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Sample records for rice bowl-based meal

  1. Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan for Energy and Marcronutrient Intake in Korean Men with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jung Ahn

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundKoreans eat rice, which is usually served in a rice bowl. We investigated the effect of a meal plan using small rice bowls on the total energy intake (TEI and the marcronutrient intake in Korean men with type 2 diabetes.MethodsA total of 62 men with type 2 diabetes were divided by body mass index (BMI (normal weight [NW], BMI60%. The 3-day dietary records were analyzed for TEI and proportions of macronutrients, before and 2 weeks after a small-sized (300 mL rice bowl based education was given.ResultsThere were no significant differences in the age and BMI within the sub-groups by BMI and PCI groups. In baseline, the ratio of TEI to recommended total energy intake (RTR of OW and OB were higher than that of NW. The PCI of HC was higher than that of LC and alcohol intake of HC was lower than that of LC. After education, the reduction of RTREI in OB was higher than that in OW and NW. The reduction of PCI in HC was higher than that of LC.ConclusionA small rice bowl based meal plan was effective for the reduction of energy intake and control of marcronutrient intake in Korean obese men with type 2 diabetes consuming a high carbohydrate diet.

  2. Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan versus Food Exchange-Based Meal Plan for Weight, Glucose and Lipid Control in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hee-Jung; Han, Kyung-Ah; Kwon, Hwi-Ryun; Koo, Bo-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Park, Kang-Seo; Min, Kyung-Wan

    2010-04-01

    The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys reported 65% of daily energy intake (EI) as carbohydrate (CHO) in the Korean population and main source of CHO was cooked rice. We used a standardized-small sized rice bowl for diet education and investigated its effectiveness on body weight, glucose and lipid, compared to the conventional food exchange system in type 2 diabetes obese women. Type 2 diabetic women with body mass index >/= 23 kg/m(2) were randomly assigned to small rice bowl-based meal plan (BM) and food exchange-based meal plan (ExM) group. Both groups were asked to reduce their EI by 500 kcal/day for 12 weeks. The macronutrient composition was instructed: 55 to 60% of EI as CHO, 15 to 20% as protein, and 20 to 25% as fat. BM group received only a simple instruction for application of the rice bowl. Nutrient intake was estimated with the 3-day dietary records. Finally, 44 subjects finished the study. The percent reduction of body weight was significant both BM group (-5.1 +/- 2.6%) and ExM group (-4.8 +/- 2.8%) after 12 weeks (P < 0.001) but there was no difference between the groups. There was no difference in the proportional change of CHO, protein and fat in EI between the groups. Additionally, the change of HbA1c and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol were not significantly different between the two groups. The BM group was as effective as ExM for body weight and glucose control in type 2 diabetes obese women.

  3. Bean and rice meals reduce postprandial glycemic response in adults with type 2 diabetes: a cross-over study

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    Thompson Sharon V

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around the world, beans and rice are commonly consumed together as a meal. With type 2 diabetes increasing, the effect of this traditional diet pattern on glycemic response has not been studied fully. Methods We evaluated the glycemic response of bean and rice traditional meals compared to rice alone in adults with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men and women with type 2 diabetes controlled by metformin (n = 14 or diet/exercise (n = 3 aged 35–70 years participated in the randomized 4 × 4 crossover trial. The white long grain rice control, pinto beans/rice, black beans/rice, red kidney beans/rice test meals, matched for 50 grams of available carbohydrate, were consumed at breakfast after a 12 hour fast. Capillary blood glucose concentrations at baseline and at 30 minute intervals up to 180 minutes postprandial were collected. MANOVA for repeated measures established glucose differences between treatments. Paired t tests identified differences between bean types and the rice control following a significant MANOVA. Results Postprandial net glucose values were significantly lower for the three bean/rice treatments in contrast to the rice control at 90, 120 and 150 minutes. Incremental area under the curve values were significantly lower for the pinto and black bean/rice meals compared to rice alone, but not for kidney beans. Conclusions Pinto, dark red kidney and black beans with rice attenuate the glycemic response compared to rice alone. Promotion of traditional foods may provide non-pharmaceutical management of type 2 diabetes and improve dietary adherence with cultural groups. Trial registration Clinical Trials number NCT01241253

  4. Processing and characterization of extruded breakfast meal formulated with broken rice and bean flour

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    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop an extruded breakfast product containing broken rice and split old beans and to verify the influence of the extrusion process on their physicochemical, technological, and sensory characteristic. The final product had a protein content of 9.9 g.100 g-1, and therefore it can be considered a good source of proteins for children and teenagers. The dietary fiber content of the final edible product was 3.71 g.100 g-1. Therefore, the breakfast meal may be considered as a source of dietary fiber according to Brazilian law . As for the technological properties, the extruded product presented an expansion index of 8.89 and apparent density of 0.25 g.cm-3. With regard to the sensory analysis, the acceptance average was ranked between 6.8 and 7.7, corresponding to the categories "liked slightly" and "liked very much". With regard to purchase intention, 79% of the panelists said they would certainly or possibly purchase the product. Broken rice and split old beans are interesting alternatives for the elaboration of extruded breakfast products presenting good nutritional, technological, and sensory qualities.

  5. The effects of fruit juices and fruits on the absorption of iron from a rice meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballot, D; Baynes, R D; Bothwell, T H; Gillooly, M; MacFarlane, B J; MacPhail, A P; Lyons, G; Derman, D P; Bezwoda, W R; Torrance, J D

    1987-05-01

    The effects of the chemical composition of fruit juices and fruit on the absorption of iron from a rice (Oryza sativa) meal were measured in 234 parous Indian women, using the erythrocyte utilization of radioactive Fe method. The corrected geometric mean Fe absorptions with different juices varied between 0.040 and 0.129, with the variation correlating closely with the ascorbic acid contents of the juices (rs 0.838, P less than 0.01). Ascorbic acid was not the only organic acid responsible for the promoting effects of citrus fruit juices on Fe absorption. Fe absorption from laboratory 'orange juice' (100 ml water, 33 mg ascorbic acid and 750 mg citric acid) was significantly better than that from 100 ml water and 33 mg ascorbic acid alone (0.097 and 0.059 respectively), while Fe absorption from 100 ml orange juice (28 mg ascorbic acid) was better than that from 100 ml water containing the same amount of ascorbic acid (0.139 and 0.098 respectively). Finally, Fe absorption from laboratory 'lemon juice' (100 ml orange juice and 4 g citric acid) was significantly better than that from 100 ml orange juice (0.226 and 0.166 respectively). The corrected geometric mean Fe absorption from the rice meal was 0.025. Several fruits had little or no effect on Fe absorption from the meal (0.013-0.024). These included grape (Vitis vinifera), peach (Prunus persica), apple (Malus sylvestris) and avocado pear (Persea americana). Fruit with a mild to moderate enhancing effect on Fe absorption (0.031-0.088) included strawberry (Fragaria sp.) (uncorrected values), plum (Prunus domestica), rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum), banana (Musa cavendishii), mango (Mangifera indica), pear (Pyrus communis), cantaloup (Cucumis melo) and pineapple (Ananas comosus) (uncorrected values). Guava (Psidium guajava) and pawpaw (Carica papaya) markedly increased Fe absorption (0.126-0.293). There was a close correlation between Fe absorption and the ascorbic acid content of the fruits tested (rs 0.738, P less

  6. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Lucia, Ceres M; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C; Santos, Laura Luiza M; Cardoso, Leandro M; Martino, Hércia S D; Franceschini, Sylvia C C; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-05-14

    Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice(®) (UR(®))) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2-6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR(®) added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received only polished rice (control preschool). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR(®) on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs.

  7. Diet Quality and Adequacy of Nutrients in Preschool Children: Should Rice Fortified with Micronutrients Be Included in School Meals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceres M. Della Lucia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR® fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2–6 years; 42.6% male from two preschools participated, one of which received UR® added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool and the other received only polished rice (control preschool. Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001, thiamine (p < 0.001, folic acid (p = 0.003, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001 and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001. The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR® on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs.

  8. Effects of the amount of rice in meals on postprandial blood pressure in older people with postprandial hypotension: a within-subjects design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jung Tae; Lee, Eunjoo

    2015-08-01

    To determine the effect of the amount of rice carbohydrates consumed during mealtime on the extent of decrease in postprandial blood pressure in older people with postprandial hypotension. The incidence of postprandial hypotension is as high as 74% in older people with hypertension. A within-subjects repeated measures design was used. Thirty-nine older people in nursing homes received a full serving and a half-serving of rice on two separate days, in random order blood pressure and heart rate were measured before each meal and every 15 minutes for a total of 120 minutes after each meal. Data were analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance and the paired t-test with a Bonferroni adjustment using IBM spss version 19.0. The control and intervention conditions yielded significantly different patterns in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Postprandial hypotension was less frequent under the intervention condition; however, decrease in rice intake did not significantly affect heart rate. Reducing the amount of rice intake per meal prevents postprandial blood pressure decreases in the older people. Small and frequent meals with decreased carbohydrate content are recommended to prevent postprandial hypotension and its complications in the older people. Patients, dieticians and caregivers of older patients should be aware of the importance of diet, especially of decreasing the amount of carbohydrate in a meal. Smaller and more frequent meals are recommended for older people to slow gastric emptying. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Development and reproductive performance of beef heifers supplemented with brown rice meal and/or protected fat on temperate grasslands

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    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The response of energy supplementation was evaluated on the development and reproductive performance of beef heifers on temperate grasslands. Twenty-eight Charolais × Nellore heifers, with initial average age of 18 months and initial live weight of 274.9 kg were utilized. The animals were maintained on oat + ryegrass pasture and distributed in the following treatments: no supplementation (NS: heifers kept exclusively on pasture; MEG: supplementation with protected fat Megalac®; BRM: supplementation with brown rice meal; BRM+MEG: supplementation with BRM + protected fat. The average final weight of the heifers was of 403.4 kg and corresponded to 89.5% of the adult weight. The body condition of heifers increased linearly with daily increase of 0.012 points, correlating positively with the final weight. There was interaction between treatment and period for average daily weight gain. The highest daily weight gain, 1.395 kg, occurred in the first period when the animals were supplemented with BRM+MEG. In the last period, the NS animals presented the lowest daily weight gain, 0.888 kg. Supplementation with brown rice meal and/or protected fat does not interfere in the intake of pasture by heifers or increase the total intake of dry matter, not changing, therefore, the average daily weight gain at the end of the period of grazing. The daily weight gain does not change during supplementation. The use of temperate pasture with and without supplementation promotes the proper development of the structure and reproductive tract of heifers, benefiting the animal performance indexes in the first mating at 25-27 months of age.

  10. Energy and phosphorus values of sunflower meal and rice bran for broiler chickens using the regression method.

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    Pereira, L F P; Adeola, O

    2016-09-01

    The energy and phosphorus values of sunflower meal (SFM) and rice bran (RB) were determined in 2 experiments with Ross 708 broiler chickens from 15 to 22 d of age. In Exp.1, the diets consisted of a corn-soybean meal reference diet (RD) and 4 test diets (TD). The TD consisted of SFM and RB that partly replaced the energy sources in the RD at 100 or 200 g/kg and 75 or 150 g/kg, respectively, such that the equal ratios were maintained for all energy containing ingredients across all experimental diets. In Exp.2, a cornstarch-soybean meal diet was the RD and TD consisting of SFM and RB that partly replaced cornstarch in the RD at 100 or 200 g/kg and 60 or 120 g/kg, respectively. Addition of SFM and RB to the RD in Exp.1 linearly decreased (P nitrogen (N), energy, N correct energy, metabolize energy (ME), and nitrogen-corrected ME. Except for RB, the increased levels of the test ingredients in RD did affect the metabolizability coefficients of N. The IDE values (kcal/kg DM) were 1,953 for SFM and 2,498 for RB; ME values (kcal/kg DM) were 1,893 for SFM and 2,683 for RB; and MEn values (kcal/kg DM) were 1,614 for SFM and 2,476 for RB. In Exp.2, there was a linear relationship between phosphorus (P) intake and ileal P output for diets with increased levels of SFM and RB. In addition, there was a linear relationship between P intake and P digestibility and retention for diets with increased levels of SFM. There were a quadratic effect (P < 0.01) and a tendency of quadratic effect (P = 0.07) for P digestible and total tract P retained, respectively, in the RB diets. The P digestibility and total tract P retention from regression analyses for SFM were 46% and 38%, respectively. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Rice-based Korean meals (bibimbap and kimbap have lower glycemic responses and postprandial-triglyceride effects than energy-matched Western meals

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    Su-Jin Jung

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: We confirmed that Korean-style meals (bibimbap lowered the risk of metabolic diseases in participants with and without MetS. Despite the high-carbohydrate content in Korean meals, the GI and insulinogenic-index responses did not differ among the diet groups. The lower PTG in Korean diet groups may suggest a beneficial effect in lowering the risk of many other diet-related chronic diseases.

  12. Delayed gastric emptying and reduced postprandial small bowel water content of equicaloric whole meal bread versus rice meals in healthy subjects: novel MRI insights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marciani, L; Pritchard, S E; Hellier-Woods, C; Costigan, C; Hoad, C L; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2013-01-01

    ... kJ WMB or an equicaloric RP meal. Subjects underwent serial MRI scans every 45 min up to 270 min to assess gastric volumes and small bowel water content, and completed a GI symptom questionnaire...

  13. The Production of Benzaldehyde by Rhizopus oligosporus USM R1 in a Solid State Fermentation (SSF System of Soy Bean Meal: Rice Husks

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    Norliza, A. W.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of Rhizopus oligosporus USM R1 for the production of benzaldehyde, a bitter cherry almond flavour was performed using soya bean meal and rice husks as the substrates. The identification of R. oligosporus USM R1 was performed based on the observation made under light microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The optimum conditions for the SSF in a 250-ml Erlenmeyer flask system were 40% (v/w water content, substrate particle size of 0.7 mm; inoculum size of 1 x 10^5 spores/g substrate; incubation temperature of 30C; substrate amount of 7 g and the ratio of soy bean meal: rice husks of 50:50%. A maximum benzaldehyde production was obtained when the substrate was agitated after 48 hour for a 96 hour fermentation time. The highest benzaldehyde production obtained after 96 hour cultivation was 5.47 mg g-1 substrate. The supplementation of carbon and nitrogen sources in the substrate mixture revealed an enhancement in the growth and benzyldehyde production. A maximum production of benzaldehyde was obtained with the supplementation of L-phenylalanine, a precursor for benzaldehyde biosynthesis which gave 38.69 mg benzaldehyde/g substrate. This is approximately 6-folds higher compared to the substrates without the supplementation of L-phenylalanine.

  14. Impact of second line limiting amino acids' deficiency in broilers fed low protein diets with rapeseed meal and de-oiled rice bran.

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    Kumar, C Basavanta; Gloridoss, R G; Singh, K Chandrapal; Prabhu, T M; Siddaramanna; Suresh, B N; Manegar, G A

    2015-03-01

    To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan) on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. A control (T1) corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a 'moderate SLAA deficit' diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a 'high SLAA deficit' diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% de-oiled rice bran. Each of these treatments was allotted to six replicates of ten chicks each. During the 42 days experimental period, growth performance, carcass parameters and intake of metabolizable energy (ME), crude protein (CP) and AA were studied. The cumulative body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass cut weights and yields of carcass, breast and thighs were decreased (pdeficit diets. The relative intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine, threonine and SLAA reduced in T3 in comparison to T1. The relative weights of internal organs were not affected by treatments while the abdominal fat percentage was increased linearly to the magnitude of SLAA deficiency. The deficiency of SLAA decreased performance, carcass yields and impaired utilization of ME, CP and AA linearly to the magnitude of the deficiency.

  15. Family Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Late for the Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias Family Meals KidsHealth > For Parents > Family Meals Print A ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  16. Easy Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The woman pictured below is sitting down to a nutritious, easily-prepared meal similar to those consumed by Apollo astronauts. The appetizing dishes shown were created simply by adding water to the contents of a Mountain House* Easy Meal package of freeze dried food. The Easy Meal line is produced by Oregon Freeze Dry Foods, Inc., Albany, Oreaon, a pioneer in freeze drying technology and a company long associated with NASA in developing suitable preparations for use on manned spacecraft. Designed to provide nutritionally balanced, attractive hot meals for senior adults, Easy Meal is an offshoot of a 1975-77 demonstration project managed by Johnson Space Center and called Meal System for the Elderly. The project sought ways to help the estimated 3.5 million elderly Americans who are unable to take advantage of existing meal programs. Such services are provided by federal, state and local agencies, but they are not available to many who live in rural areas, or others who are handicapped, temporarily ill or homebound for other reasons. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods was a participant in that multi-agency cooperative project. With its Easy Meal assortment of convenience foods pictured above left, the company is making commercially available meal packages similar to those distributed in the Meal System for the Elderly program. In the freeze drying process, water is extracted from freshly-cooked foods by dehydration at very low temperatures, as low as 50 I degrees below zero. Flavor is locked in by packaging the dried food in pouches which block out moisture and oxygen, the principal causes of food deterioration; thus the food can be stored for long periods without refrigeration. Meals are reconstituted by adding hot or cold water, depending on the type of food, and they are table ready in five to 10 minutes. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods offers five different meal packages and plans to expand the line.

  17. Meal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Kügler, Jens; Olsen, Nina Veflen

    2013-01-01

    probabilities are subjected to multiple correspondence analysis and mapped into low-dimensional space. In a third step, the principal coordinates representing meal centres and side components in the correspondence analysis solution are subjected to cluster analysis to identify distinct groups of compatible...

  18. The Hospitable Meal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Overgaard, Svend Skafte

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an analytical model that aims to conceptualize how meal experiences are framed when taking into account a dynamic understanding of hospitality: the meal model is named The Hospitable Meal Model. The idea behind The Hospitable Meal Model is to present a conceptual model...... that can serve as a frame for developing hospitable meal competencies among professionals working within the area of institutional foodservices as well as a conceptual model for analysing meal experiences. The Hospitable Meal Model transcends and transforms existing meal models by presenting a more open......-ended approach towards meal experiences. The underlying purpose of The Hospitable Meal Model is to provide the basis for creating value for the individuals involved in institutional meal services. The Hospitable Meal Model was developed on the basis of an empirical study on hospital meal experiences explored...

  19. quality of broiler fed diet supplemented by garlic meal and white turmeric meal

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    Nanung Danar Dono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was done within 42 days to investigate the effect of diet supplemented by garlic (Allium sativum and white turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb meals on physical and chemical quality of broiler meat. The number of 90 broiler DOC were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 18 unit of cages. During the study, the chicken were given 6 feeding treatments, i.e.: R-0 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% filler; as control diet, RB-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% filler, RB-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% garlic meal, RT-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% white turmeric meal + 1.0% filler, RT-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% white turmeric meal, and RB1T1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% white turmeric meal. The base diet was composed of: yellow corn, soybean meal, fish meal, rice polishing meal, sorghum, poultry meat meal, mineral mix, and was design to contain 17.5% crude protein and metabolizable energy 2,900 kcal/kg. Variables observed were: physical appearance (slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, cooking lose, tenderness, and cholesterol content (breast meat and blood cholesterol. All data were statistically analyzed by the Oneway of ANOVA and followed by the DMRT for significant results. Results showed that 1.0 - 2.0% garlic meal and 1.0 - 2.0% white turmeric meal supplementation reduced: breast meat cholesterol (P < 0.05, cooking lose (P < 0.05, and increased: pH (P < 0.01, and water holding capacity (P < 0.01 and improved tenderness (P < 0.05. Supplementation of 2% garlic meal and white turmeric meal didn’t affect slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, nor blood cholesterol.

  20. THE PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF MEALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOODS, SC; STRUBBE, JH; Woods, Stephen C.

    Meals are considered as bouts of behavior that, although necessary for supplying nutrients to the body, result in undesirable perturbations of homeostatically controlled parameters. If the environment dictates that an animal mainly eat very large meals, these meal-associated perturbations become

  1. Effects of sesame meal on intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-11-30

    Nov 30, 2017 ... 2.0, 2.0, and 0.1% of DM corn silage, ground barley, cottonseed meal, wheat bran, beet pulp, rice straw, and mineral and vitamin supplement, respectively. ... plastic tube (5-mm diameter), which was fixed to the outside of the fistula with a string. The bags and the tubes had free movement inside the rumen ...

  2. Effect of iron status on iron absorption in different habitual meals in young south Indian women

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    Suneeta Kalasuramath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Iron deficiency (ID affects a large number of women in India. An inverse relationship exists between iron (Fe status and Fe absorption. Dietary inhibitory and enhancing factors exert a profound influence on bioavailability of Fe. Although the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA for Fe is based on 8 per cent bioavailability, it is not clear if this holds good for the usual highly inhibitory Indian diet matrix. This study was aimed to determine Fe absorption from several habitually consumed south Indian food and to evaluate the interaction of Fe status with absorption. Methods: Four Fe absorption studies were performed on 60 apparently healthy young women, aged 18-35 years. Based on blood biochemistry, 45 of them were ID and 15 were iron replete (IR. The habitual meals assessed were rice, millet and wheat based meals in the ID subjects and rice based meal alone in the IR subjects. Each subject received the test meal labelled with 3 mg of [57] Fe and Fe absorption was measured based on erythrocyte incorporation of isotope label 14 days following administration. Results: Mean fractional Fe absorption from the rice, wheat and millet based meals in the ID subjects were 8.3, 11.2 and 4.6 per cent, respectively. Fe absorption from the rice-based meals was 2.5 per cent in IR subjects. Interpretation & conclusions: Fe absorption is dictated by Fe status from low bioavailability meals. Millet based meals have the lowest bioavailability, while the rice and wheat based meals had moderate to good bioavailability. In millet based meals, it is prudent to consider ways to improve Fe absorption.

  3. Learning through school meals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at ealuating the effects of free school meal intervention on pupils' learning, and on the learning environment i schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offereing free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school...... individual and focus Group interviws were conducted with students in grade 5-7 and grades 8-9- Furthermor, students were obserede during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The pupose of the article is to explore...... the lelarning potentials of school meals. The corss-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including Places Places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competencies in relation to food, meals and Health, as well as their involvement...

  4. Glycaemic index of parboiled rice depends on the severity of processing: study in type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, H. N.; Rasmussen, O. W.; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2000-01-01

    diabetic subjects ingested four test meals: white bread (WB) and three meals of cooked polished rice of the same variety being non-parboiled (NP), mildly traditionally parboiled (TP) and severely pressure parboiled (PP). The participants ingested the test meals (50 g available carbohydrates) on separate...... white bread (626 +/- 80; P ... that to white bread (P

  5. Meals for the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The aim of Skylab's multi-agency cooperative project was to make simple but nutritious space meals available to handicapped and otherwise homebound senior adults, unable to take advantage of existing meal programs sponsored by federal, state and private organizations. As a spinoff of Meal Systems for the Elderly, commercial food processing firms are now producing astronaut type meals for public distribution. Company offers variety of freeze dried foods which are reconstituted by addition of water, and "retort pouch" meals which need no reconstitution, only heating. The retort pouch is an innovative flexible package that combines the advantage of boil-in bag and metal can. Foods retain their flavor, minerals and vitamins can be stored without refrigeration and are lightweight for easy transportation.

  6. A Mixed-Methods Study on Acceptability, Tolerability, and Substitution of Brown Rice for White Rice to Lower Blood Glucose Levels among Nigerian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally N. Adebamowo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWhole-grain products such as brown rice have been associated with lower risk of metabolic disorders including diabetes. We examined the acceptability and tolerability of substituting brown rice for white rice and the feasibility of introducing brown rice into the diet through a long-term trial to lower the risk of type 2 diabetes.MethodsFifty-one adults residing in Abuja, Nigeria, participated in this study. Using purposeful sampling for focus group discussions (FGDs, participants were enrolled based on their age (19–25 vs. 40–60 years and body mass index (BMI (normal weight vs. overweight/obese. Participants tasted four meals with different constitution of brown and white rice (25:75%, 50:50%, 75:25%, and 100% brown rice. Twelve FGDs were conducted, six before and six after the food tasting. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was measured after consumption of each rice meal.ResultsThe mean age of the participants was 39 (±14 years, their mean BMI was 25.6 (±5.2 and about half of them were male. Most of the participants (61% reported that rice was their main source of carbohydrate and 67% consumed rice at least five times/week. Before the food tasting, participants considered white polished rice superior to brown rice with regard to quality, taste, and nutritional value. After the food tasting, most of the participants (49% indicated a preference for the 100% brown rice, 19% preferred the 25% brown rice, 18% preferred the 50% brown rice, and 7% preferred the 75% brown rice meals. Factors that may affect the acceptability of brown rice include its appearance, longer cooking time, cost, limited availability, and poor appreciation of its nutritional value. In general, 2-h postprandial glucose levels were lower, after consumption of meals with higher proportion of brown rice.ConclusionThis study provides valuable insight into the acceptability of brown rice as a substitute for white rice in Nigeria. If confirmed in larger studies

  7. Rice Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter presents the symptoms of deficiency and toxicity of the major and minor mineral nutrients in rice, as well as a current synopsis of nutrient transporters and their regulation. The availability of sequences from the recently completed rice genome has furthered the knowledge of how plants...

  8. soya meal or cottonseed meal on broiler production.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of meals of sweat potato and cassava varieties formulated with soya meal or cottonseed meal on broiler ... Growing and finishing chickens consumed more of the soyabean- supplemented diets than diets containing cottonseed meal as ..... sweet potato and a protein supplement to broiler and crossbred poultry. Papua ...

  9. Summer Meal Capacity Builder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — Allows users to search for summer meal sites from the previous summer by zip code, adding “layers” of information, such as free and reduced-price lunch participation...

  10. Summer Meal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Information pertaining to Summer Meal Sites, as collected by Citiparks in the City of Pittsburgh Department of Parks and Recreation. This dataset includes the...

  11. Korean kimchi: promoting healthy meals through cultural tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuko Hongu; Angela S. Kim; Asuka Suzuki; Hope Wilson; Karen C. Tsui; Sunmin Park

    2017-01-01

    Background: Kimchi, a spicy traditional Korean side dish, is made with a variety of fermented vegetables, such as Napa cabbage (baechu), hot red pepper, garlic, ginger, and other spices. Throughout generations for thousands of years, kimchi has been served daily at virtually all meals in Korean households. It gives the flavors of garlic, ginger, scallions, and chili. Kimchi is an ingredient with many culinary benefits as it is commonly added to soups, noodles, and rice dishes. In addition to ...

  12. Short-Term Effect of Convenience Meal Intake on Glycemic Response and Satiety among Healthy College Students in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eunji; Lee, Jeunghyun; Lee, Sukyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the effect of convenience meals purchased at convenience stores on glycemic response and satiety in healthy college students. A total of 9 non-obese volunteers (4 males and 5 females) aged 20 to 24 years participated in this study. On 3 separate days, participants consumed a standard diet (cooked rice and side dishes), type 1 convenience meal (kimbap and instant ramen), and type 2 convenience meal (sweet bread and flavored milk). Capillary blood-glucose response and satiety were measured every 30 minutes for 2 hours after consuming the 3 different test meals. Although mean fasting glucose levels were not different, glucose levels at 30 minutes and 120 minutes after the type 1 convenience meal intake were significantly higher than those in the standard meal (p balanced Korean style meal.

  13. Main meal quality in Brazil and United Kingdom: Similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgulho, Bartira Mendes; Pot, Gerda Karolien; Sarti, Flavia Mori; Marchioni, Dirce Maria

    2017-04-01

    Consumption of fast food and ready-to-eat meals has been positively associated with obesity. In the UK, ready-made meals are more often consumed than in Brazil, a country in which nutrition transition is relatively low. This study aimed to compare the nutritional quality of the main meal consumed by adults in Brazil and UK. Food record data was obtained from representative samples from UK and Brazil databases. The Main Meal Quality Index (MMQI) was applied to estimate the quality of the main meal consumed in Brazil and UK. Differences in food groups consumed in the main meal in Brazil and UK were observed using classification decision tree. Meals with higher average energy content were lunch for Brazil, and dinner for the UK. On average, the Brazilian main meal had better nutritional quality (4.42 times higher), independently of sex, age, family income, nutritional status and energy consumed, with higher scores of fiber, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat and energy density. However, UK's main meal included more fruits and vegetables. Food preparations combined with rice and beans were classified as Brazilian main meal, while combinations with fast food items, as fried potatoes, sandwiches and sugary beverages, were classified as UK main meals. In Brazil, the main meal quality was lower among women and obese individuals, presenting significant positive association with age, and negative association with energy intake and family income; while in UK, only age was positively associated with MMQI. Although main meals in Brazil had higher nutritional quality compared to the UK, main meals consumed in both countries need nutritional improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Meals in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Jens Erik; Birkemose, A.

    2004-01-01

    Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. in the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type...... of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home....... This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20...

  15. Technological and physical characteristics of breads made with toasted rice meal / Características físicas e tecnológicas de pães elaborados com farelo de arroz torrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Almeida Gomes

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the physical and sensory quality of form breads type formulated with different levels of substitution of wheat flour (FT by toasted rice bran (FAT. It was determined the centesimal composition, including the soluble and insoluble dietary fiber contents. It was applied whole randomized design with five treatments (0.0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5% and 30.0% of FAT in substitution to FT and three repetitions. The color and the breadmaking test scores were evaluated for each treatment. Microbiological analyses were done to the treatment with FAT which reached the highest total score. The higher substitution level of FT by FAT, darker and lower specific volume of breads, because of the high level of dietary fiber content of FAT (29,2%, what increased the moisture retention in the final product. Among the treatments containing FAT, the bread with 7.5% of FAT had the highest score at the breadmaking test (83.5, which differed (P O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade física e sensorial de pães de forma elaborados com diferentes níveis de substituição de farinha de trigo (FT por farelo de arroz torrado (FAT. Determinou-se a composição centesimal, incluindo os teores de fibra alimentar solúvel, insolúvel e total do FAT. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualisado, com cinco tratamentos (0,0%, 7,5%, 15,0%, 22,5% e 30,0% de substituição de FT por FAT em três repetições. Foram avaliados a cor e os escores do teste de panificação de cada tratamento. No tratamento com FAT que obteve o maior escore total no teste de panificação, foram realizadas análises microbiológicas. Ocorreram escurecimento e diminuição do volume específico gradativo dos pães à medida que se adicionou maior quantidade de FAT, devido ao elevado teor de fibra alimentar total do FAT (29,2%, que aumentou a retenção de umidade no produto final. Entre os tratamentos com FAT, o pão com 7,5% de substituição de FT por FAT

  16. Away-from-home meals: Prevalence and characteristics in a metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartira Mendes Gorgulho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to characterize away-from-home meals. Methods: This population-based, cross-sectional study measured dietary intake by administering 24-hour recalls by telephone. Away-from-home breakfast, lunch, and dinner were described and characterized according to the foods that contribute most to the intake of energy, fat, sodium, and added sugar per meal. Results: f the 834 respondents, 24% had had at least one meal away from home. The average energy intake per away-from-home meal was 628 kcal (±101 kcal, about 35% of the average daily intake for this population. Meals contained both healthy foods, such as rice, beans, and fish, and unhealthy foods, such as soft drinks, snacks, sandwiches, and pizza. Conclusion: Individuals who ate away from home had worse diets. However, the presence of healthy foods indicates a possibility of improvement if purposeful programmatic actions are taken.

  17. Glycemic responses of patients with type 2 diabetes to individual carbohydrate-rich foods and mixed meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, S Daniel; Ismail, Aziz Al-Safi

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine whether the glycemic index (GI) of individual foods applies to mixed meals. The glycemic responses elicited by portions of 4 individual foods with 25 g of available carbohydrate when served alone (rice, lacy pancake, flatbread and noodles) and when made into typical Malaysian mixed meals (coconut milk rice, lacy pancake with chicken curry, flatbread with dhal curry and fried noodles) were measured in 10 subjects with type 2 diabetes. To allow calculation of the GI of the foods and the relative glycemic responses of the mixed meals, each subject also tested 25 g of glucose 3 times. Capillary blood glucose was measured at 30-min intervals for 180 min after consuming each test meal. The mean ± SEM incremental area under the curve (AUC) after flatbread (345 ± 26 mmol × min/l) was significantly greater than after rice (238 ± 35) and lacy pancake (235 ± 31, p milk rice (238 ± 39) and fried noodle (272 ± 42) mixed meals were similar to those after the individual foods, but the AUC after the lacy pancake with chicken curry mixed meal (388 ± 52) was significantly greater than after the individual food item (p < 0.01). The results support the utility of the GI of individual foods such as rice, flatbread and noodles when applied to mixed meals. The reason for the higher response after the lacy pancake mixed meal compared to the individual food is not clear and may warrant further research. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Characterization of four Paenibacillus species isolated from pasteurized, chilled ready-to-eat meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, Mariette; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Bokhorst-van de Veen, van Hermien

    2017-01-01

    Food spoilage is often caused by microorganisms. The predominant spoilage microorganisms of pasteurized, chilled ready-to-eat (RTE) mixed rice-vegetable meals stored at 7 °C were isolated and determined as Paenibacillus species. These sporeforming psychrotrophic bacteria are well adapted to grow

  19. Processing and characterization of extruded breakfast meal formulated with broken rice and bean flour Processamento e caracterização de refeição matinal extrusada formulada com farinha de grãos quebrados de arroz e feijão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop an extruded breakfast product containing broken rice and split old beans and to verify the influence of the extrusion process on their physicochemical, technological, and sensory characteristic. The final product had a protein content of 9.9 g.100 g-1, and therefore it can be considered a good source of proteins for children and teenagers. The dietary fiber content of the final edible product was 3.71 g.100 g-1. Therefore, the breakfast meal may be considered as a source of dietary fiber according to Brazilian law . As for the technological properties, the extruded product presented an expansion index of 8.89 and apparent density of 0.25 g.cm-3. With regard to the sensory analysis, the acceptance average was ranked between 6.8 and 7.7, corresponding to the categories "liked slightly" and "liked very much". With regard to purchase intention, 79% of the panelists said they would certainly or possibly purchase the product. Broken rice and split old beans are interesting alternatives for the elaboration of extruded breakfast products presenting good nutritional, technological, and sensory qualities.O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar um produto matinal extrusado de quirera de arroz e bandinha de feijão, além de verificar a influência do processo de extrusão nas suas características físico-químicas, nutricionais, tecnológicas e sensoriais. O produto final apresentou teor considerável de proteínas (9,9 g.100 g-1, podendo ser considerado uma boa fonte desse nutriente para crianças e adolescentes. Para a fibra alimentar, observou-se teor de 3,71 g.100 g-1 do produto pronto para o consumo. Dessa forma, o floco matinal de arroz e feijão pode receber a alegação de alimento fonte de fibras, de acordo com a legislação brasileira. Com relação às propriedades tecnológicas, o extrusado estudado apresentou índice de expansão de 8,89 e densidade aparente de 0,25 g.cm-3. Quanto à an

  20. Hospitality and Institutional Meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Strøjer, Anna-Lise

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: There is a growing interest in articulating institutional meal serving practices as a hospitality activity involving host and guest interactions. This study aims to qualify institutional hospitality and meal activities by exploring private hospitality events. The study is based......-structured interview, students reflected on their hospitality experiences. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a thematic analysis method. The emerging themes on hospitality activities were identified. It was found that hospitality activities could be characterized as a process where the individual...... was transformed into a guest. Information on purpose of the event and other information given in the invitation were part of this process. Furthermore, hospitality activities could be characterized by blurred host-guest relations and by being able to embrace unexpected events as well. The activities were...

  1. Micronutrient-Fortified Rice Can Increase Hookworm Infection Risk: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brechje de Gier

    Full Text Available Fortification of staple foods is considered an effective and safe strategy to combat micronutrient deficiencies, thereby improving health. While improving micronutrient status might be expected to have positive effects on immunity, some studies have reported increases in infections or inflammation after iron supplementation.To study effects of micronutrient-fortified rice on hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren.A double-blinded, cluster-randomized trial was conducted in 16 Cambodian primary schools partaking in the World Food Program school meal program. Three types of multi-micronutrient fortified rice were tested against placebo rice within the school meal program: UltraRice_original, UltraRice_improved and NutriRice. Four schools were randomly assigned to each study group (placebo n = 492, UltraRice_original n = 479, UltraRice_improved n = 500, NutriRice n = 506. Intestinal parasite infection was measured in fecal samples by Kato-Katz method at baseline and after three and seven months. In a subgroup (N = 330, fecal calprotectin was measured by ELISA as a marker for intestinal inflammation.Baseline prevalence of hookworm infection was 18.6%, but differed considerably among schools (range 0%- 48.1%.Micronutrient-fortified rice significantly increased risk of new hookworm infection. This effect was modified by baseline hookworm prevalence at the school; hookworm infection risk was increased by all three types of fortified rice in schools where baseline prevalence was high (>15%, and only by UltraRice_original in schools with low baseline prevalence. Neither hookworm infection nor fortified rice was related to fecal calprotectin.Consumption of rice fortified with micronutrients can increase hookworm prevalence, especially in environments with high infection pressure. When considering fortification of staple foods, a careful risk-benefit analysis is warranted, taking into account severity of micronutrient deficiencies and local

  2. Healthy meals on the menu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Menu labelling of meals prepared away from home is a policy designed to help consumers make healthier food choices. In this paper we use a field experiment in Sweden to examine if a restaurant benefits from introducing a meal labelled as healthy on its menu by experiencing an overall increase...... in sales. We cannot reject the hypothesis that sales are the same before and after the introduction of a meal labelled as healthy on the menu, i.e. our data does not support the idea that restaurants increase their sales from supplying a meal labelled as healthy....

  3. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  4. The Effects of Substituting Soyabean Meal for Breadfruit Meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of substituting soyabean meal for breadfruit (Tricuria africana) meal in diets fed to Heterobranchus bidorsalis (♂) x Clarias gariepinus (♀) hybrid fingerlings on diet acceptability, growth responses and cost benefit of fed catfishes were studied. The acceptability of breadfruit based diets by Heterobranchus ...

  5. The meal as a performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NYBERG, MARIA; Olsson, Viktoria; ÖRTMAN, GERD

    2018-01-01

    . By using Goffman's concept of performance as a theoretical framework together with Bourdieu's thinking on habitus, a deeper understanding of food and meal practices is obtained. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 elderly people (aged between 67 and 87 years) and meal observations were...

  6. Use of oil palm kernel meal as a supplement material for abalone mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus O.K. Miller cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcharat, V. and

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimum rate of oil palm kernel meal, for an abalone mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus cultivation. Different concentrations of oil palm kernel meal (5- 20% were added to pararubber sawdust and used to grow the abalone mushroom in plastic bags. Growth rate of the mycelia, number of days from watering to harvesting and yield were compared to those on 94% sawdust + 5% rice bran + 1% Ca(OH2. The results showed that 10% oil palm kernel meal was the optimum concentration for abalone mushroom cultivation. Yield on 950 g/bag of 89% sawdust + 10% oil palm kernel meal + 1% Ca(OH2 was 202.12 g/bag (B.E. = 60.79% during 120 days of havesting time. Addition of higher concentration of oil palm kernel meal (15-20% did not increase yield of the basidiocarps.

  7. Glycaemic & insulinaemic responses in men at rest following sago meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Hishamuddin; Singh, Rabindarjeet; Ghosh, Asok Kumar

    2009-08-01

    Sago (Metroxylin sagu) is one of the main sources of native starch. In Malaysia sago dishes are commonly eaten with sugar. However, other societies use sago as a staple food item instead of rice or potato. The study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ingestion of different physical forms of sago supplementation on plasma glucose and plasma insulin responses, as compared to the white bread supplementation in man, during resting condition. Twelve male subjects were given in random order with three different physical forms of a sago supplementation, viz., sago porridge (SR), sago paste (SP), sago gel (SG) and white bread (WB) which was repeated on separate days, at least, 1 wk apart after an overnight fast. Venous blood samples were collected at baseline and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after the start of each meal and were analyzed for plasma levels of glucose and insulin. Plasma glucose reached peak at 45 min after supplementation of various sago meals. Plasma glucose area under the curve (AUC) for WB was significantly lower than SG but not significantly different from SR and SP. No significant difference was observed in plasma glucose AUC among the three sago meals. Plasma insulin AUC for SG was significantly higher than WB and SR. All three sago meals tested were not significantly different in their glycaemic responses. However, the insulin response was significantly lower for SR compared to SP and SG. The present findings suggest that any one of the three sago meals tested in this study may be used to elucidate the effect of sago starch ingestion on exercise performance in the heat. Sago paste and sago porridge may be used for supplementation before and during exercise, whereas, sago gel may be used after endurance exercise during recovery process.

  8. Performance of broilers fed with snail (Pomacea caniculata meal as substitute to fish meal or meat and bone meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Snail meal was used as a substitution to fish meat and bone meal in broiler rations. Final weightand feed conversion efficiency of the birds, profit and return on investment differed significantly among treatments. Feed consumption and production costs were comparable. Results show that snail meal can replace fish or meat and bone meal in broiler diets.

  9. Performance of broilers fed with snail (Pomacea caniculata) meal as substitute to fish meal or meat and bone meal

    OpenAIRE

    Ulep, LJL.; Buenafe, MM.

    1991-01-01

    Snail meal was used as a substitution to fish meat and bone meal in broiler rations. Final weightand feed conversion efficiency of the birds, profit and return on investment differed significantly among treatments. Feed consumption and production costs were comparable. Results show that snail meal can replace fish or meat and bone meal in broiler diets.

  10. Evaluation of the glycemic indices of three commonly eaten mixed meals in Okada, Edo State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omage, Kingsley; Omage, Sylvia O

    2018-01-01

    People do not generally eat single or individual meals; rather they eat mixed meals, consisting of two or more individual meals. These mixed meals usually have glycemic indices which differ from that of the individual food type. This study was aimed at evaluating the glycemic indices of three commonly consumed mixed meals eaten in Okada; rice and beans (test food 1), rice and plantain (test food 2), beans and plantain (test food 3). Two hundred and forty healthy subjects aged between 18 and 30 participated in this study. They were randomized into three groups of eighty persons each, and fed with the standard food (50 g glucose) on day one and one of the test foods on day two, after an overnight fast. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the food had been eaten. The results showed that the Glycemic Index (GI) values for the test foods were high: 86.60 (test food 1), 89.74 (test food 2), 86.93(test food 3). The incremental increase in blood glucose was monitored and calculated for each food and when compared with that of the standard food (glucose), there was significant differences ( p   .05). The results from this study indicated that the GI of the mixed meals was affected by the constituent nutrient and the response is also affected by the proportion of each nutrient. Our findings show that the selected test foods (mixed meals) consumed in Okada have high GI values.

  11. Diabetes type 2 - meal planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do not contain added sugar. Take this into account when planning meals to stay in your blood ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  12. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp

  13. Cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties; impacted by rice temperature during milling

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Mohammed; Meullenet, Jean-Francois

    2013-01-01

    Rice milling plays a key factor in determining rice quality and value. Therefore accurate quality assessments are critical to the rice industry. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of exposing rice to elevated temperatures during milling, on cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties. Two long (Cybonnett and Francis) and one medium (Jupiter) rice (oryzae sativa L.) cultivars were milled using McGill laboratory mill for 30 and 40 s after warmed up the mill before milling....

  14. Glycemic index of American-grown jasmine rice classified as high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Teresa H; Yuet, Wei Cheng; Hall, Micki D

    2014-06-01

    The primary objective was to determine the glycemic index (GI) of jasmine rice grown in the United States (US). Secondary objective was to compare the GI of US grown jasmine rice to those grown in Thailand. Twelve healthy subjects were served all four brands of jasmine rice and a reference food (glucose), each containing 50 g of available carbohydrate. Fingerstick blood glucose was measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after consumption following a fasting state. The GI was calculated using the standard equation. The GI values for test foods ranged from 96 to 116 and were all classified as high GI foods. No difference in GI was found between American-grown and Thailand-grown jasmine rice. Although not statistically significant, observations show glycemic response among Asian American participants may be different. GI should be considered when planning meals with jasmine rice as the main source carbohydrate.

  15. Palatable meal anticipation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia T Hsu

    Full Text Available The ability to sense time and anticipate events is a critical skill in nature. Most efforts to understand the neural and molecular mechanisms of anticipatory behavior in rodents rely on daily restricted food access, which induces a robust increase of locomotor activity in anticipation of daily meal time. Interestingly, rats also show increased activity in anticipation of a daily palatable meal even when they have an ample food supply, suggesting a role for brain reward systems in anticipatory behavior, and providing an alternate model by which to study the neurobiology of anticipation in species, such as mice, that are less well adapted to "stuff and starve" feeding schedules. To extend this model to mice, and exploit molecular genetic resources available for that species, we tested the ability of wild-type mice to anticipate a daily palatable meal. We observed that mice with free access to regular chow and limited access to highly palatable snacks of chocolate or "Fruit Crunchies" avidly consumed the snack but did not show anticipatory locomotor activity as measured by running wheels or video-based behavioral analysis. However, male mice receiving a snack of high fat chow did show increased food bin entry prior to access time and a modest increase in activity in the two hours preceding the scheduled meal. Interestingly, female mice did not show anticipation of a daily high fat meal but did show increased activity at scheduled mealtime when that meal was withdrawn. These results indicate that anticipation of a scheduled food reward in mice is behavior, diet, and gender specific.

  16. Emotions associated to mealtimes: Memorable meals and typical evening meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras Fiszman, B.; Jaeger, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    This research contributes to the current interest in food-related emotions in eating occasions. Previous research has studied contextual influences on food-related emotions, but the food products used as stimuli were single food items (i.e., chocolate brownie, fruit, potato crisps) and not meals. In

  17. Rice that Filipinos Grow and Eat

    OpenAIRE

    de Leon, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces rice to the reader and analyzes the changes it has gone through these past 100 years in the shaping hands of varietal improvement science. Here, the richness of the crop as a genetic material and resource is revealed. Landrace rice, pureline selection rice, crossbred rice, semidwarf rice, hybrid rice, new plant type rice, designer rice - from the traditional to modern to futuristic - rice becomes all of these while traversing time in the Philippines. There is rice for th...

  18. Whole rice bran for beef heifers raised on alexander grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of beef heifers exclusively fed alexander grass (Urochloa plantaginea (Link Hitch or alexander grass and whole rice meal as supplement offered from Monday to Friday. The experimental design was completely randomized, with repeated measures over time, and consisted of two treatments and three replications of area. Heifers receiving whole rice meal exhibited higher average daily gain after day 42 of pasture use and a 21% higher body weight at the end of the grazing period. The stocking rate, weight gain per area, hip height, weight-height ratio, and body condition score were similar for heifers exclusively fed alexander grass and alexander grass plus rice bran. Beef heifers raised exclusively on alexander grass from 15 to 18 months of age reached adequate body development, reproductive tract score (4.22 points and pelvic area (206.3 cm² to be bred at 18-20 months of age.

  19. Food Safety When Preparing Holiday Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Home Department of Public Health Current: Remember Food Safety when Preparing Holiday Meals Services and Programs Regulation & ... of Public Health (DPH) reminds Connecticut residents that food safety is especially important as they prepare holiday meals. ...

  20. cob-meal-based diets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-four landrace x large white grower pigs were used to study the effect of maize-cob- meal-based diets on the growth performance and economy of production of grower pigs. The pigs were divided into four groups of six pigs each and further sub-divided into three replicates of two pigs each and assigned to four ...

  1. Healthy School Meals: Promotion Ideas That Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Children, Families, and Learning, Roseville. Food and Nutrition Service.

    "Healthy School Meals: Promotion Ideas That Work" is a Minnesota program based on the USDA's Team Nutrition program. The program's goal is to improve the health of children through school meals and nutrition education. This is accomplished by empowering schools to serve meals meeting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and motivating…

  2. The impact of meal attributes and nudging on healthy meal consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2013-01-01

    We use a field experiment in a lunch restaurant to analyze how meal attributes and a “nudge” impact healthy labeled meal consumption. The nudge consists of increasing the salience of healthy labeled meals by placing them at the top of the menu. We find that certain meal attributes (e.g. poultry...... and red meat) greatly increase both sales and the market share of the healthy labeled meal. We conclude that a careful design of the healthy food supply may be efficient in encouraging healthier meal choices, e.g. supplying healthy labeled versions of popular conventional meals. We find no impact...

  3. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  4. The quality of meal elements for professional prepared meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løje, Hanne; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    showed that thawing at -2°C was recommended as the ascorbic acid retention was better and the stability of the green colour was also better. The texture became softer during the storage time for red peppers but was unchanged for green peppers. The results show that the pre-fried vegetables are very......Meal elements are convenience products which are partially prepared meal components to be used in professional kitchens. Examples are meat, vegetables or fish which are preprepared for example by heat-treatment before distribution to the professional kitchens. The pre-fried vegetables and meat can...... for examples be used as ingredients in hot or cold dishes. We have evaluated the quality of several kinds of pre-fried vegetables. The vegetables were prepared in pilot plan using a continuous stir-frying process, frozen and analysis during the thawing period. The results show that the shelf life determined...

  5. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  6. economics of rice production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Local rice production is being promoted in Ghana to reduce the' dependence on im- ports, ensure stable low-prices food for the population and also create employment. This paper examines three rice production systems; Upland, Valley Bottom and Irri- gated, in the Upper East Region of Ghana with a view to ...

  7. What determines real-world meal size? Evidence for pre-meal planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Stephanie H; Ferriday, Danielle; Hinton, Elanor C; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2011-04-01

    The customary approach to the study of meal size suggests that 'events' occurring during a meal lead to its termination. Recent research, however, suggests that a number of decisions are made before eating commences that may affect meal size. The present study sought to address three key research questions around meal size: the extent to which plate-cleaning occurs; prevalence of pre-meal planning and its influence on meal size; and the effect of within-meal experiences, notably the development of satiation. To address these, a large-cohort internet-based questionnaire was developed. Results showed that plate-cleaning occurred at 91% of meals, and was planned from the outset in 92% of these cases. A significant relationship between plate-cleaning and meal planning was observed. Pre-meal plans were resistant to modification over the course of the meal: only 18% of participants reported consumption that deviated from expected. By contrast, 28% reported continuing eating beyond satiation, and 57% stated that they could have eaten more at the end of the meal. Logistic regression confirmed pre-meal planning as the most important predictor of consumption. Together, our findings demonstrate the importance of meal planning as a key determinant of meal size and energy intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Response of sheep fed on concentrate containing feather meal and supplemented with mineral Chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulistiani D

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of substitution of protein concentrate with feather meal supplemented with organic chromium mineral on performance of lambs. Twenty five male lambs were fed basal feed of fresh chopped king grass ad libitum and were allotted to either one of five different supplements (five dietary treatments: Control (C; 10% of protein in concentrate was substituted by feather meal (FM; 10% of protein in concentrate was substituted by feather meal supplemented with Cr yeast at 1.5 mg (FMCrOrg; 10% of protein in concentrate was substituted by feather meal supplemented with Cr inorganic which equal to the amount of Cr bound in yeast (FMCr; Concentrate control supplemented with 1.5 mg Cr yeast (CCrOrg. Cr-organic was synthesized by incorporating CrCl3 in fermented rice flour by Rhizopus sp. The mineral is mixed with feather meal as a mineral carrier. Sheep in all treatments received iso protein concentrate. Parameters observed were body weight change, feed consumption and nutrient digestibility. Results shows that there was no significant effect of diet treatments on average daily gain (ADG, dry matter consumption and feed conversion, with the average value of 75.4 gr/day; 74.9 g/BW0.75 and 9.9 respectively, However diet treatment of organic chromium and protein substitution with feather meal (FMCrOrg showed tendency of having higher ADG (83.57 g/h/d. Average nutrient digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and NDF were 68.7; 69.6 and 60.9%, respectively. However NDF digestibility of FMCrOrg tended to be higher than other treatment (67.0%. It is concluded that partial substitution of protein concentrate by feather meal and 1.5 mg Cr-organic supplementation did not affect sheep performance.

  9. School meal sociality or lunch pack individualism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    the social life of a school class, and how these arrangements involve strategies of both inclusion and exclusion. Two types of school meals are compared in the intervention study: a hot meal based on Nordic ingredients and the normal Danish school meal arrangement in which children bring lunch packs......The present article specifies and broadens our understanding of the concept of commensality by investigating what it means to ‘share a meal’. The study utilizes a school meal intervention carried out in Denmark in 2011/2012. It shows how different types of school meal arrangement influence...... to school. The study discusses commensality by examining and comparing lunchtime interactions within the same group of children in the two contrasting meal situations. The results fail to confirm the conventional view that shared meals have greater social impacts and benefits than eating individualized...

  10. Cayenne pepper in a meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, B. V.; Byrne, D. V.; Bredie, W. L.P.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated appetite sensations, hedonics, sensory specific desires, physical- and psychological well-being sensations during and after intake of a meal with- and without increased oral heat induced by addition of cayenne pepper. Subjects (n = 66) completed a randomized cross......-over study involving a tomato soup with and without added cayenne pepper (0.593 mg capsaicin). Self-reports were evaluated at 5 min intervals during intake and at 1 h intervals until four hours post intake using VAS-scales and 9-point scales. Sensory specific desires were further studied by liking...... and wanting of food samples representing the sensory profiles: sweet, sour, salt, bitter, fat and spicy, respectively. The soup with cayenne pepper added was perceived significantly more spicy but equally liked, and resulted in significant higher satiation at the end of the meal and one hour post intake...

  11. Nonheme-iron absorption from a phytate-rich meal is increased by the addition of small amounts of pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boech, S.B.; Hansen, M.; Bukhave, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Background: Muscle tissue from various sources is known to promote nonheme-iron absorption. However, systematic studies of the dose dependency of this effect of meat on iron absorption from an inhibitory meal with low amounts of meat are lacking. Objective: We investigated the dose-response effect...... of small amounts of meat on nonheme-iron absorption from a meal presumed to have low iron bioavailability. Design: Forty-five healthy women with a mean (+/-SD) age of 24 +/- 3 y were randomly assigned to I of 3 groups, each of which was served (A) a basic meal (rice, tomato sauce, pea puree, and a wheat...... roll) and (B) the basic meal with either 25, 50, or 75 g pork (longissimus muscle). Meal A contained 2.3 mg nonheme iron, 7.4 mg vitamin C, and 220 mg (358 mumol) phytate. Each meal was served twice, and the order of the meals was ABBA or BAAB. The meals were extrinsically labeled with Fe-55 or Fe-59...

  12. Everyday meal preparation for people with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Kathrine Friis; Nejsum, Hanne Lindberg; Bendtsen, Trine Vase

    When people are diagnosed with dementia everyday activities like meal preparation will gradually become more difficult. A recipe is a support for meal preparation but as dementia develops, it seems that following a recipe can be a challenge. In Denmark health professionals often use meal...... preparation as an activity for people with dementia but they have no combined material to base the planning of the activity on. The thesis of this project is that when persons with dementia is involved in cooking his or her own meal meal preparation it will contribute to the feeling of content and meaning...... in everyday life. Furthermore getting the appropriate and nutritious food will be a step in the right direction regarding prevention of malnutrition. The aim of this project is to develop a guide to increase the possibility for people with dementia to continue everyday life through participating in meal...

  13. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone....... The CO2 capture capacity of limestone in the raw meal is lower than for pure limestone. The difference in the CO2 capture capacity decreases with an increase in cycle number. The calcination conditions and composition are major factors that influence the CO2 capture capacity of limestone. At 850 °C in N2...

  14. Evaluation of Nigerian hospital meal carts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayodeji, Sesan P.; Adeyeri, Michael K.; Omoniyi, Olaoluwa

    2015-03-01

    Hospital meal carts are used to deliver meals, drugs and some other materials to patients in the hospital environment. These carts which are moved manually by operators, the health workers, mostly do not comply with ergonomics guidelines and physical requirements of the equipment users in terms of anthropometry data of the region thus increasing the risk of musculoskeletal disorder among the meal cart users. This study carried out ergonomic evaluation of the available meal carts in some western Nigeria hospitals. A well-structured questionnaire has two major segments: Operational survey and biomechanical survey, which were administered to the health workers using hospital meal carts in some hospitals in southwestern Nigeria, and physical assessment, which was undertaken to collect data for the ergonomic evaluation. The responses from the questionnaires show that some areas on the existing hospital meal carts are of concern to the users which need to be improved upon.

  15. Cambodia Rice Sector Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia’s rice harvests have been rising significantly since 2005, powered by improved and expanded irrigation and attractive farm gate prices. In 2010, the Cambodian government announced an export target of 1.0 million tons of milled rice by 2015. This analysis, which updates reports prepared in 2009 and 2011, seeks to identify short-term policy measures that can assist Cambodian exporte...

  16. Comparing Childhood Meal Frequency to Current Meal Frequency, Routines and Expectations Among Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Friend, Sarah; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Garwick, Ann; Flattum, Colleen Freech; Draxten, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the continuation of family meals from childhood to parenthood. This study aims to examine associations between parents’ report of eating family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines, and expectations. Baseline data were used from the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study, a randomized controlled trial with a program to promote healthful behaviors and family meals at home. Participants (160 parent/child dy...

  17. Cissus rotundifolia soup meal - it's physiological effect on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Cissus soup meal, on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels of normal healthy individuals was investigated. The control meal was a traditional Nigerian soup meal containing meat, fish and vegetables as it is prepared in the South Eastern Nigeria. The test meal was the control meal with added Cissus ...

  18. Meal frequencies in early adolescence predict meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2013-01-01

    Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies...... in late adolescence and in early adulthood. Further, the modifying effect of gender and adolescent family structure were investigated....

  19. Factors Related to the Number of Fast Food Meals Obtained by College Meal Plan Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Deirdre A.; Schulz, Mark R.; Wyrick, David L.; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Gupta, Sat N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study tested whether days on campus, financial access through a meal plan, and health consciousness were associated with number of meals that college students obtained from fast food restaurants. Participants and Methods: In April 2013, all students currently enrolled in a meal plan were invited to participate in an online survey…

  20. Evaluation of skate meal and sablefish viscera meal as fish meal replacement in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus saxfilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the nutritional value of skate meal (SM) and black cod viscera meal (BCVM) from Alaska and to ascertain their suitability as replacements for commercial pollock fishmeal in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis). Test diets were made by r...

  1. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on performance of lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canola meal (CM) has been shown to be a more effective crude protein (CP) source than soybean meal (SBM) for lactating dairy cows. Treating CM may increase its rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fraction and improve the amount of absorbable amino acids. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ...

  2. Comparing childhood meal frequency to current meal frequency, routines, and expectations among parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Sarah; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Garwick, Ann; Flattum, Colleen Freeh; Draxten, Michelle

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about the continuation of family meals from childhood to parenthood. This study aims to examine associations between parents' report of eating family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines, and expectations. Baseline data were used from the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study, a randomized controlled trial with a program to promote healthful behaviors and family meals at home. Participants (160 parent/child dyads) completed data collection in 2011-2012 in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area. Parents were predominately female (95%) and white (77%) with a mean age of 41.3 years. General linear modeling examined relationships between parents' report of how often they ate family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines, and expectations as parents, controlling for parent age, education level, and race. Parental report of eating frequent family meals while growing up was positively and significantly associated with age, education, and self-identification as white (all p family meals less than three times/week or four to five times/week, parents who ate six to seven family meals/week while growing up reported significantly more frequent family meals with their current family (4.0, 4.2 vs. 5.3 family meals/week, p = .001). Eating frequent family meals while growing up was also significantly and positively associated with having current regular meal routines and meal expectations about family members eating together (both p family meals with children may have long-term benefits over generations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. scale rice farmers in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    of world rice, with China and India accounting for over half of the world's output. Worldwide, rice production has ... reported that rice indeed is no longer a luxury food in. Nigeria, and that it has become a major source of ... declined in China and Japan but this trend is not observed in other Asian countries; instead, the share ...

  4. PRODUCTIVE EFFECT OF SOYBEAN MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIMPIA COLIBAR

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems standing before mankind on the threshold of the XXI century is satisfaction of demand in protein. About 70% of world protein stocks have vegetative origin and therefore preparations of this protein it is very important. Importance of soya is connected with following reasons: high content of protein with functionality for food products, good essential amino-acid balance, lipids and other biologically active compounds & micronutrients. Nutritional value of soy bean meal (FFSBM products is limited of ten by high content of antinutritive factors causing different physiologically undesirable effects after usage in food or feed of crude beans. It explains the necessity of development of special technologies of productions of full fat soya products. The objective of this works was to asses the effect of various supplementation in terms of nutritional efficiency, especially about the Ca and P level from feed and bones of broiler chickens.

  5. Impact of rice fortified with iron, zinc, thiamine and folic acid on laboratory measurements of nutritional status of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceres Mattos Della Lucia

    Full Text Available Abstract Fortification of food constitutes an important strategy for the control of micronutrient deficiency and has advantages such as high population coverage and maintenance of eating habits. This study aimed to assess the impact of using fortified rice (Ultra Rice® - UR® on the nutritional status of preschoolers. Ninety-nine children enrolled in two philanthropic preschools participated of the study. Children of one of the preschools were offered UR® mixed with polished rice, as part of school meals (test group and the children of another preschool were offered pure polished rice (control group. Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after 4 months of intervention. Dietary assessment and sensory evaluation of UR® mixed with polished rice were performed during the study. The fortified rice improved the concentrations of zinc (p < 0.001, thiamine (p < 0.001, folic acid (p = 0.003, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001 and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001. The fortified rice showed good acceptability among preschoolers. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using rice fortified with iron, zinc, thiamine and folic acid on the nutritional status of children.

  6. Association of eating speed and energy intake of main meals with overweight in Chinese pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming; Pan, Liping; Tang, Lixia; Jiang, Jingxiong; Wang, Yan; Jin, Runming

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the association between eating behaviours (eating speed and energy intake of main meals) and overweight in pre-school children. Cross-sectional study. Data consisted of measurements (height and weight), questionnaire information (eating behaviours of eating speed and overeating) and on-site observation data (meal duration and energy intake of main meals). Seven kindergartens in Beijing, China. Pre-school children (n 1138; age range 3·1-6·7 years old) from seven kindergartens participated in the study. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of overweight in participants with parent-reported 'more than needed food intake' was 3·02 (95 % CI 2·06, 4·44) compared with the 'medium food intake' participants, and higher eating speed was associated with childhood overweight. For the two observed eating behaviours, each 418·7 kJ (100 kcal) increase of lunch energy intake significantly increased the likelihood for overweight by a factor of 1·445, and each 5-min increase in meal duration significantly decreased the likelihood for overweight by a factor of 0·861. Increased portions of rice and cooked dishes were significantly associated with overweight status (OR = 2·274; 95 % CI 1·360, 3·804 and OR = 1·378; 95 % CI 1·010, 1·881, respectively). Eating speed and excess energy intake of main meals are associated with overweight in pre-school children.

  7. Thorough Mastication Prior to Swallowing Increases Postprandial Satiety and the Thermic Effect of a Meal in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komai, Naho; Motokubota, Naoko; Suzuki, Maki; Hayashi, Ikuyo; Moritani, Toshio; Nagai, Narumi

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence to support that mastication may contribute to the prevention of weight gain via reduction of appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. However, the metabolic effect of mastication after consumption of a daily meal, composed of the staple food (rice), soup, main and side dishes, is limited. Therefore, the effect of thorough mastication on greater satiety and the thermic effect of a meal (TEM) was investigated in young women. In study 1, energy expenditure (EE) derived from masticatory muscle activity for 20 min was measured while chewing hard, tasteless, non-caloric gum in seven subjects. In study 2, ten subjects consumed a solid meal performing 30 chews per mouthful (30 CPM), or swallowed the same, pureed meal without chewing (0 CPM) on two separate days, and postprandial EE, substrate oxidation, subjective appetite ratings and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity for 3 h were examined. Both test meals were iso-caloric (2,510 kJ) and -weighted (884 g), and consumed in 20 min. From study 1, the EE of mastication itself for the 20 min was estimated to be 3.7±0.8 kJ. From study 2, significantly higher TEM (134.2±15.5 vs. 67.8±13.8 kJ/3 h, pmastication before swallowing increased postprandial satiety and the TEM in young women, suggesting such eating behavior may be useful for preventing obesity.

  8. College Students' Perceived Differences Between the Terms Real Meal, Meal, and Snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banna, Jinan; Richards, Rickelle; Brown, Lora Beth

    2017-03-01

    To assess qualitatively and quantitatively college students' perceived differences between a real meal, meal, and snack. A descriptive study design was used to administer an 11-item online survey to college students. Two university campuses in the western US. Pilot testing was conducted with 20 students. The final survey was completed by 628 ethnically diverse students. Students' perceptions of the terms real meal, meal, and snack. Three researchers coded the data independently, reconciled differences via conference calls, and agreed on a final coding scheme. Data were reevaluated based on the coding scheme. Means, frequencies, Pearson chi-square, and t test statistics were used. More than half of students perceived a difference between the terms real meal and meal. Most (97.6%) perceived a difference between the terms meal and snack. A marked difference in the way students defined these terms was evident, with a real meal deemed nutritious and healthy and meeting dietary recommendations, compared with meals, which were considered anything to eat. These findings suggest that the term real meal may provide nutrition educators with a simple phrase to use in educational campaigns to promote healthful food intake among college students. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E J; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal broiler assay (PFC). For the PFR, cecectomized roosters were precision-fed approximately 30 g of feed sample, and excreta were collected 48 h postfeeding. For the SIAAD, 16-d-old broilers were fed a semipurified diet containing the feed samples as the only source of protein from 17 to 21 d, with ileal digesta collected at 21 d. For the PFC, 22-d-old broilers were precision-fed 10 g of feed sample mixed with chromic oxide, and ileal digesta were collected at 4 h postfeeding. Digestibility coefficients were standardized using a nitrogen-free diet for the SIAAD and PFC and using fasted roosters for the PFR. There were generally no consistent differences in standardized amino acid digestibility values among assays, and values were in general agreement among assays, particularly for SBM and MBM. Differences did occur among methods for amino acid digestibility in fish meal; however, these differences were not consistent among methods or amino acids. The results of the study indicated that all 3 bioassays are acceptable for determining the amino acid digestibility of SBM, canola meal, MBM, and fish meal for poultry.

  10. Circadian clocks for all meal-times: anticipation of 2 daily meals in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph E Mistlberger

    Full Text Available Anticipation of a daily meal in rats has been conceptualized as a rest-activity rhythm driven by a food-entrained circadian oscillator separate from the pacemaker generating light-dark (LD entrained rhythms. Rats can also anticipate two daily mealtimes, but whether this involves independently entrained oscillators, one 'continuously consulted' clock, cue-dependent non-circadian interval timing or a combination of processes, is unclear. Rats received two daily meals, beginning 3-h (meal 1 and 13-h (meal 2 after lights-on (LD 14:10. Anticipatory wheel running began 68±8 min prior to meal 1 and 101±9 min prior to meal 2 but neither the duration nor the variability of anticipation bout lengths exhibited the scalar property, a hallmark of interval timing. Meal omission tests in LD and constant dark (DD did not alter the timing of either bout of anticipation, and anticipation of meal 2 was not altered by a 3-h advance of meal 1. Food anticipatory running in this 2-meal protocol thus does not exhibit properties of interval timing despite the availability of external time cues in LD. Across all days, the two bouts of anticipation were uncorrelated, a result more consistent with two independently entrained oscillators than a single consulted clock. Similar results were obtained for meals scheduled 3-h and 10-h after lights-on, and for a food-bin measure of anticipation. Most rats that showed weak or no anticipation to one or both meals exhibited elevated activity at mealtime during 1 or 2 day food deprivation tests in DD, suggesting covert operation of circadian timing in the absence of anticipatory behavior. A control experiment confirmed that daytime feeding did not shift LD-entrained rhythms, ruling out displaced nocturnal activity as an explanation for daytime activity. The results favor a multiple oscillator basis for 2-meal anticipatory rhythms and provide no evidence for involvement of cue-dependent interval timing.

  11. Circadian clocks for all meal-times: anticipation of 2 daily meals in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistlberger, Ralph E; Kent, Brianne A; Chan, Sofina; Patton, Danica F; Weinberg, Alexander; Parfyonov, Maksim

    2012-01-01

    Anticipation of a daily meal in rats has been conceptualized as a rest-activity rhythm driven by a food-entrained circadian oscillator separate from the pacemaker generating light-dark (LD) entrained rhythms. Rats can also anticipate two daily mealtimes, but whether this involves independently entrained oscillators, one 'continuously consulted' clock, cue-dependent non-circadian interval timing or a combination of processes, is unclear. Rats received two daily meals, beginning 3-h (meal 1) and 13-h (meal 2) after lights-on (LD 14:10). Anticipatory wheel running began 68±8 min prior to meal 1 and 101±9 min prior to meal 2 but neither the duration nor the variability of anticipation bout lengths exhibited the scalar property, a hallmark of interval timing. Meal omission tests in LD and constant dark (DD) did not alter the timing of either bout of anticipation, and anticipation of meal 2 was not altered by a 3-h advance of meal 1. Food anticipatory running in this 2-meal protocol thus does not exhibit properties of interval timing despite the availability of external time cues in LD. Across all days, the two bouts of anticipation were uncorrelated, a result more consistent with two independently entrained oscillators than a single consulted clock. Similar results were obtained for meals scheduled 3-h and 10-h after lights-on, and for a food-bin measure of anticipation. Most rats that showed weak or no anticipation to one or both meals exhibited elevated activity at mealtime during 1 or 2 day food deprivation tests in DD, suggesting covert operation of circadian timing in the absence of anticipatory behavior. A control experiment confirmed that daytime feeding did not shift LD-entrained rhythms, ruling out displaced nocturnal activity as an explanation for daytime activity. The results favor a multiple oscillator basis for 2-meal anticipatory rhythms and provide no evidence for involvement of cue-dependent interval timing.

  12. Organic school meals in three Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen

    In order to prevent children and young people from becoming overweight or obese, it is imperative to promote healthier eating patterns. So it is necessary to develop and implement effective strategies that can influence the eating and lifestyle habits of young people. Healthy school meal programme...... is considered to be an effective strategy to promote such changes and increasingly such strategies become embedded organic supply polices and strategies that pursue environmental goals. The purpose of this paper is to take a closer look into the current status of the organic school meal programme in Denmark....... Three municipalities which are involved in the organic school meal programme are chosen as the study subjects....

  13. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO (FCR OF HYBRID FINGERLINGS (CATLA CATLA X LABEO ROHITA FED ON COTTONSEED MEAL, SUNFLOWER MEAL AND BONE MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SAHZADI, M. SALIM, UM-E-KALSOOM AND K. SHAHZAD

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in six glass aquaria to study the growth performance and feed conversion ratio (FCR of hybrid fingerlings (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fed on sunflower meal, cottonseed meal and bone meal. Two replicates for each ingredient were followed. The feed was supplied at the rate of 4% of wet body weight of fingerlings twice a day. The hybrid (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fingerlings gained highest body weight (1.62 ± 0.0 g on sunflower meal, followed by cottonseed meal (1.61 ± 0.01 g and bone meal (1.52 ± 0.0 g. The total length obtained by hybrid fish was 6.35 ± 0.05 cm on sunflower meal, 6.12 ± 0.05 cm on cottonseed meal and 5.85 ± 0.05 cm on bone meal. The overall mean values of FCR were lower (better on sunflower meal (1.78 ± 0.05, followed by cottonseed meal (2.17 ± 0.01 and bone meal (2.46 ± 0.01. Thus, The sunflower meal and cottonseed meal, on the basis of growth performance and better FCR, can be included in the feed formulation for hybrid fingerlings.

  14. 21 CFR 573.310 - Crambe meal, heat toasted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crambe meal, heat toasted. 573.310 Section 573.310... Additive Listing § 573.310 Crambe meal, heat toasted. (a) The additive is the seed meal of Crambe... solvent extraction or by solvent extraction alone. The resulting seed meal is heat toasted. (b) The...

  15. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  16. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  17. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing bran...

  18. Glycaemic Index Of Maize Meal With Baobab ( Adansonia digitata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maize meal as (tuwo) with Baobab soup as (miyan kuka) is a popular meal in northern and middle belt of Nigeria. Aims: The meal was fed to diabetic and healthy subjects to establish the glycaemic index of this commonly consumed meal in the environment. Subjects and Methods: Ten type II diabetic and seven ...

  19. Meal Plans and Diabetes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Diabetes Center Carbohydrates and Diabetes Weight and Diabetes Eating Out When Your Child ... Important Diabetes: What's True and False? Diabetes Center Carbohydrates and Diabetes Eating Out When You Have Diabetes Meal Plans: ...

  20. Replacement value of hatchery waste meal for fish meal in layer diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiola, S S; Onunkwor, E K

    2004-10-01

    An experiment was conducted in which hatchery waste meal (HWM) replaced fish meal (protein for protein) in layer diets at 0%, 33%, 66% and 100% levels. Both feed and protein intake were superior on HWM diets. The highest hen-day production of 73.97% was obtained on diet 2 in which 33% of fish meal was replaced with HWM. Egg weight and egg length were also superior on HWM diets. All birds fed on HWM diets had thicker egg shells (0.33 mm) than did those fed on the control diet, fish meal diet (0.32 mm). Results obtained for yolk weight were statistically different (P egg quality characteristics.

  1. Performance of cows in early lactation fed isonitrogenous diets containing soybean meal or animal by-product meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntysaari, P E; Sniffen, C J; Muscato, T V; Lynch, J M; Barbano, D M

    1989-11-01

    Eighty primiparous cows were assigned to either soybean meal, fish meal, or A and B treatments. Commercial supplement A was a blend of meat and bone, meat, poultry, blood, and feather meals. Commercial supplement B included the same ingredients as A but had a higher amount of blood meal and also a low concentration of fish meal. In vitro undegradabilities of protein were 32.0, 37.8, 38.8, and 42.4% for soybean meal, fish meal, A, and B rations, respectively. Milk yields and body weight changes were not significantly affected by treatments. Because of the lower milk fat content on fish meal diet, FCM yield was lower for cows fed fish meal than soybean meal or B supplements. Milk protein content was 3.19, 3.19, 3.03, and 3.09% on soybean meal, fish meal, A, and B diets, respectively. The calculated protein efficiency (100* output/input) on soybean meal, fish meal, A, and B diets were 47.8, 51.6, 45.9, and 48.7, respectively. The undegraded protein in the fish meal after an 18-h in vitro incubation with protease enzyme (Streptomyces griseus, type V) had a higher concentration of methionine and lysine than the undegraded protein of other supplements. Flavor of milk produced on the soybean and fish meal diets was evaluated. No flavor differences were detected.

  2. The Prospect of Hydrolyzed Feather Meal as Ruminant Feeds Through Protein Quality Improvement by Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH Prayitno

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The waste of the broiler processing (feather is a potential source for animal feed. However the presence of keratins cause limited of feather use. Before using, therefore, feather must be treated to hydrolyze cysteine disulfide bound dominating keratins protein. Enzymatic (biological treatment using microbes will produce specific feather hydrolyzed and does not have negative impact on environment. The research objected to get the microbes which degradated selected keratins, improve protein quality of feather meal and find out the best ration formulation true in vitro the basic information to formulate in vivo ration. The research has been done in Laboratory of Animal Feedstuff Faculty of Animal Science UNSOED for eight months. Fermentation trial was done on liquid media with bath system. In vitro trial used of Tilley and Terry methods with parameter observe was dry matter digestibility, organic matter digestibility, protein degradation, total VFA and solubility in pepsin. Based on all parameter, on fermentation trial with Bacillus licheniformis decides broiler chicken feather had good prospect to be developed on feed protein source. In vitro trial recommended ration with formulation of fermented feather meal concentrate (15 percent, soybeans meal (5 percent, rice bran (20 percent, molasses (4 percent, mineral mix (1 percent, with forage: concentrate ratio 40 : 60 could be used as in vivo ration. (Animal Production 5(1: 19-24 (2003   Key words : Hydrolyze, Feather, Keratin, Digestibility, Ruminant

  3. Accelerated Solvent Extraction of Insecticides from Rice Hulls, Rice Bran, and Polished Rice Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teló, Gustavo Mack; Senseman, Scott Allen; Marchesan, Enio; Camargo, Edinalvo Rabaioli; Carson, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of pesticide residues in irrigated rice grains is important for food security. In this study, we analyzed accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) conditions for the extraction of thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole insecticides from rice hulls, rice bran, and polished rice grains. Several variables, including extraction solvent, extraction temperature, extraction pressure, cell size, static extraction time, and sample concentration, were investigated. The average recoveries of the three matrixes were between 89.7 and 109.7% at the fortification level of 0.75 mg/kg. The optimum ASE operating conditions were acetonitrile (100%) as extraction solvent, extraction temperature of 75°C for rice hulls and 100°C for rice bran and polished rice grains, extraction cell pressure of 10.3 MPa, 22 mL cell size, and two extraction cycles. The total extraction time was approximately 25 min. The extracted volume was evaporated to dryness and the residues were redissolved in 2 mL acetonitrile after 1 min of vortex-shaking. Thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole were analyzed by ultra-HPLC with tandem MS. In conclusion, ASE in rice hulls, rice bran, and polished rice grains offers the possibility of a fast and simple method for obtaining a quantitative extraction of the studied pesticides.

  4. Circadian and ultradian components of hunger in human non-homeostatic meal-to-meal eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuorinen, Elizabeth C; Borer, Katarina T

    2013-10-02

    A unifying physiological explanation of the urge to initiate eating is still not available as human hunger in meal-to-meal eating may not be under homeostatic control. We hypothesized that a central circadian and a gastrointestinal ultradian timing mechanism coordinate non-deprivation meal-to-meal eating. We examined hunger as a function of time of day, inter-meal (IM) energy expenditure (EE), and concentrations of proposed hunger-controlling hormones ghrelin, leptin, and insulin. In two crossover studies, 10 postmenopausal women, BMI 23-26 kg/m(2) engaged in exercise (EX) and sedentary (SED) trials. Weight maintenance meals were provided at 6h intervals with an ad libitum meal at 13 h in study 1 and 21 h snack in study 2. EE during IM intervals was measured by indirect calorimetry and included EX EE of 801 kcal in study 1, and 766-1,051 kcal in study 2. Hunger was assessed with a visual analog scale and blood was collected for hormonal determination. Hunger displayed a circadian variation with acrophase at 13 and 19 h and was unrelated to preceding EE. Hunger was suppressed by EX between 10 and 16 h and bore no relationship to either EE during preceding IM intervals or changes in leptin, insulin, and ghrelin; however leptin reflected IM energy changes and ghrelin and insulin, prandial events. During non-deprivation meal-to-meal eating, hunger appears to be under non-homeostatic central circadian control as it is unrelated to EE preceding meals or concentrations of proposed appetite-controlling hormones. Gastrointestinal meal processing appears to intermittently suppress this control and entrain an ultradian hunger pattern. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Meal frequencies in early adolescence predict meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Rasmussen, Mette

    2013-05-04

    Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies in late adolescence and in early adulthood. Further, the modifying effect of gender and adolescent family structure were investigated. National representative sample of 15-year-olds in Denmark with 4 and 12 year follow-up studies with measurement of breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies. A total of 561 persons completed questionnaires at age 15 years (baseline 1990, n=847, response rate 84.6%), age 19 years (n=729, response rate 73.2%) and age 27 years (n=614, response rate 61.6%). Low meal frequencies at age 15 years was a significant predictor for having low meal frequencies at age 19 years (odds ratio (OR, 95% CI)) varying between 2.11, 1.33-3.34 and 7.48, 3.64-15.41). Also, low meal frequencies at age 19 years predicted low meal frequencies at age 27 years (OR varying between 2.26, 1.30-3.91 and 4.38, 2.36-8.13). Significant predictions over the full study period were seen for low breakfast frequency and low lunch frequency (OR varying between 1.78, 1.13-2.81 and 2.58, 1.31-5.07). Analyses stratified by gender showed the same patterns (OR varying between 1.88, 1.13-3.14 and 8.30, 2.85-24.16). However, the observed predictions were not statistical significant among men between age 15 and 27 years. Analyses stratified by adolescent family structure revealed different lunch predictions in strata. Having low meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted low meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood. We propose that promotion of regular meals become a prioritised issue within health education.

  6. Iron Bioavailability from Ferric Pyrophosphate in Extruded Rice Cofortified with Zinc Sulfate Is Greater than When Cofortified with Zinc Oxide in a Human Stable Isotope Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Laura; Zimmermann, Michael B; Zeder, Christophe; Parker, Megan; Johns, Paul W; Hurrell, Richard F; Moretti, Diego

    2017-03-01

    Background: Extruded rice grains are often cofortified with iron and zinc. However, it is uncertain if the addition of zinc to iron-fortified rice affects iron absorption and whether this is zinc-compound specific.Objective: We investigated whether zinc, added as zinc oxide (ZnO) or zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), affects human iron absorption from extruded rice fortified with ferric pyrophosphate (FePP).Methods: In 19 iron-depleted Swiss women (plasma ferritin ≤16.5 μ/L) aged between 20 and 39 y with a normal body mass index (in kg/m(2); 18.7-24.8), we compared iron absorption from 4 meals containing fortified extruded rice with 4 mg Fe and 3 mg Zn. Three of the meals contained extruded rice labeled with FePP ((57)FePP): 1) 1 meal without added zinc ((57)FePP-Zn), 2) 1 cofortified with ZnO ((57)FePP+ZnO), and 3) 1 cofortified with ZnSO4 ((57)FePP+ZnSO4). The fourth meal contained extruded rice without iron or zinc, extrinsically labeled with ferrous sulfate ((58)FeSO4) added as a solution after cooking. All 4 meals contained citric acid. Iron bioavailability was measured by isotopic iron ratios in red blood cells. We also measured relative in vitro iron solubility from (57)FePP-Zn, (57)FePP+ZnO, and (57)FePP+ZnSO4 expressed as a fraction of FeSO4 solubility.Results: Geometric mean fractional iron absorption (95% CI) from (57)FePP+ZnSO4 was 4.5% (3.4%, 5.8%) and differed from (57)FePP+ZnO (2.7%; 1.8%, 4.1%) (P iron bioavailabilities compared with (58)FeSO4 were 62%, 57%, and 38% from (57)FePP+ZnSO4, (57)FePP-Zn, and (57)FePP+ZnO, respectively. In vitro solubility from (57)FePP+ZnSO4 differed from that of (57)FePP-Zn (14.3%; P iron-depleted women, iron absorption from FePP-fortified extruded rice cofortified with ZnSO4 was 1.6-fold (95% CI: 1.4-, 1.9-fold) that of rice cofortified with ZnO. These findings suggest that ZnSO4 may be the preferable zinc cofortificant for optimal iron bioavailability of iron-fortified extruded rice. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials

  7. Effect of Carbohydrate Source and Cottonseed Meal Level in the Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes. Four, 4-yr old rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and CC+rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was level of cottonseed meal (CM; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM in isonitrogenous diets (490 g CP/kg. Buffaloes received urea-treated rice straw ad libitum and supplemented with 5 g concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient intake, digested nutrients, nutrient digestibility, ammonia nitrogen concentration, fungi and bacterial populations, or microbial protein synthesis (p>0.05. Ruminal pH at 6 h after feeding and the population of protozoa at 4 h after feeding were higher when buffalo were fed with CC than in the CR3:1 treatment (p0.05. Based on this experiment, concentrate with a low level of cottonseed meal could be fed with cassava chips as an energy source in swamp buffalo receiving rice straw.

  8. Nicaragua - Rice and Banana Farmers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report is an impact evaluation of two components of the Rural Business Development Program (RBD) in Nicaragua, specifically the components benefitting rice and...

  9. [School meals: planning, production, distribution, and adequacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Raquel Carvalho; Moraes, Letícia Freitas; Francisco, Raquel Rocha Jabour; dos Santos, Luana Caroline; dos Anjos, Adriana Fernandez Versiani; Pereira, Simone Cardoso Lisboa

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the planning, production, distribution, and nutritional adequacy of meals served at city schools. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2011 and April 2012 and included a representative sample (n = 42 schools) of extended shift city schools from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Five meals from each school were randomly selected and analyzed by direct weighing. Production indicators and nutritional adequacy were evaluated in contrast to the recommendations of the city food security bureau and the Brazilian National Program of School Meals (PNAE). Seventy-nine percent of the analyzed meals did not meet the recommendations of the city food security bureau. The rate of waste (food left on plates) was acceptable at 4,90%, but the rates of cooked and not served food (7,06%) and counter leftovers (5,30%) were high. Both the city planned meals and the meals served in the schools were nutritionally inadequate in terms of the PNAE, particularly for children aged 11-15 years. There was a relationship between consumption by school staff and the amount of food that was cooked (r = 0.353; P < 0.001) and the rate of cooked and not served food (r = 0.138; P = 0.045). Waste was positively correlated with the rate of counter leftovers (r = 0.145; P = 0.035), and inversely correlated with fiber intake (r = -0.143; P = 0.038). The results indicate the importance of monitoring the planning, production, and distribution of school meals and of food and nutrition education in order to improve the quality of food and to reduce waste in schools.

  10. Partial substitution of cumin seed meal by Jatropha meal as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of incorporating the Jatropha curcas meal in place of black cumin seed meal (Nigella sativa) as a new source of protein on nutrients digestibility, feeding value, growth performance and economic efficiency of growing Demeshgi goats rations. Feeding trial which lasted for 90 ...

  11. 20 CFR 655.1314 - Setting meal charges; petition for higher meal charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Temporary Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1314 Setting meal... paragraph an employer may charge workers up to $9.90 for providing them with three meals per day. The...

  12. Effect of dietary substitution of feather meal for fish meal on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 250 Anak broiler chicks were used in a 28 days feeding trial in a completely randomized design, in a deep litter house to assess the effect of replacing feather meal (FEM) for fish meal (FM) on the performance of broiler chicks. Five replacement levels of the formulated feed: 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% of FEM ...

  13. Effect of replacing fish meal with maggot meal on growth nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty (120) 4-week old finisher broilers of Ross breed were used to study the effect of feeding maggot meal replacing fish meal on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass and organ characteristics. The birds were divided into 5 treatment groups identified as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 with 24 birds in ...

  14. Partial substitution of cumin seed meal by Jatropha meal as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of incorporating the Jatropha curcas meal in place of black cumin seed meal (Nigella sativa) as a new source of protein on nutrients digestibility, feeding value, growth performance and economic efficiency of growing Demeshgi goats rations. Feeding trial.

  15. Replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal improves production and efficiency of lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research suggested that crude protein (CP) from canola meal (CM) is used more efficiently than CP from solvent soybean meal (SBM) by lactating dairy cows. We tested whether dietary CP content influenced relative effectiveness of equal supplemental CP from either CM or SBM. Fifty lactating H...

  16. Associations between TV viewing at family meals and the emotional atmosphere of the meal, meal healthfulness, child dietary intake, and child weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofholz, Amanda C; Tate, Allan D; Miner, Michael H; Berge, Jerica M

    2017-01-01

    Research on family meals has demonstrated that family meals are protective for many aspects of child and adolescent health. It is unclear whether distractions at family meals, such as watching TV, are associated with child weight and weight-related behaviors, the emotional atmosphere at the meal, or family meal healthfulness. Direct observational and objective data were collected on primarily low-income and minority families (n = 120) with 6-12 year old children. Data were collected during home visits and included 24-hr dietary recalls, anthropometry, and video-recorded family meals. Video-recorded family meals were coded to assess the presence of TV, whether the family was paying attention to the TV, family group enjoyment and the dietary healthfulness of the foods served at family meals. The presence of TV was negatively associated with the dietary healthfulness and emotional atmosphere of the meal and the child's overall dietary quality. It was positively associated with serving fast food for family meals. Those families who were paying attention to the TV had significantly worse meal dietary healthfulness and were more likely to have fast food at family meals compared to those who were not paying attention. No significant findings were found between the presence of TV at family meals and child overweight status. Study results show that TV is frequently present at family meals. Even if families are not paying attention to the TV, it appears that simply having the TV on as background noise is associated with deleterious outcomes. In addition to increasing family meals, families should be given guidance on turning off the TV and making the family meal a time to connect with one another. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on ruminal digestion, fermentation pattern, omasal nutrient flow, and performance in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrusion-treated canola meal (TCM) was produced in an attempt to increase the rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fraction of canola meal (CM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with CM or TCM on ruminal digestion, fermentation pattern, omasal nutr...

  18. Dehydration-Anorexia Derives From A Reduction In Meal Size, But Not Meal Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Christina N.; Lorenzen, Sarah M.; Compton, Douglas; Watts, Alan G.

    2011-01-01

    The anorexia that results from extended periods of cellular dehydration is an important physiological adaptation that limits the intake of osmolytes from food and helps maintain the integrity of fluid compartments. The ability to experimentally control both the development and reversal of anorexia, together with the understanding of underlying hormonal and neuropeptidergic signals, make dehydration (DE)-anorexia a powerful model for exploring the interactions of neural networks that stimulate and inhibit food intake. However, it is not known which meal parameters are affected by cellular dehydration to generate anorexia. Here we use continuous and high temporal resolution recording of food and fluid intake, together with a drinking-explicit method of meal pattern analysis to explore which meal parameters are modified during DE-anorexia. We find that the most important factor responsible for DE-anorexia is the failure to maintain feeding behavior once a meal has started, rather than the ability to initiate a meal, which remains virtually intact. This outcome is consistent with increased sensitivity to satiation signals and post-prandial satiety mechanisms. We also find that DE-anorexia significantly disrupts the temporal distribution of meals across the day so that the number of nocturnal meals gradually decreases while diurnal meal number increases. Surprisingly, once DE-anorexia is reversed this temporal redistribution is maintained for at least 4 days after normal food intake has resumed, which may allow increased daily food intake even after normal satiety mechanisms are reinstated. Therefore, DE-anorexia apparently develops from a selective targeting of those neural networks that control meal termination, whereas meal initiation mechanisms remain viable. PMID:21854794

  19. Prevalence of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) on Rice Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Z. variegatus 1. 0.688. 1.037. Locust. L. migratoides. 1. 1.023. 1.037. Discussion. Viral disease due to RYMV had been a major challenge in rice production in Nigeria since 1976 when it was reported by Rossel et al. (1982). Areas of rice production in Nigeria where the virus had been detected included. Badeggi, Ibadan ...

  20. The Haitian Rice Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundahl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se ha argumentado que los problemas agríco-las de Haití derivan de la tarifa del arroz de a mediados de los años noventa. Antes, supues-tamente, Haití fue autosuficiente, abastecida por su producción doméstica. Después de la reducción, el mercado haitiano se inundó en importaciones de arroz barato de los EEUU, lo cual despojó a los campesinos de sus fincas, convirtiendolos en migrantes internos, hacia los empleos de bajo pago de las ciudades. El artículo rechaza ese argumento y demuestra que es falso. La malnutrición fue un fenómeno extendido en Haití mucho antes de la reducción de la tarifa del arroz, la cual tampoco tuvo un gran impacto en la importación y la producción doméstica del arroz. Lo que sí impulsó el aumento de las importaciones fue el crecimiento de la población. También el artículo argumenta que un aumento de la tarifa del arroz no solucionará el problema de la alimentación que sufre Haití. English: It has been argued that Haiti’s agricultural problems derive from the reduction of the rice tariff in the mid-1990s. Before that Haiti was allegedly able to meet its food needs by domestic production. After the reduction the Haitian market was swamped by imports of cheap American rice which drove the farmers off their lands and forced them to migrate to low-wage industrial jobs in the cities. The article demonstrates that the argument is false. Malnutrition was widespread in Haiti long before the rice tariff reduction, and the latter did not have much of an impact on rice imports and domestic production. Instead, the main driving force behind imports appears to be population growth. It is also shown that an increase of the rice tariff will not solve Haiti’s food problem.

  1. Meals and snacks from the child's perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, Ida; Heitmann, Berit L; O'Doherty Jensen, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the everyday consumption of meals and snacks from the child's perspective, among those with healthier v. less healthy dietary habits. DESIGN: The sample in this qualitative study comprised two groups of Danish schoolchildren aged 10 to 11 years, one with a healthier diet (n 9...... meals and two to four snacks. We found a connection between the nutritional quality of the diet and the social contexts of consumption, especially with regard to snacks. Among children with healthier eating habits, both snacks and meals tended to be shared social events and items of poor nutritional...... quality functioned as markers of a special social occasion. This was not the case among children with less healthy eating habits. All children described particular rules governing food consumption within their families. Although only some of them had participated in the development of these rules...

  2. Organic school meals in three Danish municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    In order to prevent children and young people from becoming obese, healthier eating patterns are urgent. Organic school meals may be an effective strategy to provide healthy food to children. The purpose of this study was to take a closer look into the current status of organic school meal systems...... in Denmark, by conducting a case study of three municipalities in the Zealand region that have the most developed models for school meals service in this country. These municipalities have for some years introduced organic food for sale in their primary schools, with three quite different approaches....... Copenhagen has established a large central kitchen, producing partly organic food that is heated and sold in tuck shops at the schools. Roskilde cooperates with an organic catering company, delivering food to be sold in school canteens. Gladsaxe has part-time employed staff preparing and selling food at each...

  3. Impact of volunteer rice infestation on yield and grain quality of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay; Burgos, Nilda R; Singh, Shilpa; Gealy, David R; Gbur, Edward E; Caicedo, Ana L

    2017-03-01

    Volunteer rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains may differ in physicochemical traits from cultivated rice, which may reduce the quality of harvested rice grain. To evaluate the effect of volunteer rice on cultivated rice, fields were surveyed in Arkansas in 2012. Cropping history that included hybrid cultivars in the previous two years (2010 and 2011) had higher volunteer rice infestation (20%) compared with fields planted previously with inbred rice (5.5%). The total grain yield of rice was reduced by 0.4% for every 1% increase in volunteer rice density. The grain quality did not change in fields planted with the same cultivar for three years. Volunteer rice density of at least 7.6% negatively impacted the head rice and when infestation reached 17.7%, it also reduced the rice grain yield. The protein and amylose contents of rice were not affected until volunteer rice infestation exceeded 30%. Crop rotation systems that include hybrid rice are expected to have higher volunteer rice infestation than systems without hybrid rice. It is predicted that, at 8% infestation, volunteer rice will start to impact head rice yield and will reduce total yield at 18% infestation. It could alter the chemical quality of rice grain at >30% infestation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Consumer attitudes, barriers, and meal satisfaction associated with sodium-reduced meal intake at worksite cafeterias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghee; Park, Sohyun

    2015-12-01

    Targeting consumers who consume lunches at their worksite cafeterias would be a valuable approach to reduce sodium intake in South Korea. To assess the relationships between socio-demographic factors, consumer satisfaction, attitudes, barriers and the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. We implemented a cross-sectional research, analyzing data from 738 consumers aged 18 years or older (327 males and 411 females) at 17 worksite cafeterias in South Korea. We used the ordinary least squares regression analysis to determine the factors related to overall satisfaction with sodium-reduced meal. General linear models with LSD tests were employed to examine the variables that differed by the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. Most subjects always or usually consumed the sodium-reduced meal (49%), followed by sometimes (34%) and rarely or never (18%). Diverse menus, taste and belief in the helpfulness of the sodium-reduced meal significantly increased overall satisfaction with the sodium-reduced diet (P menu diversity' (4.01 points), 2) 'active promotion' (3.97 points), 3) 'display of nutrition labels in a visible location' (3.96 points), 4) 'improvement of taste' (3.88 points), and 5) 'education of sodium-reduction self-care behaviors' (3.82 points). Dietitians could lead consumers to choose sodium-reduced meals by improving their taste and providing diverse menus for the sodium-reduced meals at worksite cafeterias.

  5. Red yeast rice for dysipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Shariq; Al Badarin, Firas J; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lavie, Carl J; O'Keefe, James H

    2013-01-01

    Red yeast rice is an ancient Chinese food product that contains monacolins, chemical substances that are similar to statins in their mechanisms of action and lipid lowering properties. Several studies have found red yeast rice to be moderately effective at improving the lipid profile, particularly for lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. One large randomized controlled study from China found that red yeast rice significantly improved risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and overall survival in patients following myocardial infarction. Thus, red yeast rice is a potentially useful over-the-counter cholesterol-lowering agent. However, many red yeast rice formulations are non-standardized and unregulated food supplements, and there is a need for further research and regulation of production.

  6. Meal sequence and glucose excursion, gastric emptying and incretin secretion in type 2 diabetes: a randomised, controlled crossover, exploratory trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Hitoshi; Iwasaki, Masahiro; Shimizu, Shinobu; Minami, Kohtaro; Maeda, Haruyo; Seino, Susumu; Nakada, Koji; Nosaka, Chihiro; Murotani, Kenta; Kurose, Takeshi; Seino, Yutaka; Yabe, Daisuke

    2016-03-01

    Investigation of dietary therapy for diabetes has focused on meal size and composition; examination of the effects of meal sequence on postprandial glucose management is limited. The effects of fish or meat before rice on postprandial glucose excursion, gastric emptying and incretin secretions were investigated. The experiment was a single centre, randomised controlled crossover, exploratory trial conducted in an outpatient ward of a private hospital in Osaka, Japan. Patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 12) and healthy volunteers (n = 10), with age 30-75 years, HbA1c 9.0% (75 mmol/mol) or less, and BMI 35 kg/m(2) or less, were randomised evenly to two groups by use of stratified randomisation, and subjected to meal sequence tests on three separate mornings; days 1 and 2, rice before fish (RF) or fish before rice (FR) in a crossover fashion; and day 3, meat before rice (MR). Pre- and postprandial levels of glucose, insulin, C-peptide and glucagon as well as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide were evaluated. Gastric emptying rate was determined by (13)C-acetate breath test involving measurement of (13)CO2 in breath samples collected before and after ingestion of rice steamed with (13)C-labelled sodium acetate. Participants, people doing measurements or examinations, and people assessing the outcomes were not blinded to group assignment. FR and MR in comparison with RF ameliorated postprandial glucose excursion (AUC-15-240 min-glucose: type 2 diabetes, FR 2,326.6 ± 114.7 mmol/l × min, MR 2,257.0 ± 82.3 mmol/l × min, RF 2,475.6 ± 87.2 mmol/l × min [p Japan Society for Promotion of Science, Japan Association for Diabetes Education and Care, and Japan Vascular Disease Research Foundation.

  7. Preparing meals under time stress. The experience of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshara, Monica; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2010-12-01

    The present study quantitatively explored the effects of mothers' perceived time pressure, as well as meal-related variables including mothers' convenience orientation and meal preparation confidence, on the healthiness of evening meals served to school-aged children (5-18 years old) over a 7-day period. A sample of 120 employed mothers, who identified themselves as the chief meal-preparers in their households, completed a brief, self-report, meal-related questionnaire. Results revealed that mothers' perceived time pressure did not significantly predict meal healthiness. Mothers' confidence in their ability to prepare a healthy meal was the only unique, significant predictor of a healthy evening meal. Mothers who were more confident in their ability to prepare a healthy meal served healthier evening meals than those who were less confident. In addition, mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation were negatively related to healthy meal preparation confidence. Results suggest that mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation, may indirectly compromise meal healthiness, by decreasing mothers' meal preparation confidence. Practical and theoretical implications of the study's findings are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Non-nutritive mineral effects on rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of the responses of rice to non-nutritive minerals has numerous benefits. Rice is the current model plant for genomic studies of crops and with the sequencing of the rice genome, information obtained from rice can be extended to other organisms, which has been particularly valuable regard...

  9. Building a Healthy Vegetarian Meal: Myths and Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Vegetarian Meal Print Email Building a Healthy Vegetarian Meal Myths and Facts By Alexandra Caspero, MA, ... it comes to plant-based diets. Myth #1: Vegetarians and Vegans Have a Hard Time Getting Enough ...

  10. Classification of specialty seed meals from NIR reflectance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy was used to identify alternative seed meals proposed for food and feed formulations. Spectra were collected from cold pressed Camelina (Camelina sativa), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), and Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) meals. Additional spectra were collected ...

  11. Diabetes Nutrition: Including Sweets in Your Meal Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes nutrition: Including sweets in your meal plan Diabetes nutrition focuses on healthy foods, but sweets aren't necessarily ... your meal plan. By Mayo Clinic Staff Diabetes nutrition focuses on healthy foods. But you can eat ...

  12. Protein At All 3 Meals May Help Preserve Seniors' Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167595.html Protein at All 3 Meals May Help Preserve Seniors' ... 2017 THURSDAY, Aug. 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Eating protein at all three daily meals, instead of just ...

  13. The rice genome project in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Takuji

    1998-01-01

    Since 1991, the Rice Genome Research Program in Japan has carried out rice genomics, such as large-scale cDNA analysis, construction of a fine-scale restriction fragment length polymorphism map, and physical mapping of the rice genome with yeast artificial chromosome clones. These studies have made a great impact on research into grass genomes and made rice a model plant for other cereal crop research. Starting in 1998, the Rice Genome Research Program will step in...

  14. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§ 137...

  15. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  16. 21 CFR 520.1194 - Ivermectin meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ivermectin meal. 520.1194 Section 520.1194 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL...; Large Mouth Stomach Worms (adults): Habronema muscae; Bots (oral and gastric stages): Gasterophilus spp...

  17. Could light meal jeopardize laboratory coagulation tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Lippi, Giuseppe; Danese, Elisa; Gelati, Matteo; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Presently the necessity of fasting time for coagulation tests is not standardized. Our hypothesis is that this can harm patient safety. This study is aimed at evaluating whether a light meal (i.e. breakfast) can jeopardize laboratory coagulation tests. A blood sample was firstly collected from 17 fasting volunteers (12 h). Immediately after blood collection, the volunteers consumed a light meal. Then samples were collected at 1, 2 and 4 h after the meal. Coagulation tests included: activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), fibrinogen (Fbg), antithrombin III (AT), protein C (PC) and protein S (PS). Differences between samples were assessed by Wilcoxon ranked-pairs test. The level of statistical significance was set at P coagulation tests had significant variation after comparison with RCV. A light meal does not influence the laboratory coagulation tests we assessed, but we suggest that the laboratory quality managers standardize the fasting time for all blood tests at 12 hours, to completely metabolize the lipids intake.

  18. Atherogenic potentials of some Nigerian meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyong, E U; Umoh, I B; Ogu, T I; Edet, E E; Eteng, M U; Igiri, A O

    2007-01-01

    The atherogenic potentials of peeled grated cocoyam (Xanthosoma maffafa scot) "ekpang nkukwo", pounded yam (Discorea spp) with plain soup "afia efere", and plantain porridge (Musa paradisiaca) "iwuk ukom" meals were investigated. The three meals were fed to three different groups of albino rats of Wistar strain for a period of twenty eight days. A fourth group which served as control was feed with normal rat pellet. The mean total plasma cholesterol level in the pounded yam with plain soup fed group was significantly lower [P < 0.05] when compared to the control and peeled grated cocoyam fed groups. The mean total plasma triglyceride (MTPTG) level in the pounded yam with plain soup fed group was significantly lower [P < 0.05] when compared to the control group. However the MTPTG level in the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain porridge fed groups were comparable to control. The mean HDL-cholesterol level in the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain fed groups were comparable control. The mean LDL-cholesterol level in the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain porridge fed groups was significantly lower [P < 0.05] than the control group. The LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol in the pounded yam with plain soup fed group was significantly lower [P < 0.05] when compared to control. These findings suggest low atherogenic potentials of the pounded yam with plain soup meal compared to the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain porridge meals.

  19. School-Meals Makeover Stirs the Pot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    Proposed new federal rules governing the meals served to school children across the country each weekday are causing a stir among food industry groups, cafeteria managers, parents, and students. The skirmish is over the U.S. Department of Agriculture's efforts, prompted by the recent passage of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, to rewrite the…

  20. Cost of New Nordic Diet school meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgard; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to conduct economic evaluation of a school meal programme based on principles of a New Nordic Diet (NND) by assessing the costs of the NND lunch, compared with packed lunch from home, and investigating potential effects of adjusting the NND principles...

  1. 21 CFR 573.540 - Hydrolyzed leather meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrolyzed leather meal. 573.540 Section 573.540... Additive Listing § 573.540 Hydrolyzed leather meal. (a) Identity. Hydrolyzed leather meal is produced from leather scraps that are treated with steam for not less than 33 minutes at a pressure of not less than 125...

  2. 21 CFR 73.185 - Haematococcus algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haematococcus algae meal. 73.185 Section 73.185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.185 Haematococcus algae meal. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive haematococcus algae meal...

  3. Enzyme assisted protein extraction from rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Bruins, M.E.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed meals that are by-products from oil production are potential resources for protein. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of enzymes in assisting in the extraction of protein from different oilseed meals, namely rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals. In addition, microalgae

  4. Cafeteria Staff Perceptions of the New USDA School Meal Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, Brenda; Cullen, Karen Weber

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The new nutrition standards for the school meal programs implemented in 2012 align the school meal patterns with the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans, including more fruit, vegetable and whole grain offerings and minimum and maximum amount of calories per meal averaged over a week. The purpose of this study was to assess…

  5. Assessment of cotton-seed ( Gossypium species) meal as ingredient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of feeding graded levels of cotton GossypiumSpp. seed meal as an inclusion in the diet of Clariasgariepinus juveniles for growth performance was analysed in comparison with the conventional commercial fish feed. Six experimental rations formulated were cotton-seed Gossypium spp. meal replaced fish meal at ...

  6. Acidic solvent extraction of gossypol from cottonseed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to expand the use of cottonseed meal in animal feeding, extraction of the meal gossypol was studied with acetic acetone- and ethanol-based solutions. Phosphoric acid was added to hydrolyze and release gossypol bound within the meal. Both solvent systems were effective at reducing gossypo...

  7. The School Meals Initiative Implementation Study. First Year Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sameer; Chattopadhyay, Manas; Sullivan, Colleen; Mallory, Larry; Steiger, Darby Miller; Daft, Lynn; Arcos, Alyssa; Wilbraham, Brooke

    This report, authorized by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, contains information on the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children (SMI), a reform of school-meals programs aimed at upgrading the nutritional content of school meals. The purpose of the study was to describe and evaluate: (1) overall…

  8. Mind over platter: pre-meal planning and the control of meal size in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, J M

    2014-07-01

    It is widely accepted that meal size is governed by psychological and physiological processes that generate fullness towards the end of a meal. However, observations of natural eating behaviour suggest that this preoccupation with within-meal events may be misplaced and that the role of immediate post-ingestive feedback (for example, gastric stretch) has been overstated. This review considers the proposition that the locus of control is more likely to be expressed in decisions about portion size, before a meal begins. Consistent with this idea, we have discovered that people are extremely adept at estimating the 'expected satiety' and 'expected satiation' of different foods. These expectations are learned over time and they are highly correlated with the number of calories that end up on our plate. Indeed, across a range of foods, the large variation in expected satiety/satiation may be a more important determinant of meal size than relatively subtle differences in palatability. Building on related advances, it would also appear that memory for portion size has an important role in generating satiety after a meal has been consumed. Together, these findings expose the importance of planning and episodic memory in the control of appetite and food intake in humans.

  9. Against the grain: safeguarding rice from rice blast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skamnioti, Pari; Gurr, Sarah J

    2009-03-01

    Rice is the staple diet of more than three billion people. Yields must double over the next 40 years if we are to sustain the nutritional needs of the ever-expanding global population. Between 10% and 30% of the annual rice harvest is lost due to infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Evaluation of genetic and virulence diversity of blast populations with diagnostic markers will aid disease management. We review the M. oryzae species-specific and cultivar-specific avirulence determinants and evaluate efforts towards generating durable and broad-spectrum resistance in single resistant cultivars or mixtures. We consider modern usage of fungicides and plant defence activators, assess the usefulness of biological control and categorize current approaches towards blast-tolerant genetically modified rice.

  10. Meal-specific food patterns and the incidence of hyperglycemia in a Chinese adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zumin; Riley, Malcolm; Taylor, Anne; Noakes, Manny

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between meal-specific food patterns and incident hyperglycaemia in a Chinese adult population. Adults aged 20 years and older (n 1056) were followed from 2002 to 2007. Dietary data were collected using a 3-d food record and meal-specific (breakfast, lunch and dinner) food patterns were independently described by factor analysis based on the consumption of thirty-five food groups at each eating occasion. Each food pattern score was recoded as quartiles. Hyperglycaemia was defined as fasting plasma glucose >5·6 mmol/l at baseline and follow-up. The associated between food patterns and incident hyperglycaemia was assessed by logistic regression. During the follow-up, 125 new cases of hyperglycaemia were identified. Traditional (wheat) breakfast was inversely associated with incident hyperglycaemia, whereas traditional (rice, vegetable and pork) lunch and dinner were positively associated with the risk of incident hyperglycaemia, even after adjustment for a number of covariates including glycaemic load, carbohydrate intake and BMI. Incident hyperglycaemia occurred in 15·9, 13·6, 11·7, 6·1 % across quartiles of traditional breakfast; and 5·3, 9·1, 15·9, 17·1 % of the quartiles of traditional lunch pattern. The adjusted OR for hyperglycaemia was 0·67 (95 % CI 0·48, 0·92), 1·83 (95 % CI 1·32, 2·53) and 1·39 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·86) for 1 sd increase of traditional breakfast, lunch and dinner pattern factor score, respectively. A traditional wheat-based breakfast is associated with a decreased risk of hyperglycaemia. A rice-based traditional lunch and dinner is associated with an increased risk of hyperglycaemia in Chinese adults.

  11. Development and validation of a screening instrument to assess the types and quality of foods served at home meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulkerson Jayne A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there is growing interest in assessing the home food environment, no easy-to-use, low cost tools exist to assess the foods served at home meals, making it difficult to assess the meal component of the food environment. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a user-friendly screener to assess the types of foods served at home meals. Methods Primary food preparing adults (n = 51 participated in a validation study in their own homes. Staff and participants independently completed a screener as participants cooked dinner. The screener assessed the types of foods offered, method(s of preparation, and use of added fats. Two scale scores were created: 1 to assess offerings of foods in five food groups (meat and other protein, milk, vegetables, fruit, grains, 2 to assess the relative healthfulness of foods based on types offered, preparation method, and added fats. Criterion validity was assessed comparing staff and participant reports of individual foods (kappa (k and scale scores (Spearman correlations. Results Criterion validity was high between participants' and staffs' record of whether major food categories (meat and other protein, bread and cereal, salad, vegetables, fruits, dessert were served (k = 0.79-1.0, moderate for reports of other starches (e.g., rice being served (k = 0.52, and high for the Five Food Group and Healthfulness scale scores (r = 0.75-0.85, p Conclusions This new meal screening tool has high validity and can be used to assess the types of foods served at home meals allowing a more comprehensive assessment of the home food environment.

  12. Rice Husk Filled Polymer Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arjmandi, Reza; Hassan, Azman; Majeed, Khaliq; Zakaria, Zainoha

    2015-01-01

      Natural fibers from agricultural wastes are finding their importance in the polymer industry due to the many advantages such as their light weight, low cost and being environmentally friendly. Rice husk (RH...

  13. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mg twice daily) in patients with previous statin intolerance . American Journal of Cardiology . 2010;105:198–204. ... to Avoid Red Yeast Rice Products Promoted on Internet as Treatments for High Cholesterol: Products Found to ...

  14. Rice vaikib salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopasse visiidile sõitev USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice külastab Saksamaad, Rumeeniat, Ukrainat ja Belgiat. Süüdistusi CIA lennukite maandumiste ja salavanglate kohta ei olevat tal kavas kommenteerida

  15. Soil Incorporation of Silica-Rich Rice Husk Decreases Inorganic Arsenic in Rice Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; Morris, Andrew H; Gill, Rattandeep; Kearns, Kelli A; Mann, Jessica N; Paukett, Michelle; Leskanic, Corey

    2016-05-18

    Arsenic decreases rice yield, and inorganic grain As threatens human health; thus, strategies to decrease rice As are critically needed. Increased plant-available silica (Si) can decrease rice As, yet the source of Si matters. Rice husk, an underutilized and Si-rich byproduct of rice production that contains less labile C and an order of magnitude less As than rice straw, may be an economically viable Si resource to decrease rice As, yet the impact of rice husk incorporation on As in the rice-soil nexus has not been reported. This proof-of-concept study shows that rice husk incorporation to soil (1% w/w) decreases inorganic grain As by 25-50% without negatively affecting grain Cd, yield, or dissolved CH4 levels. Rice husk is a critical yet perhaps overlooked resource to improve soil quality through enhanced nutrient availability and attenuate human health risks through consumption of As-laden grain.

  16. Effect of Carbohydrate Sources and Levels of Cotton Seed Meal in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Young Dairy Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of cottonseed meal with various carbohydrate sources in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Four, 6 months old dairy bulls were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and cassava chip+rice bran in the ratio of 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was cotton seed meal levels in the concentrate; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM at similar overall CP levels (490 g CP/kg. Bulls received urea-lime treated rice straw ad libitum and were supplemented with 10 g of concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source and level of cotton seed meal did not have significant effects on ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, microbial protein synthesis or feed intake. Animals which received CC showed significantly higher BUN concentration, ruminal propionic acid and butyric acid proportions, while dry matter, organic matter digestibility, populations of total viable bacteria and proteolytic bacteria were lower than those in the CR3:1 treatment. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids was higher in HCM than LCM treatments, while the concentration of butyric acid was higher in LCM than HCM treatments. The population of proteolytic bacteria with the LCM treatments was higher than the HCM treatments; however other bacteria groups were similar among the different levels of cotton seed meal. Bulls which received LCM had higher protein digestibility than those receiving HCM. Therefore, using high levels of cassava chip and cotton seed meal might positively impact on energy and nitrogen balance for the microbial population in the rumen of the young dairy bull.

  17. Highly asymmetric rice genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jian-Qun

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals in the same species are assumed to share the same genomic set. However, it is not unusual to find an orthologous gene only in small subset of the species, and recent genomic studies suggest that structural rearrangements are very frequent between genomes in the same species. Two recently sequenced rice genomes Oryza sativa L. var. Nipponbare and O. sativa L. var. 93-11 provide an opportunity to systematically investigate the extent of the gene repertoire polymorphism, even though the genomic data of 93-11 derived from whole-short-gun sequencing is not yet as complete as that of Nipponbare. Results We compared gene contents and the genomic locations between two rice genomes. Our conservative estimates suggest that at least 10% of the genes in the genomes were either under presence/absence polymorphism (5.2% or asymmetrically located between genomes (4.7%. The proportion of these "asymmetric genes" varied largely among gene groups, in which disease resistance (R genes and the RLK kinase gene group had 11.6 and 7.8 times higher proportion of asymmetric genes than housekeeping genes (Myb and MADS. The significant difference in the proportion of asymmetric genes among gene groups suggests that natural selection is responsible for maintaining genomic asymmetry. On the other hand, the nucleotide diversity in 17 R genes under presence/absence polymorphism was generally low (average nucleotide diversity = 0.0051. Conclusion The genomic symmetry was disrupted by 10% of asymmetric genes, which could cause genetic variation through more unequal crossing over, because these genes had no allelic counterparts to pair and then they were free to pair with homologues at non-allelic loci, during meiosis in heterozygotes. It might be a consequence of diversifying selection that increased the structural divergence among genomes, and of purifying selection that decreased nucleotide divergence in each R gene locus.

  18. Effect of meal environment on diet quality rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Hanning, Rhona M

    2009-01-01

    Family meals have been associated with improved dietary quality in children and adolescents, and yet very little is known about family meals beyond their frequency. Specific aspects of the breakfast, lunch, and dinner meal environments were described and compared, and the associations with overall diet quality were investigated. Data on food intake and meal environments were obtained in northern Ontario, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia grades six, seven, and eight classrooms over the 2005 to 2006 school year. Specific aspects of the meal environments described were where the meal was consumed, with whom participants consumed each meal, who prepared the meal, and where the food was originally purchased. Diet quality was assessed using the Canadian version of the Healthy Eating Index. Cluster K-means procedures were used to classify into groups observations about the four meal environment variables. Three, eight, and six clusters of meal environments were identified for breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively. Diet quality was negatively associated with consuming/ purchasing meals outside the home, and with skipping breakfast, lunch, and/or dinner. Results have immediate relevance for family-based and/or school programs and policies aimed at educating and feeding children and adolescents.

  19. Use of fish waste meal/rice straw diets to manipulate body fat store ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Health and Visual Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 2 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Realistic Simulation of Rice Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-long DING

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The existing research results of virtual modeling of rice plant, however, is far from perfect compared to that of other crops due to its complex structure and growth process. Techniques to visually simulate the architecture of rice plant and its growth process are presented based on the analysis of the morphological characteristics at different stages. Firstly, the simulations of geometrical shape, the bending status and the structural distortion of rice leaves are conducted. Then, by using an improved model for bending deformation, the curved patterns of panicle axis and various types of panicle branches are generated, and the spatial shape of rice panicle is therefore created. Parametric L-system is employed to generate its topological structures, and finite-state automaton is adopted to describe the development of geometrical structures. Finally, the computer visualization of three-dimensional morphologies of rice plant at both organ and individual levels is achieved. The experimental results showed that the proposed methods of modeling the three-dimensional shapes of organs and simulating the growth of rice plant are feasible and effective, and the generated three-dimensional images are realistic.

  1. Studies on extraction of fumonisins from rice, corn-based foods and beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, P M; Lawrence, G A; Lombaert, G A

    1999-06-01

    Different solvent mixtures were examined for extraction of fumonisins from various naturally contaminated and spiked foods and foodstuffs: rough rice, retail rice, rice flour, white corn flour, corn meal, corn starch, corn flakes, tortilla/corn chips, white bean flour, white beans, mung beans, adzuki beans and infant cereals. Most of the naturally contaminated samples were analyzed using the extraction solvent mixtures methanol-acetonitrile-water (25:25:50) (solvent A) and methanol-water (75:25 or 80:20) (solvents B, BB); some were extracted with 0.1 M sodium hydrogen phosphate-acetonitrile (1:1, adjusted to pH 3.0 with o-phosphoric acid) (solvent C) and methanol-0.025 M borate buffer (3:1, adjusted to pH 9.2 with 1 N sodium hydroxide) (solvent D). A 1-ml SAX solid phase extraction column was used for the cleanup in all cases except for infant cereals, for which immunoaffinity chromatography was used; fumonisin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography.Solvent A gave slightly better extraction of fumonisins from one of two samples of naturally contaminated rough rice than solvent B (fumonisin B1: 4080 ng/g versus 3150 ng/g; fumonisin B2:1100 ng/ g versus 922 ng/g) and much better extraction than solvent C (1210 ng/g fumonisin B1 and 315 ng/g fumonisin B2) or solvent D (372 ng/ g fumonisin B1 and 191 ng/g fumonisin B2). However, spike recoveries on a similar rice naturally contaminated at a lower level were only in the 43-53% range (solvent A). Recovery of fumonisins was very poor from spiked white rice flour but satisfactory from other rice foods.Solvent A similarly gave slightly better extraction of fumonisins from a sample of naturally contaminated white corn flour than solvent B (fumonisin B1 1260 ng/g versus 931 ng/g; fumonisin B2: 511 ng/g versus 447 ng/g ) and better extraction than solvents C and D. Solvent A was also a better solvent for extraction of fumonisins from naturally contaminated tortilla chips and infant cereals. Study of naturally

  2. Television, Home-Cooked Meals, and Family Meal Frequency: Associations with Adult Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Rachel; Anderson, Sarah E

    2017-06-01

    Adults, regardless of whether they are parents, regularly eat meals with family at home, but few studies have analyzed large, population-based samples to examine how mealtime practices or family meal frequency are associated with health. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between the frequency of family meals eaten at home, watching television or videos during family meals, and consumption of meals that were cooked and eaten at home and the odds of being obese in adults. This was an analysis of the cross-sectional 2012 Ohio Medicaid Assessment Survey (OMAS), a telephone survey of Ohio's population. The study sample was adult Ohio residents responding to the 2012 OMAS who ate at least one family meal in the past week (n=12,842). Obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30), calculated from self-reported height and weight, was the outcome. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between obesity and family meal practices, adjusted for respondents' employment status, marital status, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and age. Family meal frequency was not associated with odds of obesity: those who ate family meals most (6-7) days were as likely as those who ate family meals few (1-2) days to be obese (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj]=1.01, 95% CI=0.86, 1.18). Thirty-six percent of adults never watched television or videos while eating family meals, and 62% ate family meals that were all home-cooked. Adults who never watched television or videos during family meals had 37% lower odds of obesity compared with those who always did (95% CI=0.54, 0.73), regardless of family meal frequency. Adults whose family meals were all home-cooked had 26% lower odds of obesity than those who ate some or no home-cooked family meals (95% CI=0.62, 0.88). This association was more pronounced among adults who ate few family meals. Family meal practices may be associated with obesity in adults, even if they eat few family meals per week. Future research

  3. Quality evaluation of rice bran protein isolate-based weaning food for preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saima H; Butt, Masood S; Anjum, Faqir M; Sameen, Ayesha

    2011-05-01

    Agro-industrial waste 'rice bran' was stabilized and the extracted protein isolates were used as ingredients to make nutritive complimentary food for the growing infants. The formulation processed through drum drying and the starchy ingredients were pregelatinized to reduce bulk in the prepared meal and facilitate spoon-feeding. The formulations had uniform texture, light golden color and good paste consistency. Nutrient composition was good enough to meet standards for supplementary infant foods. Caloric value remained up to 416 kcal/100 g with spoonable viscosity and 80.90-84.45% in vitro digestibility. A single meal could substantially contribute to the daily essential amino acid requirement. The formulation had good acceptability during a short-term infant-feeding trial. The present study can provide practical guideline for manufacturers as well as the nutritionist for the use of an economical and nutritive formulation for young children.

  4. Brewer's yeast efficiently degrades phytate phosphorus in a corn-soybean meal diet during soaking treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Gyo-Moon; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Kawashima, Tomoyuki; Funaba, Masayuki; Matsui, Tohru

    2009-08-01

    Microbes such as yeast and Aspergillus are known to produce phytase, and Aspergillus phytase has been used as a feed additive for improving phytate-phosphorus bioavailability in monogastric animals. We measured phytase activity in some by-products from fermented food and beverage productions by yeast and Aspergillus. The phytase activity was as high as 3577 and 2225 PU/kg DM in raw and dried brewer's yeasts, respectively. On the other hand, the phytase activity was approximately 400 PU/kg DM in white-wine yeast and red-wine yeast. The phytase activity was further low in natto (fermented soybean) residue, soy sauce cake, rice brewer's grain and the activity was not detected in dried corn-barley distiller's grain with soluble and sweet-potato distiller's residue. The stability of phytase against pepsin was much lower in the brewer's yeast than in an Aspergillus phytase preparation. On the other hand, the addition of raw brewer's yeast effectively degraded phytate phosphorus in a corn-soybean meal diet during soaking. These results suggest that phytase in the examined by-products is not suitable for the phytase source of conventional diets, but that the soaking treatment with a raw brewer's yeast is an alternative method for improving phytate-phosphorus bioavailability in corn-soybean meal diets for pigs.

  5. High temperature cement raw meal flowability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarup, Claus; Hjuler, Klaus; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated by incre......The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated...

  6. Organic school meals in three Danish municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    He, Chen

    2008-01-01

    In order to prevent children and young people from becoming overweight or obese, it is imperative to promote healthier eating patterns. So it is necessary to develop and implement effective strategies that can influence the eating and lifestyle habits of young people. Healthy school meal programme is considered to be an effective strategy to promote such changes and increasingly such strategies become embedded organic supply polices and strategies that pursue environmental goals. The purpose ...

  7. Effects of GI meals on intermittent exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulton, A T; Gregson, W; Maclaren, D; Doran, D A

    2012-09-01

    Pre-exercise meals or single foods containing low glycaemic index (LGI) carbohydrates (CHO) have been shown to enhance performance prior to prolonged steady state exercise compared to high glycaemic index (HGI) CHO. This study investigated the impact of HGI and LGI pre-exercise meals on intermittent high intensity exercise. Nine male recreational football players performed a football specific protocol followed by a 1 km time trial 3.5 h after ingesting 1 of 2 isoenergetic test meals (HGI: 870.3 kcal, LGI: 889.5 kcal), which were either HGI (GI: 80) or LGI (GI: 44). Blood glucose, fatty acids (FA), glycerol, β-hydroxybutyrate, lactate and insulin were assessed before, during, and after the exercise bout, whilst rates of CHO and fat oxidation were determined at 4 time points during the protocol. No significant differences were found for the 1 km time trial (LGI: 210.2 ± 19.1 s: HGI: 215.8 ± 22.6 s) (mean ± SD), nor for any of the other variables measured (P>0.05) apart from a significant condition effect with FA and significant interaction effects observed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate (Pexercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and objectionable seeds (number in 500 grams) Red rice and damaged kernels (singly or combined... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the...

  9. Energy values of canola meal, cottonseed meal, bakery meal, and peanut flour meal for broiler chickens determined using the regression method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Adeola, O

    2017-02-01

    The energy values of canola meal (CM), cottonseed meal (CSM), bakery meal (BM), and peanut flour meal (PFM) for broiler chickens were determined in 2 experiments with Ross 708 broiler chickens from d 21 to 28 posthatch. The birds were fed a standard broiler starter diet from d 0 to 21 posthatch. In each experiment, 320 birds were grouped by weight into 8 blocks of 5 cages with 8 birds per cage and assigned to 5 diets. Each experiment used a corn-soybean meal reference diet and 4 test diets in which test ingredients partly replaced the energy sources in the reference diet. The test diets in Exp. 1 consisted of 125 g CM, 250 g CM, 100 g CSM, or 200 g CSM/kg. In Exp. 2, the test diets consisted of 200 g BM, 400 g BM, 100 g PFM, or 200 g PFM/kg. The ileal digestible energy (IDE), metabolizable energy (ME), and nitrogen-corrected metabolizable energy (MEn) of all the test ingredients were determined by the regression method. The DM of CM, CSM, BM and PFM were 883, 878, 878, and 964 g/kg, respectively and the respective gross energies (GE) were 4,143, 4,237, 4,060, and 5,783 kcal/kg DM. In Exp. 1, the IDE were 2,132 and 2,197 kcal/kg DM for CM and CSM, respectively. The ME were 2,286 and 2,568 kcal/kg DM for CM and CSM, respectively. The MEn were 1,931 kcal/kg DM for CM and 2,078 kcal/ kg DM for CSM. In Exp. 2, IDE values were 3,412 kcal/kg DM for BM and 4,801 kcal/kg DM for PFM; ME values were 3,176 and 4,601 kcal/kg DM for BM and PFM, respectively, and the MEn values were 3,093 kcal/kg DM for BM and 4,112 kcal/kg DM for PFM. In conclusion, the current study showed that chickens can utilize a considerable amount of energy from these 4 ingredients, and also provided the energy values of CM, CSM, BM and PFM for broiler chickens. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Effect of macronutrients and fiber on postprandial glycemic responses and meal glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huicui; Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2017-04-01

    Background: The potential confounding effect of different amounts and proportions of macronutrients across eating patterns on meal or dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) value determinations has remained partially unaddressed.Objective: The study aimed to determine the effects of different amounts of macronutrients and fiber on measured meal GI and GL values.Design: Four studies were conducted during which participants [n = 20-22; women: 50%; age: 50-80 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 25-30)] received food challenges containing different amounts of the variable nutrient in a random order. Added to the standard 50 g available carbohydrate from white bread was 12.5, 25, or 50 g carbohydrate; 12.5, 25, or 50 g protein; and 5.6, 11.1, or 22.2 g fat from rice cereal, tuna, and unsalted butter, respectively, and 4.8 or 9.6 g fiber from oat cereal. Arterialized venous blood was sampled for 2 h, and measured meal GI and GL and insulin index (II) values were calculated by using the incremental area under the curve (AUCi) method.Results: Adding carbohydrate to the standard white-bread challenge increased glucose AUCi (P < 0.0001), measured meal GI (P = 0.0066), and mean GL (P < 0.0001). Adding protein (50 g only) decreased glucose AUCi (P = 0.0026), measured meal GI (P = 0.0139), and meal GL (P = 0.0140). Adding fat or fiber had no significant effect on these variables. Adding carbohydrate (50 g), protein (50 g), and fat (11.1 g) increased the insulin AUCi or II; fiber had no effect.Conclusions: These data indicate that uncertainty in the determination of meal GI and GL values is introduced when carbohydrate-containing foods are consumed concurrently with protein (equal amount of carbohydrate challenge) but not with carbohydrate-, fat-, or fiber-containing foods. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether this uncertainty also influences the prediction of average dietary GI and GL values for eating patterns. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as

  11. Correlates of meal skipping in young adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Felicity J; Livingstone, Katherine M; Worsley, Anthony; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2016-12-01

    Meal skipping rates may be highest during young adulthood, a period of transition and development. Although these dietary behaviours may increase future risk of chronic disease, limited research has investigated correlates of meal skipping in young adults. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies that investigated correlates of meal skipping behaviours in young adults (aged 18-30 years). EBSCO host, MEDLINE Complete, Global Health, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science and Informit platforms were searched for eligible articles. Correlates were defined as any factor that was either associated with meal skipping or was self-reported by the participant to have an influence on meal skipping. Randomised controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, case-control studies, nested case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, and longitudinal studies were eligible for inclusion. Three-hundred and thirty-one articles were identified, 141 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, resulting in 35 included studies. Multiple methodological and reporting weaknesses were apparent in the reviewed studies with 28 of the 35 studies scoring a negative rating in the risk of bias assessment. Meal skipping (any meal), defined as the skipping of any meal throughout the day, was reported in 12 studies with prevalence ranging between 5 and 83%. The remaining 25 studies identified specific meals and their skipping rates, with breakfast the most frequently skipped meal 14-88% compared to lunch 8-57% and dinner 4-57%. Lack of time was consistently reported as an important correlate of meal skipping, compared with correlates such as cost and weight control, while sex was the most commonly reported associated correlate. Breakfast skipping was more common among men while lunch or dinner skipping being more common among women. This review is the first to examine potential correlates of meal skipping in young adults. Future research would benefit from stronger design and

  12. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on ruminal digestion, and omasal nutrient flow in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treated canola meal (TCM) was produced as an attempt to increase the rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fraction of canola meal (CM) with the goal of enhancing amino acid (AA) availability for absorption in the small intestine of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to measure nutrient and micr...

  13. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on nitrogen metabolism and total tract digestibility in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary canola meal (CM) has been shown to improve N efficiency in dairy cows when compared with soybean meal (SBM). Treating CM may increase amino acid (AA) supply from the rumen undegradable protein fraction and improve absorbable AA in the metabolizable protein. The objective of this study was to...

  14. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg-1, dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and elements (mg kg-1, dry weight) in brown and white rice samples, respectively, were: As = 0.030 and 0.006; Cd  ≤ 0.002 and 0.006; Pb = 0.008 and 0.008. Approximately 95 % of As was found to be inorganic As, where this could be quantified. Malawian rice, like the more widely consumed staple grain maize, contains inadequate Ca, I, Se or Zn to meet dietary requirements. Biofortification strategies could significantly increase Se and Zn concentrations and require further investigation. Concentrations of Fe in rice grain varied greatly, and this was likely due to contamination of rice samples with soil. Risk of As, Cd or Pb toxicity due to rice consumption in Malawi appears to be minimal.

  15. Replacement of soybean meal with babassu meal in rations for broilers from 22 to 42 days old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Calixto da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective this work was to evaluate the technical and economic viability of the substitution level of soybean meal by babassu meal in rations to broiler from 22 to 42 days old. It was used 80 male broiler chicks at one day of age, distributed into complete random designs with four treatments (0, 10, 20 e 30% substituition of soybean meal by babassu meal and five repetitions of four broilers each. Were evaluated the performance (weight dain, feed intake and feed conversion, carcass and cuts, organ biometry, feed cost per kilogram body weight and gross margin. To verify the relationship of cost of replacing soybean meal with pie babassu, inequalities were established. The substitution level of soybean meal by babassu meal had no influence (P>0,05 any of the performance characteristics, wich showed the technical viability of substituting up to 30%. Similarly, there was no affect on carcass yield, cuts weight and organ biometry. The cust less with feed per kg for chicken produced and the higher gross margin were obtained from chickens fed diets with 0% babassu meal. The increased of substitution level soybean meal by babassu meal in ration for broilers from 22 to 42 days old proved unviable economically, however, the inequalities produced can be useful in practical situations.

  16. Red Yeast Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Nguyen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Red yeast rice (RYR, produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterolreducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, nonaugmented, standardized amount of monacolins.

  17. Red Yeast Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu; Karl, Mitchell; Santini, Antonello

    2017-03-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterolreducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, nonaugmented, standardized amount of monacolins.

  18. Arsenic in rice: A cause for concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all rice products, strict...

  19. implications for smallholder rice production in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    backdrop of macro-economic policy framework of free market where trade liberalization allows for the free flow of goods and services will severe implication for the rice industry. This paper discusses trade liberalization policy effects on rice imports in. Ghana and the implications for smallholder rice. farmers in North-.

  20. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1,000 milligrams of calcium (Ca). Calcium carbonate derived from the use of this substance in milling rice, when present in quantities that furnish less than 500 milligrams of calcium (Ca) per pound... enriched rice unless such enriched rice is labeled to show it contains the optional ingredient calcium...

  1. Structural and functional analysis of rice genome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 83; Issue 1. Structural and functional analysis of rice genome ... Abstract. Rice is an excellent system for plant genomics as it represents a modest size genome of 430 Mb. It feeds more than half the population of the world. Draft sequences of the rice genome, derived by ...

  2. Arsenic in rice: a cause for concern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie; Decsi, Tamas; Domellöf, Magnus; Fewtrell, Mary; Mis, Nataša Fidler; Mihatsch, Walter; Molgaard, Christian; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure, we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all of the rice products,

  3. Company and meal choices considered by Nordic adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janhonen, Kristiina; Benn, Jette; Fjellström, Christina

    2013-01-01

    an effect on the frequency of family meals. Meals echoing or fully meeting the structural definition of a ‘proper meal’ were most common when describing meals for the family. The difference between the two social situations was most apparent for those who mentioned ‘Fast food dishes’ for themselves. Gender......This article examines the meal choices considered by Nordic adolescents in two social situations: for themselves and for the family. In addition, the frequency of family meals is compared between the countries studied. The survey data (n = 1539) were collected during 2006–2007 from 9th grade...... students (aged 14–17 years) in Finland, Sweden, Denmark and Norway. Analysis was based on both quantitative variables and open-ended data. Family meals were found to be less common among Finnish respondents than in the remaining data. In all countries but Denmark, the number of parents in the family had...

  4. Cod and rainbow trout as freeze-chilled meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze......-chilling is a process consisting of freezing and frozen storage followed by thawing and chilled storage. Combining the two would enable the manufacturer to produce large quantities of frozen meal elements to be released into the chill chain according to demand. We have studied the influence of freeze...... and cod and rainbow trout seem potential candidates for freeze-chilled meal elements. (C) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry...

  5. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for...

  6. Economics of production of broiler chickens fed maggot meal as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economics of production of broiler chickens considered for 0-35 days, 35-56 days, and 0-56 days was compared for fishmeal (FM) and maggot meal (MM) diets. The maggot meal diet had a replacement of the fish meal at 75%> on protein basis. Replacing FM at 75% with MM resulted in reduced cost of feed as well as ...

  7. Nutritional assessment of a jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiaratchi, U P K; Ekanayake, S; Welihinda, J

    2011-06-01

    The mature jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is consumed in Sri Lanka either as a main meal or a meal accompaniment. However, there is no scientific data on the nutrient compositions of cooked jackfruit meals. Thus, the objective of the study was to carry out a nutritional assessment of a composite jackfruit breakfast meal comprising seeds and flesh. A jackfruit meal comprising of flesh (80% available carbohydrate) and seeds (20% available carbohydrate) was included in the study. The study was carried out in a random cross over design. Setting University of Sri Jayewardenepura. Study participants Healthy individuals (n=10, age: 20-30 yrs). The macronutrient contents, rapidly and slowly available glucose (SAG) contents, water solubility index of the jackfruit meal were determined according to standard methods. The GI of the meal was calculated according to FAO/WHO guidelines. The moisture content of the boiled jackfruit flesh was high (82% FW). Jack seeds contained 4.7% protein (FW), 11.1% total dietary fibre (FW) and 8% resistant starch (FW). Jackfruit meal elicited a GI of 75. The Glycaemic Load (GL) of the normal serving size of the meal is medium. The slowly available glucose (SAG) percentage of jackfruit meal (30%) was twice that of the standard. The boiled jackfruit flesh contained disintegrated starch granules while seeds contained intact swollen and disintegrated granules. The jackfruit seeds are a good source of starch (22%) and dietary fibre. The meal is categorized as a low GI meal. The low GI could be dueto the collective contributions from dietary fibre, slowly available glucose and un-gelatinised (intact) starch granules in the seeds.

  8. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae...

  9. 21 CFR 137.250 - White corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White corn meal. 137.250 Section 137.250 Food and... Related Products § 137.250 White corn meal. (a) White corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section not less...

  10. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than 1.2...

  11. Recent advances in canola meal utilization in swine nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Mejicanos, G.; Sanjayan, N.; Kim, I. H.; Nyachoti, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Canola meal is derived from the crushing of canola seed for oil extraction. Although it has been used in swine diets for a long time, its inclusion levels have been limited due to concerns regarding its nutritive value primarily arising from results of early studies showing negative effects of dietary canola meal inclusion in swine diets. Such effects were attributable to the presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANF; notably glucosinolates) in canola meal. However, due to advances i...

  12. Can taste and nudging impact healthy meal consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    Previous research shows that taste is one of the most important factors in determining food choices, and that food choices may be affected by ”nudging”. We analyze how taste, as determined by meal attributes, and nudging affects consumption of a healthy labeled meal. Our analysis is based...... on a field experiment in a lunch restaurant and our results imply that sales of the healthy labelled meal, and its market share, is greatly impacted by its taste. Nudging, as in order of display on the menu, does not impact sales of the healthy labelled meal in our experiment. We conclude that supplying...

  13. Maternal and best friends' influences on meal-skipping behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Williams, Lauren; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2012-09-01

    Skipping meals is particularly common during adolescence and can have a detrimental effect on multiple aspects of adolescent health. Understanding the correlates of meal-skipping behaviours is important for the design of nutrition interventions. The present study examined maternal and best friends' influences on adolescent meal-skipping behaviours. Frequency of skipping breakfast, lunch and dinner was assessed using a Web-based survey completed by 3001 adolescent boys and girls from years 7 and 9 of secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Perceived best friend and maternal meal skipping, modelling of healthy eating (eating healthy food, limiting junk food, eating fruit and vegetables) and weight watching were assessed. Best friend and maternal factors were differentially associated with meal-skipping behaviours. For example, boys and girls who perceived that their best friend often skipped meals were more likely to skip lunch (OR = 2·01, 95 % CI 1·33, 3·04 and OR = 1·93, 95 % CI 1·41, 2·65; P skipped meals were more likely to skip breakfast (OR = 1·48, 95 % CI 1·01, 2·15; P skipping behaviour. The involvement of mothers may be particularly important in such efforts. Encouraging a peer subculture that promotes regular consumption of meals and educates adolescents on the detrimental impact of meal-skipping behaviour on health may also offer a promising nutrition promotion strategy.

  14. Meal Module, Tray Pack 36-Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-27

    17.50 7.8 0.19 20 Potatoes in 8940-01-152-6821 5.50 7.6 0.19 18 Butter Sauce Green Beans 8915-01-150-2861 7.99 5.0 0.19 25 Apple Dessert 8940-01-147-7855...CUSHIONED HOT SAUCE 8. BOXES OF PEANUT BUTTER PACKETS 9. BOX OF COFFEE PACKETS 10. BOX OF CREAMER PACKETS Figure 10. Meal Module, Tray Pack, 36...listed Condiments (Table A-3) as listed Breakfast 2 Fruit Cocktail w/Syrup 8915-00-286-5482 S Beef Stew 8940-01-009-7993 Mixed Vegetables 8915-01-173-2858

  15. Thermal decomposition of meat and bone meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conesa, J.A.; Fullana, A.; Font, R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2003-12-01

    A series of runs has been performed to study the thermal behavior of meat and bone meal (MBM) both in inert and reactive atmosphere. Although they are actually burned, the thermal decomposition of such MBM wastes has not been studied from a scientific point of view until now. The aim of this work is to present and discuss the thermogravimetric behavior of MBM both in nitrogen and air atmospheres. A thermobalance has been used to carry out the study at three different heating rates. A kinetic scheme able to correlate simultaneously (with no variation of the kinetic constants) the runs performed at different heating rates and different atmospheres of reaction is presented.

  16. Iron biofortification of Myanmar rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sann Aung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency causes elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75% and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high yields and/or qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  17. Effects of blood meal as a substitute for fish meal in the culture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the nutritive value of fermented and un-fermented blood meal as a possible protein source for diets of juvenile silver pompano, Trachinotus blochii. The experiments were carried out concurrently in a completely randomized design. A total of 330 fish (10.98 ±0. 5g and ...

  18. Substitution of soybean meal by meal moringa oleifera leaves in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of the effect of the substitution of the soy bean meal by Moringa oleifera leaf powder in the diet of finish broiler were carry out in the Dschang University Experimental Farm ration completion from December 2003 to January 2004. Two hundred and four twenty eight chicks “Arbor acres” hens, four weeks old were ...

  19. Effects of meals and meal times on uptake of lead from the gastrointestinal tract in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, H M; Hilburn, M E; Blair, J A

    1985-07-01

    Twenty three adults ingested 203Pb as lead acetate on the 12th hour of a 19 h fast. Retention measured 7 days later in a whole-body counter was 61% and whole-body turnover rates suggested that initial uptake had been considerably greater. Balanced meals eaten with 203Pb reduced lead uptake to 4% and the influence of the food lasted for up to 3 h. The effects of phytate, ethylene-diaminetetra acetate (EDTA), caffeine, alcohol, glucose, a liquid meal and a light snack were tested separately with intermediate results. The effect of a meal was probably largely due to its content of calcium and phosphate salts but lead uptake was probably further reduced by phytate which is plentiful in whole cereals and it was probably increased by a factor in milk. Uptake with skimmed milk was the same as with whole milk and we suggested that the factor was not fat. Comestibles with low mineral and phytate contents reduced lead uptake by intermediate amounts, possibly by stimulation of digestive secretions. The avid uptake of lead during a fast, the large reduction of lead uptake with meals and the likelihood of variations in gastric-emptying rates and dietary habits may be major causes of variation in body burdens of lead in the population.

  20. Meal-Insulin Cycle: A Visual Summary of the Biochemical Events between Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogiannis, Stavros

    2017-01-01

    In the present article, a scheme that summarizes the biochemical events occurring in the human body after the consumption of a meal is proposed. The scheme illustrates the metabolic sequence as a series of counteracting components occupying opposite positions in a cycle, indicating their opposite actions or physiological states, such as meal…

  1. Comparison of the adhesive performances of soy meal, water washed meal fractions, and protein isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhesive bonding of wood plays an increasing role in the forest products industry and is a key factor for efficiently utilizing timber and other lignocellulosic resources. In this work, we obtained five soy meal products through commercial sources or in-house preparations. The protein content was 49...

  2. Partial replacement of fish meal with Azolla meal in diets for Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The replacement of fishmeal (FM) with Azolla meal (AM) in diets on growth and fatty acid in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (initial mean weight: 16.4 g) was studied. Fish were fed with six isonitrogenous (29.2% CP) and isoenergetic (16.9 kJ.g-1) diets containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% AM respectively, ...

  3. Development and validation of a new simple Healthy Meal Index for canteen meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; L Hansen, Gitte

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Nutrition evaluation tools should be developed both for scientific purposes and to encourage and facilitate healthy nutritional practices. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a simple food-based Healthy Meal Index (HMI) reflecting the nutritional profile of ind...... and nutrition professionals, e.g. caterers and dietitians, who wish to evaluate nutritional quality of meals in line with the recommendations for healthier eating without the use of nutrition calculation programs.......OBJECTIVE: Nutrition evaluation tools should be developed both for scientific purposes and to encourage and facilitate healthy nutritional practices. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a simple food-based Healthy Meal Index (HMI) reflecting the nutritional profile...... of individual canteen meals. DESIGN: The development process included overall model selection, setting nutritional goals and defining scoring systems and thresholds. Three index components were included: (i) contents of fruit and vegetables, (ii) fat content and quality and (iii) contents of wholegrain products...

  4. Effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate: IV. Feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk production in milking cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapat, Metha; Pilajun, Ruangyote; Rowlinson, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Four early-lactation crossbred cows (82.5 % Holstein) were selected to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on rumen fermentation and milk production. Cows were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin Square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source: cassava chip (CC) and CC + rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1), and factor B was variation in the level of cottonseed meal (CM): low (LCM) and high (HCM) in isonitrogenous diets (180 g CP/kg DM). It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, dry matter digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial population, milk yield and composition, or economic return (P > 0.05). However, cows fed with CC had a higher population of amylolytic bacteria than cows fed with CR3:1 (P fermentation, and microbial populations were similar between treatments (P > 0.05). In addition, the carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level interactions were not significant for any parameter. It could be concluded that cassava chip and high level of cottonseed meal could usefully be incorporated into concentrates for dairy cows without impacting on rumen fermentation or milk production.

  5. Objective evaluation of whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes using a portable spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hajime; Asanome, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Keitaro; Sano, Tomoyoshi; Saito, Hiroshi; Abe, Yohei; Chuba, Masaru; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    The whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes was evaluated using a portable spectrophotometer with a whiteness index (WI). Also, by using boiled rice for measurement of Mido values by Mido Meter, it was possible to infer the whiteness of cooked rice without rice cooking. In the analysis of varietal differences of cooked rice, 'Tsuyahime', 'Koshihikari' and 'Koshinokaori' showed high whiteness, while 'Satonoyuki' had inferior whiteness. The whiteness of rice cakes made from 'Koyukimochi' and 'Dewanomochi' was higher than the whiteness of those made from 'Himenomochi' and 'Koganemochi'. While there was a significant correlation (r = 0.84) between WI values and whiteness scores of cooked rice by the sensory test, no correlation was detected between the whiteness scores and Mido values, indicating that the values obtained by a spectrophotometer differ from those obtained by a Mido Meter. Thus, a spectrophotometer may be a novel device for measurement of rice eating quality.

  6. RiceAtlas, a spatial database of global rice calendars and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborte, Alice G; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Balanza, Jane Girly; Saito, Kazuki; Zwart, Sander J; Boschetti, Mirco; Murty, M V R; Villano, Lorena; Aunario, Jorrel Khalil; Reinke, Russell; Koo, Jawoo; Hijmans, Robert J; Nelson, Andrew

    2017-05-30

    Knowing where, when, and how much rice is planted and harvested is crucial information for understanding the effects of policy, trade, and global and technological change on food security. We developed RiceAtlas, a spatial database on the seasonal distribution of the world's rice production. It consists of data on rice planting and harvesting dates by growing season and estimates of monthly production for all rice-producing countries. Sources used for planting and harvesting dates include global and regional databases, national publications, online reports, and expert knowledge. Monthly production data were estimated based on annual or seasonal production statistics, and planting and harvesting dates. RiceAtlas has 2,725 spatial units. Compared with available global crop calendars, RiceAtlas is nearly ten times more spatially detailed and has nearly seven times more spatial units, with at least two seasons of calendar data, making RiceAtlas the most comprehensive and detailed spatial database on rice calendar and production.

  7. The Glycemic Index of Rice and Rice Products: A Review, and Table of GI Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Bhupinder; Ranawana, Viren; Henry, Jeyakumar

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the principle staple and energy source for nearly half the world's population and therefore has significant nutrition and health implications. Rice is generally considered a high glycemic index (GI) food, however, this depends on varietal, compositional, processing, and accompaniment factors. Being a major contributor to the glycemic load in rice eating populations, there is increasing concern that the rising prevalence of insulin resistance is as a result of the consumption of large amounts of rice. Devising ways and means of reducing the glycemic impact of rice is therefore imperative. This review gathers studies examining the GI of rice and rice products and provides a critical overview of the current state of the art. A table collating published GI values for rice and rice products is also included.

  8. Weedy (red) rice: an emerging constraint to global rice production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziska, L.H.; Gealy, D.R.; Burgos, N.; Caicedo, A.L.; Gressel, J.; Lawton-Rauh, A.L.; Avila, L.A.; Theisen, Giovani; Norsworthy, J.; Ferrero, A.; Vidotto, F.; Johnson, D.E.; Ferreira, F.G.; Marchesan, E.; Menezes, V.; Cohn, M.A.; Linscombe, S.; Carmona, L.; Tang, R.; Merotto, A.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing increases in the human population necessitate that rice will continue to be a critical aspect of food security for the twenty-first century. While production must increase in the coming decades to meet demand, such increases will be accompanied by diminished natural resources and rising

  9. Can herbicide safeners allow selective control of weedy rice infesting rice crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busi, Roberto; Nguyen, Nghia K; Chauhan, Bhagirath S; Vidotto, Francesco; Tabacchi, Maurizio; Powles, Stephen B

    2017-01-01

    Rice is a major field crop of paramount importance for global food security. However, the increased adoption of more profitable and resource-efficient direct-seeded rice (DSR) systems has contributed to greater weed infestations, including weedy rice, which has become a severe problem in several Asian regions. In this study we have developed a conceptually novel method to protect rice plants at high doses of clomazone and triallate. The insecticide phorate applied to rice seeds provided a substantial level of protection against the herbicides clomazone or triallate. A quantity of 15 kg phorate ha(-1) significantly increased the LD50 values, which were more than twofold greater than for rice plants treated only with clomazone. A quantity of 20 kg phorate ha(-1) in combination with 2000 g triallate ha(-1) safened rice plants (80% survival) with LD50 >3.4-fold greater than in phorate-untreated rice. Weed control efficacy was not lowered by the presence of phorate-treated rice seeds. Weedy rice is one of the most damaging global weeds and a major threat to DSR systems. In this study we have developed a proof-of-concept method to allow selective weedy rice control in rice crops. We call for herbicide discovery programmes and research to identify candidate safener and herbicide combinations to achieve selective herbicide control of weedy rice and alleviate weed infestations in global rice crops. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Objective measures of meal variety lacking association with consumers' perception of variety with self-selected buffet meals at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Brockhoff, Per B.; Lahteenmaki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    Food variety has been linked to higher diet quality and increased food intake, but what constitutes variety for consumers is underexposed. The aim of the study was twofold: first to explore the relationship between objective measures of meal variety and subjective post-meal ratings of perceived...... to perceive their meals less varied than those with lower scores. Moreover, the rule of having many dishes was positively associated with uncontrolled eating and negatively associated with cognitive restraint. Consumers' perception of within-meal variety seems to be more linked to their idea of how to compose...

  11. Effect of Pseudocereal-Based Breakfast Meals on the First and Second Meal Glucose Tolerance in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreef G.N. Gabrial

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have indicated that the incidence of serious diabetic complications may be reduced through strict glycemic control. A low glycemic index diet is one tool to improve insulin resistance and improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. AIM: The objective was to study the effect of pseudocereals-based breakfasts (quinoa and buckwheat on glucose variations at first meal (breakfast and second meal (standardised lunch in healthy and diabetic subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects and 12 patients with Type 2 DM (not- insulin dependent were recruited in the study. Subjects were provided with quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals. A standardised lunch was provided 4 h after breakfast. Postprandial blood glucose response after breakfast and the second meal effect was measured in healthy and diabetic subjects. Incremental area under the curve (IAUC values for glucose was measured in response to the breakfast and lunch. The glycemic index of the 2 pseudocereals-based test breakfasts was determined. A white wheat bread (WWB was served as a reference breakfast meal. RESULTS: In post-breakfast analyses, healthy subjects showed that buckwheat meal had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P < 0.001 while quinoa meal showed no significance. In diabetic subjects, buckwheat and quinoa meals had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05 respectively. Blood glucose concentrations started to decline gradually for the quinoa and buckwheat but not for WWB in all healthy and diabetic subjects and returned to near-fasting baseline levels by 210 min. Post-lunch analyses indicated higher IAUC for the two breakfast types in healthy and diabetic subjects. In addition, the quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals were followed by a significantly flatter blood glucose response to the second meal for the period between 270

  12. Spiritual Pain in Meals on Wheels’ Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Boss

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Meals on Wheels’ clients are at risk for spiritual pain due to advanced age, social isolation, and failing health. They are also prone to stress, depression, and loneliness, placing them at risk for adverse biological disruptions and health outcomes. The purpose of the study was to examine associations of spiritual pain with psychosocial factors (stress, depression, loneliness, religious coping and salivary biomarkers of stress and inflammation (cortisol, IL-1β in Meals on Wheels’ clients. Methods: Data were collected cross-sectionally from 88 elderly (mean age 75.4. Spiritual pain, stress, depression, loneliness, and religious coping were measured with standardized instruments, and salivary biomarkers were assessed with enzyme immunoassays. Results: Spiritual pain was significantly and positively correlated with stress (r = 0.35, p ≤ 0.001, depression (r = 0.27, p = 0.01, and negative religious coping (r = 0.27, p = 0.01. Correlations with loneliness, positive religious coping, and salivary biomarkers were non-significant. Conclusion: Spiritual pain is an important concept in this population. Research should be expanded to understand the significance of spiritual pain in conjunction with psychosocial and biological variables and its potential impact on physical, mental, and cognitive health outcomes in the elderly.

  13. Shrimp cephalothorax meal in laying hen diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Salas-Durán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to meassure the effect of shrimp meal (SM in commercial laying hen diets. From April to September 2013, in Costa Rica, Pleuroncodes planipes was used to obtain a meal (SM with a yield of 15%, particle size of 256 μg and negative for Salmonella sp. Proximate analysis was performed to the SM: crude protein (40.67%, ether extract (11.05%, crude fiber (7.12%, ash (27.48%, calcium (9.03%, phosphorus (2.66%, amino acid profile, pepsin digestibility (84% and acidity (8.34. Subsequently, a trial was performed with 140 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens, fed with four different diets containing increasing levels of inclusion of SM (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% during four weeks; and formulated according to the ideal protein and digestible amino acids concepts; being isocaloric and isoproteic. The variables experimentally evaluated were: production percentage, feed intake, body weight, mortality, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Only egg weight changed significantly between treatments in the third week (p<0.05. The hens fed with 5% SM laid heavier eggs. It is suggested to evaluate a level of SM inclusion up to 15% in laying hens diets.

  14. Childhood obesity and interpersonal dynamics during family meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Rowley, Seth; Trofholz, Amanda; Hanson, Carrie; Rueter, Martha; MacLehose, Richard F; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-11-01

    Family meals have been found to be associated with a number of health benefits for children; however, associations with obesity have been less consistent, which raises questions about the specific characteristics of family meals that may be protective against childhood obesity. The current study examined associations between interpersonal and food-related family dynamics at family meals and childhood obesity status. The current mixed-methods, cross-sectional study included 120 children (47% girls; mean age: 9 years) and parents (92% women; mean age: 35 years) from low-income and minority communities. Families participated in an 8-day direct observational study in which family meals were video-recorded in their homes. Family meal characteristics (eg, length of the meal, types of foods served) were described and associations between dyadic (eg, parent-child, child-sibling) and family-level interpersonal and food-related dynamics (eg, communication, affect management, parental food control) during family meals and child weight status were examined. Significant associations were found between positive family- and parent-level interpersonal dynamics (ie, warmth, group enjoyment, parental positive reinforcement) at family meals and reduced risk of childhood overweight. In addition, significant associations were found between positive family- and parent-level food-related dynamics (ie, food warmth, food communication, parental food positive reinforcement) and reduced risk of childhood obesity. Results extend previous findings on family meals by providing a better understanding of interpersonal and food-related family dynamics at family meals by childhood weight status. Findings suggest the importance of working with families to improve the dyadic and family-level interpersonal and food-related dynamics at family meals. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Characterization of total antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of differently pigmented rice varieties and their changes during domestic cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaupa, Maria; Calani, Luca; Del Rio, Daniele; Brighenti, Furio; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2015-11-15

    In the recent years, the pigmented rice varieties are becoming more popular due to their antioxidant properties and phenolic content. In this study, we characterized the antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the phenolic profile in white, red and black rice varieties, and evaluated the effect of two cooking methods (i.e. "risotto" and boiling) on these compounds. Before the cooking, all the varieties contained several phenolic acids, whereas anthocyanins and flavonols were peculiar of black rice and flavan-3-ols of red rice. Among the rice varieties, the black had the highest TAC value. The content of (poly)phenolic compounds and TAC decreased after cooking in all three varieties, but to a lesser extent after the risotto method. As a consequence, the risotto cooking, which allows a complete absorption of water, would be a good cooking method to retain (poly)phenolic compounds and TAC in pigmented and non-pigmented whole-meal rice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rice brans, rice bran oils, and rice hulls: composition, food and industrial uses, and bioactivities in humans, animals, and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2013-11-13

    Rice plants produce bioactive rice brans and hulls that have been reported to have numerous health-promoting effects in cells, animals, and humans. The main objective of this review is to consolidate and integrate the widely scattered information on the composition and the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating effects of rice brans from different rice cultivars, rice bran oils derived from rice brans, rice hulls, liquid rice hull smoke derived from rice hulls, and some of their bioactive compounds. As part of this effort, this paper also presents brief summaries on the preparation of health-promoting foods including bread, corn flakes, frankfurters, ice cream, noodles, pasta, tortillas, and zero-trans-fat shortening as well as industrial products such bioethanol and biodiesel fuels. Also covered are antibiotic, antiallergic, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, cardiovascular, allelochemical, and other beneficial effects and the mechanisms of the bioactivities. The results show that food-compatible and safe formulations with desirable nutritional and biological properties can be used to develop new multifunctional foods as well as bioethanol and biodiesel fuel. The overlapping aspects are expected to contribute to a better understanding of the potential impact of the described health-promoting potential of the rice-derived brans, oils, and hulls in food and medicine. Such an understanding will enhance nutrition and health and benefit the agricultural and industrial economies.

  17. Agriculture Education. Soybeans and Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural education. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) soybeans, (2) rice, and (3) orientation. Each of the 17 units of instruction follows a typical format: terminal objective, specific…

  18. Comparative evaluation of ensiled cassava peel meal and sun-dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pedimo Laptop

    DRIED CASSAVA PEEL MEALS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF FINISHER. BROILERS ... dried cassava peal meal and ensiled cassava peel meal on the performance of broiler finisher. MATERIALS ..... AID Contract No. eds/2497. University of ...

  19. Nutritional and sensory attributes of soy-supplemented cereal meals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soy flour, cereal flour and starch were prepared with slight modifications of the traditional methods. Cereal starch and flour were then fortified with soy flour in a ratio of 3:1 (w/w) of cereal starch flour to soy flour and were used to prepare dumplings breakfast meals and cakes. Unfortified meals were prepared as control ...

  20. A comparison between hominy chop and defatted maize germ meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defatted maize germ meal (DMG) is arbitrarily rated at a lower economic value than maize meal or hominy chop (HC). Five treatments with 15 steers each were fed different inclusion levels of DMG (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%), replacing hominy chop during the fattening period. Slaughter data were collected for carcass ...

  1. Performance of broiler chickens fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.75% Moringa oleifera leaf meal) and T4 (1.0% Moringa oleifera leaf meal) in a Completely Randomized Design. The birds were distributed into 4 replicates comprising 10 chickens per replicate and managed under dip litter system for a period ...

  2. Nutritional status of palm kernel meal inoculated with Trichoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of Trichoderma harzanium to improve the nutritional status of palm kernel meal (P K M) was assessed over forty days of fermentation. Fermentation within this time period induced various changes in the proximate and mineral analysis of the palm kernel meal. Comparatively, the highest crude protein and ether ...

  3. Commercial production of fish meal from fish waste

    OpenAIRE

    Eyo, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of fish meal production as a means of reducing fish waste currently being experienced in the fisheries subsector is discussed. Cost estimate for Nigeria establishing a fish meal manufacturing plant and suggestions on rational execution of the project are presented. If properly located and well managed, the project will serve to convert fish waste to cash in the industrial fishery

  4. Feeding value of processed horse eye bean ( Mucuna urens ) meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to evaluate the performance of pullet chicks fed graded levels of processed horse eye bean meal (HEBM) as partial replacement for soybean meal. The cracked beans were subjected to three processing methods viz: soaking in plain water for 48 hours, cooking for 90 minutes, and toasting on open ...

  5. 7 CFR 272.9 - Approval of homeless meal providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of homeless meal providers. 272.9 Section 272.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE... with the State food stamp agency shall execute contracts with restaurants wishing to sell meals in...

  6. Influence of graded levels or toasted Bambara groundnut meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of feeding graded levels of toasted bambara ground nut meal on rabbit weaners was investigated. A total of fifty white rabbit weaners of 6 - 8 weeks with an average weight of 366.7g were fed the graded level of Bambara nut meal at 0, 5, 15, 25 or 35% inclusion level in a complete randomized design experiment ...

  7. Adequacy of micronutrient content of south eastern Nigerian meals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequacy of micronutrient content of south eastern Nigerian meals in meeting the nutritional needs of vulnerable groups. ... Portion sizes of meals consumed by these vulnerable groups were obtained during an interview and validated using data obtained from food consumption surveys. The amount of Zn and Fe in such ...

  8. The non-acidogenic potential of two Ghanaian meals | Addai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pH of baseline saliva given by volunteers prior to eating a meal, and at specific intervals after the meal (effect saliva) was measured using a Kent EIL 7020 pH meter. As control, volunteers were given a “glucose challenge” in which they rinsed their mouths with a 5% glucose solution for exactly 60 seconds. Changes in ...

  9. Atherogenic potentials of some Nigerian meals | Eyong | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The atherogenic potentials of peeled grated cocoyam (Xanthosoma maffafa scot) "ekpang nkukwo", pounded yam (Discorea spp) with plain soup "afia efere", and plantain porridge (Musa paradisiaca) "iwuk ukom" meals were investigated. The three meals were fed to three different groups of albino rats of Wistar strain for a ...

  10. Effects of sesame meal on intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were carried out to determine ruminal degradability of sesame meal (SSM) and its effects on intake, digestibility, rumen parameters, chewing activity, and lamb performance when it replaced soybean meal (SBM). Degradability of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) were determined with the nylon bag ...

  11. Adhesion Properties of Plywood Glue Containing Soybean Meal as Extender

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of soybean meal as protein extender in plywood adhesive intended for sprayline coaters. Ground soybean meal, with 51.5% (dry basis, db) crude protein and 1.5% (db) residual oil, replaced the current industry extender, wheat flour, in the standard ...

  12. Effect of Replacement of Maize with Cassava Root Meal Fortified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of replacement of maize with cassava root meal (CRM) fortified with palm oil on performance of starter broilers were determined in a 28-day feeding trial. Diets T2, T3, T4 and T5 were formulated such that they contained cassava root meal, fortified with 20% palm oil, in the proportions 10, 20, 30 and 40%, ...

  13. Agricultural technologies bring healthy diversity to school meals ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-26

    Apr 26, 2016 ... A farm to fork approach to nutritious school meals: Tackling childhood obesity in the Caribbean. In St Kitts-Nevis and Trinidad and Tobago, partnerships between the agriculture, health, and education sectors have united in a "Farm to Fork" effo. View moreA farm to fork approach to nutritious school meals: ...

  14. Screening for gestational diabetes: examining a breakfast meal test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Layman's summary: It is necessary to screen for the development of diabetes during pregnancy. The standard test with 75 g of glucose is unpalatable and is sometimes replaced by a meal test. However, when this meal test is provided by the women themselves without standardisation, the sugar and starch quantities are too ...

  15. THE EFFECT OF THE PROTEIN SOLUBILITY OF FISH MEAL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    utilization of fish meal proteins was determined by a relationship between their solubility or apparent digestibility and the rate of passage of digesta through the digestive tract. The treatment of fish meal with formaldehyde decreased its digestibility. The micro-organisms in the rumen may, under certain conditions even have ...

  16. Effect of Hoodia gordonii leaf meal supplementation at finisher stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Hoodia gordonii leaf meal supplementation at finisher stage on productivity, carcass characteristics and meat sensory attributes of male Ross 308 broiler chickens. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Key words: Hoodia gordonii meal, broiler chickens, intake, growth, fat pad weights, meat sensory attributes.

  17. Meal pattern and soft drink consumption among in-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meal pattern and soft drink consumption among in-school adolescents in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Healthy meal pattern is very important in the maintenance of the highest level of physical, mental and social well-being of an individual, more so during the adolescence period which is characterized by dramatic physical ...

  18. Effect Of Replacing Soybean Meal With Cooked Whole Soybean On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At starter phase, three isonitrogenous (24% crude protein, CP) and isocaloric (2.9 meal ME/KG) broiler starter diets containing either raw (R) or cooked full-fat soyabeans (C), or defatted soyabean meal (M) were each fed to 60 Anak broiler chicks from 10 to 45 days of age. At finisher phase, 108 45-day old birds from starter ...

  19. Biochemical evaluation of Gmelina arborea fruit meal as a swine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diets formulated on iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic basis had Diet 1 containing 30% processed GAF meal and was taken as a reference Diet while Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 10, 20 and 30% raw GAF meal respectively. The experimental diets and water were supplied to appetite in a feeding trial which lasted for 28 ...

  20. Ruminal dry matter degradability of treated soybean meal as source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study rumen degradation of dry matter for treating soybean meal with black liquor as source of xylose and microwave radiation, an experiment in nylon bag technique was performed. Samples for treating soybean meal for 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h in the rumen of three Taleshi male cows were incubated. Soybean ...

  1. 27 CFR 31.42 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restaurants serving... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.42 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve liquors with meals to paying customers, even if no...

  2. Response of bread wheat to increasing mustard meal nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mustard seed meal was evaluated on the field as source of nitrogen for bread wheat on Pellic Vertisol and Eutric Nitosol in a split plot design with three replications. Highly significant yield increases were obtained due to mustard meal nitrogen rates during all the experimental periods on the Vertisol. The increase in the ...

  3. A comparative study of competitiveness between different genotypes of weedy rice (Oryza sativa) and cultivated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Lu, Baorong; Qiang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Competition from weedy rice can cause serious yield losses to cultivated rice. However, key traits that facilitate competitiveness are still not well understood. To explore the mechanisms behind the strong growth and competitive ability, replacement series experiments were established with six genotypes of weedy rice from different regions and one cultivated rice cultivar. (1) Weedy rice from southern China had the greatest impact on growth and yield of cultivated rice throughout the entire growing season. Weedy rice from the northeast was very competitive during the early vegetative stage while the competitive effects of eastern weedy rice were more detrimental at later crop-growth stages. (2) As the proportion of weedy rice increased, plant height, tillers, above-ground biomass, and yield of cultivated rice significantly declined; the crop always being at disadvantage regardless of proportion. (3) Weedy biotypes with greater diversity as estimated by their Shannon indexes were more detrimental to the growth and yield of cultivated rice. Geographic origin (latitude) of weedy rice biotype, its mixture proportion under competition with the crop and its genetic diversity are determinant factors of the outcome of competition and the associated decline in the rice crop yield. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Determinants of meal satisfaction in a workplace environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Stancu, Catalin M.; Brockhoff, Per B.

    2016-01-01

    -related variables. A mixed modelling approach was used to analyse the data. Meal satisfaction was directly associated with a positive ambience and a positive evaluation of both the quality of the food eaten and the buffet assortment, whereas the meal's energy content did not contribute to meal satisfaction....... Additionally, meal satisfaction was associated with a more positive mood, lower hunger level as well as feeling less busy and stressed after lunch. The buffet assortment, a more positive mood before lunch and mindful eating contributed to the perceived food quality, but not associated with the hunger level...... before lunch. Time available, mindful eating and eating with close colleagues were positively associated with perceived ambience. The results indicate that consumers' satisfaction with workplace meals can be increased by putting emphasis on the quality of food served, but equally important...

  5. Recent advances in canola meal utilization in swine nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejicanos, G; Sanjayan, N; Kim, I H; Nyachoti, C M

    2016-01-01

    Canola meal is derived from the crushing of canola seed for oil extraction. Although it has been used in swine diets for a long time, its inclusion levels have been limited due to concerns regarding its nutritive value primarily arising from results of early studies showing negative effects of dietary canola meal inclusion in swine diets. Such effects were attributable to the presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANF; notably glucosinolates) in canola meal. However, due to advances in genetic improvements of canola that have led to production of cultivars with significantly lower ANF content and improved processing procedures, canola meal with a superior nutritive value for non-ruminant animals is now available. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review the recent studies in the use of canola meal as feedstuff for swine, the factors influencing its use and the strategies to overcome them. First a historical overview of the development of canola is provided.

  6. Recent advances in canola meal utilization in swine nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mejicanos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canola meal is derived from the crushing of canola seed for oil extraction. Although it has been used in swine diets for a long time, its inclusion levels have been limited due to concerns regarding its nutritive value primarily arising from results of early studies showing negative effects of dietary canola meal inclusion in swine diets. Such effects were attributable to the presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANF; notably glucosinolates in canola meal. However, due to advances in genetic improvements of canola that have led to production of cultivars with significantly lower ANF content and improved processing procedures, canola meal with a superior nutritive value for non-ruminant animals is now available. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review the recent studies in the use of canola meal as feedstuff for swine, the factors influencing its use and the strategies to overcome them. First a historical overview of the development of canola is provided.

  7. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P < 0.01) between rice plant parameters, rice yield and soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal

  8. The epidemiology of family meals among Ohio's adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Rachel; Anderson, Sarah E

    2015-06-01

    The epidemiology of family meals among adults at a population level is poorly characterized and whether living with children impacts this health behaviour is uncertain. We determined the prevalence of family meals among US adults in a mid-western state whose families did and did not include minor children and described how it varied by sociodemographic characteristics. The cross-sectional 2012 Ohio Medicaid Assessment Survey is representative of Ohio adults and included questions on their sociodemographic characteristics and the frequency with which they eat family meals at home. Trained interviewers administered landline and cell phone surveys to adults sampled from Ohio's non-institutionalized population. We analysed data from 5766 adults living with minor children and 8291 adults not living alone or with children. The prevalence of family meals was similar for adults who did and did not live with minor children: 47 % (95 % CI 46, 49 %) of adults living with and 51 % (95 % CI 50, 53 %) of adults living without children reported eating family meals on most (six or seven) days of the week. Family meal frequency varied by race/ethnicity, marital and employment status in both groups. Non-Hispanic African-American adults, those who were not married and those who were employed ate family meals less often. Adults in Ohio frequently shared meals with their family and family meal frequency was not strongly related to living with children. Broadening the scope of future studies to include adults who are not parents could enhance our understanding of the potential health benefits of sharing meals.

  9. The Association between Family Meals, TV Viewing during Meals, and Fruit, Vegetables, Soda, and Chips Intake among Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaya, Abegail A.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Alcaraz, John E.; Lindsay, Suzanne P.; Elder, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Examine the relationship of family meals to children's consumption of fruit and vegetables as well as soda and chips. Additionally, to assess the relationship between viewing TV during family meals and children's diet. Design: Cross-sectional study that used a questionnaire completed by parents. Setting: Thirteen schools in San Diego,…

  10. Replacement of Soybean Meal with Animal Origin Protein Meals Improved Ramoplanin A2 Production by Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Deniz; Kayali, Hulya Ayar

    2016-09-01

    Ramoplanin A2 is the last resort antibiotic for treatment of many high morbidity- and mortality-rated hospital infections, and it is expected to be marketed in the forthcoming years. Therefore, high-yield production of ramoplanin A2 gains importance. In this study, meat-bone meal, poultry meal, and fish meal were used instead of soybean meal for ramoplanin A2 production by Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076. All animal origin nitrogen sources stimulated specific productivity. Ramoplanin A2 levels were determined as 406.805 mg L(-1) in fish meal medium and 374.218 mg L(-1) in poultry meal medium. These levels were 4.25- and 4.09-fold of basal medium, respectively. However, the total yield of poultry meal was higher than that of fish meal, which is also low-priced. In addition, the variations in pH levels, protein levels, reducing sugar levels, extracellular protease, amylase and lipase activities, and intracellular free amino acid levels were monitored during the incubation period. The correlations between ramoplanin production and these variables with respect to the incubation period were determined. The intracellular levels of L-Phe, D-Orn, and L-Leu were found critical for ramoplanin A2 production. The strategy of using animal origin nitrogen sources can be applied for large-scale ramoplanin A2 production.

  11. Meals served in Danish nursing homes and to meals-on-wheels clients may not offer nutritionally adequate choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Hansen, Kirsten S.

    2010-01-01

    Underweight is a significant problem among older Danish nursing home residents and home-care clients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition of the meals prepared for older adults in nursing homes and receiving Meals-on-Wheels deliveries, focusing on the menus most...... offer adequate nutritional intakes....

  12. Sociological aspects of meat in meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katherine O'Doherty

    2009-01-01

    Health professionals and environmental experts advocate reduced consumption of meat in industrialized regions. On this background, and in light of a number of sociological studies of food practices and meal formats among consumers, this paper examines some aspects of the cultural entrenchment...... and vulnerability of meat consumption. Tacit meanings of meat products are seen as arising from the human tendency to rank and grade objects relative to each other, a process that is intrinsic to consumption practices. Examples of the ways in which gradient meanings of meat products are entrenched in food practices...... and of ways in which this consumption is vulnerable to change, are presented. On this basis, the likelihood that current levels of meat consumption in industrialized societies will remain relatively stable or tend to decrease are briefly discussed....

  13. Tier I Rice Model - Version 1.0 - Guidance for Estimating Pesticide Concentrations in Rice Paddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes a Tier I Rice Model (Version 1.0) for estimating surface water exposure from the use of pesticides in rice paddies. The concentration calculated can be used for aquatic ecological risk and drinking water exposure assessments.

  14. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K.

    2012-01-01

    of school lunches for children aged 7–13 years. Design A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7–13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated...... of a school food programme. In addition thirty-two lunches provided at eighteen other public schools were included. Subjects A total of 254 school lunches. Results A higher Meal IQ score was associated with a higher overall dietary quality, including lower contents of fat, saturated fat and added sugars......, higher contents of fibre, various vitamins and minerals, and more fruits, vegetables and fish. Conclusions The Meal IQ is a valid and useful evaluation tool for assessing the dietary quality of lunches provided by schools or brought to school from home....

  15. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne S; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2012-01-01

    of school lunches for children aged 7-13 years. DESIGN: A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7-13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated...... of a school food programme. In addition thirty-two lunches provided at eighteen other public schools were included. SUBJECTS: A total of 254 school lunches. RESULTS: A higher Meal IQ score was associated with a higher overall dietary quality, including lower contents of fat, saturated fat and added sugars......, higher contents of fibre, various vitamins and minerals, and more fruits, vegetables and fish. CONCLUSIONS: The Meal IQ is a valid and useful evaluation tool for assessing the dietary quality of lunches provided by schools or brought to school from home....

  16. The TIGR Rice Genome Annotation Resource: improvements and new features

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ouyang, Shu; Zhu, Wei; Hamilton, John; Lin, Haining; Campbell, Matthew; Childs, Kevin; Thibaud-Nissen, Françoise; Malek, Renae L; Lee, Yuandan; Zheng, Li; Orvis, Joshua; Haas, Brian; Wortman, Jennifer; Buell, C Robin

    2007-01-01

    In The Institute for Genomic Research Rice Genome Annotation project (http://rice.tigr.org), we have continued to update the rice genome sequence with new data and improve the quality of the annotation...

  17. Shared meals among young adults are associated with better diet quality and predicted by family meal patterns during adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe shared meal patterns and examine associations with dietary intake among young adults. Design Population-based, longitudinal cohort study (Project EAT: Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Setting Participants completed surveys and food frequency questionnaires in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota high school classrooms in 1998–1999 (mean age=15.0, “adolescence”) and follow-up measures online or by mail in 2008–2009 (mean age=25.3, “young adulthood”). Subjects There were 2,052 participants who responded to the 10-year follow-up survey and reported on frequency of having shared meals. Results Among young adults, the frequency of shared meals during the past week was as follows: never (9.9%), one or two times (24.7%), three to six times (39.1%), and seven or more times (26.3%). Having more frequent family meals during adolescence predicted a higher frequency of shared meals in young adulthood above and beyond other relevant sociodemographic factors such as household composition and parental status. Compared to young adults who never had family meals during adolescence, those young adults who reported seven or more family meals per week during adolescence had an average of one additional shared meal per week. Having more frequent shared meals in young adulthood was associated with greater intake of fruit among males and females, and with higher intakes of vegetables, milk products, and some key nutrients among females. Conclusions Nutrition professionals should encourage families of adolescents to share meals often and establish the tradition of eating together, and work with young adults to ensure that healthy food and beverage choices are offered at mealtimes. PMID:22857517

  18. The role of momilactones in rice allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Peters, Reuben J

    2013-02-01

    Large field screening programs and laboratory experiments in many countries have indicated that rice is allelopathic and releases allelochemical(s) into its environment. A number of compounds, such as phenolic acids, fatty acids, phenylalkanoic acids, hydroxamic acids, terpenes, and indoles, have been identified as potential rice allelochemicals. However, the studies reviewed here demonstrate that the labdane-related diterpenoid momilactones are the most important, with momilactone B playing a particularly critical role. Rice plants secrete momilactone B from their roots into the neighboring environments over their entire life cycle at phytotoxic levels, and momilactone B seems to account for the majority of the observed rice allelopathy. In addition, genetic studies have shown that selective removal of the momilactones only from the complex mixture found in rice root exudates significantly reduces allelopathy, demonstrating that these serve as allelochemicals, the importance of which is reflected in the presence of a dedicated momilactone biosynthetic gene cluster in the rice genome.

  19. Novel transgenic rice-based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azegami, Tatsuhiko; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Yuki, Yoshikazu

    2015-04-01

    Oral vaccination can induce both systemic and mucosal antigen-specific immune responses. To control rampant mucosal infectious diseases, the development of new effective oral vaccines is needed. Plant-based vaccines are new candidates for oral vaccines, and have some advantages over the traditional vaccines in cost, safety, and scalability. Rice seeds are attractive for vaccine production because of their stability and resistance to digestion in the stomach. The efficacy of some rice-based vaccines for infectious, autoimmune, and other diseases has been already demonstrated in animal models. We reported the efficacy in mice, safety, and stability of a rice-based cholera toxin B subunit vaccine called MucoRice-CTB. To advance MucoRice-CTB for use in humans, we also examined its efficacy and safety in primates. The potential of transgenic rice production as a new mucosal vaccine delivery system is reviewed from the perspective of future development of effective oral vaccines.

  20. USING CORN DISTILLER’S GRAIN AND RICE BRAN IN THE NUTRITION OF LAYING HENS AND ITS ECONOMIC IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Layers feeding are a technological factor that could increase economic efficiency in egg production if it is scientifically managed. The increasing price of raw materials used for producing diet imposes as nutritionists to look for new cheaper feedstuff able to replace the traditional and more expensive ingredients like soybean meal. This study aimed to set up new diet formulae for layers feeding. These new formulae are replacing soybean meal with corn distiller’s grain and rice bran. The new formulae assure the same protein and calories content. The V1 formula contents 30 % corn distiller’s grain and V2 contains 20 % rice bran. The effects of these formulae on the technological parameters and economic efficiency in egg production have been watched in micro test using a sample of 216 layers belonging to Roso 2000 hybrid line. The main parameters taken into account have been the following ones: average egg production, egg laying capacity, egg weight, yolk weight, white weight, shell weight, feed consumption, food conversion, cost and income/layer, profit/layer and profit/egg. The results obtained in micro test by the two experimental groups differently fed with V1 and respectively V 2 have been compared to the ones recorded by M group, fed with the classical diet based on 23 % soybean meal. We have noticed that the layers fed with rations based on corn distiller’s grain and rice bran have registered high quantitative and qualitative performances in egg production, leading to substantial savings related to production costs and to a higher profit per layer and egg.

  1. Effects of Supplementation of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) Leaf Meal on Feed Intake and Rumen Fermentation Efficiency in Swamp Buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, N. T.; Wanapat, M.; Kang, S.; Cherdthong, A.

    2015-01-01

    Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) leaf meal (ELM) supplementation as a rumen enhancer on feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = 0 g ELM/hd/d; T2 = 40 g ELM/hd/d; T3 = 80 g ELM/hd/d; T4 = 120 g ELM/hd/d, respectively. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate was offered at 0.3% BW while rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results revealed that voluntary feed intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH, temperature and blood urea nitrogen concentrations were not affected by ELM supplementation; however, ELM supplementation resulted in lower concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen. Total volatile fatty acids, propionate concentration increased with the increasing level of EML (pefficiency. PMID:26104399

  2. Glycemic response of rice, wheat and finger millet based diabetic food formulations in normoglycemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobana, Shanmugam; Kumari, Singh R Usha; Malleshi, Nagappa G; Ali, Syed Z

    2007-08-01

    Food formulations suitable as dietary supplements to diabetic subjects based on wheat, decorticated finger millet, popped (aralu) and expanded (puri) rice each blended separately with legumes, non-fat dry milk, vegetable oils, spices and a few hypoglycemic ingredients were formulated. The formulations contained 13.0-18.3% protein, 11.3-11.8% fat, 59.9-67.5% starch and 13.2-18.0% dietary fiber. A 50-g equivalent carbohydrate portion of the foods in the form of thick porridge was provided to eight healthy adult subjects and the postprandial blood glucose response was determined. The Glycemic Index (GI) values were 55.4+/-9, 93.4+/-7, 105+/-6 and 109+/-8 for wheat-based, millet-based, aralu-based and puri-based formulations. The variations in the GI could be attributed to the nature of available as well as non-available (non-starchy polysaccharides) carbohydrates in the foods besides the processing undergone by the cereal ingredients. The higher GI of rice formulations could be due to the easily digestible nature of starches and also their lower dietary fiber contents. The study revealed the suitability of wheat-based formulation as a food supplement or as meal replacer in diabetic subjects but the unsuitability of rice-based formulations.

  3. [Glycemic index of two varieties of pasta and two varieties of rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridner, Edgardo; Di Sibio, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    The IG has been extensively studied as an indicator of the physiological effects of a carbohydrate meal with applications in the management and prevention of diabetes, dyslipidemia and obesity. A standard assay was performed to measure the glycemic index (GI) of two significant sources of carbohydrates following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended methodology, determining the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve of a 50g carbohydrate portion of the test food compared to the same amount of carbohydrate from a glucose solution by the same subject measured in capillary whole blood before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ingestion in a total of 9 subjects. The following results were obtained: Parboil rice: 73, Long Grain White Rice: 59; Pasta of durum wheat (Triticum durum): 71, Pasta of regular flour (Triticum aestivium): 38. This test confirms the low glycemic index of pasta made from durum wheat, and is the first measurement for pasta of common wheat flour properly characterized. It also indicates the values of the prevailing presentations of rice in the region, adding a reference for professionals and authorities.

  4. DETERMINATION OF SPATIAL INTEGRATION AND SUBSTITUTION OF FOREIGN RICE FOR LOCAL RICE IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Kofi ADOM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tested for spatial integration in the rice market and the substitution of imported rice for local rice in Ghana. It is established that the markets for domestic imported rice are well-integrated, but not complete. The imperfect spatial integration of domestic foreign rice markets implies that the market provides opportunities for arbitrage. Price leadership roles are found to be determined by the kind of sub-inter-regional-trade network defined. However, in all, the Accra market emerged as a dominant market leader in the domestic foreign rice market. There is evidence of significant regional substitution of foreign rice for local rice in the long run, but the result is mixed in the short run. The result that local rice is not a perfect substitute for imported rice implies that price disincentive measures such as increasing the import tariffs on foreign rice will only produce a mild effect on increasing the producer price faced by local rice farmers, but aggravate the burden on households’ budget.

  5. Relative competitive ability of rice with strawhull and blackhull red rice biotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed interference depends largely upon the species composition of the weed community and an ability to compete with the cultured crop. Weedy red rice is a major weed pest of rice in the southern U.S. The focus of this study was to evaluate the competitive ability of rice against common, genetically ...

  6. Characterizing irrigation water requirements for rice production from the Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated rice irrigation water use in the University of Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program between the years of 2003 and 2011. Irrigation water use averaged 747 mm (29.4 inches) over the nine years. A significant 40% water savings was reported for rice grown under a zero gr...

  7. Reaction of rice cultivars to a virulent Rice Yellow Mottle Virus strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    has long been an important food staple for many traditional rice growing communities. Key developments in efforts to improve rice ... Appropriate sources of resistance to RYMV should be identified and characterised in order to pyramid genes for both complete and partial resistance. In this study, reaction of nine (9) rice ...

  8. RiceAtlas, a spatial database of global rice calendars and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laborte, Alice G.; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Balanza, Jane Girly; Saito, Kazuki; Zwart, Sander J.; Boschetti, Mirco; Murty, M. V.R.; Villano, Lorena; Aunario, Jorrel Khalil; Reinke, Russell; Koo, Jawoo; Hijmans, Robert J.; Nelson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Knowing where, when, and how much rice is planted and harvested is crucial information for understanding the effects of policy, trade, and global and technological change on food security. We developed RiceAtlas, a spatial database on the seasonal distribution of the world's rice production. It

  9. Effect of volunteer rice infestation on grain quality and yield of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volunteer rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants arise from shattered seeds of the previous crop, which could reduce the yield of cultivated rice and the commercial value of harvested grain. Volunteer rice plants from a cultivar other than the current crop produce grains that may differ in physico-chemical t...

  10. Mycotoxin Contamination of Rice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang Dong; Su, Ping; Shan, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Mycotoxin contamination in rice is generally lower than in other cereals such as corn or wheat. However, over 65% of the population in China consumes rice as a staple food. Due to the diversity of the climate across China, the southern region is characterized by high temperatures and humidities, especially in rainy season. Such conditions are optimal for the growth of fungi. The accumulative and transferrable characteristics of fungi mycotoxins pose a great potential threat as confirmed by high incidences of liver cancer in the Yangtze delta region. Major mycotoxins identified in China are aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, as well as fumonisins. The contents of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) in rice are varied among different provinces and regions and generally less than 5 μg/kg. Although high incidences of positive aflatoxins samples have widely been detected, few samples were detected as exceeding the national's maximum residue limit (10 μg/kg). Limited information is available on risk assessment of human health hazards of mycotoxins in rice, children should be paid more attention to due to their having the highest mycotoxins exposure level, although the risks are generally at low levels from rice. Mycotoxins are mainly distributed in the outer layer of the paddy rice (also called rough rice, referring to whole rice grain with the hulls), and the AFB1 content in bran is 8.4 times greater than that in brown rice (hulled rice). Further investigation should focus on isolation and identification of mycotoxins-producing fungal strains, especially unknown mycotoxigenic fungal strains determination. Infection resistant rice breeding of mycotoxigenic fungal species may be a fundamental approach to guaranteeing rice safety in China. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Guyana Rice Supply Chain Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This report is the outcome of assessment and is intended as an advisory note to the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) and Guyana Rice Development Board (GRDB) to enable them to identify a strategy and potential public investments to improve current risk-management practices in the rice supply chain. This report identifies the major risks facing the rice supply chain, ranks them in terms of the...

  12. Cropping system diversification for food production in Mindanao rubber plantations: a rice cultivar mixture and rice intercropped with mungbean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosa Fe Hondrade; Edwin Hondrade; Lianqing Zheng; Francisco Elazegui; Jo-Anne Lynne Joy E Duque; Christopher C Mundt; Casiana M Vera Cruz; Karen A Garrett

    2017-01-01

    .... We evaluated the potential for planting rice, mungbean, rice cultivar mixtures, and rice intercropped with mungbean in young rubber plantations in experiments in the Arakan Valley of Mindanao in the Philippines...

  13. Exploring patients' experience of hospital meal-ordering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottrey, Ella; Porter, Judi

    2017-08-09

    Meal-ordering systems are an important aspect of hospital food services, informing patients of the available menu choices and supporting the collection of meal orders. Although several meal-ordering systems are used in hospitals, there has been limited research into patients' experience of these systems. Aim To explore patients' experience of written, spoken and visual menus in the acute hospital setting. Method Ten patients from a tertiary teaching hospital were asked to evaluate three meal-ordering systems, which were randomly allocated to them. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to gain an understanding of the patients' experience of meal-ordering systems. Findings The type and quality of food provided, the importance of information, the characteristics of the menu monitor, and the meal-ordering process were identified as important factors in enhancing patient satisfaction with hospital food services, regardless of the meal-ordering system used. Conclusion Patients place a high value on the quality of hospital food, and hospital food service departments should engage with patients when reviewing and designing menus. Healthcare organisations should also consider implementing spoken or visual menus to complement existing strategies to enhance patient satisfaction with hospital food services.

  14. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: meal frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stout Jeffrey R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Position Statement: Admittedly, research to date examining the physiological effects of meal frequency in humans is somewhat limited. More specifically, data that has specifically examined the impact of meal frequency on body composition, training adaptations, and performance in physically active individuals and athletes is scant. Until more research is available in the physically active and athletic populations, definitive conclusions cannot be made. However, within the confines of the current scientific literature, we assert that: 1. Increasing meal frequency does not appear to favorably change body composition in sedentary populations. 2. If protein levels are adequate, increasing meal frequency during periods of hypoenergetic dieting may preserve lean body mass in athletic populations. 3. Increased meal frequency appears to have a positive effect on various blood markers of health, particularly LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and insulin. 4. Increased meal frequency does not appear to significantly enhance diet induced thermogenesis, total energy expenditure or resting metabolic rate. 5. Increasing meal frequency appears to help decrease hunger and improve appetite control. The following literature review has been prepared by the authors in support of the aforementioned position statement.

  15. Estradiol: a rhythmic, inhibitory, indirect control of meal size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Lisa A

    2004-08-01

    The classic analyses of the inhibitory effects of cholecystokinin (CCK) on meal size, conducted by Professor Gerard P. Smith and his colleagues at the Bourne Laboratory, inspired my initial interest in this field. My current research, which investigates the role of estradiol in the control of meal size, continues to be guided by Gerry's thoughtful, scientific approach to the study of ingestive behavior. In 1996, the year I arrived as a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Bourne Laboratory, Gerry published a new theory of the controls of meal size. In this important paper, Gerry proposed that the controls of meal size can be either direct or indirect. He argued that direct controls of meal size interact with peripheral, preabsorptive receptors that are sensitive to the chemical, mechanical, and colligative properties of ingested food and that indirect controls of meal size function to modulate the activity of direct controls. The purpose of this review is to illustrate how Gerry's theory has guided much of what is known about the mechanism by which estradiol inhibits food intake in female rats. I will provide evidence, primarily from behavioral studies of gonadally intact and ovariectomized rats, that estradiol exerts phasic and tonic inhibitory effects on food intake by acting as a rhythmic, inhibitory, indirect control of meal size.

  16. Psychological effects of snacks and altered meal frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanarek, R

    1997-04-01

    Over the past two decades, substantial research has been conducted to investigate the idea that alterations in short-term nutritional intake play a role in influencing cognitive behaviour and mood. A portion of this research has examined specifically the effect of meal intake on the performance of mental tasks and subjective feelings of mood. Results of this research indicate that a number of variables including the timing and nutritional composition of the meal, nutritional status, habitual patterns of feeding behaviour, beliefs about food, and the nature of the mental tasks, can influence the effects of meals on cognitive behaviour. For example, studies have demonstrated that breakfast intake generally is associated with an improvement in cognitive performance later in the morning, while lunch intake is associated with an impairment in mid-afternoon performance on mental tasks and more negative reports of mood. Intake of nutrients late in the afternoon appears to have a positive effect on subsequent performance on tasks involving sustained attention or memory. Although research has provided insights into the role of meal intake on cognitive behaviour and mood, there are a number of factors which remain to be studied. These include the interaction of age, gender, activity level, meal composition, personality factors, stress with the effects of meals on cognitive behaviour. Additionally, more work is needed on the time-course of short-term nutrient effects, and the effects of chronic changes in meal intake on behaviour.

  17. Relationship between Family Meals and Depressive Symptoms in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Seok; Lee, Min-Ji; Suh, Young-Sung; Kim, Dae-Hyun

    2013-05-01

    Recently, importance of family meals has been emphasized at home and abroad, and several journals reported that family meals had a big impact on children's development. In this paper, we would like to report the relationship between family meals and depressive symptoms in children. This study was based on questionnaires distributed to 162 5th and 6th graders of one elementary school in the area of Daegu, Korea, in July, 2010. The questionnaire was about general characteristics, family characteristics, and quantity/quality of family meals. Family functions and depressive symptoms in children were evaluated with Smilkstein's family APGAR (adaptability, partnership, growth, affection, and resolve) score (FAS) and Kovac's Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). In one-way analyses of variance, there was no significant difference in FAS and CDI according to general and family characteristics (P > 0.05). CDI was significantly lower in the group having more frequent family meals (P 0.05). The frequency of family meals, having more conversation and better atmosphere during family meals predicted less depressive symptoms in children.

  18. Performance of lambs fed alternative protein sources to soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe José Lins Alves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of alternative protein sources (castor bean cake, sunflower cake, and sunflower seed to soybean meal on the intake and performance of 40 lambs, initially weighing 19.8±1.84 kg, fed diets based on Tifton grass hay. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks. There were no differences in the nutrient intake of castor bean diets compared with soybean meal. The intake of nutrients in the sunflower cake and sunflower seed diets was decreased compared with soybean meal. The apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber of sunflower cake and sunflower seed diets were decreased compared with soybean meal. The average daily weight gain of animals fed the castor bean diet (0.190 kg was not different from that of the animals fed the soybean meal diet (0.217 kg. The sunflower cake and sunflower seed diets provided less weight gain (0.171 and 0.135 kg d-1, respectively than soybean meal due to the lower nutrient intake. The hot carcass yield and true yield were not affected by the protein sources. The neck, ribs, and ham weights were similar in lambs fed soybean meal and castor bean cake diets. It is recommended to use castor bean as an alternative protein source in the diet of lambs.

  19. Postprandial platelet aggregation: effects of different meals and glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, K D K; Thomas, G A; Adams, M J; Ball, M J

    2012-06-01

    Hyperglycaemia is associated with increased platelet aggregation that increases the risk of thrombosis in people with type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Low glycemic index (GI) meals high in carbohydrate or moderately high in protein have been shown to acutely reduce postprandial excursions of plasma glucose and insulin compared with high carbohydrate high GI meals. However, it is not known whether these differences in glucose and insulin profile also impact on postprandial platelet aggregation. This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of three iso-energetic meals, on measures of postprandial platelet aggregation, in healthy individuals. A randomised cross-over study compared the acute effects of a high GI high carbohydrate (HGI-HC), a low GI high carbohydrate (LGI-HC) and a low GI moderately high in protein and fat (LGI-MPF) meal on postprandial platelet aggregation, glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations. Comparisons were made at fasting, 60 and 120 min postprandially. A total of 32 volunteers (mean ± s.d.; age 59.9 ± 11.7 years, BMI 27.1 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)) participated in the study. Results showed significant reductions in maximum platelet aggregation postprandially with nonsignificant differences (all P > 0.29) between the three meals. Glucose and insulin were significantly (both P 0.25) between the three test meals. In healthy individuals platelet aggregation is reduced postprandially but this decrease is similar between meals of different GI that induce different glucose and insulin responses.

  20. Extruded snacks with the addition of different fish meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Souza dos Reis GOES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tilapia, salmon, tuna and sardine meals were prepared to develop and analyze extruded snacks with residue meal from fish processing. Residue meals were included in five types of corn snacks: control (0% fish meal and four with 9% tilapia, salmon, tuna and sardine meals. Although moisture, lipids and carbohydrates rates did not differ among the snacks, protein rates increased with the increment of fish meal, reaching 11.85% in the tuna snack. Tuna and sardine snacks had the highest iron levels. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic, oleic, palmitic, linolenic and stearic acids, with sardine, salmon and tuna snacks presenting the highest values of n-3 series fatty acids. Greater luminosity rate was reported for salmon snack, followed by tilapia, tuna and sardine snacks. The highest sensory acceptance index was verified in tilapia (78.07% and salmon (72.40%. A 9% addition of residue meals of tilapia, salmon and tuna improved the nutritional value of the snacks.

  1. Study of rice. gamma. -irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lien, J.J.; Chau, R.S.; Chen, S.C.; Chu, S.L.; Fu, Y.K.; Fang, C.K.; Fu, Y.H.

    1981-03-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether the /sup 60/Co gamma-irradiated milled rice packed in economic and practical sealed bags could be preserved in common granaries in Taiwan for more than one year rather than slightly over one month without quality deterioration. As a result of this experiment we found that during the preservation of over a period of 18 months, the contents, such as moisture, ash, protein and fiber, of Tainan-5 Bon-Lai (Japonica Type) rice irradiated with 20 and 40 krad doses were quite stable, whereas reducing sugar showed slight fluctuations but did not vary significantly either. The fat, vitamin B/sub 1/ and niacin contents were found being reduced, while the increase in fatty acid content was an inevitable phenomenon along with the proceeding of the preservation.

  2. Development of a Quality of Meals and Meal Service Set of Indicators for Residential Facilities for Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, N; Buijck, B; Van Hecke, A; Verhaeghe, S; Goossens, E; Beeckman, D

    2016-01-01

    To develop a content validated set of indicators to evaluate the quality of meals and meal service in residential facilities for elderly. Inadequate food intake is an important risk factor for malnutrition in residential facilities for elderly. Through better meeting the needs and preferences of residents and optimization of meals and meal service, residents' food intake can improve. No indicators were available which could help to guide strategies to improve the quality of meals and meal service. The indicator set was developed according to the Indicator Development Manual of the Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement (CBO). The working group consisted of three nurse researchers and one expert in gastrology and had expertise in elderly care, malnutrition, indicator development, and food quality. A preliminary list of potential indicators was compiled using the literature and the working group's expertise. Criteria necessary to measure the indicator in practice were developed for each potential indicator. In a double Delphi procedure, the list of potential indicators and respective criteria were analyzed for content validity, using a multidisciplinary expert panel of 11 experts in elderly meal care. A preliminary list of 20 quality indicators, including 45 criteria, was submitted to the expert panel in a double Delphi procedure. After the second Delphi round, 13 indicators and 25 criteria were accepted as having content validity. The content validity index (CVI) ranged from 0.83 to 1. The indicator set consisted of six structural, four result, and three outcome indicators covering the quality domains food, service and choice, as well as nutritional screening. The criteria measure diverse aspects of meal care which are part of the responsibility of kitchen staff and health care professionals. The 'quality of meals and meal service' set of indicators is a resource to map meal quality in residential facilities for elderly. As soon as feasibility tests in practice

  3. Effect of Pseudocereal-Based Breakfast Meals on the First and Second Meal Glucose Tolerance in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrial, Shreef G N; Shakib, Marie-Christine R; Gabrial, Gamal N

    2016-12-15

    Many studies have indicated that the incidence of serious diabetic complications may be reduced through strict glycemic control. A low glycemic index diet is one tool to improve insulin resistance and improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The objective was to study the effect of pseudocereals-based breakfasts (quinoa and buckwheat) on glucose variations at first meal (breakfast) and second meal (standardised lunch) in healthy and diabetic subjects. Twelve healthy subjects and 12 patients with Type 2 DM (not- insulin dependent) were recruited in the study. Subjects were provided with quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals. A standardised lunch was provided 4 h after breakfast. Postprandial blood glucose response after breakfast and the second meal effect was measured in healthy and diabetic subjects. Incremental area under the curve (IAUC) values for glucose was measured in response to the breakfast and lunch. The glycemic index of the 2 pseudocereals-based test breakfasts was determined. A white wheat bread (WWB) was served as a reference breakfast meal. In post-breakfast analyses, healthy subjects showed that buckwheat meal had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P concentrations started to decline gradually for the quinoa and buckwheat but not for WWB in all healthy and diabetic subjects and returned to near-fasting baseline levels by 210 min. Post-lunch analyses indicated higher IAUC for the two breakfast types in healthy and diabetic subjects. In addition, the quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals were followed by a significantly flatter blood glucose response to the second meal for the period between 270 and 330 min. At the end of the second meal period, values were below or near-fasting baseline levels in the breakfast period. The blood glucose concentration after consuming quinoa meal showed a high peak at 30 min similar to that of WWB reference meal. This peak resulted in a high glycemic

  4. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rice straw -cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 ºC, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L-1.

  5. Wheat products as acceptable substitutes for rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B H; Kies, C

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the acceptability to semi-trained US American and Asian palatability panelist, of four wheat products processed to be possible replacers of rice in human diets. Products evaluated using rice as the control standard of excellence were steamed whole wheat, couscous (steamed, extracted wheat flour semolina), rosamarina (rice shaped, extracted wheat flour pasta), and bulgar (steamed, pre-cooked partly debranned, cracked wheat). Using a ten point hedonic rating scale, both groups of panelists gave rosamarina closely followed by couscous, most favorable ratings although these ratings were somewhat lower than that of the positive control, steamed polished rice. Bulgar wheat was given the lowest evaluation and was, in general, found to be an unacceptable replacement for rice by both American and Asian judges because of its dark, 'greasy' color and distinctive flavor. In their personal dietaries, judges included rice from 0.25 to 18 times per week with the Asian judges consuming rice significantly more times per week than did the American judges (10.8 +/- 4.71 vs 1.75 +/- 1.65, p < 0.01). However, rice consumption patterns, nationality, race, or sex of the judges was not demonstrated to affect scoring of the wheat products as rice replacers.

  6. Adolescents' unhealthy eating habits are associated with meal skipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Monteiro, Luana Silva; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2017-10-01

    Meal consumption and diet quality are important for healthy development during adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine the association between meal habits and diet quality in Brazilian adolescents. A school-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 with a probabilistic sample of adolescents ages 14 to 19 y (N = 1139) from high schools in central-western Brazil. Consumption of breakfast, morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner was assessed to evaluate adolescents' meal profile. The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R) was calculated to evaluate diet quality. The association between meal profile and BHEI-R (global estimates and components) was assessed using multivariate linear regression models. Diet was characterized by unhealthy eating: a low consumption of fruits, vegetables, and milk/dairy, and a high consumption of fats and sodium. An unsatisfactory meal profile was observed in 14% of adolescents, whereas daily consumption of breakfast, lunch, and dinner was reported by 47%, 78%, and 52% of adolescents, respectively. Meal profile was positively associated with diet quality. Daily consumption of breakfast was associated with higher BHEI-R scores, lower sodium intake, and greater consumption of fruits and milk/dairy. Daily consumption of lunch was associated with greater consumption of vegetables and "meats, eggs, and legumes," whereas consumption of dinner was associated with an increased consumption of "whole fruits." This study showed a parallelism between daily consumption of meals with healthier eating and greater adherence to traditional Brazilian food habits. Skipping meals was associated with a low-quality diet, especially concerning to the low consumption of fruits and vegetables and a high intake of sodium and calories from solid fats, added sugars, and alcoholic beverages. Therefore, the adoption of regular meal habits may help adolescents improve their diet quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  7. Death Row Confessions and the Last Meal Test of Innocence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Kniffin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Post hoc analyses of Rector v. Arkansas have regularly highlighted that the defendant requested that part of his last meal be saved so that he could it eat later. While the observation is typically raised as part of arguments that Rector was incompetent and unfit for execution, the more basic fact is that commentators have drawn important inferences about Rector’s mental state from how he treated his last meal. In this essay, we draw upon multiple disciplines in order to apply the same inferential logic to a much broader sample and explore the question of whether traditionally customized last meals might offer signals of defendants’ guilt or innocence. To investigate this, the content of last-meal requests and last words reported for people executed in the United States during a recent five-year period were examined. Consistent with the idea that declination of the last meal is equivalent to a signal of (self-perceived innocence, those who denied guilt were 2.7 times as likely to decline a last meal than people who admitted guilt (29% versus 8%. Consistent with the complementary theory that people who admit guilt are relatively more “at peace” with their sentence, these individuals requested 34% more calories of food than the rest of the sample (2786 versus 2085 calories. A third finding is that those who denied guilt also tended to eat significantly fewer brand-name food items. Previous discussions of last meals have often lacked quantitative measurements; however, this systematic analysis shows that last meal requests offer windows into self-perceived or self-proclaimed innocence. Knowing one’s last meal request and one’s last words can provide valuable new variables for retrospectively assessing the processes that led to past executions.

  8. Identification and evaluation of ω-3 fatty acid desaturase genes for hyperfortifying α-linolenic acid in transgenic rice seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua Liang; Yin, Zhi Jie; Xiao, Li; Xu, Yi Nong; Qu, Le Qing

    2012-05-01

    α-Linolenic acid (ALA) deficiency and a skewed of ω6:ω3 fatty acid ratio in the diet are a major explanation for the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. There is a need to enhance the ALA content and to reduce the ratio of linoleic acid (LA) to ALA. Six ω-3 (Δ-15) fatty acid desaturase (FAD) genes were cloned from rice and soybean. The subcellular localizations of the proteins were identified. The FAD genes were introduced into rice under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter, GluC, or a Ubi-1 promoter to evaluate their potential in increasing the ALA content in seeds. The ALA contents in the seeds of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized GmFAD3-1 and OsFAD3 overexpression lines increased from 0.36 mg g⁻¹ to 8.57 mg g⁻¹ and 10.06 mg g⁻¹, respectively, which was 23.8- and 27.9-fold higher than that of non-transformants. The trait of high ALA content was stably inheritable over three generations. Homologous OsFAD3 is more active than GmFAD3-1 in catalysing LA conversion to ALA in rice seeds. Overexpression of ER-localized GmFAD3-2/3 and chloroplast-localized OsFAD7/8 had less effect on increasing the ALA content in rice seeds. The GluC promoter is advantageous compared with Ubi-1 in this experimental system. The enhanced ALA was preferentially located at the sn-2 position in triacylglycerols. A meal-size portion of high ALA rice would meet >80% of the daily adult ALA requirement. The ALA-rich rice could be expected to ameliorate much of the global dietary ALA deficiency.

  9. Evidence for a second meal cognitive effect: glycaemic responses to high and low glycaemic index evening meals are associated with cognition the following morning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, Daniel Joseph; Hoyle, Emily; Lawton, Clare L; Mansfield, Michael W; Dye, Louise

    2011-03-01

    Low glycaemic index (GI) foods consumed at breakfast can enhance memory in comparison to high-GI foods; however, the impact of evening meal GI manipulations on cognition the following morning remains unexplored. Fourteen healthy males consumed a high-GI evening meal or a low-GI evening meal in a counterbalanced order on two separate evenings. Memory and attention were assessed before and after a high-GI breakfast the following morning. The high-GI evening meal elicited significantly higher evening glycaemic responses than the low-GI evening meal. Verbal recall was better the morning following the high-GI evening meal compared to after the low-GI evening meal. In summary, the GI of the evening meal was associated with memory performance the next day, suggesting a second meal cognitive effect. The present findings imply that an overnight fast may not be sufficient to control for previous nutritional consumption.

  10. Rice Multi-Gene Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gdyang

    Maps of all the intronic MIR genes analyzed using MPSS database in rice. Click here for a legend that explains the icons and colors in the image below. Click here to jump in the page below to the specific gene. osa-MIR159f osa-MIR399i osa-MIR418 osa-MIR437 osa-MIR439b osa-MIR439j osa-MIR440 osa-MIR442.

  11. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli eHe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the development of mass spectrometry (MS technology, proteomics has been widely applied in analyzing the mechanisms of different biological processes, and proved to be very powerful. Regulation of rice seed germination is critical for rice cultivation. In recent years, a lot of proteomic studies have been conducted in exploring the gene expression regulation, reserves mobilization and metabolisms reactivation, which brings us new insights on the mechanisms of metabolism regulation during this process. Nevertheless, it also invokes a lot of questions. In this mini-review, we summarized the progress in the proteomic studies of rice seed germination. The current challenges and future perspectives were also discussed, which might be helpful for the following studies.

  12. Variability in contents of thiamine and riboflavin in brown rice, crude oil in brown rice and bran-polish, and silicon in hull of IR rices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, C P; Juliano, B O

    1989-09-01

    Among 30 IR varieties, variety had greater effect on thiamine content of brown rice than season. Both season and variety affected riboflavin content. Purple- and red-pericarped Philippines rices had higher riboflavin and crude protein contents than IR rices. Crude oil contents of brown rice and bran-polish of 19 IR rices were significantly affected by variety, but only brown rice oil content was significantly affected by season. Bran-polish of waxy rice IR29 had the highest oil content. Silicon content of hull of 16 IR rices showed significant variation due to variety and season and tended to be higher in the dry season crop. Variety rankings in nutrient composition were not consistent for the two crops. The levels of nutrients of IR rices were within the range of values reported for other rices.

  13. A rice diet is associated with less fat synthesis/accumulation than a bread diet before exercise therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kojiro; Takizawa, Kazuki; Okabe, Tetsuko; Yamaguchi, Taichi; Sakuma, Ichiro

    2005-10-01

    For effective exercise therapy after waking up, we focused on the staple food in diet therapy, and compared rice and bread diets. The subjects were 10 healthy college male students. After fasting for 12 h or more from the previous day, the subjects had breakfast consisting of rice (protein, 6.3 g; fat, 0.9 g: CHO, 79.3 g; energy, 368 kcal) or bread (protein, 15.7 g; fat, 5.8 g; CHO, 79.2 g; and energy, 450 kcal) containing the same amount of carbohydrates and the same side dishes (protein, 7.0 g; fat, 9.5 g; CHO, 21.3 g; energy, 199 kcal) in the morning 30 min before the initiation of exercise on a bicycle ergometer at an intensity of about 50% VO2max for 60 min. Measurements of the heart rate and expired gas were initiated 15 min before the start of exercise and continued until 10 min after exercise. Blood was collected before the meal, immediately before and 15, 30, and 45 min after the initiation of exercise, and immediately, 15, and 30 min after its termination. After breakfast containing carbohydrates, decreases were observed in the levels of free fatty acid and noradrenalin. Blood insulin (mealxtime, p<0.05 ANOVA) and triglyceride (meal x time, p<0.01, ANOVA) changed at higher levels in the bread diet than in the rice diet. Blood triglyceride is a resource of fat synthesis/accumulation, and insulin promotes its action. Therefore, the bread diet may promote fat synthesis/accumulation compared with the rice diet.

  14. The effect of preload/meal energy density on energy intake in a subsequent meal: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Surkan, Pamela J; Azadbakht, Leila

    2017-08-01

    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of preload/meal energy density on energy intake in a subsequent meal(s). Multiple databases were searched for studies published through December 2016 on the effects of preload/meal energy density on energy intake in a subsequent meal(s). We extracted information on mean energy intake in a subsequent meal(s) and on variables that could contribute to between-subject heterogeneity. Forty and Thirty nine eligible studies were identified for our systematic review and meta-analysis, respectively. The meta-analysis showed that preload/meal energy density did not affect energy intake in a subsequent meal(s) (95% CI:-21.21, 21.29). As heterogeneity was remarkable among studies, we stratified the studies by intervention type into "meal" or "preload" classifications. In the "preload" subgroup, studies used either fixed energy or fixed weight preloads. The results reveal that in comparison to a high energy-dense (HED) preload, consuming a low energy-dense (LED) preload with same weight resulted in higher energy intake in a subsequent meal (95% CI: 9.72, 56.19). On the other hand, decreased energy intake was observed after consuming an LED preload compared to after consumption of an HED preload with same energy content (95% CI: -138.71, -57.33). In the "meal" subgroup, studies were categorized by different subsequent meal (i.e., "afternoon or evening", "lunch" and "dinner or post-dinner"). Meta-analysis showed that an LED meal resulted in more energy intake only in afternoon or evening meals (95% CI: 14.82, 31.22). In summary, the current analysis revealed that we can restrict the energy intake by consuming an LED preload. Moreover, consuming an LED preload could favorably affect preload+meal energy intake. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Pre-Meal Affective State and Laboratory Test Meal Intake in Adolescent Girls with Loss of Control Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Stephens, Mark; Sbrocco, Tracy; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James; Yanovski, Jack A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Loss of control eating confers risk for excess weight gain and exacerbated disordered eating. Affect theory proposes that loss of control eating is used to cope with negative mood states. Self-report data suggest that negative affect may contribute to the etiology of loss of control eating, but this theory has not been well-tested using laboratory paradigms. We examined associations between pre-meal affective states and intake during a laboratory test meal. One-hundred and ten adolescent girls with reported loss of control eating whose body mass index fell between the 85th and 97th percentile for age and sex completed state mood ratings prior to a test-meal. Results indicated that pre-meal state negative affect was associated with greater carbohydrate and less protein consumption, as well as greater snack and dessert and less fruit and dairy intake. All girls experienced significant decreases in negative affect from pre- to post- meal, but intake during the meal was unassociated with post-meal affect. In support of affect theory, negative affective states reported among girls with loss of control may be a driving factor for increased energy-dense food intake, which may play a role in excess weight gain. PMID:23603224

  16. Substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements for grazing beef heifers in the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Maza Ortega

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements on the nutritional characteristics and performance of beef heifers in their postweaning phase on Brachiaria decumbens pastures during the dry season. Twenty-four Nellore beef heifers (average initial age and weight of 8 mo and 210±6 kg, respectively were used. The design was completely randomized, with four treatments and six replicates. Supplements contained approximately 30% crude protein (CP and a progressive substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal (0, 50 and 100%. The control animals received only a mineral mixture ad libitum, and those on the other treatments received supplementation at 1.0 kg/animal/day. No differences were found in ADG between supplemented and control animals (P>0.10. Supplementation increased crude protein (CP intake only (P<0.10. The level of substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal did not affect (P>0.10 the intake of supplemented animals. Supplementation elevated the apparent digestibility coefficients (P<0.10 of OM, CP, NFC and TDN, but not EE or NDFap (P>0.10. A positive linear effect (P<0.10 of the level of substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed cake was observed on the digestibility of OM, NFC and TDN. Supplementation and the level of substitution had an effect (P<0.10 on the serum urea nitrogen and urine urea nitrogen contents. Supplementation or substitution level had no effect on the flow of microbial nitrogen to the intestine (MICN or efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS (P>0.10. Substitution caused a decreasing linear effect (P<0.10 on microbial nitrogen/nitrogen intake ratio (MICNR. In conclusion, substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements during the dry season does not impair the productive performance of beef heifers.

  17. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lupi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  18. Feasibility study on estimation of rice weevil quantity in rice stock using near-infrared spectroscopy technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puttinun Jarruwat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thai rice is favored by large numbers of consumers of all continents because of its excellent taste, fragrant aroma and fine texture. Among all Thai rice varieties, Thai Hommali rice is the most preferred. Classification of rice as premium quality requires that almost all grain kernels of the rice be perfectly whole with only a small quantity of foreign particles. Of all the foreign particles found in rice, rice weevils can wreck severest havoc on the quality and quantity of rice such that premium grade rice is transformed into low grade rice. It is widely known that rice millers adopt the "overdose" fumigation practice to control the birth and propagation of rice weevils, the practice of which inevitably gives rise to pesticide residues on rice which end up in the body of consumers. However, if population concentration of rice weevils could be approximated, right amounts of chemicals for fumigation would be applied and thereby no overdose is required. The objective of this study is thus to estimate the quantity of rice weevils in both milled rice and brown rice of Thai Hommali rice variety using the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS technique. Fourier transforms near infrared (FT-NIR spectrometer was used in this research and the near-infrared wavelength range was 780–2500 nm. A total of 20 levels of rice weevil infestation with an increment of 10 from 10 to 200 mature rice weevils were applied to 1680 rice samples. The spectral data and quantity of weevils are analyzed by partial least square regression (PLSR to establish the model for prediction. The results show that the model is able to estimate the quantity of weevils in milled Hommali rice and brown Hommali rice with high $R_{\\rm val}^{2}$ of 0.96 and 0.90, high RPD of 6.07 and 3.26 and small bias of 2.93 and 2.94, respectively.

  19. Hypercaloric diets with increased meal frequency, but not meal size, increase intrahepatic triglycerides: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Koopman, Karin E; Caan, Matthan WA; Nederveen, Aart J; Pels, Anouk; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Fliers, Eric; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Mireille J. Serlie

    2014-01-01

    American children consume up to 27% of calories from high-fat and high-sugar snacks. Both sugar and fat consumption have been implicated as a cause of hepatic steatosis and obesity but the effect of meal pattern is largely understudied. We hypothesized that a high meal frequency, compared to consuming large meals, is detrimental in the accumulation of intrahepatic and abdominal fat. To test this hypothesis, we randomized 36 lean, healthy men to a 40% hypercaloric diet for 6 weeks or a eucalor...

  20. Effect of feed supplement containing earthworm meal (Lumbricus rubellus) on production performance of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiqomah, L.; Sakti, A. A.; Suryani, A. E.; Karimy, M. F.; Anggraeni, A. S.; Herdian, H.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed supplement (FS) contained earthworm meal (EWM) on production performance of laying quails. Twenty weeks-old of 360 Coturnix coturnix japonica quails were used in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three dietary treatments A = CD (control without FS), B = CD + 0.250 % of FS, and C = CD + 0.375 % of FS during 6 weeks of experimental period. Each treatment in 4 equal replicates in which 30 quails were randomly allocated into 12 units of cages. Variable measured were feed intake, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency, mortality rate, hen day production, egg weight, and egg uniformity. Data were statistically analyzed by One Way ANOVA and the differences among mean treatments are analysed using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The results showed that administration of 0.375% FS based on earthworm meal, fermented rice bran, and skim milk impaired the feed conversion ratio and increased the feed efficiency. The experimental treatments did not effect on feed intake, mortality, hen day production, egg weight, and egg uniformity of quail. It is concluded that administration of feed supplement improved the growth performance of quail.

  1. Rice Blast Resistance of Transgenic Rice Plants with Pi-d2 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-xi CHEN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to rice blast of transgenic rice lines harboring rice blast resistance gene Pi-d2 transformed from three different expression vectors of pCB6.3kb, pCB5.3kb and pZH01-2.72kb were analyzed. Nine advanced-generation transgenic rice lines with Pi-d2 gene displayed various resistance to 39 rice blast strains, and the highest disease-resistant frequency reached 91.7%. Four early-generation homozygous transgenic lines with Pi-d2 gene exhibited resistance to more than 81.5% of 58 rice blast strains, showing the characteristic of wide-spectrum resistance. The transgenic embryonic calli selected by the crude toxin of rice blast fungus showed that the callus induction rate of immature embryo from transgenic rice plants decreased as the concentration of crude toxin in the culture medium increased. When the concentration of crude toxin reached 40%, the callus induction rate of immature embryo from transgenic lines was 49.3%, and that of the receptor control was 5%. The disease incidence of neck blast of the transgenic rice lines in fields under induction was 0% to 50%, indicating that the rice blast resistance of transgenic rice lines is much higher than that of the receptor control.

  2. The effect of cissus rotundifolia consumed as a bread meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of cissus bread meal on the postprandial plasma glucose and insulin levels of healthy non diabetic subjects. Ten healthy non diabetic male subjects participated in the study and were fed two meals, an experimental bread meal containing cissus flour and a control bread meal made form ...

  3. Replacement Value of Soybean Meal and Maize with Raw or Boiled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Replacement Value of Soybean Meal and Maize with Raw or Boiled Pigeon Pea Seed Meal in Exotic Pullet Diets. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Science ... Abstract. A study to determine the replacement value of raw or boiled pigeon pea seed meal (PSM) for soybean meal and maize in the diets of exotic pullets (1-56 d) was ...

  4. Evaluation of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on the performance, Carcass characteristics and egg quality of Laying hens. Neem (Azadirachta indica) is one of the indigenous tropical plants predominant in Nigeria. It is commonly known as Neem and popularly called ...

  5. The effect of meal size on gastric evacuation in whiting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner

    1998-01-01

    Gastric evacuation experiments were performed on whiting Merlangius merlangus fed discrete meals of different sizes. Herring Clupea harengus, sandeel Ammodytes tobianus, common goby Pomatoschistus microps, and brown shrimp Crangon crangon were tested as prey. A simple power model to describe...

  6. A Diabetes-Friendly Meal Everyone Can Enjoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes A Diabetes-Friendly Meal Everyone Can Enjoy Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents From the National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) Knowing what to serve and ...

  7. [Forms of management of the national school meals program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Sérgio Ribeiro; de Sousa Costa, Maria Bernadete; Torres de Paiva Bandeira, Geovanna

    2016-04-01

    The National School Meals Programme (PNAE in Portuguese initials) is a supplementary program to education that aims to provide school meals for pupils across the school system enrolled in public and philanthropic schools of primary education, secondary education, youth education, adult education and comprehensive education. The principles of the program are the universality and the expansion of student services in order to meet the Organic Law on Food and Nutritional Security (LOSAN), as well as the Food Security and Nutrition System. The objective of this study is to discuss forms of PNAE management to ensure that the students' right to school meals. This study is a reflection on how the resources of school meals are being managed, be it with a centralized, decentralized, semi-centralized or outsourced model. We conclude that the knowledge of the different forms of managing federal resources for food for school communities allows for making an informed choice regarding implementation and enforcement of PNAE.

  8. Contrasting approaches to food education and school meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye; Baarts, Charlotte; Holm, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    This study builds on a fieldwork in a Danish school class, where pupils were observed while preparing and eating school meals. It shows that the children encounter conflicting approaches to food education depending on the context. While eating, an authoritarian approach to food education dominates......, but also a conflict between food educational ideals and actual school meal practices. To illustrate this an analytic model is introduced, the Integrated Food Pedagogy Model, and the ways in which this model could help promote better food education among schoolchildren are discussed....... and food is ascribed instrumental value. While preparing the school meal, a democratic approach dominates and food is ascribed intrinsic value. The aim is to show how these conflicting approaches reflect not only different social and cultural expectations to eating and preparing meals, respectively...

  9. Effects of sweet potato meal on performance and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , shank length, wing length, body height, body length, thigh length, leg length, daily feed intake, heart weight and crop weight. Processed sweet potato meal can replace maize grain in finisher broiler rations without deleterious effect. Keywords: ...

  10. Properties of South African fish meal: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Koning, AJ

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African fishing industry converts pelagic fish unsuitable for human consumption into animal feed with high nutritional value. Nine factories along the west and southeast coasts of South Africa produce fish meal and fish oil. Fishermen...

  11. Poultry offal meal in broiler chicken feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edney Pereira da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An outstanding feature of poultry production that provides animal protein yield for human feeding is its short production cycle. This characteristic has a linear relationship with waste production. Increasing the inclusion of this residue in diets in the near future is desirable in step with the growth of poultry production since it offers a better environmental and nutritional alternative to current methods. We evaluated the effects on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens produced by the inclusion of poultry offal meal (POM in their feed. Treatments consisted of a control diet (corn, Zea mays and soybean, Glycine max and four diets with inclusion of 30, 60, 90 and 120 g kg-1 of POM. The diets were formulated based on the level of digestible amino acid once categorized as isocalcic, isophosphoric, isosodic, isoenergetic and isonutritive for protein, methionine+cystine, lysine and threonine. The feed's electrolytes were corrected so that each diet had the same electrolytic balance. The variables analyzed were feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, body weight, carcass yield, chicken cut yield and abdominal fat. Feed intake was not affected by the quantities of POM added. The weight gain, feed conversion, carcass yield and noble cuts presented quadratic responses to the treatments. Abdominal fat increased linearly. The performance of the poultry, and carcass characteristics were maximized by the inclusion of 53 and 65 g kg-1, respectively, of POM in the diet, and the inclusion of 120 g kg-1 of POM provided greater disposition of abdominal fat.

  12. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan S, Gopala; Waters, Daniel L E; Henry, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts). Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

  13. Value of Bitter Leaf ( Vernonia amygdalina ) Meal as Feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory analysis revealed that the meal contained 15.67 crude protein, 6.95 ether extract, 11.53 crude fibre, 13.00 total ash and 38.18% nitrogen free extract. The leaf meal was used at 0,5,10 and 15% inclusion levels to formulate the test rations. Thereafter 168 Marshall broiler strain (at their fourth week of age), were ...

  14. Quality Attributes of Tapioca Meal Fortified With Defatted Soy Flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dry milling. Sieving. Defatted soy flour. Fig 2: Flow Chart for the Production of Defatted Soy Flour. Formulation of Enriched Tapioca Meal. Cassava starch and defatted soy flour meal were mixed at ratio 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15 and 80:20 respectively, to produce the tapioca-soy flour mixture. The mixture was moistened with ...

  15. Meal frequency and timing in health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mattson, Mark P.; Allison, David B.; Fontana, Luigi; Harvie, Michelle; Longo, Valter D.; Malaisse, Willy J.; Mosley, Michael; Notterpek, Lucia; Ravussin, Eric; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.; Seyfried, Thomas N.; Varady, Krista A.; Panda, Satchidananda

    2014-01-01

    Although major research efforts have focused on how specific components of foodstuffs affect health, relatively little is known about a more fundamental aspect of diet, the frequency and circadian timing of meals, and potential benefits of intermittent periods with no or very low energy intakes. The most common eating pattern in modern societies, three meals plus snacks every day, is abnormal from an evolutionary perspective. Emerging findings from studies of animal models and human subjects ...

  16. Industrial Rapeseed and Sunflower Meal as Source of Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka Vrbiková

    2014-01-01

    In the processing of oilseeds for purposes of vegetable oil’s production solid residues such as flakes, cakes and meal are formed. Those by-products are mainly used to produce feed for animals. But they may also enrich human food with proteins, minerals, valuable vitamins A, E, phenolic acids, polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The expeller cakes, extracted meal or extracts obtained by extraction with organic solvents, are best applied by in bakery products, spiced...

  17. A comparative evaluation of leaf meals of pawpaw ( C. papaya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf meals of the above-named tropical plants at 0.2,3 ,4 and 5% dietary levels were investigated for their values as feed ingredients and egg yolk pigmenters in white maize based layer diets. Each diet was fed as 5 replicates of 15 hyaline layers for 14 weeks. Pawpaw leaf meal (P

  18. Associations between meal patterns, binge eating, and weight for Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachelin, Fary M; Thomas, Colleen; Vela, Alyssa; Gil-Rivas, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Establishing a regular pattern of eating is a core element of treatment for binge eating, yet no research to date has examined meal patterns of Latina women. Compare eating patterns of Latinas who binge eat and those who do not, and examine associations between meal patterns and binge episodes, associated distress and concerns, and body mass index (BMI). One-hundred fifty-five Latinas [65 Binge Eating Disorder (BED), 22 Bulimia Nervosa (BN), 68 with no eating disorder] were assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination. There were no significant differences in eating patterns between groups. Breakfast was the least and dinner the most consumed meal. For the BED group: greater frequency of lunch consumption was associated with higher BMI while more frequent evening snacking was associated with lower BMI and with less weight importance; more frequent breakfast consumption, mid-morning snack consumption and total meals were associated with greater distress regarding binge eating. For the BN group, evening snack frequency was associated with less dietary restriction and more weight and shape concern; total snack frequency was associated with more weight concern. Regular meal eaters reported more episodes of binge eating than those who did not eat meals regularly. Associations with meal patterns differed by eating disorder diagnosis. Study findings mostly are not consistent with results from prior research on primarily White women. CBT treatments may need to be tailored to address the association between binge eating and regular meal consumption for Latinas. Culturally, appropriate modifications that address traditional eating patterns should be considered. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:32-39). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Functional genomics strategies with transposons in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greco, R.

    2003-01-01

    Rice is a major staple food crop and a recognizedmonocotylenedousmodel plant from which gene function discovery is projected to contribute to improvements in a variety of cereals like wheat and maize. The recent release of rough drafts of the rice genome sequence for public

  20. PICTORIAL INTERLUDES Flake-shaped rice bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1. Cheung HS, Ryan LM, Kozin F, McCarty DJ. Synovial origins of rice bodies in joint fluid. Arthritis. Rheum 1980;23:72-76. 2. Popert AJ, Scott DL, Wainwright AC, Walton KW, Williamson N, Chapman JH. Frequency of occur- rence, mode of development, and significance of rice bodies in rheumatoid joints. Ann Rheum Dis.

  1. Influence of intermittent irrigation, red rice biotype, and rice grain type on outcrossing between red rice and imidazolinone-resistant rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whether outcrossing rates between red rice and imazethapyr resistant rice are affected as a function of irrigation management is unclear. Potentially, differences between conventionally-flooded (CNV) and intermittently flooded (INT) systems could affect plant water deficits, as well as vegetative a...

  2. Transgenic strategies for improving rice disease resistance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... Review. Transgenic strategies for improving rice disease resistance. Huijuan Zhang, Guojun Li, Wei Li and Fengming Song*. State Key Laboratory for Rice Biology, Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University-Huajiachi Campus, Hangzhou,. Zhejiang 310029, P.R. .... In RTBV-ODs2 line, RTBV DNA.

  3. Adoption of Recommended Rice Production Practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    influenced adoption of recommended rice production practices by women rice farmers in the study area. Constraints hindering adoption of. RRPPs were unavailability of credit facilities, poor marketing system and unstable price, and inadequate extension contacts. It was recommended that government should ensure that ...

  4. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  5. FLUORIDE LEVELS IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE RICE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2013-05-05

    May 5, 2013 ... shattering-prone Oryza glaberrima. It contains 2% more protein than their African or Asian parents. It is taller than most rice, making harvesting easier, pest resistant and tolerant to drought and infertile soils better than Asian varieties [18]. Rice is a cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of ...

  6. Grain Unloading Of Arsenic Species In Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dim...

  7. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descriptive sensory analysis has identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental analyses have found over 200 volatile compounds present in rice. However, after over 30 years of research, little is known about the relationships between the numerous volatile compounds and a...

  8. Soil quality assessment in rice production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, rice production is one of the most important regional activities. Farmers are concerned that the land use practices for rice production in the Camaquã region may not be sustainable because of detrimental effects on soil quality. The study presented in this

  9. Storage properties of low fat fish and rice flour coextrudates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumuluru, J.S. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bandyopadhyay, Sukumar [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur; Bawa, A.S. [Food Research Laboratory

    2008-12-01

    Storage properties of an extruded mixture of fish meat and rice flour were investigated. These properties included the determination of an isotherm for equilibrium moisture content vs. water activity at 30oC. Vitamin-A and total tocopherols and gain in peroxides and free fatty acid were measured during storage at this temperature. The acceptability of the extruded meal in terms of sensory characteristics were studied at the end of the storage period (45 days). Sorption isotherm indicated that the safe aw levels of the extrudates were 0.4-0.7. During the first 15 days of storage a loss of 53.1 % and 50 % of vitamin-A (IU/g) and total tocopherols (%) was observed. The peroxide and free fatty content increased from 46 to 109 mg/kg and 3.8 to 7.7 %, respectively during the same period. Non-linear model described the best the loss of vitamin-A, and tocopherols and gain in peroxide values and free fatty acid content. The loss of vitamin-A and total tocopherols almost followed a similar trend during the complete storage period of 45 days. The gain in peroxides was more prominent compared to free fatty acid content during the initial 15 days of storage. The ANOVA table indicated that the sensory attributes of the product fried for different times (15-120 s) were significantly and the product fried at 15 sec were most acceptable.

  10. Eating glutinous brown rice for one day improves glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes assessed by continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Yuko; Nagai, Yoshio; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Akio; Tanaka, Yasushi

    2017-05-01

    We investigated whether intake of non-glutinous brown rice (BR) or glutinous brown rice (GBR) for 1 day had an influence on the daily glucose profile measured by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) when compared with intake of non-glutinous white rice (WR). A total of 37 inpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were recruited for a 3-day randomized triple cross-over trial in which they ate WR, BR, or GBR for 1 day each. One of the three types of rice was eaten at breakfast, lunch, and dinner on the first day, before switching to the other types on the second and third days. Each meal had the same energy content and the same side dishes. The main outcome measures were the blood glucose profile determined by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and the profile of serum C-peptide (CPR) for 3 hours after breakfast. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the palatability of each type of rice. According to the CGM data, the mean 24-hour glucose concentration was lowest with GBR (pday glucose profile of patients with T2DM, mainly by reducing postprandial glucose excursion, and GBR was preferred over BR with respect to palatability. GBR may be worth adding to the diet of patients with T2DM.

  11. Fruit for dessert. How people compose healthier meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, T; van der Horst, K; Siegrist, M

    2013-01-01

    The present study assessed whether factual nutritional information on portion sizes helps consumers to select healthier meals. 124 people were invited to serve themselves lunch from a 'fake food buffet' containing 55 replica food items. Participants in the control group were instructed to serve themselves a meal, as they would normally eat from the given selections (control). Participants in the second condition were asked to select a healthy, balanced meal (instruction). People in the third group were also instructed to select a healthy meal, but in addition, they received nutrition information (instruction+information). The results suggest that participants in the instruction and instruction+information condition chose fewer sweets and desserts (F((2,121))=6.91, P<.05) but more fruits (F((2,121))=5.16, P<.05). This led to overall healthier meals than in the control group. All other food categories, including vegetables, were not altered. No difference was found between the two experimental groups. The results indicate that factual nutrition information does not help consumers compose healthier meals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Batista dos Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal replacing maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85% DM. Thirty Santa Inês sheep with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. Feeding time in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDFap increased by 34 min and 99.6 min, respectively, with each level of substitution of maize for the peach palm meal. Rumination and chewing times, in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDF, also increased in response to the substitution of maize for peach palm meal. When expressed in min day–1, rumination and chewing activities decreased by 12.4 and 14.6 min, respectively, as the amount of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The time spent idle increased linearly (P < 0.05, by 14.6 min day–1, with the replacement levels, compared with the control diet. Peach palm meal in the composition of sheep diets reduces the intakes of dry matter and fiber and decreases the feed and rumination efficiencies. Replacing maize by peach palm meal increases the feeding time and rumination and chewing activities of feedlot lambs.

  13. A review of family meal influence on adolescents' dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Hanning, Rhona M

    2008-01-01

    Recent concerns about adolescent nutrition and unhealthy weights have prompted an examination of the myriad influences on dietary intake during adolescence. Included here are a summary of the literature on family influence on dietary intake, specifically during adolescence and within the family context, a summary of family meal patterns, and a systematic review of the known influences of family meals on dietary intake. Because of the complexity of families in today's society, models were developed to depict the broad context of familial influences on adolescent nutritional behaviours and attitudes and to describe what is known and not known about family meal influences on adolescent dietary intake and quality. A systematic review of the literature revealed seven articles specifically related to adolescents, family meals, and dietary intake, which were analyzed for strength of evidence and plausibility. In spite of data collection methods relying on self-report, results suggested that family meals were associated with improved dietary intakes. Families in today's societies are complex. Nevertheless, parents have the potential to influence positively, through family meals, what food is provided, where it is provided (e.g., home, restaurant), and within what type of atmosphere it is provided.

  14. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Hansen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Background: A high salt (NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design...... fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus) and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results: The salt content...... in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.891.8 g per meal and 14.795.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n 109), and 2.891.2 g per meal and 14.496.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n 71). Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.892.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers) to 16.394.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages) with a mean content of 13.893.8 g...

  15. Image analysis of food particles can discriminate deficient mastication of mixed foodstuffs simulating daily meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, K; Hashimoto, Y; Fukuike, C; Kodama, N; Minagi, S

    2014-03-01

    Because food texture is regarded as an important factor for smooth deglutition, identification of objective parameters that could provide a basis for food texture selection for elderly or dysphagic patients is of great importance. We aimed to develop an objective evaluation method of mastication using a mixed test food comprising foodstuffs, simulating daily dietary life. The particle size distribution (>2 mm in diameter) in a bolus was analysed using a digital image under dark-field illumination. Ten female participants (mean age ± s.d., 27·6 ± 2·6 years) masticated a mixed test food comprising prescribed amounts of rice, sausage, hard omelette, raw cabbage and raw cucumber with 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% of the number of their masticatory strokes. A single set of coefficient thresholds of 0·10 for the homogeneity index and 1·62 for the particle size index showed excellent discrimination of deficient masticatory conditions with high sensitivity (0·90) and specificity (0·77). Based on the results of this study, normal mastication was discriminated from deficient masticatory conditions using a large particle analysis of mixed foodstuffs, thus showing the possibility of future application of this method for objective decision-making regarding the properties of meals served to dysphagic patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Bioethanol production from rice straw: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binod, Parameswaran; Sindhu, Raveendran; Singhania, Reeta Rani; Vikram, Surender; Devi, Lalitha; Nagalakshmi, Satya; Kurien, Noble; Sukumaran, Rajeev K; Pandey, Ashok

    2010-07-01

    Rice straw is an attractive lignocellulosic material for bioethanol production since it is one of the most abundant renewable resources. It has several characteristics, such as high cellulose and hemicelluloses content that can be readily hydrolyzed into fermentable sugars. But there occur several challenges and limitations in the process of converting rice straw to ethanol. The presence of high ash and silica content in rice straw makes it an inferior feedstock for ethanol production. One of the major challenges in developing technology for bioethanol production from rice straw is selection of an appropriate pretreatment technique. The choice of pretreatment methods plays an important role to increase the efficiency of enzymatic saccharification thereby making the whole process economically viable. The present review discusses the available technologies for bioethanol production using rice straw. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dinitrogen fixation of rice-Klebsiella associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, I.D.; Fujii, T.; Sano, Y.; Komagata, K.; Yoneyama, T.; Iyama, S.; Hirota, Y.

    N/sub 2/ fixation by Klebsiella oxytoca strain NG13, isolated from the rhizosphere of a rice (Oryza sativa L.) plant, in association with Indica type rice strain, C5444 is reported. The C/sub 2/H/sub 2/-reduction assays, biomass measurements, N content determinations, and /sup 15/N isotopic dilution assays indicated that inoculation of C5444 with NG13 resulted in a 6% increase of total plant+soil N content, and a 19% /sup 15/N isotopic dilution of plant N after 120 days of cultivation. Our results demonstrated significant levels of N/sub 2/ fixation by K. oxytoca when associated with rice. By optimizing such rice plant-bacterial N/sub 2/ fixation capacity, the N uptake by rice could be enhanced.

  18. Rice epigenomics and epigenetics: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangsong; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2013-05-01

    During recent years rice genome-wide epigenomic information such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which are important for genome activity has been accumulated. The function of a number of rice epigenetic regulators has been studied, many of which are found to be involved in a diverse range of developmental and stress-responsive pathways. Analysis of epigenetic variations among different rice varieties indicates that epigenetic modification may lead to inheritable phenotypic variation. Characterizing phenotypic consequences of rice epigenomic variations and the underlining chromatin mechanism and identifying epialleles related to important agronomic traits may provide novel strategies to enhance agronomically favorable traits and grain productivity in rice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Meal box schemes a convenient way to avoid convenience food? Uses and understandings of meal box schemes among Danish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Frej Daniel; Halkier, Bente

    2017-07-01

    The term convenience food is subject to diversification, lack of clarity and moral ambiguity. In this paper we address these issues and critically discuss convenience food by using empirical findings from a Danish study that deals with practitioners' uses of meal box schemes. The methodological design consists of thirteen individual interviews, four focus groups and some observations of cooking practices. We combine the empirical findings with a particular definition of convenience food by Brunner et al. (2010) and selected practice theoretical concepts. This particular combination enables us to categorize meal box schemes as a new form of convenience food called convenient food. In addition, results suggest that meal box schemes reduce leftovers from dinner. Meal boxes also influence dinner related activities such as planning ahead in time and grocery shopping, which require less physical and mental effort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of breakfast meal composition on second meal metabolic responses in adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C A; Gardiner, J; McBurney, M I; Anderson, S; Weatherspoon, L J; Henry, D N; Hord, N G

    2006-09-01

    We tested the relative importance of a low-glycemic response versus a high glycemic response breakfast meal on postprandial serum glucose, insulin and free fatty acid (FFA) responses after consumption of a standardized mid-day meal in adult individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Following an overnight fast of 8-10 h, a randomized crossover intervention using control and test meals was conducted over a 3-week-period. A fasting baseline measurement and postprandial measurements at various time intervals after the breakfast and mid-day meal were taken. Forty-five Type 2 DM subjects completed the requirements and were included in the study results. Two different breakfast meals were administered during the intervention: (A) a high glycemic load breakfast meal consisting of farina (kJ 1833; carbohydrate (CHO) 78 g and psylium soluble fiber 0 g), (B) a low-glycemic load breakfast meal consisting of a fiber-loop cereal (kJ 1515; CHO 62 g and psyllium soluble fiber 6.6 g). A standardized lunch was provided approximately 4 h after breakfast. Blood plasma concentrations and area under the curve (AUC) values for glucose, insulin and FFA were measured in response to the breakfast and mid-day lunch. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS software (8.02). Comparisons between diets were based on adjusted Bonferroni t-tests. In post-breakfast analyses, Breakfast B had significantly lower area under the curve (AUC) values for plasma glucose and insulin compared to Breakfast A (PBreakfast B than for Breakfast A (Pbreakfast types. Insulin AUC values for Breakfasts B were significantly lower than Breakfast A (Pbreakfast type. These data indicate that ingesting a low-glycemic load meal containing psyllium soluble fiber at breakfast significantly improves the breakfast postprandial glycemic, insulinemic and FFA responses in adults with Type 2 DM. These data revealed no residual postprandial effect of the psyllium soluble fiber breakfast meal beyond the second meal

  1. Nutritional status, dietary habits and social and health profile of home meal service users for elderly of Vitoria-Gasteiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gómez-Busto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The home meals service (HMS is a little-developed resource in the Basque Country, and is dependent on social services. The aim of this study is to establish the nutritional status, eating habits and main social and healthcare characteristics of the users of this service.Material and Methods: A descriptive and transversal study carried out in 2 phases: (a phase 1: an assessment of nutritional status and eating habits using an abbreviated version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment and a questionnaire on food consumption. (b phase 2: the assessment of the dependency risk at home and quality of life related to health by means of Barber and EuroQoL-5D questionnaires.Results: Eighty users (35 men, 45 women fulfilled the criteria for inclusion; average age: 83.62 years (± 5.53. Nutritional status: the prevalence of malnutrition was 11% and that of risk of malnutrition 39%. Eating habits: the meal provided guaranteed a minimal provision of legumes, pasta, rice or potatoes (once or twice a week, fish (once or twice a week, and meat (three or four times a week. In spite of this, the frequency of consumption of vegetables, fish, rice, eggs or meat was less than recommended in over 70% of the group. Social and healthcare profile: 127 users (60 men, 67 women took part; average age: 83.82 years (± 6.17. Barber’s questionnaire: living alone: 48%; housebound through illness: 20%. Poor hearing: 44%; poor sight: 34%; although: 30% needed help, 95% were receiving support. EuroQoL-5D: Serious problems reported: 4.7% had difficulties with mobility; 7.9% with personal care; 23.6% had problems with carrying out daily activities; 15% reported pain or discomfort; 3.9% anxiety/depression. Perceived health status: 32.3% considered their health to be good or very good, 34,6% fair, and 33% bad or very bad.Conclusions: The group studied consists of a vulnerable people, with social and health problems and more malnutrition than the older population living at

  2. Rice water in treatment of infantile gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H B

    1981-07-11

    In Singapore the World Health Organization's (WHO's) oral electrolyte solution for the treatment of infantile gastroenteritis has been used for 6 years and rice water has been used for 8 years. The rice water is the water used in preparing boiled rice or congee and is a slightly starchy solution. As the impression was that rice water was as effective as or even better than the oral electrolyte solution, a trial was conducted of the 2 solutions in babies with gastroenteritis admitted to the Department of Pediatrics of the National University of Singapore. Alternate cases were assigned consecutively to the oral electrolyte solution or to rice water. There were 63 patients on oral electrolyte and 67 on rice water. Milk was totally withdrawn for 24 hours after admission and the babies were put on 1 or the other oral solution. Intravenous 3.75% glucose and 0.23% saline was given at the same time to babies considered to be more dehydrated. On day 2, quarter strength powdered milk was given, followed by half strength on day 3, three-quarters strength on day 4, and full strength on day 5. Electrolyte and urea values were compared, both for "drip" versus "no drip" within oral treatment groups and between electrolyte solution and rice water groups (20 comparisons altogether). There were only 3 significant differences, and these might be explained by the intravenous drip and by the better water absorption from rice water than from the oral electrolyte solution. The most obvious difference in the 2 groups was in the effect on diarrhea (stools/day). Rice water cut down the number of stools more effectively than did oral electrolyte solution. No patient died, and there were no pathological sequelae in any of the 130 patients. Rice water can be tried as a more practical alternative to oral electrolyte solutions since there are problems with providing oral elecrolyte solutions to all babies with diarrhea in the developing countries and ensuring sterility.

  3. Growth response and feed utilization of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) juveniles fed graded levels of boiled Senna obtusifolia l. seed meal as a replacement for soybean meal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yusuf, Abdullateef; Umar, Rilwan; Micah, David; Akpotu, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth response and feed utilization of Clarias gariepinus juveniles fed graded levels of boiled Senna obtusifolia seed meal as replacement for soybean meal...

  4. Determinants of adoption and productivity of improved rice varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the status of adoption of improved rice varieties and its impact on rice production among smallholder farmers in southwestern Nigeria. Data for this study were generated from a farm survey of rice farmers selected by multi-stage sampling technique in two of the rice producing states of the region.

  5. Signatures of adaptation in the weedy rice genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedy rice is a common problem of by product of domestication that has evolved multiple times from cultivated and wild rice relatives. Here we use whole genome sequences to examine the origin and adaptation of the two major US weedy red rice strains, with a comparison to Chinese weedy red rice. We f...

  6. Rice Genome Research: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Han; Qifa Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Rice ( L.) is the leading genomics system among the crop plants. The sequence of the rice genome, the first cereal plant genome, was published in 2005. This review summarizes progress made in rice genome annotations, comparative genomics, and functional genomics researches. It also maps out the status of rice genomics globally and provides a vision of future research directions and resource building.

  7. Cooking and Eating Quality of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    physico-chemical behaviour of the rice grain. Physical characteristics .... combined influence of the different rating parameters of the seven rice ... Cooking and Eating Quantity of Rice Yellow Mottle 197. Table 1: Grain quality characteristics of the tested rice genotypes. Line / Parent. Grain. Length/. Opacity. Amylose. Gel. Gel.

  8. Does African catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ) affect rice in integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted for 98 days in the Lake Victoria Basin to investigate the interactions of fish and rice growth performance in rice paddies. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design, with rice cultivar as the main plot and method of rice-fish culture as the sub-plot. Treatments consisted of two levels of ...

  9. Economic survey of rice marketing in Anambra state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the analysis show that old people who are mostly illiterate but highly experienced engaged in rice marketing business. Furthermore, there is a significant difference in the marketing prices of processed and unprocessed rice as well as stored and unstored rice. However, a greater percentage of rice marketers ...

  10. Significance of rice sheath photosynthesis: Yield determination by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using high-yielding hybrid rice Liangyopeijiu (LYP9), its male parent 9311 and hybrid rice Shanyou 63 (SY63) as the experimental materials, the photosynthesis of rice sheath was studied by 14C radio-autography. The results showed that rice sheath could trap sunlight and produce photosynthates, and these ...

  11. Golden Rice is an effective source for vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically engineered "Golden Rice" contains up to 35 ug Beta-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice Beta-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A s...

  12. Identification of Some Degradation Products of Golden Rice Beta- carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden Rice (GR2) is genetically modified rice, which can contain as high as 37 ug of beta-carotene per g of dry rice. It was developed to combat vitamin A deficiency (VAD), a major malnutrition problem in many parts of the developing world, especially in South and South Eastern Asia, where rice is ...

  13. The economic power of the Golden Rice opposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseler, J.H.H.; Zilberman, D.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A enriched rice (Golden Rice) is a cost-efficient solution that can substantially reduce health costs. Despite Golden Rice being available since early 2000, this rice has not been introduced in any country. Governments must perceive additional costs that overcompensate the benefits of the

  14. Rice field for the treatment of pond aquaculture effluents | Wang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted an experiment to evaluate the efficiency of rice fields in treating pond aquaculture effluent and its responses to different fertilizer treatments. Four treatments was considered in the experiment: no rice planted as the control (CT); rice planted and no fertilizer input (RE); rice planted and a rate of approximately ...

  15. genetic analysis of resistance to rice bacterial blight in uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Advances in rice genetics. Supplement to rice genetics IV. Proceedings of the Fourth. International Rice Genetics Symposium, 22-. 27 October 2000. IRRI. Los Baños, Philippines. Lee, K.S., Rasabandith, S., Angeles, E.R. and. Khush, G.S. 2003. Inheritance of resistance to bacterial blight in 21cultivars of rice. Phytopathology ...

  16. Circadian adaptations to meal timing: Neuroendocrine mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica F Patton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms of behavior and physiology are generated by central and peripheral circadian oscillators entrained by periodic environmental or physiological stimuli. A master circadian pacemaker in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus is directly entrained by daily light-dark cycles, and coordinates the timing of other oscillators by direct and indirect neural, hormonal and behavioral outputs. The daily rhythm of food intake provides stimuli that entrain most peripheral and central oscillators, some of which can drive a daily rhythm of food anticipatory activity if food is restricted to one daily mealtime. The location of food-entrainable oscillators (FEOs that drive food anticipatory rhythms, and the food-related stimuli that entrain these oscillators, remain to be clarified. Here, we critically examine the role of peripheral metabolic hormones as potential internal entrainment stimuli or outputs for FEOs controlling food anticipatory rhythms in rats and mice. Hormones for which data are available include corticosterone, ghrelin, leptin, insulin, glucagon, and glucagon-like peptide 1. All of these hormones exhibit daily rhythms of synthesis and secretion that are synchronized by meal timing. There is some evidence that ghrelin and leptin modulate the expression of food anticipatory rhythms, but none of the hormones examined so far are necessary for entrainment. Ghrelin and leptin likely modulate food-entrained rhythms by actions in hypothalamic circuits utilizing melanocortin and orexin signaling, although again food-entrained behavioral rhythms can persist in lesion and gene knockout models in which these systems are disabled. Actions of these hormones on circadian oscillators in central reward circuits remain to be evaluated. Food-entrained activity rhythms are likely mediated by a distributed system of circadian oscillators sensitive to multiple feeding related inputs. Metabolic hormones appear to play a modulatory role within this

  17. Feeding styles and evening family meals among recent immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Hennessy, Erin; Must, Aviva; Hughes, Sheryl O; Gute, David M; Sliwa, Sarah; Boulos, Rebecca J; Vikre, Emily Kuross; Kamins, Christina Luongo; Tofuri, Kerline; Pirie, Alex; Economos, Christina D

    2013-06-26

    The protective effect of family meals on unhealthy weight gain and diet has been shown across multiple age groups; however, it is unknown whether a similar effect is present among diverse immigrant populations. In addition, little research has focused on factors associated with the frequency of evening family meals, such as feeding styles (how parents interact with their child around feeding). Therefore the goals of this paper are to explore the 1) association between the frequency of evening family meals and child weight status among new immigrant families, and 2) influence of immigrant mothers' feeding styles on the frequency of evening family meals. Baseline self-reported socio-demographic information and measured heights and weights were collected for both mother and child (age range: 3–12 years) among 387 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory-research, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in recent (responses to the Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were also obtained from the mother. Children were categorized as “eating evening family meals regularly” if they had an evening family meal ≥5 times per week. Overall, 20% of children were overweight and 25% were obese. Less than half (40.9%) of families had regular evening family meals. In multivariate analyses, adjusting for covariates, children who were overweight/obese were significantly less likely to have ≥5 evening family meals/week compared with normal weight children (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.32-0.82) . Mothers who had a low demanding/high responsive or a low demanding/low responsive feeding style, were less likely to have ≥5 evening family meals/week compared to mothers with a high demanding/high responsive feeding style (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.18-0.0.96, OR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.13-0.87, respectively). Future interventions and programs that seek to help parents establish healthy household routines, such as family

  18. RPAN: rice pan-genome browser for ∼3000 rice genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Hu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Tianqing; Lu, Kuangchen; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Wensheng; Shi, Jianxin; Wang, Chunchao; Lu, Jinyuan; Zhang, Dabing; Li, Zhikang; Wei, Chaochun

    2017-01-25

    A pan-genome is the union of the gene sets of all the individuals of a clade or a species and it provides a new dimension of genome complexity with the presence/absence variations (PAVs) of genes among these genomes. With the progress of sequencing technologies, pan-genome study is becoming affordable for eukaryotes with large-sized genomes. The Asian cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., is one of the major food sources for the world and a model organism in plant biology. Recently, the 3000 Rice Genome Project (3K RGP) sequenced more than 3000 rice genomes with a mean sequencing depth of 14.3×, which provided a tremendous resource for rice research. In this paper, we present a genome browser, Rice Pan-genome Browser (RPAN), as a tool to search and visualize the rice pan-genome derived from 3K RGP. RPAN contains a database of the basic information of 3010 rice accessions, including genomic sequences, gene annotations, PAV information and gene expression data of the rice pan-genome. At least 12 000 novel genes absent in the reference genome were included. RPAN also provides multiple search and visualization functions. RPAN can be a rich resource for rice biology and rice breeding. It is available at http://cgm.sjtu.edu.cn/3kricedb/ or http://www.rmbreeding.cn/pan3k. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Can the co-cultivation of rice and fish help sustain rice production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liangliang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Weizheng; Guo, Liang; Cheng, Yongxu; Li, Jiayao; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Zewen; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Cheng, Lei; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Because rice feeds half of the world’s population, a secure global food supply depends on sustainable rice production. Here we test whether the co-cultivation of rice and fish into one “rice-fish system” (RFS; fish refers to aquatic animals in this article) could help sustain rice production. We examined intensive and traditional RFSs that have been widely practiced in China. We found that rice yields did not decrease when fish yield was below a threshold value in each intensive RFS. Below the thresholds, moreover, fish yields in intensive RFSs can be substantially higher than those in traditional RFS without reducing rice yield. Relative to rice monoculture, the use of fertilizer-nitrogen and pesticides decreased, and the farmers’ net income increased in RFSs. The results suggest that RFSs can help sustain rice production, and suggest that development of co-culture technologies (i.e. proper field configuration for fish and rice) is necessary to achieve the sustainability.

  20. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice Using Different Extraction Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Singanusong, Riantong

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil (RBO) produced from the bran of three rice varities; Khao Dawk Mali 105 (white rice), Red Jasmine rice (red rice) and Hom-nin rice (black rice) using three extraction methods including cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO2 extraction (SC-CO2). Yields, color, acid value (AV), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), total phenolic compound (TPC), γ-oryzanol, α-tocopherol and fatty acid profile were analyzed. It was found that the yields obtained from SE, SC-CO2 and CPE extractions were 17.35-20.19%, 14.76-18.16% and 3.22-6.22%, respectively. The RBO from the bran of red and black rice samples exhibited high antioxidant activities. They also contained higher amount of γ-oryzanol and α-tocopherol than those of white rice sample. In terms of extraction methods, SC-CO2 provided better qualities of RBO as evidenced by their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. This study found that RBO produced from the bran of black rice samples using SC-CO2 extraction method showed the best physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

  1. Consumer Preferences and Buying Criteria in Rice: A Study to Identify Market Strategy for Thailand Jasmine Rice Export

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries decreased, but it is consumed more in non-rice-eating countries. This study aimed to investigate consumer preferences and attitudes toward Jasmine rice among consumers in target rice export countries to identify opportunities and strategic

  2. Effect of phytase supplementation to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on phosphorus and calcium balance in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, W.C.; Cervantes, M.; He, J.M.M.; Schulze, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two metabolism experiments were carried out, to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on P and Ca balance in growing. pigs; In experiment 1, six barrows (29.6kg: initial LW) were fed a barley-canola meal diet, without or. with phytase

  3. Just how convenient is convenience? An empirical study of the associations between perceived convenience, meal preparation activities and ready meals' characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Ana I.A.; Ruijschop, R. M. A. J.

    2006-01-01

    and the types of meals they eat are surprisingly hard to find. One explanation for this could be that perceived convenience finds little support on the technological attributes of products like ready meals. This study's aim was to uncover significant relations between perceived convenience, meal preparation...

  4. Use of Rendered Animal Protein Meals as Fish Meal Replacer in the Diets of the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 Juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akegbejo-Samsons, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding trials were conducted to investigate the growth response, nutrient utilization and the flesh quality of the juveniles of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus fed with five different dietary protein sources. Five dry diets containing shrimp meal, blood meal, maggot meal, LT 94 fish meal and tilapia meal respectively were prepared and fed to duplicate groups of C. gariepinus juveniles (18.8 ± 0.7 g to satiation for 70 days. Weight gain, growth response and feed utilization indices, and carcass composition did not vary significantly (P> 0.05 between treatments. Average daily growth was highest (0.93 g in diet AM1 (fish meal, followed by diet AM5, 0.91 g (maggot meal and the least (0.83 g was recorded in diet AM2 (shrimp meal. The highest specific growth rate (SGR was recorded (0.93 in diet AM1, while the least (0.87 was from diet AM2. Results indicate that diet fortified with fish meal as protein source had the highest final body weight (83.36 g, followed by maggot meal (82.21 g. Diet with shrimp meal gave the poorest average daily growth. The most cost effective diet in terms of cost per unit gain in weight of fish was obtained from maggot meal.

  5. Gas swallow during meals in patients with excessive belching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, N; Serra, J

    2017-09-01

    Swallowed gas is an important source of abdominal gas, and aerophagia is often believed as a putative cause of gas-related abdominal symptoms. However, altered gas-swallow during meals has not been demonstrated. Our aim was to characterize the number of gas swallows during meals in patients complaining of excessive belching and gaseousness and a control group without abdominal symptoms during a 24-h period. A 24-h pH-impedance monitoring was performed in 10 patients with excessive belching, and 11 patients without digestive symptoms or reflux in the pH-impedance study. During the study, patients followed their daily routine and customary meals, without any specific limitation. In each patient the number and content of swallows and belches were analyzed. Total meal periods were similar in controls (75±26 min) and patients (79±21 min; P=.339), but the number of gaseous swallows was greater in patients (114±13 swallows) than controls (71±8 swallows; P=.007), due to a greater frequency of gaseous swallows during meals (15±2 swallows/10 min vs 10±1 swallows/10 min, respectively; P=.008). During the 24-h study period, 66±13 belches were recorded in patients, but only 13±3 belches in controls (PGas is frequently swallowed during meals. Patients complaining of excessive belching have a different swallow pattern during meals, with an increased ingestion of gas that correlates with increased gastric belching events. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Seed wintering and deterioration characteristics between weedy and cultivated rice

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Jung-Sun; Chung, Nam-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Incidences of weedy rice continuously occurred in paddy fields because its shattering seeds were able to over-winter. In this research, the seed deterioration of weedy rice was investigated compared with cultivated rice, and the wintering characteristics of these two types of rice were investigated with the field wintering test, freezing resistance test, and accelerated aging test. Results For the wintering test, the seeds of weedy rice were placed on the soil surface of a paddy wi...

  7. COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF A LOCALLY DEVELOPED VOTEX RICE FAN THRESHER

    OpenAIRE

    Dauda, S.M.; A. U. Dzivama

    2008-01-01

    The efforts to discover and make optimal and effective use of locally developed rice thresher as substitute for imported rice threshers form the focus of this paper. A locally developed rice thresher was compared with an imported Votex rice fan fromHolland.  The study was based on threshing efficiency, cleaning efficiency, total grain losses, grain recovery range, capacity utilization and threshing intensity. Three popular rice varieties, Faro 51, Faro 29 and Faro 21 were used to evaluate the...

  8. [Safety of rice grains and mycotoxins - a historical review of yellow rice mycotoxicoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udagawa, Shun-ichi; Tatsuno, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    Aflatoxins, the most powerful mycotoxins, were brought to the attention fo the people in the early 1960s with the outbreak of the turkey "X" disease in England. However, the history of mycotoxin research in Japan began 100 years ago. In 1891, Sakaki demonstrated that moldy, unpolished rice was fatal to experimental animals, with symptoms indicating paralysis of the central nervous system (Shoshin-kakke). In 1920, Prof. I. Miyake and Dr. Takada first reported that Penicillium commune, which was known as a causal agent of "Mossy diseased rice" was found to be toxic to experimental animals by feeding the moldy rice to rabbits and rats.With such a historical background, taking the idea of "rice, fungus and toxin" as a working hypothesis, Miyake and his co-workers discovered the first sample of yellow rice grains from Taiwanese and domestic rice, from which was isolated a species of Penicillium and later identified it with P. citreonigrum (=P. toxicarium). The fungus produced a highly toxic metabolite, citreoviridin. Unfortunately because this study was published during wartime, it failed to alert the world to the potential or actual dangers of the toxicity of common molds. After World War II, Japanese people suffered for some years from a shortage in domestic rice production and depended on foreign countries to supply rice, which led to the toxicological screening on fungal isolates from polluted rice grains by Dr. Tsunoda and his co-workers. AMong the isolates from imported rice, there were two species of Penicillium which were particularly associated with high toxicity; P. islandicum responsible for brownish discolored rice, and P. citrinum responsible for yellowish rice. P. islandicum produces two hepatotoxic metabolites: luteoskyrin and cyclochlorotine, while a nephrotoxic of P. citrinum is citrinin. These toxicological characters, including the induction of cancer and chemical structures, were studied by Profs. uraguchi, Saito, Shibata, Tatsuno and their co

  9. Differential outcomes of Zika virus infection in Aedes aegypti orally challenged with infectious blood meals and infectious protein meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Jang S; Lyons, Amy C; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Park, So Lee; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2017-01-01

    Infection of mosquitoes is an essential step for the transmission of mosquito-borne arboviruses in nature. Engorgement of infectious blood meals from viremic infected vertebrate hosts allows the entry of viruses and initiates infection of midgut epithelial cells. Historically, the infection process of arboviruses in mosquitoes has been studied through the engorgement of mosquitoes from viremic laboratory animals or from artificial feeders containing blood mixed with viruses harvested from cell cultures. The latter approach using so-called artificial blood meals is more frequently used since it is readily optimized to maximize viral titer, negates the use of animals and can be used with viruses for which there are no small animal models. Use of artificial blood meals has enabled numerous studies on mosquito infections with a wide variety of viruses; however, as described here, with suitable modification it can also be used to study the interplay between infection, specific blood components, and physiological consequences associated with blood engorgement. For hematophagous female mosquitoes, blood is the primary nutritional source supporting all physiological process including egg development, and also influences neurological processes and behaviors such as host-seeking. Interactions between these blood-driven vector biological processes and arbovirus infection that is mediated via blood engorgement have not yet been specifically studied. This is in part because presentation of virus in whole blood inevitably induces enzymatic digestion processes, hormone driven oogenesis, and other biological changes. In this study, the infection process of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Aedes aegypti was characterized by oral exposure via viral suspension meals within minimally bovine serum albumin complemented medium or within whole blood. The use of bovine serum albumin in infectious meals provides an opportunity to evaluate the role of serum albumin during the process of flavivirus

  10. Hypercaloric diets with increased meal frequency, but not meal size, increase intrahepatic triglycerides: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Karin E; Caan, Matthan W A; Nederveen, Aart J; Pels, Anouk; Ackermans, Mariette T; Fliers, Eric; la Fleur, Susanne E; Serlie, Mireille J

    2014-08-01

    American children consume up to 27% of calories from high-fat and high-sugar snacks. Both sugar and fat consumption have been implicated as a cause of hepatic steatosis and obesity but the effect of meal pattern is largely understudied. We hypothesized that a high meal frequency, compared to consuming large meals, is detrimental in the accumulation of intrahepatic and abdominal fat. To test this hypothesis, we randomized 36 lean, healthy men to a 40% hypercaloric diet for 6 weeks or a eucaloric control diet and measured intrahepatic triglyceride content (IHTG) using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS), abdominal fat using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and insulin sensitivity using a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp with a glucose isotope tracer before and after the diet intervention. The caloric surplus consisted of fat and sugar (high-fat-high-sugar; HFHS) or sugar only (high-sugar; HS) and was consumed together with, or between, the three main meals, thereby increasing meal size or meal frequency. All hypercaloric diets similarly increased body mass index (BMI). Increasing meal frequency significantly increased IHTG (HFHS mean relative increase of 45%; P = 0.016 and HS mean relative increase of 110%; P = 0.047), whereas increasing meal size did not (2-way analysis of variance [ANOVA] size versus frequency P = 0.03). Abdominal fat increased in the HFHS-frequency group (+63.3 ± 42.8 mL; P = 0.004) and tended to increase in the HS-frequency group (+46.5 ± 50.7 mL; P = 0.08). Hepatic insulin sensitivity tended to decrease in the HFHS-frequency group while peripheral insulin sensitivity was not affected. A hypercaloric diet with high meal frequency increased IHTG and abdominal fat independent of caloric content and body weight gain, whereas increasing meal size did not. This study suggests that snacking, a common feature in the Western diet, independently contributes to hepatic steatosis and obesity. ( www

  11. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contamination from Environment to Food Matrix by TXRF: The Case of Rice and Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabjola Bilo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the chemical analysis of contaminated soils of India and the rice grown in the same area. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is a well-established technique for elemental chemical analysis of environmental samples, and it can be a useful tool to assess food safety. Metals uptake in rice crop grown in soils from different areas was studied. In this work soil, rice husk and rice samples were analyzed after complete solubilization of samples by microwave acid digestion. Heavy metals concentration detected in rice samples decreases in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr. The metal content in rice husk was higher than in rice. This study suggests, for the first time, a possible role of heavy metals filter played by rice husk. The knowledge of metals sequestration capability of rice husk may promote some new management practices for rice cultivation to preserve it from pollution.

  12. Rice Husk Filled Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Arjmandi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers from agricultural wastes are finding their importance in the polymer industry due to the many advantages such as their light weight, low cost and being environmentally friendly. Rice husk (RH is a natural sheath that forms around rice grains during their growth. As a type of natural fiber obtained from agroindustrial waste, RH can be used as filler in composites materials in various polymer matrices. This review paper is aimed at highlighting previous works of RH filled polymer composites to provide information for applications and further research in this area. Based on the information gathered, application of RH filled composites as alternative materials in building and construction is highly plausible with both light weight and low cost being their main driving forces. However, further investigations on physical and chemical treatment to further improve the interfacial adhesion with polymeric matrix are needed as fiber-polymer interaction is crucial in determining the final composite properties. Better understanding on how the used polymer blends as the matrix and secondary fillers may affect the properties would provide interesting areas to be explored.

  13. EFFECT OF LOW-TEMPERATURE HYGROTHERMAL PROCESSING ON FORMS OF ASSOCIATION OF MOISTURE IN RICE-VEGETABLE MIXTURE WITH HYDROBIONTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Rodionova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the catering industry common combination of rice, vegetable raw materials: onion and carrot, and aquatic organisms: fish, squid, which allows you to get a dish with high consumer properties. The article investigated the influence of the amount of water introduced by the ratio of free and bound moisture in food samples obtained using the low temperature thermo-humidity treatment, compared with the control. Found that for all drawing and vegetable mixture with squid, adding water in an amount exceeding 12.0 % of the total weight of the meal increases the mass fraction of free moisture. For rice-vegetable mixture with carp introduction of additional water is not recommended, since the introduction of water even in the amount of 5 % of the total weight of the meal increases the mass fraction of free moisture. The data indicate that the use of low-temperature thermal treatment of the samples humid pre vacuum packaging technology helps to reduce finished product weight loss, due to the amount of free moisture conservation while increasing the mass of bound water that helps to ensure better consistency of the final product, increase the shelf life and exit semis.

  14. Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Joy; Ramesh, K V; Maithri, U; Mutangana, D; Suresh, C K

    2014-03-01

    Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomusfasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P. indica resembling "Mayan temple" was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza.

  15. Using rice straw to manufacture ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors offer their advanced and efficient methodologies for the recycling of the rice straw, as well as the novel approaches to the ceramic brick quality improvement through the application of the rice straw as the combustible additive and through the formation of amorphous silica in the course of the rice straw combustion. The co-authors provide characteristics of the raw materials, production techniques used to manufacture ceramic bricks, and their basic properties in the article. The co-authors describe the simulated process of formation of amorphous silica. The process in question has two independent steps (or options: 1 rice straw combustion and ash formation outside the oven (in the oxidizing medium, and further application of ash as the additive in the process of burning clay mixtures; 2 adding pre-treated rice straw as the combustible additive into the clay mixture, and its further burning in compliance with the pre-set temperature mode. The findings have proven that the most rational pre-requisite of the rice straw application in the manufacturing of ceramic bricks consists in feeding milled straw into the clay mixture to be followed by molding, drying and burning. Brick samples are highly porous, and they also demonstrate sufficient compressive strength. The co-authors have also identified optimal values of rice straw and ash content in the mixtures under research.

  16. Family meals then and now: A qualitative investigation of intergenerational transmission of family meal practices in a racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofholz, Amanda C; Thao, Mai See; Donley, Mia; Smith, Mireya; Isaac, Hassan; Berge, Jerica M

    2018-02-01

    Having frequent family meals has consistently been associated with better health outcomes in children/adolescents. It is important to identify how intergenerational transmission of family meal practices occurs to help families benefit from the protective nature of family meals. Limited studies exist that explore the intergenerational transmission of family meal practices, particularly among racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant populations. This study explores how parents describe differences and similarities between meals "then" and "now", lessons they learned as children about family meals, lessons they passed onto their children, the challenges of carrying out family meals, and how families handle the barriers/challenges to intergenerational transmission of family meal practices. The study was conducted with a sample of African American, Native American, Latino, Hmong, Somali, and White families (25/category). Qualitative themes were explored with the overall sample, by race/ethnicity, immigrant status, and by time in the United States (US) as an immigrant. Parents overwhelmingly reported learning as children that family meals were important and conveying this message to their own children. Differences existed among racial/ethnic groups and time in the US as an immigrant. For example, Somali parents frequently endorsed having no challenges with intergenerational transmission of family meal practices. Immigrant parents in the US for a longer period of time were more likely to endorse learning/teaching about family meal importance, that the food eaten now is different than growing up, that a chaotic environment is a challenge to having family meals, and that they accommodate family member's schedules when planning family meals. Results demonstrate that exploring a parent's early family meal experiences may be important when intervening with parents from diverse racial/ethnic and immigrant populations when trying to improve or increase family meal practices

  17. Kosher meal services in the community:need, availability, and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Lester Y

    2005-01-01

    This project identified needs and barriers for Meals on Wheels and other nutrition programs serving kosher meals. Responses to a national survey indicated that some communities met their need for kosher meal services, others had difficulty keeping up with the demand and costs of providing these meals. The primary need for kosher meal services was in metropolitan areas where large communities of orthodox Jews observe kosher dietary laws. Knowledge about kosher dietary laws and lack of reasonably priced kosher meals were two main problems. Service providers need economical sources for kosher meals as well as financial support to offset the higher cost of these meals. Providers should work with local Jewish community organizations to determine what the actual need may be, whether it is simple dietary modifications or kosher meals.

  18. Meal Replacement Mass Reduction Integration and Acceptability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmons, T.; Douglas, G.; Schneiderman, J.; Slack, K.; Whitmire, A.; Williams, T.; Young, M.

    2018-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and future exploration missions are mass constrained; therefore we are challenged to reduce the mass of the food system by 10% while maintaining safety, nutrition, and acceptability to support crew health and performance for exploration missions. Meal replacement with nutritionally balanced, 700-900 calorie bars was identified as a method to reduce mass. However, commercially available products do not meet the requirements for a meal replacement in the spaceflight food system. The purpose of this task was to develop a variety of nutritionally balanced, high quality, breakfast replacement bars, which enable a 10% food mass savings. To date, six nutrient-dense meal replacement bars have been developed, all of which meet spaceflight nutritional, microbiological, sensory, and shelf-life requirements. The four highest scoring bars were evaluated based on final product sensory acceptability, nutritional stability, qualitative stability of analytical measurements (i.e. color and texture), and microbiological compliance over a period of two years to predict long-term acceptability. All bars maintained overall acceptability throughout the first year of storage, despite minor changes in color and texture. However, added vitamins C, B1, and B9 degraded rapidly in fortified samples of Banana Nut bars, indicating the need for additional development. In addition to shelf-life testing, four bar varieties were evaluated in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA), campaign 3, to assess the frequency with which actual meal replacement options may be implemented, based on impact to satiety and psychosocial measurements. Crewmembers (n=16) were asked to consume meal replacement bars every day for the first fifteen days of the mission and every three days for the second half of the mission. Daily surveys assessed the crew's responses to bar acceptability, mood, food fatigue and perceived stress. Preliminary results indicate that the

  19. A convenient method for rapid determination of proteins in rices and rice products

    OpenAIRE

    光永, 俊郎; 安藤, ひとみ

    1990-01-01

    [Author abstract]In the biuret determination of protein in rices and rice products, starch and lipids extractable with an alkaline solution such as biuret reagent were found to interfere with the biuret method. Comparative evaluation of their effects revealed that starch, a major component of rice, has the most significant effect on the biuret method. In the presence of starch, the correlation between Kjeldahl protein and the optical density of biuret was poor. It was found that several perha...

  20. A Review of the Structural Characteristics of Family Meals with Children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Mary Beth; Robson, Shannon M; Stark, Lori J

    2016-07-01

    Family meals are associated with a range of positive outcomes among children and adolescents. There is inconsistency, however, in the way in which studies have defined and measured family meals. Therefore, a systematic review of the literature was conducted to determine how studies describe family meals with the use of structural characteristics. The current review focused on studies in the United States that included children ages 2-18 y. A total of 33 studies were identified that characterized family meals with the use of ≥1 of the following structural features: frequency or mean number of family meals per week, length of family meal, people present at meal, and where meals occurred. No study characterized family meals by using all 4 family meal features, whereas most studies (81%) characterized family meals by using frequency or mean number of meals per week. Findings not only provide an initial understanding of the structural features used to define family meals but also point to the importance of developing a more comprehensive, sensitive assessment that can accurately capture the complex and multidimensional nature of family meals. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Haematology, Blood Chemistry and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Rabbits Fed Grasshopper Meal as a Substitute for Fish Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Njidda* and C. E. Isidahomen1

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with grasshopper meal on haematology, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits. Forty rabbits of mixed breeds, aged 6-10 weeks, were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments in a complete randomized design with eight rabbits per treatment. The rabbits were fed with diets containing 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75 and 5% grasshopper meal in diets designated as T1 (control, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period of nine weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, three rabbits per treatment were slaughtered for carcass evaluation, while blood samples were collected for analysis. The result of the experiment showed significant differences (P0.05 on haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC. The results also revealed significant differences (P0.05 on serum albumin and total protein. The results of carcass characteristics showed significant differences among treatments (P<0.05 for slaughter weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, skin pelt, tail, feet and abdominal fat. The slaughter weight and carcass weight were better in groups receiving 2.5% grass hopper meal (50% fish meal replacement. From the results, it can be concluded that inclusion of 2.50% grasshopper meal as a replacement for fish meal (50% replacement has no adverse effects on the haematological parameters, serum biochemistry and carcass characteristics of rabbits.

  2. Effects of meal composition and meal timing on the expression of genes involved in hepatic drug metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, E M; Oosterman, J E; Eggink, H M; de Goede, P; Sen, S; Foppen, E; Boudzovitch-Surovtseva, O; Boelen, A; Romijn, J A; laFleur, S E; Kalsbeek, A

    2017-01-01

    With chronotherapy, drug administration is synchronized with daily rhythms in drug clearance and pharmacokinetics. Daily rhythms in gene expression are centrally mastered by the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus as well as by tissue clocks containing similar molecular mechanisms in peripheral organs. The central timing system is sensitive to changes in the external environment such as those of the light-dark cycle, meal timing and meal composition. We investigated how changes in diet composition and meal timing would affect the daily hepatic expression rhythms of the nuclear receptors PXR and CAR and of enzymes involved in P450 mediated drug metabolism, as such changes could have consequences for the practice of chronotherapy. Rats were subjected to either a regular chow or a free choice high-fat-high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet. These diets were provided ad libitum, or restricted to either the light phase or the dark phase. In a second experiment, rats had access to chow either ad libitum or in 6 meals equally distributed over 24 hours. Pxr, Alas1 and Por displayed significant day-night rhythms under ad libitum chow fed conditions, which for Pxr was disrupted under fcHFHS diet conditions. Although no daily rhythms were detected in expression of CAR, Cyp2b2 and Cyp3a2, the fcHFHS diet did affect basal expression of these genes. In chow fed rats, dark phase feeding induced a diurnal rhythm in Cyp2b2 expression while light phase feeding induced a diurnal rhythm in Car expression and completely shifted the peak expression of Pxr, Car, Cyp2b2, Alas1 and Por. The 6-meals-a-day feeding only abolished the Pxr rhythm but not the rhythms of the other genes. We conclude that although nuclear receptors and enzymes involved in the regulation of hepatic drug metabolism are sensitive to meal composition, changes in meal timing are mainly effectuated via changes in the molecular clock.

  3. How vegetables make the meal: their hedonic and heroic impact on perceptions of the meal and of the preparer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Brumberg, Adam

    2013-11-01

    Although most parents know that vegetables are healthful, vegetables are served at only 23% of American dinners. If added nutrition is not a sufficient motivation, might a parent be more inspired to serve vegetables if doing so improved either the taste of the entrée or how loving and thoughtful the server would be perceived? The present paper details two studies which investigated whether serving vegetables changes the perception of the cook and the perception of an entrée’s taste. In Study 1, people evaluated the personality of a cook who either did or did not include a vegetable in a family dinner. In Study 2, five different meals that either included or did not include a vegetable were rated in terms of the taste of the entrée and of the whole meal. US-based online survey. American mothers (n 500), ranging in age from 18 to 65 years (mean age 38.4 years), with at least two children under the age of 18 years living at home. Serving vegetables improved taste expectations for the entrée as well as for the whole meal. Additionally, serving a vegetable with a meal also enhanced perceptions of the meal preparer. They were evaluated as being more thoughtful and attentive as well as less lazy, boring and self-absorbed. These two studies show new hedonic and heroic motivations for serving vegetables: (i) they increase the hedonic appeal of the meal and (ii) they increase the heroic appeal of the cook. More vegetables are likely to be served with a meal if preparers know that the addition of vegetables makes them appear to be both a better cook and a better person.

  4. Good Food, Bad Food, and White Rice: Understanding Child Feeding Using Visual-Narrative Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Chelsea

    2017-01-01

    Visual-narrative elicitation, a process combining photo elicitation and pile sorting in applied medical anthropology, sheds light on food consumption patterns in urban areas of Vanuatu where childhood malnutrition is a persistent problem. Groups of participants took photographs of the foods they feed their children, and the resources and barriers they encounter in accessing foodstuffs. This revealed how imported and local foods are assigned value as "good" or "bad" foods when contributing to dietary diversity and creating appropriate meals for children, particularly in the context of consuming white rice. The process of gathering and working with photographs illuminated the complex negotiations in which caregivers engaged when making food and nutritional choices for their children. At the nexus of visual and medical anthropology, the visual-narrative elicitation process yielded nuanced, comprehensive understandings of how caregivers value the various foods they feed their children.

  5. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper) significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life. PMID:27136572

  6. Effect of Different Proportion of Lucerne Meal in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Tkáčová

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We carried the feeding experiment with broiler chickens ROSS 308. The experiment was contained from two groups. In each group were 100 pcs broiler chickens. We research in the experiment the efficiency of lucerne meal with proportion 2% and 6% in feed mixtures. The lucerne meal contains protein 164 g per kg, fiber 257 g per kg, lysine 6.95 g per kg, methionine 2.4 g per kg, methionine + cysteine 4.1 g per kg, threonine 6.66 g per kg, thryptophane 2.1 g per kg, metabolizable energy 4.0 MJ per kg and carotenoids content 293.0 mg per kg. The broilers body weight was increased 1738.4 g in group with proportion of lucerne meal 2% in feed mixtures. The proportion of proportion 6% lucerne meal in feed mixtures decreased a body weight of the broiler chickens on level 1552.8 g. The differences of body weight between groups of the broiler chickens were statistically significant (P<0.05. Lucerne meal contains fiber, which increases the overall percentage of fiber in the compound, resulting in worse feed utilization.

  7. [School meals: state of the art and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta Bartrina, J; Pérez Rodrigo, C; Dalmau Serra, J; Gil Hernández, A; Lama More, R; Martín Mateos, M A; Martínez Suárez, V; Pavón Belinchón, P; Suárez Cortina, L

    2008-07-01

    School meals contribute substantially to overall energy and nutrient intake adequacy of children, but also play an important role in the development of child food habits and the socialisation process. Evidence shows that school based environmental actions, which include changes in school meals and school food policies related to increased availability and access to healthy foods and drinks while in the school are effective to foster healthy eating practices among children. A growing number of children engage in school meals. Available information to date shows that the quality of the food on offer is not always consistent with dietary guidelines. Vegetables and fish are served less often than desirable and excess added fats are used in food preparations. Norms and regulations are very detailed regarding food safety issues and administrative management of the service, including subcontracting of catering providers and care staff. Nutrition and health promotion issues should also be included in regulations by means of nutrition recommendations for school meals along with information on food based dietary guidelines and portion sizes. School meals should be part of the educational project using a whole school approach.

  8. Influence of Meals and Glycemic Changes on QT Interval Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirincione, Brenda; Sager, Philip T; Mager, Donald E

    2017-08-01

    Thorough QT/QTc studies have become an integral part of early drug development programs, with major clinical and regulatory implications. This analysis expands on existing pharmacodynamic models of QT interval analysis by incorporating the influence of glycemic changes on the QT interval in a semimechanistic manner. A total of 21 healthy subjects enrolled in an open-label phase 1 pilot study and provided continuous electrocardiogram monitoring and plasma glucose and insulin concentrations associated with a 24-hour baseline assessment. The data revealed a transient decrease in QTc, with peak suppression occurring approximately 3 hours after the meal. A semimechanistic modeling approach was applied to evaluate temporal delays between meals and subsequent changes that might influence QT measurements. The food effect was incorporated into a model of heart rate dynamics, and additional delayed effects of the meal on QT were incorporated using a glucose-dependent hypothetical transit compartment. The final model helps to provide a foundation for the future design and analysis of QT studies that may be confounded by meals. This study has significant implications for QT study assessment following a meal or when a cohort is receiving a medication that influences postprandial glucose concentrations. © 2017, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. Meals and snacks: Children's characterizations of food and eating cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Jenna M; Hoffmann, Debra A; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2016-02-01

    This study examined preschoolers' and their parents' categorizations of eating episodes based on cues used for defining these occasions (i.e., time, portion size, preparation, content, and emotion) as a meal or snack. Thirty-four children aged 4 to 6 saw pictorial representations of each cue, along with a short verbal description, and were asked to place the picture in one of three boxes: "meal", "snack", or "either meal or snack". One parent per child (85% mothers, Mean age = 35.1 years) separately categorized the same items in an online survey. Results illustrated which cues play a role in how parents and children categorize eating occasions as meals or snacks. Parents used 24 of the 32 cue-related items to distinguish between eating occasions as a meal or a snack, while children used only four. Parents and preschoolers were consistent in using cartoon character packaging to indicate a snack, and also used several of the same content cues. The current study highlights the various cues used to categorize an eating occasion, and the unhealthy character of snacks, as participants associated some unhealthy foods and very few healthy foods with snacks. Future research should focus on the role of parents, the home environment, and advertising media in shaping children's characterizations of eating occasions towards development of healthy eating habits and away from problematic eating behaviors that may persist later in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Insulin sensitivity predicts brain network connectivity following a meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John P; Karim, Helmet T; Aizenstein, Howard J; Helbling, Nicole L; Toledo, Frederico G S

    2018-01-12

    There is converging evidence that insulin plays a role in food-reward signaling in the brain and has effects on enhancing cognition. Little is known about how these effects are altered in individuals with insulin resistance. The present study was designed to identify the relationships between insulin resistance and functional brain connectivity following a meal. Eighteen healthy adults (7 male, 11 female, age: 41-57 years-old) completed a frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test to quantify insulin resistance. On separate days at least one week apart, a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed: once after a mixed-meal and once after a 12-h fast. Seed-based resting state connectivity of the caudate nucleus and eigenvector centrality were used to identify relationships between insulin resistance and functional brain connectivity. Individuals with greater insulin resistance displayed stronger connectivity within reward networks following a meal suggesting insulin was less able to suppress reward. Insulin resistance was negatively associated with eigenvector centrality in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex following a meal. These data suggest that individuals with less sensitivity to insulin may fail to shift brain networks away from reward and toward cognitive control following a meal. This altered feedback loop could promote overeating and obesity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ostachowska-Gasior

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI, and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland. The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life.

  12. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-04-28

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students' education level. The study was conducted in 2013-2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper) significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life.

  13. Frequency of dairy products in preschool centers’ meals with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Colić Barić

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that dairy products contain a great number of essential nutrients having positive influence on human health. The aim of this study wasmto determine the nutritive value of meals and frequency of dairy products in preschool centers’ meals with regard to season. For assessment of energy and nutritive value as well ascertain food frequency in daily diet during four seasons the monthly reports menu were used. According to the results the energy gained by the meals was adequate. Proteins were present in high amount (154.3 % RDA. The energy fraction of dairy products in average was 14.3 % what is for children age 4-6 less than recommended. Those products were served in average 6.5 times/5 days what represented 1.6 serving units per day. Milk was present in daily meals on regular basis, yogurt was present twice and cheese ones a week or even less. Milk and dairy products ensured of 362 mg (45.5 % DRI of calcium, 272 mg (354.4 % DRI of phosphorus, 36.3 mg (27.9 % DRI of magnesium and 0.5 mg (83.3 % DRI of vitamin B2. Thus, dairy products should be included at least twice in daily preschool meals. According to season significant difference was detected, mostly between spring and summer, with regard to milk and dairy products. With regard to energy and nutritive value difference between spring and autumn have been established.

  14. Chemical Looping Combustion of Rice Husk

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmeet Singh Monga; Ganesh R. Kale

    2015-01-01

    A thermodynamic investigation of direct chemical looping combustion (CLC) of rice husk is presented in this paper. Both steam and CO2 are used for gasification within the temperature range of 500–1200˚C and different amounts of oxygen carriers. Chemical equilibrium model was considered for the CLC fuel reactor. The trends in product compositions of the fuel reactor, were determined. Rice husk gasification using 3 moles H2O and 0 moles CO2 per mole carbon (in rice husk) at 1 bar pr...

  15. Feeding behavior of rice bug Leptocorisa chinensis (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Alydidae) nymphs on rice panicles and rice plant extract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ishizaki, Mami; Yasuda, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Tomonari

    2007-01-01

    .... The nymphs showed typical behavioral phases towards the rice panicles: antennation, extension of the rostrum, repeated dabbing with the labium, rostrum placing on the plant surface, stylet penetration and continuous sucking...

  16. Impact of milling and water-to-rice ratio on cooked rice and wastewater properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altheide, M C; Morawicki, R O; Hager, T J

    2012-06-01

    Due to the environmental concerns and expense associated with the disposal of wastewater after industrial cooking of rice, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of leaching, water uptake and volumetric expansion of rice during cooking at various milling durations and water-to-rice ratios. Two cultivars of Arkansas rice, a long grain (Francis) and a medium grain (Jupiter), were milled for 10, 20, and 30 s with a laboratory mill. Samples were cooked in aluminum foil covered beakers at water-to-rice ratios of 10:1, 15:1, and 20:1. After 20 min, rice was weighed for water uptake and measured for volumetric expansion using hexane displacement. The excess cooking water was evaluated for total solids, amylose, and protein to determine the extent of leaching. Water uptake and volumetric expansion significantly increased with milling duration in both cultivars. Leached solids increased as the water-to-rice ratio increased in Francis and increased with milling duration in Jupiter; however, the amylose content of leached solids was unaffected by the water-to-rice ratio in both cultivars. Thus, shorter milling durations may limit the extent of leaching during cooking, as observed with Jupiter, while a lower water-to-rice ratio may reduce wastewater contamination for cultivars similar to Francis.

  17. Characterization of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Chinese Rice Wine Fermented from Enzymatic Extruded Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Wu, Zhengzong; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2015-07-01

    Enzymatic extrusion, instead of traditional steam cooking, to treat rice is an efficient and alternative pretreatment for Chinese rice wine fermentation. In order to determine the formation of volatiles in enzymatic extrusion-processed rice wine (EE), and to confirm its characteristic flavor compounds, headspace solid-phase micro-extraction followed by GC-MS was used. A total of 66 volatile compounds were identified in EE. During fermentation, most volatiles generated from enzymatic extruded rice had the similar trends with those from steam-cooked rice, but the differences in the concentration of volatiles indicated a changed balance of flavors release caused by enzymatic extrusion. Besides, the concentrations and sorts of volatiles in EEs fermented from different rice particle sizes, were not dramatically different. By principal component analysis, EE could be distinctly separated from other traditional Chinese rice wines according to its characteristic volatiles, namely, 2-heptanol, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, methylpentyl 2-propenoate, γ-hexalactone, and 4-vinylguaiacol. Enzymatic extrusion liquefaction has been a popular thermal treatment for cereals, and gradually being applied in fermentation and liquor-making industry all over the world. The characterization of volatile flavor compounds in Chinese rice wine processed by enzymatic extrusion liquefaction pretreatment, might be made use not only for a better understanding of this new-type rice wine, but for the further utilization of enzymatic extrusion in other wine or alcohol production as well. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Meal frequency and timing in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Mark P; Allison, David B; Fontana, Luigi; Harvie, Michelle; Longo, Valter D; Malaisse, Willy J; Mosley, Michael; Notterpek, Lucia; Ravussin, Eric; Scheer, Frank A J L; Seyfried, Thomas N; Varady, Krista A; Panda, Satchidananda

    2014-11-25

    Although major research efforts have focused on how specific components of foodstuffs affect health, relatively little is known about a more fundamental aspect of diet, the frequency and circadian timing of meals, and potential benefits of intermittent periods with no or very low energy intakes. The most common eating pattern in modern societies, three meals plus snacks every day, is abnormal from an evolutionary perspective. Emerging findings from studies of animal models and human subjects suggest that intermittent energy restriction periods of as little as 16 h can improve health indicators and counteract disease processes. The mechanisms involve a metabolic shift to fat metabolism and ketone production, and stimulation of adaptive cellular stress responses that prevent and repair molecular damage. As data on the optimal frequency and timing of meals crystalizes, it will be critical to develop strategies to incorporate those eating patterns into health care policy and practice, and the lifestyles of the population.

  19. Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen...... consumers. Participants (n=164) described 8356 meal occasions in terms of foods and beverages consumed, and the contextual characteristics of the occasion. Beverage choice was explored with random-parameter logit regressions to reveal influences linked to food items eaten, context factors and person factors...... by whom, when and where can be helpful for manufacturers, dieticians/health care providers, and health policy makers. A descriptive framework – the food choice kaleidoscope [Jaeger et al., 2011, Appetite, 56(2), 412-23] was applied to self-reported 24h food recall data from a sample of New Zealand...

  20. Bacterial protein meal in diets for pigs and minks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on protein turnover rate, and on nucleic acid and creatinine metabolism in growing minks and pigs was investigated in two experiments. In each experiment, 16 animals were allocated to four experimental diets. The diets...... containing no BPM served as controls, i.e. for minks diet M1, for pigs P1; the experimental diets contained increasing levels of BPM to replace fish meal (minks) or soybean meal (pigs), so that up to 17% (P2), 20% (M2), 35% (P3), 40% (M3), 52% (P4), and 60% (M4) of digestible N was BPM derived. Protein...... turnover rate was measured by means of the end-product method using [15N]glycine as tracer and urinary nitrogen as end-product. In minks, protein flux, synthesis, and breakdown increased significantly with increasing dietary BPM. In pigs, diet had no observed effect on protein turnover rate. The intake...

  1. Nutritive content of college meals. III. Mineral elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M A; Page, L

    1977-03-01

    Two samples, each consisting of two breakfasts, two lunches, and two dinners as offered to college students, were collected for seven consecutive days from each fifty colleges. The composited meals for each college were analyzed for five major mineral elements--calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, and potassium--and five trace mineral elements--iron, chromium, copper, manganese, and zinc. On a per-person-per-day basis, the meals met or exceeded the recommended dietary allowances for nineteen-to-twenty-two-year-old men and women for calcium and phosphorus. Meals from most of the colleges were below the allowance for magnesium, over nine-tenths were short in zinc, and about three-fifths were below the allowance for iron for females but in only one college for males. Average ratios for mineral element to mineral element are reported.

  2. Peptide YY induces characteristic meal patterns of aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogami, Sachiko; Yamada, Chihiro; Fujitsuka, Naoki; Hattori, Tomohisa

    2017-11-01

    Changes in eating behavior occur in the elderly due to oral and swallowing dysfunctions. We aimed to clarify the difference between basal meal patterns of young and aged mice in relation to appetite regulating hormones. Thirty two of young (7-week-old) and aged (23-25-month-old) C57BL/6 male mice were acclimated to a single housing and then transferred to a highly sensitive automated feeding monitoring device. Feeding behavior was monitored from the onset of the dark phase after habituation to the device. Plasma peptide YY (PYY) levels were assessed under the several feeding status or after treatment of PYY. PYY and its receptor (NPY Y2 receptor, Y2R) antagonist were intraperitoneally administered 30min before the monitoring. Although the basal 24-h meal amounts did not differ by age, the total meal time and frequency of minimum feeding activity (bout) were significantly increased and the average bout size and time per bout were significantly decreased in aged mice. PYY dynamics were abnormal and the temporal reduction in food intake by exogenous PYY was more prominent in aged mice than in young mice. PYY administration to young mice induced aged-like meal patterns, and Y2R antagonist administration to aged mice induced young-like meal patterns. Aged mice exhibited characteristic meal patterns probably due to PYY metabolism dysfunction and/or enhanced PYY-Y2R signaling, suggesting a novel method for assessing eating difficulties in aged animals and a potential target for the remedy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Involving children in meal preparation. Effects on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Ferrage, Aurore; Rytz, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The question of how to promote healthy eating habits in children is relevant because most children do not meet the recommended vegetable intake. Involving children in food preparation could be an opportunity to develop healthy eating behaviors and to increase vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of children's involvement in meal preparation on their food and vegetable intake. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 47 children aged 6 to 10 years. In condition 1 (n = 25), children prepared a lunch meal (pasta, breaded chicken, cauliflower, and salad) with the assistance of a parent. In condition 2 (n = 22), the meal was prepared by the parent alone. Independent samples t-tests were conducted to compare intake in the "child cooks" and "parent cooks" conditions. Children in the child cooks condition ate significantly more salad 41.7 g (76.1%), more chicken 21.8 g (27.0%), and more calories 84.6 kcal (24.4%) than children in the parent cooks condition. Between before cooking and directly after cooking the meal, children in the child cooks condition reported significantly increased feelings of valence (feeling positive) and dominance (feeling in control). This study confirms that involving children in meal preparation can increase vegetable intake. Because of the potential effect on energy intake, parents need to be made aware of appropriate portion sizes for their children. Taking this into account, encouraging parents to involve their children in the preparation of healthy and balanced meals could be a valuable intervention strategy to improve the diets and vegetable intake of children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The 'variety effect' is anticipated in meal planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Laura L; Hinton, Elanor C; Fay, Stephanie H; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    The 'variety effect' describes the greater consumption that is observed when multiple foods with different sensory characteristics are presented either simultaneously or sequentially. Variety increases the amount of food consumed in test of ad libitum intake. However, outside the laboratory, meals are often planned in advance and then consumed in their entirety. We sought to explore the extent to which the variety effect is anticipated in this pre-meal planning. Participants were shown two food images, each representing a first or a second course of a hypothetical meal. The two courses were either, (i) exactly the same food, (ii) different foods from the same sensory category (sweet or savoury), or (iii) different foods from a different sensory category. In Study 1 (N=30) these courses comprised typical 'main meal' foods and in Study 2 (N=30) they comprised snack foods. For each pair of images, participants rated their expected liking of the second course and selected ideal portion sizes, both for the second course and the first and second course, combined. In both studies, as the difference between the courses (from (i) same to (ii) similar to (iii) different) increased, the second course was selected in a larger portion and it was rated as more pleasant. To our knowledge, these are the first studies to show that the variety effect is evident in the energy content of self-selected meals. This work shows that effects of variety are learned and anticipated. This extends our characterisation beyond a passive process that develops towards the end of a meal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing transport susceptibility of rapeseed meal fractionation products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bojanowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Having considered increasing production of liquid and solid biofuels from rapeseed and bearing in mind its stable and unquestionable position in  the food and animal feed industries, a rational approach towards technologically and logistically efficient utilization of by-products from rapeseed processing is required. The aim of the research presented in the article is to assess the transport susceptibility of rapeseed meal fractions, varying according to particle size and chemical composition. Methods: Resistance to changes stimulating self-heating has been assumed as the main criterion of transport susceptibility. The following diagnostic variables have been experimentally determined: total protein, crude fat and crude fiber content, porosity, and water activity in the fraction of examined meal. In order to organize a set of particles and to indicate their optimal applications according to criteria chosen with regard to both  utilization and transportation, two aggregate indicators have been calculated. Results: It has been proved that medium-sized particle fractions (0.075-0.4 mm exhibit the lowest transport susceptibility, whereas the those with the largest granulations (>3 mm -have the highest. One significant relationship is the decline of feeding value and concurrent increase in the transport susceptibility of meal fractions, which in practice means that those fractions least-favoured by the animal feed industry can be least cumbersome to transport. Conclusions: It has been suggested that there should be a division of rapeseed meal into two products with different applications and different transport susceptibility. The fractioning of meal can bring numerous, measurable benefits for the meal industry and logistics processes for solid biofuels, where storage and transport properties have considerable importance, alongside commodity price and transport costs.

  6. Reproducibility of gallbladder ejection fraction measured by fatty meal cholescintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Muqbel, Kusai M.; Hani, M. N. Hani; Elheis, M. A.; Al-Omari, M. H. [School of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan)

    2010-12-15

    There are conflicting data in the literature regarding the reproducibility of the gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) measured by fatty meal cholescintigraphy (CS). We aimed to test the reproducibility of GBEF measured by fatty meal CS. Thirty-five subjects (25 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with chronic abdominal pain) underwent fatty meal CS twice in order to measure GBEF1 and GBEF2. The healthy volunteers underwent a repeat scan within 1-13 months from the first scan. The patients underwent a repeat scan within 1-4 years from the first scan and were not found to have chronic acalculous cholecystitis (CAC). Our standard fatty meal was composed of a 60-g Snickers chocolate bar and 200 ml full-fat yogurt. The mean {+-} SD values for GBEF1 and GBEF2 were 52{+-}17% and 52{+-}16%, respectively. There was a direct linear correlation between the values of GBEF1 and GBEF2 for the subjects, with a correlation coefficient of 0.509 (p=0.002). Subgroup data analysis of the volunteer group showed that there was significant linear correlation between volunteer values of GBEF1 and GBEF2, with a correlation coefficient of 0.473 (p=0.017). Subgroup data analysis of the non-CAC patient group showed no significant correlation between patient values of GBEF1 and GBEF2, likely due to limited sample size. This study showed that fatty meal CS is a reliable test in gallbladder motility evaluation and that GBEF measured by fatty meal CS is reproducible

  7. Rice saabus Euroopat taltsutama / Tõnu Prei

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prei, Tõnu, 1950-

    2005-01-01

    USA välisminister Condolezza Rice alustas ringreisi Euroopas, eesmärgiks anda vastulöök USA-d tabanud kriitikale sõjavangide kohtlemise ja teistes riikides oma luuretalituse salavanglate pidamise pärast

  8. Hunting Plan : Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this hunting plan for Rice Lake NWR are to: provide a method of removing white-tailed deer from the area population to maintain the general health...

  9. Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (RICE) | New ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    RICE use pistons that alternatively move back and forth to convert pressure into rotating motion. They're commonly used at power and manufacturing plants to generate electricity and to power pumps and compressors.

  10. [Red yeast rice: An unsafe food supplement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Red yeast rice is the fermentation product of the mould Monascus ruber and is traditionally used in East Asia to dye and conserve food. Its main pharmacologically active compound, monakolin K, was isolated from red yeast rice and is used as an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis under the INN lovastatin. Lovastatin and several other statins are marketed as drugs whereas red yeast rice is offered as a food supplement. As statins can cause severe side effects, such as muscle damage and kidney failure, the dosing and information about interactions with drugs and food is essential for the use of these products. Furthermore, red yeast rice can contain the mycotoxin citrinin and several other substances that are not yet toxicologically evaluated.

  11. USING RICE BRAN IN LAYING HEN DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H ERSIN SAMLI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is an energy and protein rich ingredient used in poultry feeding. To balance energy and protein requirements. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rice bran on performance and egg quality during peak production of a commercial White laying strain of 22 week of age. Dietary treatments were consisted by inclusion of rice bran at 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels. Each treatment had 6 reps in which 12 birds were randomly assigned in wired fl oor battery cages equipped with nipple drinkers and through feeders. Layers accessed to feed and water freely. Lighting regimen was adjusted to 16h light/8h dark. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. Overall results of the present experiment indicated that rice bran could be included up to 10% without any adverse affect on laying performance, egg quality and digestive organs.

  12. The Origin of Flooded Rice Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi IKEHASHI

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation has long been considered to have originated from seeding of annual types of wild rice somewhere in subtropics, tropics or in the Yangtze River basin. That idea, however, contains a fatally weak point, when we consider the tremendous difficulty for primitive human to seed any cereal crop in the warm and humid climate, where weed thrives all year round. Instead of the accepted theory, we have to see a reality that vegetative propagation of edible plants is a dominant form of agriculture in such regions. The possibility is discussed that Job's tears and rice, two cereal crops unique to the region, might have been developed via vegetative propagation to obtain materials for medicine or herb tea in backyard gardens prior to cereal production. This idea is supported by the fact that rice in temperate regions is still perennial in its growth habit and that such backyard gardens with transplanted taro can still be seen from Yunnan Province of China to Laos. Thanks to detailed survey of wild rice throughout China for 1970–1980, it is now confirmed that a set of clones of wild rice exist in shallow swamps in Jiangxi Province, an area with severe winter cold. In early summer ancient farmers may have divided the sprouting buds and spread them by transplanting into flooded shallow marsh. Such way of propagation might have faster improved less productive rice through a better genetic potential for response to human interference than quick fixation in seed propagation, because vegetative parts are heterogeneous. Obviously, such a primitive manner of rice cultivation did include the essential parts of rice farming, i.e., nursery bed, transplanting in flooded field of shallow marsh like. Transfer from the primitive nursery to true nursery by seed may have later allowed rice cultivation to be extended to northern regions. In thus devised flooded cultivation there were a series of unique advantages, i.e.; continuous cropping of rice in a same

  13. MILP approaches to sustainable production and distribution of meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; Wang, Yang; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the production and distribution system for professionally prepared meals, in which a new innovative concept is applied. The concept aims to improve the sustainability of the system by distributing meal elements super-chilled in the conventional cold chain. Here, sustainability...... comprises economic, environmental and social aspects. The impacts on and trade-offs between the different dimensions of sustainability are discussed, and combined with aspect of product quality. Furthermore, we identify the important planning decisions in relation to production and distribution and organise...... and distribution planning, and also evaluate the performance of and quantify the trade-offs between the different sustainability dimensions....

  14. School meals in children’s social life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye

    overcoming typical challenges of comparison across school meal arrangements, such as differences across children, schools or countries. The dissertation builds on data from a four month field work in 4th grade, 26 semi-structured interviews with children, chefs, and teachers, and 834 children’s self...... in children’s evaluation of new food initiatives in school; that children meet conflicting approaches to food education depending on the context; and that the social powers of sharing and exchanging individual lunch packs could outweigh some of the benefits of a collective meal system. Overall...

  15. The effect of meal frequency on adolescent nutrient requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrabani H H

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Rapid tissue growth and development during puberty increases the need for energy and nutrients. On the other hand, the prevalence of obesity is accelerating among adolescents. Controversies exist regarding meal frequency, obesity and adequacy of nutrients; in particular, a more frequent snacking pattern has been associated with overconsumption of calories in children and adolescents and also with greater body weight. We investigated the meal frequency of adolescents in relation to meeting nutrient requirements.Methods: This cross-sectional study, in the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS, included 367 boys and girls aged 10-19 years that were randomly selected. Dietary recalls for 48 hours were gathered and participants divided to three groups according to meal frequency; group 1, 2 and 3 with <4 meals, 4-6 meals and ≥ 7 meals, respectively. The nutrient intakes were compared with the dietary reference intake (DRI. ANCOVA, Bonferroni and partial correlation by adjusting total energy intake were used for statistical analyses.Results: The mean age of these 169 boys and 198 girls was 14±3 years old. The weight of the first group was higher by one-third in boys (54±18 vs. 45±13 kilogram, p<0.05. There were no other significant differences in anthropometric indices of the studied subjects, nor was there any difference in the vegetable and meat intake between the groups. But the first group had lower intake of fruits and milk groups (p<0.01. Individuals in all three groups had inadequate intake of calcium, zinc, copper, magnesium, pyridoxine compared with the DRI, although the vitamin C and riboflavin intakes were adequate. Higher meal frequency was associated with sufficient intake of magnesium, vitamin C, riboflavin and pyridoxine."n"nConclusion: Adolescents tend to have inadequate intakes of calcium, pyridoxine, zinc, copper, all of which are essential for health and proper growth. Increasing the number of

  16. Exploring hospitality within hospital meals by means of visual methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper reflects the application of visual methodologies adapted in an explorative study on hospitality and hospital meals. It takes point of departure in a multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork placed at a general hospital in 2012. Visual methodologies were applied in multiple ways....... This includes visual methodologies as part of observation and interview strategies. The paper presents and discusses how the application of different visual methodologies can contribute to the construction of ethnographical knowledge on hospitality and hospital meals. Finally ethical considerations as well...

  17. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logi...

  18. Characterization of paralogous protein families in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wei

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High gene numbers in plant genomes reflect polyploidy and major gene duplication events. Oryza sativa, cultivated rice, is a diploid monocotyledonous species with a ~390 Mb genome that has undergone segmental duplication of a substantial portion of its genome. This, coupled with other genetic events such as tandem duplications, has resulted in a substantial number of its genes, and resulting proteins, occurring in paralogous families. Results Using a computational pipeline that utilizes Pfam and novel protein domains, we characterized paralogous families in rice and compared these with paralogous families in the model dicotyledonous diploid species, Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis, which has undergone genome duplication as well, has a substantially smaller genome (~120 Mb and gene complement compared to rice. Overall, 53% and 68% of the non-transposable element-related rice and Arabidopsis proteins could be classified into paralogous protein families, respectively. Singleton and paralogous family genes differed substantially in their likelihood of encoding a protein of known or putative function; 26% and 66% of singleton genes compared to 73% and 96% of the paralogous family genes encode a known or putative protein in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. Furthermore, a major skew in the distribution of specific gene function was observed; a total of 17 Gene Ontology categories in both rice and Arabidopsis were statistically significant in their differential distribution between paralogous family and singleton proteins. In contrast to mammalian organisms, we found that duplicated genes in rice and Arabidopsis tend to have more alternative splice forms. Using data from Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing, we show that a significant portion of the duplicated genes in rice show divergent expression although a correlation between sequence divergence and correlation of expression could be seen in very young genes. Conclusion

  19. Mycotoxin production on rice, pulses and oilseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Fouzia; Samajpati, N.

    Mycotoxin-producing fungi were isolated from contaminated grains of rice, pulses and oilseeds sold in the local markets of Calcutta for human consumption. It was found that aflatoxin B1 was produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, aflatoxin G1 by A. flavus, ochratoxin by Aspergillus ochraceous, sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus japonicus and citrinin by Penicillium citrinum. Aflatoxin B1 (333-10416μg/kg) was produced by Aspergillus spp. in rice, pulses and oilseeds.

  20. Polyamines and Anaerobic Elongation of Rice Coleoptile

    OpenAIRE

    Remo, Reggiani; Alejandro, Hochkoeppler; Alcide, Bertani; Istituto Biosintesi Vegetali, C. N. R.; Istituto Biosintesi Vegetali, C. N. R.; Istituto Biosintesi Vegetali, C. N. R.

    1989-01-01

    The role of polyamines in the anaerobic elongation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) coleoptiles was studied. The reduced growth of rice coleoptiles under anoxic conditions was accompanied by a massive accumulation of free putrescine. Putrescine was synthesized from arginine in a reaction catalyzed by arginine decarboxylase (ADC). The anoxic titer of putrescine was closely correlated with elongation of coleoptiles. In experiments in which putrescine and inhibitors [a-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) and...

  1. The Potency of White Rice (Oryza sativa), Black Rice (Oryza sativa L. indica), and Red Rice (Oryza nivara) as Antioxidant and Tyrosinase Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, I.; Maharni, M.; Sadiah, S.

    2017-04-01

    Rice is known to have many beneficial biological activities and is often used as “bedak dingin”, a face powder. The content of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and several types of antioxidants, such as ferulic acid, phytic acid, tocopherol, and oryzanols [1-2] are predicted to be potential as a tyrosinase inhibitor. The purpose of this study is to determine the potency of extracts from there types of rice, namely white, red, and black rice as an antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitor. The rice was extracted with three different solvents, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method was found in the methanol extract of black rice (IC50 290 μg/mL). Meanwhile, ethyl acetate extract of white rice has the highest antioxidant activity withphosphomolybdic acid method (41 mmol α-tocopherol equivalents/g sample). Thus, methanol extract of black rice and ethyl acetate extract of white rice are potential as an antioxidant. For tyrosinase inhibitor, n-hexane extract of red rice (IC50 3156 μg/mL) was the most active extract. The active component for radical scavenging is polar compound and for antioxidant by phosphomolybdate method is less polar compounds in black rice methanol extract based on TLC bioautogram. In conclusion, the black rice is the most potent in antioxidant while red rice is for tyrosinase inhibition.

  2. Transcriptional profiling of rice early response to Magnaporthe oryzae identified OsWRKYs as important regulators in rice blast resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wei

    Full Text Available Rice blast disease is a major threat to rice production worldwide, but the mechanisms underlying rice resistance to the causal agent Magnaporthe oryzae remain elusive. Therefore, we carried out a transcriptome study on rice early defense response to M. oryzae. We found that the transcriptional profiles of rice compatible and incompatible interactions with M. oryzae were mostly similar, with genes regulated more prominently in the incompatible interactions. The functional analysis showed that the genes involved in signaling and secondary metabolism were extensively up-regulated. In particular, WRKY transcription factor genes were significantly enriched among the up-regulated genes. Overexpressing one of these WRKY genes, OsWRKY47, in transgenic rice plants conferred enhanced resistance against rice blast fungus. Our results revealed the sophisticated transcriptional reprogramming of signaling and metabolic pathways during rice early response to M. oryzae and demonstrated the critical roles of WRKY transcription factors in rice blast resistance.

  3. Three geographically separate domestications of Asian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civáň, Peter; Craig, Hayley; Cox, Cymon J; Brown, Terence A

    2015-11-02

    Domesticated rice (Oryza sativa L.) accompanied the dawn of Asian civilization(1) and has become one of world's staple crops. From archaeological and genetic evidence various contradictory scenarios for the origin of different varieties of cultivated rice have been proposed, the most recent based on a single domestication(2,3). By examining the footprints of selection in the genomes of different cultivated rice types, we show that there were three independent domestications in different parts of Asia. We identify wild populations in southern China and the Yangtze valley as the source of the japonica gene pool, and populations in Indochina and the Brahmaputra valley as the source of the indica gene pool. We reveal a hitherto unrecognized origin for the aus variety in central India or Bangladesh. We also conclude that aromatic rice is a result of a hybridization between japonica and aus, and that the tropical and temperate versions of japonica are later adaptations of one crop. Our conclusions are in accord with archaeological evidence that suggests widespread origins of rice cultivation(1,4). We therefore anticipate that our results will stimulate a more productive collaboration between genetic and archaeological studies of rice domestication, and guide utilization of genetic resources in breeding programmes aimed at crop improvement.

  4. Drought Monitoring for Rice Production in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyda Chhinh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice production underpins the national economy and the most rural livelihoods in Cambodia, but it is negatively impacted by repeated droughts. The research reported on in this paper focuses on relationships between drought occurrences in Cambodia’s most drought-prone province (Kampong Speu and (i damage to the annual rice harvest between 1994 and 2011, and (ii the Niño 3.4 index. Droughts were identified using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI. In seven of the years between 1994 and 2006 droughts damaged >1000 ha of rice in the Kampong Speu province. Furthermore, in 11 years >200 ha of rice were damaged. A critical success index of 0.66 obtained for an analysis of SPI-defined drought and area rice damage in the province indicates a strong statistical relationship. A statistically significant correlation (r = −0.455 was achieved between Niño 3.4 and 12-month SPI values lagged by three months, this indicates the importance of ENSO linkages in explaining drought in this region. Late season droughts lead to greater rice damage than early- and mid-season droughts.

  5. Rice bran oil an alternate bakery shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amarjeet; Jassal, Vishaldeep; Thind, S S; Aggarwal, Poonam

    2012-02-01

    Studies were carried out to replace bakery shortening with refined rice bran oil in bread preparation. Physico-chemical properties of bakery shortening and rice bran oil were studied. Rice bran oil was found to have a higher content of essential fatty acid linoleic acid (34.98%) as compared to that of bakery shortening (5.14%). Chemical composition of wheat flour used was also evaluation. Bread samples were prepared by replacing bakery shortening with rice bran oil at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels. Breads were examined for bread making quality i.e. loaf weight, loaf height, loaf volume and specific volume and organoleptic quality i.e. appearance, crust colour, crumb colour, aroma, texture, taste and overall acceptability on a 9 point hedonic scale. Statistical analysis regarding bread making quality and organoleptic quality of bread revealed that bread making and organoleptic quality of breads prepared after replacing bakery shortening with rice bran oil at 50% level varied significantly from that of control. Statistically significant variations were observed in the texture of breads prepared with shortening from that prepared after replacing bakery shortening with rice bran oil at 50% level.

  6. The structure of rice weevil pectin methylesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, David C; Behnke, Craig A; Pappan, Kirk; Shen, Zicheng; Reese, John C; Reeck, Gerald R; Stenkamp, Ronald E

    2014-11-01

    Rice weevils (Sitophilus oryzae) use a pectin methylesterase (EC 3.1.1.11), along with other enzymes, to digest cell walls in cereal grains. The enzyme is a right-handed β-helix protein, but is circularly permuted relative to plant and bacterial pectin methylesterases, as shown by the crystal structure determination reported here. This is the first structure of an animal pectin methylesterase. Diffraction data were collected to 1.8 Å resolution some time ago for this crystal form, but structure solution required the use of molecular-replacement techniques that have been developed and similar structures that have been deposited in the last 15 years. Comparison of the structure of the rice weevil pectin methylesterase with that from Dickeya dandantii (formerly Erwinia chrysanthemi) indicates that the reaction mechanisms are the same for the insect, plant and bacterial pectin methylesterases. The similarity of the structure of the rice weevil enzyme to the Escherichia coli lipoprotein YbhC suggests that the evolutionary origin of the rice weevil enzyme was a bacterial lipoprotein, the gene for which was transferred to a primitive ancestor of modern weevils and other Curculionidae. Structural comparison of the rice weevil pectin methylesterase with plant and bacterial enzymes demonstrates that the rice weevil protein is circularly permuted relative to the plant and bacterial molecules.

  7. Fungicide and insecticide residues in rice grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Mack Teló

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse residues of fungicides and insecticides in rice grains that were subjected to different forms of processing. Field work was conducted during three crop seasons, and fungicides and insecticides were applied at different crop growth stages on the aerial portion of the rice plants. Azoxystrobin, difenoconazole, propiconazole, tebuconazole, and trifloxystrobin fungicides were sprayed only once at the R2 growth stage or twice at the R2 and R4 growth stages; cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, and thiamethoxam insecticides were sprayed at the R2 growth stage; and permethrin was sprayed at 5-day intervals from the R4 growth stage up to one day prior to harvest. Pesticide residues were analysed in uncooked, cooked, parboiled, polished and brown rice grains as well as rice hulls during the three crop seasons, for a total of 1458 samples. The samples were analysed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD using modified QuEChERS as the extraction method. No fungicide or insecticide residues were detected in rice grain samples; however, azoxystrobin and cypermethrin residues were detected in rice hull samples.

  8. Pathways of Rice Diversification across Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Q Fuller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The archaeology of rice has made important methodological advances over the past decade that have contributed new data on the domestication process, spread and ecology of cultivation. Growing evidence from spikelet bases indicates that non-shattering, domesticated forms evolved gradually in the Yangtze basin and that there were at least two distinct processes around the Middle Yangtze region pre-dating 6000 BC, and the in the Lower Yangtze region between 6000 and 4000 BC. Early rice cultivation in these areas was based on wet field ecologies, in contrast to rainfed rice that is indicated among the earliest systems in India. When rice first spread north it was not entirely suited to shorter temperate summer growth seasons, and we are able to infer from high levels of apparently green-harvested spikelets that genetic adaptations to temperate conditions evolved after 2000 BC. When rice first spread south, to mainland Southeast Asia, after 2500 BC, it was grown in rainfed, dry ecologies that were less labour- demanding and less-productive. More productive and intensive irrigated rice then redeveloped in Southeast Asia around 2000 years ago, supporting growing population densities and social complexity.

  9. Effectiveness of offering healthy labelled meals in improving the nutritional quality of lunch meals eaten in a worksite canteen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Beck, Anne Marie; Leedo, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Healthier meal selections at restaurants and canteens are often limited and not actively promoted. In this Danish study the effectiveness of a healthy labelling certification program in improving dietary intake and influencing edible plate waste was evaluated in a quasi-experimental study design...... meals and plate waste a validated digital photographic method was used combining estimation of food intake with food nutrient composition data. Food satisfaction was rated by participants using a questionnaire. Several significant positive nutritional effects were observed at the intervention canteen...... including a mean decrease in energy density in the consumed meals from 561kJ/100g at baseline to 368 and 407kJ/100g at end-point and follow-up, respectively (Pnutritional effects...

  10. Identification of the principal transcriptional regulators for low-fat and high-fat meal responsive genes in small intestine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mucunguzi, Octave; Melouane, Aicha; Ghanemi, Abdelaziz; Yoshioka, Mayumi; Boivin, AndrAaAa; Calvo, Ezequiel-Luis; St-Amand, Jonny

    2017-01-01

    ...) and HF meal ingestion. Whereas one group of mice was sacrificed after fasting, the others were fed ad libitum with LF or HF meal, and sacrificed 30 min, 1 h and 3 h after the beginning of the meal...

  11. Glycemic index of split peas, rice (Binam, kidney beans, green peas, "Lavash" bread and broad bean kernels in NIDDM subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darabi A

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Equal amounts of carbohydrates from various foodstuffs do not increase blood glucose to the same extent. This study was carried out, therefore, in 1996 at the National Nutrition and Food Technology Research institute in Tehran to determine the glycemic index of split pease, rice (Binam, kidney beans, green peas, “Lavash” bread and broad bean kernels. Diabetic subjects were studied in a clinical trial. The exact amount of cabohydrate in foodstuffs was determined using AOAC. Methods. White bread was used as the reference food. After a 12-hour overnight fast on seven separate days each subject was given the test food in an amount to provide 25 g of carbohydrate. Blood glucose was determined after 0, 60, 120 minutes using orthotouidine method. Glycemi response in each individual was calculated as the area under the 2- hour glucose individual was calculated as the area under the test food glucose curve as a percentage of the mean area under the whith bread glucose curve. Glycemic indices of the test foods were 31± 8.5 for split peas, 42.9±3 for rice, 44±9 for kidney beans, 57±7 for green peas, 69±8.5 for “Lavash” bread, and 96±14 for broad bean kernels .Legumes and rice (Binam can be used efficiently in meal planning for the diabetic subjects.

  12. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas) are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork) - a randomized cross-over meal test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Marlene Dahlwad; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Christensen, Sheena M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef) because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas) should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources...... on appetite regulation. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas) are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork) regarding meal-induced appetite sensations. DESIGN: In total, 43 healthy, normal-weight, young men completed this randomized, double......-Legume compared to HP-Meat or LP-Legume (pVegetable-based meals (beans/peas) influenced appetite sensations favorably compared to animal-based meals (pork/veal) with similar energy and protein content, but lower fiber content. Interestingly, a vegetable-based meal with low protein content...

  13. Studies on Aspergillus oryzae Mutants for the Production of Single Cell Proteins from Deoiled Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudravaram Ravinder

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl methyl sulphonate was used to induce point mutation in Aspergillus oryzae (MTCC 1846. Incubation with ethyl methyl sulphonate for 1 h resulted in 98 % killing of spores. By screening the survived colonies three hypermorphs were found (Shan1, Shan2 and Shan3. These three mutants along with the A. oryzae (MTCC 1846 were used for the production of single cell proteins. They grew profusely on deoiled rice bran and produced higher percentage of protein. Among the three mutants Shan2 had higher protein content in the pH range of 3–7 and temperatures 36–45 °C, maintaining low quantities of nucleic acids. The specific growth rate of Shan2 was higher on the media containing substrates like glucose, maltose and cellulose. Shan2 had higher content of amino acids when compared with FAO standard and A. oryzae (MTCC 1846, but the amino acid content of Shan2 was approximately equal to that of soyabean meal. The comparative protein content of Shan2 and A. oryzae (MTCC 1846 was 57 and 43 %, respectively, while their nucleic acid content was 3 and 7.2 %, respectively. Protein enrichment of 18.9 % in Shan2 resulted from the cultivation on deoiled rice bran as compared to protein content of the A. oryzae (MTCC1846 indicating that Shan2 possessed good amenability for SCP production.

  14. Match sources of manure in corrective land rice high in first year of culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Lange

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of phosphorus sources as a partial corrective fertilization and maintenance in upland rice cultivation. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of Alta Floresta/MT in crop year 2007/08, using the experimental design of randomized blocks with five treatments (control, simple superphosphate, triple superphosphate, Arad reactive rock phosphate and bone meal, and four replications. The following characteristics were evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, tiller number per meter, panicle number per m2, Internode length, number of grains per panicle, percentage of filled grains, voids, weight of 100 grains, return on beans, whole grain yield and productivity. Applying phosphorus influenced most of the morphological characteristics of the rice, except the stem diameter and length of the internode. There was influence of phosphate sources for the number of grains per panicle and productivity and that the two variables for the treatments with superphosphate and triple superphosphate were higher than the control. The use of triple superphosphate provided greater productivity and higher economic return in the first year of cultivation.

  15. Relationship between the amount of rice oil ingested by patients with Yusho and their subjective symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, T.; Hayabuchi, H.

    1985-02-01

    The goal of this study was to clarify the subjective symptoms closely related to Yusho by examining the relationship between the amount of PCB-contaminated rice oil ingested by patients and the subjective symptoms recorded on their questionnaires. The amount of PCB-contaminated rice oil consumed by the patients was obtained by interviewing the housewife in each Yusho family. Individual consumption of the oil was estimated by taking into account age, sex and the number of meals at home. In 1970, 46 patients were available for analysis, and in 1971, 33 patients were available. Among 12 subjective symptoms studied, numbness of the limbs, coughing, expectoration, and the sensation of elevated teeth were considered to show a dose-response relationship, which suggests that these subjective symptoms are closely related to Yusho. Consistent high rates of complaints of general fatigue and eye discharge were considered possibly to be connected with Yusho, although no dose-response relationships have been determined. Other subjective symptoms, such as fever, headache, dizziness, abdominal pain, swelling in the joints, changes in menstruation, and loss of hair failed to show consistent dose-response relationships. It should be noted, however, that for these symptoms which failed to show dose-response relationships, it is impossible to deny a causal relationship.

  16. Effect of red rice interference in fourth densities of commercial rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge García de la Osa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Field trials were carried out in The Regional Research Grain Station “Sur del Jíbaro”, Sancti Spíritus, in order to study the infestation effect of 0, 12, 25, 50, 100 and 200 red rice plants per square meter (m2 on growth and yields of commercial variety J-104, seeded at 50, 100, 200 and 300 plants/m². Yield of J-104 rice variety decreased with the increase in red rice density. Crop yield decrease in the dry season ranged from 10.7 to 94.8% with infestations of 12 and 200 red rice plants /m², respectively; while in the wet season changed from 11.4 to 91.5 % with similar level in infestations. In both seasons 12 red rice plants were enough to cause a significant reduction in commercial rice yields in relation to the control treatment (without red rice infestation. The lost in crop yield was due to the decreased in panicles/ m² and filled grains per panicle, caused by the interference with red rice.

  17. evaluation of rice cultivars for resistance to rice yellow mottle virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2018-02-08

    Feb 8, 2018 ... H. KAM, M.-N. NDJIONDJOP1, N. OUEDRAOGO, M.D. LAING2 and A. GHESQUIERE3. Environmental and Agricultural Research Institute (INERA), 01 910 Bobo - Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. 1Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), 01 BP 2551 Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire. 2University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), School of ...

  18. Rice-eating quality among consumers in different rice grain preference countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    More rice is eaten nowadays in traditionally nonrice-eating countries. This study investigated consumer eating quality preferences among consumers in target rice export countries to identify opportunities and strategic implications. A quantitative study with 1,128 consumers of target nationalities

  19. The Potential of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) to Increase Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SRI practice for planting space of 25x25 to 30x30 cm, wetting and drying interval of three days, and younger seedling of 8-12 days are recommended as good combinations for SRI practice in Mkindo area, Morogoro region. Key words: Climate change, rice productivity, System of Rice Intensification (SRI), alternate wetting ...

  20. Complexity of rice Hsp100 gene family: lessons from rice genome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-03-29

    Mar 29, 2007 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 32; Issue 3. Complexity of rice Hsp100 gene family: lessons from rice genome sequence data. Gaurav Batra ... Elucidation of genome sequence provides an excellent platform to understand detailed complexity of the various gene families. Hsp100 is an ...

  1. Development and characterization of emulsions containing purple rice bran and brown rice oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of this study were to characterize purple rice bran oil (PRBO) as extracted from the bran, and to produce and characterize a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil. An emulsion was prepared using PRBO (10%), sodium caseinate (5%) and water (85%). The mixture was sonicated followed ...

  2. Simultaneous rough rice drying and rice bran stabilization using infrared radiation heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop a new rice drying method by using IR heating followed by tempering. Freshly harvested medium grain rice (M206) samples with different initial moisture contents (IMCs) were used in this study. The samples were dried for one- and two-passes by using a catalyt...

  3. Fermentation of rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and faba beans in combination with wheat bran increases solubility of protein and phosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Blaabjerg, Karoline

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND To increase self-supply of protein and phosphorus (P) in European pig and poultry diets and reduce nitrogen (N) and P excretion, attention is directed to approaches increasing protein and P digestibility of rapeseed, sunflower and faba beans. Wheat bran is rich in enzymes degrading...... and solubilizing protein and phytate. Herein, solubilization of protein, N and P was investigated when increasing ratios of wheat bran were fermented with rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), faba beans (FB) or a combination of these (RSM/SFM/FB). RESULTS Protein, N and P solubility was greater, for all...

  4. Nordic school meals improve blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and insulin despite increasing waist circumference: the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.; Laursen, R. P.

    measured blood pressure, lipid profile, insulin resistance based on the Homeostasis Model of Assessment (HOMA-IR), anthropometry and body composition at baseline, month 3 and 6. Results Seventy-six% of the children were normalweight; 10% were underweight and 14% overweight/obese. The NND school meals did...... and physical activity confirmed these results. Conclusions Nutritionally balanced school meals improved blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and glucose homeostasis in 8-11-year-old children, despite small increases in BMI and waist circumference. OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish...

  5. Environmental impact of replacing soybean meal with rapeseed meal in diets of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, H H E; Bikker, P; Mollenhorst, H; Meerburg, B G; de Boer, I J M

    2015-11-01

    The major impact of the livestock sector on the environment may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products to animals. Since the last decade, co-products from biodiesel production, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), became increasingly available in Europe. Consequently, an increase in RSM content in livestock diets was observed at the expense of soybean meal (SBM) content. Cultivation of SBM is associated with high environmental impacts, especially when emissions related to land use change (LUC) are included. This study aims to assess the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets. As RSM has a lower nutritional value, we assessed the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM using scenarios that differed in handling changes in nutritional level. Scenario 1 (S1) was the basic scenario containing SBM. In scenario 2 (S2), RSM replaced SBM based on CP content, resulting in reduced energy and amino acid content, and hence an increased feed intake to realize the same growth rate. The diet of scenario 3 (S3) was identical to S2; however, we assumed that pigs were not able to increase their feed intake, leading to reduced growth performance. In scenario 4 (S4), the energy and amino acid content were increased to the same level of S1. Pig performances were simulated using a growth model. We analyzed the environmental impact of each scenario using life-cycle assessment, including processes of feed production, manure management, piglet production, enteric fermentation and housing. Results show that, expressed as per kg of BW, replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets marginally decreased global warming potential (GWP) and energy use (EU) but decreased land use (LU) up to 12%. Between scenarios, S3 had the maximum potential to reduce the environmental impact, due to a lower impact per kg of feed and an increased body protein-to-lipid ratio of the pigs, resulting in a better feed conversion ratio. Optimization of the body protein

  6. Optimal levels of fish meal and lysine in maize based diets for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    essential amino acids may be considered limiting. The identification of such limiting a_minoacids is an important prerequisite for recommendations on the optimal in- clusion level of fish meal and lysine in maize meal based diets for growing pigs. $.

  7. Staggered Meal Consumption Facilitates Appetite Control without Affecting Postprandial Energy Intake1-3

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sofie G Lemmens; Eveline A Martens; Jurriaan M Born; Mieke J Martens; Margriet S Westerterp-Plantenga

    2011-01-01

      Meal pattern may influence hormone and appetite dynamics and food intake. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of staggered compared with nonstaggered meal consumption on hormone and appetite dynamics, food reward (i.e...

  8. The effects of McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken and Pizza Hut meals on recommended diets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malouf, Nasseem M; Colagiuri, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    .... The 3 takeaway meals were from McDonalds, Pizza Hut and Kentucky Fried Chicken. The effects of each of these meals on average daily kilojoule, fibre, fat, P/S ratio, protein and carbohydrate intakes were assessed...

  9. Effect on hemodynamics of a liquid meal alone and in combination with propranolol in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Flemming; Simonsen, L; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1992-01-01

    intravenous infusion of propranolol in combination with the meal. No significant effects were observed on systemic hemodynamics after the meal alone. Heart rate (-14%; P less than 0.01) and cardiac index (-24%; P less than 0.01) decreased after meal in combination with propranolol. The mean hepatic venous...... pressure gradient increased significantly after ingestion of the meal alone with a maximal effect after 30 minutes (+13%; P less than 0.05) and returned to baseline values after 2 hours. Meal in combination with propranolol had no significant effect on the hepatic venous pressure gradient. Hepatic blood...... flow increased substantially after the meal alone with a maximal effect after 30 minutes (+28%; P less than 0.01), whereas no significant effect was observed after meal in combination with propranolol. Azygos blood flow increased significantly after the meal alone (+36%; P less than 0.05), whereas...

  10. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas) are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork) ? a randomized cross-over meal test study

    OpenAIRE

    Marlene D. Kristensen; Bendsen, Nathalie T.; Christensen, Sheena M.; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef) because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas) should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources on appetite regulation.Objective: To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas) are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork) regarding meal-induced ap...

  11. More Than A Meal? A Randomized Control Trial Comparing the Effects of Home-Delivered Meals Programs on Participants' Feelings of Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kali S; Akobundu, Ucheoma; Dosa, David

    2016-11-01

    Nutrition service providers are seeking alternative delivery models to control costs and meet the growing need for home-delivered meals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extent to which the home-delivered meals program, and the type of delivery model, reduces homebound older adults' feelings of loneliness. This project utilizes data from a three-arm, fixed randomized control study conducted with 626 seniors on waiting lists at eight Meals on Wheels programs across the United States. Seniors were randomly assigned to either (i) receive daily meal delivery; (ii) receive once-weekly meal delivery; or (iii) remain on the waiting list. Participants were surveyed at baseline and again at 15 weeks. Analysis of covariance was used to test for differences in loneliness between groups, over time and logistic regression was used to assess differences in self-rated improvement in loneliness. Participants receiving meals had lower adjusted loneliness scores at follow-up compared with the control group. Individuals who received daily-delivered meals were more likely to self-report that home-delivered meals improved their loneliness than the group receiving once-weekly delivered meals. This article includes important implications for organizations that provide home-delivered meals in terms of cost, delivery modality, and potential recipient benefits. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. EFFECT OF SOYBEAN MEAL, MAIZE GLUTEN 30% AND FEATHER MEAL ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO OF HYBRID (LABEO ROHITA X CATLA CATLA FINGERLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. NOREEN, M. SALIM, M. ZAHRA AND Y. GUL

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth performance and feed conversion ratio (FCR of hybrid (Labeo rohita x Catla catla fingerlings fed for six weeks on soybean meal, maize gluten 30% and feather meal were evaluated. The feed trails were replicated for each of the ingredients. The feed was supplied at the rate of 4% of wet body weight of fingerlings twice a day. The hybrid (Labeo rohita x Catla catla fingerlings gained highest body weight (2.07 ± 0.01g on maize gluten 30%, followed by feather meal (1.88 ± 0.04g and soybean meal (1.66 ± 0.01g and these values were significantly different from each other (p<0.05. The growth measured in terms of total length was significantly higher on maize gluten 30% (6.85 ± 0.04 cm than feather meal (6.20 ± 0.05 cm and soybean meal (6.15 ± 0.04 cm. The difference between the latter two groups was, however, non significant. FCR calculated for three ingredients was lower (better on maize gluten 30% (1.90 ± 0.06, followed by feather meal (1.97 ± 0.04 and soybean meal (2.06 ± 0.08. The FCR value on maize gluten 30% was significantly better than soybean meal but non significantly different from feather meal. It was concluded that maize gluten 30% could be included in the feed formulation for fingerling hybrids.

  13. Apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients and amino acids in soybean meal, fish meal, spray-dried plasma protein and fermented soybean meal to weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin Suk; Park, Jae Won; Lee, Sang In; Kim, In Ho

    2016-05-01

    This study sought to determine whether fermentation could increase apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), energy (E) and amino acids (AA) in fermented soybean meal (FSBM) greater than that of soybean meal (SBM) in weaned pigs. Four weaned pigs (10.00 ± 0.30 kg) were surgically equipped with T-cannulas and randomly followed a 4 × 4 Latin square design of treatments (SBM, FSBM, fish meal and spray-dried plasma protein). Overall, the fermentation process was able to reduce the amount of anti-nutritional factors (ANF), including trypsin inhibitors, raffinose and stachyose, in the FSBM diet, which were significantly reduced by 39.4, 92.2, and 92.9%, respectively, as compared to the SBM diet. As a consequence of ANF reduction in FSBM, the AID of DM, N and E as well as AA was significantly greater with FSBM than SBM. Taken all together, the fermentation process improved the nutritional quality of SBM, due to ANF reduction, leading to improvement of digestibility of AA. As such, FSBM can be potentially used as a specialized feed ingredient, especially for young animal diets in an attempt to reduce diet costs. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Is the effect of prior exercise on postprandial lipaemia the same for a moderate-fat meal as it is for a high-fat meal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurren, Nicholas M; Eves, Frank F; Blannin, Andrew K

    2011-02-01

    Moderate-intensity exercise can lower the TAG response to a high-fat meal; however, the British diet is moderate in fat, and no study to date has compared the effect of such exercise on responses to high-fat and moderate-fat meals. The present work investigated the effect of brisk walking performed 13 h before intake of both high-fat and moderate-fat meals on postprandial plasma TAG concentrations. Eight inactive, overweight men completed four separate 2 d trials, i.e. rest (Con) or a 90-min treadmill walk (Ex) on the evening of day 1, followed by the ingestion of a moderate-fat (Mod) or high-fat (High) meal on the morning of day 2. High-fat meals contained 66 % of total energy as fat, while the percentage was 35 % for moderate-fat meals; both the meals were, however, isoenergetic. On day 2, venous blood was sampled in the fasted state, 30 and 60 min after ingesting the test meal and then hourly until 6 h post-meal. Exercise reduced plasma TAG concentrations significantly (P exercise × meal interaction (P = 0·459). Walking reduced the total TAG response to a high-fat meal by 29 % (relative to High Con); the same bout of exercise performed before ingesting a moderate-fat meal lowered total TAG by 26 % (compared with Mod Con). The ability of a single moderate-intensity aerobic exercise bout to lower postprandial TAG concentrations is just as great, in percentage terms, when the test meal ingested is of a moderate rather than a high fat content.

  15. Rice bran: a novel functional ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Mian Kamran; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Khan, Saima Hafiz

    2014-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East and South Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and the West Indies. It provides more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by the human. It is the second leading cereal crop and staple food of half of the world's population. It is grown in at least 114 countries with global production of 645 million tons; share of Asian farmers is about 90% of the total produce. Rice bran, brown outer layer of rice kernel, is mainly composed of pericarp, aleurone, subaleurone layer, and germ. It contains appreciable quantities of nutrients like protein, fat, and dietary fiber. Furthermore, it contains substantial amount of minerals like K, Ca, Mg, and Fe. Presence of antioxidants like tocopherols, tocotrienols, and γ-oryzanol also brighten prospects of rice bran utilization for humans as functional ingredient to mitigate the life-threatening disorders. Moreover, in the developing countries, budding dilemma of food crisis, arising due to lower crop yields and escalating population, needs to utilize each pent of available resources. To provide enough food to all people, there is the holistic approach of using the by-products generated during food processing and preparations. Rice is being processed in well-established industry, but the major apprehension is the utilization of its by-products; rice bran (5-8%) and polishing (2-3%) that are going as waste. Rice processing or milling produces several streams of materials including milled rice, bran, and husk. In developing countries, rice bran is considered as a by-product of the milling process and commonly used in animal feed or discarded as a waste. The potential of producing rice bran at the global level is 29.3 million tons annually, whereas the share of Pakistan is worked out to be 0.5 million tons. In present paper, attempt has been made to highlight the significance of these valuable but

  16. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Weili; Hu, Jianhua; Xu, Baoguo; Lin, Chi-Chung; Xu, Ling; Jiang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L) was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines. PMID:24672788

  17. 21 CFR 137.270 - Self-rising white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-rising white corn meal. 137.270 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.270 Self-rising white corn meal. (a) Self-rising white corn meal is an intimate mixture of white corn meal, sodium bicarbonate, and one or both of the acid-reacting...

  18. 21 CFR 137.290 - Self-rising yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-rising yellow corn meal. 137.290 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.290 Self-rising yellow corn meal. Self-rising yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.270 for self-rising white corn meal...

  19. Ileal digestibility of sunfl ower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    .05) for soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P digestible protein source relative to sunfl ower......The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T...

  20. Effect of supplementation of cassava peel meal based diet with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A four-week experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of Maxigrain® enzyme supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility and economic indices of broiler finishers fed soaked and sun-dried cassava peel meal (CPM) based diet. CPM was included in the diets replacing maize at 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% ...

  1. Gongronema Latifolium delays gastric emptying of semi-solid meals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to investigate sonographically the effect of Gongronema latifolium on gastric emptying of semi-solid meals in diabetic dogs. Twenty-five alloxan-induced diabetic dogs were randomly allotted into five groups of five dogs each in a randomised placebo-controlled study. These are placebo, prokinetic ...

  2. ( Zophobas morio ) meal in the diet of Nile tilapia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritive potential and utilization of super worm ( Zophobas morio ) meal in the diet of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) juvenile. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... These results clearly indicate that up to 25% of FM protein in fish diet can be replaced by SWM without any adverse effect on feed utilization and body ...

  3. Effects of Partial Replacement of Soybean Meal with Cassava Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty (150) four weeks old broilers were raised in eight litter pens for the period of four weeks to observe the effect of cassava leaf meal (CLM) on the comparative body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency and feed cost of the birds. Five experimental broiler finisher diets containing ...

  4. Nutritional status of maize fermented meal by fortification with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings of the study, the application of Bambara-nut fortification to traditional foods suggests a viable option of promoting the nutritional quality of African maize – based traditional foods with acceptable rheological and cooking qualities. Keywords: Fermented maize meal, bambara-nut fortification, protein ...

  5. Nutritional evaluation of poultry offal meal as a substitute for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of complete replacement of fishmeal (FM) with poultry offal meal (POM) in diets fed to Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings. FM and POM were separately used to prepare diets containing 30%, 35% and 40% crude protein (CP). Diets were fed to fish (body weight 3.11„b0.56 to ...

  6. Bioconversion of palm kernel meal for aquaculture: Experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... Key words: Hermetia illucens, black soldier fly, palm kernel meal, rural aquaculture, agro-industry by-products, fishmeal replacement ... palm fruit produces two types of oils: the first category of oil named crude palm oil ..... (Ed.), Dairy Page, Official website of the Queensland Dairyfarmers'. Organisation Ltd.

  7. Replacement value of rubber seed ( Hevea brasiliensis ) meal for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rubber seed meal (RSM) contains about 28.63% CP but also high in CF (20%). Rubber seed cake was extruded after the extraction of rubber seed oil from the Rubber Seed oil processing Department of Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, Benin-City. The rubber seed cake was then milled to produce RSM. Soya bean ...

  8. ATHEROGENIC POTENTIALS OF SOME NIGERIAN MEALS E.U. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean LDL-cholesterol level in the peeled grated cocoyam and plantain porridge fed groups was ... Key Words: Nigerian meals, total cholesterol, total triacylglycerol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, .... Results are presented as Mean ± SD, *Significantly lower than Control (P<0.05), n = number of determinations.

  9. Effect of Hoodia gordonii leaf meal supplementation at finisher stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNISA

    meal supplementation were modelled using the following quadratic equation: Y = a + b1x + b2x2. Where, Yis the optimum feed intake, feed conversion ratio, live weight, growth rate, carcass weight, breast meat, heart, liver or abdominal fat; a is the intercept; b1 and b2 are the coefficients of the quadratic equation; x is the H.

  10. Bacterial protein meal in diets for growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Kjos, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    blocks according to age. One pig from each litter was fed one of the four experimental diets. Soya-bean meal was replaced with BPM on the basis of digestible protein, and the BPM contents in the four diets were 0% (BP0), 5% (BP5), 10% (BP10) and 15% (BP15), corresponding to 0%, 17%, 35% and 52...

  11. Determination of processed soybean meal degradability by Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protected soybean meal is an important part of high producing dairy cow diet and many methods are used for its safe and economic processing. Pinus eldarica contains xylose and resins and results show that these components could affect dry matter and crude protein degradability. This is the first time a study is being ...

  12. THE EFFECT OF THE PROTEIN SOLUBILITY OF FISH MEAL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whitelaw & Preston (1963) procured two fish meals from different sources. The solubility of these products in M.NaCIsolution was 6,2 and 77;l %.When fed to early weaned calves the insoluble products resulted in a significantly higher nitrogen retention while the 'soluble' one gave rise to higher ammonia levels in the rumen.

  13. Fish meal supplementation to early lactation Jersey cows grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This trial was conducted to test the hypothesis that early lactation cows grazing ryegrass pasture and receiving maize and mineral supplementation could respond to additional supplementation with a protein source such as fish meal. Multiparous Jersey cows in early to mid lactation that grazed annual ryegrass pasture in ...

  14. Evaluation of corn meal on performance, carcass characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the effect of corn meal (CM) on performance, carcass characteristics and nutrient digestibility of chickens in a completely randomized design experiment with 4 × 2 factorial arrangement and 4 replicates per treatment, 384 Ross male broiler chickens in a 49 days period were evaluated. Treatments were 0 (CM0), ...

  15. Glucosinolates and other anti-nutritive compounds in canola meals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Canola meals from six varieties cultivated in Egypt (Seru4 and Pactol) and Japan (Kirariboshi, Tohoku95, Oominantane and Kizakinonatane) were investigated regarding anti-nutritive compounds, namely glucosinolates, phytic acid, sinapine and total phenols. All varieties except Kirariboshi contained a high level of total ...

  16. Determination of degradability of treated soybean meal and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... bovine rumen. Br. J. Nutr. 27: 261. McAllister TA, Cheng KJ, Beauchemin KA, Bailey DRC, Pickaord MD,. Gilbert RP (1993). Use of lignosulfonate to decrease the rumen degradability of canola meal protein. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 73: 211-215. Mehrez AZ, Ørskov ER (1977). A study of the artificial bag technique.

  17. Nutritional value, for pigs and rats, of sunflower oilcake meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.P. Hayes. Department of Poultry Science, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, 7600 Republic of South Africa. Different amounts of hull were removed from .... the pig growth trial on an air-dry basis (%). Sunflower oilcake diet. Control. 40. 42. 44. 46. Component. Maize meal. 73.9. 69.9. 68.7. 67.7. 66.8. Wheaten bran.

  18. Biogastronomy: Factors that determine the biological response to meal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribic, T; Azpiroz, F

    2018-02-02

    The biological response to a meal includes physiological changes, primarily related to the digestive process, and a sensory experience, involving sensations related to the homeostatic control of food consumption, eg, satiety and fullness, with a hedonic dimension, ie associated with changes in digestive well-being and mood. The responses to a meal include a series of events before, during and after ingestion. While much attention has been paid to the events before and during ingestion, relatively little is known about the postprandial sensations, which are key to the gastronomical experience. The aim of this narrative review is to provide a comprehensive overview and to define the framework to investigate the factors that determine the postprandial experience. Based on a series of proof-of-concept studies and related information, we propose that the biological responses to a meal depend on the characteristics of the meal, primarily its palatability and composition, and the responsiveness of the guest, which may be influenced by multiple previous and concurrent conditioning factors. This information provides the scientific backbone to the development of personalized gastronomy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Physiological Effect of Detarium Bread Meal on the Postprandial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study elicited the effect of Detarium bread meal on the post prandial plasma glucose and insulin levels of non insulin dependent diabetic mellitus (NIDDM) subjects. Subject and Method: This is a clinical study that involved twelve African and Afro-Caribbean men with NIDDM. These men were screened and ...

  20. Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on finisher pig growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on finisher pig growth performance, meat quality, shelf life and fatty acid composition of pork. ... In conclusion, up to 5% MOLM may be included in finisher pig feed with no negative effect on feed conversion efficiency, carcass and meat quality traits, and may improve shelf life of pork.

  1. Chemical Changes during the Fortification of Cassava Meal (Gari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional enrichment of a cassava meal (gari) with African breadfruit seed residue was investigated. Grated cassava (70%) was fermented for 3 days with the incorporation of African breadfruit seed residue (30%) at different stages of the fermentation. The fortified and unfortified gari samples were subjected to ...

  2. At the Table with Family and Making Family Meals Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Important Role From the very beginning, parents and family members model important roles for children. The adults in a child’s life model what ... Bright Futures: Guidelines for Health Supervision of Infants, Children, and ... importance of family meals for decades. She provides some essential concepts ...

  3. Colour, pleasantness, and consumption behaviour within a meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras Fiszman, B.; Spence, C.

    2014-01-01

    It is often claimed that colour (e.g., in a meal) affects consumption behaviour. However, just how strong is the evidence in support of this claim, and what are the underlying mechanisms? It has been shown that not only the colour itself, but also the variety and the arrangement of the

  4. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosain kefir and fish meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Kaskatepe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to increase rhamnolipid production by formulating media using kefir and fish meal for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from different environmental resources. The strains, named as H1, SY1, and ST1, capable of rhamnolipid production were isolated from soil contaminated with wastes originating from olive and fish oil factories. Additionally, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 strain, which is known as rhamnolipid producer, was included in the study. Initially, rhamnolipid production by the strains was determined in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM and then in media prepared by using kefir and fish meal. The obtained rhamnolipids were purified and quantified according to Dubois et al. (1956. The quantity of rhamnolipids of ATCC, H1 and SY1 strains in kefir media were determined as 11.7 g/L, 10.8 g/L and 3.2 g/L, respectively, and in fish meal media as 12.3 g/L, 9.3 g/L and 10.3 g/L, respectively. In addition, effect of UV light exposure on rhamnolipid production was also investigated but contrary a decrease was observed. The results indicate that P. aeruginosa strains isolated from various environmental resources used in this study can be important due to their rhamnolipid yield, and fish meal, which is obtained from waste of fish, can be an alternative source in low cost rhamnolipid production.

  5. The effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal supplementation on tibia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of dietary Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) supplementation as a possible alternative to antibiotic growth promoters on bone breaking strength (BBS), tibia bone morphology and inorganic ash content in broiler chickens. A total of 2400 one-day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks of ...

  6. Evaluation of Ground - Sundried Cassava Leaf Meal as Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences ... Ground and sun dried cassava leaf meal (CLM) was evaluated as a protein source for Oreochromis niloticus juveniles. ... Biochemical analyses showed that grinding followed by sun drying resulted into 60% reduction of hydrogen cyanide while saponins, phenols, tannins and ...

  7. Feeding value of processed horse eye bean meal as alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and toasting on open fire at 100oC after sundrying. The processed beans were milled to pass through a four mm mesh and used for diet formulation. Six experimental diets were formulated each at brooding and rearing phase, with diet 1 as control, while soybean meal in the control diets were replaced with the horse eye ...

  8. Patterns in Vegetable Consumption: Implications for Tailored School Meal Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, Marietta; Lee, Miryoung; Spears, William; Narayan, Roopsi; Pobocik, Rebecca S.; Kennel, Julie; Krafka, Erin; Patton, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Vegetable consumption is a challenging behavioral target; consumption rates are below recommended levels and when interventions produce improvements, increases in vegetable consumption are typically a fraction of the change in fruit consumption. We describe vegetable consumption within Ohio school meals and examine how fruit selection,…

  9. Effect of olive meal and supplemental enzymes on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of olive meal and supplemental enzymes on performance traits, blood biochemistry, humoral immunity response and caecal microbiota of broilers. ... The evaluated carcass traits and meat cuts (breast, drumsticks and wings) did not vary among dietary treatments. Although some minor differences were observed in ...

  10. The effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal supplementation on tibia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobela Tryphina TT. Nkukwana

    2014-08-13

    Aug 13, 2014 ... Abstract. This study was conducted to assess the effects of dietary Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) supplementation as a possible alternative to antibiotic growth promoters on bone breaking strength (BBS), tibia bone morphology and inorganic ash content in broiler chickens. A total of 2400 one-day-old ...

  11. Environmental contamination of ready meals by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenugba, Adeola A; McMartin, Dena W; Beck, Angus

    2012-01-01

    The level of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in ready meals was investigated to determine exposure compared to other foodstuffs. Chilled ready meals from nine categories (ambient, Chinese, Indian, Traditional UK, Italian, American Tex-Mex, Vegetarian and Organic), and three samples within each category were Soxhlet extracted in triplicate with hexane for 24 h, followed by a clean-up on deactivated silica gel. The cleaned extracts were concentrated to 1 ml under N(2) gas and analyzed on gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for 7 target PCBs (congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 138, and 180). Individual congener concentrations ranged from non-detectable to 0.40 ng g(-1) (wet weight). The cumulative concentration of all congeners (ΣPCBs) ranged between 0.20 and 1.00 ng g(-1) (wet weight). These values translate into exposure levels of less than 1 μg kg(-1)day(-1) for reference men and women of 70 and 57 kg, respectively. This preliminary study demonstrates that ready meals, like many other foods, are contaminated by PCBs and may represent an important route of human exposure given contemporary changes in consumer food choice. Even though low levels of contamination were observed, long-term exposure for population groups consuming a high volume of ready meals may have cause for concern regarding chronic health risks.

  12. Effect of olive meal and supplemental enzymes on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proofreader

    2017-09-29

    Sep 29, 2017 ... ISSN 0375-1589 (print), ISSN 2221-4062 (online). Publisher: South African Society for Animal Science http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v47i6.8. Effect of olive meal and supplemental enzymes on performance traits, blood biochemistry, humoral immunity response and caecal microbiota of broilers. S. Sateri1 ...

  13. Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on haematological parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) was included in broiler chickens' diets at graded levels of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% to make 5 treatments to assess haematology, serum biochemistry and haemagglutination potential in broiler chickens fed the experimental diets. The diets were formulated to be iso-caloric and isonitrogenous.

  14. Toxicological Assessment Of Veronia amygdaliana Leaf Meal In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicological Assessment Of Veronia amygdaliana Leaf Meal In Nutrition Of Starter Broiler Chicks. ... The diets comprised VaLM included at Og (diet 1), 50g per kg basal diet (incorporated at the expense of groundnut cake and wheat offals - diets 2 and 3 respectively) and 100g per kg basal diet (incorporated at the expense ...

  15. Effects of Adansonia digitata (Baobab) bark meal additive on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Adansonia digitata (Baobab) bark meal additive on growth performance and nutrient utlization of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. M.S. Bayon, N.B. Ikenweiwe, D.O. Odulate, O.O. Adewumi, W.O. Alegbeleye, O.E. Babalola, A.A. Alimi ...

  16. Characterization of immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary α ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saliva containing amylase was collected from an individual 5 min after a carbohydrate meal and filtered using a dialysis bag to remove starch particles. The filtered saliva was immobilized on calcium alginate beads. The effect of experimental parameters like pH, temperature and substrate concentration on the activity of the ...

  17. Evaluation Of Tamarind ( Tamarindus indica ) Seed Meal As A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding study was conducted to assess the value of Tamarind, Tamarindus indica seed meal as dietary carbohydrate in the diets of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Tamarind seeds were used to replace maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 % substitution levels for treatments 1 to 6. Growth trial was conducted in outdoor ...

  18. Meals at medical specialty society annual meetings: a preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Puma, John; Schiedermayer, David; Becker, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Little isd known about how meals are chosen for medical meetings. We surveyed the annual meeting planners for 20 major specialty societies. Thirteen (65%) responded; all were currently planning their next meeting. Attendance in 2000 was reported at 113,477 physicians, with 2 million planned meals and snacks. No physician was named as responsible for food choices; the meeting planner and staff were primarily responsible for deciding what food to serve, excluding exhibit halls. Twelve (92%) respondents rated "available budget" as the most important factor. "Nutritional guidelines" were rated "very important" by eight of 13 (63%). However, no specific nutritional guidelines could be identified by any planner. All respondents indicated that members would attend a meeting if "healthy" food were the only option. For 2000, 100% of respondents indicated that for each lunch and for each dinner, a dessert had been included. No annual meeting and no planned 2001 meeting excluded potato chips, snack mixes, or candies at breaks; soda pop was offered at each break. Most respondents (89%) relied on a concluding questionnaire about the meeting facilities to evaluate the food. Respondents reported no difference in charges for "special meals," including vegetarian and kosher meals. Physicians may be unaware that some food served at medical meetings may impair learning, with excessive calorie, fat, and carbohydrate consumption. Small changes can improve the quality of food and beverages selected, without increased cost, and provide choices that conform to national nutritional guidelines. Medical meetings should serve flavorful, healthful food.

  19. Salivary secretion during meals in lactating dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauchemin, K.A.; Eriksen, L.; Nørgaard, Peder

    2008-01-01

    period: barley silage, alfalfa silage, long-stemmed alfalfa hay, or chopped barley straw. Saliva secretion was measured during the morning meal by collecting masticates through the rumen cannula at the cardia of each cow. Rate of salication (213 g/min) was not affected by forage source. However...

  20. Value of Anthonotha macrophylla leaf meal as feed ingredient on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Average feed intake ranged from 0.136 to 0.146 kg, hen day egg production from ... no significant (p>0.05) difference in Haugh unit, yolk index and shell thickness. ... Keywords: Chicken, Anthonotha macrophylla, leaf meal, layer performance