2, respectively, of which 3,448,185, 4,265,048 and 2,833,527 reads matched known miRNAs. We identified 512 known rice miRNAs in 214 miRNA families and predicted 290 new miRNAs. Targeted functional annotation, GO and KEGG pathway analyses predicted that 187 miRNAs regulate expression of flowering-related genes. Differential expression analysis of flowering-related miRNAs showed that: expression of 95 miRNAs varied significantly between the libraries, 66 are flowering-related miRNAs, such as oru-miR97, oru-miR117, oru-miR135, oru-miR137, et al. 17 are early-flowering -related miRNAs, including osa-miR160f, osa-miR164d, osa-miR167d, osa-miR169a, osa-miR172b, oru-miR4, et al., induced during the floral transition. Real-time PCR revealed the same expression patterns as deep sequencing. miRNAs targets were confirmed for cleavage by 5'-RACE in vivo, and were negatively regulated by miRNAs. This is the first investigation of flowering miRNAs in wild rice. The result indicates that variation in miRNAs occurred during rice domestication and lays a foundation for further study of phase change

  7. Identification and functional analysis of flowering related microRNAs in common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff..

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    Zongxiang Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs is a class of non-coding RNAs involved in post- transcriptional control of gene expression, via degradation and/or translational inhibition. Six-hundred sixty-one rice miRNAs are known that are important in plant development. However, flowering-related miRNAs have not been characterized in Oryza rufipogon Griff. It was approved by supervision department of Guangdong wild rice protection. We analyzed flowering-related miRNAs in O. rufipogon using high-throughput sequencing (deep sequencing to understand the changes that occurred during rice domestication, and to elucidate their functions in flowering. RESULTS: Three O. rufipogon sRNA libraries, two vegetative stage (CWR-V1 and CWR-V2 and one flowering stage (CWR-F2 were sequenced using Illumina deep sequencing. A total of 20,156,098, 21,531,511 and 20,995,942 high quality sRNA reads were obtained from CWR-V1, CWR-V2 and CWR-F2, respectively, of which 3,448,185, 4,265,048 and 2,833,527 reads matched known miRNAs. We identified 512 known rice miRNAs in 214 miRNA families and predicted 290 new miRNAs. Targeted functional annotation, GO and KEGG pathway analyses predicted that 187 miRNAs regulate expression of flowering-related genes. Differential expression analysis of flowering-related miRNAs showed that: expression of 95 miRNAs varied significantly between the libraries, 66 are flowering-related miRNAs, such as oru-miR97, oru-miR117, oru-miR135, oru-miR137, et al. 17 are early-flowering -related miRNAs, including osa-miR160f, osa-miR164d, osa-miR167d, osa-miR169a, osa-miR172b, oru-miR4, et al., induced during the floral transition. Real-time PCR revealed the same expression patterns as deep sequencing. miRNAs targets were confirmed for cleavage by 5'-RACE in vivo, and were negatively regulated by miRNAs. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first investigation of flowering miRNAs in wild rice. The result indicates that variation in miRNAs occurred during rice domestication and

  8. qEMF3, a novel QTL for the early-morning flowering trait from wild rice, Oryza officinalis, to mitigate heat stress damage at flowering in rice, O. sativa.

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    Hirabayashi, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Kambe, Takashi; Gannaban, Ritchel B; Miras, Monaliza A; Mendioro, Merlyn S; Simon, Eliza V; Lumanglas, Patrick D; Fujita, Daisuke; Takemoto-Kuno, Yoko; Takeuchi, Yoshinobu; Kaji, Ryota; Kondo, Motohiko; Kobayashi, Nobuya; Ogawa, Tsugufumi; Ando, Ikuo; Jagadish, Krishna S V; Ishimaru, Tsutomu

    2015-03-01

    A decline in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production caused by heat stress is one of the biggest concerns resulting from future climate change. Rice spikelets are most susceptible to heat stress at flowering. The early-morning flowering (EMF) trait mitigates heat-induced spikelet sterility at the flowering stage by escaping heat stress during the daytime. We attempted to develop near-isogenic lines (NILs) for EMF in the indica-type genetic background by exploiting the EMF locus from wild rice, O. officinalis (CC genome). A stable quantitative trait locus (QTL) for flower opening time (FOT) was detected on chromosome 3. A QTL was designated as qEMF3 and it shifted FOT by 1.5-2.0 h earlier for cv. Nanjing 11 in temperate Japan and cv. IR64 in the Philippine tropics. NILs for EMF mitigated heat-induced spikelet sterility under elevated temperature conditions completing flower opening before reaching 35°C, a general threshold value leading to spikelet sterility. Quantification of FOT of cultivars popular in the tropics and subtropics did not reveal the EMF trait in any of the cultivars tested, suggesting that qEMF3 has the potential to advance FOT of currently popular cultivars to escape heat stress at flowering under future hotter climates. This is the first report to examine rice with the EMF trait through marker-assisted breeding using wild rice as a genetic resource. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Control of flowering time and spike development in cereals: the earliness per se Eps-1 region in wheat, rice, and Brachypodium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faricelli, M. E.; Valárik, Miroslav; Dubcovsky, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2010), s. 293-306 ISSN 1438-793X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Comparative genomics * Earliness per se * Flowering Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.397, year: 2010

  10. OsCHX14 is Involved in the K+ Homeostasis in Rice (Oryza sativa) Flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Miller, A.J.; Luo, B.; Wang, M.; Zhu, Z.; Ouwerkerk, P.B.F.

    2016-01-01

    Previously we showed in the osjar1 mutants that the lodicule senescence which controls the closing of rice flowers was delayed. This resulted in florets staying open longer when compared with the wild type. The gene OsJAR1 is silenced in osjar1 mutants and is a key member of the jasmonic acid (JA)

  11. Ehd4 encodes a novel and Oryza-genus-specific regulator of photoperiodic flowering in rice.

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    He Gao

    Full Text Available Land plants have evolved increasingly complex regulatory modes of their flowering time (or heading date in crops. Rice (Oryza sativa L. is a short-day plant that flowers more rapidly in short-day but delays under long-day conditions. Previous studies have shown that the CO-FT module initially identified in long-day plants (Arabidopsis is evolutionary conserved in short-day plants (Hd1-Hd3a in rice. However, in rice, there is a unique Ehd1-dependent flowering pathway that is Hd1-independent. Here, we report isolation and characterization of a positive regulator of Ehd1, Early heading date 4 (Ehd4. ehd4 mutants showed a never flowering phenotype under natural long-day conditions. Map-based cloning revealed that Ehd4 encodes a novel CCCH-type zinc finger protein, which is localized to the nucleus and is able to bind to nucleic acids in vitro and transactivate transcription in yeast, suggesting that it likely functions as a transcriptional regulator. Ehd4 expression is most active in young leaves with a diurnal expression pattern similar to that of Ehd1 under both short-day and long-day conditions. We show that Ehd4 up-regulates the expression of the "florigen" genes Hd3a and RFT1 through Ehd1, but it acts independently of other known Ehd1 regulators. Strikingly, Ehd4 is highly conserved in the Oryza genus including wild and cultivated rice, but has no homologs in other species, suggesting that Ehd4 is originated along with the diversification of the Oryza genus from the grass family during evolution. We conclude that Ehd4 is a novel Oryza-genus-specific regulator of Ehd1, and it plays an essential role in photoperiodic control of flowering time in rice.

  12. Rice early flowering1, a CKI, phosphorylates DELLA protein SLR1 to negatively regulate gibberellin signalling.

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    Dai, Cheng; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2010-06-02

    The plant hormone gibberellin (GA) is crucial for multiple aspects of plant growth and development. To study the relevant regulatory mechanisms, we isolated a rice mutant earlier flowering1, el1, which is deficient in a casein kinase I that has critical roles in both plants and animals. el1 had an enhanced GA response, consistent with the suppression of EL1 expression by exogenous GA(3). Biochemical characterization showed that EL1 specifically phosphorylates the rice DELLA protein SLR1, proving a direct evidence for SLR1 phosphorylation. Overexpression of SLR1 in wild-type plants caused a severe dwarf phenotype, which was significantly suppressed by EL1 deficiency, indicating the negative effect of SLR1 on GA signalling requires the EL1 function. Further studies showed that the phosphorylation of SLR1 is important for maintaining its activity and stability, and mutation of the candidate phosphorylation site of SLR1 results in the altered GA signalling. This study shows EL1 a novel and key regulator of the GA response and provided important clues on casein kinase I activities in GA signalling and plant development.

  13. Use of the Beta function to quantify effects of photoperiod on flowering and leaf number in rice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Kropff, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The time of flowering in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is affected by photoperiod. A nonlinear response has been reported with an optimum photoperiod, either below or above which flowering can be delayed. Three equations which account for both short- and long-day nonlinear effects were compared to describe

  14. Flower development: open questions and future directions.

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    Wellmer, Frank; Bowman, John L; Davies, Brendan; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Fletcher, Jennifer C; Franks, Robert G; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Gregis, Veronica; Ito, Toshiro; Jack, Thomas P; Jiao, Yuling; Kater, Martin M; Ma, Hong; Meyerowitz, Elliot M; Prunet, Nathanaël; Riechmann, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Almost three decades of genetic and molecular analyses have resulted in detailed insights into many of the processes that take place during flower development and in the identification of a large number of key regulatory genes that control these processes. Despite this impressive progress, many questions about how flower development is controlled in different angiosperm species remain unanswered. In this chapter, we discuss some of these open questions and the experimental strategies with which they could be addressed. Specifically, we focus on the areas of floral meristem development and patterning, floral organ specification and differentiation, as well as on the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolutionary changes that have led to the astounding variations in flower size and architecture among extant and extinct angiosperms.

  15. MADS box genes expressed in developing inflorescences of rice and sorghum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greco, R.; Stagi, L.; Colombo, L.; Angenent, G.C.; Sari-Gorla, M.; Pé, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    With the aim of elucidating the complex genetic system controlling flower morphogenesis in cereals, we have characterized two rice and two sorghum MADS box genes isolated from cDNA libraries made from developing inflorescences. The rice clones OsMADS24 and OsMADS45, which share high homology with

  16. New Service Development in Flower Retail

    OpenAIRE

    Abdigali, Alikhan

    2010-01-01

    My research will focus on the practical dimension of new service development in flower retail in Kazakhstan. Our group project, the business plan, investigated the issue from an entrepreneur perspective without going into detail in theoretical part. I will try to come up with a set of recommendations to entrepreneurs who want to develop a customer oriented service, based on theories drawn from service development literature. The product and service mix development is a difficult task, and I h...

  17. Carbon isotope discrimination and yield of upland rice as affected by drought at flowering

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    PINHEIRO BEATRIZ DA SILVEIRA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments involving upland rice genotypes, sown in various dates in late season, were carried out to assess the relationship of carbon isotope discrimination with grain yield and drought resistance. In each one of the three years, one trial was kept under good water availability, while other suffered water shortage for a period of 18-23 days, encompassing panicle emergence and flowering. Drought stress reduced carbon isotope discrimination measured on soluble sugars (deltas extracted from stem uppermost internode at the end of the imposition period, but had relatively less effect on bulk dry matter of leaves, sampled at the same period, or that of uppermost internodes and grains, sampled at harvest. The drought-induced reduction in deltas was accompanied of reduced spikelet fertility and grain yield. In the three trials subjected to drought, genotypes with the highest yield and spikelet fertility had the lowest deltas. However, this relationship was weak and it was concluded that deltas is not a sufficiently reliable indicator of rice drought resistance to be useful as a screening test in breeding programs. On the other hand, grain yield and spikelet fertility of genotypes which were the soonest to reach 50% flowering within the drought imposition period, were the least adversely affected by drought. Then, timing of drought in relation to panicle emergence and to flowering appeared to be a more important cause of yield variation among genotypes than variation in deltas.

  18. Overexpression of PvPin1, a Bamboo Homolog of PIN1-Type Parvulin 1, Delays Flowering Time in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Rice

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    Zhigang Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the long and unpredictable flowering period in bamboo, the molecular mechanism of bamboo flowering is unclear. Recent study showed that Arabidopsis PIN1-type parvulin 1 (Pin1At is an important floral activator and regulates floral transition by facilitating the cis/trans isomerization of the phosphorylated Ser/Thr residues preceding proline motifs in suppressor of overexpression of CO 1 (SOC1 and agamous-like 24 (AGL24. Whether bamboo has a Pin1 homolog and whether it works in bamboo flowering are still unknown. In this study, we cloned PvPin1, a homolog of Pin1At, from Phyllostachys violascens (Bambusoideae. Bioinformatics analysis showed that PvPin1 is closely related to Pin1-like proteins in monocots. PvPin1 was widely expressed in all tested bamboo tissues, with the highest expression in young leaf and lowest in floral bud. Moreover, PvPin1 expression was high in leaves before bamboo flowering then declined during flower development. Overexpression of PvPin1 significantly delayed flowering time by downregulating SOC1 and AGL24 expression in Arabidopsis under greenhouse conditions and conferred a significantly late flowering phenotype by upregulating OsMADS56 in rice under field conditions. PvPin1 showed subcellular localization in both the nucleus and cytolemma. The 1500-bp sequence of the PvPin1 promoter was cloned, and cis-acting element prediction showed that ABRE and TGACG-motif elements, which responded to abscisic acid (ABA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA, respectively, were characteristic of P. violascens in comparison with Arabidopsis. On promoter activity analysis, exogenous ABA and MeJA could significantly inhibit PvPin1 expression. These findings suggested that PvPin1 may be a repressor in flowering, and its delay of flowering time could be regulated by ABA and MeJA in bamboo.

  19. Overexpression of PvPin1, a Bamboo Homolog of PIN1-Type Parvulin 1, Delays Flowering Time in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Rice.

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    Zheng, Zhigang; Yang, Xiaoming; Fu, Yaping; Zhu, Longfei; Wei, Hantian; Lin, Xinchun

    2017-01-01

    Because of the long and unpredictable flowering period in bamboo, the molecular mechanism of bamboo flowering is unclear. Recent study showed that Arabidopsis PIN1-type parvulin 1 (Pin1At) is an important floral activator and regulates floral transition by facilitating the cis/trans isomerization of the phosphorylated Ser/Thr residues preceding proline motifs in suppressor of overexpression of CO 1 (SOC1) and agamous-like 24 (AGL24). Whether bamboo has a Pin1 homolog and whether it works in bamboo flowering are still unknown. In this study, we cloned PvPin1 , a homolog of Pin1At , from Phyllostachys violascens (Bambusoideae). Bioinformatics analysis showed that PvPin1 is closely related to Pin1-like proteins in monocots. PvPin1 was widely expressed in all tested bamboo tissues, with the highest expression in young leaf and lowest in floral bud. Moreover, PvPin1 expression was high in leaves before bamboo flowering then declined during flower development. Overexpression of PvPin1 significantly delayed flowering time by downregulating SOC1 and AGL24 expression in Arabidopsis under greenhouse conditions and conferred a significantly late flowering phenotype by upregulating OsMADS56 in rice under field conditions. PvPin1 showed subcellular localization in both the nucleus and cytolemma. The 1500-bp sequence of the PvPin1 promoter was cloned, and cis -acting element prediction showed that ABRE and TGACG-motif elements, which responded to abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), respectively, were characteristic of P. violascens in comparison with Arabidopsis . On promoter activity analysis, exogenous ABA and MeJA could significantly inhibit PvPin1 expression. These findings suggested that PvPin1 may be a repressor in flowering, and its delay of flowering time could be regulated by ABA and MeJA in bamboo.

  20. Both Hd1 and Ehd1 are important for artificial selection of flowering time in cultivated rice.

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    Wei, Fu-Jin; Tsai, Yuan-Ching; Wu, Hshin-Ping; Huang, Lin-Tzu; Chen, Yu-Chi; Chen, Yi-Fang; Wu, Cheng-Chieh; Tseng, Yi-Tzu; Hsing, Yue-Ie C

    2016-01-01

    Rice is a facultative short-day plant, and it requires a photoperiod shorter than the critical day length to get flowering. Sensitivity to photoperiod has been suggested as a major selection target in cultivated or weedy rice. The modern rice varieties in Taiwan may be cultivated twice a year. These varieties contain loss-of-function of two important flowering-time related genes, Heading date 1 (Hd1) and Early heading date 1 (Ehd1), and are mainly from a mega variety, Taichung 65. However, the parental lines of this variety were sensitive to photoperiod, thus, how Taichung 65 loss its sensitivity is a mystery. In this study, we used accession-specific single nucleotide polymorphism analysis to reveal the gene flow that occurred between different rice accessions decades ago and demonstrate that two landraces introgressed during the breeding process, which led to the loss of photoperiod sensitivity. Both Hd1 and Ehd1 may be important during artificial selection for flowering time, especially in a subtropical region such as Taiwan. This is a good example of introgression playing important roles during rice domestication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Goethe and the ABC model of flower development.

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    Coen, E

    2001-06-01

    About 10 years ago, the ABC model for the genetic control of flower development was proposed. This model was initially based on the analysis of mutant flowers but has subsequently been confirmed by molecular analysis. This paper describes the 200-year history behind this model, from the late 18th century when Goethe arrived at his idea of plant metamorphosis, to the genetic studies on flower mutants carried out on Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum in the late 20th century.

  2. Functional conservation of rice OsNF-YB/YC and Arabidopsis AtNF-YB/YC proteins in the regulation of flowering time

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Yoon-Hyung; Kim, SoonKap; Lee, Keh Chien; Chung, Young Soo; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Kook

    2016-01-01

    Plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factors play important roles in plant development and abiotic stress. In Arabidopsis thaliana, two NF-YB (AtNF-YB2 and AtNF-YB3) and five NF-YC (AtNF-YC1, AtNF-YC2, AtNF-YC3, AtNF-YC4, and AtNF-YC9) genes regulate photoperiodic flowering by interacting with other AtNF-Y subunit proteins. Three rice NF-YB (OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10, and OsNF-YB11) and five rice OsNF-YC (OsNF-YC1, OsNF-YC2, OsNF-YC4, OsNF-YC6, and OsNF-YC7) genes are clustered with two AtNF-YB and five AtNF-YC genes, respectively. To investigate the functional conservation of these NF-YB and NF-YC genes in rice and Arabidopsis, we analyzed the flowering phenotypes of transgenic plants overexpressing the respective OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes in Arabidopsis mutants. Overexpression of OsNF-YB8/10/11 and OsNF-YC2 complemented the late flowering phenotype of Arabidopsis nf-yb2 nf-yb3 and nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 mutants, respectively. The rescued phenotype of 35S::OsNF-YC2 nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 plants was attributed to the upregulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1). In vitro and in planta protein–protein analyses revealed that OsNF-YB8/10/11 and OsNF-YC1/2/4/6/7 interact with AtNF-YC3/4/9 and AtNF-YB2/3, respectively. Our data indicate that some OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes are functional equivalents of AtNF-YB2/3 and AtNF-YC3/4/9 genes, respectively, and suggest functional conservation of Arabidopsis and rice NF-Y genes in the control of flowering time.

  3. Functional conservation of rice OsNF-YB/YC and Arabidopsis AtNF-YB/YC proteins in the regulation of flowering time

    KAUST Repository

    Hwang, Yoon-Hyung

    2016-01-11

    Plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factors play important roles in plant development and abiotic stress. In Arabidopsis thaliana, two NF-YB (AtNF-YB2 and AtNF-YB3) and five NF-YC (AtNF-YC1, AtNF-YC2, AtNF-YC3, AtNF-YC4, and AtNF-YC9) genes regulate photoperiodic flowering by interacting with other AtNF-Y subunit proteins. Three rice NF-YB (OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10, and OsNF-YB11) and five rice OsNF-YC (OsNF-YC1, OsNF-YC2, OsNF-YC4, OsNF-YC6, and OsNF-YC7) genes are clustered with two AtNF-YB and five AtNF-YC genes, respectively. To investigate the functional conservation of these NF-YB and NF-YC genes in rice and Arabidopsis, we analyzed the flowering phenotypes of transgenic plants overexpressing the respective OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes in Arabidopsis mutants. Overexpression of OsNF-YB8/10/11 and OsNF-YC2 complemented the late flowering phenotype of Arabidopsis nf-yb2 nf-yb3 and nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 mutants, respectively. The rescued phenotype of 35S::OsNF-YC2 nf-yc3 nf-yc4 nf-yc9 plants was attributed to the upregulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1). In vitro and in planta protein–protein analyses revealed that OsNF-YB8/10/11 and OsNF-YC1/2/4/6/7 interact with AtNF-YC3/4/9 and AtNF-YB2/3, respectively. Our data indicate that some OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes are functional equivalents of AtNF-YB2/3 and AtNF-YC3/4/9 genes, respectively, and suggest functional conservation of Arabidopsis and rice NF-Y genes in the control of flowering time.

  4. Transcriptomic analysis of flower development in wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daofeng; Sui, Shunzhao; Ma, Jing; Li, Zhineng; Guo, Yulong; Luo, Dengpan; Yang, Jianfeng; Li, Mingyang

    2014-01-01

    Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox) is familiar as a garden plant and woody ornamental flower. On account of its unique flowering time and strong fragrance, it has a high ornamental and economic value. Despite a long history of human cultivation, our understanding of wintersweet genetics and molecular biology remains scant, reflecting a lack of basic genomic and transcriptomic data. In this study, we assembled three cDNA libraries, from three successive stages in flower development, designated as the flower bud with displayed petal, open flower and senescing flower stages. Using the Illumina RNA-Seq method, we obtained 21,412,928, 26,950,404, 24,912,954 qualified Illumina reads, respectively, for the three successive stages. The pooled reads from all three libraries were then assembled into 106,995 transcripts, 51,793 of which were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Of these annotated sequences, 32,649 and 21,893 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. We could map 15,587 transcripts onto 312 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database. Based on these transcriptomic data, we obtained a large number of candidate genes that were differentially expressed at the open flower and senescing flower stages. An analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in plant hormone signal transduction pathways indicated that although flower opening and senescence may be independent of the ethylene signaling pathway in wintersweet, salicylic acid may be involved in the regulation of flower senescence. We also succeeded in isolating key genes of floral scent biosynthesis and proposed a biosynthetic pathway for monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in wintersweet flowers, based on the annotated sequences. This comprehensive transcriptomic analysis presents fundamental information on the genes and pathways which are involved in flower development in wintersweet. And our data

  5. Pistil Development in 2 Types of Flowers of Xanthoceras sorbifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Qing; Gao Shumin; Li Fenglan

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate flower development and female abortion during sex differentiation of Xanthoceras sorbifolia, anatomical observations and comparative study on differential proteins were carried out in different developmental stages of two types of flowers of this species. It was found that the selective abortion happened in male flower before the formation of megasporocyte. Special proteins related to the female abortion were found through 2-dimensional electrophoretic analysis. Protein A1 (14.2 kD) only existed in florescence of male flower, while B1 (13.7 kD) and B2 (18.2 kD) disappeared in that stage of male flower. They were all considered to be relative to pistil abortion of Xanthoceras sorbifolia.

  6. A genomic approach to elucidating grass flower development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dornelas Marcelo C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In sugarcane (Saccharum sp as with other species of grass, at a certain moment of its life cycle the vegetative meristem is converted into an inflorescence meristem which has at least two distinct inflorescence branching steps before the spikelet meristem terminates in the production of a flower (floret. In model dicotyledonous species such successive conversions of meristem identities and the concentric arrangement of floral organs in specific whorls have both been shown to be genetically controlled. Using data from the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (EST Project (SUCEST database, we have identified all sugarcane proteins and genes putatively involved in reproductive meristem and flower development. Sequence comparisons of known flower-related genes have uncovered conserved evolutionary pathways of flower development and flower pattern formation between dicotyledons and monocotyledons, such as some grass species. We have paid special attention to the analysis of the MADS-box multigene family of transcription factors that together with the APETALA2 (AP2 family are the key elements of the transcriptional networks controlling plant reproductive development. Considerations on the evolutionary developmental genetics of grass flowers and their relation to the ABC homeotic gene activity model of flower development are also presented.

  7. Dlf1, a WRKY transcription factor, is involved in the control of flowering time and plant height in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Cai

    Full Text Available Flowering time and plant height are important agronomic traits for crop production. In this study, we characterized a semi-dwarf and late flowering (dlf1 mutation of rice that has pleiotropic effects on these traits. The dlf1 mutation was caused by a T-DNA insertion and the cloned Dlf1 gene was found to encode a WRKY transcription factor (OsWRKY11. The dlf1 mutant contains a T-DNA insertion at the promoter region, leading to enhanced accumulation of Dlf1 transcripts, resulting in a semidominant mutation. The dlf1 mutation suppressed the transcription of Ehd2/RID1/OsId1 and its downstream flowering-time genes including Hd1, Ehd1 and Hd3a under both long-day (LD and short-day (SD conditions. Knock-down of Dlf1 expression exhibited early flowering at LD condition related to the wild-type plants. Accumulation of Dlf1 mRNA was observed in most tissues, and two splicing forms of Dlf1 cDNAs were obtained (OsWRKY11.1 and OsWRKY11.2. These two proteins showed transactivation activity in yeast cells. Dlf1 protein was found to be localized in the nucleus. Enhanced expression of OsWRKY11.2 or its 5' truncated gene showed similar phenotypes to the dlf1 mutant, suggesting that it might function as a negative regulator. We conclude that Dlf1 acts as a transactivator to downregulate Ehd2/RID1/OsId1 in the signal transduction pathway of flowering and plays an important role in the regulation of plant height in rice.

  8. Dynamic variability of the heading-flowering stages of single rice in China based on field observations and NDVI estimations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Song, Xiao; Chen, Yi; Wang, Pin; Wei, Xing; Tao, Fulu

    2015-05-01

    Although many studies have indicated the consistent impact of warming on the natural ecosystem (e.g., an early flowering and prolonged growing period), our knowledge of the impacts on agricultural systems is still poorly understood. In this study, spatiotemporal variability of the heading-flowering stages of single rice was detected and compared at three different scales using field-based methods (FBMs) and satellite-based methods (SBMs). The heading-flowering stages from 2000 to 2009 with a spatial resolution of 1 km were extracted from the SPOT/VGT NDVI time series data using the Savizky-Golay filtering method in the areas in China dominated by single rice of Northeast China (NE), the middle-lower Yangtze River Valley (YZ), the Sichuan Basin (SC), and the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau (YG). We found that approximately 52.6 and 76.3 % of the estimated heading-flowering stages by a SBM were within ±5 and ±10 days estimation error (a root mean square error (RMSE) of 8.76 days) when compared with those determined by a FBM. Both the FBM data and the SBM data had indicated a similar spatial pattern, with the earliest annual average heading-flowering stages in SC, followed by YG, NE, and YZ, which were inconsistent with the patterns reported in natural ecosystems. Moreover, diverse temporal trends were also detected in the four regions due to different climate conditions and agronomic factors such as cultivar shifts. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the FBM and the SBM in both the regional average value of the phenological stages and the trends, implying the consistency and rationality of the SBM at three scales.

  9. Shielding Flowers Developing under Stress: Translating Theory to Field Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Chayut

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing reproductive organs within a flower are sensitive to environmental stress. A higher incidence of environmental stress during this stage of a crop plants’ developmental cycle will lead to major breaches in food security. Clearly, we need to understand this sensitivity and try and overcome it, by agricultural practices and/or the breeding of more tolerant cultivars. Although passion fruit vines initiate flowers all year round, flower primordia abort during warm summers. This restricts the season of fruit production in regions with warm summers. Previously, using controlled chambers, stages in flower development that are sensitive to heat were identified. Based on genetic analysis and physiological experiments in controlled environments, gibberellin activity appeared to be a possible point of horticultural intervention. Here, we aimed to shield flowers of a commercial cultivar from end of summer conditions, thus allowing fruit production in new seasons. We conducted experiments over three years in different settings, and our findings consistently show that a single application of an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis to vines in mid-August can cause precocious flowering of ~2–4 weeks, leading to earlier fruit production of ~1 month. In this case, knowledge obtained on phenology, environmental constraints and genetic variation, allowed us to reach a practical solution.

  10. OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins inhibit flowering under long-day conditions in rice

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, SoonKap

    2015-11-05

    OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response through the modulation of three flowering-time genes ( Ehd1, Hd3a , and RFT1 ) in rice. Plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factors control numerous developmental processes by forming heterotrimeric complexes, but little is known about their roles in flowering in rice. In this study, it is shown that some subunits of OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC interact with each other, and among them, OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response of rice. Protein interaction studies showed that the physical interactions occurred between the three OsNF-YC proteins (OsNF-YC2, OsNF-YC4 and OsNF-YC6) and three OsNF-YB proteins (OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10 and OsNF-YB11). Repression and overexpression of the OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 genes revealed that they act as inhibitors of flowering only under long-day (LD) conditions. Overexpression of OsNF-YC6, however, promoted flowering only under LD conditions, suggesting it could function as a flowering promoter. These phenotypes correlated with the changes in the expression of three rice flowering-time genes [Early heading date 1 (Ehd1), Heading date 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1)]. The diurnal and tissue-specific expression patterns of the subsets of OsNF-YB and OsNF-YC genes were similar to those of CCT domain encoding genes such as OsCO3, Heading date 1 (Hd1) and Ghd7. We propose that OsNF-YC2 and OsNF-YC4 proteins regulate the photoperiodic flowering response by interacting directly with OsNF-YB8, OsNF-YB10 or OsNF-YB11 proteins in rice.

  11. Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from Luculia pinceana Flower and Its Changes at Different Stages of Flower Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuying Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Luculia plants are famed ornamental plants with sweetly fragrant flowers, of which L. pinceana Hooker, found primarily in Yunnan Province, China, has the widest distribution. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS was employed to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted from different flower development stages of L. pinceana for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism. Peak areas were normalized as percentages and used to determine the relative amounts of the volatiles. The results showed that a total of 39 compounds were identified at four different stages of L. pinceana flower development, including 26 at the bud stage, 26 at the initial-flowering stage, 32 at the full-flowering stage, and 32 at the end-flowering stage. The most abundant compound was paeonol (51%–83% followed by (E,E-α-farnesene, cyclosativene, and δ-cadinene. All these volatile compounds create the unique fragrance of L. pinceana flower. Floral scent emission offered tendency of ascending first and descending in succession, meeting its peak level at the initial-flowering stage. The richest diversity of floral volatile was detected at the third and later periods of flower development. Principal component analysis (PCA indicated that the composition and its relative content of floral scent differed throughout the whole flower development. The result has important implications for future floral fragrance breeding of Luculia. L. pinceana would be adequate for a beneficial houseplant and has a promising prospect for development as essential oil besides for a fragrant ornamental owing to the main compounds of floral scent with many medicinal properties.

  12. Rice improvement, involving altered flower structure more suitable to cross-pollination, using in vitro culture in combination with mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Anther and somatic tissue culture in combination with mutagenesis were carried out to evaluate the efficiency of different mutagenic treatments of various in vitro culture materials, and to obtain some promising variants for rice improvement. Results indicated that in japonica rice radiation treatment of dry seeds and young panicles influenced the percentage of green plantlets regeneration from anther culture. Both treatments increased significantly the percentage of regenerated green plantlets in comparison with the control. Irradiation with 30 Gy of rice callus increased also the percentage of regenerated green plantlets. For indica rice, the combination of the suitable dose of gamma rays irradiation on seeds and an improved medium, increased the percentage of callus induction. This approach made it possible to use anther culture in indica rice breeding. Somatic tissue cultures combined with radiation-induced mutagenesis led to the development of a number of promising mutants including some new cytoplasm-nucleus interacting male-sterile lines with almost 100% stigma exertion. Their development would be of practical significance for increasing the genetic diversity for production of hybrid rice. (author)

  13. Leaf development of cultivated rice and weedy red rice under elevated temperature scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Streck,Nereu A.; Uhlmann,Lilian O.; Gabriel,Luana F.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to simulate leaf development of cultivated rice genotypes and weedy red rice biotypes in climate change scenarios at Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. A leaf appearance (LAR) model adapted for rice was used to simulate the accumulated leaf number, represented by the Haun Stage, from crop emergence to flag leaf appearance (EM-FL). Three cultivated rice genotypes and two weedy red rice biotypes in six emergence dates were used. The LAR model was run for each emergence dat...

  14. FLOWERING, POST-POLLINATION DEVELOPMENT AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013 Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST). Journal of Science ... early development of embryos (Hernandez and. Belles ... germination tests. Effect of ..... fact that hand-harvested seeds were not allowed to naturally ...

  15. Coordination of flower development by homeotic master regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Toshiro

    2011-02-01

    Floral homeotic genes encode transcription factors and act as master regulators of flower development. The homeotic protein complex is expressed in a specific whorl of the floral primordium and determines floral organ identity by the combinatorial action. Homeotic proteins continue to be expressed until late in flower development to coordinate growth and organogenesis. Recent genomic studies have shown that homeotic proteins bind thousands of target sites in the genome and regulate the expression of transcription factors, chromatin components and various proteins involved in hormone biosynthesis and signaling and other physiological activities. Further, homeotic proteins program chromatin to direct the developmental coordination of stem cell maintenance and differentiation in shaping floral organs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An ortholog of LEAFY in Jatropha curcas regulates flowering time and floral organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin; Fu, Qiantang; Song, Yaling; Niu, Longjian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2016-11-21

    Jatropha curcas seeds are an excellent biofuel feedstock, but seed yields of Jatropha are limited by its poor flowering and fruiting ability. Thus, identifying genes controlling flowering is critical for genetic improvement of seed yield. We isolated the JcLFY, a Jatropha ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana LEAFY (LFY), and identified JcLFY function by overexpressing it in Arabidopsis and Jatropha. JcLFY is expressed in Jatropha inflorescence buds, flower buds, and carpels, with highest expression in the early developmental stage of flower buds. JcLFY overexpression induced early flowering, solitary flowers, and terminal flowers in Arabidopsis, and also rescued the delayed flowering phenotype of lfy-15, a LFY loss-of-function Arabidopsis mutant. Microarray and qPCR analysis revealed several flower identity and flower organ development genes were upregulated in JcLFY-overexpressing Arabidopsis. JcLFY overexpression in Jatropha also induced early flowering. Significant changes in inflorescence structure, floral organs, and fruit shape occurred in JcLFY co-suppressed plants in which expression of several flower identity and floral organ development genes were changed. This suggests JcLFY is involved in regulating flower identity, floral organ patterns, and fruit shape, although JcLFY function in Jatropha floral meristem determination is not as strong as that of Arabidopsis.

  17. Responses of Yield Characteristics to High Temperature During Flowering Stage in Hybrid Rice Guodao 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-fu FU

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available By sowing at different dates during 2005 and 2006 both in paddy fields and greenhouse, a super hybrid rice combination Guodao 6 and a conventional hybrid rice combination Xieyou 46 (as control were used to analyze the differences in heat injury index, seed setting rate, grain yield and its components. Guodao 6 showed more stable yield and spikelet fertility, and lower heat injury index than Xieyou 46. Further studies indicated that the spikelet sterility is positively correlated with the average daily temperature and the maximum daily temperature, with the coefficients of 0.8604 and 0.9850 (P<0.05 respectively in Guodao 6. The effect of high temperature injury on seed setting caused by maximum daily temperature was lower than that by average daily temperature during the grain filling stage.

  18. The Rice Enhancer of Zeste [E(z] Genes SDG711 and SDG718 are respectively involved in Long Day and Short Day Signaling to Mediate the Accurate Photoperiod Control of Flowering time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun eLiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in rice flowering studies have shown that the accurate control of flowering by photoperiod is regulated by key mechanisms that involve the regulation of flowering genes including Hd1, Ehd1, Hd3a, and RFT1. The chromatin mechanism involved in the regulation of rice flowering genes is presently not well known. Here we show that the rice E(z genes SDG711 and SDG718, which encode the Polycomb Repressive Complex2 (PRC2 key subunit that is required for trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3, are respectively involved in long day (LD and short day (SD regulation of key flowering genes. The expression of SDG711 and SDG718 is induced by LD and SD, respectively. Over-expression and down-regulation of SDG711 respectively repressed and promoted flowering in LD, but had no effect in SD. By contrast, down-regulation of SDG718 had no effect in LD but delayed flowering in SD. SDG711 and SDG718 repressed OsLF (a repressor of Hd1 respectively in LD and SD, leading to a higher expression of Hd1 thus late flowering in LD and early flowering in SD. SDG711 was also found to be involved in the repression of Ehd1 in LD. SDG711 was shown to directly target to OsLF and Ehd1 loci to mediate H3K27me3 and gene repression. The function of the rice E(z genes in LD repression and SD promotion of flowering suggests that PRC2-mediated epigenetic repression of gene expression is involved in the accurate photoperiod control of rice flowering.

  19. Involvement of ethylene in sex expression and female flower development in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Susana; Martínez, Cecilia; García, Juan Manuel; Megías, Zoraida; Jamilena, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Although it is known that ethylene has a masculinizing effect on watermelon, the specific role of this hormone in sex expression and flower development has not been analyzed in depth. By using different approaches the present work demonstrates that ethylene regulates differentially two sex-related developmental processes: sexual expression, i.e. the earliness and the number of female flowers per plant, and the development of individual floral buds. Ethylene production in the shoot apex as well as in male, female and bisexual flowers demonstrated that the female flower requires much more ethylene than the male one to develop, and that bisexual flowers result from a decrease in ethylene production in the female floral bud. The occurrence of bisexual flowers was found to be associated with elevated temperatures in the greenhouse, concomitantly with a reduction of ethylene production in the shoot apex. External treatments with ethephon and AVG, and the use of Cucurbita rootstocks with different ethylene production and sensitivity, confirmed that, as occurs in other cucurbit species, ethylene is required to arrest the development of stamens in the female flower. Nevertheless, in watermelon ethylene inhibits the transition from male to female flowering and reduces the number of pistillate flowers per plant, which runs contrary to findings in other cucurbit species. The use of Cucurbita rootstocks with elevated ethylene production delayed the production of female flowers but reduced the number of bisexual flowers, which is associated with a reduced fruit set and altered fruit shape.

  20. Differential Proteomic Analysis Using iTRAQ Reveals Alterations in Hull Development in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuzhen; Chen, Wenyue; Xiao, Wenfei; Yang, Changdeng; Xin, Ya; Qiu, Jieren; Hu, Weimin; Ying, Wu; Fu, Yaping; Tong, Jianxin; Hu, Guocheng; Chen, Zhongzhong; Fang, Xianping; Yu, Hong; Lai, Wenguo; Ruan, Songlin; Ma, Huasheng

    2015-01-01

    Rice hull, the outer cover of the rice grain, determines grain shape and size. Changes in the rice hull proteome in different growth stages may reflect the underlying mechanisms involved in grain development. To better understand these changes, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitative (iTRAQ) MS/MS was used to detect statistically significant changes in the rice hull proteome in the booting, flowering, and milk-ripe growth stages. Differentially expressed proteins were analyzed to predict their potential functions during development. Gene ontology (GO) terms and pathways were used to evaluate the biological mechanisms involved in rice hull at the three growth stages. In total, 5,268 proteins were detected and characterized, of which 563 were differentially expressed across the development stages. The results showed that the flowering and milk-ripe stage proteomes were more similar to each other (r=0.61) than either was to the booting stage proteome. A GO enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed proteins was used to predict their roles during rice hull development. The potential functions of 25 significantly differentially expressed proteins were used to evaluate their possible roles at various growth stages. Among these proteins, an unannotated protein (Q7X8A1) was found to be overexpressed especially in the flowering stage, while a putative uncharacterized protein (B8BF94) and an aldehyde dehydrogenase (Q9FPK6) were overexpressed only in the milk-ripe stage. Pathways regulated by differentially expressed proteins were also analyzed. Magnesium-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester [oxidative] cyclase (Q9SDJ2), and two magnesium-chelatase subunits, ChlD (Q6ATS0), and ChlI (Q53RM0), were associated with chlorophyll biosynthesis at different developmental stages. The expression of Q9SDJ2 in the flowering and milk-ripe stages was validated by qRT-PCR. The 25 candidate proteins may be pivotal markers for controlling rice hull development at various

  1. Genetic interactions between diverged alleles of Early heading date 1 (Ehd1) and Heading date 3a (Hd3a)/ RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1) control differential heading and contribute to regional adaptation in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Chen, Hongyi; Ren, Ding; Tang, Huiwu; Qiu, Rong; Feng, Jinglei; Long, Yunming; Niu, Baixiao; Chen, Danping; Zhong, Tianyu; Liu, Yao-Guang; Guo, Jingxin

    2015-11-01

    Initiation of flowering, also called heading, in rice (Oryza sativa) is determined by the florigens encoded by Heading date 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1). Early heading date 1 (Ehd1) regulates Hd3a and RFT1. However, different rice varieties have diverged alleles of Ehd1 and Hd3a/RFT1 and their genetic interactions remain largely unclear. Here we generated three segregating populations for different combinations of diverged Ehd1 and Hd3a/RFT1 alleles, and analyzed their genetic interactions between these alleles. We demonstrated that, in an ehd1 mutant background, Hd3a was silenced, but RFT1 was expressed (although at lower levels than in plants with a functional Ehd1) under short-day (SD) and long-day (LD) conditions. We identified a nonfunctional RFT1 allele (rft1); the lines carrying homozygous ehd1 and Hd3a/rft1 failed to induce the floral transition under SD and LD conditions. Like Hd3a, RFT1 also interacted with 14-3-3 proteins, the florigen receptors, but a nonfunctional RFT1 with a crucial E105K mutation failed to interact with 14-3-3 proteins. Furthermore, analyses of sequence variation and geographic distribution suggested that functional RFT1 alleles were selected during rice adaptation to high-latitude regions. Our results demonstrate the important roles of RFT1 in rice flowering and regional adaptation. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUES FOR QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF LIME FLOWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko DV

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article is devoted to the development of techniques for quantitative analysis of lime flower in order to make amendments to existing pharmacopoeian monographs for this herbal drug. Lime inflorescences contain lipophilic biologically active substances (BAS causing notable antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects and also more polar phenolic compounds with antiulcer activity. Considering this, it’s necessary to regulate all these groups of BAS quantitatively. Materials and methods. For this study six batches of lime flowers harvested in 2008-2009 yrs. in Kharkiv, Rivno and Zhitomir regions were used as crude herbal drug. Loss on drying was determined by routine pharmacopoeian procedures. Total content of lipophilic substances was determined gravimetrically after Soxhlet extraction of samples 1, 5, 7 and 10 g in weight with methylene chloride, considering that by its extracting ability this solvent is close to liquefied difluorochloromethane (freon R22 used by us for obtaining of lipophilic complexes. The duration of complete analytical extraction was determined by infusion of six 10 g assays of lime flowers during 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 hours, then quantity of lipophilic extractives was revealed gravimetrically. Quantity of essential oil in lime flowers was evaluated under the procedure of ЕР7, 2.8.12. Weight of the herbal drug sample was 200 g, distillation rate – 2,5- 3,5 ml/min, volume of distillation liquid (water – 500 ml, volume of xylene in the graduated tube – 0,50 ml. Total flavonoid content recalculated to quercetin was determined after hydrolysis with acidified acetone, withdrawing of flavonoid aglycones with ethylacetate and by further spectrophotometry of their complexes with aluminium chloride. All quantitative determinations were replicated five times for each assay. All chemicals and reagents were of analytical grade. Results and discussion. It was found that adequate accuracy of the analysis of lipophilic

  3. MAEWEST expression in flower development of two petunia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segatto, Ana Lúcia A; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina; Aizza, Lilian Cristina B; Monte-Bello, Carolina C; Dornelas, Marcelo C; Margis, Rogerio; Freitas, Loreta B

    2013-07-03

    Changes in flower morphology may influence the frequency and specificity of animal visitors. In Petunia (Solanaceae), adaptation to different pollinators is one of the factors leading to species diversification within the genus. This study provides evidence that differential expression patterns of MAWEWEST (MAW) homologs in different Petunia species may be associated with adaptive changes in floral morphology. The Petunia × hybrida MAW gene belongs to the WOX (WUSCHEL-related homeobox) transcription factor family and has been identified as a controller of petal fusion during corolla formation. We analyzed the expression patterns of P. inflata and P. axillaris MAW orthologs (PiMAW and PaMAW, respectively) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridization in different tissues and different developmental stages of flowers in both species. The spatial expression patterns of PiMAW and PaMAW were similar in P. inflata and P. axillaris. Nevertheless, PaMAW expression level in P. axillaris was higher during the late bud development stage as compared to PiMAW in P. inflata. This work represents an expansion of petunia developmental research to wild accessions.

  4. MAEWEST Expression in Flower Development of Two Petunia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia A. Segatto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes in flower morphology may influence the frequency and specificity of animal visitors. In Petunia (Solanaceae, adaptation to different pollinators is one of the factors leading to species diversification within the genus. This study provides evidence that differential expression patterns of MAWEWEST (MAW homologs in different Petunia species may be associated with adaptive changes in floral morphology. The Petunia × hybrida MAW gene belongs to the WOX (WUSCHEL-related homeobox transcription factor family and has been identified as a controller of petal fusion during corolla formation. We analyzed the expression patterns of P. inflata and P. axillaris MAW orthologs (PiMAW and PaMAW, respectively by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, reverse transcription–quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization in different tissues and different developmental stages of flowers in both species. The spatial expression patterns of PiMAW and PaMAW were similar in P. inflata and P. axillaris. Nevertheless, PaMAW expression level in P. axillaris was higher during the late bud development stage as compared to PiMAW in P. inflata. This work represents an expansion of petunia developmental research to wild accessions.

  5. Patterns of MADS-box gene expression mark flower-type development in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeri Teemu H

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inflorescence of the cut-flower crop Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae consists of two principal flower types, ray and disc, which form a tightly packed head, or capitulum. Despite great interest in plant morphological evolution and the tractability of the gerbera system, very little is known regarding genetic mechanisms involved in flower type specification. Here, we provide comparative staging of ray and disc flower development and microarray screening for differentially expressed genes, accomplished via microdissection of hundreds of coordinately developing flower primordia. Results Using a 9K gerbera cDNA microarray we identified a number of genes with putative specificity to individual flower types. Intrestingly, several of these encode homologs of MADS-box transcription factors otherwise known to regulate flower organ development. From these and previously obtained data, we hypothesize the functions and protein-protein interactions of several gerbera MADS-box factors. Conclusion Our RNA expression results suggest that flower-type specific MADS protein complexes may play a central role in differential development of ray and disc flowers across the gerbera capitulum, and that some commonality is shared with known protein functions in floral organ determination. These findings support the intriguing conjecture that the gerbera flowering head is more than a mere floral analog at the level of gene regulation.

  6. A label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics analysis of rice grain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Hee-Jong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a great deal of rice proteomic research has been conducted, there are relatively few studies specifically addressing the rice grain proteome. The existing rice grain proteomic researches have focused on the identification of differentially expressed proteins or monitoring protein expression patterns during grain filling stages. Results Proteins were extracted from rice grains 10, 20, and 30 days after flowering, as well as from fully mature grains. By merging all of the identified proteins in this study, we identified 4,172 non-redundant proteins with a wide range of molecular weights (from 5.2 kDa to 611 kDa and pI values (from pH 2.9 to pH 12.6. A Genome Ontology category enrichment analysis for the 4,172 proteins revealed that 52 categories were enriched, including the carbohydrate metabolic process, transport, localization, lipid metabolic process, and secondary metabolic process. The relative abundances of the 1,784 reproducibly identified proteins were compared to detect 484 differentially expressed proteins during rice grain development. Clustering analysis and Genome Ontology category enrichment analysis revealed that proteins involved in the metabolic process were enriched through all stages of development, suggesting that proteome changes occurred even in the desiccation phase. Interestingly, enrichments of proteins involved in protein folding were detected in the desiccation phase and in fully mature grain. Conclusion This is the first report conducting comprehensive identification of rice grain proteins. With a label free shotgun proteomic approach, we identified large number of rice grain proteins and compared the expression patterns of reproducibly identified proteins during rice grain development. Clustering analysis, Genome Ontology category enrichment analysis, and the analysis of composite expression profiles revealed dynamic changes of metabolisms during rice grain development. Interestingly, we

  7. Anther-preferential expressing gene PMR is essential for the mitosis of pollen development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaqin; Xu, Ya; Ling, Sheng; Liu, Shasha; Yao, Jialing

    2017-06-01

    Phenotype identification, expression examination, and function prediction declared that the anther-preferential expressing gene PMR may participate in regulation of male gametophyte development in rice. Male germline development in flowering plants produces the pair of sperm cells for double fertilization and the pollen mitosis is a key process of it. Although the structural features of male gametophyte have been defined, the molecular mechanisms regulating the mitotic cell cycle are not well elucidated in rice. Here, we reported an anther-preferential expressing gene in rice, PMR (Pollen Mitosis Relative), playing an essential role in male gametogenesis. When PMR gene was suppressed via RNAi, the mitosis of microspore was severely damaged, and the plants formed unmatured pollens containing only one or two nucleuses at the anthesis, ultimately leading to serious reduction of pollen fertility and seed-setting. The CRISPR mutants, pmr-1 and pmr-2, both showed the similar defects as the PMR-RNAi lines. Further analysis revealed that PMR together with its co-expressing genes were liable to participate in the regulation of DNA metabolism in the nucleus, and affected the activities of some enzymes related to the cell cycle. We finally discussed that unknown protein PMR contained the PHD, SWIB and Plus-3 domains and they might have coordinating functions in regulation pathway of the pollen mitosis in rice.

  8. Stamen-derived bioactive gibberellin is essential for male flower development of Cucurbita maxima L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta Lange, Maria João; Knop, Nicole; Lange, Theo

    2012-04-01

    Gibberellin (GA) signalling during pumpkin male flower development is highly regulated, including biosynthetic, perception, and transduction pathways. GA 20-oxidases, 3-oxidases, and 2-oxidases catalyse the final part of GA synthesis. Additionally, 7-oxidase initiates this part of the pathway in some cucurbits including Cucurbita maxima L. (pumpkin). Expression patterns for these GA-oxidase-encoding genes were examined by competitive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and endogenous GA levels were determined during pumpkin male flower development. In young flowers, GA20ox3 transcript levels are high in stamens, followed by high levels of the GA precursor GA(9). Later, just before flower opening, transcript levels for GA3ox3 and GA3ox4 increase in the hypanthium and stamens, respectively. In the stamen, following GA3ox4 expression, bioactive GA(4) levels rise dramatically. Accordingly, catabolic GA2ox2 and GA2ox3 transcript levels are low in developing flowers, and increase in mature flowers. Putative GA receptor GID1b and DELLA repressor GAIPb transcript levels do not change in developing flowers, but increase sharply in mature flowers. Emasculation arrests floral development completely and leads to abscission of premature flowers. Application of GA(4) (but not of its precursors GA(12)-aldehyde or GA(9)) restores normal growth of emasculated flowers. These results indicate that de novo GA(4) synthesis in the stamen is under control of GA20ox3 and GA3ox4 genes just before the rapid flower growth phase. Stamen-derived bioactive GA is essential and sufficient for male flower development, including the petal and the pedicel growth.

  9. Global Information Resources on Rice for Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shri RAM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Various issues concerning the progress of rice research are related to ambiguous germplasm identification, difficulty in tracing pedigree information, and lack of integration between genetic resources, characterization, breeding, evaluation and utilization data. These issues are the constraints in developing knowledge-intensive crop improvement programs. The rapid growth, development and the global spread of modern information and communication technology allow quick adoption in fundamental research. Thus, there is a need to provide an opportunity for the establishment of services which describe the rice information for better accessibility to information resources used by researchers to enhance the competitiveness. This work reviews some of available resources on rice bioinformatics and their roles in elucidating and propagating biological and genomic information in rice research. These reviews will also enable stakeholders to understand and adopt the change in research and development and share knowledge with the global community of agricultural scientists. The establishment like International Rice Information System, Rice Genome Research Project and Integrated Rice Genome Explorer are major initiatives for the improvement of rice. Creation of databases for comparative studies of rice and other cereals are major steps in further improvement of genetic compositions. This paper will also highlight some of the initiatives and organizations working in the field of rice improvement and explore the availability of the various web resources for the purpose of research and development of rice. We are developing a meta web server for integration of online resources such as databases, web servers and journals in the area of bioinformatics. This integrated platform, with acronym iBIRA, is available online at ibiranet.in. The resources reviewed here are the excerpts from the resources integrated in iBIRA.

  10. Proteomic identification of differentially expressed proteins during alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. flower development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1, pollination (S2, and the post-pollination senescence period (S3. Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD. Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs, carbonic anhydrase (CA, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein (NQOLs. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower

  11. Proteomic Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins during Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Flower Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Quanzhu; Zhu, Yanqiao; Hou, Longyu; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1), pollination (S2), and the post-pollination senescence period (S3). Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD). Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs), carbonic anhydrase, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower development and

  12. Impact of National Fadama Development Project II on Rice farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... examined the impact of National Fadama Development Project II on the profitability of rice farmers and assessed the extent to which the various innovations disseminated by the project were adopted by the rice farmer beneficiaries. The project which had all operating expenses cofinanced by the various key stakeholders ...

  13. Comprehensive expression profiling of rice tetraspanin genes reveals diverse roles during development and abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji eM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetraspanin family is comprised of evolutionarily conserved integral membrane proteins. The incredible ability of tetraspanins to form ‘micro domain complexes’ and their preferential targeting to membranes emphasizes their active association with signal recognition and communication with neighboring cells, thus acting as key modulators of signaling cascades. In animals, tetraspanins are associated with multitude of cellular processes. Unlike animals, the biological relevance of tetraspanins in plants has not been well investigated. In Arabidopsis tetraspanins are known to contribute in important plant development processes such as leaf morphogenesis, root and floral organ formation. In the present study we investigated the genomic organization, chromosomal distribution, phylogeny and domain structure of 15 rice tetraspanin proteins (OsTETs. OsTET proteins had similar domain structure and signature ‘GCCK/R’ motif as reported in Arabidopsis. Comprehensive expression profiling of OsTET genes suggested their possible involvement during rice development. While OsTET9 and 10 accumulated predominantly in flowers, OsTET5, 8 and 12 were preferentially expressed in root tissues. Noticeably, seven OsTETs exhibited more than 2-fold up regulation at early stages of flag leaf senescence in rice. Furthermore, several OsTETs were differentially regulated in rice seedlings exposed to abiotic stresses, exogenous treatment of hormones and nutrient deprivation. Transient subcellular localization studies of eight OsTET proteins in tobacco epidermal cells showed that these proteins localized in plasma membrane. The present study provides valuable insights into the possible roles of tetraspanins in regulating development and defining response to abiotic stresses in rice. Targeted proteomic studies would be useful in identification of their interacting partners under different conditions and ultimately their biological function in plants

  14. Physiological and biochemical aspects of flower development and senescence in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Shaziya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Healthy buds of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia growing in the Kashmir University Botanic Garden were selected for the present study. Flower development and senescence was divided into seven stages, viz., tight bud stage (I, mature bud stage (II, pencil stage (III, partially open stage (IV, open stage (V, partially senescent stage (VI and senescent stage (VII. Various physiological and biochemical changes were recorded at each stage of flower development and senescence. Floral diameter, fresh mass, dry mass and water content showed an increase up to flower opening (stage V and thereafter a significant decrease was recorded as the flower development progressed towards senescence through stages VI and VII. An increase in α-amino acids, total phenols and sugars was registered towards anthesis (stage V and a decrease in these parameters was recorded with senescence. Protease activity showed a significant increase towards senescence with a concomitant decrease in soluble proteins. Based on the quantitative analysis of various biochemical parameters, the flower opening in N. plumbaginifolia seems to be accompanied by an increase in the water content, soluble proteins, α‑amino acids and phenols. A decrease in these parameters, besides an increase in protease activity induces senescence in the beautiful flowers of N. plumbaginifolia. Understanding flower senescence may help in improving the postharvest performance of this beautiful ornamental flower to make it a potential material for the floriculture industry.

  15. Rice husks as a sustainable silica source for hierarchical flower-like metal silicate architectures assembled into ultrathin nanosheets for adsorption and catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shouwei; Gao, Huihui; Li, Jiaxing; Huang, Yongshun; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hayat, Tasawar; Xu, Xijin; Wang, Xiangke

    2017-01-05

    Metal silicates have attracted extensive interests due to their unique structure and promising properties in adsorption and catalysis. However, their applications were hampered by the complex and expensive synthesis. In this paper, three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical flower-like metal silicate, including magnesium silicate, zinc silicate, nickel silicate and cobalt silicate, were for the first time prepared by using rice husks as a sustainable silicon source. The flower-like morphology, interconnected ultrathin nanosheets structure and high specific surface area endowed them with versatile applications. Magnesium silicate was used as an adsorbent with the maximum adsorption capacities of 557.9, 381.3, and 482.8mg/g for Pb 2+ , tetracycline (TC), and UO 2 2+ , respectively. Ni nanoparticles/silica (Ni NPs/SiO 2 ) exhibited high catalytic activity and good stability for 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) reduction within only ∼160s, which can be attributed to the ultra-small particle size (∼6.8nm), good dispersion and high loading capacity of Ni NPs. Considering the abundance and renewability of rice husks, metal silicate with complex architecture can be easily produced at a large scale and become a sustainable and reliable resource for multifunctional applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development on improved parboiling equipment for paddy rice in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Development on improved parboiling equipment for paddy rice in Benin. P. Houssou and E. ... Its performance was evaluated by measuring the time for parboiling ... of the new system combined with the high cost ($ 36 US) of its realisation.

  17. Development of Rice Reprocessing to Strengthen Small Scale Rice Mills in Indramayu West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, Y. R.; Hasbullah, R.; Djohar, S.

    2018-05-01

    Small Rice Mill (SRM) has a very important role in rice production of strong institutional relationships to farmers and rice markets. Nevertheless, the rice produced in low quality and changing consumer preferences cause SRM to have difficulty in maintaining the role. Development of a reprocessing business - called Rice to Rice Processing Plant (R2RP) - as a separate business unit will support their role and existence. This study aimed at analyzing the feasibility of R2RP business that integrates SRM and market as an independent business unit and determines mutual partnership pattern. The study was conducted with special reference to West Java Province. The qualitative method used for non-financial aspects analysis includes raw material, market, technical-technological, management and regulation and partnership pattern. The financial aspect used the quantitative method of Net Present Value (NPV), Net Benefit Cost Ratio (Net B/C), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Payback Period (PP) and Switching Value to check their sensitivity.The results showed R2R business is feasible for non-financially, technical-technological and financial aspects. Technology has evolved to produce various qualities (premium or medium) after the quality of raw materials (low quality or off-grade rice) using profit optimization. Value of the financial parameters was NPV of Rp 137 billion, Net B/C of 5.80, IRR of 84.27 percent and PP of 2.18 years at capacity of 19,800 tons/year with total investment of Rp 30 billion (Rp 13,500/USD). The switching value analysis showed that a decrease in product prices is sensitively influencing the financial feasibility. To strengthen cooperation that enhancing mutually beneficial relationship, R2R assists equipment investment in and buy raw material from SRM at a rational agreed price.

  18. Molecular basis of development in petaloid monocot flowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Frederiksen, Signe; Skipper, Martin

    2006-01-01

    -class genes apparently are expressed in meristems of both flower and inflorescence. Morphologically petaloid stamens and styles are well known within the petaloid monocots, whereas the phenomenon is rare in core eudicots. A simple model based on the extra copies of B-class genes can explain the molecular...

  19. Development of instant noodles from high-iron rice and iron-fortified rice flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparat Reungmaneepaitoon

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Instant high-iron noodles, prepared from wheat flour and high iron brown rice flour, were developed. Three varieties of rice flour, Suphan Buri 90 (SB, Homnin 313 (HW and Homnin 1000 (HP, containing amylose content of 30.40, 19.10 and 15.74% (w/w and iron content of 1.24, 2.04 and 2.22 (mg/100 g respectively, were used to replace wheat flour for instant fried noodle production. To determine the physicochemical properties and acceptability of instant fried noodles,different percentages (30, 40, 50% (w/w of each rice flour sample were used. The instant fried noodles were fortified with ferrous sulphate at levels of 0, 32, 64% iron of RDI per serving. Increasing amount of iron content in the mixtures decreased the L* value, b* value and increased a* value for the color of the instant fried noodle with brown rice flour. The texture characteristic of the noodles with 30, 40, 50% replacement with each variety of brown rice flour were significantly different from those of wheat noodle. Tensile force of the noodles decreased from 11.57±1.30 g to 6.38±1.45 g (SB, 8.36±0.96 g to 5.71±0.57 g (HP and 10.09±1.20 g to 5.46±1.31 g (HW as the rice flour content increased from 30 to 50%. The sensoryacceptability of the noodles made from each variety of 30% brown rice flour fortified with 32% iron of RDI had higher preference scores for elasticity, firmness, color and overall acceptability, than those with 64% iron of RDI. Instant fried noodles with HW and HP brown rice flour were subjected to consumer test using 100 rural primary school children. The frequency percent of the acceptability scores of the noodle with HP and HW were 88 and 84% respectively. Shelf life studyrevealed that the developed products were still acceptable up to 4 months. These products were claimed to be high iron noodle.

  20. Rice improvement involving altered flower structure more suitable to cross-pollination, using in vitro culture in combination with mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Anther and somatic tissue culture in combination with mutagenesis were carried out to evaluate the efficiency of different mutagenic treatments of various in vitro culture materials, and to obtain some promising variants for rice improvement. Results indicated that in japonica rice radiation treatment of dry seeds and young panicles influenced the percentage of green plantlets regeneration from anther culture. Both treatments increased significantly the percentage of regenerated green plant lets in comparison with the control

  1. Luminosity on development and flowering of Dendrobium nobile Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Brito Chaim Jardim Rosa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study, conducted at Jardinocultura area of Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias of UFGD during the period from September of 2010 to August of 2011, had as aim evaluate the cultivation and flowering of Dendrobium nobile Lindl., under five levels of luminosity (83, 104, 115, 154 e 237 μmol m-2 s-1 . During 12 months the plants were irrigated and fertilized with NPK 10-10-10 and after this period they were evaluated for the number, length and diameter of pseudobulbs, being calculated the increments in relation to initial data. At flowering time it was counted the total buds, reproductive buds, vegetative buds and undifferentiated buds and registered the anthesis at each light intensity. The experimental was arranged at completely randomized design with five treatments and seven replicates with two plants and the averages were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. All the lighting conditions were favorable to the D. nobile cultivation, being registered increases of 36,7%, 16,0% e 16,2% in the number, diameter and length of pseudobulbs, respectively. The largest number of reproductive buds was observed at 104 μmol m-2 s-1. D. nobile can be cultivated in the light conditions varying between 83 and 237 μmol m-2 s-1, recommending the luminosity of 104 μmol m-2 s-1 to promote their flowering.

  2. Characteristics of bread prepared from wheat flours blended with various kinds of newly developed rice flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, S; Suzuki, K; Ohtsubo, K

    2009-04-01

    Characteristics of the bread prepared from wheat flour blended with the flour of various kinds of newly developed rice cultivars were investigated. Qualities of the bread made from wheat flour blended with rice flour have been reported to be inferior to those from 100% wheat flour bread. To improve its qualities, we searched for the new-characteristic rice flours among the various kinds of newly developed rice cultivars to blend with the wheat flour for the bread preparation. The most suitable new characteristic rices are combination of purple waxy rice, high-amylose rice, and sugary rice. Specific volume of the bread from the combination of wheat and these 3 kinds of rice flours showed higher specific volume (3.93) compared with the traditional wheat/rice bread (3.58). We adopted the novel method, continuous progressive compression test, to measure the physical properties of the dough and the bread in addition to the sensory evaluation. As a result of the selection of the most suitable rice cultivars and blending ratio with the wheat flour, we could develop the novel wheat/rice bread, of which loaf volume, physical properties, and tastes are acceptable and resistant to firming on even 4 d after the bread preparation. To increase the ratio of rice to wheat, we tried to add a part of rice as cooked rice grains. The specific volume and qualities of the bread were maintained well although the rice content of total flour increased from 30% to 40%.

  3. Transcript Analysis and Regulative Events during Flower Development in Olive (Olea europaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiammetta Alagna

    Full Text Available The identification and characterization of transcripts involved in flower organ development, plant reproduction and metabolism represent key steps in plant phenotypic and physiological pathways, and may generate high-quality transcript variants useful for the development of functional markers. This study was aimed at obtaining an extensive characterization of the olive flower transcripts, by providing sound information on the candidate MADS-box genes related to the ABC model of flower development and on the putative genetic and molecular determinants of ovary abortion and pollen-pistil interaction. The overall sequence data, obtained by pyrosequencing of four cDNA libraries from flowers at different developmental stages of three olive varieties with distinct reproductive features (Leccino, Frantoio and Dolce Agogia, included approximately 465,000 ESTs, which gave rise to more than 14,600 contigs and approximately 92,000 singletons. As many as 56,700 unigenes were successfully annotated and provided gene ontology insights into the structural organization and putative molecular function of sequenced transcripts and deduced proteins in the context of their corresponding biological processes. Differentially expressed genes with potential regulatory roles in biosynthetic pathways and metabolic networks during flower development were identified. The gene expression studies allowed us to select the candidate genes that play well-known molecular functions in a number of biosynthetic pathways and specific biological processes that affect olive reproduction. A sound understanding of gene functions and regulatory networks that characterize the olive flower is provided.

  4. Transcript Analysis and Regulative Events during Flower Development in Olive (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Cirilli, Marco; Galla, Giulio; Carbone, Fabrizio; Daddiego, Loretta; Facella, Paolo; Lopez, Loredana; Colao, Chiara; Mariotti, Roberto; Cultrera, Nicolò; Rossi, Martina; Barcaccia, Gianni; Baldoni, Luciana; Muleo, Rosario; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    The identification and characterization of transcripts involved in flower organ development, plant reproduction and metabolism represent key steps in plant phenotypic and physiological pathways, and may generate high-quality transcript variants useful for the development of functional markers. This study was aimed at obtaining an extensive characterization of the olive flower transcripts, by providing sound information on the candidate MADS-box genes related to the ABC model of flower development and on the putative genetic and molecular determinants of ovary abortion and pollen-pistil interaction. The overall sequence data, obtained by pyrosequencing of four cDNA libraries from flowers at different developmental stages of three olive varieties with distinct reproductive features (Leccino, Frantoio and Dolce Agogia), included approximately 465,000 ESTs, which gave rise to more than 14,600 contigs and approximately 92,000 singletons. As many as 56,700 unigenes were successfully annotated and provided gene ontology insights into the structural organization and putative molecular function of sequenced transcripts and deduced proteins in the context of their corresponding biological processes. Differentially expressed genes with potential regulatory roles in biosynthetic pathways and metabolic networks during flower development were identified. The gene expression studies allowed us to select the candidate genes that play well-known molecular functions in a number of biosynthetic pathways and specific biological processes that affect olive reproduction. A sound understanding of gene functions and regulatory networks that characterize the olive flower is provided.

  5. vitisFlower®: Development and Testing of a Novel Android-Smartphone Application for Assessing the Number of Grapevine Flowers per Inflorescence Using Artificial Vision Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Arturo; Millan, Borja; Gaston, Daniel; Diago, María-Paz; Tardaguila, Javier

    2015-08-28

    Grapevine flowering and fruit set greatly determine crop yield. This paper presents a new smartphone application for automatically counting, non-invasively and directly in the vineyard, the flower number in grapevine inflorescence photos by implementing artificial vision techniques. The application, called vitisFlower(®), firstly guides the user to appropriately take an inflorescence photo using the smartphone's camera. Then, by means of image analysis, the flowers in the image are detected and counted. vitisFlower(®) has been developed for Android devices and uses the OpenCV libraries to maximize computational efficiency. The application was tested on 140 inflorescence images of 11 grapevine varieties taken with two different devices. On average, more than 84% of flowers in the captures were found, with a precision exceeding 94%. Additionally, the application's efficiency on four different devices covering a wide range of the market's spectrum was also studied. The results of this benchmarking study showed significant differences among devices, although indicating that the application is efficiently usable even with low-range devices. vitisFlower is one of the first applications for viticulture that is currently freely available on Google Play.

  6. vitisFlower®: Development and Testing of a Novel Android-Smartphone Application for Assessing the Number of Grapevine Flowers per Inflorescence Using Artificial Vision Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Aquino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine flowering and fruit set greatly determine crop yield. This paper presents a new smartphone application for automatically counting, non-invasively and directly in the vineyard, the flower number in grapevine inflorescence photos by implementing artificial vision techniques. The application, called vitisFlower®, firstly guides the user to appropriately take an inflorescence photo using the smartphone’s camera. Then, by means of image analysis, the flowers in the image are detected and counted. vitisFlower® has been developed for Android devices and uses the OpenCV libraries to maximize computational efficiency. The application was tested on 140 inflorescence images of 11 grapevine varieties taken with two different devices. On average, more than 84% of flowers in the captures were found, with a precision exceeding 94%. Additionally, the application’s efficiency on four different devices covering a wide range of the market’s spectrum was also studied. The results of this benchmarking study showed significant differences among devices, although indicating that the application is efficiently usable even with low-range devices. vitisFlower is one of the first applications for viticulture that is currently freely available on Google Play.

  7. Genomic profiling of rice sperm cell transcripts reveals conserved and distinct elements in the flowering plant male germ lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Scott D; Gou, Xiaoping; Wong, Chui E; Wang, Xinkun; Yuan, Tong; Wei, Xiaoping; Bhalla, Prem L; Singh, Mohan B

    2012-08-01

    Genomic assay of sperm cell RNA provides insight into functional control, modes of regulation, and contributions of male gametes to double fertilization. Sperm cells of rice (Oryza sativa) were isolated from field-grown, disease-free plants and RNA was processed for use with the full-genome Affymetrix microarray. Comparison with Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) reference arrays confirmed expressionally distinct gene profiles. A total of 10,732 distinct gene sequences were detected in sperm cells, of which 1668 were not expressed in pollen or seedlings. Pathways enriched in male germ cells included ubiquitin-mediated pathways, pathways involved in chromatin modeling including histones, histone modification and nonhistone epigenetic modification, and pathways related to RNAi and gene silencing. Genome-wide expression patterns in angiosperm sperm cells indicate common and divergent themes in the male germline that appear to be largely self-regulating through highly up-regulated chromatin modification pathways. A core of highly conserved genes appear common to all sperm cells, but evidence is still emerging that another class of genes have diverged in expression between monocots and dicots since their divergence. Sperm cell transcripts present at fusion may be transmitted through plasmogamy during double fertilization to effect immediate post-fertilization expression of early embryo and (or) endosperm development. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. cDNA cloning and expression of carotenogenic genes during flower development in Gentiana lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changfu; Yamamura, Saburo; Koiwa, Hiroyuki; Nishihara, Masashiro; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2002-02-01

    All cDNAs involved in carotenoid biosynthesis leading to lycopene in yellow petals of Gentiana lutea have been cloned from a cDNA library. They encode a geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, a phytoene synthase, a phytoene desaturase and a zeta-carotene desaturase. The indicated function of all cDNAs was established by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli. The amino acid sequences deduced from the cDNAs were between 47.5% and 78.9% identical to those reported for the corresponding enzymes from other higher plants. Southern analysis suggested that the genes for each enzyme probably represent a small multi-gene family. Tissue-specific expression of the genes and expression during flower development was investigated. The expression of the phytoene synthase gene, psy, was enhanced in flowers but transcripts were not detected in stems and leaves by northern blotting. Transcripts of the genes for geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (ggpps), phytoene desaturase (pds) and zeta-carotene desaturase (zds) were detected in flowers and leaves but not in stems. Analysis of the expression of psy and zds in petals revealed that levels of the transcripts were lowest in young buds and highest in fully open flowers, in parallel with the formation of carotenoids. Obviously, the transcription of these genes control the accumulation of carotenoids during flower development in G. lutea. For pds only a very slight increase of mRNA was found whereas the transcripts of ggpps decreased during flower development.

  9. The genome and transcriptome of Phalaenopsis yield insights into floral organ development and flowering regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Zhi Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Phalaenopsis orchid is an important potted flower of high economic value around the world. We report the 3.1 Gb draft genome assembly of an important winter flowering Phalaenopsis ‘KHM190’ cultivar. We generated 89.5 Gb RNA-seq and 113 million sRNA-seq reads to use these data to identify 41,153 protein-coding genes and 188 miRNA families. We also generated a draft genome for Phalaenopsis pulcherrima ‘B8802,’ a summer flowering species, via resequencing. Comparison of genome data between the two Phalaenopsis cultivars allowed the identification of 691,532 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. In this study, we reveal that the key role of PhAGL6b in the regulation of labellum organ development involves alternative splicing in the big lip mutant. Petal or sepal overexpressing PhAGL6b leads to the conversion into a lip-like structure. We also discovered that the gibberellin pathway that regulates the expression of flowering time genes during the reproductive phase change is induced by cool temperature. Our work thus depicted a valuable resource for the flowering control, flower architecture development, and breeding of the Phalaenopsis orchids.

  10. Seed-vectored endophytic bacteria modulate development of rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S K; Kingsley, K; Irizarry, I; Bergen, M; Kharwar, R N; White, J F

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the removal of indigenous bacteria from rice seeds on seedling growth and development. Here we report the presence of three indigenous endophytic bacteria in rice seeds that play important roles in modulating seedling development (shoot and root lengths, and formation of root hairs and secondary roots) and defence against pathogens. Seed-associated bacteria were removed using surface sterilization with NaOCl (bleach) followed by antibiotic treatment. When bacteria were absent, growth of seedlings in terms of root hair development and overall seedling size was less than that of seedlings that contained bacteria. Reactive oxygen staining of seedlings showed that endophytic bacteria became intracellular in root parenchyma cells and root hairs. Roots containing endophytic bacteria were seen to stain densely for reactive oxygen, while roots free of bacteria stained lightly for reactive oxygen. Bacteria were isolated and identified as Enterobacter asburiae (VWB1), Pantoea dispersa (VWB2) and Pseudomonas putida (VWB3) by 16S rDNA sequencing. Bacteria were found to produce indole acetic acid (auxins), inhibited the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum and solubilized phosphate. Reinoculation of bacteria onto seedlings derived from surface-disinfected rice and Bermuda grass seeds significantly restored seedling growth and development. Rice seeds harbour indigenous bacterial endophytes that greatly influence seedling growth and development, including root and shoot lengths, root hair formation and disease susceptibility of rice seedlings. This study shows that seeds of rice naturally harbour bacterial endophytes that play key roles in modulation of seedling development. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. The COP9 signalosome interacts with SCF UFO and participates in Arabidopsis flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiping; Feng, Suhua; Nakayama, Naomi; Crosby, W L; Irish, Vivian; Deng, Xing Wang; Wei, Ning

    2003-05-01

    The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is involved in multiple developmental processes. It interacts with SCF ubiquitin ligases and deconjugates Nedd8/Rub1 from cullins (deneddylation). CSN is highly expressed in Arabidopsis floral tissues. To investigate the role of CSN in flower development, we examined the expression pattern of CSN in developing flowers. We report here that two csn1 partially deficient Arabidopsis strains exhibit aberrant development of floral organs, decline of APETALA3 (AP3) expression, and low fertility in addition to defects in shoot and inflorescence meristems. We show that UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) forms a SCF(UFO) complex, which is associated with CSN in vivo. Genetic interaction analysis indicates that CSN is necessary for the gain-of-function activity of the F-box protein UFO in AP3 activation and in floral organ transformation. Compared with the previously reported csn5 antisense and csn1 null mutants, partial deficiency of CSN1 causes a reduction in the level of CUL1 in the mutant flowers without an obvious defect in CUL1 deneddylation. We conclude that CSN is an essential regulator of Arabidopsis flower development and suggest that CSN regulates Arabidopsis flower development in part by modulating SCF(UFO)-mediated AP3 activation.

  12. Temperatures and the growth and development of maize and rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez, Berta; Rasmussen, Anton; Porter, John Roy

    2014-01-01

    and maize crop responses to temperature in different, but consistent, phenological phases and development stages. A literature review and data compilation of around 140 scientific articles have determined the key temperature thresholds and response to extreme temperature effects for rice and maize...... defined in all three crops. Anthesis and ripening are the most sensitive temperature stages in rice as well as in wheat and maize. We call for further experimental studies of the effects of transgressing threshold temperatures so such responses can be included into crop impact and adaptation models....

  13. Flower development in Arabidopsis: there is more to it than learning your ABCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunet, Nathanaël; Jack, Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    The field of Arabidopsis flower development began in the early 1980s with the initial description of several mutants including apetala1, apetala2, and agamous that altered floral organ identity (Koornneef and van der Veen, Theor Appl Genet 58:257-263, 1980; Koornneef et al., J Hered 74:265-272, 1983). By the end of the 1980s, these mutants were receiving more focused attention to determine precisely how they affected flower development (Komaki et al., Development 104:195-203, 1988; Bowman et al., Plant Cell 1:37-52, 1989). In the last quarter century, impressive progress has been made in characterizing the gene products and molecular mechanisms that control the key events in flower development. In this review, we briefly summarize the highlights of work from the past 25 years but focus on advances in the field in the last several years.

  14. Identification of microRNAs differentially expressed involved in male flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengjia; Huang, Jianqin; Sun, Zhichao; Zheng, Bingsong

    2015-03-01

    Hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.) is one of the most economically important woody trees in eastern China, but its long flowering phase delays yield. Our understanding of the regulatory roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in male flower development in hickory remains poor. Using high-throughput sequencing technology, we have pyrosequenced two small RNA libraries from two male flower differentiation stages in hickory. Analysis of the sequencing data identified 114 conserved miRNAs that belonged to 23 miRNA families, five novel miRNAs including their corresponding miRNA*s, and 22 plausible miRNA candidates. Differential expression analysis revealed 12 miRNA sequences that were upregulated in the later (reproductive) stage of male flower development. Quantitative real-time PCR showed similar expression trends as that of the deep sequencing. Novel miRNAs and plausible miRNA candidates were predicted using bioinformatic analysis methods. The miRNAs newly identified in this study have increased the number of known miRNAs in hickory, and the identification of differentially expressed miRNAs will provide new avenues for studies into miRNAs involved in the process of male flower development in hickory and other related trees.

  15. The development of tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. in Polish conditions. II. Flowering and fruiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek S. Jankiewicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive development of tomatillo (husk tomato was investigated in the conditions of central Poland. The developmental cycle of tomatillo in Poland lasts 20-23 weeks, including 6 weeks in a greenhouse or a tunnel and is longer than in Mexico (15 weeks. The plant grows well in Poland and is fruiting aboundantly. The cv. Rendidora B1 was early fruiting and sensitive to drought so it should be cultivated in a garden. Cvs Bujna and Antocyjanowa were medium late or late and suitable for open-field cultivation. Fruit development lasts about 6 weeks. Fruiting was concentrated on the apparent lateral branches of the 1st and 2nd order during the large part of a vegetative season. Among the abscised generative organs predominated flowers and at the end of vegetative season the flower buds. The maximum abscission of flower buds and flowers took place about 2-4 weeks after the most intensive flowering and fruit set. The fruits of many individuals are easily cracking. After being abscised they are attacked frequently by Botrytis sp.

  16. Developing climate resilient rice through genomics assisted breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valarmathi Muthu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the major cereal food crops whose production has to be doubled to achieve the projected demand [1] and current yield trends are not sufficient to meet the projected growth in production. Increasing the rice production by 30% during 2030 needs overcoming challenges viz., yield plateau, declining land, water and labor resources and predicted effects of global climate change. Development of high performance rice genotypes with enhanced yield potential and resilience to climate change will help in sustained increase in rice production. Deployment of genomic technologies can accelerate development and delivery of improved germplasm with enhanced resilience and adaptability [2, 3]. In this context, the present study was undertaken with an aim of developing rice genotypes pyramided with QTLs/genes controlling tolerance against various biotic and abiotic stresses viz., bacterial leaf blight (xa13, Xa21, blast (Pi9, Gall midge (Gm4, drought (qDTY1.1 qDTY2.1, submergence (Sub1 and salinity (Saltol. CBMAS14065 an elite culture harboring QTLs controlling tolerance against drought, salinity and submergence was crossed with a donor harboring BLB, Blast and Gall midge resistant genes. True F1s were backcrossed with CBMAS14065 and BC1F1 progenies were subjected to foreground selection using markers linked to the target traits. Superior plants (18 of BC1F1 generation were subjected to background selection which revealed 71.42 - 86.90% recurrent parent (CBMAS14065 genome recovery. Selected BC1F1 plants were advanced to BC2F1 generation backcrossing with CBMAS14065. In BC2F1 generation, through foreground selection 6-8 QTL/gene positive plants have been selected and advanced for further evaluation. The superior lines with desired QTLs/genes will be subjected to rigorous phenotypic evaluation against target stresses and advanced further.

  17. Flowering in Xanthium strumarium: INITIATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF FEMALE INFLORESCENCE AND SEX EXPRESSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, M; Kinet, J M; Bodson, M; Havelange, A; Jacqmard, A; Bernier, G

    1981-06-01

    Vegetative plants of Xanthium strumarium L. grown in long days were induced to flower by exposure to one or several 16-hour dark periods. The distribution of male and female inflorescences on the flowering shoot was described, and a scoring system was designed to assess the development of the female inflorescences. The time of movement of the floral stimulus out of the induced leaf and the timing of action of high temperature were shown to be similar for both the apical male and lateral female inflorescences.Strong photoperiodic induction of the plants favored female sex expression, while maleness was enhanced by exogenous gibberellic acid. The problem of the control of sex expression in Xanthium is discussed in relation to the distribution pattern of male and female inflorescences on the flowering shoot and to the state of the meristem at the time of the arrival of the floral stimulus.

  18. Influence of shading on ornamental and physiological characteristics during flower development of groundcover rose (Rosa hybrida L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wei; Luo, Ya; Wang, Xiaorong; Chen, Qing; Sun, Bo; Wang, Yan; Liu, Zejing; Tang, Haoru; Zhang, Yong

    2018-04-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of shading on flower quality during flower development and photosynthetic capacity of groundcover rose (Rosa hybrida L.). The results showed that shade significantly increased flower diameter, levels of soluble protein and soluble sugar, total carotenoids content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, while contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total anthocyanins in shaded flowers were significantly decreased as compared to sun-exposed flowers. However, no significant changes were observed in petal color parameters L*, a*, b* and C* between sun exposure and shade treatment plants at each flower developmental stage. Therefore, groundcover rose seemed to have the capacity to shade condition through auto-regulation. These results could provide us with a theoretical basis for further application of groundcover rose in the greening of urban spaces and an understanding of the mechanisms behind the changes induced by shade.

  19. Functional analysis of PI-like gene in relation to flower development ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lying flower development in bamboo, a petal-identity gene was identified as a ... 35S::BoPI fully rescued the defective petal forma- tion in the ... Arabidopsis converted sepals to petals; BoPI-C interacted with BoAP3 on yeast two-hybrid assay, just like the full-length ... PI homologue function in regulating perianth organ forma-.

  20. FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) regulates development pathways throughout the life cycle of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weiwei; Ying, Hua; Helliwell, Chris A; Taylor, Jennifer M; Peacock, W James; Dennis, Elizabeth S

    2011-04-19

    FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) has a key role in the timing of the initiation of flowering in Arabidopsis. FLC binds and represses two genes that promote flowering, FT and SOC1. We show that FLC binds to many other genes, indicating that it has regulatory roles other than the repression of flowering. We identified 505 FLC binding sites, mostly located in the promoter regions of genes and containing at least one CArG box, the motif known to be associated with MADS-box proteins such as FLC. We examined 40 of the target genes, and 20 showed increased transcript levels in an flc mutant compared with the wild type. Five genes showed decreased expression in the mutant, indicating that FLC binding can result in either transcriptional repression or activation. The genes we identified as FLC targets are involved in developmental pathways throughout the life history of the plant, many of which are associated with reproductive development. FLC is also involved in vegetative development, as evidenced by its binding to SPL15, delaying the progression from juvenile to adult phase. Some of the FLC target genes are also bound by two other MADS-box proteins, AP1 and SEP3, suggesting that MADS-box genes may operate in a network of control at different stages of the life cycle, many ultimately contributing to the development of the reproductive phase of the plant.

  1. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Black Rice Grain Development Reveals Metabolic Pathways Associated with Anthocyanin Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linghua; Huang, Yining; Xu, Ming; Cheng, Zuxin; Zhang, Dasheng; Zheng, Jingui

    2016-01-01

    Black rice (Oryza sativa L.), whose pericarp is rich in anthocyanins (ACNs), is considered as a healthier alternative to white rice. Molecular species of ACNs in black rice have been well documented in previous studies; however, information about the metabolic mechanisms underlying ACN biosynthesis during black rice grain development is unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine changes in the metabolic pathways that are involved in the dynamic grain proteome during the development of black rice indica cultivar, (Oryza sativa L. indica var. SSP). Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) MS/MS were employed to identify statistically significant alterations in the grain proteome. Approximately 928 proteins were detected, of which 230 were differentially expressed throughout 5 successive developmental stages, starting from 3 to 20 days after flowering (DAF). The greatest number of differentially expressed proteins was observed on 7 and 10 DAF, including 76 proteins that were upregulated and 39 that were downregulated. The biological process analysis of gene ontology revealed that the 230 differentially expressed proteins could be sorted into 14 functional groups. Proteins in the largest group were related to metabolic process, which could be integrated into multiple biochemical pathways. Specifically, proteins with a role in ACN biosynthesis, sugar synthesis, and the regulation of gene expression were upregulated, particularly from the onset of black rice grain development and during development. In contrast, the expression of proteins related to signal transduction, redox homeostasis, photosynthesis and N-metabolism decreased during grain maturation. Finally, 8 representative genes encoding different metabolic proteins were verified via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, these genes had differed in transcriptional and translational expression during grain development. Expression analyses of

  2. Determining the stages of tillering stage, initiation of primordia, flowering and maturity in the rice plant, with the system S, V and R correlated with the thermal sum at the time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Velázquez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is one of the major climatic factors that affect growth, development and yield of the rice crop, and also can reduce the time of change of phenological stages. The beginning stages of tillering, initiation of primordia, flowering and harvest maturity were determined with the S, V and R system recently proposed by Counce et ál. (2000; it consists on counting the number of fully developed leaves; in addition, a correlation was made with accumulated degree days that the plant had at that time, in order to estimate with how many degree days the plant began a phenological stage; this parameter is related to the average daily temperature and a base temperature of 10ºC. For the start of tillering the plant needed 140.9 degree days; for primordium start, 1268.9; for bloom 1746; and completed its cycle with a total of 2333.2 degree days. This allows to conclude that, for a variety of long cycle (130-135 days, when the accumulation of degree days is equal or similar to the previous data, the plant initiates one of the above-mentioned phenological stages; however, each one of the varieties in use by farmers must be calibrated, because there are differences in crop cycle length among them.

  3. Transgene Flow from Glufosinate-Resistant Rice to Improved and Weedy Rice in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-liang LU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of transgenic rice with novel traits in China can increase rice productivity, but transgene flow to improved or weedy rice has become a major concern. We aimed to evaluate the potential maximum frequencies of transgene flow from glufosinate-resistant rice to improved rice cultivars and weedy rice. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete blocks with three replicates. Experiments were conducted between 2009 and 2010 at the Center for Environmental Safety Supervision and Inspection for Genetically Modified Plants, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou, China. Glufosinate-resistant japonica rice 99-1 was the pollen donor. The pollen recipients were two inbred japonica rice (Chunjiang 016 and Xiushui 09, two inbred indica rice (Zhongzu 14 and Zhongzao 22, two indica hybrid rice (Zhongzheyou 1 and Guodao 1, and one weedy indica rice (Taizhou weedy rice. The offspring of recipients were planted in the field and sprayed with a commercial dose of glufosinate. Leaf tissues of survivors were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of the transgene. The frequency of gene flow ranged from 0 to 0.488%. In 2009, the order of gene flow frequency was as follows: weedy rice > Chunjiang 016 > Xiushui 09 and Zhongzu 14 > Guodao 1, Zhongzheyou 1 and Zhongzao 22. Gene flow frequencies were generally higher in 2009 than in 2010, but did not differ significantly among rice materials. Gene flow frequency was the highest in weedy rice followed by the inbred japonica rice. The risk of gene flow differed significantly between years and year-to-year variance could mask risk differences among pollen recipients. Gene flow was generally lesser in taller pollen recipients than in shorter ones, but plant height only accounted for about 30% of variation in gene flow. When flowering synchrony was maximized, as in this study, low frequencies of gene flow occurred from herbicide-resistant japonica rice to other cultivars and

  4. Development, anatomy, and genetic control of some teratological phenotypes of Ranunculaceae flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Jabbour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Teratological organisms originate from developmental anomalies, and exhibit structures and a body organization that deviate from the species standard. These monsters give essential clues about the formation and evolutionary significance of the wild-type groundplan. We focus on flower terata, which can be affected in their sterile and/or fertile organs, with special emphasis on the Ranunculaceae. The diversity of perianth shapes and organizations in flowers of this family is huge, and is even increased when anomalies occur during organo- and/or morphogenesis. To begin with, we synthesize the observations and research conducted on the Ranunculacean floral terata, following the most recent phylogenetic framework published in 2016 by our team. Then, we report results regarding the morphology of developing meristems, the anatomy of buds, and the genetic control of selected teratological phenotypes of Ranunculaceae flowers. We focus on species and horticultural varieties belonging to the genera Aquilegia, Delphinium, and Nigella. Wildtype flowers of these species are actinomorphic (Aquilegia, Nigella or zygomorphic (Delphinium, spurred (Aquilegia, Delphinium or with pocket-like petals (Nigella. Last, we discuss the evolutionary potential of such teratological phenotypes when they occur in the wild.

  5. Perspectives on MADS-box expression during orchid flower evolution and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragón-Palomino, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    The diverse morphology of orchid flowers and their complex, often deceptive strategies to become pollinated have fascinated researchers for a long time. However, it was not until the 20th century that the ontogeny of orchid flowers, the genetic basis of their morphology and the complex phylogeny of Orchidaceae were investigated. In parallel, the improvement of techniques for in vitro seed germination and tissue culture, together with studies on biochemistry, physiology, and cytology supported the progress of what is now a highly productive industry of orchid breeding and propagation. In the present century both basic research in orchid flower evo-devo and the interest for generating novel horticultural varieties have driven the characterization of many members of the MADS-box family encoding key regulators of flower development. This perspective summarizes the picture emerging from these studies and discusses the advantages and limitations of the comparative strategy employed so far. I address the growing role of natural and horticultural mutants in these studies and the emergence of several model species in orchid evo-devo and genomics. In this context, I make a plea for an increasingly integrative approach.

  6. Perspectives on MADS-box expression during orchid flower evolution and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana eMondragón Palomino

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The diverse morphology of orchid flowers and their complex, often deceptive strategies to become pollinated have fascinated researchers for a long time. However, it was not until the 20th century that the ontogeny of orchid flowers, the genetic basis of their morphology and the complex phylogeny of Orchidaceae were investigated. In parallel, the improvement of techniques for in vitro seed germination and tissue culture, together with studies on biochemistry, physiology and cytology supported the progress of what is now a highly productive industry of orchid breeding and propagation. In the present century both basic research in orchid flower evo-devo and the interest for generating novel horticultural varieties have driven the characterization of many members of the MADS-box family encoding key regulators of flower development. This perspective summarizes the picture emerging from these studies and discusses the advantages and limitations of the comparative strategy employed so far. I address the growing role of natural and horticultural mutants in these studies and the emergence of several model species in orchid evo-devo and genomics. In this context, I make a plea for an increasingly integrative approach.

  7. Some aspects of mineral nutrition and flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinnawy, El E.I.

    1956-01-01

    In mustard N deficiency accelerated flower initiation and particularly flower bud development. Excess N delayed flowering but increased number of flowers. Of other elements Ca influenced flowering most.

    Dill developed its flowers most rapidly with normal or high rates of N. N deficiency retarded

  8. The rice YABBY4 gene regulates plant growth and development through modulating the gibberellin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Ma, Yamei; Li, Jianxiong

    2016-10-01

    YABBY genes encode seed plant-specific transcription factors that play pivotal roles in diverse aspects of leaf, shoot, and flower development. Members of the YABBY gene family are primarily expressed in lateral organs in a polar manner and function to specify abaxial cell fate in dicotyledons, but this polar expression is not conserved in monocotyledons. The function of YABBY genes is therefore not well understood in monocotyledons. Here we show that overexpression of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) YABBY4 gene (OsYABBY4) leads to a semi-dwarf phenotype, abnormal development in the uppermost internode, an increased number of floral organs, and insensitivity to gibberellin (GA) treatment. We report on an important role for OsYABBY4 in negative control of the expression of a GA biosynthetic gene by binding to the promoter region of the gibberellin 20-oxidase 2 gene (GA20ox2), which is a direct target of SLR1 (the sole DELLA protein negatively controlling GA responses in rice). OsYABBY4 also suppresses the expression level of SLR1 and interacts with SLR1 protein. The interaction inhibits GA-dependent degradation of SLR1 and therefore leads to GA insensitivity. These data together suggest that OsYABBY4 serves as a DNA-binding intermediate protein for SLR1 and is associated with the GA signaling pathway regulating gene expression during plant growth and development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. PASSIOMA: Exploring Expressed Sequence Tags during Flower Development in Passiflora spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Cutri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Passiflora provides a remarkable example of floral complexity and diversity. The extreme variation of Passiflora flower morphologies allowed a wide range of interactions with pollinators to evolve. We used the analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs as an approach for the characterization of genes expressed during Passiflora reproductive development. Analyzing the Passiflora floral EST database (named PASSIOMA, we found sequences showing significant sequence similarity to genes known to be involved in reproductive development such as MADS-box genes. Some of these sequences were studied using RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirming their expression during Passiflora flower development. The detection of these novel sequences can contribute to the development of EST-based markers for important agronomic traits as well as to the establishment of genomic tools to study the naturally occurring floral diversity among Passiflora species.

  10. Pea VEGETATIVE2 Is an FD Homolog That Is Essential for Flowering and Compound Inflorescence Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussmilch, Frances C; Berbel, Ana; Hecht, Valérie; Vander Schoor, Jacqueline K; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Madueño, Francisco; Weller, James L

    2015-04-01

    As knowledge of the gene networks regulating inflorescence development in Arabidopsis thaliana improves, the current challenge is to characterize this system in different groups of crop species with different inflorescence architecture. Pea (Pisum sativum) has served as a model for development of the compound raceme, characteristic of many legume species, and in this study, we characterize the pea VEGETATIVE2 (VEG2) locus, showing that it is critical for regulation of flowering and inflorescence development and identifying it as a homolog of the bZIP transcription factor FD. Through detailed phenotypic characterizations of veg2 mutants, expression analyses, and the use of protein-protein interaction assays, we find that VEG2 has important roles during each stage of development of the pea compound inflorescence. Our results suggest that VEG2 acts in conjunction with multiple FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) proteins to regulate expression of downstream target genes, including TERMINAL FLOWER1, LEAFY, and MADS box homologs, and to facilitate cross-regulation within the FT gene family. These findings further extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying compound inflorescence development in pea and may have wider implications for future manipulation of inflorescence architecture in related legume crop species. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  11. Development and characterization of emulsions containing purple rice bran and brown rice oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of this study were to characterize purple rice bran oil (PRBO) as extracted from the bran, and to produce and characterize a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil. An emulsion was prepared using PRBO (10%), sodium caseinate (5%) and water (85%). The mixture was sonicated followed ...

  12. Development of Ozone Technology Rice Storage Systems (OTRISS) for Quality Improvement of Rice Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur, M; Kusdiyantini, E; Wuryanti, W; Winarni, T A; Widyanto, S A; Muharam, H

    2015-01-01

    This research has been carried out by using ozone to address the rapidly declining quality of rice in storage. In the first year, research has focused on the rice storage with ozone technology for small capacity (e.g., household) and the medium capacity (e.g., dormitories, hospitals). Ozone was produced by an ozone generator with Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Ozone technology rice storage system (OTRISS) is using ozone charateristic which is a strong oxidizer. Ozone have a short endurance of existence and then decompose, as a result produce oxygen and radicals of oxygen. These characteristics could kill microorganisms and pests, reduce air humidity and enrich oxygen. All components used in SPBTO assembled using raw materials available in the big cities in Indonesia. Provider of high voltage (High Voltage Power Supply, 40-70 kV, 23 KH, AC) is one of components that have been assembled and tested. Ozone generator is assembled with 7 reactors of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Rice container that have been prepared for OTRISS have adjusted so can be integrated with generator, power supply and blower to blow air. OTRISS with a capacity of 75 kg and 100 kg have been made and tested. The ability of ozone to eliminate bacteria and fungi have been tested and resulted in a decrease of microorganisms at 3 log CFU/g. Testing in food chemistry showed that ozone treatment of rice had not changed the chemical content that still meet the standard of chemical content and nutritional applicable to ISO standard milled rice. The results of this study are very likely to be used as an alternative to rice storage systems in warehouse. Test and scale-up is being carried out in a mini warehouse whose condition is mimicked to rice in National Rice Storage of Indonesia (Bulog) to ensure quality. Next adaptations would be installed in the rice storage system in the Bulog. (paper)

  13. Developing selection protocols for weed competitiveness in aerobic rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, D.L.; Atlin, G.N.; Bastiaans, L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Aerobic rice production systems, wherein rice is dry-sown in non-puddled soil and grown as an upland crop, offer large water savings but are subject to severe weed infestation. Weed-competitive cultivars will be critical to the adoption of aerobic rice production by farmers. Breeding

  14. Mapping genes governing flower architecture and pollen development in a double mutant population of carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger eBudahn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A linkage map of carrot (Daucus carota L. was developed in order to study reproductive traits. The F2 mapping population derived from an initial cross between a yellow leaf (yel chlorophyll mutant and a compressed lamina (cola mutant with unique flower defects of the sporophytic parts of male and female organs. The genetic map has a total length of 781 cM and included 285 loci. The length of the nine linkage groups ranged between 65 cM and 145 cM. All linkage groups have been anchored to the reference map. The objective of this study was the generation of a well-saturated linkage map of D. carota. Mapping of the cola-locus associated with flower development and fertility was successfully demonstrated. Two MADS-box genes (DcMADS3, DcMADS5 with prominent roles in flowering and reproduction as well as three additional genes (DcAOX2a, DcAOX2b, DcCHS2 with further importance for male reproduction were assigned to different loci that did not co-segregate with the cola-locus.

  15. Phytoplasma effector SAP54 induces indeterminate leaf-like flower development in Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Allyson M; Sugio, Akiko; Makarova, Olga V; Findlay, Kim C; Grieve, Victoria M; Tóth, Réka; Nicolaisen, Mogens; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2011-10-01

    Phytoplasmas are insect-transmitted bacterial plant pathogens that cause considerable damage to a diverse range of agricultural crops globally. Symptoms induced in infected plants suggest that these phytopathogens may modulate developmental processes within the plant host. We report herein that Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches' Broom (AY-WB) readily infects the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Columbia, inducing symptoms that are characteristic of phytoplasma infection, such as the production of green leaf-like flowers (virescence and phyllody) and increased formation of stems and branches (witches' broom). We found that the majority of genes encoding secreted AY-WB proteins (SAPs), which are candidate effector proteins, are expressed in Arabidopsis and the AY-WB insect vector Macrosteles quadrilineatus (Hemiptera; Cicadellidae). To identify which of these effector proteins induce symptoms of phyllody and virescence, we individually expressed the effector genes in Arabidopsis. From this screen, we have identified a novel AY-WB effector protein, SAP54, that alters floral development, resulting in the production of leaf-like flowers that are similar to those produced by plants infected with this phytoplasma. This study offers novel insight into the effector profile of an insect-transmitted plant pathogen and reports to our knowledge the first example of a microbial pathogen effector protein that targets flower development in a host.

  16. Overexpression of a flower-specific aerolysin-like protein from the dioecious plant Rumex acetosa alters flower development and induces male sterility in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Susana; Megías, Zoraida; Martínez, Cecilia; García, Alicia; Aguado, Encarnación; Chileh, Tarik; López-Alonso, Diego; García-Maroto, Federico; Kejnovský, Eduard; Široký, Jiří; Kubát, Zdeněk; Králová, Tereza; Vyskot, Boris; Jamilena, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Sex determination in Rumex acetosa, a dioecious plant with a complex XY 1 Y 2 sex chromosome system (females are XX and males are XY 1 Y 2 ), is not controlled by an active Y chromosome but depends on the ratio between the number of X chromosomes and autosomes. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of sex determination, we generated a subtracted cDNA library enriched in genes specifically or predominantly expressed in female floral buds in early stages of development, when sex determination mechanisms come into play. In the present paper, we report the molecular and functional characterization of FEM32, a gene encoding a protein that shares a common architecture with proteins in different plants, animals, bacteria and fungi of the aerolysin superfamily; many of these function as β pore-forming toxins. The expression analysis, assessed by northern blot, RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, demonstrates that this gene is specifically expressed in flowers in both early and late stages of development, although its transcripts accumulate much more in female flowers than in male flowers. The ectopic expression of FEM32 under both the constitutive promoter 35S and the flower-specific promoter AP3 in transgenic tobacco showed no obvious alteration in vegetative development but was able to alter floral organ growth and pollen fertility. The 35S::FEM32 and AP3::FEM32 transgenic lines showed a reduction in stamen development and pollen viability, as well as a diminution in fruit set, fruit development and seed production. Compared with other floral organs, pistil development was, however, enhanced in plants overexpressing FEM32. According to these effects, it is likely that FEM32 functions in Rumex by arresting stamen and pollen development during female flower development. The aerolysin-like pore-forming proteins of eukaryotes are mainly involved in defence mechanisms against bacteria, fungi and insects and are also involved in apoptosis and programmed cell death (PCD

  17. Rice SUB1A constrains remodeling of the transcriptome and metabolome during submergence and post-submergence recovery”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rice (Oryza sativa L.) ethylene-responsive transcription factor SUB1A confers tolerance to prolonged, complete submergence by limiting underwater elongation growth. Rice encoding SUB1A-1 also recovers photosynthetic function and re-commences development towards flowering more rapidly after desu...

  18. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of early seed development in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiehua; Hou, Yuxuan; Tong, Xiaohong; Wang, Yifeng; Lin, Haiyan; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Wen; Li, Zhiyong; Nallamilli, Babi R; Zhang, Jian

    2016-02-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed serves as a major food source for over half of the global population. Though it has been long recognized that phosphorylation plays an essential role in rice seed development, the phosphorylation events and dynamics in this process remain largely unknown so far. Here, we report the first large scale identification of rice seed phosphoproteins and phosphosites by using a quantitative phosphoproteomic approach. Thorough proteomic studies in pistils and seeds at 3, 7 days after pollination resulted in the successful identification of 3885, 4313 and 4135 phosphopeptides respectively. A total of 2487 proteins were differentially phosphorylated among the three stages, including Kip related protein 1, Rice basic leucine zipper factor 1, Rice prolamin box binding factor and numerous other master regulators of rice seed development. Moreover, differentially phosphorylated proteins may be extensively involved in the biosynthesis and signaling pathways of phytohormones such as auxin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and brassinosteroid. Our results strongly indicated that protein phosphorylation is a key mechanism regulating cell proliferation and enlargement, phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling, grain filling and grain quality during rice seed development. Overall, the current study enhanced our understanding of the rice phosphoproteome and shed novel insight into the regulatory mechanism of rice seed development.

  19. Identification of Genes Associated with Lemon Floral Transition and Flower Development during Floral Inductive Water Deficits: A Hypothetical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Xue; Hou, Xiao-Jin; Zhu, Jiao; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Huang, Hua-Bin; Yue, Jian-Qiang; Gao, Jun-Yan; Du, Yu-Xia; Hu, Cheng-Xiao; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Water deficit is a key factor to induce flowering in many woody plants, but reports on the molecular mechanisms of floral induction and flowering by water deficit are scarce. Here, we analyzed the morphology, cytology, and different hormone levels of lemon buds during floral inductive water deficits. Higher levels of ABA were observed, and the initiation of floral bud differentiation was examined by paraffin sections analysis. A total of 1638 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by RNA sequencing. DEGs were related to flowering, hormone biosynthesis, or metabolism. The expression of some DEGs was associated with floral induction by real-time PCR analysis. However, some DEGs may not have anything to do with flowering induction/flower development; they may be involved in general stress/drought response. Four genes from the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein family were further investigated. Ectopic expression of these genes in Arabidopsis changed the flowering time of transgenic plants. Furthermore, the 5' flanking region of these genes was also isolated and sequence analysis revealed the presence of several putative cis -regulatory elements, including basic elements and hormone regulation elements. The spatial and temporal expression patterns of these promoters were investigated under water deficit treatment. Based on these findings, we propose a model for citrus flowering under water deficit conditions, which will enable us to further understand the molecular mechanism of water deficit-regulated flowering in citrus. Based on gene activity during floral inductive water deficits identified by RNA sequencing and genes associated with lemon floral transition, a model for citrus flowering under water deficit conditions is proposed.

  20. Main biological characters of series of mutant waxy rices developed from irradiation-induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ronghua; Zhang Shubiao; Zhang Qingqi; Yang Rencui; Lin Jinhu

    2008-01-01

    The main biological characters of the waxy male sterile lines, maintainer lines, restorer lines and waxy hybrids which had been developed by radiation-induced mutation were studied, and the grain quality of the waxy hybrids were analyzed as well. Sesults indicated that the mutant waxy rice had the same growth duration, similar agronomic characters, panicle and spikelet traits as parent. The waxy male-sterile line had the same pollen sterility characteristic as its parent male-sterile line. The waxy hybrid rice retained the yield potential as original hybrid rice, and the grain quality of the waxy hybrids was similar to the conventional waxy rice Ejinnuo 6. (authors)

  1. Flowering T Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adansonia digitata L. ( The Baobab Tree) of Bombacaceae is a tree with swollen trunk that attains a dia. of 10m. Leaves are digitately compound with leaflets up to 18cm. long. Flowers are large, solitary, waxy white, and open at dusk. They open in 30 seconds and are bat pollinated. Stamens are many. Fruit is about 30 cm ...

  2. Vascular development of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescence rachis in response to flower number, plant growth regulators and defoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourieroux, Aude M; Holzapfel, Bruno P; McCully, Margaret E; Scollary, Geoffrey R; Rogiers, Suzy Y

    2017-09-01

    The grapevine inflorescence is a determinate panicle and as buds emerge, shoot, flower and rachis development occur simultaneously. The growth and architecture of the rachis is determined by genetic and environmental factors but here we examined the role of flower and leaf number as well as hormones on its elongation and vascular development. The consequences of rachis morphology and vascular area on berry size and composition were also assessed. One week prior to anthesis, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon field vines were exposed to manual flower removal, exogenous plant growth regulators or pre-bloom leaf removal. Manual removal of half the flowers along the vertical axis of the inflorescence resulted in a shorter rachis in both cultivars. Conversely, inflorescences treated with gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) and the synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) resulted in a longer rachis while pre-bloom removal of all leaves on the inflorescence-bearing shoot did not alter rachis length relative to untreated inflorescences. Across the treatments, the cross-sectional areas of the conducting xylem and phloem in the rachis were positively correlated to rachis girth, flower number at anthesis, bunch berry number, bunch berry fresh mass and bunch sugar content at harvest. Conversely, average berry size and sugar content were not linked to rachis vascular area. These data indicate that the morphological and vascular development of the rachis was more responsive to flower number and plant growth regulators than to leaf removal.

  3. Development of sampling methods for the slash pine flower thrips Gnophothrips fuscus (Morgan), (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl W. Fatzinger; Wayne N. Dixen

    1991-01-01

    Slash pine flower thrips typically destroy about 24% of the flowers (cones) present in slash pine seed orchards. The seasonal distribution and abundance of slash pine flower thrips are being investigated and methods for sampling field populations of the insect are being evaluated for potential use in integrated pest management strategies. The efficacies of several...

  4. Development of techniques for storing rough rice in cold regions, 1: Storage of rough rice at country elevator with natural heat radiation in winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takekura, K.; Kawamura, S.; Itoh, K.

    2003-01-01

    An on-farm experiment in which 361 metric tons of rough rice was stored in a silo from November until July was conducted at a country elevator in Hokkaido to develop new techniques for storing rough rice in cold regions. The temperature of the rough rice near the inner silo wall decreased to below ice point (-5°C) due to natural heat radiation in winter, which the temperature of the rough rice in the center of the silo was maintained at almost the same temperature as that at the beginning of storage (5°C). Ventilation in the upper vacant space of the silo prevented moisture condensation on the inside surface of the silo during storage. When the cold rough rice was unloaded from the silo in summer, an unheated forced-air drier was used to increase the temperature of rough rice to above the dew point temperature of surrounding air. During the unloading and rewarming process, the moisture content of the rough rice increased due to moisture condensation on the grain from the air. However, the husks first absorbed the condensation and then the moisture slowly permeated into the brown rice kernel. Thus the rewarming process didn't cause any fissures in the brown rice. The results of the experiment indicate that condensation on rough rice doesn't give rise to any problems

  5. The quest for epigenetic regulation underlying unisexual flower development in Cucumis melo

    KAUST Repository

    Latrasse, David

    2017-05-08

    BackgroundMelon (Cucumis melo) is an important vegetable crop from the Cucurbitaceae family and a reference model specie for sex determination, fruit ripening and vascular fluxes studies. Nevertheless, the nature and role of its epigenome in gene expression regulation and more specifically in sex determination remains largely unknown.ResultsWe have investigated genome wide H3K27me3 and H3K9ac histone modifications and gene expression dynamics, in five melon organs. H3K9ac and H3K27me3 were mainly distributed along gene-rich regions and constrained to gene bodies. H3K9ac was preferentially located at the TSS, whereas H3K27me3 distributed uniformly from TSS to TES. As observed in other species, H3K9ac and H3K27me3 correlated with high and low gene expression levels, respectively. Comparative analyses of unisexual flowers pointed out sex-specific epigenetic states of TFs involved in ethylene response and flower development. Chip-qPCR analysis of laser dissected carpel and stamina primordia, revealed sex-specific histone modification of MADS-box genes. Using sex transition mutants, we demonstrated that the female promoting gene, CmACS11, represses the expression of the male promoting gene CmWIP1 via deposition of H3K27me3.ConclusionsOur findings reveal the organ-specific landscapes of H3K9ac and H3K27me3 in melon. Our results also provide evidence that the sex determination genes recruit histone modifiers to orchestrate unisexual flower development in monoecious species.

  6. The quest for epigenetic regulation underlying unisexual flower development in Cucumis melo

    KAUST Repository

    Latrasse, David; Rodriguez-Granados, Natalia Y.; Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Mariappan, Kiruthiga Gayathri; Bevilacqua, Claudia; Crapart, Nicolas; Camps, Celine; Sommard, Vivien; Raynaud, Cé cile; Dogimont, Catherine; Boualem, Adnane; Benhamed, Moussa; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundMelon (Cucumis melo) is an important vegetable crop from the Cucurbitaceae family and a reference model specie for sex determination, fruit ripening and vascular fluxes studies. Nevertheless, the nature and role of its epigenome in gene expression regulation and more specifically in sex determination remains largely unknown.ResultsWe have investigated genome wide H3K27me3 and H3K9ac histone modifications and gene expression dynamics, in five melon organs. H3K9ac and H3K27me3 were mainly distributed along gene-rich regions and constrained to gene bodies. H3K9ac was preferentially located at the TSS, whereas H3K27me3 distributed uniformly from TSS to TES. As observed in other species, H3K9ac and H3K27me3 correlated with high and low gene expression levels, respectively. Comparative analyses of unisexual flowers pointed out sex-specific epigenetic states of TFs involved in ethylene response and flower development. Chip-qPCR analysis of laser dissected carpel and stamina primordia, revealed sex-specific histone modification of MADS-box genes. Using sex transition mutants, we demonstrated that the female promoting gene, CmACS11, represses the expression of the male promoting gene CmWIP1 via deposition of H3K27me3.ConclusionsOur findings reveal the organ-specific landscapes of H3K9ac and H3K27me3 in melon. Our results also provide evidence that the sex determination genes recruit histone modifiers to orchestrate unisexual flower development in monoecious species.

  7. Development of defined mixed-culture fungal fermentation starter granulate for controlled production of rice wine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, N.T.P.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2005-01-01

    As a first step in the development of defined fungal starter granules for controlled winemaking from purple glutinous rice, the interaction of moulds and yeasts isolated from Vietnamese rice wine starters and the effect of some representative oriental herbs on the growth of moulds and yeasts were

  8. Physicochemical and sensory analysis of USA rice varieties developed for the basmati and jasmine markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a steady demand for imported basmati and jasmine rice in The USA. Rice varieties that can be domestically produced and compete with these imports, have been developed from basmati, jasmine, and other aromatic germplasm sources. This study evaluated differences among eight USA aromatic varie...

  9. Development of a Monoclonal Antibody-Based icELISA for the Detection of Ustiloxin B in Rice False Smut Balls and Rice Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiang Fu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice false smut is an emerging and economically-important rice disease caused by infection by the fungal pathogen Villosiclava virens. Ustiloxin B is an antimitotic cyclopeptide mycotoxin isolated from the rice false smut balls that formed in the pathogen-infected rice spikelets. A monoclonal antibody (mAb designated as mAb 1B5A10 was generated with ustiloxin B—ovalbumin conjugate. A highly-sensitive and specific indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA was then developed. The median inhibitory concentration (IC50 of the icELISA was 18.0 ng/mL for the detection of ustiloxin B; the limit of detection was 0.6 ng/mL, and the calibration range was from 2.5 to 107.4 ng/mL. The LOD/LOQ values of the developed ELISA used for the determination of ustiloxin B in rice false smut balls and rice grains were 12/50 μg/g and 30/125 ng/g, respectively. The mAb 1B5A10 cross-reacted with ustiloxin A at 13.9% relative to ustiloxin B. Average recoveries of ustiloxin B ranged from 91.3% to 105.1% for rice false smut balls at spiking levels of 0.2 to 3.2 mg/g and from 92.6% to 103.5% for rice grains at spiking levels of 100 to 5000 ng/g. Comparison of ustiloxin B content in rice false smut balls and rice grains detected by both icELISA and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC demonstrated that the developed icELISA can be employed as an effective and accurate method for the detection of ustiloxin B in rice false smut balls, as well as rice food and feed samples.

  10. POLYGALACTURONASE INVOLVED IN EXPANSION1 functions in cell elongation and flower development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chaowen; Somerville, Chris; Anderson, Charles T

    2014-03-01

    Pectins are acidic carbohydrates that comprise a significant fraction of the primary walls of eudicotyledonous plant cells. They influence wall porosity and extensibility, thus controlling cell and organ growth during plant development. The regulated degradation of pectins is required for many cell separation events in plants, but the role of pectin degradation in cell expansion is poorly defined. Using an activation tag screen designed to isolate genes involved in wall expansion, we identified a gene encoding a putative polygalacturonase that, when overexpressed, resulted in enhanced hypocotyl elongation in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. We named this gene POLYGALACTURONASE INVOLVED IN EXPANSION1 (PGX1). Plants lacking PGX1 display reduced hypocotyl elongation that is complemented by transgenic PGX1 expression. PGX1 is expressed in expanding tissues throughout development, including seedlings, roots, leaves, and flowers. PGX1-GFP (green fluorescent protein) localizes to the apoplast, and heterologously expressed PGX1 displays in vitro polygalacturonase activity, supporting a function for this protein in apoplastic pectin degradation. Plants either overexpressing or lacking PGX1 display alterations in total polygalacturonase activity, pectin molecular mass, and wall composition and also display higher proportions of flowers with extra petals, suggesting PGX1's involvement in floral organ patterning. These results reveal new roles for polygalacturonases in plant development.

  11. Co-development of climate smart flooded rice farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Neergaard, Andreas; Stoumann Jensen, Lars; Ly, Proyuth; Pandey, Arjun; Duong Vu, Quynh; Tariq, Azeem; Islam, Syed; van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Sander, Bjoern Ole; de Tourdonnet, Stephane; Van Mai, Trinh; Wassmann, Reiner

    2017-04-01

    Mid-season drainage in flooded rice is known to reduce CH4 emission, while effects on N2O emission are more variable. Banning of crop-residue burning, and growing markets for organically fertilized rice, are resulting in systems with larger reactive C input, and potentially larger methane emissions. Tight farming systems with 2 or 3 annual crops are effective in mitigating emissions, in that the land sparing value is high, but put serious constraints on mitigation options under increased C input scenarios. In a series of field (Cambodia, Philippines and Vietnam) and greenhouse experiments, we investigated the effect of a variety of organic amendments and wetting and drying cycles on yield and GHG emissions. Specifically we have tested the effect of inserting very early, or even-pre-planting drainage, as a means to accelerate turnover of straw or other C sources, and reduce methane emission later in the season. Overall, our results showed that drying periods had minimal impact on yields, while reducing overall GHG emission. Methane emission was strongly controlled by C availability in the substrate (on equal total C-input basis), increasing in the order: biochar-composts-animal manure-fresh material. Nitrous oxide emissions generally increased with draining cycles, but did not lead to overall increase in GHG emissions as its contribution was balanced by lowered CH4 emissions. Growth chamber experiments showed that methane emission was significantly reduced for extended periods after re-flooding, hence the idea of early drainage was developed. Meanwhile, Cambodian farmers expressed concerns over re-supply of water after drainage. In response to that, we tested if early-season drainage could replace mid-season drainage. With addition of labile carbon substrates (straw) duration of early season drainage was more important for reducing GHG emissions, than duration of mid-season drainage, and had the highest potential for total emission reduction. In a farmers

  12. Discovery and profiling of novel and conserved microRNAs during flower development in Carya cathayensis via deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng Jia; Huang, Jian Qin; Huang, You Jun; Li, Zheng; Zheng, Bing Song

    2012-08-01

    Hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.) is an economically important woody plant in China, but its long juvenile phase delays yield. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of genes and important for normal plant development and physiology, including flower development. We used Solexa technology to sequence two small RNA libraries from two floral differentiation stages in hickory to identify miRNAs related to flower development. We identified 39 conserved miRNA sequences from 114 loci belonging to 23 families as well as two novel and ten potential novel miRNAs belonging to nine families. Moreover, 35 conserved miRNA*s and two novel miRNA*s were detected. Twenty miRNA sequences from 49 loci belonging to 11 families were differentially expressed; all were up-regulated at the later stage of flower development in hickory. Quantitative real-time PCR of 12 conserved miRNA sequences, five novel miRNA families, and two novel miRNA*s validated that all were expressed during hickory flower development, and the expression patterns were similar to those detected with Solexa sequencing. Finally, a total of 146 targets of the novel and conserved miRNAs were predicted. This study identified a diverse set of miRNAs that were closely related to hickory flower development and that could help in plant floral induction.

  13. Flower development as an interplay between dynamical physical fields and genetic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ángel Barrio

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a model to describe the mechanisms by which undifferentiated cells attain gene configurations underlying cell fate determination during morphogenesis. Despite the complicated mechanisms that surely intervene in this process, it is clear that the fundamental fact is that cells obtain spatial and temporal information that bias their destiny. Our main hypothesis assumes that there is at least one macroscopic field that breaks the symmetry of space at a given time. This field provides the information required for the process of cell differentiation to occur by being dynamically coupled to a signal transduction mechanism that, in turn, acts directly upon the gene regulatory network (GRN underlying cell-fate decisions within cells. We illustrate and test our proposal with a GRN model grounded on experimental data for cell fate specification during organ formation in early Arabidopsis thaliana flower development. We show that our model is able to recover the multigene configurations characteristic of sepal, petal, stamen and carpel primordial cells arranged in concentric rings, in a similar pattern to that observed during actual floral organ determination. Such pattern is robust to alterations of the model parameters and simulated failures predict altered spatio-temporal patterns that mimic those described for several mutants. Furthermore, simulated alterations in the physical fields predict a pattern equivalent to that found in Lacandonia schismatica, the only flowering species with central stamens surrounded by carpels.

  14. Flower development as an interplay between dynamical physical fields and genetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, Rafael Ángel; Hernández-Machado, Aurora; Varea, C; Romero-Arias, José Roberto; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena

    2010-10-27

    In this paper we propose a model to describe the mechanisms by which undifferentiated cells attain gene configurations underlying cell fate determination during morphogenesis. Despite the complicated mechanisms that surely intervene in this process, it is clear that the fundamental fact is that cells obtain spatial and temporal information that bias their destiny. Our main hypothesis assumes that there is at least one macroscopic field that breaks the symmetry of space at a given time. This field provides the information required for the process of cell differentiation to occur by being dynamically coupled to a signal transduction mechanism that, in turn, acts directly upon the gene regulatory network (GRN) underlying cell-fate decisions within cells. We illustrate and test our proposal with a GRN model grounded on experimental data for cell fate specification during organ formation in early Arabidopsis thaliana flower development. We show that our model is able to recover the multigene configurations characteristic of sepal, petal, stamen and carpel primordial cells arranged in concentric rings, in a similar pattern to that observed during actual floral organ determination. Such pattern is robust to alterations of the model parameters and simulated failures predict altered spatio-temporal patterns that mimic those described for several mutants. Furthermore, simulated alterations in the physical fields predict a pattern equivalent to that found in Lacandonia schismatica, the only flowering species with central stamens surrounded by carpels.

  15. PENGEMBANGAN BERAS ANALOG DENGAN MEMANFAATKAN JAGUNG PUTIH [Development of White Corn-Based Rice Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santi Noviasari*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available White corn can be utilized as a source of non-rice carbohydrate in the manufacture of rice analogues. The rice analogues with rice-like characteristics were produced by an extrusion technique. The aim of this research was to develop rice analogues from white corn and to evaluate their physicochemical and sensory properties. The study was conducted in several stages, i.e. preparation, formulation, and physicochemical and sensory properties evaluation. The physicochemical properties of rice analogues evaluated included proximate nutritional composition, dietary fiber concentration, cooking time, water loss rate, color, and whiteness percentage, while their sensory preferences were evaluated using hedonic scale test. The rice analogues made of Pulut Harapan and Lokal Purbalingga corns (4.34:65.66% added with 30% sago starch, was found to be the most preferred. The moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate, and dietary fiber composition of this rice analog was 9.32, 0.38, 6.86, 1.22, 91.54, and 5.35%, respectively.

  16. Blob Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project called blob flowers in which fifth-grade students created pictures of flowers using watercolor and markers. Explains that the lesson incorporates ideas from art and science. Discusses in detail how the students created their flowers. (CMK)

  17. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Flowering Trees. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (INDIAN TREE OF. HEAVEN) of Simaroubaceae is a lofty tree with large pinnately compound alternate leaves, which are ... inflorescences, unisexual and greenish-yellow. Fruits are winged, wings many-nerved. Wood is used in making match sticks. 1. Male flower; 2. Female flower.

  18. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowering Trees. Gliricidia sepium(Jacq.) Kunta ex Walp. (Quickstick) of Fabaceae is a small deciduous tree with. Pinnately compound leaves. Flower are prroduced in large number in early summer on terminal racemes. They are attractive, pinkish-white and typically like bean flowers. Fruit is a few-seeded flat pod.

  19. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 112-112 Flowering Trees. Zizyphus jujuba Lam. of Rhamnaceae · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 9 September 2003 pp 97-97 Flowering Trees. Moringa oleifera · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 100-100 Flowering Trees.

  20. Temperatures during flower bud development affect pollen germination, self-incompatibility reaction and early fruit development of clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, G; Gentile, A; Hedhly, A; La Malfa, S

    2018-03-01

    One of the key environmental factors affecting plant reproductive systems is temperature. Characterising such effects is especially relevant for some commercially important genera such as Citrus. In this genus, failure of fertilisation results in parthenocarpic fruit development and seedlessness, which is a much-prized character. Here, we characterise the effects of temperature on flower and ovary development, and on pollen-pistil interactions in 'Comune' clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.). We examine flower bud development, in vitro pollen germination and pollen-pistil interaction at different temperatures (15, 20, 25 or 30 °C). These temperatures span the range from 'cold' to 'hot' weather during the flowering season in many citrus-growing regions. Temperature had a strong effect on flower and ovary development, pollen germination, and pollen tube growth kinetics. In particular, parthenocarpic fruit development (indicated by juice vesicle growth) was initiated early if flowers were exposed to warmer temperatures during anthesis. Exposure to different temperatures during flower bud development also alters expression of the self-incompatibility reaction. This affects the point in the pistil at which pollen tube growth is arrested and confirms the role of sub- and supra-optimal temperatures in determining the numbers of pollen tubes reaching the ovary. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Genetic dissection of black grain rice by the development of a near isogenic line

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Omoteno, Motoyasu; Takarada, Takeshi; Fujita, Kenji; Murata, Kazumasa; Iyama, Yukihide; Kojima, Yoichiro; Morikawa, Makiko; Ozaki, Hidenobu; Mukaino, Naoyuki; Kidani, Yoshinori; Ebitani, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) can produce black grains as well as white. In black rice, the pericarp of the grain accumulates anthocyanin, which has antioxidant activity and is beneficial to human health. We developed a black rice introgression line in the genetic background of Oryza sativa L. ‘Koshihikari’, which is a leading variety in Japan. We used Oryza sativa L. ‘Hong Xie Nuo’ as the donor parent and backcrossed with ‘Koshihikari’ four times, resulting in a near isogenic line (NIL) for black g...

  2. FT overexpression induces precocious flowering and normal reproductive development in Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocko, Amy L; Ma, Cathleen; Robertson, Sarah; Esfandiari, Elahe; Nilsson, Ove; Strauss, Steven H

    2016-02-01

    Eucalyptus trees are among the most important species for industrial forestry worldwide. However, as with most forest trees, flowering does not begin for one to several years after planting which can limit the rate of conventional and molecular breeding. To speed flowering, we transformed a Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla hybrid (SP7) with a variety of constructs that enable overexpression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). We found that FT expression led to very early flowering, with events showing floral buds within 1-5 months of transplanting to the glasshouse. The most rapid flowering was observed when the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was used to drive the Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene (AtFT). Early flowering was also observed with AtFT overexpression from a 409S ubiquitin promoter and under heat induction conditions with Populus trichocarpa FT1 (PtFT1) under control of a heat-shock promoter. Early flowering trees grew robustly, but exhibited a highly branched phenotype compared to the strong apical dominance of nonflowering transgenic and control trees. AtFT-induced flowers were morphologically normal and produced viable pollen grains and viable self- and cross-pollinated seeds. Many self-seedlings inherited AtFT and flowered early. FT overexpression-induced flowering in Eucalyptus may be a valuable means for accelerating breeding and genetic studies as the transgene can be easily segregated away in progeny, restoring normal growth and form. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A novel class of gibberellin 2-oxidases control semidwarfism, tillering, and root development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shuen-Fang; Yang, Show-Ya; Chen, Ku-Ting; Hsing, Yue-Ie; Zeevaart, Jan A D; Chen, Liang-Jwu; Yu, Su-May

    2008-10-01

    Gibberellin 2-oxidases (GA2oxs) regulate plant growth by inactivating endogenous bioactive gibberellins (GAs). Two classes of GA2oxs inactivate GAs through 2beta-hydroxylation: a larger class of C(19) GA2oxs and a smaller class of C(20) GA2oxs. In this study, we show that members of the rice (Oryza sativa) GA2ox family are differentially regulated and act in concert or individually to control GA levels during flowering, tillering, and seed germination. Using mutant and transgenic analysis, C(20) GA2oxs were shown to play pleiotropic roles regulating rice growth and architecture. In particular, rice overexpressing these GA2oxs exhibited early and increased tillering and adventitious root growth. GA negatively regulated expression of two transcription factors, O. sativa homeobox 1 and TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, which control meristem initiation and axillary bud outgrowth, respectively, and that in turn inhibited tillering. One of three conserved motifs unique to the C(20) GA2oxs (motif III) was found to be important for activity of these GA2oxs. Moreover, C(20) GA2oxs were found to cause less severe GA-defective phenotypes than C(19) GA2oxs. Our studies demonstrate that improvements in plant architecture, such as semidwarfism, increased root systems and higher tiller numbers, could be induced by overexpression of wild-type or modified C(20) GA2oxs.

  4. Genetic dissection of black grain rice by the development of a near isogenic line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Omoteno, Motoyasu; Takarada, Takeshi; Fujita, Kenji; Murata, Kazumasa; Iyama, Yukihide; Kojima, Yoichiro; Morikawa, Makiko; Ozaki, Hidenobu; Mukaino, Naoyuki; Kidani, Yoshinori; Ebitani, Takeshi

    2014-06-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) can produce black grains as well as white. In black rice, the pericarp of the grain accumulates anthocyanin, which has antioxidant activity and is beneficial to human health. We developed a black rice introgression line in the genetic background of Oryza sativa L. 'Koshihikari', which is a leading variety in Japan. We used Oryza sativa L. 'Hong Xie Nuo' as the donor parent and backcrossed with 'Koshihikari' four times, resulting in a near isogenic line (NIL) for black grains. A whole genome survey of the introgression line using DNA markers suggested that three regions, on chromosomes 1, 3 and 4 are associated with black pigmentation. The locus on chromosome 3 has not been identified previously. A mapping analysis with 546 F2 plants derived from a cross between the black rice NIL and 'Koshihikari' was evaluated. The results indicated that all three loci are essential for black pigmentation. We named these loci Kala1, Kala3 and Kala4. The black rice NIL was evaluated for eating quality and general agronomic traits. The eating quality was greatly superior to that of 'Okunomurasaki', an existing black rice variety. The isogenicity of the black rice NIL to 'Koshihikari' was very high.

  5. [Development of bakery products for greater adult consumption based on wheat and rice flour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Aguilar, María José; Palomo, Patricia de; Bressani, Ricardo

    2004-09-01

    The present investigation was developed as a contribution to Guatemalan's elderly food and nutrition. Its main objective was to evaluate the chemical, nutritional and sensory quality of bread prepared from the partial substitution of wheat flour with rice flour. Wheat flour substitutions with rice flour in the order of 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60% were evaluated. Differences with the control (100% wheat bread) were found during the process of preparation, as well as texture, volume, height, weight and specific volume. Important effects in dough handling were noted specifically in the 40, 50 and 60% rice bread. Thus, a sandy texture was found in breads of higher rice levels. The bread protein quality increased with the level of substitution; however the protein quality difference between the wheat bread and the bread with 60% rice flour did not achieve statistical significance. Based on a statistical analysis of the physical properties the bread with 30 and 40% rice flour was selected, and through a preference test between these last two, the 30% rice flour bread was selected as the sample best suited to the present study's purposes. This bread was not different to wheat bread in many nutritional parameters, although in others it showed to be superior. Each serving size of bread has a weight of 80 grams (2 slices) that contributes adequate quantity of calories, protein and sodium, although a little less dietary fiber than 100% wheat bread.

  6. Effects of abscisic acid on ethylene biosynthesis and perception in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivellini, Alice; Ferrante, Antonio; Vernieri, Paolo; Serra, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the complex relationship between ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) on flower development and senescence in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. was investigated. Ethylene biosynthetic (HrsACS and HrsACO) and receptor (HrsETR and HrsERS) genes were isolated and their expression evaluated in three different floral tissues (petals, style–stigma plus stamens, and ovaries) of detached buds and open flowers. This was achieved through treatment with 0.1 mM 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) solution, 500 nl l−1 methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), and 0.1 mM ABA solution. Treatment with ACC and 1-MCP confirmed that flower senescence in hibiscus is ethylene dependent, and treatment with exogenous ABA suggested that ABA may play a role in this process. The 1-MCP impeded petal in-rolling and decreased ABA content in detached open flowers after 9 h. This was preceded by an earlier and sequential increase in ABA content in 1-MCP-treated petals and style–stigma plus stamens between 1 h and 6 h. ACC treatment markedly accelerated flower senescence and increased ethylene production after 6 h and 9 h, particularly in style–stigma plus stamens. Ethylene evolution was positively correlated in these floral tissues with the induction of the gene expression of ethylene biosynthetic and receptor genes. Finally, ABA negatively affected the ethylene biosynthetic pathway and tissue sensitivity in all flower tissues. Transcript abundance of HrsACS, HrsACO, HrsETR, and HrsERS was reduced by exogenous ABA treatment. This research underlines the regulatory effect of ABA on the ethylene biosynthetic and perception machinery at a physiological and molecular level when inhibitors or promoters of senescence are exogenously applied. PMID:21841180

  7. A Marketing Strategy for the Development of Want Want Rice Crackers in China Biscuits Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜卉

    2015-01-01

    The Want Want Group, as the biggest rice crackers manufacturer in the world, entered the mainland China's biscuit market and established its first factory in Hunan 1994. Rice Crackers are widely welcomed by Chinese consumers; however, in this decade it remained a stable company share with a very little decline in China's biscuit market. In order to maintain sustainable development, it is worthy to consider the competitive environment and distinguish the opportunities and challenges, analysis strengths and weaknesses.

  8. Accumulation of long-lived mRNAs associated with germination in embryos during seed development of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoto; Ono, Hanako; Murata, Kazumasa; Yamada, Tetsuya; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Kanekatsu, Motoki

    2015-01-01

    Mature dry seeds contain translatable mRNAs called long-lived mRNAs. Early studies have shown that protein synthesis during the initial phase of seed germination occurs from long-lived mRNAs, without de novo transcription. However, the gene expression systems that generate long-lived mRNAs in seeds are not well understood. To examine the accumulation of long-lived mRNAs in developing rice embryos, germination tests using the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D (Act D) were performed with the Japonica rice cultivar Nipponbare. Although over 70% of embryos at 10 days after flowering (DAF) germinated in the absence of the inhibitor, germination was remarkably impaired in embryos treated with Act D. In contrast, more than 70% of embryos at 20, 25, 30 and 40 DAF germinated in the presence of Act D. The same results were obtained when another cultivar, Koshihikari, was used, indicating that the long-lived mRNAs required for germination predominantly accumulate in embryos between 10 and 20 DAF during seed development. RNA-Seq identified 529 long-lived mRNA candidates, encoding proteins such as ABA, calcium ion and phospholipid signalling-related proteins, and HSP DNA J, increased from 10 to 20 DAF and were highly abundant in 40 DAF embryos of Nipponbare and Koshihikari. We also revealed that these long-lived mRNA candidates are clearly up-regulated in 10 DAF germinating embryos after imbibition, suggesting that the accumulation of these mRNAs in embryos is indispensable for the induction of germination. The findings presented here may facilitate in overcoming irregular seed germination or producing more vigorous seedlings. PMID:25941326

  9. Rice-Fish Culture in China | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Raising fish in rice paddies brings to farmers in Asia an important source of protein, as well as extra income. Rice–Fish Culture in China is an important addition to the English language literature in this area. Along with biological and ecological aspects of rice–fish culture, the book addresses its economic and social ...

  10. Development and assessment of a lysophospholipid-based deep learning model to discriminate geographical origins of white rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Lim, Dong Kyu; Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Giyoung; Kwon, Sung Won

    2017-08-17

    Geographical origin determination of white rice has become the major issue of food industry. However, there is still lack of a high-throughput method for rapidly and reproducibly differentiating the geographical origins of commercial white rice. In this study, we developed a method that employed lipidomics and deep learning to discriminate white rice from Korea to China. A total of 126 white rice of 30 cultivars from different regions were utilized for the method development and validation. By using direct infusion-mass spectrometry-based targeted lipidomics, 17 lysoglycerophospholipids were simultaneously characterized within minutes per sample. Unsupervised data exploration showed a noticeable overlap of white rice between two countries. In addition, lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs) were prominent in white rice from Korea while lysophosphatidylethanolamines (lysoPEs) were enriched in white rice from China. A deep learning prediction model was built using 2014 white rice and validated using two different batches of 2015 white rice. The model accurately discriminated white rice from two countries. Among 10 selected predictors, lysoPC(18:2), lysoPC(14:0), and lysoPE(16:0) were the three most important features. Random forest and gradient boosting machine models also worked well in this circumstance. In conclusion, this study provides an architecture for high-throughput classification of white rice from different geographical origins.

  11. Methodology development for area determination of rice planted paddy using RADARSAT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishitsuka, N.; Saito, G.; Murakami, T.; Ogawa, S.; Okamoto, K.

    2003-01-01

    Every year, the agricultural statistics section of the Japanese government announces rice planting paddy area and rice yield per hectare (ha). At present, the rice planting paddy area is calculated based on field survey by human power. In future, the Japanese government should like to determine the rice transplanted paddy area using remote sensing. Already, some results have come out using satellite-borne optical sensors. However, Japan has a rainy-season at crop growing time, and therefore it is difficult, under such weather condition, to make accurate and consistent observation of paddy fields every year by optical means. On the other hand, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is capable of observing the earth's surface without influence of clouds. Making use of this all-weather imaging capability, we are currently developing a method to determine the rice planted paddy area using SAR data acquired by RADARSAT. Paddy fields are filled with water during rice-planting period. When the microwave is incident on the filled paddy fields, it is reflected away from the SAR antenna by the water surface acting like a mirror. This phenomenon is called 'specular reflection'. The microwave backscatter is therefore small from the surface covered with water. Thus, the radar cross section (RCS) is very small from rice paddies at a transplanting period due to the specular reflection, and it increases with the growth of rice plants because of volume scatter by stems and leaves, and also by multiple reflection between the water surface and rice plants. In our study, this characteristic is used to develop methods of estimating rice paddy area. Our study area is the Saga plain in the southeast Japan. First, We determine the threshold of image intensity to separate the land and water areas using the histogram and maps. Next, we develop techniques of classification, utilizing (1) RADARSAT and optical data, (2) two multi-temporal RADARSAT data, (3) RADARSAT and GIS data, and (4

  12. MicroRNAs responding to southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus infection and their target genes associated with symptom development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Donglin; Mou, Guiping; Wang, Kang; Zhou, Guohui

    2014-09-22

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a recently emerged rice virus that has spread across Asia. This devastating virus causes rice plants to produce a variety of symptoms during different growth stages. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) comprise a large group of 21-24-nt RNA molecules that are important regulators of plant development processes and stress responses. In this study, we used microarray profiling to investigate rice miRNAs responding to SRBSDV infection at 3, 9, 15, and 20 days post-inoculation (dpi). Expression levels of 56 miRNAs were altered in SRBSDV-infected rice plants, with these changes classified into eight different regulation patterns according to their temporal expression dynamics. Fourteen miRNAs belonging to six families (miR164, R396, R530, R1846, R1858, and R2097) were significantly regulated at 20 dpi. We used RT-qPCR to search for expression level correlations between members of these families and their putative targets at 3, 9, and 15 dpi. Some members of the miR164, R396, R530, and R1846 families were found to be positively or negatively correlated with their respective targets during 3-15 days after SRBSDV infection, whereas in more cases the rice miRNAs were not in correlation with their targets along the post-inoculation period, suggesting that some additional factors may be involved in rice miRNA-target interactions. The reported functions of rice genes targeted by the miR164, R396, R530, R1846, and R1858 families indicated that these genes are associated with symptom development. These results provide insights into miRNA-mediated SRBSDV-rice interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Perspectives on MADS-box expression during orchid flower evolution and development

    OpenAIRE

    Mondrag?n-Palomino, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    The diverse morphology of orchid flowers and their complex, often deceptive strategies to become pollinated have fascinated researchers for a long time. However, it was not until the 20th century that the ontogeny of orchid flowers, the genetic basis of their morphology and the complex phylogeny of Orchidaceae were investigated. In parallel, the improvement of techniques for in vitro seed germination and tissue culture, together with studies on biochemistry, physiology, and cytology supported...

  14. Biodiesel development from rice bran oil: Transesterification process optimization and fuel characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Shailendra; Agarwal, Avinash Kumar; Garg, Sanjeev

    2008-01-01

    Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving industry to develop viable alternative fuels from renewable resources that are environmentally more acceptable. Vegetable oil is a potential alternative fuel. The most detrimental properties of vegetable oils are its high viscosity and low volatility, and these cause several problems during their long duration usage in compression ignition (CI) engines. The most commonly used method to make vegetable oil suitable for use in CI engines is to convert it into biodiesel, i.e. vegetable oil esters using process of transesterification. Rice bran oil is an underutilized non-edible vegetable oil, which is available in large quantities in rice cultivating countries, and very little research has been done to utilize this oil as a replacement for mineral Diesel. In the present work, the transesterification process for production of rice bran oil methyl ester has been investigated. The various process variables like temperature, catalyst concentration, amount of methanol and reaction time were optimized with the objective of producing high quality rice bran oil biodiesel with maximum yield. The optimum conditions for transesterification of rice bran oil with methanol and NaOH as catalyst were found to be 55 deg. C reaction temperature, 1 h reaction time, 9:1 molar ratio of rice bran oil to methanol and 0.75% catalyst (w/w). Rice bran oil methyl ester thus produced was characterized to find its suitability to be used as a fuel in engines. Results showed that biodiesel obtained under the optimum conditions has comparable properties to substitute mineral Diesel, hence, rice bran oil methyl ester biodiesel could be recommended as a mineral Diesel fuel substitute for compression ignition (CI) engines in transportation as well as in the agriculture sector

  15. Rainfed Rice Production and there Germplasm Development in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyango, J.C.; Onyango, M.O.A.

    1999-01-01

    Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) has been grown in Kenya for several centuries and during this time has been locally selected by farmers for adaptation in the dry climate of Kenya highlands and coastal region. this history of selection by farmers has led to the concentration of genetic information for performance under drought conditions in locally-adapted rice types. Since water availability affects many processes in plants, drought tolerance is a complex character and due to the complex nature of the drought tolerance limited progress has been made in breeding for drought tolerance using simple screening methods. To produce drought tolerant cultivars, characters can used as parents in a breeding program, this is a two step process. Obviously, the root system is central to drought tolerance. The root system must be able to remove water efficiently from soils with low moisture and withstand the dynamics of soil during drought conditions will prevent stomata closure and maximise photosynthesis which is essential for high crop production. Over 365 cultivars of rainfed rice have been identified in Kenya and can be used in the two step process as source material for identifying characters related to drought tolerance and as parental lines. To advance the first step, research was conducted to identify drought tolerance characters in rainfed cultivars from Kenya. The study had a total of 580 mm of rainfall which was below the mean precipitation requirement of 750 mm. The drought sensitive variety IR20 was compared with drought tolerant IR52 and five KR (Kenya Rice) KR21, KR22, KR35,KR108 and KR135 cultivars. Plant biomass, plant height, leaf area, leaf length, protein: chlorophyll content ratio and grain yield were affected by limiting water availability and differences between cultivars were noted. The protein to chlorophyll ratio in leaves in the KR. cultivars increase from 18.4 to 28.0 as water deficient increases from -0.8 mpa to -1.4 Mpa allowing these cultivars to maintain

  16. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Canthium parviflorum Lam. of Rubiaceae is a large shrub that often grows into a small tree with conspicuous spines. Leaves are simple, in pairs at each node and are shiny. Inflorescence is an axillary few-flowered cymose fascicle. Flowers are small (less than 1 cm across), 4-merous and greenish-white. Fruit is ellipsoid ...

  17. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mid-sized slow-growing evergreen tree with spreading branches that form a dense crown. The bark is smooth, thick, dark and flakes off in large shreds. Leaves are thick, oblong, leathery and bright red when young. The female flowers are drooping and are larger than male flowers. Fruit is large, red in color and velvety.

  18. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    narrow towards base. Flowers are large and attrac- tive, but emit unpleasant foetid smell. They appear in small numbers on erect terminal clusters and open at night. Stamens are numerous, pink or white. Style is slender and long, terminating in a small stigma. Fruit is green, ovoid and indistinctly lobed. Flowering Trees.

  19. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq. (Helicopter Tree) of Hernandiaceae is a moderate size deciduous tree that grows to about 12 m in height with a smooth, shining, greenish-white bark. The leaves are ovate, rarely irregularly ... flowers which are unpleasant smelling. Fruit is a woody nut with two long thin wings.

  20. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight & Arn. (PINK CEDAR, AUSTRALIAN ASH) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a lofty unarmed deciduous native tree that attains a height of 30–60m with buttresses. Bark is thin and light grey. Leaves are compound and bright red when young. Flowers in dense, erect, axillary racemes.

  1. Stamina pistilloida, the Pea ortholog of Fim and UFO, is required for normal development of flowers, inflorescences, and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S; Hofer, J; Murfet, I

    2001-01-01

    Isolation and characterization of two severe alleles at the Stamina pistilloida (Stp) locus reveals that Stp is involved in a wide range of developmental processes in the garden pea. The most severe allele, stp-4, results in flowers consisting almost entirely of sepals and carpels. Production of ectopic secondary flowers in stp-4 plants suggests that Stp is involved in specifying floral meristem identity in pea. The stp mutations also reduce the complexity of the compound pea leaf, and primary inflorescences often terminate prematurely in an aberrant sepaloid flower. In addition, stp mutants were shorter than their wild-type siblings due to a reduction in cell number in their internodes. Fewer cells were also found in the epidermis of the leaf rachis of stp mutants. Examination of the effects of stp-4 in double mutant combinations with af, tl, det, and veg2-2-mutations known to influence leaf, inflorescence, and flower development in pea-suggests that Stp function is independent of these genes. A synergistic interaction between weak mutant alleles at Stp and Uni indicated that these two genes act together, possibly to regulate primordial growth. Molecular analysis revealed that Stp is the pea homolog of the Antirrhinum gene Fimbriata (Fim) and of UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) from Arabidopsis. Differences between Fim/UFO and Stp mutant phenotypes and expression patterns suggest that expansion of Stp activity into the leaf was an important step during evolution of the compound leaf in the garden pea.

  2. Development of aromatic giant-embryo rice by molecular marker-assisted selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Yingdong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic rice is loved for its distinctive aroma when cooking and eating.In this research,aromatic normal-embryo rice and non-aromatic giant-embryo rice,"Shangshida No.5",both bred by our laboratory,were selected as the parents for the hybridization.We used conventional breeding techniques as well as fragrance gene marker-assisted selection to derive new aromatic giant-embryo rice "Shangshida No.8".By comparing the agronomic and yield characters of "Shangshida No.5" and "Shangshida No.8",the average of filled grains per panicle of "Shangshida No.5" exceeds "Shangshida No.8" very significantly,while the average of effective panicles of "Shangshida No.8" is slightly more than "Shangshida No.5".Also,in the weight of thousand grains "Shangshida No.8" is slightly heavier than "Shangshida No.5".Thus,their grain weights per plant are close,29.10 g and 28.92 g respectively.By comparing the traits of rice embryo,there is no significant difference in embryo weight and volume.Also,there is no significant difference in weight ratio and volume ratio of embryo.This research has laid a solid foundation for further market development and application of aromatic giant-embryo rice.

  3. Studies on development of new functional natural materials from agricultural products - Technology developments for ceramic powders and materials from rice phytoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Kap; Kim, Yong Ik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Nang Kyu; Seong, Seo Yong [Myongseong Ceramics Com., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Sang Eun [Bae Jae Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Chun [Myungji Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    Based on an estimation of annual rice production of 5.2 million tons, rice husks by-production reaches to 1.17 million tons per year in Korea. Distinguished to other corns, rice contains a lot of Si; 10-20% by weight in rice husks calculated as silica. The aim of this research project is to develop technologies for ceramic powders and materials utilizing the silica in rice husks called phytoliths. In this first year research, researches of the following subjects were performed; material properties of rice husks, milling of rice husks, acid treatments, oxidations at low and high temperatures, sintering and crystalization of amorphous silica, low temperature carburization, formation of silicon carbide whiskers, and brick lightening method using milled rice husks. 11 tabs., 49 figs., 75 refs. (Author).

  4. A Quantitative Acetylomic Analysis of Early Seed Development in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Hou, Yuxuan; Qiu, Jiehua; Li, Zhiyong; Zhao, Juan; Tong, Xiaohong; Zhang, Jian

    2017-06-27

    PKA (protein lysine acetylation) is a critical post-translational modification that regulates various developmental processes, including seed development. However, the acetylation events and dynamics on a proteomic scale in this process remain largely unknown, especially in rice early seed development. We report the first quantitative acetylproteomic study focused on rice early seed development by employing a mass spectral-based (MS-based), label-free approach. A total of 1817 acetylsites on 1688 acetylpeptides from 972 acetylproteins were identified in pistils and seeds at three and seven days after pollination, including 268 acetyproteins differentially acetylated among the three stages. Motif-X analysis revealed that six significantly enriched motifs, such as (DxkK), (kH) and (kY) around the acetylsites of the identified rice seed acetylproteins. Differentially acetylated proteins among the three stages, including adenosine diphosphate (ADP) -glucose pyrophosphorylases (AGPs), PDIL1-1 (protein disulfide isomerase like 1-1), hexokinases, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) and numerous other regulators that are extensively involved in the starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and photosynthesis pathways during early seed development. This study greatly expanded the rice acetylome dataset, and shed novel insight into the regulatory roles of PKA in rice early seed development.

  5. Genome wide re-sequencing of newly developed Rice Lines from common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) for the identification of NBS-LRR genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Ghouri, Fozia; Yu, Hang; Li, Xiang; Yu, Shuhong; Shahid, Muhammad Qasim; Liu, Xiangdong

    2017-01-01

    Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) is an important germplasm for rice breeding, which contains many resistance genes. Re-sequencing provides an unprecedented opportunity to explore the abundant useful genes at whole genome level. Here, we identified the nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) encoding genes by re-sequencing of two wild rice lines (i.e. Huaye 1 and Huaye 2) that were developed from common wild rice. We obtained 128 to 147 million reads with approximately 32.5-fold coverage depth, and uniquely covered more than 89.6% (> = 1 fold) of reference genomes. Two wild rice lines showed high SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) variation rate in 12 chromosomes against the reference genomes of Nipponbare (japonica cultivar) and 93-11 (indica cultivar). InDels (insertion/deletion polymorphisms) count-length distribution exhibited normal distribution in the two lines, and most of the InDels were ranged from -5 to 5 bp. With reference to the Nipponbare genome sequence, we detected a total of 1,209,308 SNPs, 161,117 InDels and 4,192 SVs (structural variations) in Huaye 1, and 1,387,959 SNPs, 180,226 InDels and 5,305 SVs in Huaye 2. A total of 44.9% and 46.9% genes exhibited sequence variations in two wild rice lines compared to the Nipponbare and 93-11 reference genomes, respectively. Analysis of NBS-LRR mutant candidate genes showed that they were mainly distributed on chromosome 11, and NBS domain was more conserved than LRR domain in both wild rice lines. NBS genes depicted higher levels of genetic diversity in Huaye 1 than that found in Huaye 2. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction analysis showed that NBS genes mostly interacted with the cytochrome C protein (Os05g0420600, Os01g0885000 and BGIOSGA038922), while some NBS genes interacted with heat shock protein, DNA-binding activity, Phosphoinositide 3-kinase and a coiled coil region. We explored abundant NBS-LRR encoding genes in two common wild rice lines through genome wide re

  6. Comparative transcriptional profiling provides insights into the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower of Vicia sativa (Papilionoideae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vicia sativa (the common vetch possesses a predominant zygomorphic flower and belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae, which is related to Arabidopsis thaliana in the eurosid II clade of the core eudicots. Each vetch flower consists of 21 concentrically arranged organs: the outermost five sepals, then five petals and ten stamens, and a single carpel in the center. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We explored the floral transcriptome to examine a genome-scale genetic model of the zygomorphic flower of vetch. mRNA was obtained from an equal mixture of six floral organs, leaves and roots. De novo assembly of the vetch transcriptome using Illumina paired-end technology produced 71,553 unigenes with an average length of 511 bp. We then compared the expression changes in the 71,553 unigenes in the eight independent organs through RNA-Seq Quantification analysis. We predominantly analyzed gene expression patterns specific to each floral organ and combinations of floral organs that corresponded to the traditional ABC model domains. Comparative analyses were performed in the floral transcriptomes of vetch and Arabidopsis, and genomes of vetch and Medicago truncatula. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our comparative analysis of vetch and Arabidopsis showed that the vetch flowers conform to a strict ABC model. We analyzed the evolution and expression of the TCP gene family in vetch at a whole-genome level, and several unigenes specific to three different vetch petals, which might offer some clues toward elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying floral zygomorphy. Our results provide the first insights into the genome-scale molecular regulatory network that controls the evolution and development of the zygomorphic flower in Papilionoideae.

  7. Effects of Nitrogen Application Time on Caryopsis Development and Grain Quality of Rice Variety Yangdao 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei XIONG

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of different nitrogen application time (during the tillering or the booting stages with the same nitrogen rates on the caryopsis development and grain quality of rice variety Yangdao 6. The increased nitrogen fertilizer (urea, especially applied during the booting stage, could evidently increase the milled rice rate, head rice rate and protein content in rice grains compared with the control (no nitrogen application, and decrease chalky grain rate and amylose content. Moreover, the increased nitrogen fertilizer significantly affected the caryopsis development and enhanced the grain weight when nitrogen applied during the tillering and the booting stages, especially during the booting stage. During caryopsis development the increased nitrogen fertilizer applied during the tillering and booting stages could obviously decrease the total starch and amylose contents, but not obviously for the amylopectin content in rice grain. Increased topdressing of nitrogen fertilizer, especially applied during the booting stage, had significant effect on the development and structures of amyloplasts and proteinoplasts. That is, it could change the distribution, number and shape of amyloplasts and proteinoplasts in the endosperm cells especially in grain abdomen. Compared with the control the arrangements of amyloplasts and proteinoplasts were closer, with more numbers, higher density and less interspaces each ohter. Furthermore, most amyloplasts showed polyhedron under the increased nitrogen fertilizer level.

  8. Effects of Transgenic cry1Ca Rice on the Development of Xenopus laevis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuping Chen

    Full Text Available In fields of genetically modified, insect-resistant rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt proteins, frogs are exposed to Bt Cry proteins by consuming both target and non-target insects, and through their highly permeable skin. In the present study, we assessed the potential risk posed by transgenic cry1Ca rice (T1C-19 on the development of a frog species by adding purified Cry1Ca protein or T1C-19 rice straw into the rearing water of Xenopus laevis tadpoles, and by feeding X. laevis froglets diets containing rice grains of T1C-19 or its non-transformed counterpart MH63. Our results showed that there were no significant differences among groups receiving 100 μg L-1 or 10 μg L-1 Cry1Ca and the blank control in terms of time to completed metamorphosis, survival rate, body weight, body length, organ weight and liver enzyme activity after being exposed to the Cry1Ca (P > 0.05. Although some detection indices in the rice straw groups were significantly different from those of the blank control group (P < 0.05, there was no significant difference between the T1C-19 and MH63 rice straw groups. Moreover, there were no significant differences in the mortality rate, body weight, daily weight gain, liver and fat body weight of the froglets between the T1C-19 and MH63 dietary groups after 90 days, and there were no abnormal pathological changes in the stomach, intestines, livers, spleens and gonads. Thus, we conclude that the planting of transgenic cry1Ca rice will not adversely affect frog development.

  9. An apple MYB transcription factor, MdMYB3, is involved in regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis and flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Han, Yuepeng; Wei, Guochao; Korban, Schuyler S

    2013-11-07

    TF is involved in regulation of flower development. This study has identified a novel MYB transcription factor in the apple genome. This TF, designated as MdMYB3, is involved in transcriptional activation of several flavonoid pathway genes. Moreover, this TF not only regulates the accumulation of anthocyanin in the skin of apple fruits, but it is also involved in the regulation of flower development, particularly that of pistil development.

  10. cDNAs for the synthesis of cyclic carotenoids in petals of Gentiana lutea and their regulation during flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changfu; Yamamura, Saburo; Nishihara, Masashiro; Koiwa, Hiroyuki; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2003-02-20

    cDNAs encoding lycopene epsilon -cyclase, lycopene beta-cyclase, beta-carotene hydroxylase and zeaxanthin epoxidase were isolated from a Gentiana lutea petal cDNA library. The function of all cDNAs was analyzed by complementation in Escherichia coli. Transcript levels during different stages of flower development of G. lutea were determined and compared to the carotenoid composition. Expression of all genes increased by a factor of up to 2, with the exception of the lycopene epsilon -cyclase gene. The transcript amount of the latter was strongly decreased. These results indicate that during flower development, carotenoid formation is enhanced. Moreover, metabolites are shifted away from the biosynthetic branch to lutein and are channeled into beta-carotene and derivatives.

  11. Hormonal regulation of floret closure of rice (Oryza sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Youming; Zeng, Xiaochun

    2018-01-01

    Plant hormones play important roles in regulating every aspect of growth, development, and metabolism of plants. We are interested in understanding hormonal regulation of floret opening and closure in plants. This is a particularly important problem for hybrid rice because regulation of flowering time is vitally important in hybrid rice seed production. However, little was known about the effects of plant hormones on rice flowering. We have shown that jasmonate and methyl jasmonate play significant roles in promoting rice floret opening. In this study, we investigated the effects of auxins including indole-3-acidic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 1-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (DIC) and abscisic acid (ABA) on floret closure of four fertile and three sterile varieties of rice. The results from field studies in three growing seasons in 2013–2015 showed that the percentages of closed florets were significantly lower in plants treated with IAA, IBA, 2,4-D, DIC and NAA and that the durations of floret opening were significantly longer in plants treated with the same auxins. The auxins exhibited time- and concentration-dependant effects on floret closure. ABA displayed opposite effects of auxins because it increased the percentages of floret closure and decreased the length of floret opening of rice varieties. The degree of auxin-inhibiting and ABA-promoting effects on floret closure was varied somewhat but not significantly different among the rice varieties. Endogenous IAA levels were the highest in florets collected shortly before opening followed by a sharp decline in florets with maximal angles of opening and a significant jump of IAA levels shortly after floret closure in both fertile and sterile rice plants. ABA levels showed an opposite trend in the same samples. Our results showed that auxins delayed but ABA promoted the closure of rice floret regardless of the varieties

  12. Hormonal regulation of floret closure of rice (Oryza sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youming Huang

    Full Text Available Plant hormones play important roles in regulating every aspect of growth, development, and metabolism of plants. We are interested in understanding hormonal regulation of floret opening and closure in plants. This is a particularly important problem for hybrid rice because regulation of flowering time is vitally important in hybrid rice seed production. However, little was known about the effects of plant hormones on rice flowering. We have shown that jasmonate and methyl jasmonate play significant roles in promoting rice floret opening. In this study, we investigated the effects of auxins including indole-3-acidic acid (IAA, indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, 1-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D and 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (DIC and abscisic acid (ABA on floret closure of four fertile and three sterile varieties of rice. The results from field studies in three growing seasons in 2013-2015 showed that the percentages of closed florets were significantly lower in plants treated with IAA, IBA, 2,4-D, DIC and NAA and that the durations of floret opening were significantly longer in plants treated with the same auxins. The auxins exhibited time- and concentration-dependant effects on floret closure. ABA displayed opposite effects of auxins because it increased the percentages of floret closure and decreased the length of floret opening of rice varieties. The degree of auxin-inhibiting and ABA-promoting effects on floret closure was varied somewhat but not significantly different among the rice varieties. Endogenous IAA levels were the highest in florets collected shortly before opening followed by a sharp decline in florets with maximal angles of opening and a significant jump of IAA levels shortly after floret closure in both fertile and sterile rice plants. ABA levels showed an opposite trend in the same samples. Our results showed that auxins delayed but ABA promoted the closure of rice floret regardless of

  13. Development of a molecular test to ensure good flowering of Viburnum Opulus Var. Roseum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromwijk, J.A.M.; Noort, van F.R.; Verhoef, N.; Balk, P.; Wordragen, van M.F.

    2013-01-01

    During wintertime Viburnum opulus var. roseum (snowball) shrubs are forced in warm greenhouses to harvest early cut flowers. Early forcing is occasionally unsuccessful. This is probably due to a lack of hours with low temperatures that is needed to break bud dormancy. To gain more insight about the

  14. Flower Development of Lilium longiflorum: Characterization of MADS-box transcription factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedito, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Lily (Liliumspp.) is among the most traditional and beloved ornamental flowers worldwide. The genus Lilium comprises almost one hundred species, among which is the primary subject of our research, described in this thesis, the species Lilium

  15. Ethylene production and post-pollination development in Dendrobium flowers treated with foreign pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketsa, S.; Bunya-Atichart, K.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2001-01-01

    Dendrobium ‘Pompadour’ flowers fade early following pollination. This is associated with increased ethylene production and early epinasty. These effects are also produced by application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) on the stigma. Pollen (one anther each) from Ruellia tuberosa L.

  16. FILAMENTOUS FLOWER controls lateral organ development by acting as both an activator and a repressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaccorso Oliver

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The YABBY (YAB family of transcription factors participate in a diverse range of processes that include leaf and floral patterning, organ growth, and the control of shoot apical meristem organisation and activity. How these disparate functions are regulated is not clear, but based on interactions with the LEUNIG-class of co-repressors, it has been proposed that YABs act as transcriptional repressors. In the light of recent work showing that DNA-binding proteins associated with the yeast co-repressor TUP1 can also function as activators, we have examined the transcriptional activity of the YABs. Results Of the four Arabidopsis YABs tested in yeast, only FILAMENTOUS FLOWER (FIL activated reporter gene expression. Similar analysis with Antirrhinum YABs identified the FIL ortholog GRAMINIFOLIA as an activator. Plant-based transactivation assays not only confirmed the potential of FIL to activate transcription, but also extended this property to the FIL paralog YABBY3 (YAB3. Subsequent transcriptomic analysis of lines expressing a steroid-inducible FIL protein revealed groups of genes that responded either positively or negatively to YAB induction. Included in the positively regulated group of genes were the polarity regulators KANADI1 (KAN1, AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 4 (ARF4 and ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1. We also show that modifying FIL to function as an obligate repressor causes strong yab loss-of-function phenotypes. Conclusions Collectively these data show that FIL functions as a transcriptional activator in plants and that this activity is involved in leaf patterning. Interestingly, our study also supports the idea that FIL can act as a repressor, as transcriptomic analysis identified negatively regulated FIL-response genes. To reconcile these observations, we propose that YABs are bifunctional transcription factors that participate in both positive and negative regulation. These findings fit a model of leaf development in which

  17. Development of everlasting flowers (Comanthera elegans (Bong. L.R. Parra & Giul. in three cultivation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda da Conceição Moreira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing the inflorescences of Comanthera elegans (Bong. L.R. Parra & Giul. represents a source of income to many families from extractives communities in the portion of the Espinhaço Range located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Cultivating this species stands out by allying income generation with conservation since the species is currently endangered. This study aimed to assess aspects of the development of C. elegans in three cultivation systems: beds, rows, and whole area. Sowing took place in January 2009 and the inflorescences were harvested in May 2010, which characterized the experimental period. Emergence; plant density; rates of flowering, mortality, resprouting, and recruiting of new individuals; and production of inflorescences per plant and per area were assessed. Emergence began approximately 50 days after sowing. Plant density ranged from 130 to 350 plants.m-2 among the three cultivation systems. The highest mortality rate (18% was observed at the peak of the dry season (August and the overall mortality rate over one reproductive cycle was 49%. Of the plants that lost the aerial part, 36% resprouted. Sprouting and seed germination accounted for 30 and 3% of the recruiting of new individuals, respectively. C. elegans had two bloom (AprilMay 2009 and April-May 2010: 5.4% of the plants bloomed in the first season and 78%, in the second. Each plant produced between three and 178 inflorescences and the highest inflorescence production in terms of weight (232 g.m-2 and number (2,910 inflorescences.m-2 was observed in the cultivation in beds at 1,624 kg.ha-1.

  18. Silicon fertilization and soil water tensions on rice development and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakeline R. de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The cultivation of upland rice (Oryza sativa in Brazil occurs mainly in the Cerrado, a region with adverse weather conditions. The use of silicon in its cultivation becomes important, since this nutrient provides higher rigidity, lower transpiration and higher resistance to dry spells in rice plants. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of silicon fertilization and soil water tensions on upland rice development and yield in a Cerrado Oxisol. A 5 x 5 fractionated factorial with five soil water tensions (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 kPa and five silicon doses (0, 120, 240, 480 and 960 mg dm-3 was used, which were distributed in a randomized block design, with four replicates. Plant height, number of tillers, number of panicles, number of grains per panicle, numbers of full and empty grains and percentage of empty grains were evaluated. Silicon fertilization promotes increased tillering in rice plants at the dose of 960 mg dm-3. The numbers of tillers and panicles decreased with the application of silicon up to the doses of 460 and 490 mg dm-3, respectively. The increase in soil water tensions reduced plant height and the number of full grains, and increased the percentage of empty grains of upland rice.

  19. Phytoplasma Effector SAP54 Induces Indeterminate Leaf-Like Flower Development in Arabidopsis Plants1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Allyson M.; Sugio, Akiko; Makarova, Olga V.; Findlay, Kim C.; Grieve, Victoria M.; Tóth, Réka; Nicolaisen, Mogens; Hogenhout, Saskia A.

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are insect-transmitted bacterial plant pathogens that cause considerable damage to a diverse range of agricultural crops globally. Symptoms induced in infected plants suggest that these phytopathogens may modulate developmental processes within the plant host. We report herein that Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches’ Broom (AY-WB) readily infects the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Columbia, inducing symptoms that are characteristic of phytoplasma infection, such as the production of green leaf-like flowers (virescence and phyllody) and increased formation of stems and branches (witches’ broom). We found that the majority of genes encoding secreted AY-WB proteins (SAPs), which are candidate effector proteins, are expressed in Arabidopsis and the AY-WB insect vector Macrosteles quadrilineatus (Hemiptera; Cicadellidae). To identify which of these effector proteins induce symptoms of phyllody and virescence, we individually expressed the effector genes in Arabidopsis. From this screen, we have identified a novel AY-WB effector protein, SAP54, that alters floral development, resulting in the production of leaf-like flowers that are similar to those produced by plants infected with this phytoplasma. This study offers novel insight into the effector profile of an insect-transmitted plant pathogen and reports to our knowledge the first example of a microbial pathogen effector protein that targets flower development in a host. PMID:21849514

  20. Small kernel 1 encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat protein required for mitochondrial nad7 transcript editing and seed development in maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Jie; Zhang, Ya-Feng; Hou, Mingming; Sun, Feng; Shen, Yun; Xiu, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Xiaomin; Chen, Zong-Liang; Sun, Samuel S M; Small, Ian; Tan, Bao-Cai

    2014-09-01

    RNA editing modifies cytidines (C) to uridines (U) at specific sites in the transcripts of mitochondria and plastids, altering the amino acid specified by the DNA sequence. Here we report the identification of a critical editing factor of mitochondrial nad7 transcript via molecular characterization of a small kernel 1 (smk1) mutant in Zea mays (maize). Mutations in Smk1 arrest both the embryo and endosperm development. Cloning of Smk1 indicates that it encodes an E-subclass pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein that is targeted to mitochondria. Loss of SMK1 function abolishes the C → U editing at the nad7-836 site, leading to the retention of a proline codon that is edited to encode leucine in the wild type. The smk1 mutant showed dramatically reduced complex-I assembly and NADH dehydrogenase activity, and abnormal biogenesis of the mitochondria. Analysis of the ortholog in Oryza sativa (rice) reveals that rice SMK1 has a conserved function in C → U editing of the mitochondrial nad7-836 site. T-DNA knock-out mutants showed abnormal embryo and endosperm development, resulting in embryo or seedling lethality. The leucine at NAD7-279 is highly conserved from bacteria to flowering plants, and analysis of genome sequences from many plants revealed a molecular coevolution between the requirement for C → U editing at this site and the existence of an SMK1 homolog. These results demonstrate that Smk1 encodes a PPR-E protein that is required for nad7-836 editing, and this editing is critical to NAD7 function in complex-I assembly in mitochondria, and hence to embryo and endosperm development in maize and rice. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Development of inter-specific chromosomes segment substitution libraries (CSSL) in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six libraries of inter-specific Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines (CSSLs) of rice are being developed as pre-breeding materials and genetic stocks. Three accessions of O. rufipogon were selected as donors, based on phylogenetic, geographical and morphological divergence, and crossed with two rec...

  2. Development of dynamic compartment models for prediction of radionuclide behaviors in rice paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Tomita, Ken'ichi; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Uchida, Shigeo

    2007-01-01

    We are developing dynamic compartment models for prediction of behaviors of some important radionuclides in rice paddy fields for safety assessment of nuclear facilities. For a verification of these models, we report calculations for several different deposition patterns of radionuclides. (author)

  3. Collective action and technology development: up-scaling of innovation in rice farming communities in Northern Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limnirankul, B.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:small-scale rice farmers, collective action, community rice seed, local innovations, green manure crop, contract farming, participatory technology development, up-scaling, technological configuration, grid-group theory,

  4. Model development for nutrient loading estimates from paddy rice fields in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ji-Hong; Yoon, Chun G; Ham, Jong-Hwa; Jung, Kwang-Wook

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was performed to evaluate water and nutrient balances in paddy rice culture operations during 2001-2002. The water balance analysis indicated that about half (50-60%) of the total outflow was lost by surface drainage, with the remainder occurring by evapotranspiration (490-530 mm). The surface drainage from paddy fields was mainly caused by rainfall and forced-drainage, and in particular, the runoff during early rice culture periods depends more on the forced-drainage due to fertilization practices. Most of the total phosphorus (T-P) inflow was supplied by fertilization at transplanting, while the total nitrogen (T-N) inflow was supplied by the three fertilizations, precipitation. and from the upper paddy field, which comprised 13-33% of the total inflow. Although most of the nutrient outflow was attributed to plant uptake. nutrient loss by surface drainage was substantial, comprising 20% for T-N and 10% for T-P. Water and nutrient balances indicate that reduction of surface drainage from paddy rice fields is imperative for nonpoint source pollution control. The simplified computer model, PADDIMOD, was developed to simulate water and nutrient (T-N and T-P) behavior in the paddy rice field. The model predicts daily ponded water depth, surface drainage, and nutrient concentrations. It was formulated with a few equations and simplified assumptions, but its application and a model fitness test indicated that the simulation results reasonably matched the observed data. It is a simple and convenient planning model that could be used to evaluate BMPs of paddy rice fields alone or in combination with other complex watershed models. Application of the PADDIMOD to other paddy rice fields with different agricultural environments might require further calibration and validation.

  5. Whole-plant mineral partitioning during the reproductive development of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperotto, R.A.; Vasconcelos, M.W.; Grusak, M.A.; Fett, J.

    2017-07-01

    Minimal information exists on whole-plant dynamics of mineral flow. Understanding these phenomena in a model plant such as rice could help in the development of nutritionally enhanced cultivars. A whole-plant mineral accumulation study was performed in rice (cv. Kitaake), using sequential harvests during reproductive development panicle exertion, grain filling, and full maturity stages in order to characterize mineral accumulation in roots, non-flag leaves, flag leaves, stems/sheaths, and panicles. Partition quotient analysis showed that Fe, Zn, Cu and Ni are preferentially accumulated in roots; Mn and Mg are accumulated in leaves; Mo, Ca, and S in roots and leaves; and K in roots, leaves and stems/sheaths. Correlation analysis indicated that changes in the concentrations of mineral pairs Fe-Mn, K-S, Fe-Ni, Cu-Mg, Mn-Ni, S-Mo, Mn-Ca, and Mn-Mg throughout the reproductive development of rice were positively correlated in all four of the above ground organs evaluated, with Fe-Mn and K-S being positively correlated also in roots, which suggest that root-to-shoot transfer is not driven simply by concentrations in roots. These analyses will serve as a starting point for a more detailed examination of mineral transport and accumulation in rice plants.

  6. Auxin and Cell Wall Invertase Related Signaling during Rice Grain Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Russell French

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA synthesis is required for grain-fill in maize and appears to be regulated by cell-wall invertase (CWIN activity. OsYUC12 is one of three IAA biosynthesis genes we previously reported as expressed during early rice grain development, correlating with a large increase in IAA content of the grain. This work aimed to investigate further the role of OsYUC12 and its relationship to CWIN activity and invertase inhibitors (INVINH. The analysis shows a brief peak of OsYUC12 expression early in endosperm development. Meta-analysis of microarray data, confirmed by quantitative expression analysis, revealed that OsYUC12 is coexpressed with OsIAA29, which encodes an unusual AUX/IAA transcription factor previously reported as poorly expressed. Maximum expression of OsYUC12 and OsIAA29 coincided with maximum CWIN activity, but also with a peak in INVINH expression. Unlike ZmYUC1, OsYUC12 expression is not reduced in the rice CWIN mutant, gif1. Several reports have investigated CWIN expression in rice grains but none has reported on expression of INVINH in this species. We show that rice has 54 genes encoding putative invertase/pectin methylesterase inhibitors, seven of which are expressed exclusively during grain development. Our results suggest a more complex relationship between IAA, CWIN, and INVINH than previously proposed.

  7. DNA demethylation activates genes in seed maternal integument development in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Lin, Haiyan; Tong, Xiaohong; Hou, Yuxuan; Chang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Jian

    2017-11-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that regulates various plant developmental processes. Rice seed integument determines the seed size. However, the role of DNA methylation in its development remains largely unknown. Here, we report the first dynamic DNA methylomic profiling of rice maternal integument before and after pollination by using a whole-genome bisulfite deep sequencing approach. Analysis of DNA methylation patterns identified 4238 differentially methylated regions underpin 4112 differentially methylated genes, including GW2, DEP1, RGB1 and numerous other regulators participated in maternal integument development. Bisulfite sanger sequencing and qRT-PCR of six differentially methylated genes revealed extensive occurrence of DNA hypomethylation triggered by double fertilization at IAP compared with IBP, suggesting that DNA demethylation might be a key mechanism to activate numerous maternal controlling genes. These results presented here not only greatly expanded the rice methylome dataset, but also shed novel insight into the regulatory roles of DNA methylation in rice seed maternal integument development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Cloning and characterisation of two CTR1-like genes in Cucurbita pepo: regulation of their expression during male and female flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Susana; Martínez, Cecilia; Gómez, Pedro; Garrido, Dolores; Jamilena, Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Ethylene is an essential regulator of flower development in Cucurbita pepo, controlling the sexual expression, and the differentiation and maturation of floral organs. To study the action mechanism of ethylene during the male and female flower development, we have identified two CTR1 homologues from C. pepo, CpCTR1 and CpCTR2, and analysed their expressions during female and male flower development and in response to external treatments with ethylene. CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 share a high homology with plant CTR1-like kinases, but differ from other related kinases such as the Arabidopsis EDR1 and the tomato LeCTR2. The C-terminal ends of both CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 have all the conserved motifs of Ser/Thr kinase domains, including the ATP-binding signature and the protein kinase active site consensus sequence, which suggests that CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 could have the same function as CTR1 in ethylene signalling. The transcripts of both genes were detected in different organs of the plant, including roots, leaves and shoots, but were mostly accumulated in mature flowers. During the development of male and female flowers, CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 expressions were concomitant with ethylene production, which indicates that both genes could be upregulated by ethylene, at least in flowers. Moreover, external treatments with ethylene, although did not alter the expression of these two genes in seedlings and leaves, were able to upregulate their expression in flowers. In the earlier stages of flower development, when ethylene production is very low, the expression of CpCTR1 and CpCTR2 is higher in male floral organs, which agrees with the role of these genes as negative regulators of ethylene signalling, and explain the lower ethylene sensitivity of male flowers in comparison with female flowers. The function of the upregulation of these two genes in later stages of female flower development, when the production of ethylene is also increased, is discussed.

  9. Methods of developing core collections based on the predicted genotypic value of rice ( Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C T; Shi, C H; Wu, J G; Xu, H M; Zhang, H Z; Ren, Y L

    2004-04-01

    The selection of an appropriate sampling strategy and a clustering method is important in the construction of core collections based on predicted genotypic values in order to retain the greatest degree of genetic diversity of the initial collection. In this study, methods of developing rice core collections were evaluated based on the predicted genotypic values for 992 rice varieties with 13 quantitative traits. The genotypic values of the traits were predicted by the adjusted unbiased prediction (AUP) method. Based on the predicted genotypic values, Mahalanobis distances were calculated and employed to measure the genetic similarities among the rice varieties. Six hierarchical clustering methods, including the single linkage, median linkage, centroid, unweighted pair-group average, weighted pair-group average and flexible-beta methods, were combined with random, preferred and deviation sampling to develop 18 core collections of rice germplasm. The results show that the deviation sampling strategy in combination with the unweighted pair-group average method of hierarchical clustering retains the greatest degree of genetic diversities of the initial collection. The core collections sampled using predicted genotypic values had more genetic diversity than those based on phenotypic values.

  10. Overcoming inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice by developing indica-compatible japonica lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Xu, Xiaomei; Li, Wentao; Zhu, Wenyin; Zhu, Haitao; Liu, Ziqiang; Luan, Xin; Dai, Ziju; Liu, Guifu; Zhang, Zemin; Zeng, Ruizhen; Tang, Guang; Fu, Xuelin; Wang, Shaokui; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-06-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important staple crop. The exploitation of the great heterosis that exists in the inter-subspecific crosses between the indica and japonica rice has long been considered as a promising way to increase the yield potential. However, the male and female sterility frequently occurred in the inter-subspecific hybrids hampered the utilization of the heterosis. Here we report that the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice is mainly affected by the genes at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci for F1 male sterility and the gene at S5 locus for F1 female sterility. The indica-compatible japonica lines (ICJLs) developed by pyramiding the indica allele (S-i) at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci and the neutral allele (S-n) at S5 locus in japonica genetic background through marker-assisted selection are compatible with indica rice in pollen fertility and in spikelet fertility. These results showed a great promise of overcoming the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility and exploiting the heterosis by developing ICJLs.

  11. Development of a remote sensing-based rice yield forecasting model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosleh, M.K.; Hassan, Q.K.; Chowdhury, E.H.

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to develop a remote sensing-based method for forecasting rice yield by considering vegetation greenness conditions during initial and peak greenness stages of the crop; and implemented for “boro” rice in Bangladeshi context. In this research, we used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived two 16-day composite of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images at 250 m spatial resolution acquired during the initial (January 1 to January 16) and peak greenness (March 23/24 to April 6/7 depending on leap year) stages in conjunction with secondary datasets (i.e., boro suitability map, and ground-based information) during 2007-2012 period. The method consisted of two components: (i) developing a model for delineating area under rice cultivation before harvesting; and (ii) forecasting rice yield as a function of NDVI. Our results demonstrated strong agreements between the model (i.e., MODIS-based) and ground-based area estimates during 2010-2012 period, i.e., coefficient of determination (R2); root mean square error (RMSE); and relative error (RE) in between 0.93 to 0.95; 30,519 to 37,451 ha; and ±10% respectively at the 23 district-levels. We also found good agreements between forecasted (i.e., MODIS-based) and ground-based yields during 2010-2012 period (R2 between 0.76 and 0.86; RMSE between 0.21 and 0.29 Mton/ha, and RE between -5.45% and 6.65%) at the 23 district-levels. We believe that our developments of forecasting the boro rice yield would be useful for the decision makers in addressing food security in Bangladesh. (Author)

  12. Overexpression of the kiwifruit SVP3 gene affects reproductive development and suppresses anthocyanin biosynthesis in petals, but has no effect on vegetative growth, dormancy, or flowering time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rongmei; Wang, Tianchi; McGie, Tony; Voogd, Charlotte; Allan, Andrew C; Hellens, Roger P; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2014-09-01

    SVP-like MADS domain transcription factors have been shown to regulate flowering time and both inflorescence and flower development in annual plants, while having effects on growth cessation and terminal bud formation in perennial species. Previously, four SVP genes were described in woody perennial vine kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.), with possible distinct roles in bud dormancy and flowering. Kiwifruit SVP3 transcript was confined to vegetative tissues and acted as a repressor of flowering as it was able to rescue the Arabidopsis svp41 mutant. To characterize kiwifruit SVP3 further, ectopic expression in kiwifruit species was performed. Ectopic expression of SVP3 in A. deliciosa did not affect general plant growth or the duration of endodormancy. Ectopic expression of SVP3 in A. eriantha also resulted in plants with normal vegetative growth, bud break, and flowering time. However, significantly prolonged and abnormal flower, fruit, and seed development were observed, arising from SVP3 interactions with kiwifruit floral homeotic MADS-domain proteins. Petal pigmentation was reduced as a result of SVP3-mediated interference with transcription of the kiwifruit flower tissue-specific R2R3 MYB regulator, MYB110a, and the gene encoding the key anthocyanin biosynthetic step, F3GT1. Constitutive expression of SVP3 had a similar impact on reproductive development in transgenic tobacco. The flowering time was not affected in day-neutral and photoperiod-responsive Nicotiana tabacum cultivars, but anthesis and seed germination were significantly delayed. The accumulation of anthocyanin in petals was reduced and the same underlying mechanism of R2R3 MYB NtAN2 transcript reduction was demonstrated. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    deciduous tree with irregularly-shaped trunk, greyish-white scaly bark and milky latex. Leaves in opposite pairs are simple, oblong and whitish beneath. Flowers that occur in branched inflorescence are white, 2–. 3cm across and fragrant. Calyx is glandular inside. Petals bear numerous linear white scales, the corollary.

  14. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr. (Indian Frankincense tree) of Burseraceae is a large-sized deciduous tree that is native to India. Bark is thin, greenish-ash-coloured that exfoliates into smooth papery flakes. Stem exudes pinkish resin ... Fruit is a three-valved capsule. A green gum-resin exudes from the ...

  15. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Berrya cordifolia (Willd.) Burret (Syn. B. ammonilla Roxb.) – Trincomali Wood of Tiliaceae is a tall evergreen tree with straight trunk, smooth brownish-grey bark and simple broad leaves. Inflorescence is much branched with white flowers. Stamens are many with golden yellow anthers. Fruit is a capsule with six spreading ...

  16. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sriranga

    Hook.f. ex Brandis (Yellow. Cadamba) of Rubiaceae is a large and handsome deciduous tree. Leaves are simple, large, orbicular, and drawn abruptly at the apex. Flowers are small, yellowish and aggregate into small spherical heads. The corolla is funnel-shaped with five stamens inserted at its mouth. Fruit is a capsule.

  17. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Celtis tetrandra Roxb. of Ulmaceae is a moderately large handsome deciduous tree with green branchlets and grayish-brown bark. Leaves are simple with three to four secondary veins running parallel to the mid vein. Flowers are solitary, male, female and bisexual and inconspicuous. Fruit is berry-like, small and globose ...

  18. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Aglaia elaeagnoidea (A.Juss.) Benth. of Meliaceae is a small-sized evergreen tree of both moist and dry deciduous forests. The leaves are alternate and pinnately compound, terminating in a single leaflet. Leaflets are more or less elliptic with entire margin. Flowers are small on branched inflorescence. Fruit is a globose ...

  19. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowers are borne on stiff bunches terminally on short shoots. They are 2-3 cm across, white, sweet-scented with light-brown hairy sepals and many stamens. Loquat fruits are round or pear-shaped, 3-5 cm long and are edible. A native of China, Loquat tree is grown in parks as an ornamental and also for its fruits.

  20. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    medium-sized handsome tree with a straight bole that branches at the top. Leaves are once pinnate, with two to three pairs of leaflets. Young parts of the tree are velvety. Inflorescence is a branched raceme borne at the branch ends. Flowers are large, white, attractive, and fragrant. Corolla is funnel-shaped. Fruit is an ...

  1. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cassia siamia Lamk. (Siamese tree senna) of Caesalpiniaceae is a small or medium size handsome tree. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound and glandular, upto 18 cm long with 8–12 pairs of leaflets. Inflorescence is axillary or terminal and branched. Flowering lasts for a long period from March to February. Fruit is ...

  2. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andira inermis (wright) DC. , Dog Almond of Fabaceae is a handsome lofty evergreen tree. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound with 4–7 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are fragrant and are borne on compact branched inflorescences. Fruit is ellipsoidal one-seeded drupe that is peculiar to members of this family.

  3. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Cerbera manghasL. (SEA MANGO) of Apocynaceae is a medium-sized evergreen coastal tree with milky latex. The bark is grey-brown, thick and ... Fruit is large. (5–10 cm long), oval containing two flattened seeds and resembles a mango, hence the name Mangas or. Manghas. Leaves and fruits contain ...

  4. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muntingia calabura L. (Singapore cherry) of. Elaeocarpaceae is a medium size handsome ever- green tree. Leaves are simple and alternate with sticky hairs. Flowers are bisexual, bear numerous stamens, white in colour and arise in the leaf axils. Fruit is a berry, edible with several small seeds embedded in a fleshy pulp ...

  5. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br. (Sil- ver Oak) of Proteaceae is a daintily lacy ornamental tree while young and growing into a mighty tree (45 m). Young shoots are silvery grey and the leaves are fern- like. Flowers are golden-yellow in one- sided racemes (10 cm). Fruit is a boat- shaped, woody follicle.

  6. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stems and handsome foliage. Leaves are 8–10 cm long, dull green, the two thin leathery halves of the lamina fusing or the cleft between them extending beyond the middle. Flowers are gorgeous, axillary with dark purple stamens. The pod is more or less flat. B. alba is often named as B. variegate var. alba by botanists.

  7. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guaiacum officinale L. (LIGNUM-VITAE) of Zygophyllaceae is a dense-crowned, squat, knobbly, rough and twisted medium-sized ev- ergreen tree with mottled bark. The wood is very hard and resinous. Leaves are compound. The leaflets are smooth, leathery, ovate-ellipti- cal and appear in two pairs. Flowers (about 1.5.

  8. Comprehensive Cloning of Prunus mume Dormancy Associated MADS-Box Genes and Their Response in Flower Bud Development and Dormancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dormancy Associated MADS-box genes are SVP/MADs-box members and supposed to play crucial roles in plant dormancy of perennial species. In Prunus mume, PmDAM6 has been previously identified to induce plant dormancy. In the current study, six PmDAMs were cloned in P. mume and functionally analyzed in yeast and tobacco to detect the roles of the genes paralogous to PmDAM6. The expression patterns together with sequence similarities indicate that PmDAMs are divided into two sub-clades within SVP group. Moreover, PmDAMs are verified to take part in the development of different plant organs, specifically the flower buds, in some intricate patterns. Furthermore, the PmDAM proteins are found to have special functions by forming corresponding protein complex during the development of flower bud and induction of dormancy. In particular, when PmDAM1 dominating in flower bud in the warm months, the protein complexes are consisted of PmDAM1 itself or with PmDAM2. With the decrease temperatures in the following months, PmDAM6 was found to be highly expressed and gradually changed the complex structure to PmDAM6-protein complex due to strong binding tendencies with PmDAM1 and PmDAM3. Finally, the homodimers of PmDAM6 prevailed to induce the dormancy. The results obtained in the current study highlight the functions of PmDAMs in the tissue development and dormancy, which provide available suggestions for further explorations of protein-complex functions in association with bud growth and dormancy.

  9. Down-Regulation of OsEMF2b Caused Semi-sterility Due to Anther and Pollen Development Defects in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchang Deng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Anther and pollen development are crucial processes of plant male reproduction. Although a number of genes involved in these processes have been identified, the regulatory networks of pollen and anther development are still unclear. EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2b (OsEMF2b is important for rice development. Its biological function in floral organ, flowering time and meristem determinacy have been well-studied, but its role, if only, on male reproduction is still unknown, because null mutants of OsEMF2b barely have anthers. In this study, we identified a weak allele of OsEMF2b, osemf2b-4. The T-DNA insertion was located in the promoter region of OsEMF2b, and OsEMF2b expression was significantly decreased in osemf2b-4. The osemf2b-4 mutant exhibited much more normal anthers than null mutants of OsEMF2b, and also showed defective floret development similar to null mutants. Cytological analysis showed various defects of anther wall and pollen development in osemf2b-4, such as slightly or extremely enlarged tapetum, irregular or normal morphology microspores, and partial or complete sterility. OsEMF2b was highly expressed in tapetum and microspores, and the protein was localized in the nucleus. The expression of 15 genes essential for anther and pollen development was investigated in both WT and osemf2b-4. Fourteen genes including GAMYB was up-regulated, and only PTC1 was down-regulated in osemf2b-4. This suggests that up-regulated GAMYB and down-regulated PTC1 might contribute to the defective anther and pollen development in osemf2b-4. Overall, our work suggests that OsEMF2b plays an essential role during post-meiotic anther and pollen development.

  10. Lack of Globulin Synthesis during Seed Development Alters Accumulation of Seed Storage Proteins in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jung Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The major seed storage proteins (SSPs in rice seeds have been classified into three types, glutelins, prolamins, and globulin, and the proportion of each SSP varies. It has been shown in rice mutants that when either glutelins or prolamins are defective, the expression of another type of SSP is promoted to counterbalance the deficit. However, we observed reduced abundances of glutelins and prolamins in dry seeds of a globulin-deficient rice mutant (Glb-RNAi, which was generated with RNA interference (RNAi-induced suppression of globulin expression. The expression of the prolamin and glutelin subfamily genes was reduced in the immature seeds of Glb-RNAi lines compared with those in wild type. A proteomic analysis of Glb-RNAi seeds showed that the reductions in glutelin and prolamin were conserved at the protein level. The decreased pattern in glutelin was also significant in the presence of a reductant, suggesting that the polymerization of the glutelin proteins via intramolecular disulfide bonds could be interrupted in Glb-RNAi seeds. We also observed aberrant and loosely packed structures in the storage organelles of Glb-RNAi seeds, which may be attributable to the reductions in SSPs. In this study, we evaluated the role of rice globulin in seed development, showing that a deficiency in globulin could comprehensively reduce the expression of other SSPs.

  11. Development of Nutritious Snack from rice industry waste using twin screw extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Renu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deoiled rice bran, a byproduct of rice milling industry was transformed into highly nutritious snack by the application of twin screw extrusion process. Response Surface Methodology (RSM with four- factor- five level central composite rotatable design (CCRD was employed to investigate the effects of extrusion conditions including moisture content of different raw flours, feed composition, barrel temperature and screw speed of extruder on properties of extrudates was studied. Second order quadratic regression model fitted adequately in the variation. The significance was established at P ≤ 0.05. The regression models can be used to interpret the effect of feed composition, moisture content, screw speed and barrel temperature on the properties of the final product. It was shown that higher rice bran in feed composition showed in minimum water absorption index and maximum water solubility index. Numerical optimization technique resulted in 123.83°C of barrel temperature, 294.68 rpm of screw speed, 13.94 % of feed moisture and 17.73 % of deoiled rice bran. The responses predicted for these optimum process conditions resulted water absorption index, 5.91468 g/g and water solubility index of 18.5553 % for the development of value added product with health benefits.

  12. Effect of weather factors on the incidence and development of pink bollworm on flowers of advance cotton genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaliq, A.; Subhani, M.N.; Hassan, S.W.; Afzal, M.

    2008-01-01

    Ten advance genotypes of cotton Viz. BH-121, NIAB KRISHMA, DNH-137, VH-142, VH-142 BH-125, MNH-635, SLH-267, FNH-245, CRIS-467 and CRIS-82 were used to determine the effect of different weather factors on the incidence and development of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossyiella) infestation at Nuclear institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB) Faisalabad. Trials were laid out using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. Finally data were subjected to statistical analysis and for correlation studies between weather factors and pink bollworm. Temperature and relative humidity and rainfall affected negatively for the infestation of pink bollworm on flowers in advance genotypes of cotton. (author)

  13. Premature Tapetum Degeneration: a Major Cause of Abortive Pollen Development in Photoperiod Sensitive Genic Male Sterility in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinlian Shi; Sha Zhao; Jialing Yao

    2009-01-01

    Photoperiod-sensitive genic male-sterile (PSGMS) rice (Oryza sativa L.), a natural mutant found in the rice cultivar Nongken 58, is very useful for the development of hybrid rice cultivars. Despite its widespread use in breeding programs, the initial stage of the abortive development of PSGMS rice and the possible cytological mechanisms of pollen abortion have not been determined. In the present study, a systematic cytological comparison of the anther development of PSGMS rice with its normal fertile counterpart is conducted. The results show that pollen abortion in PSGMS rice first occurs before the pollen mother cell (PMC) stage, and continues during the entire process of pollen development until pollen degradation. The abortive process was closely associated with the abnormal behavior of the tapetum. Although tapetum degeneration in PSGMS rice initiates already at the PMC stage, it proceeds slowly and does not complete until the breakdown of the pollen. Such cytological observations were supported by the results of the TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay, which detects DNA fragmentation resulting from programmed cell death (PCD), indicating that the premature tapetum degeneration is in the process of PCD.

  14. Rapid crown root development confers tolerance to zinc deficiency in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit Kaur eNanda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is one of the leading nutrient disorders in rice (Oryza sativa. Many studies have identified Zn efficient rice genotypes, but causal mechanisms for Zn deficiency tolerance remain poorly understood. Here we report a detailed study of the impact of Zn deficiency on crown root development of rice genotypes, differing in their tolerance to this stress. Zn deficiency delayed crown root development and plant biomass accumulation in both Zn efficient and inefficient genotypes, with the effects being much stronger in the latter. Zn efficient genotypes had developed new crown roots as early as three days after transplanting (DAT to a Zn deficient field and that was followed by a significant increase in total biomass by 7 DAT. Zn-inefficient genotypes developed few new crown roots and did not increase biomass during the first seven days following transplanting. This correlated with Zn efficient genotypes retranslocating a higher proportion of shoot Zn to their roots, compared to Zn inefficient genotypes. These latter genotypes were furthermore not efficient in utilizing the limited Zn for root development. Histological analyses indicated no anomalies in crown tissue of Zn-efficient or inefficient genotypes that would have suggested crown root emergence was impeded. We therefore conclude that the rate of crown root initiation was differentially affected by Zn deficiency between genotypes. Rapid crown root development, following transplanting, was identified as a main causative trait for tolerance to Zn deficiency and better Zn retranslocation from shoot to root was a key attribute of Zn-efficient genotypes.

  15. Cloning, characterization, and expression of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase and expansin genes associated with petal growth and development during carnation flower opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Taro; Torii, Yuka; Morita, Shigeto; Onodera, Reiko; Hara, Yoshinao; Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Satoh, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Growth of petal cells is a basis for expansion and morphogenesis (outward bending) of petals during opening of carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Petal growth progressed through elongation in the early stage, expansion with outward bending in the middle stage, and expansion of the whole area in the late stage of flower opening. In the present study, four cDNAs encoding xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) (DcXTH1–DcXTH4) and three cDNAs encoding expansin (DcEXPA1–DcEXPA3) were cloned from petals of opening carnation flowers and characterized. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that transcript levels of XTH and expansin genes accumulated differently in floral and vegetative tissues of carnation plants with opening flowers, indicating regulated expression of these genes. DcXTH2 and DcXTH3 transcripts were detected in large quantities in petals as compared with other tissues. DcEXPA1 and DcEXPA2 transcripts were markedly accumulated in petals of opening flowers. The action of XTH in growing petal tissues was confirmed by in situ staining of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity using a rhodamine-labelled xyloglucan nonasaccharide as a substrate. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that two XTH genes (DcXTH2 and DcXTH3) and two expansin genes (DcEXPA1 and DcEXPA2) are associated with petal growth and development during carnation flower opening. PMID:20959626

  16. Use of Moringa oleifera Flower Pod Extract as Natural Preservative and Development of SCAR Marker for Its DNA Based Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, Iram; Javed, Attia; Aslam, Muhammad Shahbaz; Mushtaq, Roohi; Athar, Muhammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    The use of Moringa oleifera as natural food preservative has been evaluated in the present study. In addition, for quality assurance, the study has also been focused on the shelf life of product to authenticate the identification of plant by development of DNA based marker. Among the different extracts prepared from flower pods of Moringa oleifera, methanol and aqueous extract exhibited high antibacterial and antioxidant activity, respectively. The high phenolic contents (53.5 ± 0.169 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid contents (10.9 ± 0.094 mg QE/g) were also recorded in methanol and aqueous extract, respectively. Due to instability of bioactive compounds in aqueous extract, methanol extract is considered as potent natural preservative. The shelf life of methanol extract was observed for two months at 4°C under dark conditions. The developed SCAR primers (MOF217/317/MOR317) specifically amplified a fragment of 317 bp from DNA of Moringa oleifera samples collected from different regions of Punjab province of Pakistan. The methanol extract of Moringa oleifera flower pods has great potential to be used as natural preservative and nutraceutical in food industry.

  17. Cell Wall Composition and Candidate Biosynthesis Gene Expression During Rice Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Fan; Manisseri, Chithra; Fagerström, Alexandra; Peck, Matthew L.; Vega-Sánchez, Miguel E.; Williams, Brian; Chiniquy, Dawn M.; Saha, Prasenjit; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Conlin, Brian; Zhu, Lan; Hahn, Michael G.; Willats, William G. T.; Scheller, Henrik V.; Ronald, Pamela C.; Bartley, Laura E.

    2016-08-01

    Cell walls of grasses, including cereal crops and biofuel grasses, comprise the majority of plant biomass and intimately influence plant growth, development and physiology. However, the functions of many cell wall synthesis genes, and the relationships among and the functions of cell wall components remain obscure. To better understand the patterns of cell wall accumulation and identify genes that act in grass cell wall biosynthesis, we characterized 30 samples from aerial organs of rice (Oryza sativa cv. Kitaake) at 10 developmental time points, 3-100 d post-germination. Within these samples, we measured 15 cell wall chemical components, enzymatic digestibility and 18 cell wall polysaccharide epitopes/ligands. We also used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to measure expression of 50 glycosyltransferases, 15 acyltransferases and eight phenylpropanoid genes, many of which had previously been identified as being highly expressed in rice. Most cell wall components vary significantly during development, and correlations among them support current understanding of cell walls. We identified 92 significant correlations between cell wall components and gene expression and establish nine strong hypotheses for genes that synthesize xylans, mixed linkage glucan and pectin components. This work provides an extensive analysis of cell wall composition throughout rice development, identifies genes likely to synthesize grass cell walls, and provides a framework for development of genetically improved grasses for use in lignocellulosic biofuel production and agriculture.

  18. Flowering in Xanthium strumarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Maggy; Kinet, Jean-Marie; Bodson, Monique; Havelange, Andrée; Jacqmard, Annie; Bernier, Georges

    1981-01-01

    Vegetative plants of Xanthium strumarium L. grown in long days were induced to flower by exposure to one or several 16-hour dark periods. The distribution of male and female inflorescences on the flowering shoot was described, and a scoring system was designed to assess the development of the female inflorescences. The time of movement of the floral stimulus out of the induced leaf and the timing of action of high temperature were shown to be similar for both the apical male and lateral female inflorescences. Strong photoperiodic induction of the plants favored female sex expression, while maleness was enhanced by exogenous gibberellic acid. The problem of the control of sex expression in Xanthium is discussed in relation to the distribution pattern of male and female inflorescences on the flowering shoot and to the state of the meristem at the time of the arrival of the floral stimulus. Images PMID:16661844

  19. Development Radar Absorber Material using Rice Husk Carbon for Anechoic Chamber Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulpadrianto, Z.; Yohandri, Y.; Putra, A.

    2018-04-01

    The developments of radar technology in Indonesia are very strategic due to the vast territory and had a high-level cloud cover more than 55% of the time. The objective of this research is to develop radar technology facility in Indonesia using local natural resources. The target of this research is to present a low cost and satisfy quality of anechoic chambers. Anechoic chamber is a space designed to avoid reflection of EM waves from outside or from within the room. The reflection coefficient of the EM wave is influenced by the medium imposed by the EM wave. In laboratory experimental research has been done the development of material radar absorber using rice husk. The rice husk is activated using HCl and KOH by stirring using a magnetic stirrer for 1 Hours. The results of rice husk activation were measured using a Vector Network Analyzer by varying the thickness of the ingredients and the concentration of the activation agent. The VNA measurement is obtained reflection coefficient of -12dB and. -6.22dB for 1M HCL and KOH at thickness 10mm, respectively.

  20. Photon flux and leaf temperature effects on flower initiation and early development of 'Red Elite' geraniums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.W.; Polys, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailery ''Red Elite'') seedlings were grown with five daily mean temperature (DMT) and daily light integral (DLI) treatment combinations: DMT of 23 graus C? day at DLI of 8.64 mol -1 m -2 (T10, DMT of 25 graus at 8.64 mol (T20), DMT of 23 graus at DLI of 17.28 mol, (T3) DMT of 25 graus at DLI 17.28 mol (T4), and DMT of 21 graus at 17.28 mol (C1). Using infrared thermometry to control, leaf temperature, DMT had a greater influence on flower initiation at the transition stage and on flower bud development to macrobud stage than DLI. Seedlings in T4 reached transition stage 24 days after sowing with a cumulative irradiance of 415 mol. Transition occurred in T1 at 27 days from sowing . With a cumulative irradiance of only 23 mol. Some time after 27 days from sowing, transition occurred in T2, T3, and C1. With a DLI of 17.28 mol, a DMT reduction from 25 graus to 21 graus effected macrobuds in 42,56, or 62 days after sowing, respectively; whereas with a DLI of 8.64 mol, a decrease from 25 graus to 23 grauseffected macrobuds in 54 or 51 days

  1. Reduction of gibberellin by low temperature disrupts pollen development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Tadashi; Oda, Susumu; Tsunaga, Yuta; Shomura, Hikaru; Kawagishi-Kobayashi, Makiko; Aya, Koichiro; Saeki, Kenichi; Endo, Takashi; Nagano, Kuniaki; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Masao; Matsuoka, Makoto; Higashitani, Atsushi

    2014-04-01

    Microsporogenesis in rice (Oryza sativa) plants is susceptible to moderate low temperature (LT; approximately 19°C) that disrupts pollen development and causes severe reductions in grain yields. Although considerable research has been invested in the study of cool-temperature injury, a full understanding of the molecular mechanism has not been achieved. Here, we show that endogenous levels of the bioactive gibberellins (GAs) GA4 and GA7, and expression levels of the GA biosynthesis genes GA20ox3 and GA3ox1, decrease in the developing anthers by exposure to LT. By contrast, the levels of precursor GA12 were higher in response to LT. In addition, the expression of the dehydration-responsive element-binding protein DREB2B and SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1)/DELLA was up-regulated in response to LT. Mutants involved in GA biosynthetic and response pathways were hypersensitive to LT stress, including the semidwarf mutants sd1 and d35, the gain-of-function mutant slr1-d, and gibberellin insensitive dwarf1. The reduction in the number of sporogenous cells and the abnormal enlargement of tapetal cells occurred most severely in the GA-insensitive mutant. Application of exogenous GA significantly reversed the male sterility caused by LT, and simultaneous application of exogenous GA with sucrose substantially improved the extent of normal pollen development. Modern rice varieties carrying the sd1 mutation are widely cultivated, and the sd1 mutation is considered one of the greatest achievements of the Green Revolution. The protective strategy achieved by our work may help sustain steady yields of rice under global climate change.

  2. Reduction of Gibberellin by Low Temperature Disrupts Pollen Development in Rice1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Tadashi; Oda, Susumu; Tsunaga, Yuta; Shomura, Hikaru; Kawagishi-Kobayashi, Makiko; Aya, Koichiro; Saeki, Kenichi; Endo, Takashi; Nagano, Kuniaki; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Masao; Matsuoka, Makoto; Higashitani, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Microsporogenesis in rice (Oryza sativa) plants is susceptible to moderate low temperature (LT; approximately 19°C) that disrupts pollen development and causes severe reductions in grain yields. Although considerable research has been invested in the study of cool-temperature injury, a full understanding of the molecular mechanism has not been achieved. Here, we show that endogenous levels of the bioactive gibberellins (GAs) GA4 and GA7, and expression levels of the GA biosynthesis genes GA20ox3 and GA3ox1, decrease in the developing anthers by exposure to LT. By contrast, the levels of precursor GA12 were higher in response to LT. In addition, the expression of the dehydration-responsive element-binding protein DREB2B and SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1)/DELLA was up-regulated in response to LT. Mutants involved in GA biosynthetic and response pathways were hypersensitive to LT stress, including the semidwarf mutants sd1 and d35, the gain-of-function mutant slr1-d, and gibberellin insensitive dwarf1. The reduction in the number of sporogenous cells and the abnormal enlargement of tapetal cells occurred most severely in the GA-insensitive mutant. Application of exogenous GA significantly reversed the male sterility caused by LT, and simultaneous application of exogenous GA with sucrose substantially improved the extent of normal pollen development. Modern rice varieties carrying the sd1 mutation are widely cultivated, and the sd1 mutation is considered one of the greatest achievements of the Green Revolution. The protective strategy achieved by our work may help sustain steady yields of rice under global climate change. PMID:24569847

  3. Root Transcriptomic Analysis Revealing the Importance of Energy Metabolism to the Development of Deep Roots in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Qiaojun; Chen, Liang; Mei, Hanwei; Xu, Kai; Wei, Haibin; Feng, Fangjun; Li, Tiemei; Pang, Xiaomeng; Shi, Caiping; Luo, Lijun; Zhong, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Drought is the most serious abiotic stress limiting rice production, and deep root is the key contributor to drought avoidance. However, the genetic mechanism regulating the development of deep roots is largely unknown. In this study, the transcriptomes of 74 root samples from 37 rice varieties, representing the extreme genotypes of shallow or deep rooting, were surveyed by RNA-seq. The 13,242 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between deep rooting and shallow rooting varieties (H vs. L) w...

  4. Development of the variety for resistance against bacterial leaf-blight in rice with thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Hirokazu

    1990-01-01

    In search for the development of genes for resistance against bacterial leaf-blight in rice, thermal neutrons generated from the Research Reactor at the Kyoto University have been applied to the breeding. In this paper, the developmental outcome is described, and a potential application of thermal neutrons for breeding the variety of resistance against bacterial leaf-blight in rice is reviewed. When thermal neutrons were delivered to the rice, the ratio of absorbed doses by B-10, which is contained in a small quantity in the plant, was found to be larger than expected. This implies characteristic effects of thermal neutrons on the plant. When boric acid was incorporated into the plant before irradiation, the effect of thermal neutrons per irradiation time was considered to become great. The frequency of mutations for resistance was significantly higher by thermal neutron, as compared with that induced by other mutagens, such as gamma radiation, ethylene-imine, ethyl-methane-sulfonate, and nitroso-methyl-urea. Genetic analysis of mutants for resistance revealed recessive genes and polygenes. Finally, the application of thermal neutrons and other radiations would contribute greatly to a resolution of serious pollution problems in global food and environment. (N.K.)

  5. Development of Novel Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Source from Dongxiang Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-hua SHEN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to develop and characterize a novel cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS source which was identified from Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon by crossing Dongxiang wild rice as female with Zhongzao 35, an indica inbred variety, as male and continuous backcrossing with Zhongzao 35. Observation under optical microscope manifested that this novel CMS belonged to typical abortion type with less pollen compared with wild abortive type cytoplasm (CMS-WA. Sequential planting showed that this novel CMS has complete and stable male sterility. Testcross experiment showed that all the 24 tested materials including maintainer and restorer lines of CMS-WA and Honglian type cytoplasm (CMS-HL and other indica inbred varieties are the maintainers with complete maintaining ability, suggesting that this novel CMS has fertility restoration totally different from CMS-WA and CMS-HL and belongs to a novel type of CMS. So far, we only discovered a unique fertility restoration source for this novel CMS. Inheritance analysis showed that the fertility restoration of this CMS was governed by three pairs of independent dominant genes. Prospect for application of this novel CMS system in hybrid rice breeding was also discussed.

  6. Assessing the impacts of climate change on rice yields in the main rice areas of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Fengmei [College of Earth Sciences, The Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing, 100049 (China); Xu, Yinglong; Lin, Erda [Agricultural Environment and Sustainable Development Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081 (China); Yokozawa, Masayuki [National Institute for Agro-environmental Sciences, Tsukuba 305-8604 (Japan); Zhang, Jiahua [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, 100081 (China)

    2007-02-15

    This paper assesses the impact of climate change on irrigated rice yield using B2 climate change scenario from the Regional Climate Model (RCM) and CERES-rice model during 2071--2090. Eight typical rice stations ranging in latitude, longitude, and elevation that are located in the main rice ecological zones of China are selected for impact assessment. First, Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis (CERES)-rice model is validated using farm experiment data in selected stations. The simulated results represent satisfactorily the trend of flowering duration and yields. The deviation of simulation within {+-} 10% of observed flowering duration and {+-} 15% of observed yield. Second, the errors of the outputs of RCM due to the difference of topography between station point and grid point is corrected. The corrected output of the RCM used for simulating rice flowering duration and yield is more reliable than the not corrected. Without CO2 direct effect on crop, the results from the assessment explore that B2 climate change scenario would have a negative impact on rice yield at most rice stations and have little impacts at Fuzhou and Kunming. To find the change of inter-annual rice yield, a preliminary assessment is made based on comparative cumulative probability at low and high yield and the coefficient variable of yield between the B2 scenario and baseline. Without the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, the result indicates that frequency for low yield would increase and it reverses for high yield, and the variance for rice yield would increase. It is concluded that high frequency at low yield and high variances of rice yield could pose a threat to rice yield at most selected stations in the main rice areas of China. With the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, rice yield increase in all selected stations.

  7. Assessing the impacts of climate change on rice yields in the main rice areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Fengmei; Xu, Yinglong; Lin, Erda; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Zhang, Jiahua

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of climate change on irrigated rice yield using B2 climate change scenario from the Regional Climate Model (RCM) and CERES-rice model during 2071--2090. Eight typical rice stations ranging in latitude, longitude, and elevation that are located in the main rice ecological zones of China are selected for impact assessment. First, Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis (CERES)-rice model is validated using farm experiment data in selected stations. The simulated results represent satisfactorily the trend of flowering duration and yields. The deviation of simulation within ± 10% of observed flowering duration and ± 15% of observed yield. Second, the errors of the outputs of RCM due to the difference of topography between station point and grid point is corrected. The corrected output of the RCM used for simulating rice flowering duration and yield is more reliable than the not corrected. Without CO2 direct effect on crop, the results from the assessment explore that B2 climate change scenario would have a negative impact on rice yield at most rice stations and have little impacts at Fuzhou and Kunming. To find the change of inter-annual rice yield, a preliminary assessment is made based on comparative cumulative probability at low and high yield and the coefficient variable of yield between the B2 scenario and baseline. Without the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, the result indicates that frequency for low yield would increase and it reverses for high yield, and the variance for rice yield would increase. It is concluded that high frequency at low yield and high variances of rice yield could pose a threat to rice yield at most selected stations in the main rice areas of China. With the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, rice yield increase in all selected stations

  8. Developing technology options for rice integrated crop management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    high farm level impact for research and development efforts that emphasize improved crop and resource management ..... in addition to having superior net revenue per hectare across .... Given this picture, scientists at the Center will explore.

  9. Alteration of rice growth and development via antisense expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    OsGA20ox2 in regulating plant growth and development, we used reverse genomic approach to ... pathways. Similarly, Carmen et al. (2007) suggested that. Carrizo citrange plants have produced antisense ... universal SP6 and T7 primers to conform their reality (Sangon, ..... Optimising the tissue culture conditions for.

  10. Role of combined use of classical induced mutation breeding and biotechnology in development of new flower colour/form in ornamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, SK.

    2001-01-01

    In floriculture trade there is always demand and necessity of new and novel ornamental varieties. Flower colour is one of the most important component of novelties. Induced somatic mutation techniques by using ionizing radiations and other mutagens have successfully produced quite a large number of new promising varieties (50 Nos.) in different ornamental (Bougainvillea, Chrysanthemum, Hibiscus, Rose, Tuberose, Lantana depressa etc.) plants by bringing about genetic changes at Floriculture Section, National Botanical Research Institute, India. For inducing novelties in flower colour of different plants the technique of selection of proper type/state of plant material for experiment, suitable dose, detection of mutation at right stage of development, isolation and multiplication of chimeric tissue have been standardised. The capability of the technique is well understood from significant number of new varieties developed via direct mutation breeding in already adapted, modern genotypes and enriched the germplasm. The mutations in flower lour/shape were detected as chimera in M1v1, M1v2, M1v3 generations. The mutation frequency varied with the cultivar and exposure of gamma rays. The main bottleneck of mutation breeding is that the mutation appears as chimera. When the entire branch is mutated, mutants can be isolated through conventional propagation techniques while small sectorial mutation in the floret cannot be isolated using existing conventional techniques. Therefore, many new flower colour/shape mutants are lost due to the lack of a suitable propagation technique. By applying biotechnological technique on the same mutagen treated gamma rays population a novel tissue culture technique hasbeen standardised to regenerate plants directly from such mutated sectors (ray florets) of Chrysanthemum. A number of somatic flower colour/shape mutants have been developed in Chrysanthemum by using this in vitro technique. Combination of classical mutation breeding and

  11. Management of chimera and in vitro mutagenesis for development of new flower color/shape and chlorophyll variegated mutants in chrysanthemum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, S.K. [CSIR, Madhyamgram Experimental Farm, Bose Institute, Kolkata (India)], E-mail: subodhskdatta@rediffmail.com; Chakrabarty, D [Floriculture Laboratory, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (India)

    2008-07-01

    Induced mutagenesis has played a major role in the development of many new flower color/shape mutant varieties in ornamentals. The main bottleneck with vegetatively propagated plants is that the mutation appears as a chimera whether developed through bud sport or through induced mutation. The size of the mutant sector varies from a narrow streak on a petal to the entire flower and from a portion of a branch to the entire branch. When a portion of a branch or entire branch is mutated, the mutant tissue can be isolated; on the other hand, a small sector of a mutated branch or flower cannot be isolated using the available conventional propagation techniques. A novel technique has been standardized in our laboratory for the management of chimeric tissues through direct shoot regeneration from chrysanthemum florets. 'Kasturba Gandhi', a large white flowered chrysanthemum, developed few chimeric yellow florets due to spontaneous mutation. Using in vitro protocol new yellow florets were established in pure form. In vitro mutagenesis experiments were conducted treating ray florets of chrysanthemum cultivars using gamma rays. Induced chimeric yellow, white, light yellow, light mauve and dark mauve floret color sectors and chlorophyll variegation in leaves of cv. 'Maghi' (with mauve floret and green leaves) have been established in pure form. Gamma ray induced sectorial yellow florets of cv. 'Lilith' (white floret) and yellow ray florets in both the cvs. 'Purnima' (with white florets) and 'Colchi Bahar' (with red florets) have been isolated in pure form through in vitro management. Induced sectorial flower color/shape mutations in cvs. 'Puja', 'Lalima', 'Flirt', 'Maghi' and 'Sunil' have been isolated in pure form through in vitro culture. Gamma radiation procedure and tissue culture techniques have been optimized to regenerate plants from stem internodes, stem node, shoot tip and ray florets. Present technique has opened a new way for isolating new flower color

  12. Accuracy of Genomic Selection in a Rice Synthetic Population Developed for Recurrent Selection Breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Grenier

    Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS is a promising strategy for enhancing genetic gain. We investigated the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV in four inter-related synthetic populations that underwent several cycles of recurrent selection in an upland rice-breeding program. A total of 343 S2:4 lines extracted from those populations were phenotyped for flowering time, plant height, grain yield and panicle weight, and genotyped with an average density of one marker per 44.8 kb. The relative effect of the linkage disequilibrium (LD and minor allele frequency (MAF thresholds for selecting markers, the relative size of the training population (TP and of the validation population (VP, the selected trait and the genomic prediction models (frequentist and Bayesian on the accuracy of GEBVs was investigated in 540 cross validation experiments with 100 replicates. The effect of kinship between the training and validation populations was tested in an additional set of 840 cross validation experiments with a single genomic prediction model. LD was high (average r2 = 0.59 at 25 kb and decreased slowly, distribution of allele frequencies at individual loci was markedly skewed toward unbalanced frequencies (MAF average value 15.2% and median 9.6%, and differentiation between the four synthetic populations was low (FST ≤0.06. The accuracy of GEBV across all cross validation experiments ranged from 0.12 to 0.54 with an average of 0.30. Significant differences in accuracy were observed among the different levels of each factor investigated. Phenotypic traits had the biggest effect, and the size of the incidence matrix had the smallest. Significant first degree interaction was observed for GEBV accuracy between traits and all the other factors studied, and between prediction models and LD, MAF and composition of the TP. The potential of GS to accelerate genetic gain and breeding options to increase the accuracy of predictions are discussed.

  13. Accuracy of Genomic Selection in a Rice Synthetic Population Developed for Recurrent Selection Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Cécile; Cao, Tuong-Vi; Ospina, Yolima; Quintero, Constanza; Châtel, Marc Henri; Tohme, Joe; Courtois, Brigitte; Ahmadi, Nourollah

    2015-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a promising strategy for enhancing genetic gain. We investigated the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) in four inter-related synthetic populations that underwent several cycles of recurrent selection in an upland rice-breeding program. A total of 343 S2:4 lines extracted from those populations were phenotyped for flowering time, plant height, grain yield and panicle weight, and genotyped with an average density of one marker per 44.8 kb. The relative effect of the linkage disequilibrium (LD) and minor allele frequency (MAF) thresholds for selecting markers, the relative size of the training population (TP) and of the validation population (VP), the selected trait and the genomic prediction models (frequentist and Bayesian) on the accuracy of GEBVs was investigated in 540 cross validation experiments with 100 replicates. The effect of kinship between the training and validation populations was tested in an additional set of 840 cross validation experiments with a single genomic prediction model. LD was high (average r2 = 0.59 at 25 kb) and decreased slowly, distribution of allele frequencies at individual loci was markedly skewed toward unbalanced frequencies (MAF average value 15.2% and median 9.6%), and differentiation between the four synthetic populations was low (FST ≤0.06). The accuracy of GEBV across all cross validation experiments ranged from 0.12 to 0.54 with an average of 0.30. Significant differences in accuracy were observed among the different levels of each factor investigated. Phenotypic traits had the biggest effect, and the size of the incidence matrix had the smallest. Significant first degree interaction was observed for GEBV accuracy between traits and all the other factors studied, and between prediction models and LD, MAF and composition of the TP. The potential of GS to accelerate genetic gain and breeding options to increase the accuracy of predictions are discussed.

  14. Development of a method for estimating total CH{sub 4} emission from rice paddies in Japan using the DNDC-Rice model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayanagi, Nobuko [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan); Fumoto, Tamon, E-mail: tamon@affrc.go.jp [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan); Hayano, Michiko [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan); Kyushu Okinawa Agricultural Research Center, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Anno 1742-1, Nishinoomote, Kagoshima 891-3102 (Japan); Takata, Yusuke; Kuwagata, Tsuneo; Shirato, Yasuhito [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan); Sawano, Shinji [Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute (FFPRI), 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687 (Japan); Kajiura, Masako; Sudo, Shigeto; Ishigooka, Yasushi; Yagi, Kazuyuki [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Methane (CH{sub 4}) is a greenhouse gas, and paddy fields are one of its main anthropogenic emission sources. To mitigate this emission based on effective management measures, CH{sub 4} emission from paddy fields must be quantified at a national scale. In Japan, country-specific emission factors have been applied since 2003 to estimate national CH{sub 4} emission from paddy fields. However, this method cannot account for the effects of weather conditions and temporal variability of nitrogen fertilizer and organic matter application rates; thus, the estimated emission is highly uncertain. To improve the accuracy of national-scale estimates, we calculated country-specific emission factors using the DeNitrification–DeComposition-Rice (DNDC-Rice) model. First, we calculated CH{sub 4} emission from 1981 to 2010 using 986 datasets that included soil properties, meteorological data, and field management data. Using the simulated site-specific emission, we calculated annual mean emission for each of Japan's seven administrative regions, two water management regimes (continuous flooding and conventional mid-season drainage), and three soil drainage rates (slow, moderate, and fast). The mean emission was positively correlated with organic carbon input to the field, and we developed linear regressions for the relationships among the regions, water management regimes, and drainage rates. The regression results were within the range of published observation values for site-specific relationships between CH{sub 4} emission and organic carbon input rates. This suggests that the regressions provide a simplified method for estimating CH{sub 4} emission from Japanese paddy fields, though some modifications can further improve the estimation accuracy. - Highlights: • DNDC-Rice is a process-based model to simulate rice CH{sub 4} emission from rice paddies. • We simulated annual CH{sub 4} emissions from 986 paddy fields in Japan by DNDC-Rice. • Regional means of CH{sub 4

  15. Physico-chemical and sensorial characteristics of rice (Oryza sativa L.) irradiated and the effect in Sitophilus oryzae L. development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanao, Cintia Fernanda Pedroso

    2007-01-01

    Rice is exposed to injuries especially due to the attack of insects, which represent great qualitative and quantitative losses. The aim of the present research was to verify the viability of the gamma irradiation as rice (Oryza sativa L.) conservation method; its efficiency in the control of an important pest for stored grains Sitophilus oryzae L. and the effects that irradiation may present in irradiated grains in relation to the sensory aspect and starch alterations. Samples were composed of polished rice and the gamma irradiation dosages used were 0.5; 1.0; 3.0; and 5.0 kGy, and kept at room temperature. Analyses of the grain breakage percentages during processing and the longevity and reproduction of the rice weevil were performed. Analyses of the centesimal composition, phytic acid, apparent amylose content and starch paste properties were also conducted, as well as analyses of the rice color (instrumental) and acceptability (hedonic test), aimed at the determination of the raw and cooked rice sensory quality. It was verified that the gamma irradiation did not change the grain breakage percentage significantly and caused a negative effect on the insect development. Irradiation did not change the centesimal composition significantly. No significant values of phytic acid were found because during rice processing, the outer part (bran) containing 85-92% of total phytates was removed. Values from 17.33 to 18.44% for the apparent amylose content were found, and irradiation did not affect the rice starch amylose content significantly. The paste properties results were significantly changed, where reduction on the paste temperature, decrease on the time for the occurrence of the peak viscosity, reduction on the final viscosity values were observed. The retrogradation tendency became less intense in starches with increasing irradiation dosages. Statistical differences (p<0.05) were detected in the sensory aspect between irradiated and non-irradiated samples, and the

  16. Development and appraisal of economical and sustainable approach for weed management in drill seeded aerobic rice (oryza sativa l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saqib, M.; Akbar, N.; Ehsanullah, A.; Ghafoor, A.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional rice cultivation by puddling and transplanting is a labor intensive activity. Water scarcity is a threat for the sustain ability of transplanted rice. In many areas of Asia, rice transplantation of rice is being replaced by direct seeding as farmers tried to solve the problems of labor cost and water scarcity but weed control is one of the major constraints to direct seeding. So, to control weeds in direct seeded rice present studies were designed. A two years study was conducted to develop sustainable and economical methods for managing weeds in aerobic rice grown by dry direct-seeding at Student's Farm, Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during the years 2008 and 2009. Experiment was laid out in RCBD with five weed management strategies: hand weeding, hoeing with kasula, inter-row cultivation with tine cultivator, inter-row cultivation with spike hoe and chemical control with Nominee 100 SC along with control (no weeding). Weed dry weight was 300 g m/sup -2/, 257 g m/sup -2/, 225 g m/sup -2/ and 157 g m/sup -2/ less in hand weeding, hoeing, tine cultivator and Nominee 100 SC respectively than no weeding. Paddy yield was 221%, 203%, 181% and 105% more in hand weeding, hoeing, tine cultivator and Nominee 100 SC respectively than no weeding. (author)

  17. High Temperature-Induced Expression of Rice α-Amylases in Developing Endosperm Produces Chalky Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Nakata

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming impairs grain filling in rice and reduces starch accumulation in the endosperm, leading to chalky-appearing grains, which damages their market value. We found previously that high temperature-induced expression of starch-lytic α-amylases during ripening is crucial for grain chalkiness. Because the rice genome carries at least eight functional α-amylase genes, identification of the α-amylase(s that contribute most strongly to the production of chalky grains could accelerate efficient breeding. To identify α-amylase genes responsible for the production of chalky grains, we characterized the histological expression pattern of eight α-amylase genes and the influences of their overexpression on grain appearance and carbohydrate components through a series of experiments with transgenic rice plants. The promoter activity of most α-amylase genes was elevated to various extents at high temperature. Among them, the expression of Amy1A and Amy3C was induced in the internal, especially basal to dorsal, region of developing endosperm, whereas that of Amy3D was confined near the ventral aleurone. These regions coincided with the site of occurrence of chalkiness, which was in clear contrast to conventionally known expression patterns of the enzyme in the scutellum and aleurone during seed germination. Furthermore, overexpression of α-amylase genes, except for Amy3E, in developing endosperm produced various degrees of chalky grains without heat exposure, whereas that of Amy3E yielded normal translucent grains, as was the case in the vector control, even though Amy3E-overexpressing grains contained enhanced α-amylase activities. The weight of the chalky grains was decreased due to reduced amounts of starch, and microscopic observation of the chalky part of these grains revealed that their endosperm consisted of loosely packed round starch granules that had numerous pits on their surface, confirming the hydrolysis of the starch reserve by

  18. CHR729 Is a CHD3 Protein That Controls Seedling Development in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoding; Ma, Jian; Zhai, Honghong; Xin, Peiyong; Chu, Jinfang; Qiao, Yongli; Han, Longzhi

    2015-01-01

    CHD3 is one of the chromatin-remodeling factors that contribute to controlling the expression of genes associated with plant development. Loss-of-function mutants display morphological and growth defects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CHD3 regulation of plant development remain unclear. In this study, a rice CHD3 protein, CHR729, was identified. The corresponding mutant line (t483) exhibited late seed germination, low germination rate, dwarfism, low tiller number, root growth inhibition, adaxial albino leaves, and short and narrow leaves. CHR729 encoded a nuclear protein and was expressed in almost all organs. RNA-sequencing analysis showed that several plant hormone-related genes were up- or down-regulated in t483 compared to wild type. In particular, expression of the gibberellin synthetase gibberellin 20 oxidase 4 gene was elevated in the mutant. Endogenous gibberellin assays demonstrated that the content of bioactive GA3 was reduced in t483 compared to wild type. Moreover, the seedling dwarfism, late seed germination, and short root length phenotypes of t483 were partially rescued by treatment with exogenous GA3. These results suggest that the rice CHD3 protein CHR729 plays an important role in many aspects of seedling development and controls this development via the gibberellin pathway.

  19. Gibberellin modulates anther development in rice via the transcriptional regulation of GAMYB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aya, Koichiro; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Kondo, Maki; Hamada, Kazuki; Yano, Kentaro; Nishimura, Mikio; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2009-05-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) play important roles in regulating reproductive development, especially anther development. Our previous studies revealed that the MYB transcriptional factor GAMYB, an important component of GA signaling in cereal aleurone cells, is also important for anther development. Here, we examined the physiological functions of GA during anther development through phenotypic analyses of rice (Oryza sativa) GA-deficient, GA-insensitive, and gamyb mutants. The mutants exhibited common defects in programmed cell death (PCD) of tapetal cells and formation of exine and Ubisch bodies. Microarray analysis using anther RNAs of these mutants revealed that rice GAMYB is involved in almost all instances of GA-regulated gene expression in anthers. Among the GA-regulated genes, we focused on two lipid metabolic genes, a cytochrome P450 hydroxylase CYP703A3 and beta-ketoacyl reductase, both of which might be involved in providing a substrate for exine and Ubisch body. GAMYB specifically interacted with GAMYB binding motifs in the promoter regions in vitro, and mutation of these motifs in promoter-beta-glucuronidase (GUS) transformants caused reduced GUS expression in anthers. Furthermore, a knockout mutant for CYP703A3 showed gamyb-like defects in exine and Ubisch body formation. Together, these results suggest that GA regulates exine formation and the PCD of tapetal cells and that direct activation of CYP703A3 by GAMYB is key to exine formation.

  20. CHR729 Is a CHD3 Protein That Controls Seedling Development in Rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoding Ma

    Full Text Available CHD3 is one of the chromatin-remodeling factors that contribute to controlling the expression of genes associated with plant development. Loss-of-function mutants display morphological and growth defects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CHD3 regulation of plant development remain unclear. In this study, a rice CHD3 protein, CHR729, was identified. The corresponding mutant line (t483 exhibited late seed germination, low germination rate, dwarfism, low tiller number, root growth inhibition, adaxial albino leaves, and short and narrow leaves. CHR729 encoded a nuclear protein and was expressed in almost all organs. RNA-sequencing analysis showed that several plant hormone-related genes were up- or down-regulated in t483 compared to wild type. In particular, expression of the gibberellin synthetase gibberellin 20 oxidase 4 gene was elevated in the mutant. Endogenous gibberellin assays demonstrated that the content of bioactive GA3 was reduced in t483 compared to wild type. Moreover, the seedling dwarfism, late seed germination, and short root length phenotypes of t483 were partially rescued by treatment with exogenous GA3. These results suggest that the rice CHD3 protein CHR729 plays an important role in many aspects of seedling development and controls this development via the gibberellin pathway.

  1. Strategy to Develop Rice Farm Business Insurance in PT Asuransi Jasa Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graita Gaiety Jatmiko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural sector has very significant roles in Indonesian economy, some of which are as the contributor of the second highest PDB and the biggest labor absorber with the contribution of 13.6% and 32% respectively. Even though, it is the biggest labor absorber,agricultural business is not interesting to the community nowadays. This is because this business has a quite high risk to fail to harvest. This research aimed to analyze the external and internal factors affecting the development of Rice Farm Business Insurance (AUTP, to know the position of the company in carrying out the AUTP, and to formulate the strategy to develop AUTP in PT Asuransi Jasa Indonesia (Jasindo. This research used descriptive method through case study with the analysis equipment, like Five Forces Porter, IFE/EFE Matrix, IE Matrix, SWOT, and QSPM. The results showed that there were several strategic factors influencing the implementation of AUTP, i.e. a wide market opportunity. The position of the company in the implementation of AUTP was in the position of hold and maintain with the recommended strategy, of market penetration and product development. In this research, eight alternative strategies were obtained with the with the highest priority was to expand the distribution channel network.Keywords: development stragety, rice farm business insurance,agricultural risk, Jasindo, QSPM

  2. Asian wild rice is a hybrid swarm with extensive gene flow and feralization from domesticated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongru; Vieira, Filipe G; Crawford, Jacob E; Chu, Chengcai; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-06-01

    The domestication history of rice remains controversial, with multiple studies reaching different conclusions regarding its origin(s). These studies have generally assumed that populations of living wild rice, O. rufipogon , are descendants of the ancestral population that gave rise to domesticated rice, but relatively little attention has been paid to the origins and history of wild rice itself. Here, we investigate the genetic ancestry of wild rice by analyzing a diverse panel of rice genomes consisting of 203 domesticated and 435 wild rice accessions. We show that most modern wild rice is heavily admixed with domesticated rice through both pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow. In fact, much presumed wild rice may simply represent different stages of feralized domesticated rice. In line with this hypothesis, many presumed wild rice varieties show remnants of the effects of selective sweeps in previously identified domestication genes, as well as evidence of recent selection in flowering genes possibly associated with the feralization process. Furthermore, there is a distinct geographical pattern of gene flow from aus , indica , and japonica varieties into colocated wild rice. We also show that admixture from aus and indica is more recent than gene flow from japonica , possibly consistent with an earlier spread of japonica varieties. We argue that wild rice populations should be considered a hybrid swarm, connected to domesticated rice by continuous and extensive gene flow. © 2017 Wang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  3. The duplicated B-class heterodimer model: whorl-specific effects and complex genetic interactions in Petunia hybrida flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbussche, Michiel; Zethof, Jan; Royaert, Stefan; Weterings, Koen; Gerats, Tom

    2004-03-01

    In both Antirrhinum (Antirrhinum majus) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the floral B-function, which specifies petal and stamen development, is embedded in a heterodimer consisting of one DEFICIENS (DEF)/APETALA3 (AP3)-like and one GLOBOSA (GLO)/PISTILLATA (PI)-like MADS box protein. Here, we demonstrate that gene duplications in both the DEF/AP3 and GLO/PI lineages in Petunia hybrida (petunia) have led to a functional diversification of their respective members, which is reflected by partner specificity and whorl-specific functions among these proteins. Previously, it has been shown that mutations in PhDEF (formerly known as GREEN PETALS) only affect petal development. We have isolated insertion alleles for PhGLO1 (FLORAL BINDING PROTEIN1) and PhGLO2 (PETUNIA MADS BOX GENE2) and demonstrate unique and redundant properties of PhDEF, PhGLO1, and PhGLO2. Besides a full homeotic conversion of petals to sepals and of stamens to carpels as observed in phglo1 phglo2 and phdef phglo2 flowers, we found that gene dosage effects for several mutant combinations cause qualitative and quantitative changes in whorl 2 and 3 meristem fate, and we show that the PHDEF/PHGLO1 heterodimer controls the fusion of the stamen filaments with the petal tube. Nevertheless, when the activity of PhDEF, PhGLO1, and PhGLO2 are considered jointly, they basically appear to function as DEF/GLO does in Antirrhinum and to a lesser extent as AP3/PI in Arabidopsis. By contrast, our data suggest that the function of the fourth B-class MADS box member, the paleoAP3-type PETUNIA HYBRIDA TM6 (PhTM6) gene, differs significantly from the known euAP3-type DEF/AP3-like proteins; PhTM6 is mainly expressed in the developing stamens and ovary of wild-type flowers, whereas its expression level is upregulated in whorls 1 and 2 of an A-function floral mutant; PhTM6 is most likely not involved in petal development. The latter is consistent with the hypothesis that the evolutionary origin of the higher eudicot

  4. Jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase regulates development and herbivory-induced defense response in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jinfeng; Li, Jiancai; Han, Xiu; Li, Ran; Wu, Jianqiang; Yu, Haixin; Hu, Lingfei; Xiao, Yutao; Lu, Jing; Lou, Yonggen

    2016-06-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and related metabolites play a key role in plant defense and growth. JA carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) may be involved in plant defense and development by methylating JA to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and thus influencing the concentrations of JA and related metabolites. However, no JMT gene has been well characterized in monocotyledon defense and development at the molecular level. After we cloned a rice JMT gene, OsJMT1, whose encoding protein was localized in the cytosol, we found that the recombinant OsJMT1 protein catalyzed JA to MeJA. OsJMT1 is up-regulated in response to infestation with the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens). Plants in which OsJMT1 had been overexpressed (oe-JMT plants) showed reduced height and yield. These oe-JMT plants also exhibited increased MeJA levels but reduced levels of herbivore-induced JA and jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile). The oe-JMT plants were more attractive to BPH female adults but showed increased resistance to BPH nymphs, probably owing to the different responses of BPH female adults and nymphs to the changes in levels of H2 O2 and MeJA in oe-JMT plants. These results indicate that OsJMT1, by altering levels of JA and related metabolites, plays a role in regulating plant development and herbivore-induced defense responses in rice. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. The Rice Mitochondria Proteome and its Response During Development and to the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobai eHuang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is both a major crop species and the key model grass for molecular and physiological research. Mitochondria are important in rice, as in all crops, as the main source of ATP for cell maintenance and growth. However, the practical significance of understanding the function of mitochondria in rice is increased by the widespread farming practice of using hybrids to boost rice production. This relies on cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS lines with abortive pollen caused by dysfunctional mitochondria. We provide an overview of what is known about the mitochondrial proteome of rice seedlings. To date, more than 320 proteins have been identified in purified rice mitochondria using mass spectrometry. The insights from this work include a broad understanding of the major subunits of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and TCA cycle enzymes, carbon and nitrogen metabolism enzymes as well as details of the supporting machinery for biogenesis and the subset of stress-responsive mitochondrial proteins. Many proteins with unknown functions have also been found in rice mitochondria. Proteomic analysis has also revealed the features of rice mitochondrial protein presequences required for mitochondrial targeting, as well as cleavage site features for processing of precursors after import. Changes in the abundance of rice mitochondrial proteins in response to different stresses, especially anoxia and light, are summarized. Future research on quantitative analysis of the rice mitochondrial proteomes at the spatial and developmental level, its response to environmental stresses and recent advances in understanding of basis of rice CMS systems are highlighted.

  6. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity and Development of a Core Collection of Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) Populations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Shahid, Muhammad Qasim; Bai, Lin; Lu, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yuhong; Jiang, Lan; Diao, Mengyang; Liu, Xiangdong; Lu, Yonggen

    2015-01-01

    Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.), the progenitor of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa L.), is endangered due to habitat loss. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the genetic diversity of wild rice species in isolated populations and to develop a core collection of representative genotypes for ex situ conservation. We collected 885 wild rice accessions from eight geographically distinct regions and transplanted these accessions in a protected conservation garden over a period of almost two decades. We evaluated these accessions for 13 morphological or phenological traits and genotyped them for 36 DNA markers evenly distributed on the 12 chromosomes. The coefficient of variation of quantitative traits was 0.56 and ranged from 0.37 to 1.06. SSR markers detected 206 different alleles with an average of 6 alleles per locus. The mean polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.64 in all populations, indicating that the marker loci have a high level of polymorphism and genetic diversity in all populations. Phylogenetic analyses based on morphological and molecular data revealed remarkable differences in the genetic diversity of common wild rice populations. The results showed that the Zengcheng, Gaozhou, and Suixi populations possess higher levels of genetic diversity, whereas the Huilai and Boluo populations have lower levels of genetic diversity than do the other populations. Based on their genetic distance, 130 accessions were selected as a core collection that retained over 90% of the alleles at the 36 marker loci. This genetically diverse core collection will be a useful resource for genomic studies of rice and for initiatives aimed at developing rice with improved agronomic traits.

  7. Transcriptional regulation of three EIN3-like genes of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Improved White Sim) during flower development and upon wounding, pollination, and ethylene exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordachescu, Mihaela; Verlinden, Sven

    2005-08-01

    Using a combination of approaches, three EIN3-like (EIL) genes DC-EIL1/2 (AY728191), DC-EIL3 (AY728192), and DC-EIL4 (AY728193) were isolated from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) petals. DC-EIL1/2 deduced amino acid sequence shares 98% identity with the previously cloned and characterized carnation DC-EIL1 (AF261654), 62% identity with DC-EIL3, and 60% identity with DC-EIL4. DC-EIL3 deduced amino acid sequence shares 100% identity with a previously cloned carnation gene fragment, Dc106 (CF259543), 61% identity with Dianthus caryophyllus DC-EIL1 (AF261654), and 59% identity with DC-EIL4. DC-EIL4 shared 60% identity with DC-EIL1 (AF261654). Expression analyses performed on vegetative and flower tissues (petals, ovaries, and styles) during growth and development and senescence (natural and ethylene-induced) indicated that the mRNA accumulation of the DC-EIL family of genes in carnation is regulated developmentally and by ethylene. DC-EIL3 mRNA showed significant accumulation upon ethylene exposure, during flower development, and upon pollination in petals and styles. Interestingly, decreasing levels of DC-EIL3 mRNA were found in wounded leaves and ovaries of senescing flowers whenever ethylene levels increased. Flowers treated with sucrose showed a 2 d delay in the accumulation of DC-EIL3 transcripts when compared with control flowers. These observations suggest an important role for DC-EIL3 during growth and development. Changes in DC-EIL1/2 and DC-EIL4 mRNA levels during flower development, and upon ethylene exposure and pollination were very similar. mRNA levels of the DC-EILs in styles of pollinated flowers showed a positive correlation with ethylene production after pollination. The cloning and characterization of the EIN3-like genes in the present study showed their transcriptional regulation not previously observed for EILs.

  8. Process Development in the Preparation and Characterization of Silicon Alkoxide From Rice Husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin San Win; Toe Shein; Nyunt Wynn

    2011-12-01

    The preparation and characterization of silicon alkoxide (silicon isopropoxide) from rice husk char has been studied. In the investigation, four kinds of Myanmar paddies were chemically assayed. Analyses showed the silicon contend varies from 73-92% . Based on the silicon content, the process development in the production of silicon isopropoxide was carried out. In the process development, silicon isopropoxide with a yield of 44.21% was achieved by the direct reaction of isopropanol in situ by silicon tetrachloride, which was directly produced by the chlorination of rice husk char at the high temperature range of 900-1100 C. The novelity of the process was that, silicon isopropoxide was achieved in situ and not by using the old process, where generally isopropanol was reacted with silicon tetrachloride. The physiochemical properties of silicon isopropoxide was confirmed by conventional and modern techniques. In the investigation, the starting materials, silica in the reaction products were characterized, identified and confirmed by modren techniques. Silicon isopropoxide can be a sources of pore silica whereby silicon of 97-99% of purity can be achieved.

  9. Flower and fruit development of Parkia pendula (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae Desenvolvimento de flores e frutos de Parkia pendula (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Piechowski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkia pendula occurs in Brazil in Amazonia and in the northeastern Atlantic Forest. In the latter, its buds, nectar, and seedpod gum are discussed to be keystone resources for the mammalian fauna. To enhance the knowledge about these important nourishment sources, the aim of this study was to detect and describe distinct phases in the flower and pod development. The study was conducted in a 306 ha forest fragment in Igarassu, Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. Six morphometrical variables were measured weekly at five inflorescences of two individuals from September 2003 to January 2004. Eleven distinct developmental phases were identified in the 21 weeks lasting development from the very first inflorescences to mature pods and are described in detail. These phases are good predictors for the flowering and fruiting phenology of P. pendula, since they are easily distinguishable from the forest floor. Furthermore, highly synchronized abortions of inflorescences, buds, and pods were observed which support the previously assumed predator satiation defense strategy in Parkia.Parkia pendula ocorre no Brasil, tanto na Amazônia como na Mata Atlântica nordestina. Seus botões, néctar e goma da vagem são recursos chave para a mastofauna da Mata Atlântica nordestina. Para aumentar o conhecimento sobre estes importantes recursos alimentares, este estudo teve como objetivo detectar e descrever as diferentes fases de desenvolvimento de flores e frutos. Este trabalho foi realizado em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica de 306 ha em Igarassu, Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. Entre setembro de 2003 e janeiro de 2004, seis variáveis morfométricas foram medidas semanalmente em cinco inflorescências de dois indivíduos. Onze fases distintas de desenvolvimento puderam ser identificadas e descritas em detalhe nas 21 semanas desde o desenvolvimento das primeiras inflorescências até as vagens maduras. Essas fases são boas preditoras da fenologia de floração e

  10. Stakeholder preferences towards the sustainable development of CDM projects: Lessons from biomass (rice husk) CDM project in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parnphumeesup, Piya; Kerr, Sandy A.

    2011-01-01

    This research applies both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate stakeholder preferences towards sustainable development (SD) priorities in Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. The CDM's contribution to SD is explored in the context of a biomass (rice husk) case study conducted in Thailand. Quantitative analysis ranks increasing the usage of renewable energy as the highest priority, followed by employment and technology transfer. Air pollution (dust) is ranked as the most important problem. Preference weights expressed by experts and local resident are statistically different in the cases of: employment generation; emission reductions; dust; waste disposal; and noise. Qualitative results, suggest that rice husk CDM projects contribute significantly to SD in terms of employment generation, an increase in usage of renewable energy, and transfer of knowledge. However, rice husk biomass projects create a potential negative impact on air quality. In order to ensure the environmental sustainability of CDM projects, stakeholders suggest that Thailand should cancel an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) exemption for CDM projects with an installed capacity below 10 MW and apply it to all CDM projects. - Highlights: → Stakeholders rank increasing the usage of renewable energy as the highest priority. → Biomass (rice husk) CDM projects create a potential negative impact on air quality. → Rice husk CDM projects cannot give an extra income to farmers. → Preference weights expressed by experts and local residents are statistically different.

  11. Association between sequence variants in panicle development genes and the number of spikelets per panicle in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Su; Lee, Yunjoo; Lee, Gileung; Seo, Jeonghwan; Lee, Dongryung; Yu, Yoye; Chin, Joong Hyoun; Koh, Hee-Jong

    2018-01-15

    Balancing panicle-related traits such as panicle length and the numbers of primary and secondary branches per panicle, is key to improving the number of spikelets per panicle in rice. Identifying genetic information contributes to a broader understanding of the roles of gene and provides candidate alleles for use as DNA markers. Discovering relations between panicle-related traits and sequence variants allows opportunity for molecular application in rice breeding to improve the number of spikelets per panicle. In total, 142 polymorphic sites, which constructed 58 haplotypes, were detected in coding regions of ten panicle development gene and 35 sequence variants in six genes were significantly associated with panicle-related traits. Rice cultivars were clustered according to their sequence variant profiles. One of the four resultant clusters, which contained only indica and tong-il varieties, exhibited the largest average number of favorable alleles and highest average number of spikelets per panicle, suggesting that the favorable allele combination found in this cluster was beneficial in increasing the number of spikelets per panicle. Favorable alleles identified in this study can be used to develop functional markers for rice breeding programs. Furthermore, stacking several favorable alleles has the potential to substantially improve the number of spikelets per panicle in rice.

  12. Allelic Variation in the Perennial Ryegrass FLOWERING LOCUS T Gene is Associated with Changes in Flowering Time across a Range of Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, Leif; Sanderson, Ruth; Thomas, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene and its orthologs in other plant species (e.g. rice [Oryza sativa] OsFTL2/Hd3a) have an established role in the photoperiodic induction of flowering response. The genomic and phenotypic variations associated with the perennial...

  13. Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR during leaf and flower development in Petunia hybrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hause Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of genes with invariant levels of gene expression is a prerequisite for validating transcriptomic changes accompanying development. Ideally expression of these genes should be independent of the morphogenetic process or environmental condition tested as well as the methods used for RNA purification and analysis. Results In an effort to identify endogenous genes meeting these criteria nine reference genes (RG were tested in two Petunia lines (Mitchell and V30. Growth conditions differed in Mitchell and V30, and different methods were used for RNA isolation and analysis. Four different software tools were employed to analyze the data. We merged the four outputs by means of a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. The genes identified as optimal for transcriptomic analysis of Mitchell and V30 were EF1α in Mitchell and CYP in V30, whereas the least suitable gene was GAPDH in both lines. Conclusions The least adequate gene turned out to be GAPDH indicating that it should be rejected as reference gene in Petunia. The absence of correspondence of the best-suited genes suggests that assessing reference gene stability is needed when performing normalization of data from transcriptomic analysis of flower and leaf development.

  14. A Multi-Year Study of the Impact of the Rice Model Teacher Professional Development on Elementary Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Dana Viorica; Radigan, Judy; Suskavcevic, Milijana; Nichol, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    A teacher professional development program for in-service elementary school science teachers, the Rice Elementary Model Science Lab (REMSL), was developed for urban school districts serving predominately high-poverty, high-minority students. Teachers with diverse skills and science capacities came together in Professional Learning Communities, one…

  15. Consumer acceptance, market test and market development of irradiated rice, dehydrated vegetables and spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Peixin; Lin Yin

    2001-01-01

    Establishment of irradiation processing parameters, a quality assurance system, consumer acceptance, market test and market development of irradiated rice, dehydrated vegetables and spices were the activities carried out in this project by the Chinese Agricultural Irradiation Center. The results of the studies showed that the process dose for rice was 0.2-0.5 kGy when the non-uniformity was lower than 2.5, dose range for dehydrated vegetables was 5-7 kGy, dose for spices was 7-8 kGy. The system for quality assurance was established. The processing standards for several irradiated food items were set up. Market test showed that more than 70-80% of consumers accepted irradiated food. Industrial companies also accepted irradiated dehydrated vegetables and spices. The latter were successfully introduced to the markets and successful commercialization of irradiated garlic was followed. The economic benefit of operating the Chinese Agricultural Irradiation Center was analyzed and found attractive, especially for low dose irradiation of foods in sufficient supply. (author)

  16. Consumer acceptance, market test and market development of irradiated rice, dehydrated vegetables and spices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixin, Shi; Yin, Lin [Chinese Agricultural Irradiation Center, Institute for Application of Atomic Energy, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2001-05-01

    Establishment of irradiation processing parameters, a quality assurance system, consumer acceptance, market test and market development of irradiated rice, dehydrated vegetables and spices were the activities carried out in this project by the Chinese Agricultural Irradiation Center. The results of the studies showed that the process dose for rice was 0.2-0.5 kGy when the non-uniformity was lower than 2.5, dose range for dehydrated vegetables was 5-7 kGy, dose for spices was 7-8 kGy. The system for quality assurance was established. The processing standards for several irradiated food items were set up. Market test showed that more than 70-80% of consumers accepted irradiated food. Industrial companies also accepted irradiated dehydrated vegetables and spices. The latter were successfully introduced to the markets and successful commercialization of irradiated garlic was followed. The economic benefit of operating the Chinese Agricultural Irradiation Center was analyzed and found attractive, especially for low dose irradiation of foods in sufficient supply. (author)

  17. Development of New Submergence Tolerant Rice Variety for Bangladesh Using Marker-Assisted Backcrossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandakar Md Iftekharuddaula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Submergence tolerant high yielding rice variety was developed using BR11 as a recipient parent applying foreground, phenotypic and background selection approaches. Recombinant selection was found essential to minimize linkage drag by BC2F2 generation. Without recombinant selection, the introgression size in the backcross recombinant lines (BRLs was approximately 15 Mb on the carrier chromosome. The BRLs were found submergence tolerance compared to the check varieties under complete submergence for two weeks at Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, and produced higher yield compared to the isogenic Sub1-line under controlled submerged condition. The BRL IR85260-66-654-Gaz2 was released as BRRI dhan52 in 2010, which was the first high yielding submergence tolerant variety in Bangladesh. BRRI dhan52 produced grain yield ranging from 4.2 to 5.2 t/hm2 under different flash flood prone areas of Bangladesh in three consecutive seasons. The study demonstrated the efficiency of recombinant selection and better adaptability of the newly released submergence tolerant high yielding variety in flash flood prone different areas of the country with respect to submergence tolerance and yield potential.

  18. Development of heat resistant geopolymer-based materials from red mud and rice husk ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Nguyen Hoc; Nhung, Le Thuy; Quyen, Pham Vo Thi Ha; Phong, Dang Thanh; Khe, Dao Thanh; Van Phuc, Nguyen

    2018-04-01

    Geopolymer is an inorganic polymer composite developed by Joseph Davidovits in 1970s. Such material has potentials to replace Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)-based materials in the future because of its lower energy consumption, minimal CO2 emissions and lower production cost as it utilizes industrial waste resources. Hence, geopolymerization and the process to produce geopolymers for various applications like building materials can be considered as green industry. Moreover, in this study, red mud and rice husk ash were used as raw materials for geopolymeric production, which are aluminum industrial and agricultural wastes that need to be managed to reduce their negative impact to the environment. The red mud and rice husk ash were mixed with sodium silicate (water glass) solution to form geopolymer paste. The geopolymer paste was filled into 5-cm cube molds according to ASTM C109/C109M 99, and then cured at room temperature for 28 days. These products were then tested for compressive strength and volumetric weight. Results indicated that the material can be considered lightweight with a compressive strength at 28 days that are in the range of 6.8 to 15.5 MPa. Moreover, the geopolymer specimens were also tested for heat resistance at a temperature of 1000oC for 2 hours. Results suggest high heat resistance with an increase of compressive strength from 262% to 417% after exposed at high temperature.

  19. Process development and economic evaluation of recombinant human lactoferrin expressed in rice grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Somen; Yalda, Dorice; Lu, Stephen; Nikolov, Zivko; Misaki, Ryo; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Huang, Ning

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, we show that recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) has been stably expressed at 0.5% brown rice flour weight for nine generations. Process development indicates that rhLF can be efficiently extracted from rice flour in 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing up to 0.5 M NaCl and at a ratio of 1 kg flour to 10 L buffer. After solid/liquid separation, the extract can then be loaded directly onto an ion-exchange column and rhLF can be eluted using 0.8 M NaCl. The resulting rhLF is about 95% pure. A range of biochemical and biophysical analyses were carried out and results indicated that the purified rhLF was identical to its native human counterpart other than its glycosylation. Economic analysis shows that at 600 kg/year scale, the cash cost to produce 1 g of rhLF of pharmaceutical grade is US$ 5.90. Analysis also indicates that the expression level has profound impact on costs related to planting, milling, extraction and purification, thus high level expression of recombinant protein in plants is one of the key parameters for the success of plant made pharmaceuticals.

  20. Glutinous rice variety R817 for good quality wine developed by radiation induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingxian; Luo Rongting; Xu Baocai

    1987-01-01

    Full text: The variety has been developed by gamma irradiation of dry seeds of Ai Shang Nu' at Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences. The main characteristics are as follows: 1. It has higher yield: Average about 6000 kg/ha, maximum 7800 kg/ha in trials, about 10% above the control variety 'Shang Nuo No. 4'. 2. It is disease resistant: After artificial inoculation resistant to rice blast pathotypes A, A63, B1, B15, C3, C13, C15, D3, E1, G1. 3. The growing period of the variety is about 136 days in Hangzhou. 3 days earlier than the original variety. The seedling period could be long or short. 4. It has good grain quality suitable for making Xiang Xue, Shan Miang and other well known rice wines. The variety is being grown all over our province and in some neighbouring provinces. Its cultivation area was 2000 ha in 1984, more than 8000 ha in 1985 and is rapidly increasing. (author)

  1. Development of breeding materials in rice by use of induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Etsuo

    1988-01-01

    On this 25th Gamma Field Symposium, it may be worth while to review the world situation of mutation breeding, the possibility expected to mutation methods suggested by the ever progressing genetics in rice plant, and some of the activities in the Institute of Radiation Breeding. By the help of a small computer, the key word search analysis of 'Mutation Breeding Newsletter and Mutation Breeding Review' was tried, and the results are included in this review to see the present status. The studies on artificially induced mutation suggested that the possibility of dominant mutation is less. It might be probable that the inactivation of genes is the mechanism of mutation. Still the possibility of using mutation breeding techniques for many genetic characters was suggested. After the experience for 25 years, detailed genetical and fine structure analyses became important. The studies on the expression of mutant phenotypes including molecular genetics will help to develop radiation breeding into an effective means to enrich the genetic resources for breeding. The situation in the world, the genes reported in rice, the possibility to induce useful mutants against environmental stress, the mutation in the protein content in grains, the mutants of storage carbohydrate, the possibility to widen gene resources and so on are reported. (Kako, I.)

  2. The Oryza sativa Regulator HDR1 Associates with the Kinase OsK4 to Control Photoperiodic Flowering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehui Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice is a facultative short-day plant (SDP, and the regulatory pathways for flowering time are conserved, but functionally modified, in Arabidopsis and rice. Heading date 1 (Hd1, an ortholog of Arabidopsis CONSTANS (CO, is a key regulator that suppresses flowering under long-day conditions (LDs, but promotes flowering under short-day conditions (SDs by influencing the expression of the florigen gene Heading date 3a (Hd3a. Another key regulator, Early heading date 1 (Ehd1, is an evolutionarily unique gene with no orthologs in Arabidopsis, which acts as a flowering activator under both SD and LD by promoting the rice florigen genes Hd3a and RICE FLOWERING LOCUST 1 (RFT1. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of the flowering regulator Heading Date Repressor1 (HDR1 in rice. The hdr1 mutant exhibits an early flowering phenotype under natural LD in a paddy field in Beijing, China (39°54'N, 116°23'E, as well as under LD but not SD in a growth chamber, indicating that HDR1 may functionally regulate flowering time via the photoperiod-dependent pathway. HDR1 encodes a nuclear protein that is most active in leaves and floral organs and exhibits a typical diurnal expression pattern. We determined that HDR1 is a novel suppressor of flowering that upregulates Hd1 and downregulates Ehd1, leading to the downregulation of Hd3a and RFT1 under LDs. We have further identified an HDR1-interacting kinase, OsK4, another suppressor of rice flowering under LDs. OsK4 acts similarly to HDR1, suppressing flowering by upregulating Hd1 and downregulating Ehd1 under LDs, and OsK4 can phosphorylate HD1 with HDR1 presents. These results collectively reveal the transcriptional regulators of Hd1 for the day-length-dependent control of flowering time in rice.

  3. Development and evaluation of a high-throughput, low-cost genotyping platform based on oligonucleotide microarrays in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report the development of a microarray platform for rapid and cost-effective genetic mapping, and its evaluation using rice as a model. In contrast to methods employing whole-genome tiling microarrays for genotyping, our method is based on low-cost spotted microarray production, focusing only on known polymorphic features. Results We have produced a genotyping microarray for rice, comprising 880 single feature polymorphism (SFP elements derived from insertions/deletions identified by aligning genomic sequences of the japonica cultivar Nipponbare and the indica cultivar 93-11. The SFPs were experimentally verified by hybridization with labeled genomic DNA prepared from the two cultivars. Using the genotyping microarrays, we found high levels of polymorphism across diverse rice accessions, and were able to classify all five subpopulations of rice with high bootstrap support. The microarrays were used for mapping of a gene conferring resistance to Magnaporthe grisea, the causative organism of rice blast disease, by quantitative genotyping of samples from a recombinant inbred line population pooled by phenotype. Conclusion We anticipate this microarray-based genotyping platform, based on its low cost-per-sample, to be particularly useful in applications requiring whole-genome molecular marker coverage across large numbers of individuals.

  4. Transcriptome analyses of the Dof-like gene family in grapevine reveal its involvement in berry, flower and seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Danielle Costenaro; da Silveira Falavigna, Vítor; Fasoli, Marianna; Buffon, Vanessa; Porto, Diogo Denardi; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; Pezzotti, Mario; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Revers, Luís Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Dof (DNA-binding with one finger) protein family spans a group of plant transcription factors involved in the regulation of several functions, such as plant responses to stress, hormones and light, phytochrome signaling and seed germination. Here we describe the Dof-like gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), which consists of 25 genes coding for Dof. An extensive in silico characterization of the VviDofL gene family was performed. Additionally, the expression of the entire gene family was assessed in 54 grapevine tissues and organs using an integrated approach with microarray (cv Corvina) and real-time PCR (cv Pinot Noir) analyses. The phylogenetic analysis comparing grapevine sequences with those of Arabidopsis, tomato, poplar and already described Dof genes in other species allowed us to identify several duplicated genes. The diversification of grapevine DofL genes during evolution likely resulted in a broader range of biological roles. Furthermore, distinct expression patterns were identified between samples analyzed, corroborating such hypothesis. Our expression results indicate that several VviDofL genes perform their functional roles mainly during flower, berry and seed development, highlighting their importance for grapevine growth and production. The identification of similar expression profiles between both approaches strongly suggests that these genes have important regulatory roles that are evolutionally conserved between grapevine cvs Corvina and Pinot Noir.

  5. Transcriptomic Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes during Flower Organ Development in Genetic Male Sterile and Male Fertile Tagetes erecta by Digital Gene-Expression Profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Ai

    Full Text Available Tagetes erecta is an important commercial plant of Asteraceae family. The male sterile (MS and male fertile (MF two-type lines of T. erecta have been utilized in F1 hybrid production for many years, but no report has been made to identify the genes that specify its male sterility that is caused by homeotic conversion of floral organs. In this study, transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression profiling were performed to generate expression profiles of MS and MF plants. A cDNA library was generated from an equal mixture of RNA isolated from MS and MF flower buds (1 mm and 4 mm in diameter. Totally, 87,473,431 clean tags were obtained and assembled into 128,937 transcripts among which 65,857 unigenes were identified with an average length of 1,188 bp. About 52% of unigenes (34,176 were annotated in Nr, Nt, Pfam, KOG/COG, Swiss-Prot, KO (KEGG Ortholog database and/or GO. Taking the above transcriptome as reference, 125 differentially expressed genes were detected in both developmental stages of MS and MF flower buds. MADS-box genes were presumed to be highly related to male sterility in T. erecta based on histological and cytological observations. Twelve MADS-box genes showed significantly different expression levels in flower buds 4 mm in diameter, whereas only one gene expressed significantly different in flower buds 1 mm in diameter between MS and MF plants. This is the first transcriptome analysis in T. erecta and will provide a valuable resource for future genomic studies, especially in flower organ development and/or differentiation.

  6. Generation and analysis of blueberry transcriptome sequences from leaves, developing fruit, and flower buds from cold acclimation through deacclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowland Lisa J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been increased consumption of blueberries in recent years fueled in part because of their many recognized health benefits. Blueberry fruit is very high in anthocyanins, which have been linked to improved night vision, prevention of macular degeneration, anti-cancer activity, and reduced risk of heart disease. Very few genomic resources have been available for blueberry, however. Further development of genomic resources like expressed sequence tags (ESTs, molecular markers, and genetic linkage maps could lead to more rapid genetic improvement. Marker-assisted selection could be used to combine traits for climatic adaptation with fruit and nutritional quality traits. Results Efforts to sequence the transcriptome of the commercial highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum cultivar Bluecrop and use the sequences to identify genes associated with cold acclimation and fruit development and develop SSR markers for mapping studies are presented here. Transcriptome sequences were generated from blueberry fruit at different stages of development, flower buds at different stages of cold acclimation, and leaves by next-generation Roche 454 sequencing. Over 600,000 reads were assembled into approximately 15,000 contigs and 124,000 singletons. The assembled sequences were annotated and functionally mapped to Gene Ontology (GO terms. Frequency of the most abundant sequences in each of the libraries was compared across all libraries to identify genes that are potentially differentially expressed during cold acclimation and fruit development. Real-time PCR was performed to confirm their differential expression patterns. Overall, 14 out of 17 of the genes examined had differential expression patterns similar to what was predicted from their reads alone. The assembled sequences were also mined for SSRs. From these sequences, 15,886 blueberry EST-SSR loci were identified. Primers were designed from 7,705 of the SSR-containing sequences

  7. Generation and analysis of blueberry transcriptome sequences from leaves, developing fruit, and flower buds from cold acclimation through deacclimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been increased consumption of blueberries in recent years fueled in part because of their many recognized health benefits. Blueberry fruit is very high in anthocyanins, which have been linked to improved night vision, prevention of macular degeneration, anti-cancer activity, and reduced risk of heart disease. Very few genomic resources have been available for blueberry, however. Further development of genomic resources like expressed sequence tags (ESTs), molecular markers, and genetic linkage maps could lead to more rapid genetic improvement. Marker-assisted selection could be used to combine traits for climatic adaptation with fruit and nutritional quality traits. Results Efforts to sequence the transcriptome of the commercial highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) cultivar Bluecrop and use the sequences to identify genes associated with cold acclimation and fruit development and develop SSR markers for mapping studies are presented here. Transcriptome sequences were generated from blueberry fruit at different stages of development, flower buds at different stages of cold acclimation, and leaves by next-generation Roche 454 sequencing. Over 600,000 reads were assembled into approximately 15,000 contigs and 124,000 singletons. The assembled sequences were annotated and functionally mapped to Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Frequency of the most abundant sequences in each of the libraries was compared across all libraries to identify genes that are potentially differentially expressed during cold acclimation and fruit development. Real-time PCR was performed to confirm their differential expression patterns. Overall, 14 out of 17 of the genes examined had differential expression patterns similar to what was predicted from their reads alone. The assembled sequences were also mined for SSRs. From these sequences, 15,886 blueberry EST-SSR loci were identified. Primers were designed from 7,705 of the SSR-containing sequences with adequate flanking

  8. Generation and analysis of blueberry transcriptome sequences from leaves, developing fruit, and flower buds from cold acclimation through deacclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Lisa J; Alkharouf, Nadim; Darwish, Omar; Ogden, Elizabeth L; Polashock, James J; Bassil, Nahla V; Main, Dorrie

    2012-04-02

    There has been increased consumption of blueberries in recent years fueled in part because of their many recognized health benefits. Blueberry fruit is very high in anthocyanins, which have been linked to improved night vision, prevention of macular degeneration, anti-cancer activity, and reduced risk of heart disease. Very few genomic resources have been available for blueberry, however. Further development of genomic resources like expressed sequence tags (ESTs), molecular markers, and genetic linkage maps could lead to more rapid genetic improvement. Marker-assisted selection could be used to combine traits for climatic adaptation with fruit and nutritional quality traits. Efforts to sequence the transcriptome of the commercial highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) cultivar Bluecrop and use the sequences to identify genes associated with cold acclimation and fruit development and develop SSR markers for mapping studies are presented here. Transcriptome sequences were generated from blueberry fruit at different stages of development, flower buds at different stages of cold acclimation, and leaves by next-generation Roche 454 sequencing. Over 600,000 reads were assembled into approximately 15,000 contigs and 124,000 singletons. The assembled sequences were annotated and functionally mapped to Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Frequency of the most abundant sequences in each of the libraries was compared across all libraries to identify genes that are potentially differentially expressed during cold acclimation and fruit development. Real-time PCR was performed to confirm their differential expression patterns. Overall, 14 out of 17 of the genes examined had differential expression patterns similar to what was predicted from their reads alone. The assembled sequences were also mined for SSRs. From these sequences, 15,886 blueberry EST-SSR loci were identified. Primers were designed from 7,705 of the SSR-containing sequences with adequate flanking sequence. One hundred

  9. Understanding the nature of methane emission from rice ecosystems as basis of mitigation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buendia, L.V.; Neue, H.U.; Wassmann, R. [International Rice Research Institute, Laguna (Philippines)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Methane is considered as an important Greenhouse gas and rice fields are one of the major atmospheric methane sources. The paper aims to develop sampling strategies and formulate mitigation options based on diel (day and night) and seasonal pattern of methane emission. The study was conducted in 4 countries to measure methane flux using an automatic closed chamber system. A 24-hour bihourly methane emissions were continuously obtained during the whole growing season. Daily and seasonal pattern of methane fluxes from different rice ecosystems were evaluated. Diel pattern of methane emission from irrigated rice fields, in all sites, displayed similar pattern from planting to flowering. Fluxes at 0600, 1200, and 1800 h were important components of the total diel flux. A proposed sampling frequency to accurately estimate methane emission within the growing season was designed based on the magnitude of daily flux variation. Total methane emission from different ecosystems follow the order: deepwater rice > irrigated rice > rainfed rice. Application of pig manure increased total emission by 10 times of that without manure. Green manure application increased emission by 49% of that applied only with inorganic fertilizer. Removal of floodwater at 10 DAP and 35 DAP, within a period of 4 days, inhibited production and emission of methane. The level of variation in daily methane emission and seasonal emission pattern provides useful information for accurate determination of methane fluxes. Characterization of seasonal emission pattern as to ecologies, fertilizer amendments, and water management gives an idea of where to focus mitigation strategies for sustainable rice production.

  10. Equol, a Clinically Important Metabolite, Inhibits the Development and Pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae, the Causal Agent of Rice Blast Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaoyu Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Equol, a metabolite of soybean isoflavone daidzein, has been proven to have various bioactivities related to human health, but little is known on its antifungal activity to plant fungal pathogens. Magnaporthe oryzae is a phytopathogenic fungus that causes rice blast, a devastating disease on rice. Here, we demonstrated that equol influences the development and pathogenicity of M. oryzae. Equol showed a significant inhibition to the mycelial growth, conidial generation and germination, and appressorial formation of M. oryzae. As a result, equol greatly reduced the virulence of M. oryzae on rice and barley leaves. The antifungal activity of equol was also found in several other plant fungal pathogens. These findings expand our knowledge on the bioactivities of equol.

  11. Temperature-dependent development and reproduction of rice leaffolder, Marasmia exigua (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Ju Liao

    Full Text Available Marasmia exigua (Butler (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is one of the major rice leaffolders negatively affecting the rice production in the world. The growth and development of M. exigua was studied at seven constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35°C. The results showed that M. exigua eggs failed to hatch at 10°C and the larvae could not complete development at 15 and 35°C. The developmental times of each stage, survival rates of pre-adult, adult longevity, fecundities and oviposition days of M. exigua at 20, 25, 27 and 30°C were investigated using age-stage, two-sex life table. The total pre-adult development time decreased with the increase in temperature decreasing from 61.58 days at 20°C to 28.94 days at 30°C. The highest survival rate was observed at 25°C (73%. Male adult longevities were generally longer than that of females, except at 30°C. The highest mean fecundity, age-stage specific fecundity and age-specific fecundity peak values were all observed at 27°C. The maximum intrinsic rate of increase r and finite rate of increase λ were observed at 27°C, while the maximum net reproduction rate R0 was observed at 25°C. The longest mean generation time occurred at 20°C and the shortest at 27°C. These results provide better understanding on the development, reproduction and dynamic of M. exigua populations, their distribution, and might be utilized to forecast and manage M. exigua outbreaks in China.

  12. Induced mutations to develop sources of resistance to rice blast, Pyricularia grisea Sacc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa-Victoria, F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Rice blast caused by Pyricularia grisea is the most important disease limiting yields worldwide. The pathogen has many virulent forms or pathotypes, hence durable blast resistance is lacking. Studies on strategy to develop durable blast resistance based on defining the genetic structure of the population, using DNA-fingerprinting, and virulence diversity are described. This strategy is leading to the identification of resistance genes/sources against all isolates within a genetic family of the pathogen. Combinations of genes showing complementary resistance to different genetic families of the fungus exclude any compatible interaction with a blast isolate. Identification of complementary resistance genes is based on detecting those virulence factors whose combinations in individual isolates within the pathogen population have a frequency near zero. Identifying and combining resistance genes to which combinations of corresponding virulence genes are absent in the pathogen population should confer more durable resistance than that previously obtained. The use of induced mutations in the development of resistance was limited, since in most cases single gene changes were responsible for the induced resistance against all the pathogen population. The main objective here is to develop many mutants, each with a gene resistant to just one or a few families of the blast pathogen; and crossing them can accumulate the different resistance genes. A total of 201 Latin American commercial cultivars, including Cuban, Brazilian and Venezuelan were analyzed with different genetic families of the blast pathogen to identify potential sources of resistance to blast and identify complementary resistance sources. Characterization of the resistance of 37 mutants of the Colombian rice cultivar Oryzica 1 was conducted in collaboration with the INEA in Colombia. Results suggested that mutations for resistance to genetic families to which Oryzica 1 is susceptible were induced, although one

  13. Processes underpinning development and maintenance of diversity in rice in West Africa: evidence from combining morphological and molecular markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Mokuwa

    Full Text Available We assessed the interplay of artificial and natural selection in rice adaptation in low-input farming systems in West Africa. Using 20 morphological traits and 176 molecular markers, 182 farmer varieties of rice (Oryza spp. from 6 West African countries were characterized. Principal component analysis showed that the four botanical groups (Oryza sativa ssp. indica, O. sativa ssp. japonica, O. glaberrima, and interspecific farmer hybrids exhibited different patterns of morphological diversity. Regarding O. glaberrima, morphological and molecular data were in greater conformity than for the other botanical groups. A clear difference in morphological features was observed between O. glaberrima rices from the Togo hills and those from the Upper Guinea Coast, and among O. glaberrima rices from the Upper Guinea Coast. For the other three groups such clear patterns were not observed. We argue that this is because genetic diversity is shaped by different environmental and socio-cultural selection pressures. For O. glaberrima, recent socio-cultural selection pressures seemed to restrict genetic diversity while this was not observed for the other botanical groups. We also show that O. glaberrima still plays an important role in the selection practices of farmers and resulting variety development pathways. This is particularly apparent in the case of interspecific farmer hybrids where a relationship was found between pericarp colour, panicle attitude and genetic diversity. Farmer varieties are the product of long and complex trajectories of selection governed by local human agency. In effect, rice varieties have emerged that are adapted to West African farming conditions through genotype × environment × society interactions. The diversity farmers maintain in their rice varieties is understood to be part of a risk-spreading strategy that also facilitates successful and often serendipitous variety innovations. We advocate, therefore, that farmers and

  14. Processes underpinning development and maintenance of diversity in rice in West Africa: evidence from combining morphological and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokuwa, Alfred; Nuijten, Edwin; Okry, Florent; Teeken, Béla; Maat, Harro; Richards, Paul; Struik, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the interplay of artificial and natural selection in rice adaptation in low-input farming systems in West Africa. Using 20 morphological traits and 176 molecular markers, 182 farmer varieties of rice (Oryza spp.) from 6 West African countries were characterized. Principal component analysis showed that the four botanical groups (Oryza sativa ssp. indica, O. sativa ssp. japonica, O. glaberrima, and interspecific farmer hybrids) exhibited different patterns of morphological diversity. Regarding O. glaberrima, morphological and molecular data were in greater conformity than for the other botanical groups. A clear difference in morphological features was observed between O. glaberrima rices from the Togo hills and those from the Upper Guinea Coast, and among O. glaberrima rices from the Upper Guinea Coast. For the other three groups such clear patterns were not observed. We argue that this is because genetic diversity is shaped by different environmental and socio-cultural selection pressures. For O. glaberrima, recent socio-cultural selection pressures seemed to restrict genetic diversity while this was not observed for the other botanical groups. We also show that O. glaberrima still plays an important role in the selection practices of farmers and resulting variety development pathways. This is particularly apparent in the case of interspecific farmer hybrids where a relationship was found between pericarp colour, panicle attitude and genetic diversity. Farmer varieties are the product of long and complex trajectories of selection governed by local human agency. In effect, rice varieties have emerged that are adapted to West African farming conditions through genotype × environment × society interactions. The diversity farmers maintain in their rice varieties is understood to be part of a risk-spreading strategy that also facilitates successful and often serendipitous variety innovations. We advocate, therefore, that farmers and farmer varieties should

  15. Cloning and functional analysis of the promoters that upregulate carotenogenic gene expression during flower development in Gentiana lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changfu; Yang, Qingjie; Ni, Xiuzhen; Bai, Chao; Sheng, Yanmin; Shi, Lianxuan; Capell, Teresa; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Over the last two decades, many carotenogenic genes have been cloned and used to generate metabolically engineered plants producing higher levels of carotenoids. However, comparatively little is known about the regulation of endogenous carotenogenic genes in higher plants, and this restricts our ability to predict how engineered plants will perform in terms of carotenoid content and composition. During petal development in the Great Yellow Gentian (Gentiana lutea), carotenoid accumulation, the formation of chromoplasts and the upregulation of several carotenogenic genes are temporally coordinated. We investigated the regulatory mechanisms responsible for this coordinated expression by isolating five G. lutea carotenogenic gene (GlPDS, GlZDS, GlLYCB, GlBCH and GlLYCE) promoters by inverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Each promoter was sufficient for developmentally regulated expression of the gusA reporter gene following transient expression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom). Interestingly, the GlLYCB and GlBCH promoters drove high levels of gusA expression in chromoplast-containing mature green fruits, but low levels in chloroplast-containing immature green fruits, indicating a strict correlation between promoter activity, tomato fruit development and chromoplast differentiation. As well as core promoter elements such as TATA and CAAT boxes, all five promoters together with previously characterized GlZEP promoter contained three common cis-regulatory motifs involved in the response to methyl jasmonate (CGTCA) and ethylene (ATCTA), and required for endosperm expression (Skn-1_motif, GTCAT). These shared common cis-acting elements may represent binding sites for transcription factors responsible for co-regulation. Our data provide insight into the regulatory basis of the coordinated upregulation of carotenogenic gene expression during flower development in G. lutea. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  16. Development of predictive weather scenarios for early prediction of rice yield in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Y.; Cho, J.; Jung, I.

    2017-12-01

    International grain prices are becoming unstable due to frequent occurrence of abnormal weather phenomena caused by climate change. Early prediction of grain yield using weather forecast data is important for stabilization of international grain prices. The APEC Climate Center (APCC) is providing seasonal forecast data based on monthly climate prediction models for global seasonal forecasting services. The 3-month and 6-month seasonal forecast data using the multi-model ensemble (MME) technique are provided in their own website, ADSS (APCC Data Service System, http://adss.apcc21.org/). The spatial resolution of seasonal forecast data for each individual model is 2.5°×2.5°(about 250km) and the time scale is created as monthly. In this study, we developed customized weather forecast scenarios that are combined seasonal forecast data and observational data apply to early rice yield prediction model. Statistical downscale method was applied to produce meteorological input data of crop model because field scale crop model (ORYZA2000) requires daily weather data. In order to determine whether the forecasting data is suitable for the crop model, we produced spatio-temporal downscaled weather scenarios and evaluated the predictability by comparison with observed weather data at 57 ASOS stations in South Korea. The customized weather forecast scenarios can be applied to various application fields not only early rice yield prediction. Acknowledgement This work was carried out with the support of "Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development (Project No: PJ012855022017)" Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.

  17. Development of the pollen in the antarctic flowering plant Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl.

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Giełwanowska; Anna Bochenek; Ewa Szczuka

    2012-01-01

    Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. produced two types very small bisexual fl owers. In the Antarctic natural conditions chasmogamic and cleistogamic fl owers most often form fi ve stamina with short fi laments. Two microsporangia with a three-layer wall form in the anther. Microspore mother cells, which develop into microspores after meiosis, form inside the microsporangium. Microsporocytes of Colobanthus quitensis are surrounded with a thick callose layer, the special wall. After meiosis, ...

  18. Genetic Loci Governing Grain Yield and Root Development under Variable Rice Cultivation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Catolos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the major abiotic stress to rice grain yield under unpredictable changing climatic scenarios. The widely grown, high yielding but drought susceptible rice varieties need to be improved by unraveling the genomic regions controlling traits enhancing drought tolerance. The present study was conducted with the aim to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs for grain yield and root development traits under irrigated non-stress and reproductive-stage drought stress in both lowland and upland situations. A mapping population consisting of 480 lines derived from a cross between Dular (drought-tolerant and IR64-21 (drought susceptible was used. QTL analysis revealed three major consistent-effect QTLs for grain yield (qDTY1.1, qDTY1.3, and qDTY8.1 under non-stress and reproductive-stage drought stress conditions, and 2 QTLs for root traits (qRT9.1 for root-growth angle and qRT5.1 for multiple root traits, i.e., seedling-stage root length, root dry weight and crown root number. The genetic locus qDTY1.1 was identified as hotspot for grain yield and yield-related agronomic and root traits. The study identified significant positive correlations among numbers of crown roots and mesocotyl length at the seedling stage and root length and root dry weight at depth at later stages with grain yield and yield-related traits. Under reproductive stage drought stress, the grain yield advantage of the lines with QTLs ranged from 24.1 to 108.9% under upland and 3.0–22.7% under lowland conditions over the lines without QTLs. The lines with QTL combinations qDTY1.3+qDTY8.1 showed the highest mean grain yield advantage followed by lines having qDTY1.1+qDTY8.1 and qDTY1.1+qDTY8.1+qDTY1.3, across upland/lowland reproductive-stage drought stress. The identified QTLs for root traits, mesocotyl length, grain yield and yield-related traits can be immediately deployed in marker-assisted breeding to develop drought tolerant high yielding rice varieties.

  19. Genes of the most conserved WOX clade in plants affect root and flower development in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreau Hervé

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Wuschel related homeobox (WOX family proteins are key regulators implicated in the determination of cell fate in plants by preventing cell differentiation. A recent WOX phylogeny, based on WOX homeodomains, showed that all of the Physcomitrella patens and Selaginella moellendorffii WOX proteins clustered into a single orthologous group. We hypothesized that members of this group might preferentially share a significant part of their function in phylogenetically distant organisms. Hence, we first validated the limits of the WOX13 orthologous group (WOX13 OG using the occurrence of other clade specific signatures and conserved intron insertion sites. Secondly, a functional analysis using expression data and mutants was undertaken. Results The WOX13 OG contained the most conserved plant WOX proteins including the only WOX detected in the highly proliferating basal unicellular and photosynthetic organism Ostreococcus tauri. A large expansion of the WOX family was observed after the separation of mosses from other land plants and before monocots and dicots have arisen. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AtWOX13 was dynamically expressed during primary and lateral root initiation and development, in gynoecium and during embryo development. AtWOX13 appeared to affect the floral transition. An intriguing clade, represented by the functional AtWOX14 gene inside the WOX13 OG, was only found in the Brassicaceae. Compared to AtWOX13, the gene expression profile of AtWOX14 was restricted to the early stages of lateral root formation and specific to developing anthers. A mutational insertion upstream of the AtWOX14 homeodomain sequence led to abnormal root development, a delay in the floral transition and premature anther differentiation. Conclusion Our data provide evidence in favor of the WOX13 OG as the clade containing the most conserved WOX genes and established a functional link to organ initiation and development in Arabidopsis, most

  20. Organic rice production in developing countries with regard to fair trade (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlin, Charlotte; Mikkelsen, Henrik N.; Olsen, Lino Klit

    1999-01-01

    . Local certification is desirable from socio-economic considerations.2. Local work up of the products is likewise desirable for socio-economis reasons.3. The establishment of grower groups can ease the two points above.4. Education of the farmers with regard to understanding the organic production method......This report deals with the possibilities of organic rice production in developing countries under fair trade conditions - conditions which assures the producer a fair price for the delivered product.It is concluded that the following points should be worked with when carrying out such a project:1...... and the learning of soil improvement techniques.In connection with the choice of area it is concluded that the naturally most stable areas are also the most favourable for organic production.With regards to the ownership af the area which is chosen for organic production it is evaluated that the small family run...

  1. Development and application of giant embryo rice of functional special type-MhgeR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qingqi; Zhang Shubiao; Huang Ronghua; Zheng Baodong; Yang Rencui

    2009-01-01

    Induced mutants MhgeR with embryo were directly obtained with 60 Co γ-rays irradiation on restorer line M86. Compared with M86, MhgeR had similar plant tapes and agricultural characteristics and increased in the absolute and relative embryo weight, from 0.68 mg to 1.19 mg and 2.70% to 5.50%, respectively, but decreased in the 1000 grain weight and yield. Compared with M86, MhgeR contained higher protein (9.94%), crude fat (6.08%), crude fibre (1.21%) and γ- aminobutyric acid (GABA) (6.16 mg/100g) and it had an increase in the contents of 8 kinds of essential free amino acids and 7 kinds of mineral element. In addition, the breeding technology and product development for giant embryo rice were discussed. (authors)

  2. Cell wall composition and candidate biosynthesis gene expression during rice development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Fan; Manisseri, Chithra; Fagerström, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Cell walls of grasses, including cereal crops and biofuel grasses, comprise the majority of plant biomass and intimately influence plant growth, development and physiology. However, the functions of many cell wall synthesis genes, and the relationships among and the functions of cell wall...... components remain obscure. To better understand the patterns of cell wall accumulation and identify genes that act in grass cell wall biosynthesis, we characterized 30 samples from aerial organs of rice (Oryza sativa cv. Kitaake) at 10 developmental time points, 3-100 d post-germination. Within these samples......, we measured 15 cell wall chemical components, enzymatic digestibility and 18 cell wall polysaccharide epitopes/ligands. We also used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to measure expression of 50 glycosyltransferases, 15 acyltransferases and eight phenylpropanoid genes, many of which had...

  3. Chemical, physical, and sensory characteristics of analog rice developed from the mocaf, arrowroof, and red bean flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahjuningsih, S. B.; Susanti, S.

    2018-01-01

    This research was aimed to analyze the chemical, physical, and sensory characteristics of the analog rice developed from a composite formula consisting of mocaf, arrowroot, and red bean flour. Experiment was designed into 5 different composition types i.e B1 (90%: 0%: 10%), B2 (80%:10%: 10%), B3 (70% : 20% : 10%), B4 (60%: 30%:10%), and B5 (50%: 40%: 10%) which in each type was repeated in 4 times. Carrageenan was used as a binder in the making process of those analog rice. Investigation procedure was carried out into several stages such as preparation and characterization of raw materials, production of analog rice in composite formula, then the testing of its chemical and sensory properties. Chemical characteristics were evaluated about the level of starch, amylose, dietary fiber, and resistant starch while sensory characteristics were examined about the texture, flavor, and aroma. The result showed that based on the sensory test, the best composite formula of rice analog was B2 (ratio flour of mocaf: Arrowroot: Red bean = 80:10:10). In addition, B2 formula possessed the chemical characteristics similar with the truth rice either in water content (12.18%), ash (2.63%), protein (6.17%), fat (1.31%), carbohydrate (89.88%), starch (73.29%), amylose (24.91%), total dietary fiber (7.04%), or resistant starch (6.71%). Furthermore, the higher of arrowroot flour proportion, the greater of amylose, dietary fiber and resistant starch containing in the rice analog. In the opposite, its starch content was getting down.

  4. Xylem development in prunus flower buds and the relationship to deep supercooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, E N

    1984-04-01

    Xylem development in eight Prunus species was examined and the relationship to deep supercooling assessed. Dormant buds of six species, P. armeniaca, P. avium, P. cerasus, P. persica, P. salicina, and P. sargentii deep supercooled. Xylem vessel elements were not observed within the dormant floral primordia of these species. Instead, discrete bundles containing procambial cells were observed. Vascular differentiation resumed and xylem continuity was established during the time that the capacity to deep supercool was lost. In P. serotina and P. virginiana, two species which do not supercool, xylem vessels ran the length of the inflorescence and presumably provided a conduit for the spread of ice into the bud. The results support the hypothesis that the lack of xylem continuity is an important feature of buds which deep supercool.

  5. Development of the pollen in the antarctic flowering plant Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Giełwanowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl. produced two types very small bisexual fl owers. In the Antarctic natural conditions chasmogamic and cleistogamic fl owers most often form fi ve stamina with short fi laments. Two microsporangia with a three-layer wall form in the anther. Microspore mother cells, which develop into microspores after meiosis, form inside the microsporangium. Microsporocytes of Colobanthus quitensis are surrounded with a thick callose layer, the special wall. After meiosis, the callose wall is dissolved and microspores are released from the tetrad. The production of proorbicules, orbicules and peritapetal membrane, and the construction of a complex sporoderm with numerous apertural sites were observed. When microspore and pollen protoplasts underwent necrosis, probably as a result of temperature and osmotic stress, sporoderm layers formed around microspores, and the cell tapetum did not disintegrate. However, woody wall layers did not accumulate in endothecium cells.

  6. Regionalização das temperaturas mínimas do ar prejudiciais à fecundação das flores de arroz para a região climática da depressão central, RS Minimum air temperatures probabilities harmful to the fecundation of rice flowers in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galileo Adeli Buriol

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram mapeadas as probabilidades de ocorrência de temperaturas mínimas do ar prejudiciais à fecundação das flores de arroz na Região Climática da Depressão Central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Utilizaram-se os valores de probabilidade de ocorrência de temperaturas mínimas do ar iguais ou inferiores a 13, 15 e 17°C em um ou mais dias, cinco ou mais dias e dei ou mais dias para os meses de dezembro, janeiro, fevereiro e março. As isolinhas de probabilidade foram traçadas em um mapa ipsométrico da região. Os resultados mostram que as menores probabilidades se situam nas partes de menor altitude como nos vales dos rios Ibicuí, Jacuí, Taquari, estuário do Guaíba e seus afluentes e que o período de menor periculosidade das temperaturas mínimas do ar ocorre nos meses de janeiro e fevereiro.The probability of occurency of minimum air temperatures harmful to the fecundation of rice flowers in the Central Region of Rio Grande do Sul State was shown in a map. Minimum air temperatures lower or equal to 13, 15 e 17°C occuring during one or more days, five or more days and ten or more days in December, Jannary, February and March were used. The isolines of probability were drown on a map. The results showed that the lower probabilities are located in the parts of the land with lower altitude like the valley of Ibicui, Jacui, Taquari, and Guaiba rivers. Besides, January and February are the months where the risks of low temperatures to rice flowering is lower.

  7. Cell cycle in egg cell and its progression during zygotic development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukawa, Yumiko; Okamoto, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    Rice egg is arrested at G1 phase probably by OsKRP2. After fusion with sperm, karyogamy, OsWEE1-mediated parental DNA integrity in zygote nucleus, zygote progresses cell cycle to produce two-celled embryo. In angiosperms, female and male gametes exist in gametophytes after the complementation of meiosis and the progression of nuclear/cell division of the haploid cell. Within the embryo sac, the egg cell is specially differentiated for fertilization and subsequent embryogenesis, and cellular programs for embryonic development, such as restarting the cell cycle and de novo gene expression, are halted. There is only limited knowledge about how the cell cycle in egg cells restarts toward zygotic division, although the conversion of the cell cycle from a quiescent and arrested state to an active state is the most evident transition of cell status from egg cell to zygote. This is partly due to the difficulty in direct access and analysis of egg cells, zygotes and early embryos, which are deeply embedded in ovaries. In this study, precise relative DNA amounts in the nuclei of egg cells, developing zygotes and cells of early embryos were measured, and the cell cycle of a rice egg cell was estimated as the G1 phase with a 1C DNA level. In addition, increases in DNA content in zygote nuclei via karyogamy and DNA replication were also detectable according to progression of the cell cycle. In addition, expression profiles for cell cycle-related genes in egg cells and zygotes were also addressed, and it was suggested that OsKRP2 and OsWEE1 function in the inhibition of cell cycle progression in egg cells and in checkpoint of parental DNA integrity in zygote nucleus, respectively.

  8. BraLTP1, a lipid transfer protein gene involved in epicuticular wax deposition, cell proliferation and flower development in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    Full Text Available Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs constitute large multigene families that possess complex physiological functions, many of which remain unclear. This study isolated and characterized the function of a lipid transfer protein gene, BraLTP1 from Brassica rapa, in the important oilseed crops Brassica napus. BraLTP1 encodes a predicted secretory protein, in the little known VI Class of nsLTP families. Overexpression of BnaLTP1 in B. napus caused abnormal green coloration and reduced wax deposition on leaves and detailed wax analysis revealed 17-80% reduction in various major wax components, which resulted in significant water-loss relative to wild type. BnaLTP1 overexpressing leaves exhibited morphological disfiguration and abaxially curled leaf edges, and leaf cross-sections revealed cell overproliferation that was correlated to increased cytokinin levels (tZ, tZR, iP, and iPR in leaves and high expression of the cytokinin biosynthsis gene IPT3. BnaLTP1-overexpressing plants also displayed morphological disfiguration of flowers, with early-onset and elongated carpel development and outwardly curled stamen. This was consistent with altered expression of a a number of ABC model genes related to flower development. Together, these results suggest that BraLTP1 is a new nsLTP gene involved in wax production or deposition, with additional direct or indirect effects on cell division and flower development.

  9. Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation During Ovule Development of Female-Sterile Rice fsv1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helian Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of female fertility is an important field of rice sexual reproduction research. DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification that dynamically regulates gene expression during development processes. However, few reports have described the methylation profiles of female-sterile rice during ovule development. In this study, ovules were continuously acquired from the beginning of megaspore mother cell meiosis until the mature female gametophyte formation period, and global DNA methylation patterns were compared in the ovules of a high-frequency female-sterile line (fsv1 and a wild-type rice line (Gui99 using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS. Profiling of the global DNA methylation revealed hypo-methylation, and 3471 significantly differentially methylated regions (DMRs were observed in fsv1 ovules compared with Gui99. Based on functional annotation and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG pathway analysis of differentially methylated genes (DMGs, we observed more DMGs enriched in cellular component, reproduction regulation, metabolic pathway, and other pathways. In particular, many ovule development genes and plant hormone-related genes showed significantly different methylation patterns in the two rice lines, and these differences may provide important clues for revealing the mechanism of female gametophyte abortion.

  10. Simulating the Effects of Agricultural Management on Water Quality Dynamics in Rice Paddies for Sustainable Rice Production—Model Development and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Kun Choi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX model is widely used for evaluating agricultural conservation efforts and their effects on soil and water. A key component of APEX application in Korea is simulating the water quality impacts of rice paddies because rice agriculture claims the largest cropland area in the country. In this study, a computational module called APEX-Paddy (National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wanju, Korea is developed to simulate water quality with considering pertinent paddy management practices, such as puddling and flood irrigation management. Data collected at two experimental paddy sites in Korea were used to calibrate and validate the model. Results indicate that APEX-Paddy performs well in predicting runoff discharge rate and nitrogen yield while the original APEX highly overestimates runoff rates and nitrogen yields on large storm events. With APEX-Paddy, simulated and observed flow and mineral nitrogen yield (QN are found to be highly correlated after calibration (Nash & Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE = 0.87 and Percent Bias (PBIAS = −14.6% for flow; NSE = 0.68 and PBIAS = 2.1% for QN. Consequently, the APEX-Paddy showed a greater accuracy in flow and QN prediction than the original APEX modeling practice using the SCS-CN (Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number method.

  11. Characterization and Selection of Phosphorus Deficiency Tolerant Rice Genotypes in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.C. Aluwihare

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P deficiency in soil is a major constrain for rice production. An important set of rice genotypes (landraces, old improved and new improved varieties were screened for P deficiency tolerance in two major cropping seasons of Sri Lanka, in 2012. The Ultisol soil, which was collected from a plot cultivated with rice without fertilizer application for past 40 years (P0 at the Rice Research and Development Institute (RRDI, Bathalagoda, Sri Lanka, was used as the potting medium for greenhouse trials. Two field trials were conducted in the same plots at RRDI. Both P0 and P30 (30 mg/kg P2O5 conditions were used in the two greenhouse trials. At the early vegetative (three weeks after transplanting, late vegetative (six weeks after transplanting and flowering stages, plant height and number of tillers per plant were recorded. At the flowering stage, shoots were harvested and shoot dry weight, shoot P concentration, shoot P uptake and P utilization efficiency were measured. All data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance, regression and cluster procedures. The measured parameters were significantly different between P0 and P30 conditions (P < 0.05. Higher shoot dry weight was reported by the rice genotypes H4 and Marss under P0 conditions. The regression analysis between shoot dry weight and P utilization efficiency revealed that the studied rice genotypes could be categorized to three P deficiency tolerance classes. A total of 13 genotypes could be considered as highly tolerant and 4 genotypes as sensitive for P deficiency. These results could be used to select parental genotypes for breeding and genetic studies and also to select interesting varieties or landraces for organic rice production.

  12. Design a Hummingbird Flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity that engages students in designing and making an artificial flower adapted for pollination by hummingbirds. Students work in teams to design flowers that maximize the benefit from attracting hummingbirds. Examines characteristics of real flowers adapted to pollination by hummingbirds. (DLH)

  13. Ingestion of Bt rice pollen does not reduce the survival or hypopharyngeal gland development of Apis mellifera adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Dai, Pingli; Chen, Xiuping; Romeis, Jörg; Shi, Jianrong; Peng, Yufa; Li, Yunhe

    2017-05-01

    Because of its ecological and economic importance, the honey bee Apis mellifera is commonly used to assess the environmental risk of insect-resistant, genetically modified plants. In the present study, feeding-exposure experiments were used to determine whether pollen from transgenic rice harms A. mellifera worker bees. In 1 experiment, the survival and mean acinus diameter of hypopharyngeal glands of adult bees were similar when bees were fed on pollen from Bt rice lines or from a non-Bt rice line, but bee survival was significantly reduced when they received pollen that was mixed with potassium arsenate as a positive control. In a second experiment, bee survival and hypopharyngeal gland development were not reduced when adult bees were fed on non-Bt pollen and a sucrose solution supplemented with Cry2A at 400 µg/g, Cry1C at 50 µg/g, or bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 400 µg/g, but bee survival and hypopharyngeal gland development were reduced when the diet was supplemented with soybean trypsin inhibitor as a positive control. In both experiments, the uptake of Cry proteins by adult bees was confirmed. Overall, the results indicate that the planting of Bt rice lines expressing Cry2A or Cry1C protein poses a negligible risk to A. mellifera worker bees. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1243-1248. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  14. DOFT and DOFTIP1 affect reproductive development in the orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanwen; Liu, Lu; Song, Shiyong; Li, Yan; Shen, Lisha; Yu, Hao

    2017-12-16

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis encodes the florigen that moves from leaves to the shoot apical meristem to induce flowering, and this is partly mediated by FT-INTERACTING PROTEIN 1 (FTIP1). Although FT orthologs have been identified in some flowering plants, their endogenous roles in Orchidaceae, which is one of the largest families of flowering plants, are still largely unknown. In this study, we show that DOFT and DOFTIP1, the orchid orthologs of FT and FTIP1, respectively, play important roles in promoting flowering in the orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile. Expression of DOFT and DOFTIP1 increases in whole plantlets during the transition from vegetative to reproductive development. Both transcripts are present in significant levels in reproductive organs, including inflorescence apices, stems, floral buds, and open flowers. Through successful generation of transgenic orchids, we have revealed that overexpression or down-regulation of DOFT accelerates or delays flowering, respectively, while alteration of DOFT expression also greatly affects pseudobulb formation and flower development. In common with their counterparts in Arabidopsis and rice, DOFTIP1 interacts with DOFT and affects flowering time in orchids. Our results suggest that while DOFT and DOFTIP1 play evolutionarily conserved roles in promoting flowering, DOFT may have evolved with hitherto unknown functions pertaining to the regulation of storage organs and flower development in the Orchidaceae family. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. Molecular and Functional Characterization of Broccoli EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2 Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long-Fang O.; Lin, Chun-Hung; Lai, Ying-Mi; Huang, Jia-Yuan; Sung, Zinmay Renee

    2012-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins regulate major developmental processes in Arabidopsis. EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2 (EMF2), the VEFS domain-containing PcG gene, regulates diverse genetic pathways and is required for vegetative development and plant survival. Despite widespread EMF2-like sequences in plants, little is known about their function other than in Arabidopsis and rice. To study the role of EMF2 in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica cv. Elegance) development, we identified two broccoli EMF2 (BoEMF2) genes with sequence homology to and a similar gene expression pattern to that in Arabidopsis (AtEMF2). Reducing their expression in broccoli resulted in aberrant phenotypes and gene expression patterns. BoEMF2 regulates genes involved in diverse developmental and stress programs similar to AtEMF2 in Arabidopsis. However, BoEMF2 differs from AtEMF2 in the regulation of flower organ identity, cell proliferation and elongation, and death-related genes, which may explain the distinct phenotypes. The expression of BoEMF2.1 in the Arabidopsis emf2 mutant (Rescued emf2) partially rescued the mutant phenotype and restored the gene expression pattern to that of the wild type. Many EMF2-mediated molecular and developmental functions are conserved in broccoli and Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the restored gene expression pattern in Rescued emf2 provides insights into the molecular basis of PcG-mediated growth and development. PMID:22537758

  16. Flower power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winge, Christina B.

    2006-01-01

    A review of Norway's policies regarding bio energy is made, and compared to Sweden, Norway has put little effort into the development of this renewable energy source. A recurring criticism is that Norway only thinks about developing its oil and fossil fuels, and this is evident in the continually increasing level of CO 2 emissions. Further details on Norway's energy policy is provided, along with some examples of innovative energy development and ideas in the country (ml)

  17. Simulated Acid Rain-induced Alterations in Flowering, Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of SAR effects on budding, flowering, leaf abscission and pollen development revealed that ... Keywords: Simulated acid rain, Helianthus annuus, flowering, leaf abscission, pollen germination, sunflower. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  18. Identifying molecular markers associated with stigma characteristics in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigma characteristics play essential roles in hybrid seed production of rice and marker-assisted breeding plays essential role because they are quantitatively inherited with single-flowered perfect spikelet. Ninety four accessions originated from 47 countries were selected from the USDA rice core c...

  19. Phenological characters and genetic divergence in aromatic rices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Phenological properties of a plant are measured in time duration between ... The time interval between sowing and flowering in rice (Oryza sativa L.) ... locally adapted genotypes of aromatic rices have evolved because of natural ... classification of genotypes based on suitable scale is quite imperative to ...

  20. A review of recent developments in the speciation and location of arsenic and selenium in rice grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A. [University of Aberdeen, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica [University of South Australia, Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Mawson Lakes, South Australia (Australia); Jonge, Martin D. de [Australian Synchrotron, X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Punshon, Tracy; Jackson, Brian P.; Guerinot, Mary Lou [Dartmouth College, Department of Biological Sciences, Hanover, NH (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Rice is a staple food yet is a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic, a class 1, nonthreshold carcinogen. Establishing the location and speciation of arsenic within the edible rice grain is essential for understanding the risk and for developing effective strategies to reduce grain arsenic concentrations. Conversely, selenium is an essential micronutrient and up to 1 billion people worldwide are selenium-deficient. Several studies have suggested that selenium supplementation can reduce the risk of some cancers, generating substantial interest in biofortifying rice. Knowledge of selenium location and speciation is important, because the anti-cancer effects of selenium depend on its speciation. Germanic acid is an arsenite/silicic acid analogue, and location of germanium may help elucidate the mechanisms of arsenite transport into grain. This review summarises recent discoveries in the location and speciation of arsenic, germanium, and selenium in rice grain using state-of-the-art mass spectrometry and synchrotron techniques, and illustrates both the importance of high-sensitivity and high-resolution techniques and the advantages of combining techniques in an integrated quantitative and spatial approach. (orig.)

  1. A review of recent developments in the speciation and location of arsenic and selenium in rice grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; de Jonge, Martin D.; Punshon, Tracy; Jackson, Brian P.; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    Rice is a staple food yet is a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic, a class 1, nonthreshold carcinogen. Establishing the location and speciation of arsenic within the edible rice grain is essential for understanding the risk and for developing effective strategies to reduce grain arsenic concentrations. Conversely, selenium is an essential micronutrient and up to 1 billion people worldwide are selenium-deficient. Several studies have suggested that selenium supplementation can reduce the risk of some cancers, generating substantial interest in biofortifying rice. Knowledge of selenium location and speciation is important, because the anti-cancer effects of selenium depend on its speciation. Germanic acid is an arsenite/silicic acid analogue, and location of germanium may help elucidate the mechanisms of arsenite transport into grain. This review summarises recent discoveries in the location and speciation of arsenic, germanium, and selenium in rice grain using state-of-the-art mass spectrometry and synchrotron techniques, and illustrates both the importance of high-sensitivity and high-resolution techniques and the advantages of combining techniques in an integrated quantitative and spatial approach. PMID:22159463

  2. Development and characterization of japonica rice lines carrying the brown planthopper-resistance genes BPH12 and BPH6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yongfu; Guo, Jianping; Jing, Shengli; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2012-02-01

    The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål; BPH) has become a severe constraint on rice production. Identification and pyramiding BPH-resistance genes is an economical and effective solution to increase the resistance level of rice varieties. All the BPH-resistance genes identified to date have been from indica rice or wild species. The BPH12 gene in the indica rice accession B14 is derived from the wild species Oryza latifolia. Using an F(2) population from a cross between the indica cultivar 93-11 and B14, we mapped the BPH12 gene to a 1.9-cM region on chromosome 4, flanked by the markers RM16459 and RM1305. In this population, BPH12 appeared to be partially dominant and explained 73.8% of the phenotypic variance in BPH resistance. A near-isogenic line (NIL) containing the BPH12 locus in the background of the susceptible japonica variety Nipponbare was developed and crossed with a NIL carrying BPH6 to generate a pyramid line (PYL) with both genes. BPH insects showed significant differences in non-preference in comparisons between the lines harboring resistance genes (NILs and PYL) and Nipponbare. BPH growth and development were inhibited and survival rates were lower on the NIL-BPH12 and NIL-BPH6 plants compared to the recurrent parent Nipponbare. PYL-BPH6 + BPH12 exhibited 46.4, 26.8 and 72.1% reductions in population growth rates (PGR) compared to NIL-BPH12, NIL-BPH6 and Nipponbare, respectively. Furthermore, insect survival rates were the lowest on the PYL-BPH6 + BPH12 plants. These results demonstrated that pyramiding different BPH-resistance genes resulted in stronger antixenotic and antibiotic effects on the BPH insects. This gene pyramiding strategy should be of great benefit for the breeding of BPH-resistant japonica rice varieties.

  3. Rice Ovate Family Protein 2 (OFP2) alters hormonal homeostasis and vasculature development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Aaron J; Begcy, Kevin; Sarath, Gautam; Walia, Harkamal

    2015-12-01

    OFP (Ovate Family Protein) is a transcription factor family found only in plants. In dicots, OFPs control fruit shape and secondary cell wall biosynthesis. OFPs are also thought to function through interactions with KNOX and BELL transcription factors. Here, we have functionally characterized OsOFP2, a member of the OFP subgroup associated with regulating fruit shape. OsOFP2 was found to localize to the nucleus and to the cytosol. A putative nuclear export signal was identified within the OVATE domain and was required for the localization of OsOFP2 to distinct cytosolic spots. Rice plants overexpressing OsOFP2 were reduced in height and exhibited altered leaf morphology, seed shape, and positioning of vascular bundles in stems. Transcriptome analysis indicated disruptions of genes associated with vasculature development, lignin biosynthesis, and hormone homeostasis. Reduced expression of the gibberellin biosynthesis gene GA 20-oxidase 7 coincided with lower gibberellin content in OsOFP2 overexpression lines. Also, we found that OsOFP2 was expressed in plant vasculature and determined that putative vascular development KNOX and BELL proteins interact with OsOFP2. KNOX and BELL genes are known to suppress gibberellin biosynthesis through GA20ox gene regulation and can restrict lignin biosynthesis. We propose that OsOFP2 could modulate KNOX-BELL function to control diverse aspects of development including vasculature development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of Rhizome Development in Oryza longistaminata, a Wild Rice Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Akiko; Terada, Yasuhiko; Toriba, Taiyo; Kose, Katsumi; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Kyozuka, Junko

    2016-10-01

    Vegetative reproduction is a form of asexual propagation in plants. A wide range of plants develop rhizomes, modified stems that grow underground horizontally, as a means of vegetative reproduction. In rhizomatous species, despite their distinct developmental patterns, both rhizomes and aerial shoots derive from axillary buds. Therefore, it is of interest to understand the basis of rhizome initiation and development. Oryza longistaminata, a wild rice species, develops rhizomes. We analyzed bud initiation and growth of O. longistaminata rhizomes using various methods of morphological observation. We show that, unlike aerial shoot buds that contain a few leaves only, rhizome buds initiate several leaves and bend to grow at right angles to the original rhizome. Rhizomes are maintained in the juvenile phase irrespective of the developmental phase of the aerial shoot. Stem elongation and reproductive transition are tightly linked in the aerial shoots, but are uncoupled in the rhizome. Our findings indicate that developmental programs operate independently in the rhizomes and aerial shoots. Temporal modification of the developmental pathways that are common to rhizomes and aerial shoots may be the source of developmental plasticity. Furthermore, the creation of new developmental systems appears to be necessary for rhizome development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The mitochondrial gene orfH79 plays a critical role in impairing both male gametophyte development and root growth in CMS-Honglian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaojue; Wang, Kun; Hu, Chaofeng; Zhu, Youlin; Wang, Ting; Yang, Jing; Tong, Jiping; Li, Shaoqing; Zhu, Yingguo

    2010-06-24

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has often been associated with abnormal mitochondrial open reading frames. The mitochondrial gene orfH79 is a candidate gene for causing the CMS trait in CMS-Honglian (CMS-HL) rice. However, whether the orfH79 expression can actually induce CMS in rice remains unclear. Western blot analysis revealed that the ORFH79 protein is mainly present in mitochondria of CMS-HL rice and is absent in the fertile line. To investigate the function of ORFH79 protein in mitochondria, this gene was fused to a mitochondrial transit peptide sequence and used to transform wild type rice, where its expression induced the gametophytic male sterile phenotype. In addition, excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the microspore, a reduced ATP/ADP ratio, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and a lower respiration rate in the transgenic plants were found to be similar to those in CMS-HL rice. Moreover, retarded growth of primary and lateral roots accompanied by abnormal accumulation of ROS in the root tip was observed in both transgenic rice and CMS-HL rice (YTA). These results suggest that the expression of orfH79 in mitochondria impairs mitochondrial function, which affects the development of both male gametophytes and the roots of CMS-HL rice.

  6. Application of gamma-ray irradiation technique to select, create and develop super rice with high quality to substitute the imported hybrid rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Duy Quy; Tran Duy Vuong; Tran Duy Duong; Bui Huy Thuc

    2015-01-01

    Three varieties NPT3, BQ and TQ14 were selected by irradiation ray source Gamma Co-60 with dry seed, 13% grain moisture and created at 25-30 krad. NPT3 is super rice varieties with characteristics such as: extremely short growing period (105-110 day crop; 130- 135 days in the spring, the average yield of 9-10 tones/ha), quality, stem, leaf stand, suitable for intensive capability, able to resist pests and unfavorable conditions especially the elements of productivity (amylase from 15-16%) and mass produced including hybrid rice as Nhi Uu 868, Thien Nguyen Uu 9, HYT100, etc. BQ rice varieties were high quality, average productivity gain of 7.5- 8.0 ton/ha, equivalent to hybrid rice, short growth period (105-110 days in summer season; 120- 130 days in spring season), and quality rice: content 18-20% amylose, rice delicious, supple as BC15. TQ14 varieties was planted in 2 seasons/ year, with agricultural and biological characteristics as Khang-Dan18 mutant with wide adaptation, high yield potential, the average gain from 5.9 to 6.2 tones/ha, short growth period (105-110 days in summer season, 130-135 days in spring season), insect resistance, quality of rice suitable for manufacturing technology like noodles, instant noodles, rice noodles, Ethanol. (author)

  7. Governance restructuring in the cut flower trade in France and its impacts on the producers in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroza Filho, Manoel Xavier

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to examine how retailers play a powerful role in shaping the governance in cut flower trade in France. Global Value Chain analysis has been used to explain why a distribution system originally based on spot markets has been replaced by tightly integrated supply chains. It allowed an exploration of the consequences of these changes on the structure of the value chain and the inclusion and exclusion of different agents in the chain. Fieldwork were carried out betwe...

  8. The Effect of Medium Cultures on Water Use and Charactristic of Gazania Flowers (Gazania hybrida in Green Roof.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Bahrami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green roof is one of the newest phenomenons in architecture and urbanism that refers to the sustainable development concepts and it will be usable for increasing landscape design, improving quality of the environment and reduction in energy consumption. Ensure of existing adequate green landscape in urban areas and improving access to natural areas surrounding the cities can help to offset negative effects of urban life. The use of green roof technology in cities is one of advanced techniques of green landscape. A green or living roof is a roof of a building that is partially or completely covered with vegetation and a growing medium on top view of buildings. Green roof layers that considered for roof side consist of protection layer, drainage layer, growing medium and plant layer. Medium layer is the medium culture of green roof that plants are begins to grow in it. This space should enable to save enough minerals and water for conserve of green-roof plants. All kinds of plants can growth on the green roof, but there are some constraints in creative of design because of roots dimension, plant canopy, necessary volume of soil, suitable direction to light, good weather, weight of designed structures, budget of repairing and keeping. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effect of some culture medium on water consumption, vegetative and reproductive traits of Gazania (Gazania hybrida in condition of green roof a factorial experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized design with nine treatments and three replications in 2014. Treatments were three levels of vermicompost (zero, 5%, and 10% and rice hull (zero, 7, and 14%. Seedlings of plants cultivated in the media mixture of coco peat 15%, perlite 15%, leaf 10%, manure 10%, and filed soil 50%. The container had 60 × 60 ×25 cm dimensions that placed on the roof of greenhouse building with four meters height. The measured traits was number, average, and diameter of

  9. The Effect of Medium Cultures on Water Use and Charactristic of Gazania Flowers (Gazania hybrida in Green Roof.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Bahrami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green roof is one of the newest phenomenons in architecture and urbanism that refers to the sustainable development concepts and it will be usable for increasing landscape design, improving quality of the environment and reduction in energy consumption. Ensure of existing adequate green landscape in urban areas and improving access to natural areas surrounding the cities can help to offset negative effects of urban life. The use of green roof technology in cities is one of advanced techniques of green landscape. A green or living roof is a roof of a building that is partially or completely covered with vegetation and a growing medium on top view of buildings. Green roof layers that considered for roof side consist of protection layer, drainage layer, growing medium and plant layer. Medium layer is the medium culture of green roof that plants are begins to grow in it. This space should enable to save enough minerals and water for conserve of green-roof plants. All kinds of plants can growth on the green roof, but there are some constraints in creative of design because of roots dimension, plant canopy, necessary volume of soil, suitable direction to light, good weather, weight of designed structures, budget of repairing and keeping. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effect of some culture medium on water consumption, vegetative and reproductive traits of Gazania (Gazania hybrida in condition of green roof a factorial experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized design with nine treatments and three replications in 2014. Treatments were three levels of vermicompost (zero, 5%, and 10% and rice hull (zero, 7, and 14%. Seedlings of plants cultivated in the media mixture of coco peat 15%, perlite 15%, leaf 10%, manure 10%, and filed soil 50%. The container had 60 × 60 ×25 cm dimensions that placed on the roof of greenhouse building with four meters height. The measured traits was number, average, and diameter of

  10. Bud development, flowering and fruit set of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Horseradish Tree as affected by various irrigation levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintin Ernst Muhl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera is becoming increasingly popular as an industrial crop due to its multitude of useful attributes as water purifier, nutritional supplement and biofuel feedstock. Given its tolerance to sub-optimal growing conditions, most of the current and anticipated cultivation areas are in medium to low rainfall areas. This study aimed to assess the effect of various irrigation levels on floral initiation, flowering and fruit set. Three treatments namely, a 900 mm (900IT, 600 mm (600IT and 300 mm (300IT per annum irrigation treatment were administered through drip irrigation, simulating three total annual rainfall amounts. Individual inflorescences from each treatment were tagged during floral initiation and monitored throughout until fruit set. Flower bud initiation was highest at the 300IT and lowest at the 900IT for two consecutive growing seasons. Fruit set on the other hand, decreased with the decrease in irrigation treatment. Floral abortion, reduced pollen viability as well as moisture stress in the style were contributing factors to the reduction in fruiting/yield observed at the 300IT. Moderate water stress prior to floral initiation could stimulate flower initiation, however, this should be followed by sufficient irrigation to ensure good pollination, fruit set and yield.

  11. Development of Gene-Based SSR Markers in Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata L. Based on Transcriptome Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglin Chen

    Full Text Available Rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb. Ohwi & Ohashi is a warm season annual legume mainly grown in East Asia. Only scarce genomic resources are currently available for this legume crop species and no simple sequence repeat (SSR markers have been specifically developed for rice bean yet. In this study, approximately 26 million high quality cDNA sequence reads were obtained from rice bean using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and assembled into 71,929 unigenes with an average length of 986 bp. Of these unigenes, 38,840 (33.2% showed significant similarity to proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein and nucleotide sequence databases. Furthermore, 30,170 (76.3% could be classified into gene ontology categories, 25,451 (64.4% into Swiss-Prot categories and 21,982 (55.6% into KOG database categories (E-value < 1.0E-5. A total of 9,301 (23.5% were mapped onto 118 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG pathway database. A total of 3,011 genic SSRs were identified as potential molecular markers. AG/CT (30.3%, AAG/CTT (8.1% and AGAA/TTCT (20.0% are the three main repeat motifs. A total of 300 SSR loci were randomly selected for validation by using PCR amplification. Of these loci, 23 primer pairs were polymorphic among 32 rice bean accessions. A UPGMA dendrogram revealed three major clusters among 32 rice bean accessions. The large number of SSR-containing sequences and genic SSRs in this study will be valuable for the construction of high-resolution genetic linkage maps, association or comparative mapping and genetic analyses of various Vigna species.

  12. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Monitor Land Management Practices and the Development of Marshlands to Rice Fields in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusabimana, M. R.; Blach, D.; Mwiza, F.; Muzungu, E.; Swaminathan, R.; Tate, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Rwanda, a small country with the highest population density in Sub-Saharan Africa, is one of the world's poorest countries. Although agriculture is the backbone of Rwandan economy, agricultural productivity is extremely low. Over 90 % of the population is engaged in subsistence farming and only 52 % of the total land surface area is arable. Of this land, approximately 165,000 hectares are marshlands, of which only 57 % has been cultivated. Rwandan government has invested in the advancement of agriculture with activities such as irrigation, marshland reclamation, and crop regionalization. In 2001, Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Resources (MINAGRI) released the Rural Sector Support Program (RSSP), which aimed at converting marshlands into rice fields at various development sites across the country. The focus of this project was to monitor rice fields in Rwanda utilizing NASA Earth observations such as Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager. Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI) was used to depict the progress of marshland to rice field conversion as it highlights the presence of irrigated rice fields from the surrounding area. Additionally, Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) was used to estimate rice yield at RSSP sites. Various simulations were run to find perfect conditions for cultivating the highest yield for a given farm. Furthermore, soil erosion susceptibility masks were created by combining factors derived from ASTER, MERRA, and ground truth data using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The end results, maps, and tutorials were delivered to the partners and policy makers in Rwanda to help make informed decisions. It can be clearly seen that Earth observations can be successfully used to monitor agricultural and land management practices as a cost effective method that will enable farmers to improve crop yield production and food security.

  13. Development of Briquette from Coir Dust and Rice Husk Blend: An Alternative Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hamidul Islam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is one of the predominant renewable energy sources and the use of biomass for the energy generation has got much attention due to its environmental friendliness. Densification of coir dust into fuel briquette can solve waste disposal problem as well as can serve as an alternative energy source. The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of producing briquette from coir dust and rice husk blend without binder. During this study, a briquetting experiment was conducted with different coir dust and rice husk blends (i.e. coir dust and rice husk ratio of 80:20, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100. Briquetting operation was performed using a die-screw press type briquetting machine. The briquettes were tested to evaluate their density, compressive strength, calorific value, burning rate and water vaporizing capacity and it was found that mixing ratio had a significant effect on the physical, mechanical and combustion properties of the coir dust-rice husk briquettes. Density, compressive strength and calorific value and water vaporizing capacity were increased with increasing mixing ratio while burning rate was decreased. Coir dust-rice husk briquettes with mixing ratio of 20:80 had higher density (1.413 g/cm3, compressive strength (218.4 N/cm2, calorific value (4879 kcal/kg, water vaporizing capacity (0.853 l/kg and low burning rate (0.783 kg/hour followed by the mixing ratio 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and 0:100. The results indicate that coir dust and rice husk blend briquettes were found to have better overall handling characteristics over rice husk briquette. However, production of briquettes from coir dust and rice husk at mixing ratio of 50:50 was found to be more suitable for commercial application in terms of cost effectiveness.

  14. EFFECT OF NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA ON GRAIN YIELD AND DEVELOPMENT OF FLOODED IRRIGATED RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMAURI NELSON BEUTLER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of Azospirillum brasilense , a nitrogen - fixing bacterium, on flooded irrigated rice yield. Evaluations were carried out in a shaded nursery, with seedlings grown on an Alfisol. Were performed two sets of experiments. In the first, were carried out four experiments using the flooded rice cultivars INIA Olimar, Puitá Inta - CL, Br Irga 409 and Irga 424; these trials were set up as completely randomized design in a 5x4 factorial scheme, with four replications. Treatments consisted of five nitrogen rates (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha - 1 and four levels of liquid inoculant Ab - V5 and Ab - V6 - A. brasilense (0, 1, 2 and 4 times the manufacturer's recommendation without seed treatment. In second set, were performed two experiments using the cultivars Puitá Inta - CL and Br Irga 409, arranged in the same design, but using a 4x2 factorial. In this set, treatments were composed of four levels of Ab - V5 and Ab - V6 - A. brasilense liquid inoculant (0, 1, 2 and 4 times the recommendation of 100 mL ha - 1 , using rice seeds with and without insecticide and fungicide treatment. Shoot dry matter, number of panicles, and rice grain yield per pot were the assessed variables. The results showed that rice seed inoculation with A. brasilense had no effects on rice grain yield of the cultivars INIA Olimar, Puitá Inta - CL, Br Irga 409 and Irga 424.

  15. Development and Validation of a TaqMan Real-Time PCR Assay for the Specific Detection and Quantification of Fusarium fujikuroi in Rice Plants and Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Greice Amaral; Matić, Slavica; Ortu, Giuseppe; Garibaldi, Angelo; Spadaro, Davide; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2017-07-01

    Bakanae disease, which is caused by the seedborne pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi, is found throughout the world on rice. A TaqMan real-time PCR has been developed on the TEF 1-α gene to detect F. fujikuroi in different rice tissues. Three primer/probe sets were tested. The selected set produced an amplicon of 84 bp and was specific for F. fujikuroi with respect to eight Fusarium species of rice and six other rice common pathogens. The assay was validated for specificity, selectivity, sensitivity, repeatability, and reproducibility. The detection limit was set at 27.5 fg of DNA, which is approximately equivalent to one haploid genome of F. fujikuroi. The developed TaqMan real-time assay was able to efficiently detect and quantify F. fujikuroi from rice culms, leaves, roots, and seeds. At 1 week post-germination (wpg), the pathogen was more diffused in the green tissues, while at 3 wpg it was uniformly spread also in the roots. The highest concentration of F. fujikuroi was measured in the M6 cultivar, which showed around 1,450 fungal cells/g. The assay was sufficiently sensitive to detect a few genomic equivalents in the rice seeds, corresponding to 9.89 F. fujikuroi cells/g. The assay permitted bakanae disease to be detected in asymptomatic tissues at the early rice development stages.

  16. Do rice suspension-cultured cells treated with abscisic acid mimic developing seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Koya; Fujimura, Tatsuhito

    2015-08-01

    Starch synthesis is activated in the endosperm during seed development and also in rice suspension cells cultured with abscisic acid. In the anticipation that the mechanisms of starch synthesis are similar between the endosperm and the suspension cells cultured with abscisic acid, expression of genes involved in starch synthesis was evaluated in the suspension cells after abscisic acid treatment. However, it was found that the regulatory mechanism of starch synthesis in the suspension cells cultured with abscisic acid was different from that in developing seeds. Expression analyses of genes involved in oil bodies, which accumulate in the embryo and aleurone layer, and seed storage proteins, which accumulate mainly in the endosperm, showed that the former were activated in the suspension cells cultured with abscisic acid, but the latter were not. Master regulators for embryogenesis, OsVP1 (homologue of AtABI3) and OsLFL1 (homologue of AtFUS3 or AtLFL2), were expressed in the suspension cells at levels comparable to those in the embryo. From these results, it is suggested that interactions between regulators and abscisic acid control the synthesis of phytic acid and oil bodies in the cultured cells and embryo. We suggest that the system of suspension cells cultured with abscisic acid helps to reveal the mechanisms of phytic acid and oil body synthesis in embryo.

  17. The behavior, ecology and control of legume flower thrips, #Megalurothrips sjostedti# (Trybom) in cowpea #Vigna unguiculata# (L.) towards the development of an integrated pest management (IPM) program in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Abtew, Andnet Bayleyegn

    2015-01-01

    The overarching aim of this thesis is to investigate the behaviour and ecology of the legume flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom and develop alternative control method. Its specific goals are to: (1) assess pest problems and management methods practiced by grain legume producers, and identifying the cropping systems in the study areas in Kenya; (2) study the impact of climate change on the geographic distribution of legume flower thrips on cowpea growing regions of Sub Saharn Africa...

  18. Comparative Phosphoproteomic Analysis of the Developing Seeds in Two Indica Rice ( Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars with Different Starch Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yuehan; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Yaling; Bao, Jinsong

    2018-03-21

    Protein phosphorylation plays important roles in regulation of various molecular events such as plant growth and seed development. However, its involvement in starch biosynthesis is less understood. Here, a comparative phosphoproteomic analysis of two indica rice cultivars during grain development was performed. A total of 2079 and 2434 phosphopeptides from 1273 and 1442 phosphoproteins were identified, covering 2441 and 2808 phosphosites in indica rice 9311 and Guangluai4 (GLA4), respectively. Comparative analysis identified 303 differentially phosphorylated peptides, and 120 and 258 specifically phosphorylated peptides in 9311 and GLA4, respectively. Phosphopeptides in starch biosynthesis related enzymes such as AGPase, SSIIa, SSIIIa, BEI, BEIIb, PUL, and Pho1were identified. GLA4 and 9311 had different amylose content, pasting viscosities, and gelatinization temperature, suggesting subtle difference in starch biosynthesis and regulation between GLA4 and 9311. Our study will give added impetus to further understanding the regulatory mechanism of starch biosynthesis at the phosphorylation level.

  19. Two Rab5 Homologs Are Essential for the Development and Pathogenicity of the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng D. Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, infects many economically important cereal crops, particularly rice. It has emerged as an important model organism for studying the growth, development, and pathogenesis of filamentous fungi. RabGTPases are important molecular switches in regulation of intracellular membrane trafficking in all eukaryotes. MoRab5A and MoRab5B are Rab5 homologs in M. oryzae, but their functions in the fungal development and pathogenicity are unknown. In this study, we have employed a genetic approach and demonstrated that both MoRab5A and MoRab5B are crucial for vegetative growth and development, conidiogenesis, melanin synthesis, vacuole fusion, endocytosis, sexual reproduction, and plant pathogenesis in M. oryzae. Moreover, both MoRab5A and MoRab5B show similar localization in hyphae and conidia. To further investigate possible functional redundancy between MoRab5A and MoRab5B, we overexpressed MoRAB5A and MoRAB5B, respectively, in MoRab5B:RNAi and MoRab5A:RNAi strains, but neither could rescue each other’s defects caused by the RNAi. Taken together, we conclude that both MoRab5A and MoRab5B are necessary for the development and pathogenesis of the rice blast fungus, while they may function independently.

  20. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Soybean Flowering Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chol-Hee; Wong, Chui E.; Singh, Mohan B.; Bhalla, Prem L.

    2012-01-01

    Flowering is an important agronomic trait that determines crop yield. Soybean is a major oilseed legume crop used for human and animal feed. Legumes have unique vegetative and floral complexities. Our understanding of the molecular basis of flower initiation and development in legumes is limited. Here, we address this by using a computational approach to examine flowering regulatory genes in the soybean genome in comparison to the most studied model plant, Arabidopsis. For this comparison, a genome-wide analysis of orthologue groups was performed, followed by an in silico gene expression analysis of the identified soybean flowering genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene families highlighted the evolutionary relationships among these candidates. Our study identified key flowering genes in soybean and indicates that the vernalisation and the ambient-temperature pathways seem to be the most variant in soybean. A comparison of the orthologue groups containing flowering genes indicated that, on average, each Arabidopsis flowering gene has 2-3 orthologous copies in soybean. Our analysis highlighted that the CDF3, VRN1, SVP, AP3 and PIF3 genes are paralogue-rich genes in soybean. Furthermore, the genome mapping of the soybean flowering genes showed that these genes are scattered randomly across the genome. A paralogue comparison indicated that the soybean genes comprising the largest orthologue group are clustered in a 1.4 Mb region on chromosome 16 of soybean. Furthermore, a comparison with the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja) revealed that there are hundreds of SNPs that are associated with putative soybean flowering genes and that there are structural variants that may affect the genes of the light-signalling and ambient-temperature pathways in soybean. Our study provides a framework for the soybean flowering pathway and insights into the relationship and evolution of flowering genes between a short-day soybean and the long-day plant, Arabidopsis. PMID:22679494

  1. Rice microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of plant structure is desirable to obtain a clear idea of the overall impact of a crop. A mature rice plant consists of leafy components (left in the field post-harvest) and paddy rice (collected). The rice plant is supported by a hollow stem (culm) with leaf sheaths attached to nod...

  2. Tuhar pulse flowers corroding by corrosive pollutants | Singh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These acids in turn develop micro electrochemical cell with flower of Tuhar pulse which destroy flowering of arhar pulse. Other factors are acid rain, global warming and depletion of ozone layer affecting the production of arhar pulse. Key words: Tuhar (Arhar) pulse flowers, pollutants, particulates, micro electrochemical cell, ...

  3. Method Development of Cadmium Investigation in Rice by Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promsawad, Arunee; Pareepart, Ratirot; Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart; Arunee, Kongsakpaisal

    2007-08-01

    Full text: A radiochemical neutron activation analysis for the determination of cadmium was investigated. A chemical separation of cadmium utilized ion exchange chromatography of a strong basic anion-exchange resin BIO-RAD 1X 8 (Chloride form). The adsorbing medium of 2M HCl was found to be the most suitable among the concentration attempted (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10M HCl) and the eluent for desorption of the cadmium from column was 8M NH 3 solution. A chemical yield of 95% was found. The method has been evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials with 0.5.g/g (SRM 1577b, Bovine Liver) and 2.48.g/g (SRM 1566b, Oyster Tissue) cadmium. The agreement of the result with certified values is within 92% for Bovine Liver and 96% for Oyster Tissue. The method developed was applied to determine the cadmium concentrations in contaminated Thai rice. It was found that the cadmium concentrations ranged from 7.4 to 578.9 ppb

  4. Development of combined nanofiltration and forward osmosis process for production of ethanol from pretreated rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Masafumi; Sasaki, Kengo; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Yasukawa, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tomoki; Kondo, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2017-07-01

    A membrane process combining nanofiltraion (NF) and forward osmosis (FO) was developed for the sugar concentration with the aim of high bio-ethanol production from the liquid fraction of rice straw. The commercial NF membrane, ESNA3, was more adequate for removal of fermentation inhibitors (such as acetic acid) than the FO membrane, whereas the commercial FO membrane, TFC-ES, was more adequate for concentration of the sugars than the NF membrane. The liquid fraction was subjected to the following process: NF concentration with water addition (NF (+H2O) )→enzymatic hydrolysis→FO concentration. This NF (+H2O) -FO hybrid process generated a total sugar content of 107g·L -1 . Xylose-assimilating S. cerevisiae produced 24g·L -1 ethanol from the liquid fraction that was diluted 1.5-fold and then concentrated by the NF (+H2O) -FO hybrid process. The NF (+H2O) -FO hybrid process has the potential for optimized ethanol production from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. OsORC3 is required for lateral root development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinai; Shi, Jing; Hao, Xi; Liu, Huili; Shi, Jianghua; Wu, Yunrong; Wu, Zhongchang; Chen, Mingxiu; Wu, Ping; Mao, Chuanzao

    2013-04-01

    The origin recognition complex (ORC) is a pivotal element in DNA replication, heterochromatin assembly, checkpoint regulation and chromosome assembly. Although the functions of the ORC have been determined in yeast and model animals, they remain largely unknown in the plant kingdom. In this study, Oryza sativa Origin Recognition Complex subunit 3 (OsORC3) was cloned using map-based cloning procedures, and functionally characterized using a rice (Oryza sativa) orc3 mutant. The mutant showed a temperature-dependent defect in lateral root (LR) development. Map-based cloning showed that a G→A mutation in the 9th exon of OsORC3 was responsible for the mutant phenotype. OsORC3 was strongly expressed in regions of active cell proliferation, including the primary root tip, stem base, lateral root primordium, emerged lateral root primordium, lateral root tip, young shoot, anther and ovary. OsORC3 knockdown plants lacked lateral roots and had a dwarf phenotype. The root meristematic zone of ORC3 knockdown plants exhibited increased cell death and reduced vital activity compared to the wild-type. CYCB1;1::GUS activity and methylene blue staining showed that lateral root primordia initiated normally in the orc3 mutant, but stopped growing before formation of the stele and ground tissue. Our results indicate that OsORC3 plays a crucial role in the emergence of lateral root primordia. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. An Apology for Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Aghamohammadi

    2017-01-01

    Prompting critical reflection on the common claim that flowers are always symbolic of female sexuality, the present article intends to explore symbolic roles of flowers in Persian literature and provide examples, mainly from Persian poetry, with the aim of refuting the claim. The writer, in fact, attempts to highlight overshadowed facets of flower symbolism by overshadowing carnal and ignoble readings of it. The reason why Persian literature has come into the focus of this study is that flowe...

  7. Development of a new lactic acid bacterial inoculant for fresh rice straw silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Geun Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Effects of newly isolated Lactobacillus plantarum on the fermentation and chemical composition of fresh rice straw silage was evaluated in this study. Methods Lactic acid bacteria (LAB from good crop silage were screened by growing them in MRS broth and a minimal medium with low carbohydrate content. Selected LAB (LAB 1821 were Gram-positive, rods, catalase negative, and were identified to be Lactobacillus plantarum based on their biochemical characteristics and a 16S rRNA analysis. Fresh rice straw was ensiled with two isolated LAB (1821 and 1841, two commercial inoculants (HM/F and P1132 and no additive as a control. Results After 2 months of storage at ambient temperature, rice straw silages treated with additives were well-preserved, the pH values and butyric and acetic acid contents were lower, and the lactic acid content and lactic/acetic acid ratio were higher than those in the control (p0.05 effect on acid detergent fiber or neutral detergent fiber contents. Crude protein (CP content and in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD increased after inoculation of LAB 1821 (p<0.05. Conclusion LAB 1821 increased the CP, IVDMD, lactic acid content and ratio of lactic acid to acetic acid in rice straw silage and decreased the pH, acetic acid, NH3-N, and butyric acid contents. Therefore, adding LAB 1821 improved the fermentation quality and feed value of rice straw silage.

  8. SGD1, a key enzyme in tocopherol biosynthesis, is essential for plant development and cold tolerance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Wang, Yunlong; Long, Wuhua; Niu, Mei; Zhao, Zhigang; Teng, Xuan; Zhu, Xiaopin; Zhu, Jianping; Hao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yongfei; Liu, Yi; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Yihua; Wan, Jianmin

    2017-07-01

    Tocopherols, a group of Vitamin E compounds, are essential components of the human diet. In contrast to well documented roles in animals, the functions of tocopherols in plants are less understood. In this study, we characterized two allelic rice dwarf mutant lines designated sgd1-1 and sgd1-2 (small grain and dwarf1). Histological observations showed that the dwarf phenotypes were mainly due to cell elongation defects. A map-based cloning strategy and subsequent complementation test showed that SGD1 encodes homogentisate phytyltransferase (HPT), a key enzyme in tocopherol biosynthesis. Mutation of SGD1 resulted in tocopherol deficiency in both sgd1mutants. No oxidant damage was detected in the sgd1 mutants. Further analysis showed that sgd1-2 was hypersensitive to cold stress. Our results indicate that SGD1 is essential for plant development and cold tolerance in rice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of Colorectal-Targeted Dietary Supplement Tablets Containing Natural Purple Rice Bran Oil as a Colorectal Chemopreventive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busaban Sirithunyalug

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer occurs due to various factors. The important risks are dietary lifestyle and inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. It has been found that the inhibitory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in the colorectal region can potentially reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. The present study investigated rice bran oil from natural purple rice bran, which exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to evaluate the bioactive compound content of natural purple rice bran oil (NPRBO derived from native Thai purple rice and the anti-inflammatory activity of NPRBO in colorectal cancer cells, and to develop a colorectal delivery platform in the form of film-coated tablets. NPRBO from the rice bran of five different Thai purple rice cultivars, namely Khao’ Gam Leum-Phua (KGLP, Khao’ Gam Boung (KGB, Khao’ Gam Thor (KGT, Khao’ Gam Pah E-Kaw (KGPEK, and Khao’ Niaw Dam (KND, were extracted using the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction technique. The amount of γ-oryzanol (ORY, tocotrienols, and tocopherols present in NPRBOs and the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of NPRBO were investigated. The highest anti-inflammatory NPRBO was transformed into a dry and free-flowing powder by liquisolid techniques. Then, it was compressed into core tablets and coated with Eudragit®L100 and Eudragit® NE30D. The in vitro release study of the film-coated NPRBO tablets was performed in three-phase simulated gastrointestinal media. The cultivar KGLP was superior to the other samples in terms of the ORY, tocotrienol and tocopherol contents and anti-inflammatory activity. Aerosil® was the most suitable absorbent for transforming NPRBO into a free-flowing powder and was used to prepare the NPRBO core tablets. The in vitro KGLP-NPRBO film-coated tablet release profile showed that no ORY was released at gastric pH while 85% of ORY was released at pH 7.4 after 6 h; this would be expected to

  10. Development of Colorectal-Targeted Dietary Supplement Tablets Containing Natural Purple Rice Bran Oil as a Colorectal Chemopreventive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirithunyalug, Busaban; Saenjum, Chalermpong; Charumanee, Suporn; Chaiyasut, Chaiyavat; Sirithunyalug, Jakkapan; Tipduangta, Pratchaya

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer occurs due to various factors. The important risks are dietary lifestyle and inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. It has been found that the inhibitory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the colorectal region can potentially reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. The present study investigated rice bran oil from natural purple rice bran, which exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to evaluate the bioactive compound content of natural purple rice bran oil (NPRBO) derived from native Thai purple rice and the anti-inflammatory activity of NPRBO in colorectal cancer cells, and to develop a colorectal delivery platform in the form of film-coated tablets. NPRBO from the rice bran of five different Thai purple rice cultivars, namely Khao’ Gam Leum-Phua (KGLP), Khao’ Gam Boung (KGB), Khao’ Gam Thor (KGT), Khao’ Gam Pah E-Kaw (KGPEK), and Khao’ Niaw Dam (KND), were extracted using the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction technique. The amount of γ-oryzanol (ORY), tocotrienols, and tocopherols present in NPRBOs and the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of NPRBO were investigated. The highest anti-inflammatory NPRBO was transformed into a dry and free-flowing powder by liquisolid techniques. Then, it was compressed into core tablets and coated with Eudragit®L100 and Eudragit® NE30D. The in vitro release study of the film-coated NPRBO tablets was performed in three-phase simulated gastrointestinal media. The cultivar KGLP was superior to the other samples in terms of the ORY, tocotrienol and tocopherol contents and anti-inflammatory activity. Aerosil® was the most suitable absorbent for transforming NPRBO into a free-flowing powder and was used to prepare the NPRBO core tablets. The in vitro KGLP-NPRBO film-coated tablet release profile showed that no ORY was released at gastric pH while 85% of ORY was released at pH 7.4 after 6 h; this would be expected to occur in

  11. TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND SURVIVAL OF RICE STEMBORERS IN LABORATORY CONDITIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md.TouhidurRahman; Khalequzzamant

    2004-01-01

    The effect of seven constant temperatures from 10 to 40℃ (10, 15, 20, 25 30, 35 and 40℃) on the development of eggs, larvae and pupae of rice stemborers viz., Chilo polychrysa (Meyrick), C. suppressalis (Walker), C. partellus (Swinhoe), Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) ,S. innotata (Walker) and Sesamia inferens (Walker) were studied. The mean developmental period among constant temperatures (in days) of egg, larva and pupa of six borers differed significantly (P < 0.0001). The mean percent of development per day of egg, larva and pupa of all borers gradually increased with the increase of constant temperatures. The total developmental period was inversely decreased with the increase of constant temperatures. The lower threshold temperature was found between 10-15℃and higher threshold temperature between 35-40℃, where no development took place. The mean developmental zero was 8.57+1.71, 7.70+1.01, 8.56+3.25, 10.19+2.19, 8.64+2.68 and 7.91+0.82 for egg, larva and pupa of above-mentioned borers respectively. The total thermal constant of egg, larva and pupa was 705.56, 725.32, 703.30, 556.59, 655.34 and 837.95 degree- days for C. polychrysa, C. suppressalis, C. partellus, S. incertulas, S. innotata and S. inferens respectively. The degree- days required for oviposition of female moths of the six borers was calculated as 99.06, 90.85, 99.29, 75.16, 92.25 and 80.41 respectively. The total degree- days required completing a generation was 804.62, 816.17, 802.59, 631.75, 648.84 and 918.36 respectively.

  12. Timing is everything: early degradation of abscission layer is associated with increased seed shattering in U.S. weedy rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hepler Peter K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seed shattering, or shedding, is an important fitness trait for wild and weedy grasses. U.S. weedy rice (Oryza sativa is a highly shattering weed, thought to have evolved from non-shattering cultivated ancestors. All U.S. weedy rice individuals examined to date contain a mutation in the sh4 locus associated with loss of shattering during rice domestication. Weedy individuals also share the shattering trait with wild rice, but not the ancestral shattering mutation at sh4; thus, how weedy rice reacquired the shattering phenotype is unknown. To establish the morphological basis of the parallel evolution of seed shattering in weedy rice and wild, we examined the abscission layer at the flower-pedicel junction in weedy individuals in comparison with wild and cultivated relatives. Results Consistent with previous work, shattering wild rice individuals possess clear, defined abscission layers at flowering, whereas non-shattering cultivated rice individuals do not. Shattering weedy rice from two separately evolved populations in the U.S. (SH and BHA show patterns of abscission layer formation and degradation distinct from wild rice. Prior to flowering, the abscission layer has formed in all weedy individuals and by flowering it is already degrading. In contrast, wild O. rufipogon abscission layers have been shown not to degrade until after flowering has occurred. Conclusions Seed shattering in weedy rice involves the formation and degradation of an abscission layer in the flower-pedicel junction, as in wild Oryza, but is a developmentally different process from shattering in wild rice. Weedy rice abscission layers appear to break down earlier than wild abscission layers. The timing of weedy abscission layer degradation suggests that unidentified regulatory genes may play a critical role in the reacquisition of shattering in weedy rice, and sheds light on the morphological basis of parallel evolution for shattering in weedy and wild

  13. Development of new semidwarf sources for rice with different cytoplasms (CV Basmati 370 and Gloria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deus, J E; Suarez, E [Instituto de Investigaciones del Arroz, Bauta, Havana (Cuba); Fuentes, J L; Alvarez, A; Padron, E [Centro de Estudios Aplicados al Desarrollo Nuclear, Miramar, Playa, Havana (Cuba)

    2001-05-01

    In Cuba semidwarf rice varieties grow on 98% of the area. Virtually all carry the same Dee-geo-won-gen dwarfing gene. Also, most if not all the cultivars have the same cytoplasm. The induced mutations approach was undertaken in order to generate alternative genetic sources of dwarfing with different cytoplasms and to improve the grain quality of Cuban rice. The seeds of two varieties, Basmati 370 and Gloria, were irradiated with 200 and 300 Gy of {sup 60}Co gamma rays. In several generations of selection, progeny testing and preliminary yield tests 10 mutants (6 from Basmati 370 and 4 from Gloria), whose yields exceeded the source cultivars, have been advanced to replicated yield trials. Some of the mutant lines are also resistant to lodging and to blast (Pyricularis grisea). It is concluded the induced mutations can be used successfully to improve plant type and other agronomic traits in rice. The induced mutants will be used also in hybridization programs. (author)

  14. Development of new semidwarf sources for rice with different cytoplasms (CV Basmati 370 and Gloria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deus, J.E.; Suarez, E.; Fuentes, J.L.; Alvarez, A.; Padron, E.

    2001-01-01

    In Cuba semidwarf rice varieties grow on 98% of the area. Virtually all carry the same Dee-geo-won-gen dwarfing gene. Also, most if not all the cultivars have the same cytoplasm. The induced mutations approach was undertaken in order to generate alternative genetic sources of dwarfing with different cytoplasms and to improve the grain quality of Cuban rice. The seeds of two varieties, Basmati 370 and Gloria, were irradiated with 200 and 300 Gy of 60 Co gamma rays. In several generations of selection, progeny testing and preliminary yield tests 10 mutants (6 from Basmati 370 and 4 from Gloria), whose yields exceeded the source cultivars, have been advanced to replicated yield trials. Some of the mutant lines are also resistant to lodging and to blast (Pyricularis grisea). It is concluded the induced mutations can be used successfully to improve plant type and other agronomic traits in rice. The induced mutants will be used also in hybridization programs. (author)

  15. A genetic screen for modifiers of UFO meristem activity identifies three novel FUSED FLORAL ORGANS genes required for early flower development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, J Z; Fletcher, J C; Chen, X; Meyerowitz, E M

    1998-06-01

    In a screen to identify novel genes required for early Arabidopsis flower development, we isolated four independent mutations that enhance the Ufo phenotype toward the production of filamentous structures in place of flowers. The mutants fall into three complementation groups, which we have termed FUSED FLORAL ORGANS (FFO) loci. ffo mutants have specific defects in floral organ separation and/or positioning; thus, the FFO genes identify components of a boundary formation mechanism(s) acting between developing floral organ primordia. FFO1 and FFO3 have specific functions in cauline leaf/stem separation and in first- and third-whorl floral organ separation, with FFO3 likely acting to establish and FFO1 to maintain floral organ boundaries. FFO2 acts at early floral stages to regulate floral organ number and positioning and to control organ separation within and between whorls. Plants doubly mutant for two ffo alleles display additive phenotypes, indicating that the FFO genes may act in separate pathways. Plants doubly mutant for an ffo gene and for ufo, lfy, or clv3 reveal that the FFO genes play roles related to those of UFO and LFY in floral meristem initiation and that FFO2 and FFO3 may act to control cell proliferation late in inflorescence development.

  16. Development of EST-SSR markers in flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee based on de novo transcriptomic assemblies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfang Chen

    Full Text Available Flowering Chinese cabbage is one of the most important vegetable crops in southern China. Genetic improvement of various agronomic traits in this crop is underway to meet high market demand in the region, but the progress is hampered by limited number of molecular markers available in this crop. This study aimed to develop EST-SSR markers from transcriptome sequences generated by next-generation sequencing. RNA-seq of eight cabbage samples identified 48,975 unigenes. Of these unigenes, 23,267 were annotated in 56 gene ontology (GO categories, 6,033 were mapped to 131 KEGG pathways, and 7,825 were assigned to clusters of orthologous groups (COGs. From the unigenes, 8,165 EST-SSR loci were identified and 98.57% of them were 1-3 nucleotide repeats with 14.32%, 41.08% and 43.17% of mono-, di- and tri-nucleotide repeats, respectively. Fifty-eight types of motifs were identified with A/T, AG/CT, AT/AT, AC/GT, AAG/CTT and AGG/CCT the most abundant. The lengths of repeated nucleotide sequences in all SSR loci ranged from 12 to 60 bp, with most (88.51% under 20 bp. Among 170 primer pairs were randomly selected from a total of 4,912 SSR primers we designed, 48 yielded unambiguously polymorphic bands with high reproducibility. Cluster analysis using 48 SSRs classified 34 flowering Chinese cabbage cultivars into three groups. A large number of EST-SSR markers identified in this study will facilitate marker-assisted selection in the breeding programs of flowering Chinese cabbage.

  17. Development of EST-SSR markers in flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee) based on de novo transcriptomic assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingfang; Li, Ronghua; Xia, Yanshi; Bai, Guihua; Guo, Peiguo; Wang, Zhiliang; Zhang, Hua; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2017-01-01

    Flowering Chinese cabbage is one of the most important vegetable crops in southern China. Genetic improvement of various agronomic traits in this crop is underway to meet high market demand in the region, but the progress is hampered by limited number of molecular markers available in this crop. This study aimed to develop EST-SSR markers from transcriptome sequences generated by next-generation sequencing. RNA-seq of eight cabbage samples identified 48,975 unigenes. Of these unigenes, 23,267 were annotated in 56 gene ontology (GO) categories, 6,033 were mapped to 131 KEGG pathways, and 7,825 were assigned to clusters of orthologous groups (COGs). From the unigenes, 8,165 EST-SSR loci were identified and 98.57% of them were 1-3 nucleotide repeats with 14.32%, 41.08% and 43.17% of mono-, di- and tri-nucleotide repeats, respectively. Fifty-eight types of motifs were identified with A/T, AG/CT, AT/AT, AC/GT, AAG/CTT and AGG/CCT the most abundant. The lengths of repeated nucleotide sequences in all SSR loci ranged from 12 to 60 bp, with most (88.51%) under 20 bp. Among 170 primer pairs were randomly selected from a total of 4,912 SSR primers we designed, 48 yielded unambiguously polymorphic bands with high reproducibility. Cluster analysis using 48 SSRs classified 34 flowering Chinese cabbage cultivars into three groups. A large number of EST-SSR markers identified in this study will facilitate marker-assisted selection in the breeding programs of flowering Chinese cabbage.

  18. Expression patterns of ABA and GA metabolism genes and hormone levels during rice seed development and imbibition: a comparison of dormant and non-dormant rice cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Fang, Jun; Xu, Fan; Chu, Jinfang; Yan, Cunyu; Schläppi, Michael R; Wang, Youping; Chu, Chengcai

    2014-06-20

    Seed dormancy is an important agronomic trait in cereals. Using deep dormant (N22), medium dormant (ZH11), and non-dormant (G46B) rice cultivars, we correlated seed dormancy phenotypes with abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) metabolism gene expression profiles and phytohormone levels during seed development and imbibition. A time course analysis of ABA and GA content during seed development showed that N22 had a high ABA level at early and middle seed developmental stages, while at late developmental stage it declined to the level of ZH11; however, its ABA/GA ratio maintained at a high level throughout seed development. By contrast, G46B had the lowest ABA content during seed development though at early developmental stage its ABA level was close to that of ZH11, and its ABA/GA ratio peaked at late developmental stage that was at the same level of ZH11. Compared with N22 and G46B, ZH11 had an even and medium ABA level during seed development and its ABA/GA ratio peaked at the middle developmental stage. Moreover, the seed development time-point having high ABA/GA ratio also had relatively high transcript levels for key genes in ABA and GA metabolism pathways across three cultivars. These indicated that the embryo-imposed dormancy has been induced before the late developmental stage and is determined by ABA/GA ratio. A similar analysis during seed imbibition showed that ABA was synthesized in different degrees for the three cultivars. In addition, water uptake assay for intact mature seeds suggested that water could permeate through husk barrier into seed embryo for all three cultivars; however, all three cultivars showed distinct colors by vanillin-staining indicative of the existence of flavans in their husks, which are dormancy inhibition compounds responsible for the husk-imposed dormancy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla P. Coelho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members.

  20. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carla P; Minow, Mark A A; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members.

  1. The chalcone synthase multigene family of Petunia hybrida (V30): differential, light-regulated expression during flower development and UV light induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koes, R.E.; Spelt, C.E.; Mol, J.N.M.

    1989-01-01

    We have analysed the expression of the 8-10 members of the gene family encoding the flavonoid biosynthetic enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS) from Petunia hybrida. During normal plant development only two members of the gene family (CHS-A and CHS-J) are expressed. Their expression is restricted to floral tissues mainly. About 90% of the total CHS mRNA pool is transcribed from CHS-A, wheares CHS-J delivers about 10% in flower corolla, tube and anthers. Expression of CHS-A and CHS-J during flower development is coordinated and (red) light-dependent. In young seedlings and cell suspension cultures expression of CHS-A and CHS-J can be induced with UV light. In addition to CHS-A and CHS-J, expression of another two CHS genes (CHS-B and CHS-G) is induced in young seedlings by UV light, albeit at a low level. In contrast to CHS genes from Leguminoseae, Petunia CHS genes are not inducible by phytopathogen-derived elicitors. Expression of CHS-A and CHS-J is reduced to a similar extent in a regulatory CHS mutant, Petunia hybrida Red Star, suggesting that both genes are regulated by the same trans-acting factors. Comparison of the promoter sequences of CHS-A and CHS-J reveals some striking homologies, which might represent cis-acting regulatory sequences. (author)

  2. Nicaragua - Rice and Banana Farmers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report is an impact evaluation of two components of the Rural Business Development Program (RBD) in Nicaragua, specifically the components benefitting rice and...

  3. Sustainable energy development of bio briquettes based on rice husk blended materials: an alternative energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaningsih, S.; Nurhilal, O.

    2018-05-01

    Rice husk as an abundant waste of biomass up to 21 million tons/year, it is unfortunate if it is not utilized. By converting it into bio briquettes, the value of rice husk bio briquettes in some studies before obtaining a relatively low value of 3,221-3,350 cal/g. The purpose of this research is to increase the calorific value of rice husk bio briquettes by mixing with coconut shell charcoal or corncob charcoal at various composition ratios of 50:50 and 80:20, to reach the optimal value that the industrial sector needed. Carbonization process was carried out at a temperature of 250-350 °C for 1.5 hours. From the results of the proximate analysis test using selected carbonization temperature at 300 °C, it can be seen that the best briquette value is made by mixing rice husk and coconut shell charcoal at composition ratio of 50:50, resulting 47.92% fixed carbon, 8.52% moisture content, 23.40% volatile matter and 20.16% ash content. The highest calorific value of 4,886 cal/g at ratio composition of 50:50, is slightly higher than the East Kalimantan coal standard of 4,828 cal/g. Hence, this bio briquettes are suitable for small scale industry application and household community use.

  4. Effect of root and leaf applications of soluble silicon on blast development in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaias Severino Cacique

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blast, caused by Pyricularia oryzae, is the most important fungal disease of rice worldwide. This study aimed to compare root and foliar supply of soluble silicon (Si on rice resistance to blast. The application of soluble Si to the roots increased Si concentration in leaf tissues as compare to plants grown in soil amended with calcium silicate. There was no increase in leaf Si concentration after soluble Si spray, regardless if the leaves were washed or not before analysis. X-ray microanalysis revealed that Si deposition was very similar on the leaf epidermis of plants sprayed with soluble Si, root amended with soluble Si or grown in soil amended with calcium silicate. The lesion size, the number of lesions per cm² of leaf and the area under blast progress curve were reduced for rice plants grown in soil that received the application of soluble Si or was amended with calcium silicate. The results of this study showed that the supply of soluble Si to the roots or its spray onto to the rice leaves can decrease blast symptoms.

  5. Rice sHsp genes: genomic organization and expression profiling under stress and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover Anil

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock proteins (Hsps constitute an important component in the heat shock response of all living systems. Among the various plant Hsps (i.e. Hsp100, Hsp90, Hsp70 and Hsp20, Hsp20 or small Hsps (sHsps are expressed in maximal amounts under high temperature stress. The characteristic feature of the sHsps is the presence of α-crystallin domain (ACD at the C-terminus. sHsps cooperate with Hsp100/Hsp70 and co-chaperones in ATP-dependent manner in preventing aggregation of cellular proteins and in their subsequent refolding. Database search was performed to investigate the sHsp gene family across rice genome sequence followed by comprehensive expression analysis of these genes. Results We identified 40 α-crystallin domain containing genes in rice. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 23 out of these 40 genes constitute sHsps. The additional 17 genes containing ACD clustered with Acd proteins of Arabidopsis. Detailed scrutiny of 23 sHsp sequences enabled us to categorize these proteins in a revised scheme of classification constituting of 16 cytoplasmic/nuclear, 2 ER, 3 mitochondrial, 1 plastid and 1 peroxisomal genes. In the new classification proposed herein nucleo-cytoplasmic class of sHsps with 9 subfamilies is more complex in rice than in Arabidopsis. Strikingly, 17 of 23 rice sHsp genes were noted to be intronless. Expression analysis based on microarray and RT-PCR showed that 19 sHsp genes were upregulated by high temperature stress. Besides heat stress, expression of sHsp genes was up or downregulated by other abiotic and biotic stresses. In addition to stress regulation, various sHsp genes were differentially upregulated at different developmental stages of the rice plant. Majority of sHsp genes were expressed in seed. Conclusion We identified twenty three sHsp genes and seventeen Acd genes in rice. Three nucleocytoplasmic sHsp genes were found only in monocots. Analysis of expression profiling of sHsp genes revealed

  6. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Prunus mume flower and fruit and development of simple sequence repeat markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Zhihong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Sequence Tag (EST has been a cost-effective tool in molecular biology and represents an abundant valuable resource for genome annotation, gene expression, and comparative genomics in plants. Results In this study, we constructed a cDNA library of Prunus mume flower and fruit, sequenced 10,123 clones of the library, and obtained 8,656 expressed sequence tag (EST sequences with high quality. The ESTs were assembled into 4,473 unigenes composed of 1,492 contigs and 2,981 singletons and that have been deposited in NCBI (accession IDs: GW868575 - GW873047, among which 1,294 unique ESTs were with known or putative functions. Furthermore, we found 1,233 putative simple sequence repeats (SSRs in the P. mume unigene dataset. We randomly tested 42 pairs of PCR primers flanking potential SSRs, and 14 pairs were identified as true-to-type SSR loci and could amplify polymorphic bands from 20 individual plants of P. mume. We further used the 14 EST-SSR primer pairs to test the transferability on peach and plum. The result showed that nearly 89% of the primer pairs produced target PCR bands in the two species. A high level of marker polymorphism was observed in the plum species (65% and low in the peach (46%, and the clustering analysis of the three species indicated that these SSR markers were useful in the evaluation of genetic relationships and diversity between and within the Prunus species. Conclusions We have constructed the first cDNA library of P. mume flower and fruit, and our data provide sets of molecular biology resources for P. mume and other Prunus species. These resources will be useful for further study such as genome annotation, new gene discovery, gene functional analysis, molecular breeding, evolution and comparative genomics between Prunus species.

  7. Transcriptomic Analysis of Flower Bud Differentiation in Magnolia sinostellata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Fan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnolias are widely cultivated for their beautiful flowers, but despite their popularity, the molecular mechanisms regulating flower bud differentiation have not been elucidated. Here, we used paraffin sections and RNA-seq to study the process of flower bud differentiation in Magnolia sinostellata. Flower bud development occurred between 28 April and 30 May 2017 and was divided into five stages: undifferentiated, early flower bud differentiation, petal primordium differentiation, stamen primordium differentiation, and pistil primordium differentiation. A total of 52,441 expressed genes were identified, of which 11,592 were significantly differentially expressed in the five bud development stages. Of these, 82 genes were involved in the flowering. In addition, MADS-box and AP2 family genes play critical roles in the formation of flower organs and 20 differentially expressed genes associated with flower bud differentiation were identified in M. sinostellata. A qRT-PCR analysis verified that the MADS-box and AP2 family genes were expressed at high levels during flower bud differentiation. Consequently, this study provides a theoretical basis for the genetic regulation of flowering in M. sinostellata, which lays a foundation for further research into flowering genes and may facilitate the development of new cultivars.

  8. Rice Dwarf Virus P2 Protein Hijacks Auxin Signaling by Directly Targeting the Rice OsIAA10 Protein, Enhancing Viral Infection and Disease Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Jin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone auxin plays critical roles in regulating myriads of plant growth and developmental processes. Microbe infection can disturb auxin signaling resulting in defects in these processes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Auxin signaling begins with perception of auxin by a transient co-receptor complex consisting of an F-box transport inhibitor response 1/auxin signaling F-box (TIR1/AFB protein and an auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA protein. Auxin binding to the co-receptor triggers ubiquitination and 26S proteasome degradation of the Aux/IAA proteins, leading to subsequent events, including expression of auxin-responsive genes. Here we report that Rice dwarf virus (RDV, a devastating pathogen of rice, causes disease symptoms including dwarfing, increased tiller number and short crown roots in infected rice as a result of reduced sensitivity to auxin signaling. The RDV capsid protein P2 binds OsIAA10, blocking the interaction between OsIAA10 and OsTIR1 and inhibiting 26S proteasome-mediated OsIAA10 degradation. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing wild-type or a dominant-negative (degradation-resistant mutant of OsIAA10 phenocopy RDV symptoms are more susceptible to RDV infection; however, knockdown of OsIAA10 enhances the resistance of rice to RDV infection. Our findings reveal a previously unknown mechanism of viral protein reprogramming of a key step in auxin signaling initiation that enhances viral infection and pathogenesis.

  9. A Virus-Induced Assay for Functional Dissection and Analysis of Monocot and Dicot Flowering Time Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Cheng; Chen, Weiwei; Shen, Jiajia; Cheng, Linming; Akande, Femi; Zhang, Ke; Yuan, Chen; Li, Chunyang; Zhang, Pengcheng; Shi, Nongnong; Cheng, Qi; Liu, Yule; Jackson, Stephen; Hong, Yiguo

    2017-06-01

    Virus-induced flowering (VIF) uses virus vectors to express Flowering Locus T ( FT ) to induce flowering in plants. This approach has recently attracted wide interest for its practical applications in accelerating breeding in crops and woody fruit trees. However, the insight into VIF and its potential as a powerful tool for dissecting florigenic proteins remained to be elucidated. Here, we describe the mechanism and further applications of Potato virus X (PVX)-based VIF in the short-day Nicotiana tabacum cultivar Maryland Mammoth. Ectopic delivery of Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) AtFT by PVX/AtFT did not induce the expression of the endogenous FT ortholog NtFT4 ; however, it was sufficient to trigger flowering in Maryland Mammoth plants grown under noninductive long-day conditions. Infected tobacco plants developed no systemic symptoms, and the PVX-based VIF did not cause transgenerational flowering. We showed that the PVX-based VIF is a much more rapid method to examine the impacts of single amino acid mutations on AtFT for floral induction than making individual transgenic Arabidopsis lines for each mutation. We also used the PVX-based VIF to demonstrate that adding a His- or FLAG-tag to the N or C terminus of AtFT could affect its florigenic activity and that this system can be applied to assay the function of FT genes from heterologous species, including tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) SFT and rice ( Oryza sativa ) Hd3a Thus, the PVX-based VIF represents a simple and efficient system to identify individual amino acids that are essential for FT-mediated floral induction and to test the ability of mono- and dicotyledonous FT genes and FT fusion proteins to induce flowering. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Effect of Rice bran on the Quality of Rice Flour Breads (Gluten-free)

    OpenAIRE

    仲上, 晴世; 矢部, えん; Haruyo, Nakagami; En, Yabe

    2016-01-01

    Over recent years progress has been made in the development of substitute foods for allergy patients. One such is rice flour bread. However, typically rice flour bread uses polysaccharide thickener in substitution for the gluten in wheat. Most polysaccharide thickeners are of dietary fiber origin, and the nutritive value is poor. Therefore, in this study, I made rice flour bread adding rice bran in place of polysaccharide thickener. Various nutrients are included in rice bran, including vitam...

  11. Translating BPEL to FLOWer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    FLOWer is a case handling tool made by Pallas-Athena for process management in the service industry. BPEL on the other hand is a language for web service orchestration, and has become a de facto standard, because of its popularity, for specifying workflow processes even though that was not its...... original purpose. This paper describe an approach translating BPLE to FLOWer, or more precisely form BPEL to CHIP. where CHIP is the interchange language that FLOWer import from and export to. The aim of the translation scheme that I give is to derive a CHIP specification that is behaviorally equivalent...

  12. Radiation disinfestation of Basmati rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.S.; Gholap, A.S.; Adhikari, H.R.; Nair, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Effect of low dose γ-radiation on prepackaged Basmati rice was studied in order to achieve disinfestation of rice. Basmati rice procured from local market was repacked in 1 kg pouches made from high density polyethylene (HDP) and biaxially oriented polypropylene: low density polyethylene (BOPP/LDP) laminate and irradiated at doses from 0.25-1.0 kGy. Within one month of storage at room temperature, unirradiated (control) Basmati rice developed heavy infestation. No infestation was observed in any of the irradiated samples even at 0.25 kGy and the rice could be stored for 6 months in a clean state. Irradiation (at 0.25 kGy) did not alter the moisture content of the rice. Likewise, no significant change was noted due to irradiation in the functional properties of rice such as swelling index and water absorption and in total volatile components responsible for flavour of Basmati rice. In organoleptic evaluation, no significant difference was found between the acceptability of irradiated (0.25 kGy) and control rice. These results are significant in view of the high export potential of Basmati rice and the transit losses at present due to infestation. (author). 24 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Explaining the apparent paradox of persistent selection for early flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Emily J; Rowe, Locke; Stinchcombe, John R; Forrest, Jessica R K

    2017-08-01

    Decades of observation in natural plant populations have revealed pervasive phenotypic selection for early flowering onset. This consistent pattern seems at odds with life-history theory, which predicts stabilizing selection on age and size at reproduction. Why is selection for later flowering rare? Moreover, extensive evidence demonstrates that flowering time can and does evolve. What maintains ongoing directional selection for early flowering? Several non-mutually exclusive processes can help to reconcile the apparent paradox of selection for early flowering. We outline four: selection through other fitness components may counter observed fecundity selection for early flowering; asymmetry in the flowering-time-fitness function may make selection for later flowering hard to detect; flowering time and fitness may be condition-dependent; and selection on flowering duration is largely unaccounted for. In this Viewpoint, we develop these four mechanisms, and highlight areas where further study will improve our understanding of flowering-time evolution. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Ecology and the Environ- ment, Bengaluru as ... remaining plants, it is an abiotic agent (abiotic pollination), .... tion was slow until the origin of flowering plants and evolution of ..... Although pollination is generally a mutual interaction in a major-.

  15. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ecology and the. Environment ... agents (pollinators), the next step before fertilization is to se- .... the embryo sac are referred to as pollen-pistil interaction and play ..... evolutionary success of flowering plants when compared to other groups of ...

  16. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minti, Hari

    2012-12-01

    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  17. Development of Elite BPH-Resistant Wide-Spectrum Restorer Lines for Three and Two Line Hybrid Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fengfeng; Li, Nengwu; Chen, Yunping; Liu, Xingdan; Sun, Heng; Wang, Jie; He, Guangcun; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid rice has contributed significantly to the world food security. Breeding of elite high-yield, strong-resistant broad-spectrum restorer line is an important strategy for hybrid rice in commercial breeding programs. Here, we developed three elite brown planthopper (BPH)-resistant wide-spectrum restorer lines by pyramiding big-panicle gene Gn8.1 , BPH-resistant genes Bph6 and Bph9 , fertility restorer genes Rf3, Rf4, Rf5 , and Rf6 through molecular marker assisted selection. Resistance analysis revealed that the newly developed restorer lines showed stronger BPH-resistance than any of the single-gene donor parent Luoyang-6 and Luoyang-9. Moreover, the three new restorer lines had broad spectrum recovery capabilities for Honglian CMS, Wild abortive CMS and two-line GMS sterile lines, and higher grain yields than that of the recurrent parent 9,311 under nature field conditions. Importantly, the hybrid crosses also showed good performance for grain yield and BPH-resistance. Thus, the development of elite BPH-resistant wide-spectrum restorer lines has a promising future for breeding of broad spectrum BPH-resistant high-yield varieties.

  18. Dormancy release and flowering time in Ziziphus jujuba Mill., a "direct flowering" fruit tree, has a facultative requirement for chilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Michal; Ransbotyn, Vanessa; Raveh, Eran; Barak, Simon; Tel-Zur, Noemi; Zaccai, Michele

    2016-03-15

    In deciduous fruit trees, the effect of chilling on flowering has mostly been investigated in the "indirect flowering" group, characterized by a period of rest between flower bud formation and blooming. In the present study, we explored the effects of chilling and chilling deprivation on the flowering of Ziziphus jujuba, a temperate deciduous fruit tree belonging to the "direct flowering" group, in which flower bud differentiation, blooming and fruit development occur after dormancy release, during a single growing season. Dormancy release, vegetative growth and flowering time in Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li were assessed following several treatments of chilling. Chilling treatments quantitatively decreased the timing of vegetative bud dormancy release, thereby accelerating flowering, but had no effect on the time from dormancy release to flowering. Trees grown at a constant temperature of 25°C, without chilling, broke dormancy and flowered, indicating the facultative character of chilling in this species. We measured the expression of Z. jujuba LFY and AP1 homologues (ZjLFY and ZjAP1). Chilling decreased ZjLFY expression in dormant vegetative buds but had no effect on ZjAP1expression, which reached peak expression before dormancy release and at anthesis. In conclusion, chilling is not obligatory for dormancy release of Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li vegetative buds. However, the exposure to chilling during dormancy does accelerate vegetative bud dormancy release and flowering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. USING BACH FLOWER IN HOLISTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Ferreira do Nascimento

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a narrative review from scientific literature that aimed to describe concepts and approaches for indications of the therapeutic use of Bach flower remedies in holistic psychotherapy. The review was developed in February 2016 from books, official documents and articles indexed in Lilacs and Scielo databases. Bach flower remedies is a therapeutic method that aims to restore the balance of human being, restoring its vital energy through holistic care. Because the flower essences act on psychic and emotional dimension of individual, when employed in holistic psychotherapy can provide greater autonomy, self-care and effectiveness compared to other alternative methods. The literature indicated that flower essence therapy is a safe practice and can be used in a complementary to health care, but should be performed by qualified professionals. It has also shown to be a promising and important area for nursing professional, but it still requires greater investment in research in the area to support the practice.

  20. Proteomics Coupled with Metabolite and Cell Wall Profiling Reveal Metabolic Processes of a Developing Rice Stem Internode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Fan; Williams, Brad J.; Thangella, Padmavathi A. V.; Ladak, Adam; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Olivos, Hernando J.; Zhao, Kangmei; Callister, Stephen J.; Bartley, Laura E.

    2017-07-13

    Internodes of grass stems function in mechanical support, transport, and, in some species, are a major sink organ for carbon in the form of cell wall polymers. This study reports cell wall composition, proteomic and metabolite analyses of the rice elongating internode. Along eight segments of the second rice internode (internode II) at booting stage, cellulose, lignin, and xylose increase as a percentage of cell wall material from the younger to the older internode segments, indicating active cell wall synthesis. Liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of trypsin-digested peptides of size-fractionated proteins extracted from this internode at booting reveals 2547proteins with at least two unique peptides. The dataset includes many glycosyltransferases, acyltransferases, glycosyl hydrolases, cell wall-localized proteins, and protein kinases that have or may have functions in cell wall biosynthesis or remodeling. Phospho-enrichment of the internode II peptides identified 21 unique phosphopeptides belonging to 20 phosphoproteins including an LRR-III family receptor like kinase. GO over-representation and KEGG pathway analyses highlight the abundances of internode proteins involved in biosynthetic processes, especially the synthesis of secondary metabolites such as phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. LC-MS of hot methanol-extracted secondary metabolites from internode II at four stages (elongation, early mature, mature and post mature) indicates that secondary metabolites in stems are distinct from those of roots and leaves, and differ during stem maturation. This work fills a void of knowledge of proteomics and metabolomics data for grass stems, specifically for rice, and provides baseline knowledge for more detailed studies of cell wall synthesis and other biological processes during internode development, toward improving grass agronomic properties.

  1. Regulating N application for rice yield and sustainable eco-agro development in the upper reaches of Yellow River basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aiping; Liu, Ruliang; Gao, Ji; Yang, Shiqi; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    High N fertilizer and flooding irrigation applied to rice on anthropogenic-alluvial soil often result in N leaching and low recovery of applied fertilizer N from the rice fields in Ningxia irrigation region in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, which threatens ecological environment, food security, and sustainable agricultural development. This paper reported the regulating N application for rice yield and sustainable Eco-Agro development in the upper reaches of Yellow River basin. The results showed that reducing and postponing N application could maintain crop yields while substantially reducing N leaching losses to the environment and improving the nitrogen use efficiency. Considering the high food production, the minimum environmental threat, and the low labor input, we suggested that regulating N application is an important measure to help sustainable agricultural development in this region.

  2. Minimizing mixing intensity to improve the performance of rice straw anaerobic digestion via enhanced development of microbe-substrate aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moonkyung; Kim, Byung-Chul; Choi, Yongju; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the differential development of microbe-substrate aggregates at different mixing intensities on the performance of anaerobic digestion of rice straw. Batch and semi-continuous reactors were operated for up to 50 and 300days, respectively, under different mixing intensities. In both batch and semi-continuous reactors, minimal mixing conditions exhibited maximum methane production and lignocellulose biodegradability, which both had strong correlations with the development of microbe-substrate aggregates. The results implied that the aggregated microorganisms on the particulate substrate played a key role in rice straw hydrolysis, determining the performance of anaerobic digestion. Increasing the mixing speed from 50 to 150rpm significantly reduced the methane production rate by disintegrating the microbe-substrate aggregates in the semi-continuous reactor. A temporary stress of high-speed mixing fundamentally affected the microbial communities, increasing the possibility of chronic reactor failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Utilization of Palm Oil Fuel Ash and Rice Husks in Unfired Bricks for Sustainable Construction Materials Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A.M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of sustainable construction component could prevent and control the pollution and environmental degradation in Malaysia. This is a key area in Malaysia’s Green Strategies (Ministry of Science, Technology and the environment, 2002. This paper reports on the laboratory investigation to establish the potential of utilizing Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA and Rice Husk (RH in developing green construction components. Malaysian Palm Oil Council (MPOC reported that currently Malaysia’s contribution to world palm oil production is 39% and has taken 44% of world exports. Consequently it will increase the POFA production in palm oil manufacturing and this waste sometimes dispose in open area near the factory. On the other hand Malaysia also producing more 300k hectares of paddy production, thus rice husk is also a concern as an agricultural waste. The research objective is to study on the potential of utilizing of agricultural waste in developing of green bricks. This research involved laboratory investigations. In this research 2% - 10% of POFA and 1% - 5% RH were used in the mix composition of the brick’s weight. Addition of POFA was aimed to reduce the cement usage and RH was added to reduce sand in the bricks. The bricks were manually pressed in Materials Laboratory in Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying, UiTM Shah Alam. The result showed that the addition of POFA and RH are able to reduce the density but in contrast the compressive strength were decrease compare to the control unit.

  4. Root Transcriptomic Analysis Revealing the Importance of Energy Metabolism to the Development of Deep Roots in Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaojun Lou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the most serious abiotic stress limiting rice production, and deep root is the key contributor to drought avoidance. However, the genetic mechanism regulating the development of deep roots is largely unknown. In this study, the transcriptomes of 74 root samples from 37 rice varieties, representing the extreme genotypes of shallow or deep rooting, were surveyed by RNA-seq. The 13,242 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between deep rooting and shallow rooting varieties (H vs. L were enriched in the pathway of genetic information processing and metabolism, while the 1,052 DEGs between the deep roots and shallow roots from each of the plants (D vs. S were significantly enriched in metabolic pathways especially energy metabolism. Ten quantitative trait transcripts (QTTs were identified and some were involved in energy metabolism. Forty-nine candidate DEGs were confirmed by qRT-PCR and microarray. Through weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA, we found 18 hub genes. Surprisingly, all these hub genes expressed higher in deep roots than in shallow roots, furthermore half of them functioned in energy metabolism. We also estimated that the ATP production in the deep roots was faster than shallow roots. Our results provided a lot of reliable candidate genes to improve deep rooting, and firstly highlight the importance of energy metabolism to the development of deep roots.

  5. Root Transcriptomic Analysis Revealing the Importance of Energy Metabolism to the Development of Deep Roots in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qiaojun; Chen, Liang; Mei, Hanwei; Xu, Kai; Wei, Haibin; Feng, Fangjun; Li, Tiemei; Pang, Xiaomeng; Shi, Caiping; Luo, Lijun; Zhong, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Drought is the most serious abiotic stress limiting rice production, and deep root is the key contributor to drought avoidance. However, the genetic mechanism regulating the development of deep roots is largely unknown. In this study, the transcriptomes of 74 root samples from 37 rice varieties, representing the extreme genotypes of shallow or deep rooting, were surveyed by RNA-seq. The 13,242 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between deep rooting and shallow rooting varieties (H vs. L) were enriched in the pathway of genetic information processing and metabolism, while the 1,052 DEGs between the deep roots and shallow roots from each of the plants (D vs. S) were significantly enriched in metabolic pathways especially energy metabolism. Ten quantitative trait transcripts (QTTs) were identified and some were involved in energy metabolism. Forty-nine candidate DEGs were confirmed by qRT-PCR and microarray. Through weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), we found 18 hub genes. Surprisingly, all these hub genes expressed higher in deep roots than in shallow roots, furthermore half of them functioned in energy metabolism. We also estimated that the ATP production in the deep roots was faster than shallow roots. Our results provided a lot of reliable candidate genes to improve deep rooting, and firstly highlight the importance of energy metabolism to the development of deep roots.

  6. Chinese Milk Vetch Improves Plant Growth, Development and 15N Recovery in the Rice-Based Rotation System of South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhijian; He, Yaqin; Tu, Shuxin; Xu, Changxu; Liu, Guangrong; Wang, Huimin; Cao, Weidong; Liu, Hui

    2017-06-15

    Chinese milk vetch (CMV) is vital for agriculture and environment in China. A pot experiment combined with 15 N labeling (including three treatments: control, no fertilizer N and CMV; 15 N-labeled urea alone, 15 NU; substituting partial 15 NU with CMV, 15 NU-M) was conducted to evaluate the impact of CMV on plant growth, development and 15 NU recovery in rice-based rotation system. The 15 NU-M mitigated oxidative damage by increasing antioxidant enzymes activities and chlorophyll content while decreased malondialdehyde content in rice root and shoot, increased the biomass, total N and 15 N uptake of plant shoots by 8%, 12% and 39% respectively, thus inducing a noticeable increase of annual 15 N recovery by 77% versus 15 NU alone. Remarkable increases in soil NH 4 + and populations of bacteria, actinomycetes and azotobacter were obtained in legume-rice rotation system while an adverse result was observed in soil NO 3 - content versus fallow-rice. CMV as green manure significantly increased the fungal population which was decreased with cultivating CMV as cover crop. Therefore, including legume cover crop in rice-based rotation system improves plant growth and development, annual N conservation and recovery probably by altering soil nitrogen forms plus ameliorating soil microbial communities and antioxidant system which alleviates oxidative damages in plants.

  7. Using an Active-Optical Sensor to Develop an Optimal NDVI Dynamic Model for High-Yield Rice Production (Yangtze, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Ferguson, Richard B; Zheng, Hengbiao; Cao, Qiang; Tian, Yongchao; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan

    2017-03-24

    The successful development of an optimal canopy vegetation index dynamic model for obtaining higher yield can offer a technical approach for real-time and nondestructive diagnosis of rice (Oryza sativa L) growth and nitrogen (N) nutrition status. In this study, multiple rice cultivars and N treatments of experimental plots were carried out to obtain: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), leaf area index (LAI), above-ground dry matter (DM), and grain yield (GY) data. The quantitative relationships between NDVI and these growth indices (e.g., LAI, DM and GY) were analyzed, showing positive correlations. Using the normalized modeling method, an appropriate NDVI simulation model of rice was established based on the normalized NDVI (RNDVI) and relative accumulative growing degree days (RAGDD). The NDVI dynamic model for high-yield production in rice can be expressed by a double logistic model: RNDVI = ( 1 + e - 15.2829 × ( R A G D D i - 0.1944 ) ) - 1 - ( 1 + e - 11.6517 × ( R A G D D i - 1.0267 ) ) - 1 (R2 = 0.8577**), which can be used to accurately predict canopy NDVI dynamic changes during the entire growth period. Considering variation among rice cultivars, we constructed two relative NDVI (RNDVI) dynamic models for Japonica and Indica rice types, with R2 reaching 0.8764** and 0.8874**, respectively. Furthermore, independent experimental data were used to validate the RNDVI dynamic models. The results showed that during the entire growth period, the accuracy (k), precision (R2), and standard deviation of RNDVI dynamic models for the Japonica and Indica cultivars were 0.9991, 1.0170; 0.9084**, 0.8030**; and 0.0232, 0.0170, respectively. These results indicated that RNDVI dynamic models could accurately reflect crop growth and predict dynamic changes in high-yield crop populations, providing a rapid approach for monitoring rice growth status.

  8. Development of Selectable Marker-Free Transgenic Rice Plants with Enhanced Seed Tocopherol Content through FLP/FRT-Mediated Spontaneous Auto-Excision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jong Woo

    Full Text Available Development of marker-free transgenic plants is a technical alternative for avoiding concerns about the safety of selectable marker genes used in genetically modified (GM crops. Here, we describe the construction of a spontaneous self-excision binary vector using an oxidative stress-inducible modified FLP/FRT system and its successful application to produce marker-free transgenic rice plants with enhanced seed tocopherol content. To generate selectable marker-free transgenic rice plants, we constructed a binary vector using the hpt selectable marker gene and the rice codon-optimized FLP (mFLP gene under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible promoter between two FRT sites, along with multiple cloning sites for convenient cloning of genes of interest. Using this pCMF binary vector with the NtTC gene, marker-free T1 transgenic rice plants expressing NtTC were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation using hygromycin as a selective agent, followed by segregation of selectable marker genes. Furthermore, α-, γ-, and total tocopherol levels were significantly increased in seeds of the marker-free transgenic TC line compared with those of wild-type plants. Thus, this spontaneous auto-excision system, incorporating an oxidative stress-inducible mFLP/FRT system to eliminate the selectable marker gene, can be easily adopted and used to efficiently generate marker-free transgenic rice plants. Moreover, nutritional enhancement of rice seeds through elevation of tocopherol content coupled with this marker-free strategy may improve human health and public acceptance of GM rice.

  9. Development of Selectable Marker-Free Transgenic Rice Plants with Enhanced Seed Tocopherol Content through FLP/FRT-Mediated Spontaneous Auto-Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hee-Jong; Qin, Yang; Park, Soo-Yun; Park, Soon Ki; Cho, Yong-Gu; Shin, Kong-Sik; Lim, Myung-Ho; Cho, Hyun-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Development of marker-free transgenic plants is a technical alternative for avoiding concerns about the safety of selectable marker genes used in genetically modified (GM) crops. Here, we describe the construction of a spontaneous self-excision binary vector using an oxidative stress-inducible modified FLP/FRT system and its successful application to produce marker-free transgenic rice plants with enhanced seed tocopherol content. To generate selectable marker-free transgenic rice plants, we constructed a binary vector using the hpt selectable marker gene and the rice codon-optimized FLP (mFLP) gene under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible promoter between two FRT sites, along with multiple cloning sites for convenient cloning of genes of interest. Using this pCMF binary vector with the NtTC gene, marker-free T1 transgenic rice plants expressing NtTC were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation using hygromycin as a selective agent, followed by segregation of selectable marker genes. Furthermore, α-, γ-, and total tocopherol levels were significantly increased in seeds of the marker-free transgenic TC line compared with those of wild-type plants. Thus, this spontaneous auto-excision system, incorporating an oxidative stress-inducible mFLP/FRT system to eliminate the selectable marker gene, can be easily adopted and used to efficiently generate marker-free transgenic rice plants. Moreover, nutritional enhancement of rice seeds through elevation of tocopherol content coupled with this marker-free strategy may improve human health and public acceptance of GM rice.

  10. Development and evaluation of near-isogenic lines for brown planthopper resistance in rice cv. 9311

    OpenAIRE

    Cong Xiao; Jie Hu; Yi-Ting Ao; Ming-Xing Cheng; Guan-Jun Gao; Qing-Lu Zhang; Guang-Cun He; Yu-Qing He

    2016-01-01

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is the most destructive pest of rice in Asia. To date 29 BPH resistance genes have been identified, but only a few genes are being used in breeding due to inefficient markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and little knowledge of the real effects of the genes. In this study we individually transferred 13 genes or QTLs (Bph14, QBph3, QBph4, Bph17, Bph15, Bph20, Bph24, Bph6, Bph3, Bph9, Bph10, Bph18 and Bph21) into cultivar 9311 by marker assisted backcross breeding...

  11. Recent advances in the dissection of drought-stress regulatory networks and strategies for development of drought-tolerant transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaka, Daisuke; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2015-01-01

    Advances have been made in the development of drought-tolerant transgenic plants, including cereals. Rice, one of the most important cereals, is considered to be a critical target for improving drought tolerance, as present-day rice cultivation requires large quantities of water and as drought-tolerant rice plants should be able to grow in small amounts of water. Numerous transgenic rice plants showing enhanced drought tolerance have been developed to date. Such genetically engineered plants have generally been developed using genes encoding proteins that control drought regulatory networks. These proteins include transcription factors, protein kinases, receptor-like kinases, enzymes related to osmoprotectant or plant hormone synthesis, and other regulatory or functional proteins. Of the drought-tolerant transgenic rice plants described in this review, approximately one-third show decreased plant height under non-stressed conditions or in response to abscisic acid treatment. In cereal crops, plant height is a very important agronomic trait directly affecting yield, although the improvement of lodging resistance should also be taken into consideration. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of plant growth reduction under drought stress conditions holds promise for developing transgenic plants that produce high yields under drought stress conditions. Plant growth rates are reduced more rapidly than photosynthetic activity under drought conditions, implying that plants actively reduce growth in response to drought stress. In this review, we summarize studies on molecular regulatory networks involved in response to drought stress. In a separate section, we highlight progress in the development of transgenic drought-tolerant rice plants, with special attention paid to field trial investigations.

  12. Controlling the Sex of Flowers in Different Stages of Growth and Development of Melon (Cucumis melo var. reticualus L. with Ethephon Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arabsalmani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of ethephon on control of male flowers in melon, a split plot experiment, with randomized complete blocks design and three replications, was conducted in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Varamin, Iran, during 2005-2006. The main factor included three levels of plant growth stage (3-leaf, 6-leaf and early reproductive stage and sub-plots included four ethephon levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/L. The appearance time of female flowers, number of male and female flowers (7 and 14 days after application of ethephon, total yield and female/male flowers ratio were evaluated. Results showed that plant response to increasing concentration of ethephon depends on plant growth stage. By using the ethephon concentrations of 100, 200 and 300 mg/L, the emergence of female flowers was delayed 6, 13 and 15 days, respectively, in comparison to control. The highest yield (26430 kg/ha was obtained with spraying of 200 mg/L ethephon in trifoliate plants. In this case, the ratio of female to male flowers was highest (81.5%. A high dose of ethephon (over 200 mg/L was associated with reduced yield and ratio of female to male flowers, at all stages of plant growth, especially in reproductive growth stage. The results this research showed that the beneficial effects of ethephon application is possible only if the right time is chosen with respect to plant growth.

  13. Functional Marker Development and Effect Analysis of Grain Size Gene GW2 in Extreme Grain Size Germplasm in Rice

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    Zhang Ya-dong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available GW2 is an important gene that regulates grain width and weight. We used cDNA clone to obtain the sequences of GW2 from large- and small-grained rice varieties, TD70 and Kasalath, respectively. Then, we developed a dCAPS (derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence marker on the basis of the sequence difference between functional and nonfunctional GW2 genes to analyze the genotypes and phenotypes of recombinant inbred lines. Results showed that the sequence of GW2TD70 had a single nucleotide deletion at site 316 that generates a termination codon. This codon terminated the GW2 protein in advance. By contrast, the sequence of GW2Kasalath encoded an intact protein. A novel dCAPS marker was designed in accordance with a base A deletion at site 316 of the sequence. After the PCR product was digested by ApoI, TD70 showed 21 and 30 bp fragments, and Kasalath showed a 51 bp fragment. Up to 82 lines contained GW2TD70, and 158 lines contained GW2Kasalath. The lines that contained TD70 alleles displayed substantial increases in width and 1000-grain weight. This result suggested that GW2 played a critical role in rice breeding.

  14. Modulation of ethylene responses by OsRTH1 overexpression reveals the biological significance of ethylene in rice seedling growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Xin; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of Arabidopsis Reversion-To-ethylene Sensitivity1 (RTE1) results in whole-plant ethylene insensitivity dependent on the ethylene receptor gene Ethylene Response1 (ETR1). However, overexpression of the tomato RTE1 homologue Green Ripe (GR) delays fruit ripening but does not confer whole-plant ethylene insensitivity. It was decided to investigate whether aspects of ethylene-induced growth and development of the monocotyledonous model plant rice could be modulated by rice RTE1 homologues (OsRTH genes). Results from a cross-species complementation test in Arabidopsis showed that OsRTH1 overexpression complemented the rte1-2 loss-of-function mutation and conferred whole-plant ethylene insensitivity in an ETR1-dependent manner. In contrast, OsRTH2 and OsRTH3 overexpression did not complement rte1-2 or confer ethylene insensitivity. In rice, OsRTH1 overexpression substantially prevented ethylene-induced alterations in growth and development, including leaf senescence, seedling leaf elongation and development, coleoptile elongation or curvature, and adventitious root development. Results of subcellular localizations of OsRTHs, each fused with the green fluorescent protein, in onion epidermal cells suggested that the three OsRTHs were predominantly localized to the Golgi. OsRTH1 may be an RTE1 orthologue of rice and modulate rice ethylene responses. The possible roles of auxins and gibberellins in the ethylene-induced alterations in growth were evaluated and the biological significance of ethylene in the early stage of rice seedling growth is discussed. PMID:22451723

  15. Genetic Diversity of Upland Rice Germplasm in Malaysia Based on Quantitative Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sohrabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is prerequisite for any crop improvement program as it helps in the development of superior recombinants. Fifty Malaysian upland rice accessions were evaluated for 12 growth traits, yield and yield components. All of the traits were significant and highly significant among the accessions. The higher magnitudes of genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were recorded for flag leaf length-to-width ratio, spikelet fertility, and days to flowering. High heritability along with high genetic advance was registered for yield of plant, days to flowering, and flag leaf length-to-width ratio suggesting preponderance of additive gene action in the gene expression of these characters. Plant height showed highly significant positive correlation with most of the traits. According to UPGMA cluster analysis all accessions were clustered into six groups. Twelve morphological traits provided around 77% of total variation among the accessions.

  16. Regulation of rice root development by a retrotransposon acting as a microRNA sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jungnam; Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2017-08-26

    It is well documented that transposable elements (TEs) can regulate the expression of neighbouring genes. However, their ability to act in trans and influence ectopic loci has been reported rarely. We searched in rice transcriptomes for tissue-specific expression of TEs and found them to be regulated developmentally. They often shared sequence homology with co-expressed genes and contained potential microRNA-binding sites, which suggested possible contributions to gene regulation. In fact, we have identified a retrotransposon that is highly transcribed in roots and whose spliced transcript constitutes a target mimic for miR171. miR171 destabilizes mRNAs encoding the root-specific family of SCARECROW-Like transcription factors. We demonstrate that retrotransposon-derived transcripts act as decoys for miR171, triggering its degradation and thus results in the root-specific accumulation of SCARECROW-Like mRNAs. Such transposon-mediated post-transcriptional control of miR171 levels is conserved in diverse rice species.

  17. Control of the first flowering in forest trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalupka, W. [Inst. od Dendrology, Kornik (Poland); Cecich, R.A. [U.S.D.A.-Forest Service, Columbia, MO (United States). North Central Forest Experiment Station

    1997-04-01

    Precocious flowering provides opportunities to shorten a breeding cycle. A tree may flower for the first time when sufficient crown development has occurred and there are enough meristems to support both vegetative and reproductive buds. Precocious flowering can be promoted through the use of cultural techniques, such as photoperiod, accelerated growth, gibberellins and water stress. The length of the juvenile phase is dependent on genetic and environmental variables that affect achievement of a minimum size, and is positively correlated with the height of the plants within a family. Selection pressure can be applied successfully to the precocious flowering character, and crossed or inbred lines of precocious flowering progeny can be developed. Various levels and amounts of genetic control have been implicated in the control of precocious flowering. 90 refs, 1 tab

  18. Effects of free-air CO2 enrichment on adventitious root development of rice under low and normal soil nitrogen levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengming Sun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Free air CO2 enrichment (FACE and nitrogen (N have marked effects on rice root growth, and numerical simulation can explain these effects. To further define the effects of FACE on root growth of rice, an experiment was performed, using the hybrid indica cultivar Xianyou 63. The effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2], 200 μmol mol− 1 higher than ambient, on the growth of rice adventitious roots were evaluated, with two levels of N: low (LN, 125 kg ha− 1 and normal (NN, 250 kg ha− 1. The results showed a significant increase in both adventitious root number (ARN and adventitious root length (ARL under FACE treatment. The application of nitrogen also increased ARN and ARL, but these increases were smaller than that under FACE treatment. On the basis of the FACE experiment, numerical models for rice adventitious root number and length were constructed with time as the driving factor. The models illustrated the dynamic development of rice adventitious root number and length after transplanting, regulated either by atmospheric [CO2] or by N application. The simulation result was supported by statistical tests comparing experimental data from different years, and the model yields realistic predictions of root growth. These results suggest that the models have strong predictive potential under conditions of atmospheric [CO2] rises in the future.

  19. RiceAtlas, a spatial database of global rice calendars and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborte, Alice G; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Balanza, Jane Girly; Saito, Kazuki; Zwart, Sander J; Boschetti, Mirco; Murty, M V R; Villano, Lorena; Aunario, Jorrel Khalil; Reinke, Russell; Koo, Jawoo; Hijmans, Robert J; Nelson, Andrew

    2017-05-30

    Knowing where, when, and how much rice is planted and harvested is crucial information for understanding the effects of policy, trade, and global and technological change on food security. We developed RiceAtlas, a spatial database on the seasonal distribution of the world's rice production. It consists of data on rice planting and harvesting dates by growing season and estimates of monthly production for all rice-producing countries. Sources used for planting and harvesting dates include global and regional databases, national publications, online reports, and expert knowledge. Monthly production data were estimated based on annual or seasonal production statistics, and planting and harvesting dates. RiceAtlas has 2,725 spatial units. Compared with available global crop calendars, RiceAtlas is nearly ten times more spatially detailed and has nearly seven times more spatial units, with at least two seasons of calendar data, making RiceAtlas the most comprehensive and detailed spatial database on rice calendar and production.

  20. Analysis on Structure of Flower Market in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, Xi; ZHANG, Yingying

    2015-01-01

    With the socio-economic development and people’s living condition improvement, the requirement for environment is higher and higher and the mental demand is also more and more. For this, Beijing Municipal Bureau of Landscape and Forestry listed survey programs of consumption demands of flower market in Beijing in 2014, and provided several recommendations in line with current situations, problems and environment of the flower industry, for future reference of flower decision making of Beiji...

  1. Photosynthetic utilization of radiant energy by CAM Dendrobium flowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, G.H.; Hew, C.S.; He, J.

    1997-01-01

    14 CO 2 fixation was observed in orchid Dendrobium flowers; its rate decreased with the flower development. Chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence in different developmental stages of flowers was compared to other green plant parts (leaf, inflorescence stalk, and fruit capsule). The photochemical efficiency of photosystem 2 (PS2) (Fv/Fm) of a leaf was 14-21 % higher than that of a mature flower perianth (sepal, petal, and labellum) which had a much lower total Chl content and Chl a/b ratio. A higher quantum yield of PS2 (ΦPS2) than in the mature flowers was observed in all green parts. Flower sepals had higher Chl content, Chl a/b ratio, and Fv/Fm values than the petal and labellum. During flower development the Chl content, Chl a/b ratio, Fv/Fm, and qN decreased while ΦPS2 and qP remained constant. An exposure of developing flowers to irradiances above 50 µmol m -2 s -1 resulted in a very drastic drop of ΦPS2 and qP, and a coherent increase of qN as compared to other green plant organs. A low saturation irradiance (PFD of 100 µmol m -2 s -1 ) and the increase in qN in the flower indicate that irradiation stress may occur since there is no further protection when the flower is exposed to irradiances above 100 µmol m -2 s -1 . A low Chl/carotenoid ratio in mature flower perianth as a consequence of Chl content reduction in the course of flower development suggests a relief of irradiation stress via this mean. (author)

  2. The impact of herbicide-resistant rice technology on phenotypic diversity and population structure of United States weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Nilda Roma; Singh, Vijay; Tseng, Te Ming; Black, Howard; Young, Nelson D; Huang, Zhongyun; Hyma, Katie E; Gealy, David R; Caicedo, Ana L

    2014-11-01

    The use of herbicide-resistant (HR) Clearfield rice (Oryza sativa) to control weedy rice has increased in the past 12 years to constitute about 60% of rice acreage in Arkansas, where most U.S. rice is grown. To assess the impact of HR cultivated rice on the herbicide resistance and population structure of weedy rice, weedy samples were collected from commercial fields with a history of Clearfield rice. Panicles from each weedy type were harvested and tested for resistance to imazethapyr. The majority of plants sampled had at least 20% resistant offspring. These resistant weeds were 97 to 199 cm tall and initiated flowering from 78 to 128 d, generally later than recorded for accessions collected prior to the widespread use of Clearfield rice (i.e. historical accessions). Whereas the majority (70%) of historical accessions had straw-colored hulls, only 30% of contemporary HR weedy rice had straw-colored hulls. Analysis of genotyping-by-sequencing data showed that HR weeds were not genetically structured according to hull color, whereas historical weedy rice was separated into straw-hull and black-hull populations. A significant portion of the local rice crop genome was introgressed into HR weedy rice, which was rare in historical weedy accessions. Admixture analyses showed that HR weeds tend to possess crop haplotypes in the portion of chromosome 2 containing the ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE gene, which confers herbicide resistance to Clearfield rice. Thus, U.S. HR weedy rice is a distinct population relative to historical weedy rice and shows modifications in morphology and phenology that are relevant to weed management. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Physicochemical Characteristics of Artificial Rice from Composite Flour: Modified Cassava Starch, Canavalia ensiformis and Dioscorea esculenta

    OpenAIRE

    Sumardiono Siswo; Pudjihastuti Isti; Abyor Handayani Noer; Kusumayanti Heny

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia is the third largest country on the global paddy rice production and also considered as a rice importer. Even, Indonesia has the biggest per capita consumption of paddy rice (140 kg of paddy rice per person per year). Product diversification using local commodities. Artificial rice is potential to be developed as a new value product using different types of grains. It is one of appropriate solutions for reducing imported rice rate. Artificial rice was produced using high nutrition c...

  4. Agricultural waste as household fuel: techno-economic assessment of a new rice-husk cookstove for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Francesco; Parmigiani, Simone; Vaccari, Mentore; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    In many rural contexts of the developing world, agricultural residues and the organic fraction of waste are often burned in open-air to clear the lands or just to dispose them. This is a common practice which generates uncontrolled emissions, while wasting a potential energy resource. This is the case of rice husk in the Logone Valley (Chad/Cameroon). In such a context household energy supply is a further critical issue. Modern liquid fuel use is limited and traditional solid fuels (mainly wood) are used for daily cooking in rudimentary devices like 3-stone fires, resulting in low efficiency fuel use, huge health impacts, increasing exploitation stress for the local natural resources. Rice husk may be an alternative fuel to wood for household energy supply. In order to recover such a biomass, the authors are testing a proper stove with an original design. Its lay-out (featuring a metal-net basket to contain the fuel and a chimney to force a natural air draft) allows a mix of combustion/gasification of the biomass occurring in a completely burning fire, appropriate for cooking tasks. According to results obtained with rigorous test protocols (Water Boiling Test), different lay-outs have been designed to improve the performance of the stove. Technical and economic issues have been addressed in the development of such a model; building materials have been chosen in order to guarantee a cost as low as possible, using locally available items. The feasibility of the introduction of the stove in the studied context was assessed through an economic model that keeps into account not only the technology and fuel costs, but also the energy performance. According to the model, the threshold for the trade-off of the stove is the use of rice husk to cover 10-15% of the household energy needs both with traditional fireplaces or with improved efficiency cookstoves. The use of the technology proposed in combination with improved woodstove would provide householders with an

  5. African rice (Oryza glaberrima) cultivation in the Togo Hills: ecological and socio-cultural cues in farmer seed selection and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeken, B.W.E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Teeken B (2015). African rice (Oryza glaberrima) cultivation in the Togo Hills: ecological and socio-cultural cues in farmer seed selection and development. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, 306 pp. The low adoption rates of

  6. The effect of flowering on adventitious root-formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selim, H.H.A.

    1956-01-01

    The rooting of cuttings from day-neutral tomato was not influenced by flower development, nor by SD or LD treatments of them or of the mother plants. In cuttings of the SD plant Perilla crispa flower initiation and development severely inhibited rooting. Leaves produced about 61 %

  7. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... for the right pollen,the pistil imposes a tough competition amongst them, comparableto a swayamvara of Indian mythology, to select the bestavailable pollen. Flowering plants have evolved into a matriarchalsociety. The selection of the male partner is totally theprerogative of the mother (pistil); the boy (pollen grain) andthe ...

  8. The iron-chelate transporter OsYSL9 plays a role in iron distribution in developing rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoura, Takeshi; Sakashita, Emi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Takahashi, Michiko; Aung, May Sann; Masuda, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2017-11-01

    Rice OsYSL9 is a novel transporter for Fe(II)-nicotianamine and Fe(III)-deoxymugineic acid that is responsible for internal iron transport, especially from endosperm to embryo in developing seeds. Metal chelators are essential for safe and efficient metal translocation in plants. Graminaceous plants utilize specific ferric iron chelators, mugineic acid family phytosiderophores, to take up sparingly soluble iron from the soil. Yellow Stripe 1-Like (YSL) family transporters are responsible for transport of metal-phytosiderophores and structurally similar metal-nicotianamine complexes. Among the rice YSL family members (OsYSL) whose functions have not yet been clarified, OsYSL9 belongs to an uncharacterized subgroup containing highly conserved homologs in graminaceous species. In the present report, we showed that OsYSL9 localizes mainly to the plasma membrane and transports both iron(II)-nicotianamine and iron(III)-deoxymugineic acid into the cell. Expression of OsYSL9 was induced in the roots but repressed in the nonjuvenile leaves in response to iron deficiency. In iron-deficient roots, OsYSL9 was induced in the vascular cylinder but not in epidermal cells. Although OsYSL9-knockdown plants did not show a growth defect under iron-sufficient conditions, these plants were more sensitive to iron deficiency in the nonjuvenile stage compared with non-transgenic plants. At the grain-filling stage, OsYSL9 expression was strongly and transiently induced in the scutellum of the embryo and in endosperm cells surrounding the embryo. The iron concentration was decreased in embryos of OsYSL9-knockdown plants but was increased in residual parts of brown seeds. These results suggested that OsYSL9 is involved in iron translocation within plant parts and particularly iron translocation from endosperm to embryo in developing seeds.

  9. Sites of infection by pythium species in rice seedlings and effects of plant age and water depth on disease development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, S C; Schneider, R W

    1998-12-01

    ABSTRACT Seedling disease, caused primarily by several species of Pythium, is one of the major constraints to water-seeded rice production in Louisiana. The disease, also known as water-mold disease, seed rot, and seedling damping-off, causes stand reductions and growth abnormalities. In severe cases, fields must be replanted, which may result in delayed harvests and reduced yields. To develop more effective disease management tactics including biological control, this study was conducted primarily to determine sites of infection in seeds and seedlings; effect of plant age on susceptibility to P. arrhenomanes, P. myriotylum, and P. dissotocum; and minimum exposure times required for infection and seedling death. In addition, the effect of water depth on seedling disease was investigated. Infection rates of seed embryos were significantly higher than those of endosperms for all three Pythium spp. The development of roots from dry-seeded seedlings was significantly reduced by P. arrhenomanes and P. myriotylum at 5 days after planting compared with that of roots from noninoculated controls. Susceptibility of rice to all three species was sharply reduced within 2 to 6 days after planting, and seedlings were completely resistant at 8 days after planting. There was a steep reduction in emergence through the flood water, relative to the noninoculated control, following 2 to 3 days of exposure to inoculum of P. arrhenomanes and P. myriotylum. In contrast, P. dissotocum was much less virulent and required longer exposure times to cause irreversible seedling damage. Disease incidence was higher when seeds were planted into deeper water, implying that seedlings become resistant after they emerge through the flood water. These results suggest that disease control tactics including flood water management need to be employed for a very short period of time after planting. Also, given that the embryo is the primary site of infection and it is susceptible for only a few days, the

  10. Effect of environmental conditions on flower induction of marian plum (Bouea burmanica Griff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusie L. Mavuso

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marian plum flowering naturally occurs during the cool, dry season so Thailand farmers usually withdraw irrigation a month before flowering. However, irregular flowering continues to be a serious problem. This study investigated the effects of environmental conditions (air temperature, soil moisture and relative humidity on flower induction of marian plum. Daily weather data were collected using weather stations in three orchards where flowering was also recorded. Thirty representative trees per orchard were randomly selected for data collection. The results showed that trees from all orchards flowered in response to low temperature (below 18 °C despite different levels of water stress and relative humidity. These results indicated that soil moisture content and relative humidity had no influence on marian plum flower induction but enhanced flower bud development. Night temperatures of 18 °C or lower are essential for marian plum flower induction.

  11. Processes underpinning development and maintenance of diversity in rice in West Africa: Evidence from combining morphological and molecular markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokuwa, G.A.; Nuijten, H.A.C.P.; Okry, F.; Teeken, B.W.E.; Maat, H.; Richards, P.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the interplay of artificial and natural selection in rice adaptation in low-input farming systems in West Africa. Using 20 morphological traits and 176 molecular markers, 182 farmer varieties of rice (Oryza spp.) from 6 West African countries were characterized. Principal component

  12. Development of γ-Oryzanol Rich Extract from Leum Pua Glutinous Rice Bran Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers for Topical Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornputtapitak, Warangkana; Pantakitcharoenkul, Jaturavit; Panpakdee, Ratchada; Teeranachaideekul, Veerawat; Sinchaipanid, Nuttanan

    2018-02-01

    Leum Pua is native Thai glutinous rice that contains antioxidants higher than white rice and other colored rice. One of the major antioxidants in rice brans is γ-oryzanol (GO). In this study, Leum Pua glutinous rice bran was extracted by different solvents. Oleic acid (~40 g/100 g extract), linoleic acid (~30 g/100 g extract), and palmitic acid (~20 g/100 g extract) were found to be major lipid components in the extracts. Methanol extract showed less variety of lipid components compared to the others. However, hexane extract showed the highest percent of γ-oryzanol compared to other solvents. Therefore, the hexane extract was selected to prepare nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). The prepared NLC had small particles in the size range of 142.9 ± 0.4 nm for extract-loaded NLC and 137.1 ± 0.5 nm for GO-loaded NLC with narrow size distribution (PI -oryzanol loaded in NLC particles.

  13. Breeding and characterization of homokaryotic heteroplasmic male sterile lines in rice (oryza sativa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Q.; Zhou, X.; Liu, C.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve different Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile (CMS) lines were crossed with 18 rice varieties. From the hybrid with japonica rice Nongken 58, twelve homokaryotic-heteroplasmic male sterile lines were developed in B7F1 after successive back crossing and selection for stable male sterility and desirable agronomic traits such as flowering habit and high out crossing rate. The experimental results demonstrated that expression of the CMS factors were influenced by the corresponding nuclear genes. Three pollen abortion types, including the typical, the spherical and the stained abortion, were observed in the homokaryotic-heteroplasmic male sterile lines. Formation of the aborted pollen grains was influenced by the interaction among specific cytoplasmic and the corresponding nuclear genes. As the CMS carriers, these homokaryotic-heteroplasmic lines will have significant impact on the utilization of multiple types of CMS in hybrid rice breeding. What is more important is that these CMS lines are the invaluable materials for the investigation of the molecular mechanism of CMS formation in rice. (author)

  14. Effects of ‘flowering chemicals’ application on the development of inflorescence and fruit of pineapple. [Ananas comosus (L. Merr. c.v. Phuket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butrat, P.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This comparative study of the effects of three different flowering chemicals, CaC2, ethephon, and NAA, on the development of inflorescence and fruit of pineapples c.v. Phuket was conducted at Amphoe Talang of Phuket Province, between December 2000 and September 2001. An experiment was arranged as a factorial design in RCB with 2 factors in 3 replications. In the first factor, there were CaC2 1 g/plant, ethephon 100 mg/l combenation with urea 1.5% 60 ml/plant, NAA 0.5 mg (1 ANAA tablet/plant, and the second factor was application period (one time and two times into the shoot tips of nine-month-old ground suckers. The results showed that the application of ethephon one time or two times led to faster floral development than in plants that received NAA or CaC2. In fact, the floral development with ethephon application was 5-7 days faster than that in NAA application, and 8-10 days faster than that in CaC2 application. Apical meristem differentiation took place 3 days after the application of ethephon, followed by complete development of the first floret and stamen within 42-43 days, anthesis within 45-46 days, and pistil within 48-49 days. Maturation of the egg was 5.7-6.3 days later than that of the pollen grains and 2.3-2.6 days after anthesis. In the treatment of NAA application once or twice, the development of the egg cell took a longer period.

  15. Chemical control of flowering time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionescu, Irina Alexandra; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Sánchez Pérez, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Flowering at the right time is of great importance; it secures seed production and therefore species survival and crop yield. In addition to the genetic network controlling flowering time, there are a number of much less studied metabolites and exogenously applied chemicals that may influence...... on the genetic aspects of flowering time regulation in annuals, but less so in perennials. An alternative to plant breeding approaches is to engineer flowering time chemically via the external application of flower-inducing compounds. This review discusses a variety of exogenously applied compounds used in fruit...

  16. Preferences of cut flowers consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kierczyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.

  17. Sustainable rice production in Malaysia beyond 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Ho Nai Kin; Ismail Sahid; Ahyaudin Ali; Lum Keng Yeang; Mashhor Mansor

    2002-01-01

    This book is a compendium of works carried out by various institutions on subjects related to sustainable rice production. The institutions comprise Department of Agriculture, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Muda Agricultural Development Authority, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, International Islamic University of Malaysia and the Agrochemical Company Mosanto. Integrated Biodiversity Management parallel with the Integrated Weed / Pest / Disease Management, rice-fish farming networking, agrochemical residue monitoring in rice and marine ecosystems, and application of biotechnology in rice productivity are taken as the future direction towards achieving sustainable rice production beyond 2000. Challenges from social and technical agroecosystem constraints, agricultural input management and maintenance of agroecosystem biodiversity are highlighted. It is imperative that the challenges are surmounted to attain the target that would be reflected by tangible rice output of 10 t/ha, and at the same time maintaining the well-being of rice-farmers. (Author)

  18. Transcriptome analysis of female and male flower buds of Idesia polycarpa Maxim. var. vestita Diels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanju Mei

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This work provides the first detailed transcriptome analysis of female and male flower of I. polycarpa and lays foundations for future studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying flower bud development of I. polycarpa.

  19. Development of Certified Matrix-Based Reference Material as a Calibrator for Genetically Modified Rice G6H1 Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Li, Liang; Yang, Hui; Li, Xiaying; Zhang, Xiujie; Xu, Junfeng; Zhang, Dabing; Jin, Wujun; Yang, Litao

    2018-04-11

    The accurate monitoring and quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are key points for the implementation of labeling regulations, and a certified reference material (CRM) acts as the scaleplate for quantifying the GM contents of foods/feeds and evaluating a GMO analytical method or equipment. Herein we developed a series of CRMs for transgenic rice event G6H1, which possesses insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant traits. Three G6H1 CRMs were produced by mixing seed powders obtained from homozygous G6H1 and its recipient cultivar Xiushui 110 at mass ratios of 49.825%, 9.967%, and 4.986%. The between-bottle homogeneity and within-bottle homogeneity were thoroughly evaluated with consistent results. The potential DNA degradation in transportation and shelf life were evaluated with an expiration period of at least 12 months. The property values of three CRMs (G6H1 a , G6H1 b , G6H1 c ) were given as (49.825 ± 0.448) g/kg, (9.967 ± 1.757) g/kg, and (4.986 ± 1.274 g/kg based on mass fraction ratio, respectively. Furthermore, the three CRMs were characterized with values of (5.01 ± 0.08)%, (1.06 ± 0.22)%, and (0.53 ± 0.11)% based on the copy number ratio using the droplet digital PCR method. All results confirmed that the produced G6H1 matrix-based CRMs are of high quality with precise characterization values and can be used as calibrators in GM rice G6H1 inspection and monitoring and in evaluating new analytical methods or devices targeting the G6H1 event.

  20. RiceAtlas, a spatial database of global rice calendars and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laborte, Alice G.; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Balanza, Jane Girly; Saito, Kazuki; Zwart, Sander; Boschetti, Mirco; Murty, M. V.R.; Villano, Lorena; Aunario, Jorrel Khalil; Reinke, Russell; Koo, Jawoo; Hijmans, Robert J.; Nelson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Knowing where, when, and how much rice is planted and harvested is crucial information for understanding the effects of policy, trade, and global and technological change on food security. We developed RiceAtlas, a spatial database on the seasonal distribution of the world's rice production. It

  1. Cyanogenic Glucosides and Derivatives in Almond and Sweet Cherry Flower Buds from Dormancy to Flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Del Cueto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Almond and sweet cherry are two economically important species of the Prunus genus. They both produce the cyanogenic glucosides prunasin and amygdalin. As part of a two-component defense system, prunasin and amygdalin release toxic hydrogen cyanide upon cell disruption. In this study, we investigated the potential role within prunasin and amygdalin and some of its derivatives in endodormancy release of these two Prunus species. The content of prunasin and of endogenous prunasin turnover products in the course of flower development was examined in five almond cultivars – differing from very early to extra-late in flowering time – and in one sweet early cherry cultivar. In all cultivars, prunasin began to accumulate in the flower buds shortly after dormancy release and the levels dropped again just before flowering time. In almond and sweet cherry, the turnover of prunasin coincided with increased levels of prunasin amide whereas prunasin anitrile pentoside and β-D-glucose-1-benzoate were abundant in almond and cherry flower buds at certain developmental stages. These findings indicate a role for the turnover of cyanogenic glucosides in controlling flower development in Prunus species.

  2. Development and quality evaluation of hypoallergic complementary foods from rice incorporated with sprouted green gram flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiya Bazaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice flour and green gram flour (sprouted as well as unsprouted were blended in different proportions with apple pulp, sugar, milk and water for formulation of 12 hypoallergic diets. The formulations were studied for physico-chemical properties, antinutrient content (phytate and oxalate and in vitro protein digestibility. Blending and sprouting significantly affected all the studied parameters. Sprouting significantly (p ≤ 0.05 improved protein content and in vitro protein digestibility, while carbohydrate content and antinutrients decreased significantly. Nutrition profile of water-based diets met RDA guidelines only after addition of sprouted green gram flour and were comparable to control (commercial weaning food. Water-based formulation showed lower sensory score than milk-based diets; however, addition of sprouted green gram flour significantly (p ≤ 0.05 improved their overall acceptability. It could be concluded that by incorporating sprouted green gram flour, milk could be replaced with water for production of hypoallergic weaning foods without affecting the nutritional and sensory attributes of formulations and thereby making the production more economical, especially for underdeveloped countries.

  3. Let the flowers grow…

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental part of CERN Safety policy is represented by a flower whose petals are the various domains of its application. The Environment Services section within the Occupational Health and Safety and Environmental Protection Unit is in charge of monitoring the impact of the Laboratory on the environment. You are called on to make every effort to reduce this impact as much as reasonably achievable. Read why and how…   A physics Laboratory occupying a territory of the size of a small village, with sites scattered across an even larger area, has a considerable potential impact on the environment. Energy and water consumption, waste management... these are all aspects of the same problem or, in the representation, petals of the same flower. Each one should be carefully studied and dealt with. The nine members of the Environment Services section deal with matters that concern these and other aspects of the CERN's policy for the protection of the environment. “...

  4. Development, optimization, and single laboratory validation of an event-specific real-time PCR method for the detection and quantification of Golden Rice 2 using a novel taxon-specific assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacchia, Sara; Nardini, Elena; Savini, Christian; Petrillo, Mauro; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Trijatmiko, Kurniawan; Kreysa, Joachim; Mazzara, Marco

    2015-02-18

    In this study, we developed, optimized, and in-house validated a real-time PCR method for the event-specific detection and quantification of Golden Rice 2, a genetically modified rice with provitamin A in the grain. We optimized and evaluated the performance of the taxon (targeting rice Phospholipase D α2 gene)- and event (targeting the 3' insert-to-plant DNA junction)-specific assays that compose the method as independent modules, using haploid genome equivalents as unit of measurement. We verified the specificity of the two real-time PCR assays and determined their dynamic range, limit of quantification, limit of detection, and robustness. We also confirmed that the taxon-specific DNA sequence is present in single copy in the rice genome and verified its stability of amplification across 132 rice varieties. A relative quantification experiment evidenced the correct performance of the two assays when used in combination.

  5. Induced mutation altering flower colour in Chrysanthemum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, S K [National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (India)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: 'Flirt' is a double Korean type, small flowered Chrysanthemum of red colour. Rooted cuttings were treated with 1.5-2.5 krad gamma rays. A chimeral flower colour mutant was detected after 1.5 krad treatment. After purification through repeated cuttings a mutant clone was developed and released as commercial cultivar 'Man Bhawan'. It produces bi-coloured flower-heads: yellow and red at full bloom stage becoming completely yellow later on. By chromatography, 6 pigment spots could be identified in the variety 'Flirt' but only 5 in the mutant, violet (hRf 69.83) being absent. Spectrophotometric analysis of petal extracts showed presence of three peaks in both 'Flirt' and 'Man Bhawan' at full bloom stage but only two in 'Man Bhawan' at fading stage. (author)

  6. Cloning and functional analysis of the promoters that upregulate carotenogenic gene expression during flower development in Gentiana lutea

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Changfu; Yang, Qingjie; Ni, Xiuzhen; Bai, Chao; Sheng, Yanmin; Shi, Lianxuan; Capell Capell, Teresa; Sandmann, Gerhard; Christou, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, many carotenogenic genes have been cloned and used to generate metabolically engineered plants producing higher levels of carotenoids. However, comparatively little is known about the regulation of endogenous carotenogenic genes in higher plants, and this restricts our ability to predict how engineered plants will perform in terms of carotenoid content and composition. During petal development in the Great Yellow Gentian (Gentiana lutea), carotenoid accumulation, th...

  7. Tightly Controlled Expression of bHLH142 Is Essential for Timely Tapetal Programmed Cell Death and Pollen Development in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee-Suak Ko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Male sterility is important for hybrid seed production. Pollen development is regulated by a complex network. We previously showed that knockout of bHLH142 in rice (Oryza sativa causes pollen sterility by interrupting tapetal programmed cell death (PCD and bHLH142 coordinates with TDR to modulate the expression of EAT1. In this study, we demonstrated that overexpression of bHLH142 (OE142 under the control of the ubiquitin promoter also leads to male sterility in rice by triggering the premature onset of PCD. Protein of bHLH142 was found to accumulate specifically in the OE142 anthers. Overexpression of bHLH142 induced early expression of several key regulatory transcription factors in pollen development. In particular, the upregulation of EAT1 at the early stage of pollen development promoted premature PCD in the OE142 anthers, while its downregulation at the late stage impaired pollen development by suppressing genes involved in pollen wall biosynthesis, ROS scavenging and PCD. Collectively, these events led to male sterility in OE142. Analyses of related mutants further revealed the hierarchy of the pollen development regulatory gene network. Thus, the findings of this study advance our understanding of the central role played by bHLH142 in the regulatory network leading to pollen development in rice and how overexpression of its expression affects pollen development. Exploitation of this novel functionality of bHLH142 may confer a big advantage to hybrid seed production.

  8. (PGMS) rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... tics, led us to predict that pollen cell abortion in this type of rice when ... averages of natural day-light-lengths and temperatures were used. A natural long ... blocks were allowed to grow under natural growth conditions (which.

  9. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Coordinated Regulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis through Signal Transduction and Sugar Metabolism in Black Rice Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linghua; Huang, Yining; Xu, Ming; Cheng, Zuxin; Zheng, Jingui

    2017-12-15

    Black rice ( Oryza sativa L.) is considered to be a healthy food due to its high content of anthocyanins in the pericarp. The synthetic pathway of anthocyanins in black rice grains has been identified, however, the proteomic profile of leaves during grain development is still unclear. Here, isobaric Tags Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ) MS/MS was carried out to identify statistically significant changes of leaf proteome in the black rice during grain development. Throughout three sequential developmental stages, a total of 3562 proteins were detected and 24 functional proteins were differentially expressed 3-10 days after flowering (DAF). The detected proteins are known to be involved in various biological processes and most of these proteins were related to gene expression regulatory (33.3%), signal transduction (16.7%) and developmental regulation and hormone-like proteins (12.5%). The coordinated changes were consistent with changes in regulatory proteins playing a leading role in leaves during black rice grain development. This indicated that signal transduction between leaves and grains may have an important role in anthocyanin biosynthesis and accumulation during grain development of black rice. In addition, four identified up-regulated proteins associated with starch metabolism suggested that the remobilization of nutrients for starch synthesis plays a potential role in anthocyanin biosynthesis of grain. The mRNA transcription for eight selected proteins was validated with quantitative real-time PCR. Our results explored the proteomics of the coordination between leaf and grain in anthocyanins biosynthesis of grain, which might be regulated by signal transduction and sugar metabolism in black rice leaf.

  10. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Coordinated Regulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis through Signal Transduction and Sugar Metabolism in Black Rice Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linghua Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Black rice (Oryza sativa L. is considered to be a healthy food due to its high content of anthocyanins in the pericarp. The synthetic pathway of anthocyanins in black rice grains has been identified, however, the proteomic profile of leaves during grain development is still unclear. Here, isobaric Tags Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ MS/MS was carried out to identify statistically significant changes of leaf proteome in the black rice during grain development. Throughout three sequential developmental stages, a total of 3562 proteins were detected and 24 functional proteins were differentially expressed 3–10 days after flowering (DAF. The detected proteins are known to be involved in various biological processes and most of these proteins were related to gene expression regulatory (33.3%, signal transduction (16.7% and developmental regulation and hormone-like proteins (12.5%. The coordinated changes were consistent with changes in regulatory proteins playing a leading role in leaves during black rice grain development. This indicated that signal transduction between leaves and grains may have an important role in anthocyanin biosynthesis and accumulation during grain development of black rice. In addition, four identified up-regulated proteins associated with starch metabolism suggested that the remobilization of nutrients for starch synthesis plays a potential role in anthocyanin biosynthesis of grain. The mRNA transcription for eight selected proteins was validated with quantitative real-time PCR. Our results explored the proteomics of the coordination between leaf and grain in anthocyanins biosynthesis of grain, which might be regulated by signal transduction and sugar metabolism in black rice leaf.

  11. Eating flowers? Exploring attitudes and consumers' representation of edible flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, H; Cielo, D P; Goméz-Corona, C; Silveira, A A S; Marchesan, T A; Galmarini, M V; Richards, N S P S

    2017-10-01

    Edible flowers have gained more attention in recent years thanks to their perceived health benefits. Despite this attention, it seems that edible flowers are not popularized for consumption in South America, being considered unfamiliar for some cultures from this continent. In this context, the general goal of the present study was to investigate the three dimensions of social representation theory, the representational field, the information and the attitude of the two conditions of edible flowers: a more general "food made with flowers" and more directional product "yoghurt made with flowers", using Brazilian consumers. To achieve this goal, a free word association task was applied. A total of 549 consumers participated in this study. Participants were divided into two conditions, in which the inductor expressions for the free word association task changed: (a) food products made with flowers and (b) yoghurt made with flowers. Results showed a very positive attitude to both situations, and consumers associated Food products made with flowers to "health care" while the central core of yoghurt made with flowers reflected the innovative condition of this product, supported here by their unpredictable character (information generated). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Teaching Art with Art: Flowers in Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Guy

    1998-01-01

    Justifies examining still-life pictures of flowers to provide students with an opportunity to learn how one distinguishes between deeply artistic pictures full of emotion and pictures lacking this quality. Claims that students will develop their own artistic expression. Offers pictures by Diego Rivera, Watanabe Shiko, Consuelo Kanaga, and Rachel…

  13. Internet log service for flower supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thors, M.

    2004-01-01

    This summer has seen the completion of a project to develop quality tracking and tracing for cut flowers. Sponsored by the Dutch product board for horticulture, available technology was tested and integrated by researchers at the Agrotechnology and Food Innovations, WUR, into a system to

  14. Flowering and vegetative propagation of pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium Vis.) in vivo and in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, S.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of climatic conditions was investigated on flowering behaviour of pyrethrum ( Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium Vis.). At low temperatures high numbers of plants initiated high numbers of flower heads. Both the development of the initiated flower heads and the

  15. Development of EST-SSR markers in flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis Tsen et Lee) based on de novo transcriptomeic assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering Chinese cabbage is one of the most important vegetable crops in southern China. Genetic improvement of various agronomic traits in this crop is underway to meet high market demand in the region, but the progress is hampered by limited number of molecular markers available in this crop. Thi...

  16. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  17. Development of a Zero-Cement Binder Using Slag, Fly Ash, and Rice Husk Ash with Chemical Activator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Karim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand and consumption of cement have necessitated the use of slag, fly ash, rice husk ash (RHA, and so forth as a supplement of cement in concrete construction. The aim of the study is to develop a zero-cement binder (Z-Cem using slag, fly ash, and RHA combined with chemical activator. NaOH, Ca(OH2, and KOH were used in varying weights and molar concentrations. Z-Cem was tested for its consistency, setting time, flow, compressive strength, XRD, SEM, and FTIR. The consistency and setting time of the Z-Cem paste increase with increasing RHA content. The Z-Cem mortar requires more superplasticizer to maintain a constant flow of 110±5% compared with OPC. The compressive strength of the Z-Cem mortar is significantly influenced by the amounts, types, and molar concentration of the activators. The Z-Cem mortar achieves a compressive strength of 42–44 MPa at 28 days with 5% NaOH or at 2.5 molar concentrations. The FTIR results reveal that molecules in the Z-Cem mortar have a silica-hydrate (Si-H bond with sodium or other inorganic metals (i.e., sodium/calcium-silica-hydrate-alumina gel. Therefore, Z-Cem could be developed using the aforementioned materials with the chemical activator.

  18. Soil to rice transfer factors for 210Pb: a study on rice grown in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunakara, N.; Rao, Chetan; Ujwal, P.; Yashodhara, I.; Sudeep Kumara; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Bhaskara Shenoy, K.; Ravi, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    India is the second largest producer of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the world and rice is the essential component of the diet for the majority of the population of India. However, detailed studies aimed at evaluation of radionuclide transfer factors (F v ) for rice grown in India are almost non-existent. This paper presents soil to rice transfer factors for 210 Pb for rice grown in natural field conditions on the West Coast of India. A rice field was developed very close to the Kaiga nuclear power plant for the field studies. For a comparative study of radionuclide transfer factors, rice samples were also collected from the rice fields of nearby villages. The soil to un-hulled rice grain 210 Pb varied in the range <1.2 x10 -2 to 8.1 x 10 -1 with a mean of 1.4 x 10 -1 . The mean values of un-hulled grain to white rice processing retention factors (F r ) was 0.03 for 210 Pb. Using the processing retention factors the soil to white rice transfer factor was estimated and found to have the mean value of 4.2 x 10 -3 . The study has shown that the transfer of 210 Pb was retained in the root and its transfer to above ground organs of rice plant is significantly lower. (author)

  19. Mutant-inducing effect of γ-ray irradiation for hybrid rice F1 derived from cross of black glutinous rice x wild rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Dezhi; Tang Yilan

    1998-01-01

    The hybrid rice F 1 plant derived from the back crossing of glutinous rice x wild rice was irradiated with γ-ray. The result of investigation to the induced mutant showed that through the selection and backcross, a black glutinous rice strain with the short stem, cold tolerance and high yield was developed. The analysis of the ability of heredity variance showed that the selection was effective for the husk colour, black glutinous and black Indica rice, but ineffective for the white Indica rice and seed setting

  20. Influence of ethyl-trinexapac on 15N accumulation and distribution and on highland rice yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Rita de Cassia Felix; Crusciol, Carlos Alexandre Costa; Alvarez, Angela Cristina Camarim; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Rodrigues, Joao Domingos

    2007-01-01

    The high rice grain yields ensured by sprinkler irrigation have encouraged the use of higher fertilizer doses, mainly the nitrogen fertilizers. However, an improper management of nitrogen fertilization may result in plant lodging. Application of plant regulators may redirect assimilates to grain production while limiting the vegetative growth. This study aimed to: evaluate the influence of the growth regulator Ethyl-trinexapac on plant growth parameters and on 15 N accumulation and distribution in the whole plant and plant components, and determine the contribution of nitrogen taken up in different developmental stages in panicle formation, yield components and rice yield. The experiment was carried out under controlled greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of application or not of a plant growth regulator (0 and 200 g active ingredient ha-1 of ethyl-trinexapac) at four plant development stages (beginning to end of tillering; end of tillering and flower differentiation; flower differentiation to flowering; flowering until physiological maturation). The experimental design was arranged in random blocks, in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme, with three replications. The plants were placed in a group of 48 pots. In a group of 24 pots with nutrient solution containing 15 NH 4 SO 4 , plants were collected and separated in parts in the beginning of each pre-established plant development stage and at the end of each stage. In a second group (24 pots), pre-labeled plants were left to grow in nutrient solution with 14 NH 4 SO 4 and harvested at the end of each cycle in order to access 15 N redistribution.. The growth regulator reduced plant height and 15 N accumulation in the panicle and promoted redistribution of the absorbed 15 N, and increased accumulated 15 N in root, stem+sheats and leaves. The contribution of absorbed 15 N to panicle formation in each stage increased with the plant development, though in a lower proportion in the presence of the growth regulator

  1. Epigenetic regulation of photoperiodic flowering

    OpenAIRE

    Takeno, Kiyotoshi

    2010-01-01

    The cytidine analogue 5-azacytidine, which causes DNA demethylation, induced flowering in the non-vernalization-requiring plants Perilla frutescens var. crispa, Silene armeria and Pharbitis nil (synonym Ipomoea nil) under non-inductive photoperiodic conditions, suggesting that the expression of photoperiodic flowering-related genes is regulated epigenetically by DNA methylation. The flowering state induced by DNA demethylation was not heritable. Changes in the genome-wide methylation state we...

  2. Development of 25 near-isogenic lines (NILs) with ten BPH resistance genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.): production, resistance spectrum, and molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Kshirod K; Hechanova, Sherry Lou; Verdeprado, Holden; Prahalada, G D; Kim, Sung-Ryul

    2017-11-01

    A first set of 25 NILs carrying ten BPH resistance genes and their pyramids was developed in the background of indica variety IR24 for insect resistance breeding in rice. Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stal.) is one of the most destructive insect pests in rice. Development of near-isogenic lines (NILs) is an important strategy for genetic analysis of brown planthopper (BPH) resistance (R) genes and their deployment against diverse BPH populations. A set of 25 NILs with 9 single R genes and 16 multiple R gene combinations consisting of 11 two-gene pyramids and 5 three-gene pyramids in the genetic background of the susceptible indica rice cultivar IR24 was developed through marker-assisted selection. The linked DNA markers for each of the R genes were used for foreground selection and confirming the introgressed regions of the BPH R genes. Modified seed box screening and feeding rate of BPH were used to evaluate the spectrum of resistance. BPH reaction of each of the NILs carrying different single genes was variable at the antibiosis level with the four BPH populations of the Philippines. The NILs with two- to three-pyramided genes showed a stronger level of antibiosis (49.3-99.0%) against BPH populations compared with NILs with a single R gene NILs (42.0-83.5%) and IR24 (10.0%). Background genotyping by high-density SNPs markers revealed that most of the chromosome regions of the NILs (BC 3 F 5 ) had IR24 genome recovery of 82.0-94.2%. Six major agronomic data of the NILs showed a phenotypically comparable agronomic performance with IR24. These newly developed NILs will be useful as new genetic resources for BPH resistance breeding and are valuable sources of genes in monitoring against the emerging BPH biotypes in different rice-growing countries.

  3. Development of three allele-specific co-Dominant PCR markers suitable for marker-assisted selection of amylose class and paste viscosity of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most rice is consumed as whole kernel cooked rice, and the consumer preferences for cooked rice texture and other sensory properties differ among regions of the world. Rice is also used as an ingredient in a multitude of foods by food-processing companies across the globe. These sensory and function...

  4. The effects of different irrigation levels on flowering and flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water usage is a vital issue for all agricultural crops as well as for ornamental crops. To obtain high quality flowers, it is essential to supply water when it is required. A problem which is common with cut flower growers are determining when to irrigate and the amount of water to apply. The effect of two irrigation intervals (I1: ...

  5. The effects of different irrigation levels on flowering and flower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... important export production in cut flower is carnation and it consists of 89% of cut flower export. ... irrigation management in arid and semi-arid regions will shift from emphasizing ..... Handbook of Plant and Crop. Stress (Ed: M.

  6. Auxin-dependent microtubule responses and seedling development are affected in a rice mutant resistant to EPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nick, P.; Yatou, O.; Furuya, M.; Lambert, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Mutants in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. japonica) were used to study the role of the cytoskeleton in signal-dependent morphogenesis. Mutants obtained by gamma ray irradiation were selected that failed to show inhibition of coleoptile elongation by the anti microtubular drug ethyl-N-phenylcarbamate (EPC). The mutation EPC-Resistant 31 (ER31), isolated from such a screen, caused lethality in putatively homozygous embryos. Heterozygotes exhibited drug resistance, impaired development of crown roots, and characteristic changes in the pattern of cell elongation: cell elongation was enhanced in mesocotyls and leaf sheaths, but inhibited in coleoptiles. The orientation of cortical microtubules changed correspondingly: for etiolated seedlings, compared with the wild-type, they were more transverse with respect to the long cell axis in mesocotyls and leaf sheaths, but more longitudinal in coleoptiles. In mutant coleoptiles, in contrast to wild-type, microtubules did not reorient in response to auxin, and their response to microtubule-eliminating and microtubule-stabilizing drugs was conspicuously reduced. In contrast, they responded normally to other stimuli such as gibberellins or red light. Auxin sensitivity as assayed by the dose-response for callus induction did not show any significant differences between wild-type and mutant. The mutant phenotype is interpreted in terms of an interrupted link between auxin-triggered signal transduction and microtubule reorientation. (author)

  7. Trait-based model development to support breeding programs. A case study for salt tolerance and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleari, Livia; Movedi, Ermes; Confalonieri, Roberto

    2017-06-28

    Eco-physiological models are increasingly used to analyze G × E × M interactions to support breeding programs via the design of ideotypes for specific contexts. However, available crop models are only partly suitable for this purpose, since they often lack clear relationships between parameters and traits breeders are working on. Taking salt stress tolerance and rice as a case study, we propose a paradigm shift towards the building of ideotyping-specific models explicitly around traits involved in breeding programs. Salt tolerance is a complex trait relying on different physiological processes that can be alternatively selected to improve the overall crop tolerance. We developed a new model explicitly accounting for these traits and we evaluated its performance using data from growth chamber experiments (e.g., R 2 ranged from 0.74 to 0.94 for the biomass of different plant organs). Using the model, we were able to show how an increase in the overall tolerance can derive from completely different physiological mechanisms according to soil/water salinity dynamics. The study demonstrated that a trait-based approach can increase the usefulness of mathematical models for supporting breeding programs.

  8. Transgenic expression of an unedited mitochondrial orfB gene product from wild abortive (WA) cytoplasm of rice (Oryza sativa L.) generates male sterility in fertile rice lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Mitra, Joy; Bhattacharyya, Jagannath; Pradhan, Subrata; Sikdar, Narattam; Das, Srirupa; Chakraborty, Saikat; Kumar, Sachin; Lakhanpaul, Suman; Sen, Soumitra K

    2015-06-01

    Over-expression of the unedited mitochondrial orfB gene product generates male sterility in fertile indica rice lines in a dose-dependent manner. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and nuclear-controlled fertility restoration are widespread developmental features in plant reproductive systems. In self-pollinated crop plants, these processes often provide useful tools to exploit hybrid vigour. The wild abortive CMS has been employed in the majority of the "three-line" hybrid rice production since 1970s. In the present study, we provide experimental evidence for a positive functional relationship between the 1.1-kb unedited orfB gene transcript, and its translated product in the mitochondria with male sterility. The generation of the 1.1-kb unedited orfB gene transcripts increased during flowering, resulting in low ATP synthase activity in sterile plants. Following insertion of the unedited orfB gene into the genome of male-fertile plants, the plants became male sterile in a dose-dependent manner with concomitant reduction of ATPase activity of F1F0-ATP synthase (complex V). Fertility of the transgenic lines and normal activity of ATP synthase were restored by down-regulation of the unedited orfB gene expression through RNAi-mediated silencing. The genetic elements deciphered in this study could further be tested for their use in hybrid rice development.

  9. High level expression of Acidothermus cellulolyticus β-1, 4-endoglucanase in transgenic rice enhances the hydrolysis of its straw by cultured cow gastric fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou Hong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale production of effective cellulose hydrolytic enzymes is the key to the bioconversion of agricultural residues to ethanol. The goal of this study was to develop a rice plant as a bioreactor for the large-scale production of cellulose hydrolytic enzymes via genetic transformation, and to simultaneously improve rice straw as an efficient biomass feedstock for conversion of cellulose to glucose. Results In this study, the cellulose hydrolytic enzyme β-1, 4-endoglucanase (E1 gene, from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus, was overexpressed in rice through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The expression of the bacterial E1 gene in rice was driven by the constitutive Mac promoter, a hybrid promoter of Ti plasmid mannopine synthetase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer, with the signal peptide of tobacco pathogenesis-related protein for targeting the E1 protein to the apoplastic compartment for storage. A total of 52 transgenic rice plants from six independent lines expressing the bacterial E1 enzyme were obtained that expressed the gene at high levels without severely impairing plant growth and development. However, some transgenic plants exhibited a shorter stature and flowered earlier than the wild type plants. The E1 specific activities in the leaves of the highest expressing transgenic rice lines were about 20-fold higher than those of various transgenic plants obtained in previous studies and the protein amounts accounted for up to 6.1% of the total leaf soluble protein. A zymogram and temperature-dependent activity analyses demonstrated the thermostability of the E1 enzyme and its substrate specificity against cellulose, and a simple heat treatment can be used to purify the protein. In addition, hydrolysis of transgenic rice straw with cultured cow gastric fluid for one hour at 39°C and another hour at 81°C yielded 43% more reducing sugars than wild type rice

  10. Impeded Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rice Plants under Submergence Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Kumar ADAK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental effects of submergence on physiological performances of some rice varieties with special references to carbohydrate metabolisms and their allied enzymes during post-flowering stages have been documented and clarified in the present investigation. It was found that photosynthetic rate and concomitant translocation of sugars into the panicles were both related to the yield. The detrimental effects of the complete submergence were recorded in generation of sucrose, starch, sucrose phosphate synthase and phosphorylase activity in the developing panicles of the plants as compared to those under normal or control (i.e. non-submerged condition. The accumulation of starch was significantly lower in plants under submergence and that was correlated with ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity. Photosynthetic rate was most affected under submergence in varying days of post-flowering and was also related to the down regulation of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity. However, under normal or control condition, there recorded a steady maintenance of photosynthetic rate at the post-flowering stages and significantly higher values of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity. Still, photosynthetic rate of the plants under both control and submerged conditions had hardly any significant correlation with sugar accumulation and other enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism like invertase with grain yield. Finally, plants under submergence suffered significant loss of yield by poor grain filling which was related to impeded carbohydrate metabolism in the tissues. It is evident that loss of yield under submergence is attributed both by lower sink size or sink capacity (number of panicles, in this case as well as subdued carbohydrate metabolism in plants and its subsequent partitioning into the grains.

  11. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  12. Rice agroecosystem and the maintenance of biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahyaudin Ali

    2002-01-01

    Rice fields are a special type of wetland. They are shallow, constantly disturbed and experience extremes in temperature and dissolved oxygen content. They receive nutrients in the form of fertilizers during rice cultivation. Rice fields; support a variety of flora and fauna that have adapted and adjusted themselves to the extreme conditions. Since rice fields also support populations of wild fish, rice?fish integration should be done in order to optimize land use and provide supplementary income to farmers. Rice?fish farming encourages farmers to judiciously apply pesticides and herbicides in their fields thus helping to control excessive and unwarranted use of these chemicals. Rice fields also support many migratory and nonmigratory bird species and provides habitat for small mammals. Thus the rice agroecosystem helps to maintain aquatic biodiversity. The Muda rice agroecosystem consists of a troika of interconnected ecosystems. The troika consisting of reservoirs, the connecting network of canals and the rice fields; should be investigated further. This data is needed for informed decision-making concerning development and management of the system so that productivity and biodiversity can be maintained and sustained. (Author)

  13. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Rice Germplasm from North-Eastern Region of India and Development of a Core Germplasm Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sundeep; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Tyagi, R. K.; Ahmad, Altaf; Singh, N. K.; Singh, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    The North-Eastern region (NER) of India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, is a hot spot for genetic diversity and the most probable origin of rice. North-east rice collections are known to possess various agronomically important traits like biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, unique grain and cooking quality. The genetic diversity and associated population structure of 6,984 rice accessions, originating from NER, were assessed using 36 genome wide unlinked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the 12 rice chromosomes. All of the 36 SNP loci were polymorphic and bi-allelic, contained five types of base substitutions and together produced nine types of alleles. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.004 for Tripura to 0.375 for Manipur and major allele frequency ranged from 0.50 for Assam to 0.99 for Tripura. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.002 in Nagaland to 0.42 in Mizoram and gene diversity ranged from 0.006 in Arunachal Pradesh to 0.50 in Manipur. The genetic relatedness among the rice accessions was evaluated using an unrooted phylogenetic tree analysis, which grouped all accessions into three major clusters. For determining population structure, populations K = 1 to K = 20 were tested and population K = 3 was present in all the states, with the exception of Meghalaya and Manipur where, K = 5 and K = 4 populations were present, respectively. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) showed that accessions were distributed according to their population structure. AMOVA analysis showed that, maximum diversity was partitioned at the individual accession level (73% for Nagaland, 58% for Arunachal Pradesh and 57% for Tripura). Using POWERCORE software, a core set of 701 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 10% of the total NE India collections, representing 99.9% of the allelic diversity. The rice core set developed will be a

  14. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of rice germplasm from north-eastern region of India and development of a core germplasm set.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Roy Choudhury

    Full Text Available The North-Eastern region (NER of India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, is a hot spot for genetic diversity and the most probable origin of rice. North-east rice collections are known to possess various agronomically important traits like biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, unique grain and cooking quality. The genetic diversity and associated population structure of 6,984 rice accessions, originating from NER, were assessed using 36 genome wide unlinked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers distributed across the 12 rice chromosomes. All of the 36 SNP loci were polymorphic and bi-allelic, contained five types of base substitutions and together produced nine types of alleles. The polymorphic information content (PIC ranged from 0.004 for Tripura to 0.375 for Manipur and major allele frequency ranged from 0.50 for Assam to 0.99 for Tripura. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.002 in Nagaland to 0.42 in Mizoram and gene diversity ranged from 0.006 in Arunachal Pradesh to 0.50 in Manipur. The genetic relatedness among the rice accessions was evaluated using an unrooted phylogenetic tree analysis, which grouped all accessions into three major clusters. For determining population structure, populations K = 1 to K = 20 were tested and population K = 3 was present in all the states, with the exception of Meghalaya and Manipur where, K = 5 and K = 4 populations were present, respectively. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA showed that accessions were distributed according to their population structure. AMOVA analysis showed that, maximum diversity was partitioned at the individual accession level (73% for Nagaland, 58% for Arunachal Pradesh and 57% for Tripura. Using POWERCORE software, a core set of 701 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 10% of the total NE India collections, representing 99.9% of the allelic diversity. The rice core set developed

  15. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of rice germplasm from north-eastern region of India and development of a core germplasm set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Choudhury, Debjani; Singh, Nivedita; Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sundeep; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Tyagi, R K; Ahmad, Altaf; Singh, N K; Singh, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    The North-Eastern region (NER) of India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, is a hot spot for genetic diversity and the most probable origin of rice. North-east rice collections are known to possess various agronomically important traits like biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, unique grain and cooking quality. The genetic diversity and associated population structure of 6,984 rice accessions, originating from NER, were assessed using 36 genome wide unlinked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the 12 rice chromosomes. All of the 36 SNP loci were polymorphic and bi-allelic, contained five types of base substitutions and together produced nine types of alleles. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.004 for Tripura to 0.375 for Manipur and major allele frequency ranged from 0.50 for Assam to 0.99 for Tripura. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.002 in Nagaland to 0.42 in Mizoram and gene diversity ranged from 0.006 in Arunachal Pradesh to 0.50 in Manipur. The genetic relatedness among the rice accessions was evaluated using an unrooted phylogenetic tree analysis, which grouped all accessions into three major clusters. For determining population structure, populations K = 1 to K = 20 were tested and population K = 3 was present in all the states, with the exception of Meghalaya and Manipur where, K = 5 and K = 4 populations were present, respectively. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) showed that accessions were distributed according to their population structure. AMOVA analysis showed that, maximum diversity was partitioned at the individual accession level (73% for Nagaland, 58% for Arunachal Pradesh and 57% for Tripura). Using POWERCORE software, a core set of 701 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 10% of the total NE India collections, representing 99.9% of the allelic diversity. The rice core set developed will be a

  16. Identification of Heading Date Six (Hd6 Gene Derived from Rice Mutant Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryanti Aryanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Genes which were associated with flowering time to indicate the early maturity is known as heading date (Hd. Heading date six (Hd6 gene was identified from rice mutant varieties were Atomita 2, Atomita 3, Atomita 4, Bestari, Cilosari, Diah Suci, Sidenuk, Kahayan, Mayang, Meraoke, Mira-1, Pandan Putri, Superwin, Suluttan Unsrat 1, Suluttan Unsrat 2, Winongo, Woyla, Yuwono, while the rice var. Nipponbare was used as a positive control. All of rice mutant varieties derived from mutation induction by the dose of 0.2 kGy. The aim of this experiment was to find out the data base of mutant varieties which could be used as parent material with earlier maturity trait genetically. To obtain the DNA of plants, young leaves of each variety were extracted by liquid nitrogen, and then lysis and extracted by Kit Plant Genomic DNA. The amplification of DNA with 7 primers of Hd6 conducted of 40 cycles by PCR and were continues to separated by 1 % agarose. The results were shown that the rice Mira-1 and Bestari varieties obtained from mutation of Cisantana highly different from one to another on 7 primers of Hd6 used. Mayang variety from mutation of cross breeding between Cilosari and IR64, Pandan putri from Pandan wangi and Woyla from mutation of cross breeding from Atomita 2 and IR64 were highly different with those of their parents. Identification of Hd6 gene on Sidenuk variety was shown the same bands pattern with Nipponbare as control positive toward all primers used, this variety would be better for earlier maturity parent material compared to others. The information could be useful for breeding programs aiming to develop early maturing widely adaptive and high yielding rice cultivars.

  17. WHITE PANICLE3, a Novel Nucleus-Encoded Mitochondrial Protein, Is Essential for Proper Development and Maintenance of Chloroplasts and Mitochondria in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongchang Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria and chloroplasts are interacting organelles that play important roles in plant development. In addition to a small number proteins encoded by their own genomes, the majority of mitochondrial and chloroplast proteins are encoded in the cell nucleus and imported into the organelle. As a consequence, coordination between mitochondria, chloroplasts, and the nucleus is of crucial importance to plant cells. Variegated mutants are chloroplast-defective mutants and are considered to be ideal models for studying the intercommunication between these organelles. Here, we report the isolation of WHITE PANICLE3 (WP3, a nuclear gene involved in variegation, from a naturally occurring white panicle rice mutant. Disrupted expression of WP3 in the mutant leads to severe developmental defects in both chloroplasts and mitochondria, and consequently causes the appearance of white-striped leaves and white panicles in the mutant plants. Further investigation showed that WP3 encodes a protein most likely targeted to mitochondria and is specifically expressed in rice panicles. Interestingly, we demonstrate that the recessive white-panicle phenotype in the wp3 mutant is inherited in a typical Mendelian manner, while the white-striped leaf phenotype in wp3 is maternally inherited. Our data collectively suggest that the nucleus-encoded mitochondrial protein, WP3, plays an essential role in the regulation of chloroplast development in rice panicles by maintaining functional mitochondria. Therefore, the wp3 mutant is an excellent model in which to explore the communication between the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts in plant cells.

  18. Dynamic changes in the distribution of minerals in relation to phytic acid accumulation during rice seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Toru; Takahashi, Michiko; Oda, Koshiro; Terada, Yasuko; Yoshida, Kaoru T

    2012-12-01

    Phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate [InsP(6)]) is the storage compound of phosphorus in seeds. As phytic acid binds strongly to metallic cations, it also acts as a storage compound of metals. To understand the mechanisms underlying metal accumulation and localization in relation to phytic acid storage, we applied synchrotron-based x-ray microfluorescence imaging analysis to characterize the simultaneous subcellular distribution of some mineral elements (phosphorus, calcium, potassium, iron, zinc, and copper) in immature and mature rice (Oryza sativa) seeds. This fine-imaging method can reveal whether these elements colocalize. We also determined their accumulation patterns and the changes in phosphate and InsP(6) contents during seed development. While the InsP(6) content in the outer parts of seeds rapidly increased during seed development, the phosphate contents of both the outer and inner parts of seeds remained low. Phosphorus, calcium, potassium, and iron were most abundant in the aleurone layer, and they colocalized throughout seed development. Zinc was broadly distributed from the aleurone layer to the inner endosperm. Copper localized outside the aleurone layer and did not colocalize with phosphorus. From these results, we suggest that phosphorus translocated from source organs was immediately converted to InsP(6) and accumulated in aleurone layer cells and that calcium, potassium, and iron accumulated as phytic acid salt (phytate) in the aleurone layer, whereas zinc bound loosely to InsP(6) and accumulated not only in phytate but also in another storage form. Copper accumulated in the endosperm and may exhibit a storage form other than phytate.

  19. Stop and Paint the Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

  20. The use of induced mutation combined with crossing in high quality rice breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do Huu At; Bui Huy Thuy; Nguyen Van Bich; Tran Duy Quy [Agricultural Genetics Institute, Division of Genetics and Hybrid Rice Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen Minh Cong [Hanoi No. 1 Teacher Training Univ., Department of Genetics (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    The high quality rice varieties: Tam thom mutant rice Var., DT17 rice Var, DT21 glutinous rice Var were formed by induced mutation combined with crossing. Tam thom mutant rice Var. lost photosensitivity, could be planted 2 crops/year. DT17 rice Var with high yielding capacity, suitable for growth on lowland in summer crop, is replacing step-by-step Moctuyen rice Var. in North Vietnam. DT21 glutinous rice Var. could be planted 2 crops/year and had short growth duration, average yield was 4.0-4.5 tons/ha. These three ones had good quality, soft and scent cooked rice, suitable for customers and export requirements. Tam thom mutant rice Var. DT17 rice Var., DT21 and glutinous rice Var. were adopted for regional production by Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and allowed to be in trial production. (author)

  1. The use of induced mutation combined with crossing in high quality rice breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do Huu At; Bui Huy Thuy; Nguyen Van Bich; Tran Duy Quy; Nguyen Minh Cong

    2001-01-01

    The high quality rice varieties: Tam thom mutant rice Var., DT17 rice Var, DT21 glutinous rice Var were formed by induced mutation combined with crossing. Tam thom mutant rice Var. lost photosensitivity, could be planted 2 crops/year. DT17 rice Var with high yielding capacity, suitable for growth on lowland in summer crop, is replacing step-by-step Moctuyen rice Var. in North Vietnam. DT21 glutinous rice Var. could be planted 2 crops/year and had short growth duration, average yield was 4.0-4.5 tons/ha. These three ones had good quality, soft and scent cooked rice, suitable for customers and export requirements. Tam thom mutant rice Var. DT17 rice Var., DT21 and glutinous rice Var. were adopted for regional production by Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and allowed to be in trial production. (author)

  2. Small RNA Transcriptome of Hibiscus Syriacus Provides Insights into the Potential Influence of microRNAs in Flower Development and Terpene Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewook; Park, June Hyun; Lee, Sang-Gil; Kim, Soyoung; Kim, Jihyun; Lee, Jungho; Shin, Chanseok

    2017-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential small RNA molecules that regulate the expression of target mRNAs in plants and animals. Here, we aimed to identify miRNAs and their putative targets in Hibiscus syriacus , the national flower of South Korea. We employed high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs obtained from four different tissues ( i.e. , leaf, root, flower, and ovary) and identified 33 conserved and 30 novel miRNA families, many of which showed differential tissue-specific expressions. In addition, we computationally predicted novel targets of miRNAs and validated some of them using 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis. One of the validated novel targets of miR477 was a terpene synthase, the primary gene involved in the formation of disease-resistant terpene metabolites such as sterols and phytoalexins. In addition, a predicted target of conserved miRNAs, miR396, is SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE , which is involved in flower initiation and is duplicated in H. syriacus . Collectively, this study provides the first reliable draft of the H. syriacus miRNA transcriptome that should constitute a basis for understanding the biological roles of miRNAs in H. syriacus.

  3. Genetic control and comparative genomic analysis of flowering time in Setaria (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Wang, Xuewen; Barbier, Hugues; Brutnell, Thomas P; Devos, Katrien M; Doust, Andrew N

    2013-02-01

    We report the first study on the genetic control of flowering in Setaria, a panicoid grass closely related to switchgrass, and in the same subfamily as maize and sorghum. A recombinant inbred line mapping population derived from a cross between domesticated Setaria italica (foxtail millet) and its wild relative Setaria viridis (green millet), was grown in eight trials with varying environmental conditions to identify a small number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control differences in flowering time. Many of the QTL across trials colocalize, suggesting that the genetic control of flowering in Setaria is robust across a range of photoperiod and other environmental factors. A detailed comparison of QTL for flowering in Setaria, sorghum, and maize indicates that several of the major QTL regions identified in maize and sorghum are syntenic orthologs with Setaria QTL, although the maize large effect QTL on chromosome 10 is not. Several Setaria QTL intervals had multiple LOD peaks and were composed of multiple syntenic blocks, suggesting that observed QTL represent multiple tightly linked loci. Candidate genes from flowering time pathways identified in rice and Arabidopsis were identified in Setaria QTL intervals, including those involved in the CONSTANS photoperiod pathway. However, only three of the approximately seven genes cloned for flowering time in maize colocalized with Setaria QTL. This suggests that variation in flowering time in separate grass lineages is controlled by a combination of conserved and lineage specific genes.

  4. Gibberellin regulates pollen viability and pollen tube growth in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhun, Tory; Aya, Koichiro; Asano, Kenji; Yamamoto, Eiji; Morinaka, Yoichi; Watanabe, Masao; Kitano, Hidemi; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako

    2007-12-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) play many biological roles in higher plants. We collected and performed genetic analysis on rice (Oryza sativa) GA-related mutants, including GA-deficient and GA-insensitive mutants. Genetic analysis of the mutants revealed that rice GA-deficient mutations are not transmitted as Mendelian traits to the next generation following self-pollination of F1 heterozygous plants, although GA-insensitive mutations are transmitted normally. To understand these differences in transmission, we examined the effect of GA on microsporogenesis and pollen tube elongation in rice using new GA-deficient and GA-insensitive mutants that produce semifertile flowers. Phenotypic analysis revealed that the GA-deficient mutant reduced pollen elongation1 is defective in pollen tube elongation, resulting in a low fertilization frequency, whereas the GA-insensitive semidominant mutant Slr1-d3 is mainly defective in viable pollen production. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that GA biosynthesis genes tested whose mutations are transmitted to the next generation at a lower frequency are preferentially expressed after meiosis during pollen development, but expression is absent or very low before the meiosis stage, whereas GA signal-related genes are actively expressed before meiosis. Based on these observations, we predict that the transmission of GA-signaling genes occurs in a sporophytic manner, since the protein products and/or mRNA transcripts of these genes may be introduced into pollen-carrying mutant alleles, whereas GA synthesis genes are transmitted in a gametophytic manner, since these genes are preferentially expressed after meiosis.

  5. Baseline assessment of fish communities of the Flower Garden Banks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The work developed baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys employed diving,...

  6. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  7. Sorghum and rice: Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Agriculture is the mainstay of the Malian economy and yet cereal imports absorb 6.5% of GDP. Food self-sufficiency is therefore a national priority. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division is supporting a programme to improve local varieties of sorghum and rice by using nuclear techniques to develop new cultivars that will produce higher yields under Mali's semi-arid climatic conditions. (IAEA)

  8. The Impact of Herbicide-Resistant Rice Technology on Phenotypic Diversity and Population Structure of United States Weedy Rice1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Nilda Roma; Singh, Vijay; Tseng, Te Ming; Black, Howard; Young, Nelson D.; Huang, Zhongyun; Hyma, Katie E.; Gealy, David R.; Caicedo, Ana L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbicide-resistant (HR) Clearfield rice (Oryza sativa) to control weedy rice has increased in the past 12 years to constitute about 60% of rice acreage in Arkansas, where most U.S. rice is grown. To assess the impact of HR cultivated rice on the herbicide resistance and population structure of weedy rice, weedy samples were collected from commercial fields with a history of Clearfield rice. Panicles from each weedy type were harvested and tested for resistance to imazethapyr. The majority of plants sampled had at least 20% resistant offspring. These resistant weeds were 97 to 199 cm tall and initiated flowering from 78 to 128 d, generally later than recorded for accessions collected prior to the widespread use of Clearfield rice (i.e. historical accessions). Whereas the majority (70%) of historical accessions had straw-colored hulls, only 30% of contemporary HR weedy rice had straw-colored hulls. Analysis of genotyping-by-sequencing data showed that HR weeds were not genetically structured according to hull color, whereas historical weedy rice was separated into straw-hull and black-hull populations. A significant portion of the local rice crop genome was introgressed into HR weedy rice, which was rare in historical weedy accessions. Admixture analyses showed that HR weeds tend to possess crop haplotypes in the portion of chromosome 2 containing the ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE gene, which confers herbicide resistance to Clearfield rice. Thus, U.S. HR weedy rice is a distinct population relative to historical weedy rice and shows modifications in morphology and phenology that are relevant to weed management. PMID:25122473

  9. Characterization of 68Zn uptake, translocation, and accumulation into developing grains and young leaves of high Zn-density rice genotype*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-yong; Feng, Ying; Shohag, Md. Jahidul Islam; Lu, Ling-li; Wei, Yan-yan; Gao, Chong; Yang, Xiao-e

    2011-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient for humans, but Zn deficiency has become serious as equally as iron (Fe) and vitamin A deficiencies nowadays. Selection and breeding of high Zn-density crops is a suitable, cost-effective, and sustainable way to improve human health. However, the mechanism of high Zn density in rice grain is not fully understood, especially how Zn transports from soil to grains. Hydroponics experiments were carried out to compare Zn uptake and distribution in two different Zn-density rice genotypes using stable isotope technique. At seedling stage, IR68144 showed higher 68Zn uptake and transport rate to the shoot for the short-term, but no significant difference was observed in both genotypes for the long-term. Zn in xylem sap of IR68144 was consistently higher, and IR68144 exhibited higher Zn absorption ratio than IR64 at sufficient (2.0 µmol/L) or surplus (8.0 µmol/L) Zn supply level. IR64 and IR68144 showed similar patterns of 68Zn accumulation in new leaves at seedling stage and in developing grains at ripening stage, whereas 68Zn in new leaves and grains of IR68144 was consistently higher. These results suggested that a rapid root-to-shoot translocation and enhanced xylem loading capacity may be the crucial processes for high Zn density in rice grains. PMID:21528496

  10. Development of a quantitative pachytene chromosome map and its unification with somatic chromosome and linkage maps of rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmido, Nobuko; Iwata, Aiko; Kato, Seiji; Wako, Toshiyuki; Fukui, Kiichi

    2018-01-01

    A quantitative pachytene chromosome map of rice (Oryza sativa L.) was developed using imaging methods. The map depicts not only distribution patterns of chromomeres specific to pachytene chromosomes, but also the higher order information of chromosomal structures, such as heterochromatin (condensed regions), euchromatin (decondensed regions), the primary constrictions (centromeres), and the secondary constriction (nucleolar organizing regions, NOR). These features were image analyzed and quantitatively mapped onto the map by Chromosome Image Analyzing System ver. 4.0 (CHIAS IV). Correlation between H3K9me2, an epigenetic marker and formation and/or maintenance of heterochromatin, thus was, clearly visualized. Then the pachytene chromosome map was unified with the existing somatic chromosome and linkage maps by physically mapping common DNA markers among them, such as a rice A genome specific tandem repeat sequence (TrsA), 5S and 45S ribosomal RNA genes, five bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones, four P1 bacteriophage artificial chromosome (PAC) clones using multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Detailed comparison between the locations of the DNA probes on the pachytene chromosomes using multicolor FISH, and the linkage map enabled determination of the chromosome number and short/long arms of individual pachytene chromosomes using the chromosome number and arm assignment designated for the linkage map. As a result, the quantitative pachytene chromosome map was unified with two other major rice chromosome maps representing somatic prometaphase chromosomes and genetic linkages. In conclusion, the unification of the three rice maps serves as an indispensable basic information, not only for an in-depth comparison between genetic and chromosomal data, but also for practical breeding programs.

  11. Developing eco-friendly biofungicide for the management of major seed borne diseases of rice and assessing their physical stability and storage life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveenkumar, Ramasamy; Muthukumar, Arjunan; Sangeetha, Ganesan; Mohanapriya, Ramanathan

    2017-04-01

    Three plant oils (Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini, and Pelargonium graveolens) were developed as EC formulations and tested for their physical stabilities. EC formulations (10EC, 20EC and 30EC) of C. citratus, C. martini and P. graveolens had emulsion stability, spontaneity property, heat and cold stability. EC formulated plant oils were screened against the major seed borne fungi of rice such as Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme, Bipolaris oryzae, and Sarocladium oryzae. The level of inhibition varied among the concentrations of EC formulations. Among the three EC formulations, that of C. citratus oil 30EC recorded 100% inhibition on the mycelial growth of test pathogens. In the blotter paper method, rice seeds treated with a formulation of C. citratus oil 30EC controlled the infection of C. lunata, F. moniliforme, B. oryzae and S. oryzae in rice seed to the tune of 66.0%, 60.4%, 66.0% and 69.1%, respectively. Seed soaking with formulation of C. citratus oil 30EC showed the highest percentage of normal seedlings, the lowest number of abnormal seedling and fresh ungerminated seeds when tested with the roll-towel method. Seed soaking with 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil increased seed germination, shoot length, root length and vigour of rice seedlings when tested with the plastic tray method. Transmission of pathogens from seed to seedling was reduced significantly by the 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil when tested with the plastic pot method. The effect of the storage life of the 30EC formulation of C. citratus oil showed that it had retained their antifungal effect till the end of the incubation period (120 days), and is able to inhibit the mycelial growth of all test pathogens to the 100% level. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding the evolution of rice technology in China - from traditional agriculture to GM rice today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an historical survey of the evolution of rice technology in China, from the traditional farming system to genetically modified rice today. Using sociotechnological analytical framework, it analyses rice technology as a socio-technical ensemble - a complex interaction of material and social elements, and discusses the specificity of technology development and its socio-technical outcomes. It points to two imperatives in rice variety development: wholesale transporting agricultural technology and social mechanism to developing countries are likely lead to negative consequences; indigenous innovation including deploying GM technology for seed varietal development and capturing/cultivating local knowledge will provide better solutions.

  13. Accumulation of methylmercury in rice and flooded soil in experiments with an enriched isotopic Hg(II) tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickman, R. J.; Mitchell, C. P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxin produced in anoxic aquatic sediments. Numerous factors, including the presence of aquatic plants, alter the biogeochemistry of sediments, affecting the rate at which microorganisms transform bioavailable inorganic Hg (IHg) to MeHg. Methylmercury produced in flooded paddy soils and its transfer into rice has become an important dietary consideration. An improved understanding of how MeHg reaches the grain and the extent to which rice alters MeHg production in rhizosphere sediments could help to inform rice cultivation practices. We conducted a controlled greenhouse experiment with thirty rice plants grown in individual, flooded pots amended with enriched 200Hg. Unvegetated controls were maintained under identical conditions. At three plant growth stages (vegetative growth, flowering, and grain maturity), ten plants were sacrificed and samples collected from soil, roots, straw, panicle, and grain of vegetated and unvegetated pots, and assessed for MeHg and THg concentrations. We observed consistent ratios between ambient and tracer MeHg between soils (0.36 ±0.04 — 0.44 ± 0.09) and plant compartments (0.23 ± 0.07 -0.34 ± 0.05) indicating that plant MeHg contamination originates in the soil rather than in planta methylation. The majority of this MeHg was absorbed between the tillering (4.48 ± 2.38 ng/plant) and flowering (8.43 ± 5.12 ng/pl) phases, with a subsequent decline at maturity (2.87 ± 1.23 ng/pl) only partly explained by translocation to the developing grain, indicating that MeHg was demethylated in planta. In contrast, IHg was absorbed from both soil and air, as evidenced by the higher ambient IHg concentrations compared to tracer (3.76 ± 1.19 vs. 0.27 ± 0.40 ng/g). Surprisingly, MeHg accumulation was significantly (p= 0.042-- 0.003) lower in vegetated vs. unvegetated sediments at flowering (1.41 ± 0.26 vs. 1.57 ± 0.23) and maturity (1.27 ± 0.22 vs. 1.71 ± 0.25), suggesting that plant exudates bound Hg

  14. Realistic Simulation of Rice Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-long DING

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The existing research results of virtual modeling of rice plant, however, is far from perfect compared to that of other crops due to its complex structure and growth process. Techniques to visually simulate the architecture of rice plant and its growth process are presented based on the analysis of the morphological characteristics at different stages. Firstly, the simulations of geometrical shape, the bending status and the structural distortion of rice leaves are conducted. Then, by using an improved model for bending deformation, the curved patterns of panicle axis and various types of panicle branches are generated, and the spatial shape of rice panicle is therefore created. Parametric L-system is employed to generate its topological structures, and finite-state automaton is adopted to describe the development of geometrical structures. Finally, the computer visualization of three-dimensional morphologies of rice plant at both organ and individual levels is achieved. The experimental results showed that the proposed methods of modeling the three-dimensional shapes of organs and simulating the growth of rice plant are feasible and effective, and the generated three-dimensional images are realistic.

  15. Diversity and activity of nitrogen fixing archaea and bacteria associated with micro-environments of wetland rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hannes; Woebken, Dagmar

    2017-04-01

    Wetland rice is one of the world's most important crop plants. The cultivation on waterlogged paddy soils is strongly limited by nitrogen (N), which is typically supplied by industrial fertilizers that are not only costly but also exhibit hazardous effects on the environment. It has been reported that "Biological Nitrogen Fixation" through N2-fixing bacteria and archaea (diazotrophs) can alleviate the N-shortage in rice cultivation, thus carrying out an important ecosystem function. However, our understanding of the diversity and in situ N2 fixation activity of diazotrophs in flooded rice fields is still rudimentary. Moreover, knowledge on the impact of biochemical gradients established by root activity (i.e. exudation, radial oxygen loss) on the functioning of N-fixing microorganisms in paddy soil ecosystems is limited. We aimed at studying underlying processes on biologically relevant scales. Greenhouse studies were performed to identify key factors that control rice-diazotroph association and related N2 fixation activities. Paddy soils of different geographical origin were cultivated with two commercially used genotypes of wetland rice. Samples were separated into bulk soil, rhizosphere soil, rhizoplane, and roots at flowering stage of rice plant development. These samples were subjected to functional assays and various molecular biological techniques in order to analyze the associated diazotroph communities. Based on Illumina amplicon sequencing of nifH genes and transcripts, we show that the diversity and potential activity of diazotroph communities varies according to micro-environments. We will comparatively discuss the influence of (a) the soil microbial "seed bank" and (b) plant genotype in shaping the respective microbiomes and selecting for potentially active diazotrophs. Actual N2 fixation activities of soil-genotype combinations and micro-environments will be shown on the basis of incubation assays using 15N2-containing atmospheres. Areas of potential

  16. Toward integration of genomic selection with crop modelling: the development of an integrated approach to predicting rice heading dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onogi, Akio; Watanabe, Maya; Mochizuki, Toshihiro; Hayashi, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2016-04-01

    It is suggested that accuracy in predicting plant phenotypes can be improved by integrating genomic prediction with crop modelling in a single hierarchical model. Accurate prediction of phenotypes is important for plant breeding and management. Although genomic prediction/selection aims to predict phenotypes on the basis of whole-genome marker information, it is often difficult to predict phenotypes of complex traits in diverse environments, because plant phenotypes are often influenced by genotype-environment interaction. A possible remedy is to integrate genomic prediction with crop/ecophysiological modelling, which enables us to predict plant phenotypes using environmental and management information. To this end, in the present study, we developed a novel method for integrating genomic prediction with phenological modelling of Asian rice (Oryza sativa, L.), allowing the heading date of untested genotypes in untested environments to be predicted. The method simultaneously infers the phenological model parameters and whole-genome marker effects on the parameters in a Bayesian framework. By cultivating backcross inbred lines of Koshihikari × Kasalath in nine environments, we evaluated the potential of the proposed method in comparison with conventional genomic prediction, phenological modelling, and two-step methods that applied genomic prediction to phenological model parameters inferred from Nelder-Mead or Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms. In predicting heading dates of untested lines in untested environments, the proposed and two-step methods tended to provide more accurate predictions than the conventional genomic prediction methods, particularly in environments where phenotypes from environments similar to the target environment were unavailable for training genomic prediction. The proposed method showed greater accuracy in prediction than the two-step methods in all cross-validation schemes tested, suggesting the potential of the integrated approach in

  17. Mutation in Rice Abscisic Acid2 Results in Cell Death, Enhanced Disease-Resistance, Altered Seed Dormancy and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Liao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lesion mimic mutants display spontaneous cell death, and thus are valuable for understanding the molecular mechanism of cell death and disease resistance. Although a lot of such mutants have been characterized in rice, the relationship between lesion formation and abscisic acid (ABA synthesis pathway is not reported. In the present study, we identified a rice mutant, lesion mimic mutant 9150 (lmm9150, exhibiting spontaneous cell death, pre-harvest sprouting, enhanced growth, and resistance to rice bacterial and blast diseases. Cell death in the mutant was accompanied with excessive accumulation of H2O2. Enhanced disease resistance was associated with cell death and upregulation of defense-related genes. Map-based cloning identified a G-to-A point mutation resulting in a D-to-N substitution at the amino acid position 110 of OsABA2 (LOC_Os03g59610 in lmm9150. Knock-out of OsABA2 through CRISPR/Cas9 led to phenotypes similar to those of lmm9150. Consistent with the function of OsABA2 in ABA biosynthesis, ABA level in the lmm9150 mutant was significantly reduced. Moreover, exogenous application of ABA could rescue all the mutant phenotypes of lmm9150. Taken together, our data linked ABA deficiency to cell death and provided insight into the role of ABA in rice disease resistance.

  18. Mutation in Rice Abscisic Acid2 Results in Cell Death, Enhanced Disease-Resistance, Altered Seed Dormancy and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yongxiang; Bai, Que; Xu, Peizhou; Wu, Tingkai; Guo, Daiming; Peng, Yongbin; Zhang, Hongyu; Deng, Xiaoshu; Chen, Xiaoqiong; Luo, Ming; Ali, Asif; Wang, Wenming; Wu, Xianjun

    2018-01-01

    Lesion mimic mutants display spontaneous cell death, and thus are valuable for understanding the molecular mechanism of cell death and disease resistance. Although a lot of such mutants have been characterized in rice, the relationship between lesion formation and abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis pathway is not reported. In the present study, we identified a rice mutant, lesion mimic mutant 9150 ( lmm9150 ), exhibiting spontaneous cell death, pre-harvest sprouting, enhanced growth, and resistance to rice bacterial and blast diseases. Cell death in the mutant was accompanied with excessive accumulation of H 2 O 2 . Enhanced disease resistance was associated with cell death and upregulation of defense-related genes. Map-based cloning identified a G-to-A point mutation resulting in a D-to-N substitution at the amino acid position 110 of OsABA2 (LOC_Os03g59610) in lmm9150 . Knock-out of OsABA2 through CRISPR/Cas9 led to phenotypes similar to those of lmm9150 . Consistent with the function of OsABA2 in ABA biosynthesis, ABA level in the lmm9150 mutant was significantly reduced. Moreover, exogenous application of ABA could rescue all the mutant phenotypes of lmm9150 . Taken together, our data linked ABA deficiency to cell death and provided insight into the role of ABA in rice disease resistance.

  19. Effects of cobalt-60 low doses radiation on beam, rice and radish seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, O.K.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) were studied. Bean and rice seeds were irradiated with 3.5 and 7.7 Gy (32 Gy/h). There was an apparent acceleration on rice seed germination with 3.5 Gy when they were stored for 6 days after irradiation, but the same dose caused a delay when the store time was 1 day. Bean seeds germination was not modified by 3.5 and 7.7 Gy, but the fresh and dry weight of young plants showed an increase, mainly due the major quantity of water in the embryonic axis. Bean seeds were irradiated with 0.5 and 2.0 Gy (30 Gy/h). Seeds germination showed a slight delay irradiating with 0.5 Gy, while height, fresh and dry weight and primary leaves area of the young plants as well as number of nodes, leaves, flowers, beans and seeds were not modified after irradiation with 0.5 and 2.0 Gy. Radish seeds irradiated with 10 and 30 Gy at dose rates of 4.5, 22.5 and 45.0 Gy/h showed a germination delay and fresh and dry weight values for young plants leaves lower than control. Roots of totally developed plants showed no modifications in weight, volume, mean diameter, lenght and in the amount of soluble reducing sugar. (author)

  20. Approaches to achieve high grain yield and high resource use efficiency in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchang YANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses approaches to simultaneously increase grain yield and resource use efficiency in rice. Breeding nitrogen efficient cultivars without sacrificing rice yield potential, improving grain fill in later-flowering inferior spikelets and enhancing harvest index are three important approaches to achieving the dual goal of high grain yield and high resource use efficiency. Deeper root distribution and higher leaf photosynthetic N use efficiency at lower N rates could be used as selection criteria to develop N-efficient cultivars. Enhancing sink activity through increasing sugar-spikelet ratio at the heading time and enhancing the conversion efficiency from sucrose to starch though increasing the ratio of abscisic acid to ethylene in grains during grain fill could effectively improve grain fill in inferior spikelets. Several practices, such as post-anthesis controlled soil drying, an alternate wetting and moderate soil drying regime during the whole growing season, and non-flooded straw mulching cultivation, could substantially increase grain yield and water use efficiency, mainly via enhanced remobilization of stored carbon from vegetative tissues to grains and improved harvest index. Further research is needed to understand synergistic interaction between water and N on crop and soil and the mechanism underlying high resource use efficiency in high-yielding rice.

  1. Vitamin E homologs and ¿-oryzanol levels in rice (Oryza sativa L.) during seed development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin E homologs (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and gamma-oryzanol have gained significant attention due to their proposed health benefits and ability to increase vegetable oil stability. Changes in the levels of these phytochemicals were examined during seed development. Rapid accumulation of toc...

  2. The structure of flower visitation webs : how morphology and abundance affect interaction patterns between flowers and flower visitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stang, Martina

    2007-01-01

    Interaction patterns between plants and flower visitors in a Mediterranean flower visitation web can be explained surprisingly well by the combination of two simple mechanisms. Firstly, the size threshold that the nectar tube depth of flowers puts on the tongue length of potential flower visitors;

  3. Say it with flowers: Flowering acceleration by root communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falik, Omer; Hoffmann, Ishay; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The timing of reproduction is a critical determinant of fitness, especially in organisms inhabiting seasonal environments. Increasing evidence suggests that inter-plant communication plays important roles in plant functioning. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flowering coordination can involve communication between neighboring plants. We show that soil leachates from Brassica rapa plants growing under long-day conditions accelerated flowering and decreased allocation to vegetative organs in target plants growing under non-inductive short-day conditions. The results suggest that besides endogenous signaling and external abiotic cues, flowering timing may involve inter-plant communication, mediated by root exudates. The study of flowering communication is expected to illuminate neglected aspects of plant reproductive interactions and to provide novel opportunities for controlling the timing of plant reproduction in agricultural settings.

  4. Price expectations and price dynamics: the case of the rice sector in developing Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Barré

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainty is a crucial issue for producers who must make input decisions without knowing prices and without perfect knowledge of realized output. In this context, price expectations strongly determine the production choices and market prices that result from market-clearing conditions. This study analyzed the role that price expectations play in price dynamics, developing a theoretical model of trade in varieties following Armington (1969) and augmented with yield and price uncertainty to h...

  5. Problems encountered during the development and implantation of the Baylor-Rice orthotopic cardiac prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.N. Jr.; Akers, W.W.; O'Bannon, W.; Spargo, W.J.; Serrato, M.A.; Fuqua, J.M. Jr.; Ruark, B.S.; Wieting, D.W.; Kennedy, J.H.; DeBakey, M.E.

    1972-01-01

    The problems associated with the development of an artificial heart are enumerated. In a series of 24 calf implantations, several of the animals stood unassisted and reacted normally, but all eventually died with deteriorating circulatory and pulmonary systems. The problems caused by pump size and geometry represented the most important deterrents to long-term survival. A new prosthesis, though not yet tested in animals, is believed to minimize these problems. (auth)

  6. Development of sugarcane mutants with resistance to red rot, water-logging and delayed or non-flowering through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid, M.A.; Shamsuzzaman, K.M.; Howlider, M.A.R.; Islam, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Three varieties of sugarcane, 'Isd-2/54', 'Nagarbari' and 'Latarijaba', were irradiated with 20, 30 and 40 Gy gamma rays to induce variation for resistance to red rot disease. The MV 2 population was screened for disease resistance by planting infected canes in between the treated material, and selected plants were further propagated. Among the 2,954 MV 3 hills, inoculated with red rot spore suspension, 37 resistant and 151 moderately resistant plants were isolated. Selection was carried out in the MV 4 to MV 7 propagation. Seven MV 7 selected variants were tested for yield at two locations. Of these, four promising variants were selected on the basis of cane yield, Brix index and disease resistance. In another experiment, four varieties of sugarcane, 'Isd-2/54', 'Isd-16', 'Nagarbari' and 'Latarijaba' were irradiated with 20,40 and 60 Gy gamma rays. Approximately, 10,000 MV 3 canes were planted in a low-lying field, and subjected to water-logging stress. MV 5 and MV 6 populations were inoculated with red rot spore- suspension under waterlogged conditions. Five MV 5 variants were selected on the basis of greenness of the leaves, growth of the canes, number of nodes bearing adventitious roots, Brix index, cane yield and disease reactions, and grown as MV 6 propagation. Three selected variants, SCM-12, SCM-14 and SCM-15, were tolerant to waterlogged conditions in MV 6 . Two additional varieties, 'I-291/87' and 'I-525/85' were treated with 20, 30 and 40 Gy gamma rays to select for delayed/non-flowering types. Four variants were selected in MV 3 for delayed flowering; one mutant, SCM-28 flowered three months later than the parent 'I-291/87'. (author)

  7. Say it with flowers: Flowering acceleration by root communication

    OpenAIRE

    Falik, Omer; Hoffmann, Ishay; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The timing of reproduction is a critical determinant of fitness, especially in organisms inhabiting seasonal environments. Increasing evidence suggests that inter-plant communication plays important roles in plant functioning. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flowering coordination can involve communication between neighboring plants. We show that soil leachates from Brassica rapa plants growing under long-day conditions accelerated flowering and decreased allocation to vegetative organs i...

  8. Development of TGMS lines with improved floral traits through mutation breeding in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyagarajan, K.; Abirami, S.; Robin, S.; Manonmani, S.; Jambhulkar, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    Mutation breeding is now accepted as an useful means of adding valuable attributes to a variety. Plant breeders have used this tool for the improvement of some cultivated crop varieties. The current investigation is aimed to develop mutants with respect to temperature sensitivity and good floral traits for use in two line breeding. The putative Thermosensitive Genic Male Sterile lines viz,, TS 6 and CBTS 0282 were subjected to induce mutagenesis with gamma rays (300 and 350 Gy) and EMS (0.5 and 0.6%) for developing new TGMS lines with desirable floral traits. The seeds treated with gamma ray and EMS were raised in M1 generation and seeds collected from this population were raised in M2 generation as plant to progeny rows for screening the best TGMS lines with desirable floral traits. In the M2 generation a total of 469 progeny rows of CBTS 0282 and 854 progeny rows of TS 6 were raised. A population of 128, 975 plants in CBTS 0282 and 1,28,100 plants in TS 6 were raised. In M2 generation 361 sterile, uniform stable individual plants with good stigma exertion percentage and wide angle of glume opening were selected and stubble planted at HREC, Gudalur, a low temperature region. At HREC, again the same screening process was carried out and 13 stubbles with excellent stigma exertion percentage were selected and their progenies were raised in M3 generation along with control and check IR 58025 A. A total of 63 sterile and stable M3 plants with good stigma exertion percentage wider angle of glume opening excelling over the check and control were identified and raised in M4 generation along with control and check IR 58025 A. In the M4 generation a total of 16 progeny rows were found to be uniform and homozygous with good floral traits. These lines can be utilized for developing new two line hybrids

  9. Microclimate of Developed Peatland of the Mega Rice Project in Central Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia peatland covers an area of 16 to 27 Mha and this ecosystem is vitally linked toenvironmental and conservation issues, as well as its economic value for human survival. These peatlands are,however, the subject of various land use pressures, including forestry, agriculture, energy and horticulture. A fieldstudy was carried out 6 years after the end of failed peatland development project shows that inappropriate andunsustainable forms of peatland management have resulted in degradation of the natural forest vegetation, draw-downof the peat water table, increase of peat surface and air temperatures and recurrent surface and ground fires. Implicationsof microclimate for possible restoration options

  10. Determinants of rice output among ADP contact farmers in mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed factors affecting rice output among Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) contact farmers in the mining and non mining locations of IVO LGA of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select agricultural circles and rice farmers. The sample size was 120 rice ...

  11. Upland and lowland rice in the Netherlands Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, H.

    2016-01-01

    The global trade in rice is historically recent and its total quantity relatively small. Colonial explorations were the main incentive for its development, but only beginning in the 19th century did rice-producing countries in Asia export rice outside the continent in bulk. In previous centuries

  12. RESEARCH OF SOPHORA JAPONICA L. FLOWER BUDS VOLATILE COMPOUNDS WITH GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS- SPECTROMETRY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholak I.S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work represents the results of the research ofessential oil contained in Sophora japonica L. flowerbuds volatile compounds collected during the nextstages of their development: green flower buds, formedflower buds and the beginning of flower buds opening.Essential oil assay content in Sophora japonica L.flower buds was determined with hydrodistillationmethod. Content of essential oil in the raw material isless than 0,1%. Qualitative composition and assaycontent of Sophora japonica L. flower buds essential oilconstituents were determined with chromato-massspectrometry method. In consequence of the research 80constituents were identified in Sophora japonica L.flower buds out of which 61 substances are during thegreen flower buds and beginning of flower budsopening stages, 66 substances are during formed flowerbuds stage. Substances are represented by aliphatic andcyclic terpenoids, their alcohols and ketones. Mostvolatile substances were extracted on the stage offormed buds.

  13. Isolation of the three grape sub-lineages of B-class MADS-box TM6, PISTILLATA and APETALA3 genes which are differentially expressed during flower and fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupin, María Josefina; Federici, Fernán; Medina, Consuelo; Matus, José Tomás; Timmermann, Tania; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2007-12-01

    The B class of MADS-box floral homeotic genes specifies petal and stamen identity in angiosperms. While this group is one of the most studied in herbaceous plant species, it has remained largely uncharacterized in woody species such as grapevine. Although the B class PI/GLO and AP3/DEF clades have been extensively characterized in model species, the role of the TM6 subgroup within the AP3 clade is not completely understood, since it is absent in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, the coding regions of VvTM6 and VvAP3 and the genomic sequence of VvPI, were cloned. VvPI and AtPI were confirmed to be functional homologues by means of complementation of the pi Arabidopsis mutant. Expression analysis revealed that VvPI and VvAP3 transcripts are restricted almost exclusively to inflorescences, although VvPI was detected at low levels in leaves and roots. VvTM6 expresses throughout the plant, with higher levels in flowers and berries. A detailed chronological study of grape flower progression by light microscopy and temporal expression analysis throughout early and late developmental stages, revealed that VvPI expression increases during pollen maturation and decreases between the events of pollination and fertilization, before the cap fall. On the other hand, VvTM6 is expressed in the last stage of anther development. Specific expression of VvAP3 and VvPI was detected in petals and stamens within the flower, while VvTM6 was also expressed in carpels. Moreover, this work provides the first evidence for expression of a TM6-like gene throughout fruit growth and ripening. Even if these genes belong to the same genetic class they could act in different periods and/or tissues during reproductive organ development.

  14. THE EFFECT OF ETHREL ON THE DURATION OF FLOWERING OF MALE FLOWERS SQUASH PLANTS WITH DIFFERENT GENETIC EXPRESSIVENESS OF FLOWER GENDER IN THE KRASNODAR REGION CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Gish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the genotype of monoecious plants Cucurbitaceae family may have different gender expressions: predominantly female, mixed and predominantlymale type of flowering. However, the degree of sexual differentiation can be changedunder the influence of abiotic and endogenous factors. Among the chemicals that affect the level of female flowering in pumpkin crops, preparations based on 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (Ethephon or Etrelle are the most promising for hybrid seed production. Study of plant response of squash Cucurbita pepo var. giromontina with varying sex expressions on the treatments with Etrelle revealed common conformities and specificities of preparation action in the condition of Krasnodar region. It is shown the use of treatment once is not effective even if the high concentration range, 500-1100 mg/L, was taken. On gender switch was effectively influenced successive plant treatments with Etrelle at stages of 3-5 true leaves in a wide concentration range from 250 to 700 mg /L., where the restraining was that the start of male flower blossoming was 14-25 days after female flower blossoming. K69 line with predominantly female flowering was more responsive to the variation of concentration and frequency of treatments whereas the line K49 with male flowering was less responsive to the frequency of treatments. It is shown that in the range of effective concentrations, Etrelle may have phytotoxic effects on the growth and development of squash plants at the time of restraining flowering of male flowers. It is important to  ake that into account when choosing a regime of preparation treatments for chemical castration of maternal forms in hybrid seed production of this crop.

  15. Investigating the Association between Flowering Time and Defense in the Arabidopsis thaliana-Fusarium oxysporum Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Rebecca; Rusu, Anca; Stiller, Jiri; Powell, Jonathan; Manners, John M.; Kazan, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Plants respond to pathogens either by investing more resources into immunity which is costly to development, or by accelerating reproductive processes such as flowering time to ensure reproduction occurs before the plant succumbs to disease. In this study we explored the link between flowering time and pathogen defense using the interaction between Arabidopsis thaliana and the root infecting fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. We report that F. oxysporum infection accelerates flowering time and regulates transcription of a number of floral integrator genes, including FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and GIGANTEA (GI). Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between late flowering and resistance to F. oxysporum in A. thaliana natural ecotypes. Late-flowering gi and autonomous pathway mutants also exhibited enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum, supporting the association between flowering time and defense. However, epistasis analysis showed that accelerating flowering time by deletion of FLC in fve-3 or fpa-7 mutants did not alter disease resistance, suggesting that the effect of autonomous pathway on disease resistance occurs independently from flowering time. Indeed, RNA-seq analyses suggest that fve-3 mediated resistance to F. oxysporum is most likely a result of altered defense-associated gene transcription. Together, our results indicate that the association between flowering time and pathogen defense is complex and can involve both pleiotropic and direct effects. PMID:26034991

  16. Genetic analysis of rice blast disease resistance genes using USDA rice mini-core and a mapping population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast disease caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) is one of the most destructive diseases of cultivated rice, resulting in significant yield loss each year all over the world. Developing and utilizing blast resistant rice varieties is the most economical and effective m...

  17. Root-zone temperatures affect phenology of bud break, flower cluster development, shoot extension growth and gas exchange of 'Braeburn' (Malus domestica) apple trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Dennis H; Wünsche, Jens N; Norling, Cara L; Wiggins, Harry N

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of root-zone temperature on bud break, flowering, shoot growth and gas exchange of potted mature apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.)) trees with undisturbed roots. Soil respiration was also determined. Potted 'Braeburn' apple trees on M.9 rootstock were grown for 70 days in a constant day/night temperature regime (25/18 degrees C) and one of three constant root-zone temperatures (7, 15 and 25 degrees C). Both the proportion and timing of bud break were significantly enhanced as root-zone temperature increased. Rate of floral cluster opening was also markedly increased with increasing root-zone temperature. Shoot length increased but shoot girth growth declined as root-zone temperatures increased. Soil respiration and leaf photosynthesis generally increased as root-zone temperatures increased. Results indicate that apple trees growing in regions where root zone temperatures are or = 15 degrees C. The effect of root-zone temperature on shoot performance may be mediated through the mobilization of root reserves, although the role of phytohormones cannot be discounted. Variation in leaf photosynthesis across the temperature treatments was inadequately explained by stomatal conductance. Given that root growth increases with increasing temperature, changes in sink activity induced by the root-zone temperature treatments provide a possible explanation for the non-stomatal effect on photosynthesis. Irrespective of underlying mechanisms, root-zone temperatures influence bud break and flowering in apple trees.

  18. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Three Super-Hybrid Rice Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Peng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of heterosis has significantly increased rice yields. However, its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, comparative transcriptional profiles of three super-hybrid rice combinations, LY2163, LY2186 and LYP9, at the flowering and filling stages, were created using rice whole-genome oligonucleotide microarray. The LY2163, LY2186 and LYP9 hybrids yielded 1193, 1630 and 1046 differentially expressed genes (DGs, accounting for 3.2%, 4.4% and 2.8% of the total number of genes (36,926, respectively, after using the z-test (p < 0.01. Functional category analysis showed that the DGs in each hybrid combination were mainly classified into the carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism categories. Further analysis of the metabolic pathways showed that DGs were significantly enriched in the carbon fixation pathway (p < 0.01 for all three combinations. Over 80% of the DGs were located in rice quantitative trait loci (QTLs of the Gramene database, of which more than 90% were located in the yield related QTLs in all three combinations, which suggested that there was a correlation between DGs and rice heterosis. Pathway Studio analysis showed the presence of DGs in the circadian regulatory network of all three hybrid combinations, which suggested that the circadian clock had a role in rice heterosis. Our results provide information that can help to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying rice heterosis.

  19. Field transcriptome revealed critical developmental and physiological transitions involved in the expression of growth potential in japonica rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamatsuki Kaori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant growth depends on synergistic interactions between internal and external signals, and yield potential of crops is a manifestation of how these complex factors interact, particularly at critical stages of development. As an initial step towards developing a systems-level understanding of the biological processes underlying the expression of overall agronomic potential in cereal crops, a high-resolution transcriptome analysis of rice was conducted throughout life cycle of rice grown under natural field conditions. Results A wide range of gene expression profiles based on 48 organs and tissues at various developmental stages identified 731 organ/tissue specific genes as well as 215 growth stage-specific expressed genes universally in leaf blade, leaf sheath, and root. Continuous transcriptome profiling of leaf from transplanting until harvesting further elucidated the growth-stage specificity of gene expression and uncovered two major drastic changes in the leaf transcriptional program. The first major change occurred before the panicle differentiation, accompanied by the expression of RFT1, a putative florigen gene in long day conditions, and the downregulation of the precursors of two microRNAs. This transcriptome change was also associated with physiological alterations including phosphate-homeostasis state as evident from the behavior of several key regulators such as miR399. The second major transcriptome change occurred just after flowering, and based on analysis of sterile mutant lines, we further revealed that the formation of strong sink, i.e., a developing grain, is not the major cause but is rather a promoter of this change. Conclusions Our study provides not only the genetic basis for functional genomics in rice but also new insight into understanding the critical physiological processes involved in flowering and seed development, that could lead to novel strategies for optimizing crop productivity.

  20. Harvest season and head rice yield of upland rice cultivars submitted to parboiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Mendonça Garcia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE This work aimed to evaluate the effects of parboiling on the yield of upland rice cultivars harvested at different times. The cultivars were BRS Primavera and BRS Sertaneja, harvested at 30 and 47 days after flowering (DAF. For parboiling, samples were soaked in water bath at 65 °C in grain: water ratio of 1:1.6 in order to reach 25% and 30% moisture, and then were autoclaved for 10 minutes at 120 °C and 1.1 kg/cm2 of pressure. After drying up to 13% moisture in a greenhouse with forced air at 40 °C, samples were benefited, followed by separation using the trieur equipment and weighing to obtain the head rice yield. The results showed a higher yield for head rice harvested at 30 DAF than at 47 DAF (BRS Primavera 63.2 and 38.7%; BRS Sertaneja 68.5 and 55.7%, respectively. Parboiling increased the head rice yield, regardless of harvest season, but partly reflected the potential of the cultivar origin: BRS Primavera 70.06%, BRS Sertaneja 74.94%. It is concluded that the harvest season is one of the factors that most influence the quality of industrial rice and the effect of parboiling also depends on the potential of the material source.

  1. Development of library preparation method able to correct gene expression levels in rice anther and isolate a trace expression gene mediated in cold-resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Tomoya; Koike, Setsuo

    2000-01-01

    When cDNA library is prepared by a previously developed method, genes of which expression level is high are apt to be cloned at a high frequency, whereas genes of which expression level are low, are difficult to be cloned. A low-expression gene has been cloned at very low frequency. Therefore, the gene encoding the key enzyme that is involved in growth disturbance of rice pollen has not been identified. In this study, development of a library preparing method able to correct the expression level was attempted using highly sensitive detection method with radioisotope and some genes related to cold-resistance of rice were isolated. Double strand DNAs were synthesized using mRNA extract from rice anthers and annealed following heat-denaturation. It has been known that single strand DNA molecules abundantly existing in DNA solution can easily aggregate to form double strand DNA, but single stranded DNA molecules poor in the solution are apt to still remain as single strand after annealing. Thus, the amount of single strand DNA would be balanced in the solution between abundant DNA and poor DNA species. The authors succeeded to prepare a gene library including low and high expression genes at similar proportions. Moreover, spin trap method that allows RI labeling of DNA bound to latex particle, was developed to detect with high sensitivity, especially for genes that are expressed at low level. The present method could be used for recovery, detection and quantitative analysis of radiolabeled single strand DNA. Thus, it was demonstrated that the stage from tetrad sperm to small sperm might be easily affected by cold stress. The present results suggest that the expressions of β-1 and β-3 glucanase, which are involved in the release of small sperms following meiosis in the pollen formation, might be easily affected by cold stress. (M.N.)

  2. Development of library preparation method able to correct gene expression levels in rice anther and isolate a trace expression gene mediated in cold-resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Tomoya; Koike, Setsuo [Tohoku National Agricultural Experiment Station, Morioka (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    When cDNA library is prepared by a previously developed method, genes of which expression level is high are apt to be cloned at a high frequency, whereas genes of which expression level are low, are difficult to be cloned. A low-expression gene has been cloned at very low frequency. Therefore, the gene encoding the key enzyme that is involved in growth disturbance of rice pollen has not been identified. In this study, development of a library preparing method able to correct the expression level was attempted using highly sensitive detection method with radioisotope and some genes related to cold-resistance of rice were isolated. Double strand DNAs were synthesized using mRNA extract from rice anthers and annealed following heat-denaturation. It has been known that single strand DNA molecules abundantly existing in DNA solution can easily aggregate to form double strand DNA, but single stranded DNA molecules poor in the solution are apt to still remain as single strand after annealing. Thus, the amount of single strand DNA would be balanced in the solution between abundant DNA and poor DNA species. The authors succeeded to prepare a gene library including low and high expression genes at similar proportions. Moreover, spin trap method that allows RI labeling of DNA bound to latex particle, was developed to detect with high sensitivity, especially for genes that are expressed at low level. The present method could be used for recovery, detection and quantitative analysis of radiolabeled single strand DNA. Thus, it was demonstrated that the stage from tetrad sperm to small sperm might be easily affected by cold stress. The present results suggest that the expressions of {beta}-1 and {beta}-3 glucanase, which are involved in the release of small sperms following meiosis in the pollen formation, might be easily affected by cold stress. (M.N.)

  3. A digital photography and analysis system for estimation of root and shoot development in rice weed suppression studies in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice germplasm with an inherent ability to suppress weeds can potentially improve the economics and sustainability of weed control in rice. We devised a simple, rapid, and inexpensive digital imaging system to quantify several shoot and root growth characteristics in field-grown rice plants that ha...

  4. Engineered Dwarf Male-Sterile Rice: A Promising Genetic Tool for Facilitating Recurrent Selection in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Afsana; Wang, Chunlian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Fujun; Liu, Piqing; Gao, Ying; Tang, Yongchao; Zhao, Kaijun

    2017-01-01

    Rice is a crop feeding half of the world's population. With the continuous raise of yield potential via genetic improvement, rice breeding has entered an era where multiple genes conferring complex traits must be efficiently manipulated to increase rice yield further. Recurrent selection is a sound strategy for manipulating multiple genes and it has been successfully performed in allogamous crops. However, the difficulties in emasculation and hand pollination had obstructed efficient use of recurrent selection in autogamous rice. Here, we report development of the dwarf male-sterile rice that can facilitate recurrent selection in rice breeding. We adopted RNAi technology to synergistically regulate rice plant height and male fertility to create the dwarf male-sterile rice. The RNAi construct pTCK-EGGE, targeting the OsGA20ox2 and OsEAT1 genes, was constructed and used to transform rice via Agrobacterium -mediated transformation. The transgenic T0 plants showing largely reduced plant height and complete male-sterile phenotypes were designated as the dwarf male-sterile plants. Progenies of the dwarf male-sterile plants were obtained by pollinating them with pollens from the wild-type. In the T1 and T2 populations, half of the plants were still dwarf male-sterile; the other half displayed normal plant height and male fertility which were designated as tall and male-fertile plants. The tall and male-fertile plants are transgene-free and can be self-pollinated to generate new varieties. Since emasculation and hand pollination for dwarf male-sterile rice plants is no longer needed, the dwarf male-sterile rice can be used to perform recurrent selection in rice. A dwarf male-sterile rice-based recurrent selection model has been proposed.

  5. Development of a real-time hydrological cycle - rice growth coupled simulation system as a tool for farmers' decision making in an ungauged basin in Cambodia for the better agricultural water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Ohta, T.; Yasukawa, M.; Koike, T.; Kitsuregawa, M.; Homma, K.

    2013-12-01

    The entire country of Cambodia depends on agriculture for its economy. Rice is the staple food, making it the major agricultural product (roughly 80% of total national production). The target area of this study is western Cambodia, where rice production is the greatest in the country and most land is rainfed. Since most farmers rely only on their (non-science-based) experience, they would not adjust to changing rainfall and degraded water resources under climate change, so food security in the region would be seriously threatened (Monichoth et al., 2013). Under this condition, irrigation master plans are being considered by several ODA projects. This study aims to contribute to the design of such irrigation plans through the development of a real-time hydrological cycle - rice growth coupled simulation system. The purpose of the development of this system is to support decision making 1) for determining the necessary agricultural water resources and 2) for allocating limited water resources to various sectors. Rice growing condition as affected by water stress due to the water shortage is supposed to be shown for both of the cases with and without irrigation for several rainfall patterns. A dynamically coupled model of a distributed hydrological model (WEB-DHM., Wang et al., 2009) and a rice growth model (SIMRIW-rainfed, Homma et al., 2009) has been developed with a simple irrigation model. The target basin, a small basin in western Cambodia, is basically an ungauged basin and the model was validated by soil moisture, LAI, dry matter production of the rice crop, and rice yield, using both intensive field observation and satellite observations. Calibrating hourly satellite precipitation dataset (GSMaP/NRT) using ground rain gauges, hydrological cycle (soil moisture at three layers, river discharge, irrigatable water amount, water level of each paddy field, water demand of each paddy field, etc.) and rice growth (LAI, developmental index of the rice crop, dry matter

  6. Gibberellin 20-oxidase gene OsGA20ox3 regulates plant stature and disease development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xue; Liu, Jun Hua; Zhao, Wen Sheng; Chen, Xu Jun; Guo, Ze Jian; Peng, You Liang

    2013-02-01

    Gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase (GA20ox) catalyses consecutive steps of oxidation in the late part of the GA biosynthetic pathway. A T-DNA insertion mutant (17S-14) in rice, with an elongated phenotype, was isolated. Analysis of the flanking sequences of the T-DNA insertion site revealed that an incomplete T-DNA integration resulted in enhanced constitutively expression of downstream OsGA20ox3 in the mutant. The accumulation of bioactive GA(1) and GA(4) were increased in the mutant in comparison with the wild-type plant. Transgenic plants overexpressing OsGA20ox3 showed phenotypes similar to those of the 17S-14 mutant, and the RNA interference (RNAi) lines that had decreased OsGA20ox3 expression exhibited a semidwarf phenotype. Expression of OsGA20ox3 was detected in the leaves and roots of young seedlings, immature panicles, anthers, and pollens, based on β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity staining in transgenic plants expressing the OsGA20ox3 promoter fused to the GUS gene. The OsGA20ox3 RNAi lines showed enhanced resistance against rice pathogens Magnaporthe oryzae (causing rice blast) and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (causing bacterial blight) and increased expression of defense-related genes. Conversely, OsGA20ox3-overexpressing plants were more susceptible to these pathogens comparing with the wild-type plants. The susceptibility of wild-type plants to X. oryzae pv. oryzae was increased by exogenous application of GA(3) and decreased by S-3307 treatment. Together, the results provide direct evidence for a critical role of OsGA20ox3 in regulating not only plant stature but also disease resistance in rice.

  7. Flower-petal mode converter for NLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoag, H.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Callin, R.; Deruyter, H.; Farkas, Z.D.; Ko, K.; Kroll, N.; Lavine, T.L.; Menegat, A.; Vlieks, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    It is important to minimize power loss in the waveguide system connecting klystron, pulse-compressor, and accelerator in an X-Band NLC. However, existing designs of klystron output cavity circuits and accelerator input couplers utilize rectangular waveguide which has relatively high transmission loss. It is therefore necessary to convert to and from the low-loss mode in circulator waveguide at each end of the system. A description is given of development work on high-power, high-vacuum open-quote flower-petal close-quote transducers, which convert the TE 10 mode in rectangular guide to the TE 01 mode in circular guide. A three-port modification of the flower petal device, which can be used as either a power combiner at the klystron or a power divider at the accelerator is also described

  8. Flower-petal mode converter for NLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoag, H.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Callin, R.

    1993-04-01

    It is important to minimize power loss in the waveguide system connecting klystron, pulse-compressor, and accelerator in an X-Band NLC. However, existing designs of klystron output cavity circuits and accelerator input couplers utilize rectangular waveguide which has relatively high transmission loss. It is therefore necessary to convert to and from the low-loss mode in circular waveguide at each end of the system. A description is given of development work on high-power, high-vacuum 'flower-petal' transducers, which convert the TE 10 mode in rectangular guide to the TE 01 mode in circular guide. A three-port modification of the flower petal device, which can be used as either a power combiner at the klystron or a power divider at the accelerator is also described

  9. Genotype and environment effects on Tocopherol, Tocotrienol, and y-Oryzanol contents of southern US rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice bran contains phytochemicals such as E vitamers (i.e., tocopherols and tocotrienols) and the y-oryzanol fraction that reportedly may have positive effects on human health. Brown rice, rice bran, and rice bran extracts are therefore attractive candidates for use in the development of functional ...

  10. SAD1, an RNA polymerase I subunit A34.5 of rice, interacts with Mediator and controls various aspects of plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiqiang; Yoshida, Akiko; Takahashi, Megumu; Maekawa, Masahiko; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kyozuka, Junko

    2015-01-01

    The DWARF14 (D14) gene of rice functions within the signaling pathway of strigolactones, a group of plant hormones that inhibits shoot branching. We isolated a recessive mutant named super apical dormant (sad1-1) from a suppressor screen of d14-1. The growth of tillers (vegetative shoot branches) is suppressed in both the d14-1 sad1-1 double mutant and the sad1-1 single mutant. In addition, the sad1-1 mutant shows pleiotropic defects throughout development. SAD1 encodes an ortholog of RPA34.5, a subunit of RNA polymerase I (Pol I). Consequently, the level of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is severely reduced in the sad1-1 mutant. These results indicate that proper ribosome function is a prerequisite for normal development in plants. The Arabidopsis ortholog of SAD1 was previously isolated as a Mediator-interacting protein. Here we show that SAD1 interacts physically with the Mediator complex through direct binding with OsMED4, a component of the middle module of the Mediator complex in rice. It is known that Mediator interacts with Pol II, which transcribes mRNAs and functions as a central regulator of transcription. This study indicates a novel aspect of Mediator function in Pol I-controlled rRNA transcription. TFIIF2 and RPC53 are the counterparts of RPA34.5 in Pol II and Pol III, respectively. We demonstrate that the rice orthologs of these proteins also interact with OsMED4. Our results suggest that interaction with MED4 in the Mediator complex is a common feature of the three types of RNA polymerases. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Optimization of process parameters for extrusion cooking of low amylose rice flour blended with seeded banana and carambola pomace for development of minerals and fiber rich breakfast cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Anjan; Lata Mahanta, Charu; Kalita, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    The low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB) and carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) pomace blends were extruded to prepare ready to eat breakfast cereal in a single-screw extruder. Response surface methodology using a central composite design was used to evaluate effect of independent variables, namely blend ratio (80:10:10 - 60:30:10 of low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana and carambola pomace), screw speed (200 - 400 rpm), barrel temperature (90 - 130 (°)C) and feed moisture content (9 - 21 g/100 g, wet basis) on product responses. Quadratic polynomial equations were also obtained by multiple regression analysis. The predicted models were adequate based on lack-of-fit test and coefficient of determination obtained. The feed moisture content had critical effect on all response variables. The compromised optimal conditions obtained by numerical integration for development of extrudates were: screw speed of 350 rpm, barrel temperature of 120 (°)C, feed moisture content of 12 g/100 g and 65:25:10 of blend ratio of feed. In the optimized condition low-amylose rice blend is found to have better physicochemical properties (water absorption index of 481.79 g/100 g; water solubility index of 44.13 g/100 g) and dietary fiber content of 21.35 g/100 g respectively. The developed breakfast cereal showed considerable amount of minerals (Mg and K) and overall acceptability was found to be 7.8.

  12. Rice varieties in relation to rice bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hye Min; Cho, Jun Hyeon; Kang, Hang Won; Koh, Bong Kyung

    2012-05-01

    It is difficult to predict rice bread quality only from the amylose content (AC) or dough characteristics of new lines produced by rice breeding programmes. This study investigated the AC relative to bread baking quality of rice varieties developed in Korea, and identified specific characteristics that contribute to rice bread quality. Manmibyeo, Jinsumi, Seolgaeng and Hanareumbyeo were classified as low AC, YR24088 Acp9, Suweon517, Chenmaai and Goamibyeo as intermediate AC and Milyang261 as high AC. Suweon517, Milyang261 and Manmibyeo had a high water absorption index (WAI), while Goamibyeo, YR24088 Acp9, Jinsumi, Seolgaeng, Hanareumbyeo and Chenmaai had a low WAI. The gelatinisation enthalpy of flour varied from 9.2 J g(-1) in Milyang261 to 14.8 J g(-1) in YR24088 Acp9. After 7 days of storage the rate of flour retrogradation and crumb firmness were weakly correlated, with the exception of Jinsumi. Bread volumes of Jinsumi, Chenmaai, YR24088 Acp9 and Goamibyeo were comparable to that of wheat flour, but the rest were unsuited to bread making because of their low volume and hard crumb texture. Based on volume, texture and crumb firmness ratio, Chenmaai and Goamibyeo were the most appropriate varieties for making bread. An intermediate AC and low WAI were the primary indicators of rice bread flour quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Development of certified matrix-based reference material of genetically modified rice event TT51-1 for real-time PCR quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Yang, Hui; Quan, Sheng; Liu, Yinan; Shen, Ping; Yang, Litao

    2015-09-01

    In 2009, the genetically modified (GM) rice event TT51-1 with an engineered insect resistance trait became the first GM rice event to be granted certification for safe production in China, and its derivative lines Bt 63 and Huahui No.1 are expected to be commercialized soon. The development of certified reference material (CRM) for TT51-1 is necessary to monitor and inspect the TT51-1 event and its derivates. In this work, we developed four matrix-based TT51-1 rice CRMs (TT51-1a, TT51-1b, TT51-1c, and TT51-1d) with different TT51-1 mass fraction ratios by blending seed powders of homozygous TT51-1 and its recipient cultivar Minghui 63. The between-bottle homogeneity and the within-bottle homogeneity were tested, and good results were obtained. The potential degradation during transportation and shelf life were evaluated, and demonstrated an expiration period of at least 36 months. The characterization values of the four TT51-1 CRMs based on the mass fraction ratio were 1000.000 ± 51.430 g/kg, 49.940 ± 4.620 g/kg, 9.990 ± 1.110 g/kg, and 4.990 ± 0.620 g/kg, respectively. The characterization values based on the copy number ratio were certified by digital PCR analysis as 97.442 ± 5.253 %, 4.851 ± 0.486 %, 1.042 ± 0.135 %, and 0.556 ± 0.073 %, respectively. These results suggested that the TT51-1 matrix-based CRMs developed are of high quality and can be used as potential calibrators for TT51-1 GM rice inspection and monitoring.

  14. Non-linked inhibitory gene controls a disease mimicking mutant in rice [Oryza sativa L.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambhulkar, S.J.; Joshua, D.C.; Goswamy, D.G.

    2001-01-01

    A gamma ray induced disease mimicking mutant called luchai lesion was isolated in the rice variety White Luchai 112. The appearance of small light red lesions and their development continued from seedling to flowering. The lesions appeared gradually on older leaves and their uncontrolled spread eventually lead to leaf senescence. They resembled the disease spots caused by Magnaporthe grisea. However, pathological studies ruled out the possibility of pathogen mediated disease symptoms. Genetic studies revealed that lesions were governed by a dominant gene; however, their expression was suppressed in presence of a non-linked inhibitory gene. It is hypothesised that the plant cells of the mutant are able to sense inbuilt spontaneous signals leading to lesion development, but in presence of an inhibitory gene the signals are suppressed by perturbation in the signal transduction pathway [it

  15. Pistil starch reserves at anthesis correlate with final flower fate in avocado (Persea americana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Librada Alcaraz

    Full Text Available A common observation in different plant species is a massive abscission of flowers and fruitlets even after adequate pollination, but little is known as to the reason for this drop. Previous research has shown the importance of nutritive reserves accumulated in the flower on fertilization success and initial fruit development but direct evidence has been elusive. Avocado (Persea americana is an extreme case of a species with a very low fruit to flower ratio. In this work, the implications of starch content in the avocado flower on the subsequent fruit set are explored. Firstly, starch content in individual ovaries was analysed from two populations of flowers with a different fruit set capacity showing that the flowers from the population that resulted in a higher percentage of fruit set contained significantly more starch. Secondly, in a different set of flowers, the style of each flower was excised one day after pollination, once the pollen tubes had reached the base of the style, and individually fixed for starch content analysis under the microscope once the fate of its corresponding ovary (that remained in the tree was known. A high variability in starch content in the style was found among flowers, with some flowers having starch content up to 1,000 times higher than others, and the flowers that successfully developed into fruits presented significantly higher starch content in the style at anthesis than those that abscised. The relationship between starch content in the ovary and the capacity of set of the flower together with the correlation found between the starch content in the style and the fate of the ovary support the hypothesis that the carbohydrate reserves accumulated in the flower at anthesis are related to subsequent abscission or retention of the developing fruit.

  16. Pistil starch reserves at anthesis correlate with final flower fate in avocado (Persea americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, María Librada; Hormaza, José Ignacio; Rodrigo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    A common observation in different plant species is a massive abscission of flowers and fruitlets even after adequate pollination, but little is known as to the reason for this drop. Previous research has shown the importance of nutritive reserves accumulated in the flower on fertilization success and initial fruit development but direct evidence has been elusive. Avocado (Persea americana) is an extreme case of a species with a very low fruit to flower ratio. In this work, the implications of starch content in the avocado flower on the subsequent fruit set are explored. Firstly, starch content in individual ovaries was analysed from two populations of flowers with a different fruit set capacity showing that the flowers from the population that resulted in a higher percentage of fruit set contained significantly more starch. Secondly, in a different set of flowers, the style of each flower was excised one day after pollination, once the pollen tubes had reached the base of the style, and individually fixed for starch content analysis under the microscope once the fate of its corresponding ovary (that remained in the tree) was known. A high variability in starch content in the style was found among flowers, with some flowers having starch content up to 1,000 times higher than others, and the flowers that successfully developed into fruits presented significantly higher starch content in the style at anthesis than those that abscised. The relationship between starch content in the ovary and the capacity of set of the flower together with the correlation found between the starch content in the style and the fate of the ovary support the hypothesis that the carbohydrate reserves accumulated in the flower at anthesis are related to subsequent abscission or retention of the developing fruit.

  17. Protective effects of pre-germinated brown rice diet on low levels of Pb-induced learning and memory deficits in developing rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Lu, Hongzhi; Tian, Su; Yin, Jie; Chen, Qing; Ma, Li; Cui, Shijie; Niu, Yujie

    2010-03-30

    Lead (Pb) is a known neurotoxicant in humans and experimental animals. Numerous studies have provided evidence that humans, especially young children, and animals chronically intoxicated with low levels of Pb show learning and memory impairments. Unfortunately, Pb-poisoning cases continue to occur in many countries. Because the current treatment options are very limited, there is a need for alternative methods to attenuate Pb toxicity. In this study, the weaning (postnatal day 21, PND21) rats were randomly divided into five groups: the control group (AIN-93G diet, de-ionized water), the lead acetate (PbAC) group (AIN-93G diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water), the lead acetate+WR group (white rice diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water; PbAC+WR), the lead acetate+BR group (brown rice diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water; PbAC+BR) and the lead acetate+PR group (pre-germinated brown rice diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water; PbAC+PR). The animals received the different diets until PND60, and then the experiments were terminated. The protective effects of pre-germinated brown rice (PR) on Pb-induced learning and memory impairment in weaning rats were assessed by the Morris water maze and one-trial-learning passive avoidance test. The anti-oxidative effects of feeding a PR diet to Pb-exposed rats were evaluated. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined by flow cytometry. The levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate were determined by HPLC. Our data showed that feeding a PR diet decreased the accumulation of lead and decreased Pb-induced learning and memory deficits in developing rats. The mechanisms might be related to the anti-oxidative effects and large amount of GABA in PR. Our study provides a regimen to reduce Pb-induced toxicity, especially future learning and memory deficits in the developing brain.

  18. Rice methylmercury exposure and mitigation: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Creswell, Joel E

    2014-08-01

    Rice cultivation practices from field preparation to post-harvest transform rice paddies into hot spots for microbial mercury methylation, converting less-toxic inorganic mercury to more-toxic methylmercury, which is likely translocated to rice grain. This review includes 51 studies reporting rice total mercury and/or methylmercury concentrations, based on rice (Orzya sativa) cultivated or purchased in 15 countries. Not surprisingly, both rice total mercury and methylmercury levels were significantly higher in polluted sites compared to non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p<0.001). However, rice percent methylmercury (of total mercury) did not differ statistically between polluted and non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p=0.35), suggesting comparable mercury methylation rates in paddy soil across these sites and/or similar accumulation of mercury species for these rice cultivars. Studies characterizing the effects of rice cultivation under more aerobic conditions were reviewed to determine the mitigation potential of this practice. Rice management practices utilizing alternating wetting and drying (instead of continuous flooding) caused soil methylmercury levels to spike, resulting in a strong methylmercury pulse after fields were dried and reflooded; however, it is uncertain whether this led to increased translocation of methylmercury from paddy soil to rice grain. Due to the potential health risks, it is advisable to investigate this issue further, and to develop separate water management strategies for mercury polluted and non-polluted sites, in order to minimize methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Plants and colour: Flowers and pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Renee; Owens, Simon J.; Rørslett, Bjørn

    2011-03-01

    While there is a range of colours found in plants the predominant colour is green. Pigments in plants have several roles e.g. photosynthesis and signalling. If colour is to be used as a signal then it must stand out from green. However, one should be aware that there are also coloured compounds where we have not yet fully investigated the role of colour in their functions—they may have roles in, for example, defence or heat exchange. In this paper, we will describe the basic chemistry of the major pigments found in plants and especially floral pigments. We will then discuss their locations in parts of the flower (such as sepals, petals, pollen and nectar), the cells in which they are found and their sub-cellular locations. Floral pigments have a large role to play in pollination of flowers by animals. They can and are modified in many ways during the development of flowers in nature, for example, at emergence and post-pollination. There are a range of biochemical mechanisms of colour change both within flowers and in isolated pigments. Some of the factors influencing colour are temperature, co-pigments, pH, metals, sugars, anthocyanin stacking and cell shape. There is a renewed interest in analysing floral pigments and how they are modified partly because of advances in recombinant DNA technologies, but also because of pollinators and their significance to biodiversity and for evolutionary studies. There is continued strong interest from the horticultural industry for the introduction of new colours e.g. the blue rose and for the exploitation of natural dyes. Funding in this area may impact future research in a potentially beneficial way but it must not deflect us from science-based conservation.

  20. A spectral analysis of rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlvaine, M.S.; Cua, F.T.; Navarro, E.F.

    1976-06-01

    With the advent of extensive nuclear testing and the development and use of highly potent pesticides and fertilizers, the hazardous threats of radioactive contamination due to fallout and to the absorption of pesticide residues have been given due consideration. Among the many forms of life exposed to these threats are food crops and among these is rice. Several rice grain samples - Japanese rice samples ''A'' and ''B'' submitted by the National Grains Authority (NGA) for analysis, random samples of rice being sold to the public at local markets, and ''black rice'' which were picked from along the shores of a Mindoro town were subjected to spectral analysis. Results revealed the presence of trace elements normally found in plants, such as; K-42, I-124, Cl-38, Na-24, Br-82, and Mn-56. No mercury was detected in the sample specimen analyzed