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Sample records for rican shrimp culture

  1. The Puerto Ricans: Their History, Culture, and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Adalberto, Ed.

    Articles in this book cover Puerto Rican history from the Spanish colonization to the present day experience of Puerto Ricans in the United States. Political, social, economic, cultural, and historical issues are addresed by the following authors: Edna Acosta-Belen, Frank Bonilla, Juan Manuel Carrion, Diana Christopulos, Sandra Messinger Cypess,…

  2. The Puerto Ricans--Two Communities, One Culture. (Los Puertorriquenos--Dos Comunidades, Una Cultura.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivo, Paquita

    1980-01-01

    Puerto Rican roots stem from the ethnic mixture of Indians, Europeans, and Africans. This article describes the advent of each of the groups on the island, the historical and cultural impact each made, and the retention of heritage among Puerto Rican migrants to the U.S. (DS)

  3. Genetic diversity of intensive cultured and wild tiger shrimp Penaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of intensive cultured and wild tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) in Malaysia using six microsatellite markers (CSCUPmo1, CSCUPmo2, CSCUPmo3, CSCUPmo4, CSCUPmo6 and CSCUPmo7). The mean numbers of allele, observed heterozygosis, ...

  4. COMPARISON OF CARBON AND NITROGEN FLUXES IN TIDEFLAT FOOD WEBS DOMINATED BY BURROWING SHRIMP OR BY CULTURED OYSTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of indigenous, thalassinid burrowing shrimps are pests to the benthic culture of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) because deposition of sediment excavated by the shrimps buries or smothers the oysters. Carbaryl pesticide is used to reduce burrowing shrimp densitie...

  5. The Puerto Ricans: Culture Change and Language Deviance. Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology, Number 51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Ruby Rohrlich

    This anthropological study examines whether sociocultural factors are basic to the etiology of stuttering through (1) an investigation of the incidence of stuttering in a single ethnic group, Puerto Rican rural migrants living in two different cultural milieus (San Juan and New York City), and (2) a comparison of the sociocultural variables in the…

  6. Trans-cultural Aspects of Puerto Rican Mental Illness in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Mario

    1974-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that mental illness is considerably high among Puerto Rican adolescents in New York. Besides poverty, crowding, illiteracy, lack of skill for qualified jobs, and other sources of stress, trans-culturation is said to explain some of these facts. [Available from The Avenue Publishing Company, 18 Park Avenue, London…

  7. DiaspoRican Art as a Space for Identity Building, Cultural Reclamation, and Political Reimagining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario-Ramos, Enid M.; Tucker-Raymond, Eli; Rosario, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The lives of Puerto Ricans in the neighborhood of Humboldt Park, Chicago, are often situated in a complex social field shaped by transnational cultural and political border crossing. We argue that artistic practices in this neighborhood are integral to building community and individual identities grounded in local meanings of the Puerto Rican…

  8. A Brief Culturally Tailored Intervention for Puerto Ricans with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Amico, K. R.; Cruz, Noemi; O'Connell, Ann A.; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Kalichman, Seth C.; Wolf, Scott A.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    The information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model of health behavior change informed the design of a brief, culturally tailored diabetes self-care intervention for Puerto Ricans with type 2 diabetes. Participants (n = 118) were recruited from an outpatient, primary care clinic at an urban hospital in the northeast United States. ANCOVA…

  9. PERFORMANCES OF TIGER SHRIMP CULTURE IN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystem plays an obvious role in maintaining the biological balance in the coastal environment where shrimp ponds are usually constructed. The removal of mangroves around shrimp ponds has frequently brought about harvest failure. The study evaluated the performance of tiger shrimp culture in ponds provided with water from a water body where there was mangrove vegetation (hereafter mangrove reservoir. Twelve ponds, each measuring 2,500 m2, were filled with seawater from the mangrove reservoir until the water depth of 100 cm and then stocked with 20-40 PL/m2. In the first six ponds, the bottom water was released into the reservoir when the water depth reached 140 cm and then the water depth was maintained at 100 cm. In the second six ponds, the water was released from the ponds until the water depth reached 60 cm and then refilled with reservoir water until a depth of 100 cm. Both treatment ponds received water from the reservoir which also received the wastewater. The feeds for the shrimps were broadcast into the ponds twice a day to meet the 3% shrimp biomass requirement, which adjusted every other week through sampling. The result showed that mangrove  vegetation is capable of removing excessive nutrients, up to 70% for NO3- N and NH4 +-N, reducing PO4 =-P fluctuation, and producing bioactive  compounds. In the second treatment ponds, shrimp mortality started to occur in day 28 and most died by day 54 after stocking due to white spot disease outbreak. Mass mortality took place 54 days after stocking in two out of six of the first treatment ponds.

  10. The effect of three culture methods on intensive culture system of pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Wan, Rong; Song, Xiefa; Gao, Lei

    2013-09-01

    Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance. This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84 d. The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks, i.e., outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C), greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M). Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C ( P shrimps. In the mid-late period, the average concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, DIP and COD were significantly lower in mode-M and mode-G compared with those in mode-C ( P shrimp weight among different treatments ( P > 0.05), mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield, survival rate and feed conversion rate ( P < 0.05) than other modes. There were significant differences in revenue and net return among different treatments ( P < 0.05). These demonstrated that the treatments of mode-G and mode-M were conductive to the intensive culture system of L. vannamei.

  11. A review of barriers to effective asthma management in Puerto Ricans: cultural, healthcare system and pharmacogenomic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea-Alvarez, Norma; Swanson-Biearman, Brenda; Kelsen, Steven G

    2014-02-01

    Among the Hispanic community, Puerto Ricans have the highest prevalence of asthma and manifest the worst outcomes. The expected growth of the Hispanic population in the USA in the next several decades make elimination of disparate care in Puerto Rican asthmatics a matter of national importance. The purpose of this review of the literature (ROL) is to examine a variety of health system, genetic and cultural barriers in the Puerto Rican community which have created disparities in asthma care and outcomes among adult and pediatric Hispanic populations. In addition, this ROL describes several culturally sensitive, community-based educational interventions which can be used as a framework for future projects to improved asthma outcomes. Databases searched included Medline, PubMED, EBSCOhost, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Google Scholar and ERIC. Papers published in English from January 1990 to January 2012 were reviewed. Health system policies, insurer compensation patterns, clinician attitudes and cultural values/folk remedies in the Puerto Rican community represent barriers to effective asthma management, the use of controller medication and the implementation of educational interventions. In addition, genetic factors involving the beta-2 adrenergic receptor gene, which impair the response to albuterol, appear to contribute to poorer outcomes in Puerto Rican asthmatics. In contrast, several comprehensive, community-based, culturally sensitive educational interventions such as Controlling Asthma in American Cities Project (CAACP), the Racial and Ethnic Approach to Community Health in the US Program and Healthy Hoops programs (REACH) have been described. We believe that culturally sensitive community-based asthma education programs can serve as models for programs targeted toward Puerto Ricans to help decrease asthma morbidity. Moreover, greater sensitivity to Puerto Rican mores and folk remedies on the part of healthcare providers may improve the patient-clinician rapport and

  12. Boricua de pura cepa: Ethnic identity, cultural stress and self-concept in Puerto Rican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen-Duan, Jenny; Jacquez, Farrah; Sáez-Santiago, Emily

    2018-05-17

    The available literature on ethnic identity among Puerto Ricans has focused on those living in the United States, with little to no attention placed on examining ethnic identity and psychological constructs among youth living in Puerto Rico. Using a colonial mentality framework, the current study examined the associations between ethnic identity, cultural stress, and self-concept among adolescent boys and girls living in Puerto Rico. The current cross-sectional study surveyed participants (N = 187) recruited from several junior high schools in the metropolitan area in Puerto Rico. Relations between ethnic identity, cultural stress, and self-concept differed by gender. First, cultural stress was associated with self-concept for boys, such that higher cultural stress predicted lower self-concept. Second, among girls, cultural stress moderated the relation between ethnic identity and self-concept. Specifically, for girls experiencing high cultural stress, exploration and resolution of their ethnic identity was associated with higher ratings of self-concept. Although cultural stress has been widely understood as a phenomena associated with immigrants, our study indicated that cultural stress is important in understanding self-concept of youth living in Puerto Rico. For boys, cultural stress, but not ethnic identity, is particularly important to their self-concept. Among girls experiencing high cultural stress, exploration and resolution of ethnic identity was associated with higher self-concept. Results suggested that the cultural stress associated with the colonial context of Puerto Rico is salient in ethnic identity and self-concept development, even though Puerto Rican youth are the ethnic majority in the island. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Effects of cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei consumption on serum lipoproteins of healthy normolipidemic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Yousefi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been suggested that moderate shrimp consumption in normolipidemic subjects will not adversely affect the overall lipoprotein profile. Hence, shrimp consumption can be included in “healthy heart" nutritional guidelines. However, the effects of cultured shrimp on serum lipoproteins of normal subjects have not yet investigated. Material and Methods: Twenty-five healthy normolipidemic men who were workers of a shrimp farm in Bushehr province participated in a quasi-experimental study. In a crossover six weeks trial, the effect of three days per week diet (containing 300 g cultured shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei /day on serum lipid profile was compared with a zero-marine baseline diet. Results: After six weeks trial, serum triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly changed from the baseline levels (p>0.05. However, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels, total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratios were significantly increased (p<0.0001. Conclusion: Moderate cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei consumption can increase total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in normolipidemic men. Although a diet containing native shrimp has many benefits for healthy persons, but we do not recommend cultured shrimp in a healthy heart diet for persons with dyslipidemia or cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Beyond symbiosis: cleaner shrimp clean up in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militz, Thane A; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to "client" organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections.

  15. Analysis of production and environmental effects of Nile tilapia and white shrimp culture in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, J.G.; Falconer, L.; Kittiwanich, J.

    2015-01-01

    Two case studies from Southeast Asia are used to analyse production, environmental effects, and economic optimisation of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) pond culture. A projection of these data is made for the whole of Thailand. The results are analysed...... on a regional scale based on site selection using multi-criteria evaluation (MCE). Farm-scale culture was simulated for (i) tilapia monoculture in Chiang Rai; (ii) shrimp monoculture in Chanthaburi; and (iii) Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) of tilapia and shrimp in Chon Buri. Together...... in ponds. Co-cultivation stimulates nitrogen dissolution (134 kg N cycle− 1), which is greater than in tilapia (96 kg N) or shrimp (52 kg N) monoculture, and doubles the NH4+ discharge to the environment (10.7 kg in tilapia monoculture, 20.5 kg in co-cultivation). However, eutrophication as a result...

  16. Virus diseases risk-factors associated with shrimp farming practices in rice-shrimp and intensive culture systems in Mekong Delta Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duc, P.M.; Tuyet Hoa, T.T.; Nguyen Thanh Phuong,; Bosma, R.H.; Huynh V., Hien; Tran N., Tuan

    2015-01-01

    In Mekong Delta, viral infection, including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), heptopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and gill-associated nidovirus (GAV) frequently infect cultured shrimp starting at the postlarvae

  17. Genetic diversity of intensive cultured and wild tiger shrimp Penaeus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mahdi

    2011-02-25

    Feb 25, 2011 ... improvement of brood stock management will assist shrimp breeders to ... heterozygosity; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; MFA, most ... wild females for the supply of juveniles. ... according to the manufacturer's instruction.

  18. The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.-F.; Jing, S.-R.; Lee, D.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed wetlands improved water qualities and consequently increased the shrimp growth and survival in a recirculating system. - A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 , 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO 2 -N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 -N, 68%). Phosphate (PO 4 -P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO 3 -N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (P≤0.05) lower than those in a control aquaculture system (CAS) that simulated static pond culture without wetland treatment. However, no significant difference (P≤0.05) in BOD 5 , TAN and NO 2 -N was found between the two systems. At the end of the study, the harvest results showed that shrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8±1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (P≤0.01) exceeded those in the CAS (2.3±1.5 g/shrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system

  19. The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.-F.; Jing, S.-R.; Lee, D.-Y

    2003-05-01

    Constructed wetlands improved water qualities and consequently increased the shrimp growth and survival in a recirculating system. - A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}, 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO{sub 2}-N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N, 68%). Phosphate (PO{sub 4}-P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO{sub 3}-N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (P{<=}0.05) lower than those in a control aquaculture system (CAS) that simulated static pond culture without wetland treatment. However, no significant difference (P{<=}0.05) in BOD{sub 5}, TAN and NO{sub 2}-N was found between the two systems. At the end of the study, the harvest results showed that shrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8{+-}1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (P{<=}0.01) exceeded those in the CAS (2.3{+-}1.5 g/shrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system.

  20. USE OF SPONGE, Callyspongia basilana EXTRACT AS ADDITIVE MATERIAL ON TIGER SHRIMP CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmiati Rosmiati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Blue shrimp disease is one of the main problems in tiger shrimp culture. It reduces shrimp quality which eventually will decrease its market price. Blue shrimp is caused by deficiency of nutrition and additive materials such as carotene and other nutrient which function as vitamin source for important metabolic processes and formation of color profile in shrimp and fish. The aims of this study were to study the application effect of carotenoid extract of sponge Callyspongia basilana, as an additive material on the ability of shrimp to get back to normal state after suffering blue shrimp disease and survival rate of shrimp and to find out the optimal concentration of sponge carotenoid extract to cure the diseased shrimp. This study was consisted of two steps namely; (1. Extraction of sponge carotenoid by maseration and fractionation using acetone and petroleum ether solvents and (2, the application of carotenoid extract on the diseased shrimp. The research was arranged in a complete randomized design with four experiments consisted of (A. Control (without carotenoid extract; (B,(C, and (D carotetoid extract addition of 3 mg/L, 6 mg/L, and 9 mg/L respectively with three replication each. The test animal used were blue diseased tiger shrimp with the density of 15 ind./container having 7.5–9.5 cm in size and the average weight of 5.5–10.0 g. The study showed that Callyspongia basilana carotenoid extract was able to change blue diseased shrimp to be normal within six days at the concentration of 9 mg/L. The highest survival rate was found in the experiment D (93.3%. Meanwhile, the lowest was obtained by the control population (13.3% and the other two treatments were 80.0%(C and 73.3% (B. The average of water quality parameters such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, nitrite, and ammonia were in the suitable range for the growth and survival rate of tiger shrimp.

  1. Ataques de nervios in the Puerto Rican Diagnostic Interview Schedule: the impact of cultural categories on psychiatric epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, P J; Rubio-Stipec, M; Canino, G

    1989-09-01

    This paper examines the effect of the cultural category ataques de nervios on responses to the Puerto Rican Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS), a Spanish version of structured psychiatric diagnostic interview developed for the NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. An ataque de nervios scale was created from the Somatization items of the DIS to explore the effect of this culturally meaningful category of distress on responses to a standard psychiatric interview. Analysis of 1,513 cases from a representative sample of the island of Puerto Rico indicated that people reporting ataque symptoms fit the social characteristics described for ataques sufferers in the ethnographic literature. Qualitative data indicated that Puerto Ricans were reporting ataques de nervios in the panic section of the DIS. Questions are raised about the validity of the somatization and panic sections of the DIS in cross-cultural research with Hispanics.

  2. Prevalence and distribution of White Spot Syndrome Virus in cultured shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, A; Nandi, S P; Siddique, M A; Sanyal, S K; Sultana, M; Hossain, M A

    2015-02-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a dsDNA virus causing White Spot Syndrome Disease (WSSD) in shrimp with almost 100% morality rate within 3-10 days. In Bangladesh, WSSD is one of the major impediments of shrimp farming. This study first investigated the prevalence and distribution of WSSV in cultured shrimps of the coastal regions in Bangladesh. A total of 60 shrimp samples, collected from the 25 shrimp farms of different coastal regions (Satkhira, Khulna, Bagerhat and Cox's Bazar), were analysed during 2013-2014 by conventional PCR using VP28 and VP664 gene-specific primers; 39 of 60 samples were found WSSV positive. SYBR green real-time PCR using 71-bp amplicon for VP664 gene correlated well with conventional PCR data. The prevalence rates of WSSV among the collected 60 samples were Satkhira 79%, Khulna 50%, Bagerhat 38% and Cox's Bazar 25%. Sequencing of WSSV-positive PCR amplicons of VP28 showed 99% similarity with WSSV NCBI Ref/Seq Sequences. Molecular analysis of the VP28 gene sequences of WSSV revealed that Bangladeshi strains phylogenetically affiliated to the strains belong to India. This work concluded that WSSV infections are widely distributed in the coastal regions cultured shrimp in Bangladesh. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Cultural mechanisms in the exchange of social support among Puerto Ricans after a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Fernando I

    2012-06-01

    In this study, I uncovered the dynamics involved in the exchange (or lack) of social support among a group of Puerto Ricans who experienced a natural disaster. I coded and analyzed 12 semistructured qualitative interviews. My analysis of the interviews revealed that a reported high degree of need was not associated with any type of help seeking from the respondents' social support networks. Relevant issues that arose in explaining the lack of social support exchanges were level of comfort in help seeking and cultural issues. My findings point to the importance of culture in shaping patterns of help-seeking behavior in the aftermath of a disaster. Two of the most salient cultural explanations as to why disaster victims were reluctant to ask for help from family and friends were the issues of confianza (trust) and pena (embarrassment). I discuss the results with reference to how they might help in planning and establishing programs to maximize help seeking among Latinos/as in an emergency situation.

  4. Application of Irradiated Pro biotic Microorganism in Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius) Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areechon, Nontawith; Purivrojkul, Watchariya; Srisapoome, Prapansak; Piadiang, Nattaya

    2006-09-01

    Marine shrimp culture in Thailand has been developed continuously for the past two decades. This development will ensure the highest level of shrimp quality that will be suitable for the consumption of the people in the country and also aboard. The trend of culture system emphasizes on disease prevention more than treatment which will consequently limit the application of drug and chemicals. Application of pro biotic has been one means of this prevention that are commonly practiced by shrimp farmers. This research was conducted to compare the efficacy of normal Bacillus subtilis isolate from shrimp intestine and an irradiated B. subtilis as a pro biotic in shrimp feed. It was found that overall results were quite the same. These included the broth Co-culture assay. Effects on immune functions were conducted with Penaeus monodon with initial average weight of 17 gms by feeding with 3 gms/kg feed of spore of these two pro biotic for two mouths. The results indicated that both pro biotic caused significant improvement on percent phagocytosis only at the forth week of feeding trial and the overall enhancement of bactericidal activity. However, total haemocyte count and phenoloxidase activity were not altered. Total bacterial count in shrimp intestine was also conducted during the two month trial. the results indicated significant reduction of Vibrio spp. of both pro biotic groups when compared with the control. Number of Bacillus spp. in intestine were continuously high even after pro biotic treatment had been stopped Growth rate of experiment and control shrimp was not significantly different.

  5. Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance of Bacteria Isolated from Probiotic Products Used in Shrimp Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noor Uddin, Gazi Md; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Christensen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    in aquaculture ponds. Concerns have been raised that the declared information on probiotic product labels are incorrect and information on bacterial composition are often missing. We therefore evaluated seven probiotics commonly used in Vietnamese shrimp culture for their bacterial species content, phenotypic...... that they contained macrolide (ermD), tetracycline (tetL), phenicol (fexA) and trimethoprim (dfrD, dfrG and dfrK) resistance genes, but not known structures associated with horizontal gene transfer. Probiotic bacterial strains used in Vietnamese shrimp culture seem to contribute with very limited types and numbers...

  6. Microbiota of Vibrio sp. in the hepatopancreas of cultured white pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Albuquerque C.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of vibrios in the hepatopancreas of cultured shrimp. Materials and methods. Vibrios from the hepatopancreas of fifteen samples of five specimens each, of apparently healthy Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei were isolated, identified and quantified. Results. The vibrio density ranged from 430 to 2,400 MPN g-1 (rs MPN cm-1=-0.114; rs MPN g-1 = 0.211. Thirty isolations were obtained, most of which belonged to the species V. cholerae (n=11 and V. parahaemolyticus (n=7. Conclusions. The outcomes of the present study suggest that, even in the absence of symptoms of vibriosis, the microbiota of the hepatopancreas of cultured shrimp may include sucrose positive and negative vibrios.

  7. Effects of carbohydrate addition on production in extensive shrimp culture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hari, B.; Kurup, B.M.; Varghese, J.T.; Schrama, J.W.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    One indoor and one on-farm trial were conducted to evaluate the effect of control of carbon/ nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio) by addition of carbohydrate to the water column in extensive types of shrimp culture systems. In the indoor experiment, 25% and 40% dietary protein ('P25' and 'P40') with or

  8. Isolation and risk assessment of Geotrichum spp. in the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 from culture ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ochoa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was done in order to identify the fungus invading some of the supralittoral ponds used for shrimp aquaculture in the CIBNOR facilities in La Paz, Baja California Sur (BCS, México during the summer season. From the walls and bottoms of the ponds, two strains of Geotrichum spp. were isolated and morphologically identified. Fungal adhesion towards hemocytes and primary cultures of various white shrimp (Litopeneaus vannamei tissues (gill, tegument, and gut was analyzed to determine infectivity. Extracellular protease, lipase, and amylase activity were evaluated as virulence factors. Survival of shrimp post-larvae (PL8 exposed to fungal culture supernatant or to their filaments was also investigated. The results showed that shrimp tegument cells and hemocytes were very susceptible to Geotrichum spp. invasion, and that this fungus provokes great mortality of post-larvae. Hence, Geotrichum spp. could be considered an opportunistic pathogen that might represent a serious health risk to shrimp in culture.

  9. Puerto Rican understandings of child disability: methods for the cultural validation of standardized measures of child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannotti, Mary E; Handwerker, W Penn

    2002-12-01

    Validating the cultural context of health is important for obtaining accurate and useful information from standardized measures of child health adapted for cross-cultural applications. This paper describes the application of ethnographic triangulation for cultural validation of a measure of childhood disability, the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) for use with children living in Puerto Rico. The key concepts include macro-level forces such as geography, demography, and economics, specific activities children performed and their key social interactions, beliefs, attitudes, emotions, and patterns of behavior surrounding independence in children and childhood disability, as well as the definition of childhood disability. Methods utilize principal components analysis to establish the validity of cultural concepts and multiple regression analysis to identify intracultural variation. Findings suggest culturally specific modifications to the PEDI, provide contextual information for informed interpretation of test scores, and point to the need to re-standardize normative values for use with Puerto Rican children. Without this type of information, Puerto Rican children may appear more disabled than expected for their level of impairment or not to be making improvements in functional status. The methods also allow for cultural boundaries to be quantitatively established, rather than presupposed. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  10. UNDERSTANDING THE PUERTO RICAN AND HIS FAMILY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    THOMAS MARIE, SISTER

    AN UNDERSTANDING OF TRADITIONAL PUERTO RICAN FAMILY CUSTOMS AND BASIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PUERTO RICAN AND OTHER LIFE STYLES SHOULD HELP PROFESSIONAL WORKERS SOLVE THE PROBLEMS CREATED BY MIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES. THE CULTURE OF THE PUERTO RICAN CAN BE DESCRIBED IN RELATION TO THREE CONCEPTS--DIGNIDAD (SELF-ESTEEM OR SELF-WORTH), RESPETO…

  11. Does zero-water discharged technology enhance culture performance of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone.)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suantika, Gede; Anggraeni, Jayanty; Hasby, Fahri Azhari; Yanuwiarti, Ni Putu Indah

    2014-03-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei or white leg shrimp is an introduced shrimp which has successfully cultured in Indonesia. In Indonesia, L. vannamei is commonly cultured on outdoor/earthen pond that requires renewal of water, less control in term of water quality and disease and attributed to unpredictable yield production. Based on the existing culture condition, a system that enable to minimize water consumption, improve the hygiene of the culture and at the same time maintain a more stable yield production is urgent to be developed by using a zero water discharge system. The system consists of: (a) culture tank - to retain and culture the shrimp; (b) CaCO3 grained - buffering agent and substrate of nitrifying bacteria; (c) aeration line - to provide O2 and homogenize the culture; (d) ancho (feeding) - to control an appropriate feed; (e) nitrifying bacteria adding - to consume ammonium and nitrite then convert it to nitrate, and also control pathogen Vibrio sp.; (f) diatom microalgae (Chaetoceros gracilis) - to uptake nitrate, bacteriostatic agent, feed source, provide O2 and shading. In this study, there were 2 treatments: the static culture (batch) system was set as control (K) (in 70 PL/m2), and culture system with zero-water discharge system which was inoculated by 0.02% v/v 106 CFU/ml of mixed culture nitrifying bacteria and diatom microalgae in 70 PL/m2 (P1). The white leg shrimp used in this experiment was at post larvae (PL) 10 and cultured in a batch system (1 × 1 × 0.5 m3 pond) during 2 months. Several parameters including survival rate, mean body weight, and water quality (salinity, temperature, pH, DO, ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate) were measured. Based on the results, biomass of P1 (237.12 ± 31.11) gram is significantly higher than control (K) (180.80 ± 12.26) gram (Pshrimp post larvae, except ammonium concentration in control (K) (2.612 ± 0.56) mg/L which is significantly different from P1 (1.287 ± 0.49) mg/L. Based on this research, zero-water discharge

  12. EFFECT OF DYNAMICAL WATER QUALITY ON SHRIMP CULTURE IN THE INTEGRATED MULTITROPIC AQUACULTURE (IMTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brata Pantjara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the technologies to improve the productivity of shrimp farms are environmentally friendly shrimp farming multitrophic integrated system known as Integrated Multitrophic Aquaculture (IMTA. The aims of the study were to observe the water quality dynamic on the integrated multitrophic aquaculture and the effect on the production. This study was used four plots which each of pond had 4,000 m2 in sizing, located in experiment pond, at Research and Development Institute for Coastal Aquaculture, Maros. The main commodities used were tiger and vannamei shrimp. In the A pond was cultivated the tiger shrimp with density 12 ind./m2, in B pond was tiger shrimp with density 8 ind./m2, C pond was vannamei shrimp with density 50 ind./m2, and D pond was vannamei shrimp with density 25 ind./m2. Other commodities were red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Each pond had stocking density 2,400 ind./plot which was divided into 5 hapas having a size of (6 m x 4 m x 1.2 m/each, mangrove oysters (Crassostrea iredalei and Saccostrea cucullata with density 7,500 ind./4,000 m2 and seaweed (Gracilaria verrucosa of 500 kg/4,000 m2. The observation of dynamic water quality in the pond was conducted every day i.e. temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and measured pH, while the total organic matter total (TOM, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate were taken every two weeks. The measurements methods of water quality in laboratory was refered to APHA (2008; and Boyd (1990. During the study, absorption of N and P in seaweed were measured, the obtained plankton was identified and the ratio of carbon and nitrogen during the observation was also calculated. To determine the effect of dominant water quality on production was used the principal component analysis (PCA. The result showed that water quality during the study was suitable for shrimp and red tilapia culture. The dominant water qualities which effected the shrimp production in

  13. Profitability and technical efficiency of Black tiger shrimp (Penaeus Monodon) culture and White leg shrimp (Penaeus Vannamei) culture in Song Song Cau district, Phu Yen province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Hoai An

    2012-01-01

    The research measure the profitability and technical efficiency of Black tiger shrimp farms and White leg shrimp farms in Song Cau district, Phu Yen province, Vietnam. Cross-sectional data of 62 Black tiger shrimp samples and 88 White leg shrimp samples were used for comparison two production systems. The profitability analysis shows that White leg shrimp farms achieved an average profit per hectare of 78,883,209 VND ($3,944.16), which was approximately 4 times as much as Black tiger shrimp f...

  14. Effect of probiotic culture water on growth, mortality, and feed conversion ratio of Vaname shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachruddin, M.; Sholichah, M.; Istiqomah, S.; Supriyanto, A.

    2018-04-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effect of various dose of probiotics in the culture water to the growth and mortality of Vaname shrimp. This study consist of treatment control and treatment of various dose of probiotics. Control (0 mL/10 L water), P1 (1 mL/10 L water), P2 (2 mL/10 L water), P3 (3 mL/10 L water) and P4 (4 mL/10 L water) treatment, given to the Vaname shrimps with intervals once per week. This probiotic consist of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus megaterium, Nitrobacter sp., and Nitrosomonas sp. Dependent variables in this study are weight of shrimp, length of shrimp, mortality and feed conversion ratio. The results had different of various dose probiotics application in the water showed significance for each treatment on growth and mortality of Vaname shrimp. The best results were shown in treatment P2 (2 mL/10 water) with mean value of Vaname shrimp weight is 7.447 ± 1.193 g/shrimp, the length is 10,390 ± 0,469 cm/shrimp, mortality is 41%, and the value of FCR is 0.91.

  15. Studies on luminous, Vibrio harveyi associated with shrimp culture system rearing Panaeus monodon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kannapiran, E.; Ravindran, J.; Chandrasekar, R.; Kalaiarasi, A.

    feed, fertilizers and vitamins. This observation reconciles with the earlier findings that the artificial feed and other organic additions in the aquaculture farms enhanced the heterotrophic bacterial population (MacLean et al., 1994; Sharmila et al... the pond bottom preparation and low level of organic matter in the pond. As culture period progresses, accumulation of organic wastes in the shrimp pond takes placed due to the application of organic manure and fertilizers, feed waste, fecal matter...

  16. Cross-cultural adaptation of the psychosocial impact of assistive device scale (PIADS) for Puerto Rican assistive technology users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellano, Elsa M; Jutai, Jeffrey W

    2013-01-01

    Assistive technology (AT) is important for individuals with disabilities' independence and participation in daily life, and there is a lack of valid AT outcome tools for the Puerto Rican population. This pilot study examined the content validity of a new adaptation of the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Device Scale (PIADS): the Puerto Rican-Spanish PIADS (PR-PIADS). Following standard procedures, the cultural adaptation methodology included a bilingual multidisciplinary committee review of the original (English language) and Spanish versions of the PIADS and pilot testing of the preliminary version of the PR-PIADS with 20 AT users. The committee recommended a total of 58 semantic and conceptual modifications of the Spanish PIADS. Pilot data analysis resulted in 4 additional semantic and conceptual modifications of items that did not reach the minimum content validity ratio of 0.42 for a panel composed by 20 members: competence (0), efficiency (-0.6), performance (-0.95), and eagerness to take chances (-0.6). This pilot study demonstrated evidence of initial content validity of the PR-PIADS. Future research is required before using this tool with greater confidence to address the construct validity and reliability that are also critical to a successful cultural adaptation.

  17. PERFORMANCE OF CULTURED White-leg Shrimp IN RICA Probiotic Application METHOD in PONDS AERATED WITH SUPERCHARGE BLOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Susianingsih

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Several ways have been done to encounter shrimp disease affecting cultured shrimp in Indonesian ponds in the last two decades. This research was aimed to find out the effect of different application of probiotic RICA4, RICA5, and RICA3 method on survival rate and production of white-leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in ponds aerated with supercharge blower. RICA probiotics are bacteria probiotics produced by the Research and Development Institute for Coastal Aquaculture, originally isolated from seaweed and sea sediment. This experiment was carried out in completely randomized design using nine 250-m2 experimental ponds stocked with 15 shrimp fries/m2. There were three treatments namely: A=alternate use of three probiotics RICA4, RICA5, and RICA3; B=combination use of three probiotics RICA4, RICA5, and RICA3; and C=control (without probiotic, each treatment with three replications and cultured with supercharge blower. Variables observed in this study were survival rate and production of the shrimp calculated at the end of experiment, total vibrio count (TBV and total plate count of common bacteria (TPC of the pond waters and sediments monitored every two weeks. The results showed that application of probiotic RICA4, RICA5, and RICA3 applied either in alteration or in combination significantly increased survival rate (P0.05 of the white-leg shrimp. TBV/TPC ratio in the control pond waters after 10-weeks culture (over than 10% was relatively dangerous for the cultured white-leg shrimp. This shows that application of probiotic could prevent the growth of Vibrio spp in the cultured shrimp pond water.

  18. Bacterial community from gut of white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, cultured in earthen ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH technique and conventional method were used to analyse the bacterial community in the gut of white shrimp cultured in earthen ponds. Samples were collectedfrom three parts, hepatopancreas, anterior intestine and posterior intestine. Gut bacterial community was enumerated by 15 probes in FISH and 3 bacterial culture technique media. The results showed that bacteriaspecific probes determined bacterial community and Eubacteria as the dominant group of microbial community in the studied gut portions. β-Proteobacteria group (29.53±5.39% and γ-Proteobacteria group (26.18±6.88% were major groups of bacterial flora in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, low G+C gram positive bacteria group (LGC was the most abundant group detected in anterior intestine (36.40±3.53% andposterior intestine (30.32±4.63%. Vibrio spp. were detected very less in hepatopancreas (0.25±0.43% and were present in 3 of 9 samples. In the case of bacterial detection using cultivation method, the number ofbacterial groups verified by TSA, TCBS and MRS showed high variation in every part of the studied digestive tract portions; however, no vibrio or lactic acid bacteria were present in the hepatopancreas ofhealthy shrimp. This study reveals the proportion of bacterial community in the digestive tract of white shrimp which can be used as important database for studying the change of the bacterial community in an abnormal condition including the efficiency of probiotics in the gut (in vivo of white shrimp.

  19. Effectiveness of sinbiotic at different doses in Pacific white shrimp pond culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Sukenda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The increasing demand of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei requires the application of intensive culture system. However, intensive culture system of white shrimp could increase the risk of disease outbreak. The application of sinbiotic may provide solution to the problem. This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of technical sinbiotic on the survival and growth of white shrimp in ponds. This study consisted of four treatments; treatment K (control, treatment A (probiotic 0.5% and prebiotic 1%, treatment B (probiotic 1% and prebiotic 2%, and treatment C (probiotic 2% and prebiotic 4%. The results showed that administration of sinbiotic had no significant differences on survival rate, growth rate, feed conversion ratio, size, and biomass of shrimp (P>0.05. However, based on analysis of business, sinbiotic A provided higher profits to the farmer (Rp10.230 compared to other symbiotic treatments and control. Keywords: Litopenaeus vannamei, sinbiotic, technical media ABSTRAK Permintaan terhadap udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei yang semakin meningkat membuat sistem budidaya udang sebaiknya menggunakan sistem budidaya intensif. Namun demikian sistem intensif pada budidaya udang vaname dapat meningkatkan risiko timbulnya penyakit. Penggunaan sinbiotik diharapkan dapat memberikan solusi dalam mengatasi masalah tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efektivitas penggunaan sinbiotik teknis terhadap sintasan, pertumbuhan, dan keuntungan usaha udang vaname yang dipelihara di tambak. Penelitian ini terdiri atas empat perlakuan, yaitu perlakuan K (kontrol, perlakuan A (probiotik 0,5% dan prebiotik 1%, perlakuan B (probiotik 1% dan prebiotik 2%, dan perlakuan C (probiotik 2% dan prebiotik 4%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian sinbiotik tidak berbeda nyata dalam nilai sintasan, laju pertumbuhan, rasio konversi pakan, size, dan biomassa udang (P>0,05. Namun demikian, berdasarkan analisis usaha perlakuan A

  20. Influence of sensory and cultural perceptions of white rice, brown rice and beans by Costa Rican adults in their dietary choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Mattei, Josiemer; Fuster, Tamara; Willett, Walter; Campos, Hannia

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the distinct perceptions towards rice and beans that may shape the consumption of these main staple foods among Costa Ricans. We aimed to identify barriers and motivators that could change the current staple into a healthier one, and assess the sensory perceptions of these foods in this population. Focus group discussions and sensory tastings of 8 traditional white or brown rice and beans preparations were conducted in 98 Costa Ricans, aged 40-65 years. Traditional habits and family support emerged as the two main drivers for current consumption. Consuming similar amounts of rice and beans, as well as unfamiliarity with brown rice, are habits engrained in the Costa Rican culture, and are reinforced in the family and community environment. Suggested strategies for consuming more brown rice and more beans included introducing them during childhood, disseminating information of their health benefits that take into account the importance of tradition, lowering the cost, increasing availability, engaging women as agents of change and for brown rice masking the perceived unpleasant sensory characteristics by incorporating them into mixed dishes. Plain brown rice received the lowest mean hedonic liking scores. The preparations rated highest for pleasant were the beans: rice 1:1 ratio regardless of the type of rice. This study identified novel strategies to motivate Costa Rican adults to adapt their food choices into healthier ones within their cultural and sensory acceptability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Accumulation of pesticide residues by shrimp, fish and brine shrimp during pond culture at Ghorabari (District Thatta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, R.; Wajeeha, F.A.; Ameer, F.; Munshi, A.B.; Nasir, M.

    2012-01-01

    Residual level of persistent organo chlorines (OC) such as sigma-HCH (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, sigma-DDT (o,p'-DDD, op-DDE, p,p-DDE pp-DDD, pp'-DDT, o,p'-DDT), dieldrin and endrin were measured in a number of water samples from Ambro creek and their accumulation in shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis and P. penicillatus), fish (Otolithes ruber) and brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) reared in ponds for a period of four months. Samples were extracted with organic solvents, and quantified using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC/ECD). It has been found that results of animal tissue and water are not same however OCs, (mainly sigma DT and beta-HCH 4,4-DDT, Dieldrin + 2,4-DDT, and Methoxychlor were detected in all samples ). Heptachlor exo-epoxide were found in fish and Artemia sp. and absent in all shrimp samples. Heptachlor endo-epoxide was detected only in Artemia sp. and average residual concentration of OCs in Artemia sp. was 0.004-0.09 ppm. Methoxychlor was found in the highest quantity in all the samples whether it was fish, shrimp or Artemia. In fish average residual concentration of all (OCs) in individual sample was 0.03 - 0.180 ppm. (author)

  2. Radio sensibility of listeria monocytogenes in pure culture and frozen contaminated shrimps and stored them at -18 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio M V, T.; Espinoza, J.; L Sanchez, M.V.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Listeria monocytogenes has been recognized for a number of years as a food pathogen bacteria. Ionizing radiation is a new technology and an excellent method to eliminate this microorganism form frozen food. The sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes serotype 01 and 04 to irradiation, in pure culture and frozen shrimps was investigated. The D 10 values were of 0,26-0,37 kGy in pure culture and frozen shrimps, respectively. The D 10 founded were similar to those reported by the literature under similar conditions. Doses of 6 kGy were enough to eliminate a contamination of 10 6 -10 7 ufc/ml of L. Monocytogenes in frozen shrimps and storage them during 200 days at 18 deg C

  3. Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance of Bacteria Isolated from Probiotic Products Used in Shrimp Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noor Uddin, Gazi Md; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Christensen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly used in aquaculture to control diseases and improve feed digestion and pond water quality; however, little is known about the antimicrobial resistance properties of such probiotic bacteria and to what extent they may contribute to the development of bacterial resistance...... in aquaculture ponds. Concerns have been raised that the declared information on probiotic product labels are incorrect and information on bacterial composition are often missing. We therefore evaluated seven probiotics commonly used in Vietnamese shrimp culture for their bacterial species content, phenotypic....... used to identify resistance genes and genetic elements associated with horizontal gene transfer. Thirteen bacterial species declared on the probiotic products could not be identified and 11 non-declared Bacillus spp. were identified. Although our culture-based isolation and identification may have...

  4. Composition, diversity and function of intestinal microbiota in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) at different culture stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shenzheng; Huang, Zhijian; Hou, Dongwei; Liu, Jian; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota is an integral component of the host and plays important roles in host health. The pacific white shrimp is one of the most profitable aquaculture species commercialized in the world market with the largest production in shrimp consumption. Many studies revealed that the intestinal microbiota shifted significantly during host development in other aquaculture animals. In the present study, 22 shrimp samples were collected every 15 days from larval stage (15 day post-hatching, dph) to adult stage (75 dph) to investigate the intestinal microbiota at different culture stages by targeting the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene, and the microbial function prediction was conducted by PICRUSt. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity. A total of 2,496 OTUs were obtained, ranging from 585 to 1,239 in each sample. Forty-three phyla were identified due to the classifiable sequence. The most abundant phyla were Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Tenericutes, Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi. OTUs belonged to 289 genera and the most abundant genera were Candidatus_Xiphinematobacter , Propionigenium , Synechococcus , Shewanella and Cetobacterium . Fifty-nine OTUs were detected in all samples, which were considered as the major microbes in intestine of shrimp. The intestinal microbiota was enriched with functional potentials that were related to transporters, ABC transporters, DNA repair and recombination proteins, two component system, secretion system, bacterial motility proteins, purine metabolism and ribosome. All the results showed that the intestinal microbial composition, diversity and functions varied significantly at different culture stages, which indicated that shrimp intestinal microbiota depended on culture stages. These findings provided new evidence on intestinal microorganism microecology and greatly enhanced our understanding of stage

  5. Composition, diversity and function of intestinal microbiota in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei at different culture stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenzheng Zeng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbiota is an integral component of the host and plays important roles in host health. The pacific white shrimp is one of the most profitable aquaculture species commercialized in the world market with the largest production in shrimp consumption. Many studies revealed that the intestinal microbiota shifted significantly during host development in other aquaculture animals. In the present study, 22 shrimp samples were collected every 15 days from larval stage (15 day post-hatching, dph to adult stage (75 dph to investigate the intestinal microbiota at different culture stages by targeting the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene, and the microbial function prediction was conducted by PICRUSt. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU was assigned at 97% sequence identity. A total of 2,496 OTUs were obtained, ranging from 585 to 1,239 in each sample. Forty-three phyla were identified due to the classifiable sequence. The most abundant phyla were Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Tenericutes, Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi. OTUs belonged to 289 genera and the most abundant genera were Candidatus_Xiphinematobacter, Propionigenium, Synechococcus, Shewanella and Cetobacterium. Fifty-nine OTUs were detected in all samples, which were considered as the major microbes in intestine of shrimp. The intestinal microbiota was enriched with functional potentials that were related to transporters, ABC transporters, DNA repair and recombination proteins, two component system, secretion system, bacterial motility proteins, purine metabolism and ribosome. All the results showed that the intestinal microbial composition, diversity and functions varied significantly at different culture stages, which indicated that shrimp intestinal microbiota depended on culture stages. These findings provided new evidence on intestinal microorganism microecology and greatly enhanced our understanding of stage

  6. Microencapsulation of norfloxacin in chitosan/chitosan oligosaccharides and its application in shrimp culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Ziru; Pan, Rong; Wang, Jiangtao

    2016-11-01

    Norfloxacin chitosan/chitosan oligosaccharide microcapsules (NCCM) were prepared by emulsion-chemical crosslinking method. The characteristics of obtained microcapsules were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and release experiments. Cumulative release profile of norfloxacin from the chitosan microcapsules in natural seawater was measured and the controlled release of drugs was at a uniform rate in 48h. The chitosan microcapsules were applied onto the antibacterial study of the shrimp culture in natural seawater. It is observed that the seawater in the NCCM added groups was relatively clear and the biomass of Vibrio increased slowly in contrast to the control and norfloxacin groups. The inhibition rate of Vibrio in norfloxacin groups obvioursly decreased after the 5 th day, whereas, it remained high and stable during experiment period in NCCM groups. The results showed that the chitosan microcapsules as release materials have excellent antibacterial effects on Vibrio in the farming of Penaeus vannamei Boone. The controlled release could obviously reduce dosage of antibiotics and delivery times, and effectively improve the utilization rate of norfloxacin drugs for shrimps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Activation of immunity, immune response, antioxidant ability, and resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei decrease under long-term culture at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Tseng, Kuei-Chi; Lin, Yong-Chin; Huang, Chien-Lun

    2015-10-01

    The growth, activation of immunity, immune parameters, and transcript levels of cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, ecCuZnSOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, lysozyme, and penaeidin 3a were examined in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared at pH 6.8 and 8.1 after 24 weeks. No significant difference in growth was observed between the two groups. An in vitro study indicated that phenoloxidase activity and respiratory bursts (RB, release of the superoxide anion) were significantly higher in the haemocytes of pH 8.1 shrimp (shrimp reared at pH 8.1) than in pH 6.8 shrimp (shrimp reared at pH 6.8). An in vivo study indicated that the levels of immune parameters of pH 8.1 shrimp were significantly higher than in pH 6.8 shrimp, and the transcript levels of cytMnSOD, ecCuZnSOD, glutathione peroxidase, lysozyme, and penaeidin 3a were down-regulated in pH 6.8 shrimp. In another experiment, shrimp reared at pH 6.8 and 8.1 for 24 weeks were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus. The mortality rate of pH 6.8 shrimp was significantly higher than in pH 8.1 shrimp over 12-168 h. Phagocytic activity, phagocytic index, and clearance efficiency to V. alginolyticus were significantly lower in pH 6.8 shrimp. We concluded that shrimp under long-term culture at pH 6.8 exhibited decreased resistance against V. alginolyticus as evidenced by reductions in the activation of immunity and immune parameters together with decreased transcript levels of cytMnSOD, ecCuZnSOD, GPx, lysozyme, and penaeidin 3a. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Content of Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn on Pacific white shrimp cultured in modern farm at BLUPPB, Karawang, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarina, N. D.; Rahman, A.; Siswanting, T.; Pin, T. J.

    2018-03-01

    Heavy metal is one of the hazardous substances which often found in shrimp farm. Since this shrimp become mostly favorable food, it is necessary to determine the content of metal in this shrimps. This research was aimed to determine the content of Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn on Pacific white shrimp cultured on the modern farm at BLUPPB, Karawang, West Java. Samples were taken from five farms. During transport, samples were kept in a more relaxed box. Farms used were designed using black plastic as the bottom layer to separate contact with soil. Heavy metal of Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn on shrimp meat was analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry method. The content of Cr was ranged from 0.06 – 0.38 ppm and Pb were 0.02 – 0.05 ppm. The content of Cu was ranged from 1.89 – 15.25 ppm and Zn were 2.16 – 3.92 ppm. According to government rules and literature, those content were below a threshold which was 0.4 ppm for Cu, 0.5 ppm for Pb, 20 ppm for Cu and 0.2 ppm for Zn.

  9. Feminist Therapy with Mainland Puerto Rican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas-Diaz, Lillian

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of feminist therapy with mainland Puerto Rican women, presenting clinical vignettes. Emphasizes the consideration of sociocultural context, including the experience of cross-cultural translocation, transculturation, the colonial background of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rican sex roles, power issues and Puertorriquenas' sense of…

  10. Financial analysis of pond area extension in Pacific white shrimp culture at Cantigi Indramayu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iis Diatin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pacific white shrimp is one of the primadona of fishery commodities. This shrimp is superior as it resists to diseases and also high productivity. Jati Hasil Diri (JHD located in Cantigi Indramayu is one of the pacific white shrimp culture company. In order to develop the business, this company planned to extent their pond area from 26 to 42 Ha. This plan was therefore needed to be financially analyzed to confirm its feasibility. There were two different scenarios of area extension, first scenario was to extent pond area without any technical improvement, and the second scenario was to extent pond area with technical improvement. The result of the study shows that the pond area extension was feasible with NPV of Rp7.221.427.150,00  and  Rp29.867.006.067,00, the net B/C of  2,62 and 7,7  and  also the  IRR of 47,84%  and 146,55% for the first and second scenario, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the business is still feasible to be operated at a maximal of feed price the increase of 38,84% for the first scenario and 119,36% for the second scenario or if the shrimp price decrease with a maximum decrease of 18,81% and 41,12% at first and second scenario, respectively. The first business scenario is more sensitive as compare to the second scenario. Key words: Pacific white shrimp, Cantigi Indramayu, pond, technical improvement, sensitivity analysis   ABSTRAK Udang vaname merupakan salah satu komoditas perikanan yang menjadi primadona, karena keunggulannya yaitu tahan terhadap penyakit dan menghasilkan produktivitas yang cukup tinggi. Usaha Jati Hasil Diri (JHD di Cantigi Indramayu adalah salah satu perusahaan yang bergerak dalam usaha budidaya udang vaname. Dalam rangka mengembangkan usahanya, perusahaan berencana untuk menambah  luas lahan tambaknya dari 26 Ha menjadi 42 Ha. Sehingga perlu dikaji melalui analisis kelayakan finansial, apakah penambahan luas lahan ini layak atau tidak untuk diusahakan. Pengembangan ini

  11. Studies on luminous, Vibrio harveyi associated with shrimp culture system rearing Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannapiran, E; Ravindran, J; Chandrasekar, R; Kalaiarasi, A

    2009-09-01

    Microbiological studies in a modified extensive shrimp culture system at Nambuthalai, southeast coast of India were carried out fora period of 120 days. Population dynamics and distribution profile of luminous bacteria and total heterotrophic bacteria in the water sediment and animal samples were monitored. Luminous bacteria associated with exoskeleton, gills and gut were isolated and quantified. The total heterotrophic bacterial counts ranged from 1.3 x 10(4) to 25.3 x 10(4) CFU ml(-1) in water and 1.5 x 10(6) to 26.2 x 10(6) CFU g(-1) in sediment. The V. harveyi population density varied between 0.6 x 10(4) and 8.8 x 10(4) LCFU ml(-1) in water and from 1.2 x 10(6) to 10.4 x 10(6) LCFU g(-1) sediment respectively. The gut of the animal was found to harbor high density of V. harveyi than gills and exoskeleton. The total heterotrophic bacteria and V. harveyi population density showed increasing trend during the culture period. The high V harveyi density observed in this study at the end of the culture period correlated with the outbreak of white spot disease.

  12. White spot syndrome virus epizootic in cultured Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Lin, W-H; Wang, P-C; Tsai, M-A; Hsu, J-P; Chen, S-C

    2013-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused significant losses in shrimp farms worldwide. Between 2004 and 2006, Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) were collected from 220 farms in Taiwan to determine the prevalence and impact of WSSV infection on the shrimp farm industry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis detected WSSV in shrimp from 26% of farms. Juvenile shrimp farms had the highest infection levels (38%; 19/50 farms) and brooder shrimp farms had the lowest (5%; one of 20 farms). The average extent of infection at each farm was as follows for WSSV-positive farms: post-larvae farms, 71%; juvenile farms, 61%; subadult farms, 62%; adult farms, 49%; and brooder farms, 40%. Characteristic white spots, hypertrophied nuclei and basophilic viral inclusion bodies were found in the epithelia of gills and tail fans, appendages, cephalothorax and hepatopancreas, and virions of WSSV were observed. Of shrimp that had WSSV lesions, 100% had lesions on the cephalothorax, 96% in gills and tail fans, 91% on appendages and 17% in the hepatopancreas. WSSV was also detected in copepoda and crustaceans from the shrimp farms. Sequence comparison using the pms146 gene fragment of WSSV showed that isolates from the farms had 99.7-100% nucleotide sequence identity with four strains in the GenBank database--China (AF332093), Taiwan (AF440570 and U50923) and Thailand (AF369029). This is the first broad study of WSSV infection in L. vannamei in Taiwan. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Key plants preserve elements of culture: a study over distance and time of fresh crops in Puerto Rican markets in Hartford, Connecticut, "A moveable feast".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David W; Anderson, Gregory J

    2014-04-01

    People retain culinary customs when they migrate. We tested this commitment via the study of Puerto Rican fresh produce markets in the continental United States over time, 18 yr, and space, by comparisons with source markets in Puerto Rico (PR). A survey of Puerto Rican markets in Hartford (HT), Connecticut in 1993-1994 was repeated in 2009-2010. A comparative study was made at open-air markets in PR in 2009. Surveys recorded fresh crops, and interviews with vendors and Hartford Puerto Rican residents provided context. We recorded 84 plant crops (64 species; 32 families) for seven categories. The largest category was viandas (fresh, starchy "root" crops and immature fruits), followed by saborizantes (flavorings). In the second HT survey, 80% of the crops were still present. And ∼90% of the HT 1993-1994 crops and ∼75% of the HT 2009-2010 crops were shared with markets in PR. On the basis of our results, we suggest two new concepts. The persistence of these largely tropical foods in a temperate market far removed from tropical PR shows the importance of basic foods as an element of cultural identification. We recognize this stability as an example of "culinary cultural conservation". Second, analysis of these fresh produce markets leads to the conclusion that viandas are the most prominent in diversity, persistence over time and distance, volume, and in terms of consumers' "willingness to pay". Accordingly, we consider the viandas a good example of a "cultural keystone food group", a food group that is emblematic of a community's culinary conservation.

  14. Automated culture of aquatic model organisms: shrimp larvae husbandry for the needs of research and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutalipassi, M; Di Natale, M; Mazzella, V; Zupo, V

    2018-01-01

    Modern research makes frequent use of animal models, that is, organisms raised and bred experimentally in order to help the understanding of biological and chemical processes affecting organisms or whole environments. The development of flexible, reprogrammable and modular systems that may help the automatic production of 'not-easy-to-keep' species is important for scientific purposes and for such aquaculture needs as the production of alive foods, the culture of small larvae and the test of new culture procedures. For this reason, we planned and built a programmable experimental system adaptable to the culture of various aquatic organisms, at different developmental stages. The system is based on culture cylinders contained into operational tanks connected to water conditioning tanks. A programmable central processor unit controls the operations, that is, water changes, temperature, light irradiance, the opening and closure of valves for the discharge of unused foods, water circulation and filtration and disinfection systems, according to the information received by various probes. Various devices may be set to modify water circulation and water changes to fulfil the needs of given organisms, to avoid damage of delicate structures, improve feeding performances and reduce the risk of movements over the water surface. The results obtained indicate that the system is effective in the production of shrimp larvae, being able to produce Hippolyte inermis post-larvae with low mortality as compared with the standard operation procedures followed by human operators. Therefore, the patented prototype described in the present study is a possible solution to automate and simplify the rearing of small invertebrates in the laboratory and in production plants.

  15. Pintando Tambien se Aprende. Aspectos de la Cultura Puertorriquena (One Can Also Learn From Coloring. Aspects of Puerto Rican Culture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilla de Ruibal, Carmen Alicia

    This workbook-style text is intended to introduce the Puerto Rican child and Spanish speaking children generally to the history, geography, customs and traditions of Puerto Rico. The introduction in the form of a teacher's guide provides objectives, suggested procedures, and additional activities. The student portion of the text is divided into…

  16. Urea as a Nitrogen Source in a Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) Closed Culture System

    OpenAIRE

    Supannee SUWANPAKDEE; Sataporn DIREKBUSARAKOM; Piyapong CHOTIPUNTU; Putth SONGSANGJINDA

    2010-01-01

    Urea [(NH2)2CO] is an organic compound that serves an important role in the metabolism of nitrogen-containing compound by animals. Urea is widely used in aquaculture systems. This study investigated the effects of urea on growth of Penaeus monodon. Shrimp were reared in 500 l fiber tanks. There was no exchange of water throughout the experiment. Shrimp with an average body weight of 10.99 ± 0.19 g were stocked at a density of 32 shrimp/m2 in 20 ppt diluted seawater and fed with 38 % protein d...

  17. Partial characterization of a novel bacteriophage of Vibrio harveyi isolated from shrimp culture ponds in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasharawipas, Tirasak; Thaikua, Surasak; Sriurairatana, Siriporn; Ruangpan, Lila; Direkbusarakum, Sataporn; Manopvisetcharean, Jaroon; Flegel, Timothy W

    2005-12-01

    A bacteriophage was isolated together with Vibrio harveyi (VH) 1114 a from a black tiger shrimp-rearing pond in Thailand. By negative staining transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the phage had an icosahedral head (diameter 60-62 nm), a rigid, non-contractile tail (9-10 nm x 100-120 nm) without a collar or terminal fibers and a genome of double stranded DNA of approximately 80 kb as determined by analysis of restriction enzyme digestion fragments. Since these features would place it in the family Siphoviridae, it was tentatively named V. harveyi siphoviridae-like phage or VHS1. VHS1 could also infect two VH reference strains LMD 22.30 and LMD 80.33 (=ATCC 14126) but yielded smaller plaques than with VH1114. The phage tolerated temperatures as high as 60 degrees C for up to 2h and overnight exposure to a broad range of pH. VHS1 lysogens of VH1114 were unstable, contained unaltered VHS1 DNA, were immune to VHS1 lysis and spontaneously released VHS1 in liquid cultures. Approximately 20 kb of the genome has been sequenced and deposited at GenBank but it mostly showed no significant homology with existing sequences in the database.

  18. Clonal Occurrence of Salmonella Weltevreden in Cultured Shrimp in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Uddin, Gazi Md.; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Barco, Lisa; Minh Phu, Tran; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence, serovar and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in shrimp samples from intensive and extensive farms located in three different provinces in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp from 11 of the 48 farms all contained S. Weltevreden, except for one farm yielding S. Agona, with no difference in Salmonella occurrence between the two production systems. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of S. Weltevreden showed closely related XbaI pulse types, suggesting a clonal relationship despite the farms and shrimp samples being epidemiologically unrelated. S. Weltevreden was susceptible to most antimicrobials tested, with a few strains being resistant to florfenicol, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim. Future studies of the ecology of S. Weltevreden should establish if this serovar may survive better and even multiply in warm-water shrimp farm environments compared to other Salmonella serovars. PMID:26222547

  19. Clonal Occurrence of Salmonella Weltevreden in Cultured Shrimp in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Md Noor Uddin

    Full Text Available This study investigated the occurrence, serovar and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in shrimp samples from intensive and extensive farms located in three different provinces in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp from 11 of the 48 farms all contained S. Weltevreden, except for one farm yielding S. Agona, with no difference in Salmonella occurrence between the two production systems. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE of S. Weltevreden showed closely related XbaI pulse types, suggesting a clonal relationship despite the farms and shrimp samples being epidemiologically unrelated. S. Weltevreden was susceptible to most antimicrobials tested, with a few strains being resistant to florfenicol, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim. Future studies of the ecology of S. Weltevreden should establish if this serovar may survive better and even multiply in warm-water shrimp farm environments compared to other Salmonella serovars.

  20. Financial Feasibility of Green-water Shrimp Farming Associated with Mangrove Compared to Extensive Shrimp Culture in the Mahakam Delta, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.H.; Tendencia, E.A.; Bunting, S.W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a post-hoc assessment of the introduction of intensive shrimp farming strategies, with and without green-water (GW) technology, in the Mahakam Delta where extensive systems (ES) dominate. The study also assesses the potential of integrated mangrove GW shrimp production (MGW). The

  1. Socio-Cognitive Correlates to School Achievement Using the TEMAS (Tell-Me-A-Story) Culturally Sensitive Test with Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grades At Risk Puerto Rican Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardalda, Elsa B.; Costantino, Giuseppe

    The Tell-Me-A-Story (TEMAS) Culturally Sensitive Test was administered to 74 Puerto Rican students in a New York City school in order to measure such personality resources as conflict resolution skills and cognitive structuring of narratives. The resulting data was used to examine the degree to which these early adolescents' personality resources…

  2. A successful microbound diet for the larval culture of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxia; Mai, Kangsen

    2005-07-01

    A 13-day feeding trial was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of a microbound diet for rearing the larvae of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis in comparison with the live foods that consist of Isochrysis galbana, Chlorella vulgaris, Tetraselmis chuii, rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) and Artemia sp. Larvae of 0 to 13d post-hatch (dph) were reared in a temperature-controlled semi-open culture system and stocked at a density of 100 larvae L-1 in tanks, each containing 50 L sterilized seawater with salinity 30 32. Larvae were manually fed either the live foods or the microbound diet 6 times per day. At 13dph, the growth of the larvae fed on the microbound diet was approximately 84% of that fed on the live foods. The survival rate of the larvae fed on the microbound diet was 44.29% at 13 dph, which was not significantly different from that of larvae fed on live foods (63.55% ). The body length and development index (DI) of the larvae fed on the microbound diet were always lower than those of larvae fed on live foods. However, the differences reached significant levels only at 11 and 13dph (P<0.05). The mean dry weight loss of the microbound diet was 9.2% after 90min immersion in seawater, indicating that this diet has a good water stability. The microbound diet contains 5223% crude protein and 10.27% lipid and is easy to prepare. These characteristics of the diet suggest good potentials for its successful use in the larviculture of other penaeid and fish species.

  3. Puerto Rican Women in International Business: Myths and Realities

    OpenAIRE

    Maritza Soto

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study Puerto Rican women in international management, specifically with respect to the perceptions and myths regarding their participation in international assignments, their application in our culture, as well as, to study the factors that affect the participation of Puerto Rican women in international business. The results obtained indicate: 1) the current myths regarding Puerto Rican women in international business positions; 2) factors that influence when...

  4. Cultural Systems and Lifestyles: The Impact of the Occupation of Shrimping on Family Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumrine, Janice G.; Nix, Harold L.

    The findings of this second phase of a four-phase study of shrimp fishing focus on the effect of this occupation upon the family. Data were collected from a random sample of 87 boat captains, 73 wives, community personnel, and high school students in two Georgia coastal counties. The family structure reveals a traditional conception of male and…

  5. Clonal occurrence of Salmonella Weltevreden in cultured shrimp in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Gazi Md Noor; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Barco, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    . Weltevreden was susceptible to most antimicrobials tested, with a few strains being resistant to florfenicol, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim. Future studies of the ecology of S. Weltevreden should establish if this serovar may survive better and even multiply in warm-water shrimp farm...

  6. Environmental impact of aquaculture-sedimentation and nutrient loadings from shrimp culture of the southeast coastal region of the Bay of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Biplob; Khan, Yusuf Sharif Ahmed; Das, Pranab

    2004-01-01

    Nutrient loadings were measured for surface seawater and bottom sediments of semi-intensive and improved extensive shrimp culture pond, adjacent estuary, and fallow land in the south-east coastal region of Bangladesh during August, 2000-January, 2001 to evaluate the impact of shrimp culture. The mean levels of nutrients found in the pond surface water were 108.780 mg/L for CaCO3, 0.526 mg/L for NH4+ -N, 3.075 wt% for organic carbon, 7.00 mg/L for PO4-P, 5.57 mg/L for NO3-N, and 7.33 mg/L for chlorophyll-a. The maximum mean value of H2S (0.232 mg/L) was found in estuarine water. Nutrients loading were found to be decreased with distance from the shrimp farm discharge unit in estuarine water. The mean level of organic matter, total nitrogen, and organic carbon were found in higher concentrations in sediments of cultured pond compared to bottom soil of adjacent fallow land at the same elevation. Extractable Ca values were found in higher concentration (550.33 ppt) in adjacent fallow land, as the shrimps for molting in shrimp ponds use extractable Ca. The relation between seawater H2S value and sediment pH (r = - 0.94); sediment organic carbon and sediment pH values (r = -0.76), sediment total nitrogen and sediment pH (r = -0.74) were found to be highly negatively correlated. Whereas the relation between seawater H2S value and sediment total nitrogen (r = 0.92), water NH4+ -N and sediment pH (r = 0.66) were found to be positively correlated. The results revealed that load of nutrients at eutrophic level in estuarine water, and decrease of soil pH; leading to acid sulphate soil formation indicates a negative impact of shrimp culture.

  7. Comparison of Vibrio harveyi strains isolated from shrimp farms and from culture collection in terms of toxicity and antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tatsuya; Ito, Emi; Nomura, Nakao; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Matsumura, Masatoshi

    2006-05-01

    Vibrio harveyi strains isolated from shrimp farms (wild strains) were compared with those from culture collections in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and toxicity. Wild strains had higher MIC values for four antibiotics (kanamycin, carbenicillin, oxytetracycline and ampicillin) and also showed higher toxicity compared with culture collection strains. Vibrio harveyi with the lowest antibacterial resistance was chosen to test if a gradual increase in antibiotic concentration and frequent subculture would enhance its antibiotic resistance. Results showed that V. harveyi was able to develop resistance to oxytetracycline. The MIC value was 250 times higher compared with the MIC before subculturing. Moreover, the V. harveyi strain developed slightly higher toxicity. Therefore, it is possible that there is a relationship between antibiotic resistance and toxicity in V. harveyi.

  8. Identification of biofloc microscopic composition as the natural bioremediation in zero water exchange of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, culture in closed hatchery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, Hidayah; Moh, Julia Hwei Zhong; Kasan, Nor Azman; Suratman, Suhaimi; Ikhwanuddin, Mhd

    2017-09-01

    Study on the microscopic composition of biofloc in closed hatchery culture system was carried out to determine the interaction between the aggregation flocs in the bioremediation process for the decomposition and degradation of organic matter loaded in the shrimp culture tanks. The study was done for 105 days of culture period in zero water exchange. All of the organic loaded in the culture tanks identified comes from the shrimp feces, uneaten fed, and the decomposed macro- and microorganisms died in the culture tanks. All of the microscopic organisms in the biofloc were identified using Advance microscopes Nikon 80i. From the present study, there were abundances and high varieties of phytoplankton, zooplankton, protozoa, nematodes and algae species identified as aggregates together in the flocs accumulation. All of these microscopic organisms identified implemented the symbiotic process together for food supply, become the algae grazer, act as natural water stabilizer in regulating the nutrients in culture tank and serve as decomposer for dead organic matter in the water environment. Heterotrophic bacteria identified from Pseudomonas and Aeromonas family consumed the organic matter loaded at the bottom of culture tank and converted items through chemical process as useful protein food to be consumed back by the shrimp. Overall it can be concluded that the biofloc organisms identified really contributed as natural bioremediation agents in zero water exchange culture system to ensure the water quality in the optimal condition until the end of culture period.

  9. What vaccination studies tell us about immunological memory within the innate immune system of cultured shrimp and crayfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Kumar, Ramya; Ng, Tze Hann; Wang, Han-Ching

    2018-03-01

    The possibility of immunological memory in invertebrates is a topic that has recently attracted a lot of attention. Today, even vertebrates are known to exhibit innate immune responses that show memory-like properties, and since these responses are triggered by cells that are involved in the innate immune system, it seems that immune specificity and immune memory do not necessarily require the presence of B cells and T cells after all. This kind of immune response has been called "immune priming" or "trained immunity". In this report, we review recent observations and our current understanding of immunological memory within the innate immune system in cultured shrimp and crayfish after vaccination with live vaccine, killed vaccine and subunit vaccines. We also discuss the possible mechanisms involved in this immune response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diaspora portoricaine et musique rap à New-York : entre latinité et culture africaine américaine Puerto Rican diaspora and rap music in New-York city: between “latininad” and African American culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Partel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Le rap a atteint un succès sans précédent auprès des jeunes urbains aux Etats-Unis et dans les grandes mégalopoles du monde entier. Ce genre musical, figure de proue du hip-hop, s’est affirmé dès les années 1970 comme un moyen d’expression diasporique reflétant les expériences, les rapports complexes et les interactions culturelles entre Africains Américains, Jamaïcains et Portoricains de la diaspora vivant à New York. Cependant, le positionnement des artistes issus de la diaspora portoricaine a été peu étudié. Nourri de séjours d’observation participante et de recherches réalisés entre 2005 et 2008, ainsi que de la fréquentation assidue des concerts du collectif artistique portoricain The Terror Squad auxquels l’auteur a pu assister, cet article se propose doncd’analyser le rôle central des artistes issus de la diaspora portoricaine de New York à travers l’étude du rap, élément le plus médiatisé du hip-hop. Il devient ainsi possible de mieux entrevoir les tensions, convergences et interactions culturelles qui régissent les rapports complexes qui s’établissent entre la latinité des Portoricains et la culture africaine-américaine urbaine depuis plus d’une trentaine d’années dans le milieu du rap.Rap music has achieved unprecedented success among urban youth in the United States and in big cities around the world. As a key element of hip-hop this musical style has been asserting its strength since the 1970s as a reflection of the diasporic experience and the complex cultural interactions between African Americans, Jamaicans and Puerto Ricans of the diaspora living in New York. However, scant research has been conducted on the role of Puerto Rican artists of the diaspora living in New York. Therefore, based on field trips and participant observation undertaken between 2005 and 2008 and the concerts of the Puerto Rican rap group The Terror Squad that the author was able to attend frequently, the

  11. In vitro selection of bacteria with potential for use as probiotics in marine shrimp culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe do Nascimento Vieira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to isolate strains of lactic acid bacteria with probiotic potential from the digestive tract of marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, and to carry out in vitro selection based on multiple characters. The ideotype (ideal proposed strain was defined by the highest averages for the traits maximum growth velocity, final count of viable cells, and inhibition halo against nine freshwater and marine pathogens, and by the lowest averages for the traits duplication time and resistance of strains to NaCl (1.5 and 3%, pH (6, 8, and 9, and biliary salts (5%. Mahalanobis distance (D² was estimated among the evaluated strains, and the best ones were those with the shortest distances to the ideotype. Ten bacterial strains were isolated and biochemically identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (3, L. brevis (3, Weissella confusa (2, Lactococcus lactis (1, and L. delbrueckii (1. Lactobacillus plantarum strains showed a wide spectrum of action and the largest inhibition halos against pathogens, both Gram-positive and negative, high growth rate, and tolerance to all evaluated parameters. In relation to ideotype, L. plantarum showed the lowest Mahalanobis (D² distance, followed by the strains of W. confusa, L. brevis, L. lactis, and L. delbrueckii. Among the analyzed bacterial strains, those of Lactobacillus plantarum have the greatest potential for use as a probiotic for marine shrimp.

  12. Comparison of lipid content and Fatty Acid composition in the edible meat of wild and cultured freshwater and marine fish and shrimps from china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guipu; Sinclair, Andrew J; Li, Duo

    2011-03-09

    The lipid content and fatty acid composition in the edible meat of twenty-nine species of wild and cultured freshwater and marine fish and shrimps were investigated. Both the lipid content and fatty acid composition of the species were specified due to their unique food habits and trophic levels. Most of the marine fish demonstrated higher lipid content than the freshwater fish, whereas shrimps had the lowest lipid content. All the marine fish and shrimps had much higher total n-3 PUFA than n-6 PUFA, while most of the freshwater fish and shrimps demonstrated much lower total n-3 PUFA than n-6 PUFA. This may be the biggest difference in fatty acid composition between marine and freshwater species. The cultured freshwater fish demonstrated higher percentages of total PUFA, total n-3 PUFA, and EPA + DHA than the wild freshwater fish. Two freshwater fish, including bighead carp and silver carp, are comparable to the marine fish as sources of n-3 PUFA.

  13. Puerto Rican Women in International Business: Myths and Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Soto

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to study Puerto Rican women in international management, specifically with respect to the perceptions and myths regarding their participation in international assignments, their application in our culture, as well as, to study the factors that affect the participation of Puerto Rican women in international business. The results obtained indicate: 1 the current myths regarding Puerto Rican women in international business positions; 2 factors that influence when considering Puerto Rican women for international business positions and; 3 organizational units and departments where women currently hold positions in international assignments. Although there have been previous studies regarding women in management, there are none regarding Puerto Rican women's participation in international business assignments.

  14. N-acyl homoserine lactone-degrading microbial enrichment cultures isolated from Penaeus vannamei shrimp gut and their probiotic properties in Brachionus plicatilis cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinh, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Asanka Gunasekara, R A Y S; Boon, Nico; Dierckens, Kristof; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter

    2007-10-01

    Three bacterial enrichment cultures (ECs) were isolated from the digestive tract of Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei, by growing the shrimp microbial communities in a mixture of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) molecules. The ECs, characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and subsequent rRNA sequencing, degraded AHL molecules in the degradation assays. Apparently, the resting cells of the ECs also degraded one of the three types of quorum-sensing signal molecules produced by Vibrio harveyi in vitro [i.e. harveyi autoinducer 1 (HAI-1)]. The most efficient AHL-degrading ECs, EC5, was tested in Brachionus experiments. EC5 degraded the V. harveyi HAI-1 autoinducer in vivo, neutralizing the negative effect of V. harveyi autoinducer 2 (AI-2) mutant, in which only the HAI-1- and CAI-1-mediated components of the quorum-sensing system are functional on the growth of Brachionus. This suggests that EC5 interferes with HAI-1-regulated metabolism in V. harveyi. These AHL-degrading ECs need to be tested in other aquatic systems for their probiotic properties, preferably in combination with specific AI-2-degrading bacteria.

  15. Phylogeography of an island endemic: the Puerto Rican freshwater crab, Epilobocera sinuatifrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin D. Cook; Catherine M. Pringle; Jane M. Hughes

    2008-01-01

    The endemic Puerto Rican crab, Epilobocera sinuatifrons (Pseudothelphusidae), has a freshwater-dependant life-history strategy, although the species has some capabilities for terrestrial movement as adults. In contrast to all other freshwater decapods on the island (e.g., caridean shrimp), E. sinuatifrons does not undertake amphidromous migration, and is restricted to...

  16. Analysis of the marine shrimp culture production chain in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo R. Freitas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was elaborated to identify and describe the main links of the sea shrimp productive chain in the municipal district of Laguna, historically known as the main sea shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei production area in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The study, held from April to July 2005, previously identified the local productive process through observation, interviews and bibliographical research. Afterwards, specific questionnaires were elaborated for each of the several segments connected to the local activity. A total of 90 interviews were conducted, intending to map out the procedures and functionality of the productive chain, from the necessary inputs for production to the moment of shrimp acquisition by final consumers. Results indicated that the entire productive chain requires actions that range from improvement of sanitary and genetic conditions of larvae to product commercialization. Reduction of bureaucracy in public organs, better investment credit conditions, improvement in productive practices, training of technical and productive labor, and reduction of production costs will not occur until industrialization politics and commercialization of local production are standardized.O presente estudo foi elaborado para identificar e descrever os principais elos da cadeia produtiva no município de Laguna, região que historicamente constitui-se em principal área de produção de camarão marinho (Litopenaeus vannamei em Santa Catarina, Brasil. O estudo foi desenvolvido de abril a julho de 2005, a partir de uma prévia identificação do processo produtivo local, através de observação, entrevistas e busca bibliográfica. Foram elaborados questionários específicos para os vários segmentos atrelados à atividade local. Foi realizado um total de 90 entrevistas, pretendendo-se fazer um acompanhamento do desempenho e funcionalidade da cadeia produtiva desde os insumos necessários à produção até o momento da aquisição do

  17. Hatching response to temperature along a latitudinal gradient by the fairy shrimp Branchinecta lindahli (Crustacea; Branchiopoda; Anostraca in culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Christopher Rogers

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Branchinecta lindahli is a broadly distributed fairy shrimp, reported from a range of temporary wetland habitat types in arid western North America. This species’ eggs hatch after the habitat dries, refills from seasonal rain, and receives a strong cold shock during the winter low temperatures. I studied phenotypic variation in temperature responses in cultures collected from four populations across 8° of latitude with low average temperatures ranging from -8 to 8°C. Time to maturation, mature body size and first clutch size decreased, as temperature increased, with only minor body size variability at mortality, regardless of culture origin. No variation in individual egg size was observed, demonstrating that body size is sacrificed to produce at least a few normal eggs during unfavourable years. Latitudinal variation in hatching temperature demonstrated a pattern of adaptive significance, with some overlap between regional temperature hatching cues.  Phenotypic hatching temperature and growth rate responses may cause genetic segregation, selecting one cohort for warmer, dryer years and one cohort for cooler, wetter years.  Drier year selected cohorts can exploit habitats that have shorter hydroperiods even in wet years. This may lead to population specialisation and speciation by adapting to more extreme habitats

  18. MARINE SPONGE Aaptos suberitoides, IT’S POTENTIAL SOURCE OF NATURAL ANTIBACTERIAL FOR CONTROLLING Vibrio harveyi ON TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon) CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Rosmiati Rosmiati; Andi Parenrengi; Emma Suryati

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to isolate and identify the natural antibacterial compounds potential from Aaptos suberitoides for Vibrio harveyi control on tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) culture. The agar diffusion method using paper discs was used to determine the antibacterial activity of extracts (diethyl ether (DEE), butanol (BUE) and aqueous (HOE) and compounds successfully isolated against Vibrio harveyi. Findings showed that the antibacterial activity was concentrated in BUE with the inhibition zone o...

  19. Ecological effects of co-culturing the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus with the Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis in an earthen pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shun; Ren, Yichao; Pearce, Christopher M.; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Using net enclosures in an earthen pond, we established three culture treatments with the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and the Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis: monoculture of sea cucumbers (C), monoculture of shrimp (S), and co-culture of the two species (CS). We measured levels of suspended particulate matter in the water column; total organic matter, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and carbon/nitrogen ratios in both settling particles and the sediment; and chlorophyll a levels in the sediment. We then compared these variables between the three treatments. We also examined growth, survival, and yield of the two species in the different treatments. From June to September, the mean monthly suspended particulate matter sedimentation rates in the CS and S treatments were significantly ( Pshrimp reared in the two systems. The bioturbation of the sediment and fecal production of the shrimp likely supplied natural food for the sea cucumbers. Co-culture of the two species is a viable option for increasing yield per unit area, maximizing use of the water body, and diversifying crop production.

  20. Effect of Sucrose as Carbon Source and Probiotic Administrations on Bacterial Population Dinamic and Water Quality in White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Sukenda

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection and nutrient enrichment prior stocking of  post larvae in the pond will be affected on the growth and composition of microbe.  Attention should be taken to some factors related to deterministic and stochastic factors of aquaculture environment  in order to develop microbe community.  This study was performed to determine effect of sucrose and probiotic supplementation to shrimp culture pond on water quality profile and population dynamic on shrimp culture media.  The treatments were supplementation of sucrose as carbon source, probiotic, and sucrose + probiotic into 25 L culture medium containing white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  Shrimp were fed commercial diet containing 30% protein by 5% body weight every day.  The result of study showed that bacterial population was increased by increasing time of shrimp rearing.  Increased of bacterial population was contrary to DO value.   Bacteria grew was heterotrop and vibrio that its intensity varied during experiment.  Supplementation of sucrose supported proliferation of bacteria including heterotrop, probiotik and vibrio groups.  Specifically, interaction between probiotic bacteria and vibrio was also found.  The presence of probiotic bacteria showed a negative impact on vibrio population.  Further, development of bacteria in general was also implicated to fluctuation of ammonia concentration in pond. Keywords: carbon, sucrose, probiotic, white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei   ABSTRAK Kegiatan disinfeksi dan pengkayaan nutrien sebelum penebaran PL akan mempengaruhi pola pertumbuhan dan komposisi mikroba di tambak. Hal-hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam pengembangan komunitas mikroba adalah faktor-faktor deterministic dan sthocastic masing-masing lingkungan budidaya. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian bahan berkarbon (sukrosa dan probiotik di tambak terhadap profil kualitas air serta dinamika populasi pada perairan budidaya. Pada penelitian ini

  1. Organic carbon source and C/N ratio affect inorganic nitrogen profile in the biofloc-based culture media of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hanif Azhar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic carbon source and C/N ratio play an important role in aquaculture system with biofloc technology application. Nitrogen control by adding carbohydrates to the water to stimulate heterotrophic bacterial growth by converting nitrogen into bacterial biomass. The study investigated the effect molasses, tapioca, tapioca by product and rice bran as carbon sources in a biofloc media at three different C/N ratios i.e. 10, 15, and 20 on total ammonia reduction in biofloc media. Five liters of biofloc media in a conical tank was prepared for each replicate, which consisted of 500 mL of biofloc suspension collected from a shrimp culture unit with biofloc technology application and 4.5 L seawater. Pacific white shrimp culture was performed in 40L glass aquaria at a shrimp density of 30/aquarium. There was a significant interaction between carbon source and the C/N ratio applied (P<0.05. The use of molasses resulted in the highest reduction rate irrespective to the C/N ratio. Keywords: molasses, tapioca, tapioca by product, rice bran, biofloc, total ammonia nitrogen

  2. A Bio-economic Model of a Shrimp Hatchery in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Sinh, L.X.; MacAulay, T. Gordon; Brennan, Donna C.

    2003-01-01

    Shrimp culture areas and production of the Mekong Delta cover about 60 percent of the total shrimp areas and production of Vietnam. Especially, the Delta contributes about 80 percent of the total shrimp production for export. Rapid development of the shrimp industry is raising a number of serious problems that need to be solved. Shrimp seed supply (post larvae production) plays an essential role in the shrimp industry and it is one of the most important constraints to the development of the s...

  3. Osmotic behaviour of shrimps and prawns in relation to their biology and culture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panikkar, N.K.

    The prawns which are useful for cultural purposes belong mostly to the decapod families Penaeidae and Palaemonidae. Most penaeids are marine prawns which migrate to estuaries and brackish water in their young stages but go back to the sea to breed...

  4. Planktonic Crustacean Culture - Live Planktonic Crustaceans as Live Feed for Finfish and Shrimps in Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Per Meyer; Syberg, Kristian; Drillet, Guillaume

    2018-01-01

    The cultivation of planktonic crustaceans as live feed is of paramount importance for the aquaculture and aquarium industries. The use of live cladocerans as feed for freshwater fish is limited to the aquarium industry, whereas Artemia and copepods are used to feed edible marine fish larvae...... assessments for hazardous chemicals. Cladocerans are widely used for ecotoxicology testing but Artemia and copepods are emerging new model species. In the present chapter, we review the culturing procedures of these important planktonic crustaceans: Artemia, cladocerans and copepods and discuss their use...

  5. Effect of Culture Conditions and Gamma Rays on Chitosan Production from Shrimp Shells by Certain Isolated Fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd EI-Aziz, A.B.; Swialam, H.M.; Abd EI -Aziz, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The obtained chitosan from shrimp shells waste used in the present work is compared with a standard chitosan. Six strains of the isolated fungi had the ability to attack the chitin namely: Candida tropicalis, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Candida guilliermondii, Trichoderma viride, Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus niger. Z. rouxii and A. niger were the most active strains for decomposing chitin. The best culture conditions for chitosan production by the selected strains differed from one to another. Highest yield of chitosan was obtained after 96 h of incubation by A. niger (40.00 mg/g) in the basal medium followed by P. chrysogenum (38.20 mg/g). Optimum ph for chitosan production by C. tropicalis, Z. rouxii and T. viride was found to be 5.5, while ph 6.0 was the best for A. niger and C. guilliermondii. Meanwhile ph 5.0 was preferable for P. chrysogenllm. Regarding the carbon source, fructose as a sole carbon source in the medium was the best one for A. niger (92.58 mg/g) and T. viride (85.78 mg/g). C. tropicalis and Z. rouxii showed the highest chitosan production in the presence of sucrose (66.00 and 60.00 mg/g), whereas xylose was the best carbon for P. chrysogenum (62.50 mg/g). The selected strains were also differing in their nitrogen source requiring for production of chitosan. The present work confirmed that chitosan production by microorganisms is strongly dependent on the ph of the culture medium. The present data show that exposing the selected fungal strains to very low dose levels of gamma ray enhanced their productivity of chitosan and dry weight. The best environmental conditions of temperature degree, ph value and colloidal chitin concentration on chitinase activity produced by Z. rouxii were 30 degree C, 5.5 and 2% respectively, while they were 30 degree C, 6.0 and 1.5% for chitinase produced by A. niger in the same manner respectively

  6. Factorial Structure of a Measure of Acculturation in a Puerto Rican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Brunilda; Mendez, Serafin

    1996-01-01

    The psychometric characteristics of the Cultural Life Style Inventory were studied with a sample of 402 Puerto Rican college students. Factor analysis revealed high factorial stability for Puerto Ricans. Similarities and differences with a previously studied Mexican American population are discussed. (SLD)

  7. Challenges of a transition to a sustainably managed shrimp culture agro-ecosystem in the Mahakam delta, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.H.; Sidik, S.A.; Zwieten, van P.A.M.; Aditya, A.; Visser, L.

    2012-01-01

    Around 1990, when in other countries mangrove protection took off, massive conversion of mangrove forest into shrimp ponds started in the Mahakam delta. To identify constraints to and options for sustainable management we analysed institutions and constraints with stakeholders. In 3 sites we used

  8. The effect of carbohydrate addition on water quality and the nitrogen budget in extensive shrimp culture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hari, B.; Kurup, B.M.; Varghese, J.T.; Schrama, J.W.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2006-01-01

    Water quality and shrimp production were monitored in extensively managed ponds which were fed a 25% (P25) or 40% (P40) dietary protein, each diet complemented with or without carbohydrate (CH) addition. The experiment was carried out in 6-m3 concrete tanks, with a mud bottom and stocked with 7 post

  9. MARINE SPONGE Aaptos suberitoides, IT’S POTENTIAL SOURCE OF NATURAL ANTIBACTERIAL FOR CONTROLLING Vibrio harveyi ON TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmiati Rosmiati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to isolate and identify the natural antibacterial compounds potential from Aaptos suberitoides for Vibrio harveyi control on tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon culture. The agar diffusion method using paper discs was used to determine the antibacterial activity of extracts (diethyl ether (DEE, butanol (BUE and aqueous (HOE and compounds successfully isolated against Vibrio harveyi. Findings showed that the antibacterial activity was concentrated in BUE with the inhibition zone of 17.2±0.1 mm. Meanwhile, two other extracts (DEE and HOE did not exhibit any antibacterial activity against V. harveyi. From the active BUE, it was successfully isolated two compounds giving a strong anti-vibrio activity with the inhibition zone of 22±0.1 mm. The IR, 1H, 13C, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and MS spectrum analysis indicated that both active compounds identified as aaptamine (1 and 9-demethyloxyaaptamine (2. The study suggested that marine sponge A. suberitoides may have potential compounds source for controlling of V. harveyi on tiger shrimp culture.

  10. Monitoring of inland waters for culturing shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: application of a method based on survival and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Castañeda, G; Millán-Almaraz, M I; Fierro-Sañudo, J F; Fregoso-López, M G; Páez-Osuna, F

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the suitability of 21 inland waters (16 well waters and 5 surface waters) from Northwest Mexico via short- (48 h) and medium-term (28 days) tests using postlarvae (PL18) of Litopenaeus vannamei. In the short test, survival was assessed at 48 h after shrimp were placed in groups of 10 postlarvae into 2-L containers of inland water, to which they had been previously acclimated. The second, medium-term test consisted of four replicates with 10 postlarvae, and each group was placed in 15-L containers with the treatment water. Weights (initial and final) and survival were evaluated weekly for 28 days. In those waters for which the short test was positive and the medium-term test was negative and which also had a deficiency of potassium and/or magnesium, a third test was conducted. These last waters were supplemented with salts, and the shrimp survival and weights (initial and final) were recorded for 28 days. The water samples from San Jose, Mochicahui, Sinaloa River, Caimanero inner Lagoon, La Pipima, Campo Santa Fe, Escopama, and Fitmar had >60% survival in the short test. The Caimanero inner Lagoon water had the highest survival (87.5 ± 9.6%) and final mean weight (201.3 ± 86.2 mg). In the third test, it was found that shrimp in the water from La Pipima, Campo Santa Fe, and Fitmar exhibited 100% survival for 2 weeks. Finally, in this work, a decision tree to evaluate the suitability of low-salinity water for shrimp farming was proposed, which can be applied in other regions.

  11. Effect of co-culture of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) and sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) on pond environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Sun, Yongjun; Wang, Fang

    2016-10-01

    Monoculture of sea cucumber (pond S) and polyculture of shrimp with sea cucumber (pond SS) were established to evaluate the effect of shrimp on the environmental conditions of sea cucumber farming pond. Contributions of sediment organic matter (SOM2) resuspended from benthic sediment and the suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) deposited from the water column to the precipitated organic matter (SOM1) collected with sediment traps were estimated with carbon stable isotope analysis. The results showed that the levels of SPOM and SOM2 in pond SS significantly decreased in comparison with those in pond S at the end of experiment ( P sea cucumber farming pond could purify the farming water. Carbon stable isotope analysis showed that the proportion of SOM2 in SOM1 in pond SS (84.97% ± 0.38%) was significantly lower than that in pond S (95.20% ± 0.30%) ( P < 0.05), suggesting that the resuspension of organic matter from benthic sediment into overlying water was reduced in polyculture pond. In contrast, the proportion of SPOM in SOM1 in pond SS (15.03% ± 0.38%) was significantly higher than that in pond S (4.80% ± 0.30%) ( P < 0.05), indicating that the sedimentation of SPOM from water column was enhanced in pond SS owing to the biodeposition effect of shrimp.

  12. Intestinal bacterial signatures of white feces syndrome in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dongwei; Huang, Zhijian; Zeng, Shenzheng; Liu, Jian; Wei, Dongdong; Deng, Xisha; Weng, Shaoping; Yan, Qingyun; He, Jianguo

    2018-04-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the intestinal microbiota is closely correlated with the host's health status. Thus, a serious disturbance that disrupts the stability of the intestinal microecosystem could cause host disease. Shrimps are one of the most important products among fishery trading commodities. However, digestive system diseases, such as white feces syndrome (WFS), frequently occur in shrimp culture and have led to enormous economic losses across the world. The WFS occurrences are unclear. Here, we compared intestinal bacterial communities of WFS shrimp and healthy shrimp. Intestinal bacterial communities of WFS shrimp exhibited less diversity but were more heterogeneous than those of healthy shrimp. The intestinal bacterial communities were significantly different between WFS shrimp and healthy shrimp; compared with healthy shrimp, in WFS shrimp, Candidatus Bacilloplasma and Phascolarctobacterium were overrepresented, whereas Paracoccus and Lactococcus were underrepresented. PICRUSt functional predictions indicated that the relative abundances of genes involved in energy metabolism and genetic information processing were significantly greater in WFS shrimp. Collectively, we found that the composition and predicted functions of the intestinal bacterial community were markedly shifted by WFS. Significant increases in Candidatus Bacilloplasma and Phascolarctobacterium and decreases in Paracoccus and Lactococcus may contribute to WFS in shrimp.

  13. Feasibility study of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, culture in earthen ponds using brackish water of the Caspian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Farabi, S.M.V.; Salehi, A.A.; Pourgholam, R.; Ghanei Tehrani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) post-larvae 12 were obtained from Bushehr province and reared at the Caspian Sea Ecological Research Institute (Mazandaran, Iran) in summer 2012 using brackish water of the Caspian Sea. Prior to start of the experiment, post-larvae were gradually adapted to brackish water. The shrimp was stocked in a 1000 m2 earthen pond with a stocking density of 31 individual/m2. The earthen pond was in quarantine without discharge valve. During the rearing period, there w...

  14. Ladrillo and Tales of Juan Bobo: Puerto Rican Folk Tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Reinaldo; Matos, Ana

    These two illustrated elementary readers contain the Spanish and English versions of the Puerto Rican folk tales, "Ladrillo" and "Cuentos de Juan Bobo." They are part of a series of reading materials for elementary-level migrant children. These materials are intended to help the child relate to his culture, develop interest in…

  15. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending among Puerto Rican Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-01-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States; and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate similar…

  16. Prevalence of human pathogenic enteric viruses in bivalve molluscan shellfish and cultured shrimp in south west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesha, Kanasinakatte R; Bhavani, Naniah C; Venugopal, Moleyur N; Karunasagar, Indrani; Krohne, Georg; Karunasagar, Iddya

    2008-03-20

    The prevalence of human enteric viruses in bivalve molluscan shellfish and shrimp collected off the south west coast of India was studied to assess the extent of fecal pollution of coastal environment. Out of 194 samples analyzed, 37% of oyster, 46% of clam and 15% of shrimp samples were positive for enteroviruses (EV). Adenoviruses (ADV) were detected in 17% of oyster and 27% of clam samples. However, other enteric viruses such as noroviruses (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) were not detected in any of the samples. High prevalence of EV and ADV was noticed between May to December. Thirty four percent of oyster and 49% of clam samples showed fecal coliform values higher than the limit. MS-2 phage was detected in 57% of oyster and 73% of clam samples. The presence of MS-2 phage and human enteric viruses showed association while fecal coliforms and enteric viruses showed no association. However, 17 samples, which were positive for enteric viruses (EV and ADV), were negative for MS-2 phage.

  17. Baculoviral mid-gut gland necrosis (BMN) of kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) larvae in Japanese intensive culture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, T.; Nishimura, T.; Fukuda, H.; Hayashida, T.; Momoyama, K.

    1984-03-01

    In many shrimp farms in the Kyushu and Chugoku areas of Japan, the so-called mid-gut gland cloudy disease of kuruma shrimp larvae (Penaeus japonicus) has occurred since 1971. The pathological changes associated with this baculoviral mid-gut gland necrosis (BMN) are extensive cellular necrosis, collapse of mid-gut gland cells, nuclear hypertrophy and finally karyorrhexis. Electron microscopic examination revealed the presence of virions and virogenic stages in the affected nuclei. Average length and diameter of the virions detected was 310 and 72 nm, respectively; nucleocapsids were 250 nm in size. Virions enclosing 2 nucleocapsids within a single envelope were rarely found. The spirally arranged capsomeres were at an angle of 37 to 38° to a horizontal line meeting at right angles with the long axis of the virion. Infectivity trials resulted in high mortality of healthy mysis and juveniles (2nd post-larval stage). Juveniles at the 9th post-larval stage showed no mortality, although they could be infected easily by the agent. Hypertrophied nuclei in squashed and stained preparations of the affected gland cells can be considered to be of reliable presumptive diagnostic character, and fluorescent antibody staining can be employed to confirm the diagnosis of BMN.

  18. Improvement in Shrimp Hatchery Procedures for Toxicity Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Azizah Marsiddi; Fazliana Mohd Saaya; Anee Suryani Sued

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity testing of brine shrimp Artemia salina Brine shrimp lethality assay is a screening test to determine half the dose mortality (LC50) for its shrimp given certain herbal extract at a concentration tested. The shrimp child mortality half a dose indicator to determine level of toxicity before further testing done on animal cell culture and animal experiments also on the mouse. The use of new hardware, namely Artemio 1 has increased its shrimp production at a rate that more and faster than the use of the black box hatching previously taken from the method by Solis, 1993. brine shrimp eggs from Artemio mix also easier to use because it contains egg and sea salt have been ready mixed for use in experiments. In conclusion, this method improvements help increase the number of offspring produced shrimp and produce experimental method easier than previous methods. (author)

  19. Screening of probiotics bacteria from coral reef using co-culture method for controlling vibriosis in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Dwi Sasanti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study was carried out to obtain bacteria isolates from coral reef using co-culture method which potentially inhibit Vibrio harveyi growth. A total of 110 isolates were isolated from Acropora sp., Merulina sp., Hystrix sp., Poecillophora sp., Porites sp., and Haliophora sp., and were screened for their antagonistic activity against V. harveyi in in vitro and in vivo test. Five candidate probiotics (5H1 candidate probiotics isolated from Acropora sp., 11I and 11G isolates isolated from Hystrix sp. and 13B and 13G1 isolates isolated from Poecillophora sp., was able to inhibit growth of V. harveyi MR5339 RFR up to 101‒102 cfu/mL. Two isolates (13B and 13G1 were not pathogenic at concentration 106 cfu/mL bacteria and could increase of survival rate of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon larvae in in vivo test. Survival rate of tiger shrimp larvae that treatment with 13B and 13G1 were 86,67% and 88,33%, and have a significant different with positive control (61,67%. Partial sequencing of 16S-rRNA showed that 13G1 isolate was similar to V. alginolyticus.Keywords: vibriosis, Vibrio harveyi, tiger shrimp, probiotic, coral reefABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan bakteri probiotik asal terumbu karang dengan metode kultur bersama untuk pengendalian penyakit vibriosis pada larva udang windu (Penaeus monodon. Sebanyak 110 isolat berhasil diisolasi dari Acropora sp., Merulina sp., Hystrix sp., Poecillophora sp., Porites sp., dan Heliophora sp. dan dilakukan penapisan untuk melihat aktivitas kemampuannya melawan Vibrio harveyi MR 5339 RfR dalam uji in vitro dan in vivo. Sebanyak 56 isolat menghasilkan daya hambat terhadap V. harveyi MR5339 RfR pada metode kultur bersama. Lima isolat kandidat probiotik (isolate 5H1 diisolasi dari Acropora sp., isolat 11I dan 11G diisolasi dari Hystrix sp., serta isolat 13B dan 13G1 yang diisolasi dari Poecillophora sp., mampu menekan pertumbuhan V. harveyi MR5339 RfR hingga 101–102 cfu/mL. Kedua isolat

  20. Shrimp Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern Shrimp Survey was initiated in 1983 by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) and monitors the relative abundance (number of shrimp),...

  1. The Psychology of Puerto Rican Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt Diaz, Joseph O.

    The psychology of the Puerto Rican migrant to the United States mainland is explored. Puerto Ricans have been migrating to the U.S. mainland and returning to Puerto Rico for more than 125 years, and, in fact, approximately 57% of all Puerto Ricans have migrated at one time or another. The migrant experience, including the circular migration…

  2. Immune defence White Spot Syndrome Virus infected shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important viral pathogen of cultured penaeid shrimp worldwide. Since the initial discovery of the virus inTaiwanin 1992, it has spread to shrimp farming regions in Southeast Asia, the

  3. Vision in hydrothermal vent shrimp.

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, S C

    2000-01-01

    Bresiliid shrimp from hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have non-imaging eyes adapted for photodetection in light environments of very low intensity. Comparison of retinal structures between both vent shrimp and surface-dwelling shrimp with imaging eyes, and between juvenile and adult vent shrimp, suggests that vent shrimp have evolved from ancestors that lived in a light environment with bright cyclic lighting. Whether the vent shrimp live in swarms and have large dorsal eyes or l...

  4. INDUCTION OF GONADAL MATURATION OF POND CULTURED MALE TIGER SHRIMP, Penaeus monodon WITH DIFFERENT DOSAGES OF GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE ANALOGUE AGAINST EYE STALK ABLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Laining

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Very low naturally mating rate of pond-reared tiger shrimp broodstock is probably due to the slow maturation of the male stock. The aim of this study was to evaluate the salmon gonadotrophin releasing hormone analoque (sGnRHa in stimulating the gonadal maturation of male stock of pond-reared tiger shrimp. The treatments were three dosages of sGnRHa at 0.1 (OV-1, 0.2 (OV-2, and 0.3 (OV-3 mL/kg of shrimp weight and control was eye stalk ablation (AB. The sGnRHa was administered via injection three times with one week interval. Male stocks with average initial body weight of 82.1 g were randomly distributed into four of 10 m3 concrete tanks, 26 males for each tank. Variables observed were performances of spermatophores and profiles of amino acid and fatty acid of muscle of the male stocks. After induction, number of male maturing indicated by spermatophores releasing from terminal ampullas was higher in shrimp induced with OV-1 (80.8% compared to control which was only 46.1%. Furthermore, shrimp treated OV-2 had the highest spermatophore weight of 0.16 g compared to control (0.11 g and other two groups. Amino acid profiles improved as the dose of sGnRHa increased up to 0.2 mL/kg from 61.23% for ablated male becoming 71.27% for OV-2. Total fatty acid also tended to improve by increasing the dose of hormone injection, however, the ablated male had higher total fatty acid content than that of OV-1. The present finding demonstrated that the dose of sGnRHa to stimulate the gonadal maturation of pond-reared male tiger shrimp could be applied at range between 0.1-0.2 mL/kg of shrimp weight.

  5. Puerto Rican Women as Workers and Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Blanca, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This theme issue of the "Centro Bulletin" highlights recent studies by and about employed Puerto Rican and Latina women. "La mujer en el Puerto Rico del siglo XIX" (O. Jimenez de Wagenheim), in Spanish, reviews the contributions of women to Puerto Rican economic, political, and social life during the nineteenth century.…

  6. Avanços da maricultura na primeira década do século XXI: piscicultura e carcinocultura marinha Advances in mariculture on the first decade of the XXI century: marine fish and shrimp culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís André Sampaio

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A piscicultura marinha é um setor pouco desenvolvido na maricultura brasileira. Por vários anos foi avaliado o potencial de cultivo de algumas espécies como o robalo-peva Centropomus parallelus e o linguado Paralichtys orbignyanus. Entretanto, somente a partir do investimento sobre o bijupirá Rachycentron canadum é que empresas privadas passaram a demonstrar maior interesse na atividade. Além dos sistemas tradicionais de piscicultura, o bijupirá pode ser criado em tanques-rede oceânicos. Esta espécie apresenta crescimento rápido, atingindo entre 4 e 8 kg em um ano de vida, e carne de excelente qualidade. A carcinocultura tem sido questionada por questões ambientais, uso de insumos como farinha e óleo de peixe e disseminação de doenças. A criação de camarões em sistemas sem renovação de água "ZEAH" (Zero Exchange, Aerobic, Heterotrophic Culture Systems ou cultivo em meio aos Bioflocos (BFT aplica métodos que minimizam estes problemas, contribuindo para uma maricultura mais saudável.Marine fish culture is still in its infancy in Brazil. For several years the snook Centropomus parallelus and the flounder Paralicithys orbignyanus were considered for aquaculture, but their commercial application has not yet been achieved. However, once technology for culture of cobia Rachycentron canadum became available, several private companies showed interest for marine fish culture. Besides traditional rearing technologes, cobia is suitable for open ocean culture in cages. This species shows fast growth rates, fish can achieve 4 or 8 kg within one year of age and its flesh is highly appreciated. Shrimp farming has been questioned for environmental issues, use of fish oil and fish meal, and spreading diseases. Rearing shrimp in systems without water exchange, know as ZEAH (Zero Exchange Aerobic Heterotrophic Culture systems or bioflocs applies methods that minimize these problems, contributing for the development of sustainable shrimp

  7. Gulf Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Landings - This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by the larger vessels that fish near and offshore for...

  8. Live feed culture - Problems and perspectives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    The importance of live feed in aquaculture is stressed. Organisms currently cultured as live feed are microalgae, turbellarians, tanaidaceans, annelids, brine shrimps, fairy shrimps, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods. Their culture methods...

  9. Vitamin requirements of juvenile penaeid shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Conklin, D

    1989-01-01

    The results of supplementing crustacean feeds with vitamins are examined specifically from the standpoint of shrimp culture. Micro-nutrients selected for discussion include: water-soluble vitamins of the B-complex, choline and inositol, vitamin C and the fat-soluble group of vitamins: A, D, E and K. Ways in which utilization of vitamins and ultimately dietary demand are altered by physiological state, conditions of culture, as well as factors which impact on feed levels, are explored.

  10. Extended Family Ties among Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Whites: Superintegration or Disintegration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisian, Natalia; Gerena, Mariana; Gerstel, Naomi

    2006-01-01

    Addressing recent theoretical debates, this study examined the differences in extended family integration among Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Whites, as well as the importance of culture and structure in explaining these differences. Our findings showed Whites and Latinos/as have distinctive patterns of extended family integration: Mexicans and…

  11. Burrowing behavior of penaeid shrimps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus, and white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, were held were held under natural light conditions before experiments. Experiments...

  12. Monoxenic liquid culture with Escherichia coli of the free-living nematode Panagrolaimus sp. (strain NFS 24-5), a potential live food candidate for marine fish and shrimp larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Farhana; Seychelles, Laurent; Strauch, Olaf; Wittke, Martina; Ehlers, Ralf-Udo

    2013-09-01

    The free-living, bacterial-feeding nematode Panagrolaimus sp. (strain NFS 24-5) has potential for use as live food for marine shrimp and fish larvae. Mass production in liquid culture is a prerequisite for its commercial exploitation. Panagrolaimus sp. was propagated in monoxenic liquid culture on Escherichia coli and parameters, like nematode density, population dynamics and biomass were recorded and compared with life history table data. A mean maximum nematode density of 174,278 mL(-1) and a maximum of 251,000 mL(-1) were recorded on day 17 after inoculation. Highest average biomass was 40 g L(-1) at day 13. The comparison with life history table data indicated that the hypothetical potential of liquid culture is much higher than documented during this investigation. Nematode development is delayed in liquid culture and egg production per female is more than five times lower than reported from life history trait analysis. The latter assessed a nematode generation time of 7.1 days, whereas the process time at maximum nematode density in liquid culture was 16 days indicating that a reduction of the process time can be achieved by further investigating the influence of nematode inoculum density on population development. The results challenge future research to reduce process time and variability and improve population dynamics also during scale-up of the liquid culture process.

  13. "But you don't look Puerto Rican": the moderating effect of ethnic identity on the relation between skin color and self-esteem among Puerto Rican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Irene

    2008-04-01

    This exploratory study investigated whether ethnic identity, as assessed by Phinney's (1992) Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, functioned as a moderator in the relation between skin color (as measured by masked interviewer evaluation, participant self-report, and skin reflectance data) and self-esteem (as measured by Rosenberg's 1989 Self-Esteem Scale). In a sample of 53 English-speaking Puerto Rican women, a hierarchical multiple regression indicated that among lighter skinned women, those who felt less attached to their culture had less self-esteem than those who were more culturally embedded. Similarly, among darker skinned women, greater attachment to Puerto Rican culture was associated with greater self-esteem than a less defined ethnic identity. Findings are discussed in light of the beneficial effects of ethnic identity.

  14. The Puerto Rican Community and Its Children on the Mainland: A Source Book for Teachers, Social Workers and Other Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordasco, Francesco; Bucchioni, Eugene

    This collection of readings is organized in four parts. Part I, "Aspects of Puerto Rican culture," includes the following articles: "Explicit and implicit culture in Puerto Rico: a case study in educational anthropology," T. Brameld; "Respeto, relajo, and interpersonal relations in Puerto Rico," A. Lauria;…

  15. Occurrence of white spot syndrome virus in shrimp culturing waters and its brunt in specific pathogen free Litopenaeus vannamei with particular allusion to molecular verdicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Badhul Haq

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the water samples and shrimp samples in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV affecting and non-affecting zone. Methods: A total of 12 samples specific pathogen free Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei; adult shrimp and larvae were randomly collected. Their genomic DNA was isolated and subjected to PCR. Histopathological identifications were carried out, and the hematopoietic tissues with basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies characteristic were observed in moderate WSSV infected L. vannamei. Results: The PCR analysis showed the appearance of a prominent band from the PCR amplified product of WSSV-DNA at internal control band 848 bp at non-infected areas. Although low infection positive bands (20 copies were shown at 296 bp continued from initial stage of the infection region. On a moderate and ascetic level were observed as 650 bp and 910 bp (200 and 2 000 copies, during the severe out break periods. The gill epithelial cells were edematous and nuclei were hypertrophied with basophilic inclusions, but no pathological changes or hypertrophied nuclei were observed in any of L.vannamei tissues in WSSV uninfected region. The Intranuclear inclusion bodies characteristics of high level of WSSV infection presented in the gill region. Conclusions: The present study is significant, which investigated the level of WSSV transmission from the infected tiger prawn P.monodon to SPFL. vannamei in the WSSV impact region of Tamil Nadu coastal waters.

  16. Production of ”Tokolan” White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in the Cage with Different Rearing Density

    OpenAIRE

    E. Supriyono; E. Purwanto; N.B.P. Utomo

    2007-01-01

    Larva rearing is one of the efforts to increase white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei seed quality.  This study was conducted to determine effect of  rearing density on the quality and productivity of white shrimp larvae in cage system. The tested rearing densities were 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 ind/m2 and cultured for 28 days.  The result showed that rearing density did not affect survival rate and coefficient of variation of shrimp length. The treatmentonly affected the shrimp larvae growthwhere...

  17. Sub-tropical coastal lagoon salinization associated to shrimp ponds effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Mohedano, José-Gilberto; Lima-Rego, Joao; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana-Carolina; Canales-Delgadillo, Julio; Sánchez-Flores, Eric-Ivan; Páez-Osuna, Federico

    2018-04-01

    Anthropogenic salinization impacts the health of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. In tropical and subtropical areas, shrimp farm aquaculture uses water from adjacent ecosystems to fill the culture ponds, where enhanced evaporation cause salinization of discharged water. In this study, we studied water salinity before and after shrimp farm harvest and implemented a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to assess the impact on a subtropical coastal lagoon that receives water releases from shrimp ponds. The shrimp pond discharge significantly increased the salinity of receiving waters, at least 3 psu over the local variation. In the worst-case salinization scenario, when harvest occurs after a long dry season, salinity could increase by up to 6 psu. The induced salinization due to shrimp pond effluents remained up to 2 tidal cycles after harvest, and could affect biota. The methodology and results of this study can be used to assess the impacts of shrimp aquaculture worldwide.

  18. Self-reported parenting practices in Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Esther J; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2002-09-01

    Explored self-reported parenting in a Hispanic sample of mothers living in the mainland United States using a cultural framework. Participants were 130 immigrant or first-generation Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers with a child between the ages of 2 and 6 years. Mothers completed questionnaires related to their parenting behavior and also filled out a detailed demographic form and a measure of acculturation. Results suggested that both Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers engage in high levels of praise and physical affection and low levels of harsh, inconsistent, and punitive parenting behaviors. Dominican and Puerto Rican parenting was similar on measures of authoritarian and permissive parenting, but differences emerged on a measure of authoritative parenting and when parenting was considered at the more detailed level of individual behaviors. Parenting was related to several demographic characteristics, including father's education level and child age; more specifically, higher paternal education and younger age of the child were related to higher levels of authoritative parenting by mothers. Parenting and acculturation were generally not related. Discussion focused on a culturally sensitive interpretation of normative parenting among Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers.

  19. Bioeconomic Modeling Of Shrimp Aquaculture Strategies For The Mahakam Delta, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunting, S.W.; Bosma, R.H.; Zwieten, van P.A.M.; Sidik, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Bioeconomic modeling was used to evaluate traditional and extensive shrimp production in the Mahakam Delta and impacts of adopting Better Management Practices (BMP) for semi-intensive and integrated mangrove-shrimp culture. Modeling outcomes indicate that traditional production is not financially

  20. STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE AND COMPETITIVE CLUSTER FOR SHRIMP INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas M. Fauzi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Kampung Vannamei as shrimp cluster is being developed since 2004 by PT CP Prima, tbk Surabaya through Shrimp Culture Health Management transformation technology to several traditional farmers in Gresik, Lamongan, Tuban, and Madura areas. The research objectives aims to identify and mapping of stakeholder, to analyze interaction of stakeholders, to formulate strategy from internal and external environment factors and to set priority on strategy to develop sustainable and competitive shrimp cluster in the Kampung vannamei. Primary data was collected through stakeholders’ discussion forums, questionnaires, and interviews with relevant actors. Observations to the business unit also performed to determine the production and business conditions, particularly in capturing information about the threat and challenges. While the secondary data is used in policy documents national and local area statistics, and relevant literature. Analyses were performed by using the SRI International cluster pyramid, diamond porter’s analysis, SWOT and Matrix TOWS analysis, and analytical hierarchy process. Analyses were performed by the methods discussed in qualitative and descriptive. There are 7 strategies could be implemented to develop sustainable and competitive shrimp cluster. However, it is recommended to implement the strategy base on priority, which the first priority is strategy to improve linkages between businesses in the upstream and downstream industries into multi stakeholders’ platform in shrimp industry.Keywords: Shrimp, Cluster, Competitiveness, Diamond Porter, SWOT Analysis, AHP

  1. Sexual Prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos

    2014-01-01

    Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195

  2. Determination of the infectious nature of the agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome affecting penaeid shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Loc; Nunan, Linda; Redman, Rita M; Mohney, Leone L; Pantoja, Carlos R; Fitzsimmons, Kevin; Lightner, Donald V

    2013-07-09

    A new emerging disease in shrimp, first reported in 2009, was initially named early mortality syndrome (EMS). In 2011, a more descriptive name for the acute phase of the disease was proposed as acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (AHPNS). Affecting both Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and black tiger shrimp P. monodon, the disease has caused significant losses in Southeast Asian shrimp farms. AHPNS was first classified as idiopathic because no specific causative agent had been identified. However, in early 2013, the Aquaculture Pathology Laboratory at the University of Arizona was able to isolate the causative agent of AHPNS in pure culture. Immersion challenge tests were employed for infectivity studies, which induced 100% mortality with typical AHPNS pathology to experimental shrimp exposed to the pathogenic agent. Subsequent histological analyses showed that AHPNS lesions were experimentally induced in the laboratory and were identical to those found in AHPNS-infected shrimp samples collected from the endemic areas. Bacterial isolation from the experimentally infected shrimp enabled recovery of the same bacterial colony type found in field samples. In 3 separate immersion tests, using the recovered isolate from the AHPNS-positive shrimp, the same AHPNS pathology was reproduced in experimental shrimp with consistent results. Hence, AHPNS has a bacterial etiology and Koch's Postulates have been satisfied in laboratory challenge studies with the isolate, which has been identified as a member of the Vibrio harveyi clade, most closely related to V. parahemolyticus.

  3. Radurization of brown shrimps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlermann, D.; Muenzner, R.

    1976-01-01

    Brown shrimps (Crangon vulgaris) from the North sea coast were blanched on board, and irradiated with cobalt-60 gamma-rays at a minimum dose of 130 krad either before or after peeling. Other samples were irradiated before and after peeling. Control samples remained untreated or were preserved with benzoic acid. Irradiation before peeling did not result in a lasting improvement of keeping quality. However, irradiation of the peeled shrimp meat resulted in a reduction of the total bacterial load by up to 4 orders of magnitude. Shelf life until the initial microbial count was reached was 9 days for chemically treated samples, 18 days for samples irradiated after peeling, and 20 days for samples irradiated before and after peeling. Sensory evaluation and determination of volatile basic nitrogen gave similar results. The obtained diminution of the counts of staphylococci, enterococci and enterobacteriaceae reduces the hygienic hazard. Radurization of shrimp meat proved to be a satisfactory means of preservation. Introduction of the product into the market and best presentation and packaging require further investigations. (orig.) [de

  4. The Diversity of Vibrios Associated with Vibriosis in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) from Extensive Shrimp Pond in Kendal District, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarjito; Harjuno Condro Haditomo, Alfabetian; Desrina; Djunaedi, Ali; Budi Prayitno, Slamet

    2018-02-01

    Vibriosis out breaks frequently occur in extensive shrimps farming. The study were commenced to find out the clinical signs of white shrimp that was infected by the Vibrio and to identify the bacterial associated with vibriosis in the pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Bacterial isolates were gained from hepatopancreas and telson of moribund shrimps that were collected from extensive shrimp ponds of Kendal District, Indonesia and cultured on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salts Sucrose Agar (TCBSA). Isolates were clustered and identified using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR). Three representative isolates (SJV 03, SJV 05 and SJV 19) were amplified with PCR using primers for 16S rRNA, and sequence for further identification. The clinical signs of shrimps affected by vibrio were pale hepatopancreas, weak of telson, dark and reddish coloration of smouth, patches of red colour in part of the body on the carapace, periopods, pleuopods, and telson. A total of 19 isolates were obtained and belong to three groups of genus Vibrios. Result of the 16S DNA sequence analysis, the vibrio found in this study related to vibriosis in white shrimps from extensive shrimp ponds of Kendal were closely related to Vibrio harveyi (SJV 03); V. parahaemolyticus (SJV 05) and V. alginolyticus (SJV 19).

  5. Nutritional aspects of irradiated shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuzzaman, K.

    1989-11-01

    Data available in the literature on the nutritional aspects of irradiated shrimp are reviewed and the indication is that irradiation of shrimp at doses up to about 3.2 kGy does not significantly affect the levels of its protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash. There are no reports on the effect of irradiation of shrimp above 3.2 kGy on these components. Limited information available indicates that there are some minor changes in the fatty acid composition of shrimp as a result of irradiation. Irradiation also causes some changes in the amino acid composition of shrimp; similar changes occur due to canning and hot-air drying. Some of the vitamins in shrimp, such as thiamine, are lost as a result of irradiation but the loss is less extensive than in thermally processed shrimp. Protein quality of shrimp, based on the growth of rats as well as that of Tetrahymena pyriformis, is not affected by irradiation. No adverse effects attributed to irradiation were found either in short-term or long-term animal feeding tests

  6. Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Low Bone Mass Among Puerto Rican Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Sabrina E; Mangano, Kelsey M; Griffith, John L; Wright, Nicole C; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Tucker, Katherine L

    2018-01-01

    Historically, osteoporosis has not been considered a public health priority for the Hispanic population. However, recent data indicate that Mexican Americans are at increased risk for this chronic condition. Although it is well established that there is heterogeneity in social, lifestyle, and health-related factors among Hispanic subgroups, there are currently few studies on bone health among Hispanic subgroups other than Mexican Americans. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass (LBM) among 953 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47 to 79 years and living on the US mainland, using data from one of the largest cohorts on bone health in this population: The Boston Puerto Rican Osteoporosis Study (BPROS). Participants completed an interview to assess demographic and lifestyle characteristics and bone mineral density measures. To facilitate comparisons with national data, we calculated age-adjusted estimates for osteoporosis and LBM for Mexican American, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black adults, aged ≥50 years, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The overall prevalence of osteoporosis and LBM were 10.5% and 43.3% for participants in the BPROS, respectively. For men, the highest prevalence of osteoporosis was among those aged 50 to 59 years (11%) and lowest for men ≥70 years (3.7%). The age-adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis for Puerto Rican men was 8.6%, compared with 2.3% for non-Hispanic white, and 3.9% for Mexican American men. There were no statistically significant differences between age-adjusted estimates for Puerto Rican women (10.7%), non-Hispanic white women (10.1%), or Mexican American women (16%). There is a need to understand specific factors contributing to osteoporosis in Puerto Rican adults, particularly younger men. This will provide important information to guide the development of culturally and linguistically tailored interventions to improve bone health in this

  7. Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oquendo-Rodriguez, Aida L.

    Professions and careers related to science and mathematics lack representation of minorities. Within these underrepresented minority populations there is no other group more affected than Latina women and girls. Women in general, are still underrepresented in many areas of our society. While women's roles are changing in today's society, most changes encourage the participation of more White/Anglo women in traditionally male roles. Latina women are still more disadvantaged than White women. There is no doubt that education is significant in increasing the participation of minorities in the fields of science and mathematics, especially for minority girls (Oakes, 1990; Rodriguez, 1993). This study explored the interests, life experiences, characteristics and motivations of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses. The study identifies factors that can influence the interest of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin in science and mathematics career choices. This research is significant and relevant to educators and policy makers, especially to science and mathematics educators. The research is primarily descriptive and exploratory. It explores the social characteristics of Latina girls and professional women who have been successful in science and mathematics high school courses. The research offers the reader a visit to the participants' homes with descriptions and the opportunity to explore the thoughts and life experiences of Latina girls, their mothers and young Latina professionals of Puerto Rican origin. This research reveals the common characteristics of successful students found in the Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who where interviewed. Creating a portrait of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses in one of the school districts of western Massachusetts. The research findings reveal that teacher relationships, family expectations

  8. Haemocytic defence in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, van de K.

    2002-01-01

    Tropical shrimp culture is one of the fastest growing aquaculture sectors in the world. Since this production sector is highly affected by infectious pathogens, disease control is nowadays a priority. Effective prevention methods can be developed more efficiently when quantitative assays

  9. ANALYSIS OF IMMUNE RESPONSES ON TRANSGENIC TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon AGAINST PATHOGENIC BACTERIUM Vibrio harveyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Parenrengi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vibriosis is one of main diseases of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon infected by pathogenic bioluminous bacterium Vibrio harveyi that can cause mass mortalities in shrimp culture. The bacteria can also trigger the disease white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. An effort to produce shrimp disease-resistant strains has been done through transgenesis technology with antiviral gene transfection. By this technology, it is expected an increase in the immune response of shrimp in a variety of diseasecausing pathogens. This study aimed to determine the immune responses (total haemocytes, haemocyte differentiation, and phenoloxydase activity of transgenic tiger shrimp against pathogenic bacterium V. harveyi. Research using completely randomized design, which consists of two treatments and three replications. Test animals being used were transgenic and non-transgenic shrimp with size, weight 3.93±1.25 g and a total length of 7.59±0.87 cm. Treatments being tested were the injection of bacterium V. harveyi (density of 5x106 cfu/mL of 0.1 mL/individual on transgenic (A and non-transgenic shrimp (B. Immune response parameters such as total haemocytes, haemocyte differentiation, and phenoloxydase activity were observed on day 1, 3, and 6 days after challenging. Data were analyzed using t-test by SPSS software. The results showed that the total haemocyte of transgenic shrimp was not significantly different (P>0.05 from non-transgenic shrimp, but haemocyte differentiation and phenoloxydase activity were significantly different (P<0.05 especially on sixth days after being exposed to the bioluminescent bacteria. The study results implied that transgenic shrimp has a better immune response compared than non-transgenic shrimp.

  10. CLUSTER MODEL FOR EXTENSIVE GIANT TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon Fab. TO PREVENT TRANSMISSION OF WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Taslihan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV has become epidemic in Indonesia and affecting shrimp aquaculture interm of its production. White spot syndrome virus is transmitted from one to other ponds, through crustacean, included planktonic copepode as carrier for WSSV and through water from affected shrimp pond. A cluster model, consist of shrimp grow out ponds surrounded by non-shrimp pond as a role of biosecurity has been developed. The model aimed to prevent white spot virus transmission in extensive giant tiger shrimp pond. The study was conducted in two sites at Demak District, Central Java Province. As the treatment, a cluster consist of three shrimp ponds in site I, and two shrimp ponds in site II, each was surrounded by buffer ponds rearing only finfish. As the control, five extensive shrimp grow out ponds in site I and three shrimp grow out ponds in site II, with shrimp pond has neither applied biosecurity nor surrounded by non-shrimp pond as biosecurity as well considered as control ponds. The results found that treatment of cluster shrimp ponds surrounded by non-shrimp ponds could hold shrimp at duration of culture in the grow out pond (DOC 105.6±4.5 days significantly much longer than that of control that harvested at 60.9±16.0 days due to WSSV outbreak. Survival rate in trial ponds was 77.6±3.6%, significantly higher than that of control at 22.6±15.8%. Shrimp production in treatment ponds has total production of 425.1±146.6 kg/ha significantly higher than that of control that could only produced 54.5±47.6 kg/ha. Implementation of Better Management Practices (BMP by arranging shrimp ponds in cluster and surrounding by non-shrimp ponds proven effectively prevent WSSV transmission from traditional shrimp ponds in surrounding area.

  11. On the role of the polychaete Dendronereis spp. i the transmission of white spot syndrome virus in shrimp ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrina, Haryadi

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is by far the most devastating shrimp virus. Control measures have lowered the WSSV incidence to various degrees, but the pathogen remains plaguing shrimp culture worldwide. Continuous exposure may cause WSSV to adapt and infect non-crustacean benthic fauna in

  12. Physical Activity in Puerto Rican Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado-Gómez, Maribel; Hughes, Daniel C; González-Mercado, Velda; Treviño-Whitaker, Rose A; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer survivors do not engage in appropriate levels of physical activity, despite the known benefits of such activity. This study aims to describe physical-activity levels and the barriers to it in a group of Puerto Rican breast cancer survivors, as well as detailing their preferences for an intervention. Participants who finished their chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for breast cancer at least 4 months prior to the study were included. Demographic, anthropometric, and clinical data were obtained. The Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) and questionnaires on exercise self-efficacy, barriers to self-efficacy, modeling, and social support were filled out by study participants. Data on access to exercise equipment and preferences regarding a physical-activity intervention were collected. Descriptive statistics and correlation analyses were performed. Fifty breast cancer survivors were recruited. Almost all the participants reported that they did not engage in any kind of strenuous physical activity (94%), with more than three fourths (76%) reporting that they did not even participate in any kind of moderate physical activity. The GLTEQ score was associated with barriers to selfefficacy, while the association with exercise self-efficacy approached significance (p = 0.055). Nearly half of the patients (44%) had access to exercise equipment. Preferred methods for the delivery of physical-activity interventions were participating in group settings (72%) and receiving material in the postal mail (44%). The study described herein reports on the low levels of physical activity being practiced by a group of Puerto Rican breast cancer survivors, despite the fact that many of them had access to exercise equipment and facilities. Further studies aimed at understanding breast cancer survivors' barriers to physical activity and at developing culturally competent interventions to increase the levels of such activity are warranted.

  13. Folk Hero Modeling Therapy for Puerto Rican Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Guiseppe; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes development of a new modality for Puerto Rican adolescents which presents Puerto Rican folk heros and heroines in modeling therapy targeted towards enhancing adolescents' pride in their ethnic heritage. Evaluation of therapy using 21 adolescents indicated subjects increased in self-disclosure and self-confidence, gained pride, learned…

  14. SURVEY OF VIRAL DISEASES OF PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP, Litopenaeus vannamei IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taukhid Taukhid

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Penaeid shrimp culture is a major contributor to foreign exchange earning in Indonesia. It has significant impact on economic development of fisheries sector, and leads to be one of prime mover to improve social prosperity. However, shrimp industry particularly black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon has been facing unpredictable situation due to disease problem. The main constrain in correlation to the development of shrimp industry is disease outbreak, especially caused by viral agents. White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV occurred in 1994, causing mass mortality of black tiger shrimp almost in all of the middle and western part of Indonesia. Due to the disease problem, it is estimated that in year 2000, more than 50% of shrimp pond were idle. Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei or “udang vanamei” was introduced to Indonesia at the end of 1999, and released officially in July, 2001. Response of shrimp farmers to the shrimp rapidly accepted and distributed to many provinces in the country. At the end of 2006, distribution of white shrimp culture was encountered in more than 15 provinces. The seeds are mainly produced from hatcheries located in East Java and Lampung. The information of TSV in Indonesia was reported firstly from East Java at the end of 2002, without a clear history. Since then, survey of TSV distribution was conducted intensively in white shrimp production areas. Beside TSV, population of white shrimp coming to Indonesia also susceptible to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV infection. A survey with the aim to know significant viral diseases of white shrimp is needed to set up an alternative strategy to control them. The survey was conducted, firstly in the main production centers of white shrimp; and planned to be continued throughout the country. Samples collection, diagnostic method and data compiled in this study were collected from both

  15. Parenting practices among Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Dittus, Patricia; Jaccard, James; Johansson, Margaret; Bouris, Alida; Acosta, Neifi

    2007-01-01

    This study presents descriptive qualitative data about Latino parenting practices in an urban context. Focus groups were conducted with Dominican and Puerto Rican mother-adolescent pairs in the Bronx borough of NewYork City. When parenting style typologies are integrated with the Latino cultural components familismo, respeto, personalismo, and simpatía, Latino parenting practices and their underlying styles are better understood. Content analysis of parents' focus groups revealed five essential Latino parenting practices: (1) ensuring close monitoring of adolescents; (2) maintaining warm and supportive relationships characterized by high levels of parent-adolescent interaction and sharing; (3) explaining parental decisions and actions; (4) making an effort to build and improve relationships; and (5) differential parenting practices based on adolescents' gender. Mothers reported concerns related to the risks associated with living in an urban area, exposure to different cultural values, and opportunities for engaging in risky behaviors. Adolescents' recommendations for effective parenting strategies were similar to the practices reported by their mothers. The study has important applied implications for culturally competent social work practice with Latino adolescents and their families.

  16. Strategy of Quality Improvement of Pond Shrimp Post Harvest Management (Penaeus monodon Fabricius in Mahakam Delta (Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Noor Asikin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mahakam Delta area, which is situated in Kutai Kartanegara Regency, has become a pond center that gives a significant contribution to shrimp export of East Kalimantan Province. Pond-produced shrimps, however, do not always accord to the intention of cold storage companies at expected price. The companies even sometimes reject the request due to poor quality of the product. The decreasing shrimp quality may be due to maintenance process by the pond farmers as well as the improper collectors. In the other hand, importing countries have decided more and more restricted requirements for the imported fishing products. This study was held in Muara Jawa, Anggana, and Muara Badak Districts using techniques of data collection of in-depth interview with twelve respondents. In order to improve shrimp quality, farmers or the producers have to formulate a strategy towards the improvement of the post harvest shrimps from the pond using an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Results of the AHP consist of as follows: (1 application of pond shrimp post harvest technology and improvement of facilities and accommodation that support the quality improvement of the pond shrimps, (2 human resource quality improvement of pond farmers, collectors, and field instructors, (3 development of pond culture by applying best practices principle and local policies in order to improve the quality of the pond shrimps, and (4 improvement of interagency coordination, monitoring, and evaluation to enhance the pond shrimp quality

  17. Effect of Probiotics on the Hatchery Seed Production of Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon (Fabricius)

    OpenAIRE

    P. Soundarapandian; R. Babu

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the diseases of shrimps hindered the development of shrimp culture. Hence, the use of probiotic bacteria in aquaculture has tremendous scope and the study of the application of probiotics in aquaculture has a glorious future. In the present study, the probiotics was applied (experimental) for the larval rearing of P. monodon which is compared with control tanks (without probiotics). The temperature and alkalinity of both control and experimental tanks were more of less same. ...

  18. Influential Factors of Puerto Rican Mother–Child Communication About Sexual Health Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberry, Phillip; Person, Sharina; Allison, Jeroan; Rosal, Milagros; Rustan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latina mothers play a central role in raising and socializing their children; however, few studies have examined the cultural, socio-cognitive and neighborhood-related variables influencing the level of communication between Puerto Rican mothers and their children about sexuality and sexual health. This cross-sectional study sought to examine these influences. Methods Puerto Rican mothers with children aged 10–19 years (n = 193) were selected randomly for an ethnographic interview as part of a community participatory action research project in a U.S. urban northeastern community. Results Bivariate analyses found statistically significant associations between the child’s age (p = 0.002), the mother’s past communication about traditional gender role norms of women (marianismo) (p communications with her child (p communicate sexual health information as well as the need to improve mothers’ confidence discussing sexual health issues with their children. Future public health interventions to promote communication about sexuality and sexual health among Puerto Rican mothers should consider addressing this issue as a part of comprehensive neighborhood improvement projects. PMID:27461018

  19. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Héctor Barraza-Guardado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30–35 ind m−2 and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m3 kg−1 cycle−1, when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha−1 shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming.

  20. Influential Factors of Puerto Rican Mother-Child Communication About Sexual Health Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Maria Idalí; Granberry, Phillip; Person, Sharina; Allison, Jeroan; Rosal, Milagros; Rustan, Sarah

    2016-11-01

    Introduction Latina mothers play a central role in raising and socializing their children; however, few studies have examined the cultural, socio-cognitive and neighborhood-related variables influencing the level of communication between Puerto Rican mothers and their children about sexuality and sexual health. This cross-sectional study sought to examine these influences. Methods Puerto Rican mothers with children aged 10-19 years (n = 193) were selected randomly for an ethnographic interview as part of a community participatory action research project in a U.S. urban northeastern community. Results Bivariate analyses found statistically significant associations between the child's age (p = 0.002), the mother's past communication about traditional gender role norms of women (marianismo) (p < 0.001), her positive outcome expectations for communications with her child (p < 0.025), and her perceptions of the physical condition (p < 0.001) and sexual health problems (p = 0.047) in the neighborhood. In a multivariate model, all of these variables remained significant except sexual health problems, and mother's attitudes toward the obligations of children to parents (familismo) emerged as a factor associated with a decrease in the number of sexual health topics that mothers raised with their children. No significant effects were found for mother's spiritual and religious experience (religiosidad). Discussion Our study highlights the importance of marianismo as a framework within which Puerto Rican mothers communicate sexual health information as well as the need to improve mothers' confidence discussing sexual health issues with their children. Future public health interventions to promote communication about sexuality and sexual health among Puerto Rican mothers should consider addressing this issue as a part of comprehensive neighborhood improvement projects.

  1. Role of women in Indian shrimp farming

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalakrishnan, A.

    1996-01-01

    Women in India are involved in various facets of shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Penaeus indicus) farming, including pond construction, seed collection, collection of feed materials and preparation of feeds, pond maintenance and post-harvest handling. This study indicates that 40% of laborers involved in shrimp farm construction are women. The various roles of women in shrimp farming are also described.

  2. Determination of Profiles of Salmonella and Pathogenic Vibrio SPP. in Black Tiger Shrimp for Export by Introduction of Quality Assured Microbiological Assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongchinda, N.; Sirimanuyutt, S.; Piromrak, R.; Rachniyom, S. [Fishery Technological Development Institute, Department of Fisheries, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2005-01-15

    Studies were conducted on contamination by Salmonella and pathogenic Vibrio spp. in samples of aquaculture black tiger shrimp, the water supply (canal water which is supplied as raw pond water before treatment), pond water, feed materials, and fresh and frozen shrimp. Salmonella was detected in samples of the water supply, pond water, feed materials, fresh shrimp at farm, fresh shrimp from wholesale market and frozen shrimp destined for export at levels of 13.95%, 1.53%, 1.14%, 3.17%, 30.4% and 0.21% respectively. V. cholerae non 01 was found in one sample of water from a culture pond of 131 tested (0.8%). V. parahaemolyticus was found in samples of canal water, pond water, fresh black tiger shrimp collected at farms, fresh black tiger shrimp collected at wholesale shrimp markets and frozen black tiger shrimp destined for export at levels of 2.3%, 5.3%, 14.3%, 48 % and 0.2% respectively. The strains identified as V. parahaemolyticus were examined for the presence or absence of the TDH and TRH. The incidence of TDH (KP+) was 2.67% (seven of 262 strains) and of TRH (urease reaction) was 1.15% (three of 262 strains). Salmonella and V. parahaemolyticus were found in a high percentage in fresh black tiger shrimp collected from wholesale shrimp markets. These shrimp are used as raw material for domestic consumption and for processing for exported shrimp products. Therefore GMP and/or Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system for shrimp distributors/producers should be applied. (author)

  3. Social Relation between Businessman and Community in Management of Intensive Shrimp Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumay Febryano, Indra; Sinurat, James; Lovinia Salampessy, Messalina

    2017-02-01

    Expansion of aquaculture, especially shrimp culture, is the primary cause of deforestation of mangrove along coastal zone. This phenomenon is pretty much related to social relation between businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community around coastal zone. The objective of this research is to explain social relation between businessman and community in managing intensive shrimp pond. This research is a kind of qualitative research and the method used is a case study. The result of this research shows that the behaviour of the majority of businessman of intensive shrimp pond is not accordingly with environmental concerns as they compelled conversion of mangrove and they disposed waste of shrimp pond into the sea. Such kind of behaviour caused degradation of water ecosystem and marginalizing local community. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) which was implemented by businessman of intensive shrimp pond in the area of social, religion, and education can downgrade the coming up of social turbulence. Otherwise, CSR in enabling economic community and environmental management was not conducted yet. CSR in environmental management can be conducted by businessman of intensive shrimp pond by considering the existence of mangrove and pond management and waste in a better way, so that environment around ponds is not polluted and the sustainability of shrimp pond business as well as income of community can be guaranteed. Accordingly with the result of this research, CSR is not only involving businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community, but also involving local government in terms of right and responsibility of citizen as well as management and development of community.

  4. Pathogenic Assay of Probiotic Bacteria Producing Proteolytic Enzymes as Bioremediation Bacteria Against Vannamei Shrimp Larvae (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilis Ari Setyati; Muhammad Zainuddin; Person Pesona Renta

    2017-01-01

    Application of bacteria in bioremediation of shrimp culture ponds is one of the methods used to clean internal pollutants. This study aimed to evaluate the pathogenicity of extracellular proteolytic enzyme produced by the probiotic bacteria as bioremediation bacteria on vannamei shrimp larvae culture. There were five probiotic bacteria, which were successfully isolated from the sediments served as substrate in mangrove area. The isolated bacteria were coded in number as 13, 19, 30, 33, and 36...

  5. An improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Han, Jinyuan; Gu, Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    This article described an improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method. A simply designed connecting vessel with alternative photoperiod was used to culture and collect high yield of active Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii for brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test. Using this method, pure A. parthenogenetica nauplii suspension was easily cultured and harvested with high density about 100-150 larvae per milliliter and the natural mortality was reduced to near zero by elimination of unnecessary artificial disturbance. And its sensitivity was validated by determination of LC(50)-24 h of different reference toxicants including five antitumor agents, two pesticides, three organic pollutants, and four heavy metals salts, most of which exhibited LC(50)-24 h between 0.07 and 58.43 mg/L except for bleomycin and mitomycin C with LC(50)-24 h over 300 mg/L.

  6. Perspectives of Puerto Rican Adults about Heart Health and a Potential Community Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Irina L G; Tejada, Shirley; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    Puerto Ricans are the second largest Hispanic group in the U.S. and older adults have significant health disparities. Educational programs that address heart disease risk for this population have rarely been developed and implemented. To address this gap, the Heart Healthy Initiative for Puerto Rican adults is being developed. To develop it as a participatory program, the community members were asked about their perspectives. Five focus groups with 28 participants, aged 45-60, were conducted, transcribed and analyzed using Thematic Analysis. In-depth analysis of meanings of health promoting behaviors, in the context of cultural beliefs and values was carried out. The following themes were identified: Health as balance and integration; Health as connection of self, connection with others; Cultural meanings of lifestyle choices; Stresses and struggles. Participants suggested that the program should have significant variety and a holistic perspective, be sensitive to different needs and motivations, stimulate mutual understanding and shared cultural meanings. The program needs to support lifestyle changes which maximally preserve traditions and to introduce multi-level changes. The identified cultural meanings of diet, physical activity and relationships were taken into account to develop the educational curriculum.

  7. Geography of Service Delivery: On the Role of Mental Health Service Structure in Community Senior Services for Puerto Rican Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez Ortiz, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the role of mental health services structure in community senior centers and how it interacts with Puerto Rican older adults' historical, social, and cultural experiences to relate to their perceptions, awareness, and utilization of mental health services. The study was carried out within a concurrent…

  8. QTL for white spot syndrome virus resistance and the sex-determining locus in the Indian black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nicholas A; Gopikrishna, Gopalapillay; Baranski, Matthew; Katneni, Vinaya Kumar; Shekhar, Mudagandur S; Shanmugakarthik, Jayakani; Jothivel, Sarangapani; Gopal, Chavali; Ravichandran, Pitchaiyappan; Gitterle, Thomas; Ponniah, Alphis G

    2014-08-28

    Shrimp culture is a fast growing aquaculture sector, but in recent years there has been a shift away from tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon to other species. This is largely due to the susceptibility of P. monodon to white spot syndrome virus disease (Whispovirus sp.) which has impacted production around the world. As female penaeid shrimp grow more rapidly than males, mono-sex production would be advantageous, however little is known about genes controlling or markers associated with sex determination in shrimp. In this study, a mapped set of 3959 transcribed single nucleotide polymorphisms were used to scan the P. monodon genome for loci associated with resistance to white-spot syndrome virus and sex in seven full-sibling tiger shrimp families challenged with white spot syndrome virus. Linkage groups 2, 3, 5, 6, 17, 18, 19, 22, 27 and 43 were found to contain quantitative trait loci significantly associated with hours of survival after white spot syndrome virus infection (P shrimp.

  9. Use of seaweed Ulva lactuca for water bioremediation and as feed additive for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Elizondo-González

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experimental feeding trials were conducted during four weeks to evaluate the use of Ulva lactuca in shrimp culture: (1 for wastewater bioremediation, and (2 using different inclusion levels of U. lactuca meal in shrimp feed. In feeding trial 1, shrimp reared under seaweed U. lactuca water exchange in a re-circulation system (SWE resulted in similar growth and feed utilization as shrimp reared with clean water exchange (CWE. Shrimp under no water exchange (NWE resulted in significant lower growth and higher feed conversion rate (FCR compared to the other treatments (p  0.05. In feeding trial 2, U. lactuca biomass produced by wastewater bioremediation in SWE treatment were dried and ground to formulate diets containing 0, 1, 2, and 3% U. lactuca meal (0UL, 1UL, 2UL, and 3UL. Shrimp fed the 3 UL diet resulted in a significant (p < 0.05 improvement of growth and FCR, and enhanced whole shrimp lipid and carotenoid content by 30 and 60%, respectively, compared to control diet. Seaweed U. lactuca is suggested as a desirable species for wastewater bioremediation in integrated aquaculture systems, and its meal as a good feed additive for farmed shrimp.

  10. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ON SURVIVAL RATE, GROWTH, AND PRODUCTION OF WHITELEG SHRIMP IN TRADITIONAL-PLUS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharijadi Atmomarsono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Instead of culturing tiger shrimp that is frequently burdened by mass mortality, whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei is then considered as an alternative commodity in Indonesian brackishwater ponds. To prevent the whiteleg shrimp from diseases, different probiotic bacteria were tested in completely randomized design experiment using nine 250 m2 experimental ponds stocked with 10 PLs of whiteleg shrimp fry/m2. Three treatments were applied, namely A alternate use of probiotic bacteria RICA-1, RICA-2, RICA-3; B alternate use of probiotic bacteria RICA-4, RICA-5, RICA-3, and C control (without probiotic bacteria; each with three replications. After 11-week application, the results showed that the best survival rate of whiteleg shrimp was achieved by treatment B 98.83% and the best production was achieved by treatment A (23.52 kg/250 m2. However, there were no significant differences (P>0.05 among the three treatments tested for the shrimp survival rate. The whiteleg shrimp production in treatment A and B were signicantly better (P<0.05 than that in treatment C (control. These high shrimp production in treatment A and B were mainly caused by the capability of the applied probiotics in controlling some water quality variables and Vibrio numbers.

  11. Extract from the fermented soybean product Natto inhibits Vibrio biofilm formation and reduces shrimp mortality from Vibrio harveyi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatip, Pattanan; Nitin Chandra Teja, D; Flegel, Timothy W; Soowannayan, Chumporn

    2018-01-01

    Many bacteria, including Vibrio pathogens of shrimp, need to colonize and/or form biofilms in hosts or the environment to cause disease. Thus, one possible control strategy for shrimp Vibriosis is biofilm inhibition. With this objective, an extract from the Japanese fermented soybean product, Natto was tested with the luminescent shrimp pathogen Vibrio harveyi (VH) for its ability to inhibit or degrade biofilm and to interfere with cell growth in broth. Natto is a traditional fermentation product of Bacillus subtilis var Natto (BSN1). Using 96 well microtiter plates coated with 0.4% chitosan, we found that biofilm formation by VH was inhibited, while growth in parallel broth cultures was not. When an extract from Natto prepared using BSN1 was mixed with feed for the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei before immersion challenge with V. harveyi at 10 6  cfu/ml, survival was significantly higher (p≤0.05) than for control shrimp given feed without these additives. Further work done to test whether d-amino acids were involved in biofilm formation as previously reported for B. subtilis, Staphylococus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa gave negative results. In conclusion, we discovered that Natto extract can inhibit Vibrio biofilm formation and that it or BSN1 alone added to shrimp feed can significantly reduce shrimp mortality in immersion challenges with pathogenic VH. This shows some promise for possible application against Vibriosis in shrimp since Natto is generally regarded as safe (GRAS) for human consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of seaweed Ulva lactuca for water bioremediation and as feed additive for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-González, Regina; Quiroz-Guzmán, Eduardo; Escobedo-Fregoso, Cristina; Magallón-Servín, Paola; Peña-Rodríguez, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    Two experimental feeding trials were conducted during four weeks to evaluate the use of Ulva lactuca in shrimp culture: (1) for wastewater bioremediation, and (2) using different inclusion levels of U. lactuca meal in shrimp feed. In feeding trial 1, shrimp reared under seaweed U. lactuca water exchange in a re-circulation system (SWE) resulted in similar growth and feed utilization as shrimp reared with clean water exchange (CWE). Shrimp under no water exchange (NWE) resulted in significant lower growth and higher feed conversion rate (FCR) compared to the other treatments ( p   0.05). In feeding trial 2, U. lactuca biomass produced by wastewater bioremediation in SWE treatment were dried and ground to formulate diets containing 0, 1, 2, and 3% U. lactuca meal (0UL, 1UL, 2UL, and 3UL). Shrimp fed the 3 UL diet resulted in a significant ( p  shrimp lipid and carotenoid content by 30 and 60%, respectively, compared to control diet. Seaweed U. lactuca is suggested as a desirable species for wastewater bioremediation in integrated aquaculture systems, and its meal as a good feed additive for farmed shrimp.

  13. Culture of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 with zero water exchange and no food addition: an eco-friendly approach Cultivo de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 sin recambio de agua y sin adición de alimento formulado: un sistema amigable con el ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Audelo-Naranjo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Juveniles (3.5 ± 0.3 g of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were grown during 40 days with no water exchanges, no food addition and four initial densities (25, 50, 75 and 100 g m-3, corresponding to between 8 and 32 shrimp m-2, to determine growth rates, which could be achieved using the periphyton growing on artificial substrates as the only food source. The experimental culture units were 12 polyethylene 1 m³ cylindrical tanks with 4.8 m² of total submerged surface (bottom and walls, provided with 7.2 m² of artificial substrate (Aquamats™. There were no significant differences in the ammonia and nitrite concentrations determined in the four treatments (0.17-0.19 and 0.10-0.11 mg L-1, respectively, which remained below the respective levels of concern for shrimp cultures. Mean survival was similar, and ranged from close to 91 to 97%, whereas there were significant differences in mean individual weight, which ranged from 11.9-10.6 g shrimp-1 for the two low initial densities (25 y 50 g m-3, to 8.3-7.7 g shrimp-1 for the other treatments. However, because of the high survival and of the higher initial density, the best biomass yield was with 100 g m-3. The final nitrogen contents of sediment and water were lower than the initial values, and between 36 and 60% of the difference was converted into shrimp biomass.Durante 40 días se cultivaron juveniles de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei con un peso individual de 3,5 ± 0,3 g y biomasas iniciales de 25, 50, 75 y 100 g m-3 (equivalente a 8-32 ind m-2, sin cambios de agua y adición de alimento, para determinar la tasa de crecimiento usando como única fuente de alimentación el perifiton desarrollado en sustratos artificiales. Se utilizaron estanques cilíndricos de polietileno de 1 m³ con tres réplicas por tratamiento, con una superficie de 4,8 m² (paredes y fondo y 7,1 m² de sustrato artificial (Aquamats™. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las concentraciones

  14. Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierberg, Forrest E.; Kiattisimkul, Woraphan

    1996-09-01

    . Government policy needs to devote as much attention to sustainability issues as it has on promoting intensive pond culture. Such a balanced policy would include training and education monitoring and enforcement, rehabilitating abandoned ponds, managing land use within the coastal zone, more community involvement, and government reorganization to eliminate overlapping jurisdictions among agencies. As integrated aquaculture management becomes more the practice than the exception, less risk of crop failure to the industry and reduced discharge loadings from intensively managed shrimp ponds to receiving waters can be expected. Projected limitations on growing and marketing shrimp in the future, such as scarcity of land and broodstock, continued disease outbreaks, negative publicity, regulatory enforcement, water treatment and solids disposal costs, and increased competition from growers in other Asian countries will also drive the government and the industry towards adopting integrated aquaculture management.

  15. Efeito da adição do melaço na relação carbono/nitrogênio no cultivo de camarão Litopenaeus vannamei na fase berçário = Effect of molasses addition on carbon/nitrogen ratio in the nursery phase of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Lima Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se o efeito da adição do melaço nas relações carbono:nitrogênio (C:N sobre o desempenho zootécnico do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase berçário, quando cultivado sem renovação de água. As relações do C:N foram avaliadas nas proporções de 25:1 (25M, 15:1 (15M e o controle (0M, sem aplicação de carbono, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Pós-larvas (PL com peso inicial de 2,5 ± 0,5 mg, foram estocadas em 12 tanques (800 L volume útil, em densidades de 6,25 PL L-1, durante 42 dias de cultivo. Ao final do cultivo, os pesos finais dos camarões dos tratamentos 25M (532,0 mg e 15M (540,0 mg foram superiores (p The effect of molasses addiction on carbon:nitrogen ratios (C:N on the performance of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp during the nursery phase cultured without water exchange was investigated. The C:N ratios were evaluated in 25:1 (25M and 15:1 (15M proportion and a control (0M, with no carbon source addition, in a randomized experimental design with four replicates. Post-larvae (PL with initial weight of 2.5 ± 0.5 mg were stocked in 12 tanks (800 L net volume, at the density of 6.25 PL L-1 during 42 culture days. At the end of culture, the shrimps weights on 25M (532.0 mg and 15M (540.0 mg treatments were higher (p < 0.05 than the 0M (428.6 mg treatment. Shrimp survival was high in all treatments (77.9 to 90.0%, but without significant difference (p ≥ 0.05. Therefore, the 15 and 25:1 C:N ratios showed an increased growth performance of nursery phase L. vannamei post-larvae cultured without water exchange.

  16. Utilization of Black Tiger Shrimp Flesh Waste for Pop Shrimp Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Eko Irianto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the utilization of black  tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon flesh waste in the processing of pop shrimp has been carried out.  So far, shrimp flesh waste is used for the production of shrimp paste, and shrimp cracker.   The objective of this study was to develop a fomula for pop shrimp production using shrimp flesh waste. Experimental design applied in this study was three-variables mixture design, in which variables observed were shrimp flesh waste, surimi and tapioca flour. Pop shrimp obtained was evaluated for sensory properties. The best product processed using a selected formula was analysed chemically and microbiologically, particularly for proxymate composition and total plate count respectively. Selected formula of pop shrimp consisted of 50.91% shrimp flesh waste, 18.18% surimi, 3.64% tapioca flour, 10.91% onion, 2.18% garlic, 0.73% pepper powder, 1.45% sugar, 0.36% monosodium glutamate, 0.73% ginger, 1.45% salt, 4.44% butter mix, 1.38% corn flour (maizena and 3.64% bread crumb. Proxymate composition of the best pop shrimp was 70.52% moisture, 0.73% ash, 0.39% fat, and 7.44% protein, while microbiological load in terms of total plate count was 3.3x103 colonies/g.

  17. Development of shrimp in small ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Adolfo Ortega Salas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in small ponds ( 6 m3 in fresh water (2-3‰ and seawater; ponds 3.66 x 1.65 x 1.0 m; availability of fresh water, sea water, aeration and drainage. Two cycles of three months each were made. The postlarvae were acclimated to seawater fresh water in four days. Four hundred postlarvas/m3 were seeded in freshwater pond and 500 in the pool of seawater. First, a culture of Daphnia magna in the freshwater pond, also appeared chyronomid larvae; Artemia cysts were seeded in sea water as a dietary supplement. The shrimp were fed Camaronina (25% protein at libitum, daily; is offered on a tray of food; the temperature ranged between 27 and 30° C, oxygen 4.26 ± 1.43 mg / L , pH between 7 and 8 . Detritus siphoned every third day. Water changes between 10 and 20% are often performed. The feed conversion rate (FCR was 1:1.3 . The shrimp were measured in length and weight to calculate weekly growth by Bertalanffy model. Survival in the first cycle was 95.8 , and 97.9% for the second cycle. In seawater parameters of the population of the first cycle were k = 0.0301, L ∞ = 322.16 and t0 = -0.8852, the second cycle of k = 0.0203, L ∞ = 294.42 and t0 = -5.3771. The biomass of 27 kg was obtained for the first cycle and 16 kg for the second cycle. Freshwater population parameters of the first cycle were k = 0.0957, L ∞ = 146.98 and t0 = - 0.93; in the second cycle of k = 0.0172 , L ∞ = 367.82 and t0 = - 4.60. The biomass of 26 kg was obtained for the first cycle and 16 kg for the second cycle. The results indicate a rapid growth during the first 10 weeks. In small ponds can be handled well aseptic conditions without disease problems, good crop was obtained.

  18. Microbial Diseases in Shrimp Aquaculture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani; Umesha, R.K.

    for detection of rhabdovirus of penaeid shrimp in the tissue of infected animals (Nadala et al. 1992). Management of viral diseases Since there is no known treatment for viral diseases, the major strategy for disease management is avoidance. However, in practice... suspected that natural food and artificial feed quality, husbandry practices, water quality and presence of toxic substances from chemical prophylactics are responsible for SHG, but no specific cause has been perpointed so far (Lavilla-Pitogo et al., 2002...

  19. Tangential flow ultrafiltration for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp pond water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavandi, S V; Ananda Bharathi, R; Satheesh Kumar, S; Dineshkumar, N; Saravanakumar, C; Joseph Sahaya Rajan, J

    2015-06-15

    Water represents the most important component in the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission pathway in aquaculture, yet there is very little information. Detection of viruses in water is a challenge, since their counts will often be too low to be detected by available methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In order to overcome this difficulty, viruses in water have to be concentrated from large volumes of water prior to detection. In this study, a total of 19 water samples from aquaculture ecosystem comprising 3 creeks, 10 shrimp culture ponds, 3 shrimp broodstock tanks and 2 larval rearing tanks of shrimp hatcheries and a sample from a hatchery effluent treatment tank were subjected to concentration of viruses by ultrafiltration (UF) using tangential flow filtration (TFF). Twenty to 100l of water from these sources was concentrated to a final volume of 100mL (200-1000 fold). The efficiency of recovery of WSSV by TFF ranged from 7.5 to 89.61%. WSSV could be successfully detected by PCR in the viral concentrates obtained from water samples of three shrimp culture ponds, one each of the shrimp broodstock tank, larval rearing tank, and the shrimp hatchery effluent treatment tank with WSSV copy numbers ranging from 6 to 157mL(-1) by quantitative real time PCR. The ultrafiltration virus concentration technique enables efficient detection of shrimp viral pathogens in water from aquaculture facilities. It could be used as an important tool to understand the efficacy of biosecurity protocols adopted in the aquaculture facility and to carry out epidemiological investigations of aquatic viral pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. TENDENCIES AND PECULIARITIES OF SHRIMP FEED PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIUDMYLA V. FIHURSKA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is food sector, which is growing rapidly in the last 25 years with annual growth rate 8,2 . One of the mostperspective branches of aquaculture is shrimp farming. The cost of feeds is up to 80% of the cost of shrimp breeding, so providingthe industry with high-quality feeds is the important goal of the feed industry in all over the world. The theoretical research was devotedto the task of compound shrimp feed production. In order to satisfy shrimp requirements, shrimp feeding systems were shown.Existing shrimp breeding systems are shown as different from the type of reservoirs (static / running water, indoor or outdoor, feedingmethods, and the species of grown shrimp. Features of the nutritional standards for freshwater and saltwater shrimps were analyzed.Nutrient requirements of shrimp have been changed through shrimp life-cycle. The shrimp life-cycle was shown.World leaders-producers of compound mixed feeds for shrimps were shown. The analysis of pellet size and nutritional valueof compound mixed feeds of crude protein content in prestart, starter, grower and finish periods of cultivation and in accordancewith the system of cultivation and feeding shrimp (intensive, extensive, semi-intensive is carried out. The requirements for the contentof main minerals, vitamins and restrictions to the content of crude fiber are given. Traditional ingredients are described. Bindersand preservatives, which are used for shrimp feeds, are shown and subscribed. In raw material the main problem is the need to ensurehigh protein content in the shrimp feed recipes. Because of many factors, fish meal quantity should be reduced in recipes. Becauseof its attractive amino acid content, availability and relatively affordable price, soybean meal and soy concentrates have receivedincreasing attention as substitutes for marine animal meals.The features of technological lines and processes of production of mixed feeds for shrimp are shown.Еhe advantages and

  1. 南中国斑节对虾养殖中控制白斑综合症病的理论和策略%Theory and Strategies for Controlling White Spot Syndrome (WSS) of Cultured Penaeus monodon in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the causative agent of white spot syndrome (WSS) of cultured penaeid shrimps. WSS breaks out and prevails in cultured penaeid shrimps in many countries and regions of the world, especially in southeast Asia. WSSV is the virus most severe damaging to the cultured penaeid shrimps in the world. At the present time, the control of the outbreaks of WSSV will recover and develop the penaeid shrimp cultures in China and even in the world.

  2. Ataques de nervios and somatic complaints among island and mainland Puerto Rican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Irene; Ramirez, Rafael; Guarnaccia, Peter; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector

    2011-06-01

    Previous research has documented the association between the Latino cultural idiom of distress, ataques de nervios (i.e., "attacks of nerves"), and unexplained neurological symptoms among adults. However, the associations between ataques and somatic complaints in children have not been sufficiently explored. In this study, we assessed the relation between this anxiety-related experience, henceforth ataques, and somatic complaints in a probability sample of Puerto Rican youth, ages 5-13 years, living in San Juan, Puerto Rico (N = 1353) and in the South Bronx, New York (N = 1138). When both sites were combined, children with ataques were significantly more likely to have either a lifetime prevalence of asthma or headaches, and tended to have more stomach aches and a history of epilepsy or seizure than children without ataques. Further within site analyses showed a similar patterning of complaints for the South Bronx sample as for the combined sample. However, children in San Juan with ataques were only slightly more likely to experience headaches, and at risk for injury, than those without ataques. In addition, comparisons between ataque sufferers across sites indicated that children in San Juan with ataques were at elevated risk for serious illness or injury in comparison to those in the South Bronx with ataques. Ataques are significantly associated with a wide range of physical complaints in Puerto Rican youth. However, their pattern of associations differs by context. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Toward a Puerto Rican popular nosology: nervios and ataque de nervios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, Peter J; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Marano, Melissa Rivera

    2003-09-01

    This paper is about naming illnesses--about who determines what categories are used and the implications of these determinations. The central concerns of medical/psychiatric anthropology have been to understand popular categories of and systems for classification of illness, to examine the relationship of illness categories to cultural understandings of the body, and to interpret the role of categories of illness in mediating between the personal and social spheres. At the same time, the paper also discusses the interplay of popular categories and psychiatric diagnoses. This paper examines the multiple experiences of nervios among Puerto Ricans in Puerto Rico and New York City. Our contention is that nervios is more than a diffuse idiom of distress, and that there are different categories and experiences of nervios which provide insights into how distress is experienced and expressed by Puerto Ricans and point to different social sources of suffering. The data in this paper come from the responses to a series of open-ended questions which tapped into people's general conceptions of nervios and ataques de nervios. These questions were incorporated into follow-up interviews to an epidemiological study of the mental health of adults in Puerto Rico. The results suggest ways to incorporate these different categories of nervios into future research and clinical work with different Latino groups in the United States and in their home countries.

  4. Use practices of antimicrobials and other compounds by shrimp and fish farmers in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thi Kim Chi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture production is increasing in Vietnam, but is hampered by frequent disease outbreaks and widespread use of various compounds used to treat the fish and shrimp. The objective of this study was to analyse factors influencing farmer use practices of antimicrobials and other compounds by a questionnaire and observational survey conducted with 60 whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei and 25 fish farmers in three coastal provinces in Northern Vietnam. Personnel in 22 shops distributing feed and chemicals for aquaculture were interviewed about their advice on sale to the farmers. Results showed that 20 different antimicrobial products were used for disease prevention and treatment in shrimp and marine fish culture. Banned products used included chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin and malachite green. Cage fish farmers said they purchased antimicrobial tablets readily available at a local pharmacy and sold for human use. Chinese traders were the main drug suppliers to the shrimp farmers in Quang Ninh and others provinces. Their products were sold with labels and product information written in Chinese only. Farmers appeared to have little awareness and concern about the disease aetiology when applying specific antimicrobials. Up to 50% of the shrimp farmers used up to 20 different disinfectants, e.g. chlorine-based compounds, to disinfect water in storage ponds, often without knowledge of the type of disinfectants and their mode of action. A variety of probiotics, vitamins, minerals and herbal extracts were routinely used by mainly shrimp farmers to enhance shrimp immunity. There is an urgent need to provide aquaculture farmers access to diagnostic and independent disease control advisory services and quality medicated feed, since the current indiscriminate use of antimicrobials and other compounds are inefficient, costly, and hazardous to the aquatic animal and farmer’s health, the environment and food safety.

  5. Use practices of antimicrobials and other compounds by shrimp and fish farmers in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thi Kim Chi, Tran; Clausen, Jesper H.; Van, Phan Thi

    2017-01-01

    that 20 different antimicrobial products were used for disease prevention and treatment in shrimp and marine fish culture. Banned products used included chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin and malachite green. Cage fish farmers said they purchased antimicrobial tablets readily available at a local pharmacy...

  6. Virion composition and genomics of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M.C.W.

    2001-01-01


    Since its first discovery in Taiwan in 1992, White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused major economic damage to shrimp culture. The virus has spread rapidly through Asia and reached the Western Hemisphere in 1995 (Texas), where it continued its devastating effect

  7. A nonluminescent and highly virulent Vibrio harveyi strain is associated with "bacterial white tail disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Zhou

    Full Text Available Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by "white tail" and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905 was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN, white tail disease (WTD or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD. To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of "white tail" but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as "bacterial white tail disease (BWTD". Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system.

  8. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestha Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.

  9. Cationic antimicrobial peptides in penaeid shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Amparyup, Piti; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Supungul, Premruethai

    2011-08-01

    Penaeid shrimp aquaculture has been consistently affected worldwide by devastating diseases that cause a severe loss in production. To fight a variety of harmful microbes in the surrounding environment, particularly at high densities (of which intensive farming represents an extreme example), shrimps have evolved and use a diverse array of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as part of an important first-line response of the host defense system. Cationic AMPs in penaeid shrimps composed of penaeidins, crustins, and anti-lipopolysaccharide factors are comprised of multiple classes or isoforms and possess antibacterial and antifungal activities against different strains of bacteria and fungi. Shrimp AMPs are primarily expressed in circulating hemocytes, which is the main site of the immune response, and hemocytes expressing AMPs probably migrate to infection sites to fight against pathogen invasion. Indeed, most AMPs are produced as early as the nauplii developmental stage to protect shrimp larvae from infections. In this review, we discuss the sequence diversity, expression, gene structure, and antimicrobial activities of cationic AMPs in penaeid shrimps. The information available on antimicrobial activities indicates that these shrimp AMPs have potential therapeutic applications in the control of disease problems in aquaculture.

  10. A field survey of chemicals and biological products used in shrimp farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeslund, S.; Holmstroem, K.; Wahlstroem, A.

    2003-01-01

    This study documented the use of chemicals and biological products in marine and brackish water shrimp farming in Thailand, the world's top producer of farmed shrimp. Interviews were conducted with 76 shrimp farmers in three major shrimp producing regions, the eastern Gulf coast, the southern Gulf coast and the Andaman coast area. Farmers in the study used on average 13 different chemicals and biological products. The most commonly used products were soil and water treatment products, pesticides and disinfectants. Farmers in the southern Gulf coast area used a larger number of products than farmers in the other two areas. In the study, the use of more than 290 different chemicals and biological products was documented. Many of the pesticides, disinfectants and antibiotics used by the farmers could have negative effects on the cultured shrimps, cause a risk for food safety, occupational health, and/or have negative effects on adjacent ecosystems. Manufacturers and retailers of the products often neglected to provide farmers with necessary information regarding active ingredient and relevant instructions for safe and efficient use

  11. Production of ”Tokolan” White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in the Cage with Different Rearing Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Supriyono

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Larva rearing is one of the efforts to increase white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei seed quality.  This study was conducted to determine effect of  rearing density on the quality and productivity of white shrimp larvae in cage system. The tested rearing densities were 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 ind/m2 and cultured for 28 days.  The result showed that rearing density did not affect survival rate and coefficient of variation of shrimp length. The treatmentonly affected the shrimp larvae growthwhere 500 ind/m2 rearing density gave the best growth. Keywords: white shrimp, larva, rearing density, net cage   ABSTRAK Penokolan merupakan salah satu usaha untuk meningkatkan kualitas benih udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh padat tebar terhadap kualitas dan produktivitas pemeliharaan larva udang vaname di hapa. Padat tebar yang diuji meliputi 500  ,1000, 1500   dan 2000 ekor/m2 selama 28 hari pemeliharaan.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa padat tebar tidak mempengaruhi kelangsungan hidup dan koefisien keragaman panjang udang, dan hanya mempengaruhi pertumbuhan. Kepadatan 500 ekor/m2 menghasilkan pertumbuhan terbaik. Kata kunci: vaname, larva, kepadatan, hapa

  12. Bird Perches Increase Forest Seeds on Puerto Rican Landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron B. Shiels; Lawrence R. Walker

    2003-01-01

    Landslides result in the loss of vertical vegetative structure, soil nutrients, and the soil seed bank. These losses impede timely recovery of tropical forest communities. In this study we added bird perches to six Puerto Rican landslides with three types of surfaces (bare, climbing fern, grass) in an effort to facilitate inputs of forest seeds through bird dispersal...

  13. POPULATION DECLINES OF THE PUERTO RICAN VIREO IN GUANICA FOREST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOHN FAABORG; KATE M. DUGGER; WAYNE J. ARENDT; BETHANY L. WOODWORTH; MICHAEL E. BALTZ

    1997-01-01

    Abundance of the Puerto Rican Vireo (Vireo Zutimeri) in Guanica Forest, Puerto Rico, has declined gradually over the period 1973-1996 as determined by constant effort mist netting. Concurrent studies of breeding vireos show low nesting success, primarily due to parasitism by Shiny Cowbirds (Molothrus bonariensis). This decline may reflect the rather recent entry of the...

  14. Commercialization Trends in Higher Education: The Costa Rican Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Maria de Los Angeles

    1999-01-01

    This case study of the commercialized teaching profession in Costa Rican higher education urges circumspection; the term "efficient and productive change" camouflages the state-sanctioned commodification of the instructional enterprise. Courses are becoming proprietary courseware, machinery for selling intellectual capital is emerging,…

  15. Seeds of Puerto Rican Trees and Shrubs: Second Installment

    Science.gov (United States)

    John K. Francis; Alberto Rodríguez

    1993-01-01

    Seed weights and germination information were obtained for 119 native Puerto Rican and naturalized exotic trees and shrubs. Fruit was collected from 34 of these species, and the weights were recorded. The data are presented in tables that list the species alphabetically by scientific names.

  16. Women of Puerto Rican Origin in the Continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Women's Bureau.

    This brief paper presents data on Puerto Rican women residing in the United States as of March of 1975. Information on population, age, marital status, household and family head, labor force participation, work experience, occupational, and income statistics is included. (Author/BS)

  17. Puerto Ricans in Science and Biomedicine: Report of a Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

    Twelve divisions and institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) cosponsored this conference to examine the barriers to participation of Puerto Ricans in the United States to careers in science and biomedicine. Areas addressed during the conference included: (1) perspectives from the NIH; (2) historical and modern perspectives of…

  18. BREEDING AND NATAL DISPERSAL IN THE PUERTO RICAN VIREO

    Science.gov (United States)

    BETHANY L. WOODWORTH; JOHN FAABORG; WAYNE J. ARENDT

    1998-01-01

    Information on dispersali s critical for understandingt he population dynamicso f birds. We estimated breeding and natal dispersal in two studies of a population of the Puerto Rican Vireo (Vireo latimeri) that is in danger of local extirpation due to low reproductive success from 7.1-29% of adult males and 12.5 - 25% of adult females changed territories between...

  19. Potential Bacillus probiotics enhance bacterial numbers, water quality and growth during early development of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrat, Subuntith; Suksawat, Sunisa; Boonthai, Traimat; Vuthiphandchai, Verapong

    2012-10-12

    Epidemics of epizootics and occurrence of multiresistant antibiotics of pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture have put forward a development of effective probiotics for the sustainable culture. This study examined the effectiveness of forms of mixed Bacillus probiotics (probiotic A and probiotic B) and mode of probiotic administration on growth, bacterial numbers and water quality during rearing of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in two separated experiments: (1) larval stages and (2) postlarval (PL) stages. Forms of Bacillus probiotics and modes of probiotic administration did not affect growth and survival of larval to PL shrimp. The compositions of Bacillus species in probiotic A and probiotic B did not affect growth and survival of larvae. However, postlarvae treated with probiotic B exhibited higher (Pshrimp. Total heterotrophic bacteria and Bacillus numbers in larval and PL shrimp or culture water of the treated groups were higher (Pshrimp were significantly decreased, compared to the controls. Microencapsulated Bacillus probiotic was effective for rearing of PL L. vannamei. This investigation showed that administration of mixed Bacillus probiotics significantly improved growth and survival of PL shrimp, increased beneficial bacteria in shrimp and culture water and enhanced water quality for the levels of pH, ammonia and nitrite of culture water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Selection of proteolytic bacteria with ability to inhibit Vibrio harveyi during white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suntinanalert, P.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Five isolates of bacteria with high proteolytic activity, isolated from water samples of intensive shrimp ponds in southern Thailand, were selected to test for the ability to control the shrimp pathogen Vibrioharveyi. 70 μl of each culture broth were investigated for their ability to inhibit V. harveyi using an agar well diffusion test but only one isolate W3 gave a reasonable sized inhibition zone of 21.62 mm. This zone wassimilar to that of oxolinic acid (2 μg and sulfamethoxazole (25 μg. The W3 isolate was identified as Pseudomonas sp. Shrimp cultivation in aquaria was conducted to investigate the inhibition of V. harveyi bythe isolate W3. The experiment consisted of a treatment of the shrimp culture with an inoculum of the isolate W3 and V. harveyi (biocontrol set, a positive control set (only inoculation of V. harveyi and a negativecontrol set as without inoculation. No mortality was found in the negative control. Shrimp mortality in the biocontrol set (33% was lower than that in the positive control set (40%; however, it showed no significantdifference (p>0.05. The average numbers of V. harveyi over 12 days of the biocontrol set were lower than those in the positive control set by about 1 log cycle although the numbers were not significantly different(p>0.05. The shrimp growth rate at day 32 of cultivation was in order of the biocontrol treatment (10.17% > the negative control treatment (9.44% > the positive control set (9.28%, but no significant difference (p>0.05 was observed among treatments.

  1. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, James R.; Walker, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  2. The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study on health disparities in Puerto Rican adults: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collado Bridgette M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study designed to examine the role of psychosocial stress on presence and development of allostatic load and health outcomes in Puerto Ricans, and potential modification by nutritional status, genetic variation, and social support. Methods Self-identified Puerto Ricans, aged 45-75 years and residing in the Boston, MA metro area, were recruited through door-to-door enumeration and community approaches. Participants completed a comprehensive set of questionnaires and tests. Blood, urine and salivary samples were extracted for biomarker and genetic analysis. Measurements are repeated at a two-year follow-up. Results A total of 1500 eligible participants completed baseline measurements, with nearly 80% two-year follow-up retention. The majority of the cohort is female (70%, and many have less than 8th grade education (48%, and fall below the poverty level (59%. Baseline prevalence of health conditions is high for this age range: considerable physical (26% and cognitive (7% impairment, obesity (57%, type 2 diabetes (40%, hypertension (69%, arthritis (50% and depressive symptomatology (60%. Conclusions The enrollment of minority groups presents unique challenges. This report highlights approaches to working with difficult to reach populations, and describes some of the health issues and needs of Puerto Rican older adults. These results may inform future studies and interventions aiming to improve the health of this and similar communities.

  3. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latt er two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not refl ect the existing morphological...

  4. Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Permit Gear Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data set contains annual vessel gear characterization of permit holders shrimp vessel. Data includes net type, TED type, BRD type, etc.

  5. Pampered sons, (wo)manly men, or do-nothing machos? Costa Rican men coming of age under neoliberalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannon, Susan E; Kemp, Eagan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how young men in Costa Rica negotiate ideas of manhood under neoliberalism. We draw on interview data involving 23 men, ages 15–35, residing in one Costa Rican city. Comparing men across three different class locations, we find diverse "markers of manhood." Our data suggest an emerging globally dominant masculine ideal among an elite class of men, a declining locally dominant masculine ideal among working-class men, and a cynical, possibly counter-cultural masculine ideal among poor men. We conclude that masculinities are not only fluid, but tied to changing economic circumstances and class structures.

  6. "Chronicity," "nervios" and community care: a case study of Puerto Rican psychiatric patients in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, M

    1992-06-01

    The role of ethnicity, community structure, and folk concepts of mental illness in facilitating the adaptation of long term psychiatric patients to community living has received little attention. This article examines the cultural concepts of mental illness and the community involvement of 30 Puerto Rican psychiatric patients participating in a New York City treatment program. It is shown that many of the attributes usually associated with chronic mental illness do not apply to this population. It is argued that the folk concept of nervios helps to foster the integration of these patients in a wide range of community networks. The impact of gentrification on these patients' community integration is also discussed.

  7. Experience of nervousness and anxiety disorders in Puerto Rican women: psychiatric and ethnopsychological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss-Chioino, J D

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of case materials describe variations in the experiences of Puerto Rican women diagnosed as having an anxiety disorder, in treatment with mental health clinicians, physicians, or traditional healers. Their common complaints are examined as core symbolic elements in culturally patterned complexes of meanings focused around personal trauma, stressful life events, personal and social reactions, expectations about treatment, and the course of illness. Many of these women report themselves to be "nervous," to be "sick from nerves," or to have had an "ataque de nervios." "Nervousness" is the base symbolic domain in Puerto Rico of what psychiatry labels "anxiety disorder," although it is also a common complaint of many disorders. What "nervousness" means to patients/clients and their clinicians or healers is examined within the frames of multilayered popular and biomedical interpretations. The special difficulties of women in Puerto Rico are highlighted, and psychiatric and ethnopsychological (Spiritist) models of etiology and treatment are compared.

  8. Anthropology in a postcolonial colony: Helen I. Safa's contribution to Puerto Rican ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duany, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses Helen I. Safa's legacy to anthropological thought in Puerto Rico. The first part of the article locates Safa's research on the Island within a long tradition of fieldwork by U.S. scholars since the early twentieth century. More recent research, conducted mostly by Puerto Rican women anthropologists and other social scientists, has expanded upon Safa's insights on gender and work. The second part of the essay analyzes Safa's major empirical work, The Urban Poor of Puerto Rico: A Study in Development and Inequality. Above all, this book helped overcome the theoretical impasse over the culture of poverty that characterized much of urban anthropology during the 1960s and 1970s. The article concludes with an appraisal of the relevance of Safa's work for the ethnography of contemporary Puerto Rico.

  9. Application of wet waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) with or without sea mud to feeding sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) ( P > 0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no significant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments ( P > 0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

  10. Detection of ctx gene positive non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in shrimp aquaculture environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudana, Rao B; Surendran, P K

    2013-06-01

    Water and post-larvae samples from black tiger (Penaeus monodon) shrimp hatcheries; pond water, pond sediment and shrimp from aquaculture farms were screened for the presence of V. cholerae. A V. cholerae-duplex PCR method was developed by utilizing V. cholerae species specific sodB primers and ctxAB genes specific primers. Incidence of V. cholerae was not observed in shrimp hatchery samples but was noticed in aquaculture samples. The incidence of V. cholerae was higher in pond water (7.6%) than in pond sediment (5.2%). Shrimp head (3.6%) portion had relatively higher incidence than shrimp muscle (1.6%). All the V. cholerae isolates (n = 42) belonged to non-O1/non-O139 serogroup, of which 7% of the V. cholerae isolates were potentially cholera-toxigenic (ctx positive). All the ctx positive V. cholerae (n = 3) were isolated from the pond water. Since, cholera toxin (CT) is the major contributing factor for cholera gravis, it is proposed that the mere presence of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae need not be the biohazard criterion in cultured black tiger shrimp but only the presence of ctx carrying non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae may be considered as potential public health risk.

  11. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genome stability maintained over six passages through three different penaeid shrimp species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhupriya, M; Saravanan, P; Otta, S K; Amarnath, C Bala; Arulraj, R; Bhuvaneswari, T; Praveena, P Ezhil; Jithendran, K P; Ponniah, A G

    2014-08-21

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) replicates rapidly, can be extremely pathogenic and is a common cause of mass mortality in cultured shrimp. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences present in the open reading frame (ORF)94, ORF125 and ORF75 regions of the WSSV genome have been used widely as genetic markers in epidemiological studies. However, reports that VNTRs might evolve rapidly following even a single transmission through penaeid shrimp or other crustacean hosts have created confusion as to how VNTR data is interpreted. To examine VNTR stability again, 2 WSSV strains (PmTN4RU and LvAP11RU) with differing ORF94 tandem repeat numbers and slight differences in apparent virulence were passaged sequentially 6 times through black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, Indian white shrimp Feneropenaeus indicus or Pacific white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. PCR analyses to genotype the ORF94, ORF125 and ORF75 VNTRs did not identify any differences from either of the 2 parental WSSV strains after multiple passages through any of the shrimp species. These data were confirmed by sequence analysis and indicate that the stability of the genome regions containing these VNTRs is quite high at least for the WSSV strains, hosts and number of passages examined and that the VNTR sequences thus represent useful genetic markers for studying WSSV epidemiology.

  12. Immunostimulation and yellow head virus (YHV) disease resistance induced by a lignin-based pulping by-product in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Linn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisapoome, Prapansak; Hamano, Kaoru; Tsutsui, Isao; Iiyama, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    Yellow head virus (YHV) is classified as one of the most serious pathogens causing a harmful disease in many penaeids, especially black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), with high economic loss. To determine a potent and practical prophylactic strategy for controlling this disease, the toxicity of the by-product kraft lignin and its ability to control severe YHV infection were investigated in juvenile black tiger shrimp (15.9 ± 1.2 g body weight). The median lethal dosage at 96 h (96-hrs LD 50 ) of lignin in shrimp was 297 mg/L. Lignin was further added to shrimp diets via top-dressing to assess its ability to elicit immune stimulation activity. At 14 days after feeding, shrimp fed 1, 3, 5 and 10 g of lignin/kg of diet exhibited significantly higher levels of phagocytic activity (PA) than the control group (P  0.05). Additionally, lignin supplementation at 1-10 g/kg for 14 days failed to protect experimental shrimp against YHV infection. The antiviral activity of lignin against YHV in black tiger shrimp was notable in vitro because compared to control shrimp (96.7 ± 5.8%; P by-product kraft lignin efficiently inhibits YHV infection in black tiger shrimp. This information will facilitate the development of practical methods to control yellow head disease in the marine shrimp culture industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Competitiveness of Indonesian Shrimp Compare with Thailand Shrimp in Export Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Asmara Wati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With the water area accounts for 81 percent of the total area, fishery is a major business in Indonesia. As one of the world's largest shrimp exporting countries, Indonesia also relies on the revenues of shrimp exports in the international markets. This research compared the competitiveness of shrimp export from Indonesia and Thailand to Japan and US. The indicator adopted in this research was the RCA index. In this research collected secondary data from 1989 to 2010 for analysis. Results showed RCA values of Indonesia were higher than 1, which indicates advantaged competitiveness of Indonesia shrimp exports in the liberalized markets. Nevertheless, compared with Thailand, Indonesia remained relatively disadvantaged. To reinforce the Indonesian shrimp export, necessary infrastructure, such as networks shipment or delivery, packaging and transportation, must be improved. Further researches to determine the factors affecting competitiveness of export shrimp in liberalized market, make and analyze for the policy strategy formulation of Indonesia shrimp export in liberalized market are also advised.Keywords: Competitiveness; Indonesian Shrimp Export; RCA.

  14. The Island Image and Global Links in Puerto Rican Cinema of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Rodríguez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay looks back at the production of Puerto Rican films in the 1980s and 1990s as the point of departure for young Puerto Rican filmmakers in the first decades of the 21st century. Even as the stories of this newer generation differ, their concern with the island image and diasporic movement continue to question Puerto Rican identity. Problems of local film production and outside distribution remain for each film project. This essay analyzes a number of key films by a diverse group of directors whose goal is to rethink the concept of a Puerto Rican cinema.

  15. Prostate Cancer Mortality in Puerto Rican Men: The Effect of Body Habitus and Physical Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crespo, Carlos J

    2005-01-01

    .... The underlying hypothesis of this epidemiological research is that excess body adiposity and sedentary lifestyles are independent risk factors for prostate cancer mortality in Puerto Rican men...

  16. Prostate Cancer Mortality in Puerto Rican Men: The Effect of Body Habitus and Physical Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crespo, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    .... The underlying hypothesis of this epidemiological research is that excess body adiposity and sedentary lifestyles are independent risk factors for prostate cancer mortality in Puerto Rican men...

  17. Seleção de variáveis em modelos matemáticos dos parâmetros de cultivo do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei Selection of variables in mathematical models of culture parameters of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ady Marinho Bezerra

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar as variáveis de manejo do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei que mais influenciaram nas variáveis-respostas ao cultivo (produção, produtividade, peso final e taxa de sobrevivência, em modelos matemáticos. O banco de dados foi composto por 83 cultivos, realizados no período de 2003 a 2005, obtidos de uma fazenda comercial localizada no litoral sul de Pernambuco. Para estimar os parâmetros dos modelos, utilizou-se a técnica dos mínimos quadrados. A seleção das variáveis foi realizada com o processo "backward elimination" associado ao método de transformação de Box e Cox. A adequação das equações e os pressupostos de normalidade e homocedasticidade, para os erros, foram analisadas com base na análise de variância e análise de resíduo. É possível relacionar essas variáveis e estabelecer predições com as equações.The objective of this work was to select management variables of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei that most influenced culture variable responses (production, productivity, final weight and survival rate, in mathematical models. The database was composed of 83 cultures in the period of 2003 to 2005, obtained from a shrimp farm located in the South coast of Pernambuco. To estimate the parameters of the models it was used the technique of least square. The selection of variable was carried through the backward elimination process associated to the Box and Cox transformation. The adequacy of the equations and the hypothesis of normality and homogeneous variance for the errors were analyzed based on the analysis of variance and on the analysis of residuals. It is possible to correlate those variables and to establish predictions with the equations.

  18. Population structure and recruitment of penaeid shrimps in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population structure and recruitment of penaeid shrimps in mozambique. ... This study characterizes the population structure and identifies nursery areas and recruitment seasons of penaeid shrimps in the ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. Enzyme-assisted peeling of cold water shrimps (Pandalus borealis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Tem Thi; Gringer, Nina; Jessen, Flemming

    2018-01-01

    An enzymatic method to facilitate the peeling of cold water shrimps (Pandalus borealis) was developed. The protease solutions were used to mature the shrimps to promote shell-loosening prior to peeling. The efficiency of peeling enzyme-treated shrimps was evaluated by a new quantitative measurement......L and 0.25% Exocut-A0 for 20 h resulted in the best peeling of shrimps (100% completely peeled shrimps, 3 mJ/g work and 89% meat yield). Reuse of the enzyme solution was possible due to a 95% retention rate of proteolytic activity after two 20-h cycles of maturation. The studied enzymatic maturation...... of shrimp. This approach would benefit the shrimp processing industry by 1) enhancing peeling efficiency that includes least efforts to remove the shell, high rate of completely peeled shrimps and high meat yield; 2) shortening the duration of maturation but still sufficiently loosening the shell...

  20. 2012 Economic Survey of Gulf State Shrimp License Holders

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This mail survey collected economic data on inshore commercial shrimp fishermen who held licenses to commercially harvest shrimp in state waters of the U.S. Gulf of...

  1. White spot viral disease in penaeid shrimp-a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sangamaheswaran, A.P.; Jeyaseelan, M.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The white spot viral disease in penaeid shrimp affects the development of the global shrimp industry. This paper reviews the viruses that cause the disease, the transmission of the virus, diagnosis and preventive measures.

  2. Penaeid Shrimp Salinity Gradient Tank Study 2005-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We designed an experimental gradient tank to examine salinity preferences of juvenile brown shrimp and white shrimp. Although no strong pattern of salinity avoidance...

  3. STUDY ON FRY PERFORMANCE OF BLACK TIGER SHRIMP Penaeus monodon WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS MORPHOLOGY AND RNA/DNA RATIO ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanti Haryanti; Ketut Mahardika; Sari Budi Moria; I Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2006-01-01

    Standard method to asses the performance of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) fry was needed for successful shrimp culture. The main purpose of this study was to determine standard method fry performance of P. monodon assesment based on its morphology and molecular RNA/DNA ratio analysis. Samples of P. monodon fry were collected from hatcheries in Bali, six hatcheries in East Java, three hatcheries in Central Java and six hatcheries in South Sulawesi. Each hatchery gave 25 appropriate size...

  4. Transnational Mortality Comparisons Between Archipelago and Mainland Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Rodríguez-Ayuso, Idania; Gebrekristos, Hirut T; Roess, Amira; Pérez, Cynthia M; Simonsen, Lone

    2017-10-01

    Puerto Ricans in the US experience higher deaths from diabetes and other causes compared to non-Hispanic Whites and other Hispanic groups. We compared mortality in Puerto Rico to that of Puerto Ricans in the US as a first step to investigate if similar or worse mortality patterns originate from the sending country (Puerto Rico). Age-adjusted death rates were generated using national vital statistics databases in the US and territories for all-cause and the top ten causes of death among Hispanics in 2009. Mortality ratios in the archipelago of Puerto Rico (APR) were compared to mainland US Puerto Ricans (MPR). Rates for other ethnic/racial groups (Mexican Americans, Cubans, and non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks, American Indians, and Asians) were calculated to provide a context. APR had significantly higher all-cause mortality and death rates for diabetes, nephritis, pneumonia/influenza, and homicide/assault compared to MPR (APR/MPR ratio for all-cause: 1.08, diabetes: 2.04, nephritis: 1.84, pneumonia/influenza: 1.33, homicide/assault: 3.15). Death rates for diabetes and homicide/assault (particularly among men) were higher among APR compared to any other racial/ethnic groups in the US. In contrast, deaths from heart disease, cancer, and chronic liver disease were significantly lower for APR compared to MPR (MPR/APR ratio 0.72, 0.91, 0.41, respectively). Among APR women, death rates for these causes were also lower compared to any other group in the US. Substantial mortality variability exists between Puerto Ricans in Puerto Rico and those in the US, re-emphasizing the need to study of how socio-environmental determinants of health differ in sending and receiving countries. Explanations for disparate rates include access to and availability of healthcare and unique factors related to the migration experience of this group.

  5. Prematurity, atopy, and childhood asthma in Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Ramratnam, Sima K; Brehm, John M; Han, Yueh-Ying; Boutaoui, Nadia; Forno, Erick; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Alvarez, María; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2014-02-01

    Puerto Rican children share a disproportionate burden of prematurity and asthma in the United States. Little is known about prematurity and childhood asthma in Puerto Rican subjects. We sought to examine whether prematurity is associated with asthma in Puerto Rican children. We performed a case-control study of 678 children aged 6 to 14 years with (n = 351) and without (n = 327) asthma living in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Prematurity was defined by parental report for our primary analysis. In a secondary analysis, we only included children whose parents reported prematurity that required admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Asthma was defined as physician-diagnosed asthma and wheeze in the prior year. We used logistic regression for analysis. All multivariate models were adjusted for age, sex, household income, atopy (≥1 positive IgE level to common allergens), maternal history of asthma, and early-life exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. In a multivariate analysis there was a significant interaction between prematurity and atopy on asthma (P = .006). In an analysis stratified by atopy, prematurity was associated with a nearly 5-fold increased odds of asthma in atopic children (adjusted odds ratio, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.5-14.3; P = .007). In contrast, there was no significant association between prematurity and asthma in nonatopic children. Similar results were obtained in our analysis of prematurity requiring admission to the neonatal intensive care unit and asthma. Our results suggest that atopy modifies the estimated effect of prematurity on asthma in Puerto Rican children. Prematurity might explain, in part, the high prevalence of atopic asthma in this ethnic group. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Parenting Styles and Child Outcomes in Puerto Rican Families

    OpenAIRE

    Colón, Jeisianne Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate observed parenting styles among Puerto Rican parents living in Puerto Rico. Participants included 51 families with a child between the ages of 6 and 11. Families engaged in different behavioral observational tasks. Observations were coded for parenting dimensions and family parenting styles in order to determine its relationship to child outcomes. The Parenting Styles Observation Rating Scale was used to code the observations and the Child Behavior Ch...

  7. Survival and causes of mortality in juvenile Puerto Rican parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.D. Lindsey; W.J. Arendt; J. Kalina

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen juvenile Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) from wild nests in 1985, 1986 and 1987 were radio monitored an average of 110 +_ 15.9 (SE) d (range 4-209 d) post-fiedging.. Minimum survival was 67% (n = 3) in 1985, 100%( n = 4) in 1986 and 43% (n = 7) in 1987. Most mortality (three of five deaths) occurred during the first 35 d following fledging. A major...

  8. Gamma Irradiation for the Inhibition of Shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) Allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Jae-Hun; Lee Ju-Woon

    2000-01-01

    Food irradiation technology was conducted to reduce shrimp allergy. The experiment was designated in 3 portions as follows; A, the irradiation of raw shrimp; B the irradiation of shrimp and then cooking; and C, cooking the shrimp and then irradiation. Gamma irradiation was done with doses of 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 kGy. A shrimp sarcoplasmic protein solution (SSPS) and a myofibrillar protein solution (SMPS) were prepared from A portion. Cooked shrimp protein solutions were also prepared from B and C portions. The binding abilities of the shrimp allergic patients' IgE and mouse monoclonal Ab 4.9.5 (mAb 4.9.5), produced to the shrimp heat-stable protein, to each sample solution were determined by ELISA. Binding abilities of patients' IgE and mAb 4.9.5 to irradiated shrimp fractions were dose-dependently reduced. The cooking treatment after irradiation was more effective than the irradiation treatment after cooking in the reduction of the binding abilities of IgE and IgG. SDS-PAGE was performed to compare irradiated shrimp proteins with non-irradiated shrimp proteins. SDS-PAGE showed that no bands were changed by gamma irradiation. The results indicated that food irradiation with an adequate dose can be reduce allergenicity of shrimp

  9. Glycogen and proximate content of white shrimp fed on different carbohydrate level and feeding frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Zainuddin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is one of penaeid shrimp which can be cultured either in traditional and advanced technology scale. One problem that commonly faced by pond farmer is the high price of feed with high protein content. This research was to identify the optimal level of carbohydrate and feeding frequency on glycogen deposit and chemical composition of white shrimp juvenile. Research used factorial completely randomized design with two factors in triplicates. Treatments were factor A, carbohydrate level in feed respectively A1 (30%, A2 (37%, A3 (44%, A4 (50%, and factor B daily feeding frequency respectively B1 (twice, B2 (four times, and B3 (six times respectively. White shrimp used had an initial average body weight of 0.3 g/shrimp. Feeding level was 10% of shrimp body weight. Results showed that both factors, carbohydrate level in feed, feeding frequency and their interactions were not significantly different on glycogen deposit of white shrimp juvenile. Analysis result on chemical compositions of white shrimp juvenile consisted of protein, lipid, nitrogen-free extract, crude fiber, ash, and energy were generally increased after treatments. Keywords: glycogen deposit, feeding frequency, chemical composition, carbohydrate level ABSTRAK Udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei merupakan salah satu jenis udang penaeid yang dapat dibudidayakan baik dalam skala teknologi tradisional maupun skala teknologi maju. Salah satu masalah yang dihadapi para petani tambak adalah tingginya harga pakan yang disebabkan karena tingginya kandungan protein pakan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efek pemberian pakan dengan kadar karbohidrat dan frekuensi pemberian berbeda terhadap deposit glikogen dan komposisi kimia tubuh juvenil udang vanamei. Penelitian menggunakan desain rancangan acak lengkap pola faktorial dengan dua faktor dan setiap faktor diberi masing-masing tiga ulangan. Perlakuan yang diuji adalah faktor A, kadar karbohidrat

  10. Genotype by environment interaction for adult body weights of shrimp Penaeus vannamei when grown at low and high densitie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Famula Thomas R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Shrimp is one of few marine species cultured worldwide for which several selective breeding programs are being conducted. One environmental factor that can affect the response to selection in breeding programs is the density at which the shrimp are cultured (low-medium-high. Phenotypic plasticity in the growth response to different densities might be accompanied by a significant genotype by environment interaction, evidenced by a change in heritabilities between environments and by a genetic correlation less than one for a unique trait between environments. Our goal was to understand whether different growth densities affect estimates of those genetic parameters for adult body weight (BW in the Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei. BW heritabilities were significantly different between environments, with the largest at high density. These differences resulted from both an increased additive genetic variance and a decreased environmental variance when grown at high density. The genetic correlation between BWs at the two environmental conditions was significantly less than one. Whereas these results might be suggestive for carrying out shrimp selective breeding for BW under high density conditions, further understanding of genetic correlations between growth and reproductive traits within a given environment is necessary, as there are indications of reduced reproductive fitness for shrimp grown at high densities.

  11. Pathogenic Assay of Probiotic Bacteria Producing Proteolytic Enzymes as Bioremediation Bacteria Against Vannamei Shrimp Larvae (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilis Ari Setyati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Application of bacteria in bioremediation of shrimp culture ponds is one of the methods used to clean internal pollutants. This study aimed to evaluate the pathogenicity of extracellular proteolytic enzyme produced by the probiotic bacteria as bioremediation bacteria on vannamei shrimp larvae culture. There were five probiotic bacteria, which were successfully isolated from the sediments served as substrate in mangrove area. The isolated bacteria were coded in number as 13, 19, 30, 33, and 36. Pathogenic bacteria Vibrio harveyi was used as positive control. Pathogenic assay was carried out in two different bacterial concentrations, i.e. 10⁸ and 10⁶ cells.mL-1. The results showed that the lowest survival rate (SR of shrimp larvae in positive control V. harveyi was 53 and 65%. Whereas isolates with the highest SR value (100% were obtained from bacteria coded as 13 and 30. Isolates no. 19, 33 and 36 had SR of more than 90%. Total plate count (TPC data showed that the bacteria increased significantly at the end of the study with an average increase value of 24%. The smallest TPC value was shown by bacterial isolate no. 19, while the largest was obtained from the isolate no. 13. These results suggest that all probiotic bacteria were not pathogenic to the vannamei shrimp larvae.   Keywords: aquaculture, shrimp, bioremediation, pathogenesis, vibrio.

  12. The efficacy testing of irradiated shrimp paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouchpramool, Kovit; Eamsiri, Jaruratana; Sujjabut, Surusak

    2005-10-01

    Two lots of shrimp paste from commercial source in Samutsakhon were irradiated at a recommended minimum dose of 6 kGy using a J S 8900 cobalt-60 carrier gamma irradiator of Thai Irradiation Center in Patum Thani. Red Perspex dosimeter were used to measure the absorbed dose throughout the product with emphasis on the region of minimum and maximum absorbed dose. This way, it was aimed to compare the dose effects of gamma irradiation on the microbiological, chemical and sensory quality of shrimp paste. The results indicated that the shrimp paste received minimum and maximum absorbed dose of 6.85 and 12.83 kGy with dose uniformity ratio of 1.87 . Throughput rate is 468 kilogram per hour. The microbiological load of shrimp paste was rather high resulting in not compliance with Thai industrial standard 1080-2535. Irradiation at 6.8 kGy reduced total viable bacterial count by one log cycle. Although the irradiated product was organoleptic ally acceptable and could be kept for 16 months at room temperature, mold and Clostridium perfringens were still present in some samples after irradiation and during prolonged storage in amount that exceeds the limitation of Thai industrial standard. Chemical properties such as p H, moisture and sodium chloride content of irradiated shrimp paste were not significantly changed after irradiation

  13. Balancing options for shrimp farming : a landscape approach to investigate the future of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joffre, O.M.

    2015-01-01

    Balancing options for shrimp farming

    A landscape approach to investigate the future of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta

    Olivier Joffre

    While providing an option for development in coastal areas, shrimp farming is usually associated with high environmental

  14. Water and bottom sediments quality of brackish water shrimp farms in Kaliganj Upazila, Satkhira, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Aktaruzzaman, Mohammed Shakhaoat Hossain, Abu Naieum Muhammad Fakhruddin, Mohammed Jamal Uddin, Syed Hafizur Rahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp culture plays a central part in the fisheries sector of Bangladesh that leads to a significant change in the structure and composition of frozen food export sector. An investigation was carried out to determine physiochemical parameters, nutrients content, bacterial contamination and metal content in shrimp “Gher” (Farms water and sediments. Physicochemical parameters were analyzed in situ by portable meters. Ammonia, phosphate, bacterial counts, and metals contents were analyzed by Nesslerization, colorimetric and standard microbiological methods and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometery (AAS, respectively. Except Dissolve oxygen and temperature all other physiochemical parameters were unsuitable for shrimp culture. The concentration of ammonia was 0.384 to 1.5 mg L-1 and the concentration of phosphate ranged from 0.02 to 0.818 mg L-1. In bacteriological analysis, highest levels of coliform were found in the tested samples and total colifom count reached up to 2.04x103 cfu mL-1. Among the tested metals, Cr was highest in water and sediment samples. Concentration of Cr ranged from 0.150 to 0.807 mg L-1 and 1.957 to 3.436 mg kg-1 in water and sediment samples, respectively. A significant difference was observed for the concentration of metals in sediment and water samples. The high concentration of nutrients and metals in shrimp “Gher” water and sediment as well as the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the “Gher” and river water indicated unhygienic environment and the sources of contamination of shrimp “Gher”.

  15. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Acculturation and Social Networks in Puerto Rican Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhokarh, Rajanigandha; Himmelgreen, David A.; Peng, Yu-Kuei; Segura-Perez, Sofia; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether acculturation and social networks influence household food insecurity in an inner-city Puerto Rican community. Methods: A survey was administered to 200 low-income female Puerto Rican caregivers with at least 1 child 12-72 months old living in Hartford, CT. Food insecurity was measured with the Radimer/Cornell Hunger…

  16. Association between BDNF-rs6265 and obesity in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study is to examine a functional variant (rs6265) in the BDNF gene interacting with dietary intake modulate obesity traits in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study population. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped in 1147 Puerto Ricans (aged 45-75 years), and examined for association with o...

  17. Hero/Heroine Modeling for Puerto Rican Adolescents: A Preventive Mental Health Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgady, Robert G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Developed hero/heroine intervention based on adult Puerto Rican role models to foster ethnic identity, self-concept, and adaptive coping behavior. Screened 90 Puerto Rican eighth and ninth graders for presenting behavior problems in school and randomly assigned them to intervention or control groups. After 19 sessions, intervention significantly…

  18. Association between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and bone mineral density in older Puerto Rican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y livi...

  19. Childhood Asthma Prevalence among Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans: Implications for Behavioral Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, A. Magdalena

    1995-01-01

    Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982-84, were used to examine lifetime prevalence (LTP) of childhood asthma among Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans. LTP was related to Puerto Rican ethnicity, birth outside U.S. mainland, low weight for age, male gender, poverty, urban residence, and single parenthood. Implications…

  20. "So yo creo que es un proceso evolutivo": Language Ideologies among Puerto Ricans in Southeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the perspectives of Puerto Ricans living in the United States in response to a publicity campaign that focuses on the correction of linguistic features that appear in some Puerto Ricans' spoken Spanish. The campaign addresses phonetic, morphological, lexical, and syntactic features, including a specific set of words or…

  1. Perspectives of Puerto Rican Adults about Heart Health and a Potential Community Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Irina L. G.; Tejada, Shirley; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Puerto Ricans are the second largest Hispanic group in the United States, and older adults have significant health disparities. Educational programs that address heart disease risk for this population have rarely been developed and implemented. Purpose: To address this gap, the Heart Healthy Initiative for Puerto Rican adults is being…

  2. Puerto Rican Migration: The Return Flow = La Migracion Puertorriquena: El Reflujo a la Isla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivo, Paquita, Comp.

    This is a guide to materials and research on Puerto Ricans who have returned to Puerto Rico after living in the United States. Part 1 is an annotated bibliography of books, journal articles, printed documents, doctoral dissertations, master's theses, journalistic accounts, and unpublished papers on characteristics of Puerto Rican return migrants;…

  3. Bargaining power and revenue distribution in the Costa Rican mango supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zúñiga-Arias, G.; Meijer, S.A.; Ruben, R.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    By the time a European consumer eats a Costa Rican mango, the product has been traded in several transactions between producers, traders, retailers and consumers. This paper investigates the position of Costa Rican smallholders in the mango supply chain in terms of bargaining power and revenue

  4. Bacillus sp. LT3 improves the survival of gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae challenged with Vibrio campbellii by enhancing the innate immune response and by decreasing the activity of shrimp-associated vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yufeng; Defoirdt, Tom; Baruah, Kartik; Van de Wiele, Tom; Dong, Shuanglin; Bossier, Peter

    2014-10-10

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus are amongst the most intensively studied group of bacteria for use as probiotics in aquaculture. However, the exact mechanism of action of these bacteria is often not well described, and the microbiota that are naturally present in cultures of test organisms often compromise the interpretation of the results. The present study aimed to evaluate the putative probiotic effect of Bacillus sp. LT3 in a model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. The strain significantly increased the survival of brine shrimp larvae challenged with Vibrio campbellii when administered 6h before the challenge. Under these conditions, LT3 was able to colonize the brine shrimp gastrointestinal tract and to decrease the in vivo pathogen activity as indicated by the bioluminescence of the V. campbellii associated with brine shrimp larvae. In order to investigate the effect of the Bacillus strain on the innate immune system of the brine shrimp larvae, prophenoloxidase and transglutaminase mRNA levels were monitored, while heat shock protein 70 mRNA levels were measured as an indicator of physiological stress. Interestingly, 12h after challenge, the prophenoloxidase mRNA level in the larvae pre-treated with LT3 and challenged with V. campbellii was approximately 8-fold higher than in the other treatments. Further, a decreased mRNA level of transglutaminase gene and heat shock protein 70 gene suggested that pretreatment with LT3 results in less stress and tissue damage in the brine shrimp larvae upon V. campbellii challenge. These results indicated that Bacillus sp. LT3 could improve the survival of brine shrimp larvae when challenged with pathogenic V. campbellii, both by decreasing the in vivo activity of the pathogen and by priming the innate immune response through activating the prophenoloxidase system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Economic valuation of a mangrove ecosystem threatened by shrimp aquaculture in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, M; Rowan, J S

    2005-10-01

    Mangrove ecosystems in Sri Lanka are increasingly under threat from development projects, especially aquaculture. An economic assessment is presented for a relatively large (42 ha) shrimp culture development proposed for the Rekawa Lagoon system in the south of Sri Lanka, which involved an extended cost-benefit analysis of the proposal and an estimate of the "total economic value" (TEV) of a mangrove ecosystem. The analysis revealed that the internal benefits of developing the shrimp farm are higher than the internal costs in the ratio of 1.5:1. However, when the wider environmental impacts are more comprehensively evaluated, the external benefits are much lower than the external costs in a ratio that ranges between 1:6 and 1:11. In areas like Rekawa, where agriculture and fisheries are widely practiced at subsistence levels, shrimp aquaculture developments have disproportionately large impacts on traditional livelihoods and social welfare. Thus, although the analysis retains considerable uncertainties, more explicit costing of the environmental services provided by mangrove ecosystems demonstrates that low intensity, but sustainable, harvesting has far greater long-term value to local stakeholders and the wider community than large shrimp aquaculture developments.

  6. EXTRACTION OF ASTAXANTHIN ESTERS FROM SHRIMP WASTE BY CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khanafari, A. Saberi, M. Azar, Gh. Vosooghi, Sh. Jamili, B. Sabbaghzadeh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The carotenoid pigments specifically astaxanthin has many significant applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The goal of this research was the extraction of Astaxanthin from a certain Persian Gulf shrimp species waste (Penaeus semisulcatus, purification and identification of the pigment by chemical and microbial methods. Microbial fermentation was obtained by inoculation of two Lactobacillus species Lb. plantarum and Lb. acidophilus in the medium culture containing shrimp waste powder by the intervention of lactose sugar, yeast extract, the composition of Both and the coolage (-20oC. The carotenoids were extracted by an organic solvent system. After purification of astaxanthin with the thin layer chromatography method by spectrophotometer, NMR and IR analysis the presence of astaxanthin esters was recognized in this specific species of Persian Gulf shrimp. Results obtained from this study showed that the coolage at –20 oC not only does not have an amplifying effect on the production of astaxanthin but also slightly reduces this effect. Also the effect of intervention of lactose sugar showed more effectiveness in producing astaxanthin than yeast extract or more than with the presence of both. The results also indicated that there is not much difference in the ability of producing the pigment by comparing both Lb. plantarum and Lb. acidophillus. Also results showed the microbial method of extraction of astaxanthin is more effective than chemical method. The pigment extracted from certain amount of shrimp powder, 23.128 mg/g, was calculated.

  7. Determination of Biogenic Amines in Different Shrimp Species for Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myat Myat Thaw; Oo Aung; Aung Myint; Bisswanger, Hans

    2004-06-01

    This study is part of the project on the ''Quality Assurance of Different Shrimp Species for Export''. Local shrimp samples were collected from Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries and various private enterprises. Contents of biogenic amines were determined by using benzoyl chloride derivatization method with HPLC (reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography). Based on the biogenic amines, quality index of shrimps were correlated with freshness index so that the grade of shrimp samples can be classified as excellent, good, and acceptable. All sizes of shrimps such as extra large, large, medium were found to excceptable respectively

  8. Mixed-genotype white spot syndrome virus infections of shrimp are inversely correlated with disease outbreaks in ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyet Hoa, T.T.; Zwart, M.P.; Phuong, N.T.; Oanh, D.T.H.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Outbreaks of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp culture and its relation to virus virulence are not well understood. Here we provide evidence that the presence of WSSV mixed-genotype infections correlate with lower outbreak incidence and that disease outbreaks correlate with single-genotype

  9. Macroalgal bioindicators (growth, tissue N, δ15N) detect nutrient enrichment from shrimp farm effluent entering Opunohu Bay, Moorea, French Polynesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, David T.; Fong, Peggy

    2008-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment from shrimp aquaculture poses an increasing environmental threat due to the industry's projected rapid growth and unsustainable management practices. Traditional methods to monitor impacts emphasize water quality sampling; however, there are many advantages to bioindicators, especially in developing countries. We investigated the usefulness of three bioindicators-growth, tissue nitrogen content and nitrogen stable isotope signature (δ 15 N)-in the tropical red macroalga Acanthophora spicifera. Algae were collected, cultured, and deployed in a spatial array around the outflow from a shrimp farm in Moorea, French Polynesia, to detect nitrogenous wastes. All three parameters were highest adjacent to the shrimp farm indicating nutrient enrichment, and δ 15 N values confirmed the shrimp farm as the dominant nutrient source (5.63-5.96 per mille ). Isotope ratios proved the most sensitive indicator, as δ 15 N signatures were detected at the most distant sites tested, confirming their usefulness in tracing nutrients and mapping the spatial extent of enrichment

  10. Replacing of live food with artificial diet on growth and survival rates of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbani Vagheie, R.; Matinfar, A.; Aeinjamshid, Kh.; Hafezieh, M.; Ghorbani, R.

    2011-01-01

    Replacing live food with artificial diets in aquatic larviculture, especially in shrimp larvae not only is caused convenience feeding, but also in economical view is very important. With this object, in this survey, a density of 100.L -1 white leg shrimp larvae in 9 nutritional treatments each with three replicates were cultured in 20L tanks each one was held with 10L of 30% salty water using one air stone. The larvae were fed 4 times.day-1 with different diets, including live foods (Cheatoce...

  11. 75 FR 49460 - Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... the surrogate values for shrimp larvae, diesel fuel, shrimp waste, and by- products. For further... Korean Import Data Comment 3: Shrimp Larvae Comment 4: Shrimp Feed Comment 5: Electricity Comment 6... Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial Rescission...

  12. Epizootiology of Perkinsus sp. inCrassostrea gasar oysters in polyculture with shrimps in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Mirella da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bivalve culture is of considerable economic and social interest in northeastern (NE Brazil. The polyculture is an alternative approach to traditional monoculture for reducing the environmental impact of shrimp farming and improving oyster culture. Perkinsus marinus andPerkinsus olseni were found infecting oysters in NE Brazil and can threaten oyster production. This study evaluatedPerkinsus spp. occurrence in Crassostrea gasar during all production stages. Oyster spats were produced in a hatchery and grown in shrimp ponds in Rio Grande do Norte state.Perkinsus spp. were surveyed by Ray’s fluid thioglycollate medium and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence and intensity of infection were determined in oysters until they reached 7 cm. Results showed that the broodstock was already infected by Perkinsus (60%, but the derived spats were Perkinsus-free. Oyster spats acquired Perkinsus infection when transferred to ponds. The prevalence gradually increased in the seven months following placement in ponds (73%, and then decreased to 17% by the tenth month. The infections were initially mild, but intensity increased at the final growth stage. In conclusion, it is possible to produce Perkinsus-free C. gasar oyster spats from infected broodstock, and their culture in shrimp ponds is feasible.

  13. Cyanobacteria Community Dynamics and Trophic Status of Intensive Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Farming Pond in Situbondo East Java Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Aliviyanti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the dynamics community structure of Cyanobacteria and trophic status in ponds of intensive shrimp culture (Litopenaeus vannamei in Situbondo based on Trophic Diatom Index (TDI.  The ex post facto research was conducted in situ in the hamlet of Pond Mutiara Mas III Klatakan Situbondo East Java Indonesia.  Observation of Cyanobacteria and Diatoms community structure were done every week during four cycles of shrimp farming ponds.  Cycle of shrimp farming ponds is the times for enlargement process of the shrimps from seed to mature which ranges from 90-120 days.  The dependent variables were the density of Cyanobacteria and Diatoms community, as well as chemical parameters nitrite and orthophosphate.  Trophic status was determined from TDI be counted from data of diatom density.  All of the data were then classified using cluster and biplot analysis program PAST Ver. 3.11 to discribe the profile of ecosystem quality.  The research results showed that there were four taxa of Cyanobacteria during farming cycle which the highest density was found from the genus of Oscillatoria.  Based on the value of TDI, we found that the trophic status of water in shrimps pond during the production process was eutrophic until hyper-eutrophic.  The water quality was decreases along with the length of incubation time.

  14. The mental health relevance of idioms of distress. Anger and perceptions of injustice among New York Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogler, L H; Cortes, D E; Malgady, R G

    1994-06-01

    Cultural sensitivity in mental health research is enhanced by examining the collective perceptions of members of ethnic groups about their own idiomatic expressions of distress. Such an examination was conducted with Puerto Ricans living in New York City, beginning with focus group discussions. Their prevailing idioms of distress, based upon themes of anger and injustice, were correlated widely with professionally developed measures of anxiety, depression, and somatization and with utilization of professional mental health care. By examining the relationship between idioms of distress, saliently volunteered by members of the ethnic ingroup, on the one hand, and professional care and assessments of mental health, on the other, we increase our culturally based understanding of mental health in the community.

  15. Is the Dutch shrimp fishery sustainable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welleman, H.C.; Daan, N.

    2001-01-01

    The fishery of the brown shrimp (Crangon crangon LINNEAUS 1758) is a widespread human activity in the coastal zone. Yet management of this fishery has never been implemented. The question is raised whether an uncontrolled fishery is sustainable or the conceivable ecological stress results in

  16. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  17. Solar Powered Automatic Shrimp Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dindo T. Ani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.

  18. Neoliberalism and shrimp industry in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Romero Salgado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the effects of the shrimp industry development in the mangrove ecosystem, the socio-environmental conflicts generated and its relationship with neoliberalism and the financial crisis of 1999 in Ecuador. After a review of the importance of the mangrove ecosystem, the stages of the shrimp expansion, its promoters, the mangrove deforestation and the socio-environmental effects caused, I will analyze the shrimp crisis, its parallels with the financial crisis of 1999 and its subsequent recovery. I will show that the shrimp industry expanded in mangrove areas in order to reduce costs, even breaking the law and creating environmental degradation, vulnerability of the costs and loss of natural resources, based on the exploitation and privatization of a public good. This created unemployment, migration and impoverishment to local populations and costs that the State will have to assume. Therefore, it is a process of “accumulation by dispossession” characteristic of neoliberalism.

  19. Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation of shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, N.L.B.

    1993-01-01

    Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine was measured using HPLC in conjunction with uv-absorption detection in dilute aqueous solutions of phenylalanine irradiated in the absorbed dose range 16.0 to 195.0 kGy. The measured yields of tyrosine isomers were approximately linear as a function of absorbed dose in shrimp, and in irradiated solutions of phenylalanine up to 37.0 kGy. The occurrence of meta- and ortho-tyrosine, which had formerly been considered unique radiolytic products, has not previously been reported in nonirradiated shrimp or BSA. The conventional hydrolyzation and analytical techniques used in the present study to measure meta- and ortho-tyrosine may provide the basis for a method to detect and determine the dose used in food irradiation

  20. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Sidik

    Full Text Available The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂ efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  1. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reinhard Vogl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798 aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Bangladesh. Data was collected in 2009 from organic shrimp farmers in the Kaligonj and Shyamnagar sub-districts through questionnaire interviews, transect walks and focus group discussions. The mean productivity of organic shrimp farming in the area is 320 kg ha−1 yr−1 (ranging from 120 to 711 kg ha−1year−1. Organic farmers are more likely to have a higher monthly income and less aquaculture experience. Moreover, suitable landholdings and classified labor distribution have been found to play an important role in the development of organic shrimp aquaculture. The most common assets of organic shrimp aquaculture are high yield, low production cost, available post larvae and high market prices. Small business farmers are likely to earn more income benefits from organic shrimp aquaculture than their larger-scale counterparts. Finally, the paper suggests that more research is needed to stimulate the success of organic shrimp aquaculture.

  2. Are ataques de nervios in Puerto Rican children associated with psychiatric disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, Peter J; Martinez, Igda; Ramirez, Rafael; Canino, Glorisa

    2005-11-01

    To provide the first empirical analysis of a cultural syndrome in children by examining the prevalence and psychiatric correlates of ataques de nervios in an epidemiological study of the mental health of children in Puerto Rico. Probability samples of caretakers of children 4-17 years old in the community (N = 1,892; response rate: 90%) and in clinical services (N = 761; response rate 72%) were administered structured interviews to assess the presence and correlates of ataques de nervios. Nine percent of children in the community sample and 26% of children in the clinical sample had a reported history of an ataque de nervios. In contrast to the overall community and clinical samples, which had more boys in them, the ataque de nervios groups in both samples had more girls in them. Family history of ataques de nervios was associated with ataques de nervios in children in both samples. Across a wide range of depression, anxiety, and disruptive disorders, children who reported an ataque de nervios were more likely to meet research criteria for psychiatric disorder in both samples. Ataques de nervios are a frequently reported cultural syndrome among children in Puerto Rico. Adolescent girls are more likely to report this experience. Ataques de nervios have a significant relationship with psychiatric disorder and impairment in Puerto Rican children.

  3. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Reflecting on Culture. (Reflexionando Sobre la Cultura.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Estelle

    1980-01-01

    The article comments on two articles, previously published in the same journal, which address the relationship between the "little" cultural tradition of Chicanos, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans and the "great" tradition of Hispanic arts and letters. Notes similarities among these groups and calls for the banding together of…

  5. Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Horace R.; Brown-Thirston, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    "Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling" focuses on a range of social phenomenon that impact the lives of adolescent females of color. The authors highlight the daily challenges that African-American, Chicana, and Puerto Rican teenage girls face with respect to peer and family influences, media stereotyping, body image,…

  6. Psychiatric comorbidity and acculturation stress among Puerto Rican substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Kevin P; Swendsen, Joel D; Dierker, Lisa; Canino, Glorisa; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2007-06-01

    Although acculturation to the United States has been associated with an increase in substance, mood, and anxiety disorders in Latino populations, few studies have examined this concept relative to comorbidity among these syndromes. This study compares the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among Puerto Ricans with substance use disorders living in San Juan (Puerto Rico) to those who have migrated to New Haven (Connecticut) and examines the association between acculturation-related stress and the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among those who have migrated to New Haven. Lifetime levels of nearly all comorbid psychiatric disorders among respondents with substance use disorders were generally similar across sites. However, the risk of any co-occurring psychiatric disorder was higher among substance use disorder cases in New Haven who reported high levels of total acculturation stress and family-specific acculturation stress. These findings were generally accounted for by associations between affective disorders and high scores on these indicators of acculturation stress. The overall prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity are remarkably similar among Puerto Rican substance abusers whether they live in San Juan or have migrated to New Haven, thereby demonstrating robustness to differences in geographic location. Nevertheless, the degree of acculturation-related family stress is positively associated with co-occurring substance and psychiatric disorders, particularly affective disorders. Intervention in family strain related to the acculturation process may diminish the development of comorbid mental disorders and assist in implementing successful treatment of substance abuse.

  7. The impact of shrimp farming on mangrove ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashton, Elizabeth Clare

    2008-01-01

    . Policy to position shrimp farms behind mangroves can be effective but also requires good institutional capacity and coordination, effective enforcement, incentives, land tenure and participation of all stakeholders for success. Better management practices have been identified which reduce impacts......Farmed shrimp production and value continue to increase with Asia producing the global majority of shrimp and the USA, Japan and Europe being the main importers. Shrimp farming systems are very diverse in their management, size and impacts. There are many causes for mangrove loss but the conversion...... of mangroves to shrimp farms has caused considerable attention. The major issues of shrimp farming include the loss of important ecological and socio-economic functions of mangrove ecosystems, changes in hydrology, salinization, introduction of non-native species and diseases, pollution from effluents...

  8. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1 and 20% (APL2 worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six weeks of experimentation, shrimp fed with commercial diet had a weight gain 20% higher than those feed with worm protein. There were no significantly differences between sizes with respect to 40% animal protein and 20% animal protein with the commercial diet (P  0.05. However, shrimp fed worm protein had lower mortality. The use of worm protein could be an option to maintain a high quantity of shrimp reared in low salinity waters.

  9. Effect of multiple infections with white spot syndrome virus and Vibrio anguillarum on Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L.): mortality and viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, I K; Qiao, G; Kim, S-K

    2014-10-01

    Multiple infections are commonly found in practical shrimp culture and may cause more serious consequences than infections by one pathogen only. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of multiple infections with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio anguillarum on Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L.), mortality, WSSV replication in vivo and host immune response. In the WSSV single-infection group (WSSV load, 2 × 10(2) copies μL(-1)), mean cumulative mortality was 29.2%. In the V. anguillarum single-infection group, cumulative mortality was 12.5% when shrimp were challenged by 10(5) CFU mL(-1) of bacteria. In the co- and super-infection groups, 37.5% and 50% cumulative mortalities, respectively, were observed at a lower bacterial concentration of 10(3) CFU mL(-1), suggesting that shrimp with multiple infections died earlier and more frequently than singly infected shrimp. WSSV load after injection was tracked over time by TaqMan quantitative PCR. WSSV load increased more rapidly in the multiple-infection groups than in the single-infection group. Additionally, mRNA expression of the genes encoding prophenoloxidase 1 and 2, which are closely involved in innate immunity in shrimp, was down-regulated more extensively in multiple-infection groups than in single-infection groups, as indicated by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Growth and feed efficiency of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed formulated diets containing different levels of poultry by-product meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen; Zheng, Shixuan

    2009-12-01

    This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60 d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower ( P0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litop enaeus vannamei.

  11. Dataset on the importation of the exotic shrimp Penaeus vannamei broodstock (Boone, 1931 to India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Remany

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Penaeus vannamei is an exotic shrimp species that has gained high culture momentum, since its introduction to India [1]. Currently, the culture of the species in the Country is being done by the shrimp farmers by importation of Specific Pathogen Free (SPF vannamei broodstock from approved suppliers, which are located overseas. The value of one brooder normally ranges from 50 to 61 US $, excluding the custom duty, processing fee and other charges for the transboundary shipment of the stock to India. The P. vannamei stock are permitted to be imported to the Country by the hatchery operators only through the single declared port of entry, i.e. Chennai in Tamil Nadu in the Country. The imported parent shrimps are then to be quarantined at the Aquatic Quarantine Facility before being transported to the vannamei hatcheries [2]. This article reports the data available on import of vannamei broodstock to India since its importation to India in 2009. The dataset presented here contains information on transit and quarantine mortality of the brooders following the shipment of the stock by the various broodstock suppliers from the overseas.

  12. Molecular markers for identifying a new selected variety of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Jingwen; Li, Fuhua; Huang, Hao; Li, Yijun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    Selective breeding of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during the last decade has produced new varieties exhibiting high growth rates and disease resistance. However, the identification of new varieties of shrimps from their phenotypic characters is difficult. This study introduces a new approach for identifying varieties of shrimps using molecular markers of microsatellites and mitochondrial control region sequences. The method was employed to identify a new selected variety, Kehai No. 1 (KH-1), from three representative stocks (control group): Zhengda; Tongwei; and a stock collected from Fujian Province, which is now cultured in mainland China. By pooled genotyping of KH-1 and the control group, five microsatellites showing differences between KH-1 and the control group were screened out. Individual genotyping data confirmed the results from pooled genotyping. The genotyping data for the five microsatellites were applied to the assignment analysis of the KH-1 group and the control group using the partial Bayesian assignment method in GENECLASS2. By sequencing the mitochondrial control regions of individuals from the KH-1 and control group, four haplotypes were observed in the KH-1 group, whereas 14 haplotypes were obtained in the control group. By combining the microsatellite assignment analysis with mitochondrial control region analysis, the average accuracy of identification of individuals in the KH-1 group and control group reached 89%. The five selected microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control region sequences were highly polymorphic and could be used to distinguish new selected varieties of L. vannamei from other populations cultured in China.

  13. COLOUR QUALITY ENHANCED ON GOLDFISH JUVENILES THROUGH SHRIMP HEAD MEAL ENRICHED IN FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Subamia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Goldfish (Carassius sp. is the ornamental fish which has been managed its culture by fish farmers. The objective of the research is to improve the colour quality of goldfish juveniles through enrichment of feed using shrimp head meal as source of carotenoid. The research was conducted at The Research and Development Institute for Ornamental Fish Culture, Depok, using completely randomized design with four treatments of shrimp head meal ratio, 0% (control, 5%, 10%, and 15% in feed, the feed formulation contained isoprotein (30%, and isolipid (15% and three replications of each treatment. Ten juveniles of Carassius sp. with body weight of (1.08±0.02 g stocked in aquarium with water volumes of 20 L. The growth and colour quality in qualitative standard using TCF (Toca Colour Finder were examined, while total carotenoid content on feed were measured by spectrophotometry method. The colour quality of goldfish were also measured at three of fins those were dorsal, ventral, and caudal. The result showed that no significant different on growth and survival rates among the treatments. Based on the present research, the optimal colour improvement to goldfish was by addition of 10% shrimp head meal in feed.

  14. Bioaccumulation of Copper (Cu) and Chromium (Cr) on export comodity vanamei shrimp from Karawang, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A.; Takarina, N. D.; Siswantining, T.; Pin, T. G.; Soedjiarti, T.

    2018-05-01

    Karawang is one of regencies in West Java which has great potential for vannamei culture. The farm here was modern farm and using Citarum River as water source. Human activities like household and industry around the river cause its quality decrease and give negative impact to shrimp farm. This research was aimed to investigate the bioaccumulation of copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) on vannamei shrimp from Karawang, West Java. Amount of shrimp’s meat and carapace were used for heavy metal measurement using Atomic Absorption Specthrophotometry. Result showed that contents of copper both in meat and carapace were higher than content of chromium. Moreover, the content of both metals was higher on carapace compared to meat. Since the content of meat were below threshold, so it is safe for consumption. There is no significant difference content of both metals in carapace.

  15. Comparison of Penaeus monodon (Crustacea,Penaeidae) growth between commercial feed vscommercial shrimp feed supplemented with Kappaphycus alvarezii (Rhodophyta, Solieriaceae)seaweed sap

    OpenAIRE

    Kotiya Anil S.; Gunalan Balakrishanan; Jetani Kanji L.; Solanki Jitesh B.; Ramchandran Kumaran

    2011-01-01

    The consumer of seafood relates the potential development of animals to the constant use of commercial growth promoters. Nevertheless, nowadays with the development of non antibiotic feed additives, cultured shrimps performance has improved to great level. Present experiment was carried conducted from 27th May 2009 to 11th October 2009 in shrimp grow out ponds at Diu (U.T) region of Saurashtra coast. The stocking density of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798 was 7.5 no/m2 in both th...

  16. Market integration of cold and warmwater shrimp in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Ståhl, Lisa; Nielsen, Max

    2017-01-01

    ) holds in three of the five cases. For processed shrimp, the LOP holds in three of four integrated cases, and for retail sales in the UK and Denmark, the LOP fails to hold in the presence of market integration. Unprocessed coldwater shrimp leads the market in northern Europe. Downstream, prices adjust......This study examines market integration between the cold and warmwater shrimp value chain in the UK, Denmark, Italy, Sweden, and Norway using cointegration methods. For all countries, market integration exists between cold and warmwater unprocessed shrimp imports, where the law of one price (LOP...

  17. Shrimp viral diseases, import risk assessment and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunasagar, Iddya; Ababouch, Lahsen

    2012-09-01

    Shrimp is an important commodity in international trade accounting for 15 % in terms of value of internationally traded seafood products which reached $102.00 billion in 2008. Aquaculture contributes to over 50 % of global shrimp production. One of the major constraints faced by shrimp aquaculture is the loss due to viral diseases like white spot syndrome, yellow head disease, and Taura syndrome. There are several examples of global spread of shrimp diseases due to importation of live shrimp for aquaculture. Though millions of tonnes of frozen or processed shrimp have been traded internationally during the last two decades despite prevalence of viral diseases in shrimp producing areas in Asia and the Americas, there is no evidence of diseases having been transmitted through shrimp imported for human consumption. The guidelines developed by the World Animal Health Organisation for movement of live animals for aquaculture, frozen crustaceans for human consumption, and the regulations implemented by some shrimp importing regions in the world are reviewed.

  18. A review of the chemical aspects of irradiated shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuzzaman, K.

    1989-09-01

    The literature was reviewed for information on the chemical aspects of irradiated shrimp. Low-dose irradiation can effectively control spoilage and pathogenic organisms and extend the refrigerated shelf life of shrimp. Radiation-induced increases in black discoloration occur in some species during storage, but can be minimized by proper blanching. Some loss of the characteristic pink color occurs at doses above 2.5 kGy, and irradiation off-odors occur above 1.5 kGy. These changes can be minimized by irradiating the shrimp when they are frozen. No significant change in protein, fat, carbohydrate, and ash content occurs as a result of low-dose irradiation. Low-dose irradiation does not produce any detectable change in the levels of volatile carbonyl compounds; irradiation at 8 kGy results in a transient increase in the total volatile compounds during subsequent storage in ice, but the increase is higher in the unirradiated shrimp. Radiation-induced changes in the fatty acid composition of shrimp are small. Some minor changes in the amino acid composition occur in irradiated shrimp; similar changes occur due to other processes such as canning and drying in hot air. Some vitamins in shrimp such as thiamine are affected by irradiation. But the loss is less extensive than in thermally processed shrimp. The protein efficiency ratio is not affected by irradiation of shrimp, and no adverse effects attributed to irradiation were found in animal feeding studies

  19. Influence of probiotics on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of white Pacific shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, R. Geovanny D.; Shen, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were determined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics ( Bacillus spp.) supplemented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly ( Pshrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly ( Pshrimp than in the control.

  20. Effect of silver nanoparticles on the metabolic rate, hematological response, and survival of juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez-Moreno, Karla; Mejía-Ruiz, Claudio Humberto; Díaz, Fernando; Reyna-Verdugo, Horacio; Re, Ana Denisse; Vazquez-Felix, Edgar F; Sánchez-Castrejón, Edna; Mota-Morales, Josué D; Pestryakov, Alexey; Bogdanchikova, Nina

    2017-02-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is highly lethal and contagious in shrimps; its outbreaks causes an economic crisis for aquaculture. Several attempts have been made to treat this disease; however, to date, there is no effective cure. Because of their antimicrobial activities, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most studied nanomaterial. Although the antiviral properties of AgNPs have been studied, their antiviral effect against viral infection in aquaculture has not been reported. The AgNPs tested herein are coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and possess multiple international certifications for their use in veterinary and human applications. The aim of this work was to evaluate the survival rate of juvenile white shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei) after the intramuscular administration of AgNPs. For this, different concentrations of metallic AgNPs and PVP alone were injected into the organisms. After 96 h of administration, shrimp survival was more than 90% for all treatments. The oxygen consumption routine rate and total hemocyte count remained unaltered after AgNP injection, reflecting no stress caused. We evaluated whether AgNPs had an antiviral effect in shrimps infected with WSSV. The results revealed that the survival rate of WSSV-infected shrimps after AgNP administration was 80%, whereas the survival rate of untreated organisms was only 10% 96 h after infection. These results open up the possibility to explore the potential use of AgNPs as antiviral agents for the treatment of diseases in aquaculture organisms, particularly the WSSV in shrimp culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oral administration of formalin killed Vibrio anguillarum cells improves growth and protection against challenge with Vibrio harveyi in banana shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, P K; Gopal, C; Panigrahi, A; Rajababu, D; Pillai, S M

    2014-03-01

    Larval rearing in hatcheries and highly intensive grow-out culture practices followed in shrimp production systems favour the growth of potential pathogenic bacterial loads. This study reports the efficacy of formalin-killed vibrio bacterin on growth, survival and protection to challenge with virulent Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio anguillarum in juveniles of banana shrimp Fenneropenaeus merguiensis. Postlarvae 15 (0·24 ± 0·01 g) were administered orally in different concentrations of bacterial preparation (0, 10(6) , 10(8) , 10(10) and 10(12 ) CFU kg(-1) feed) for a period of 6 weeks. Physicochemical and microbial quality of water in larval rearing tanks, and growth and survival of the postlarvae were monitored at regular intervals, and body composition was estimated at the end of the experiment. Shrimps were challenged with V. harveyi and V. anguillarum, and cumulative mortality was calculated. The group receiving 10(8)  CFU kg(-1) feed showed highest average weight gain (162·66 ± 22·94 mg) and survival (90·33 ± 4·5%) and lowest cumulative mortality following the challenge with V. anguillarum (26%) and V. harveyi (36·67%). The results of the study suggest that formalized vibrio administered orally to F. merguiensis postlarvae could induce both homologous and heterologous protection against V. anguillarum and V. harveyi. 'Vaccination' of shrimp postlarvae at hatcheries would help in preventing the losses due to vibriosis and the most susceptible stages of shrimp development. The study demonstrates the cross-protection offered by the oral feeding of formalin-killed Vibrio anguillarum against pathogenic V. harveyi challenge at the early developmental stages of banana shrimp, Fenneropenaeus merguiensis. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Development of the Inventario de Comportamiento Escolar (IDCE) for Puerto Rican Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, Jose J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The "Inventario de Comportamiento Escolar" is a teacher rating inventory for the assessment of Puerto Rican children, particularly those with a behavior pattern indicative of attention deficit disorder, learning disabilities, or academic underachievement. (JHZ)

  3. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.; Olesen, Jørgen; Haug, Joachim T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latter two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not reflect the existing morphological diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoolo...

  4. Efeito da adição do melaço na relação carbono/nitrogênio no cultivo de camarão Litopenaeus vannamei na fase berçário - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.4496 Effect of molasses addition on carbon/nitrogen ratio in the nursery phase of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp culture - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.4496

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Bessa Neves Spanghero

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se o efeito da adição do melaço nas relações carbono:nitrogênio (C:N sobre o desempenho zootécnico do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei, na fase berçário, quando cultivado sem renovação de água. As relações do C:N foram avaliadas nas proporções de 25:1 (25M, 15:1 (15M e o controle (0M, sem aplicação de carbono, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Pós-larvas (PL com peso inicial de 2,5 ± 0,5 mg, foram estocadas em 12 tanques (800 L volume útil, em densidades de 6,25 PL L-1, durante 42 dias de cultivo. Ao final do cultivo, os pesos finais dos camarões dos tratamentos 25M (532,0 mg e 15M (540,0 mg foram superiores (p L. vannamei cultivadas na fase berçário sem renovação de águaThe effect of molasses addiction on carbon:nitrogen ratios (C:N on the performance of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp during the nursery phase cultured without water exchange was investigated. The C:N ratios were evaluated in 25:1 (25M and 15:1 (15M proportion and a control (0M, with no carbon source addition, in a randomized experimental design with four replicates. Post-larvae (PL with initial weight of 2.5 ± 0.5 mg were stocked in 12 tanks (800 L net volume, at the density of 6.25 PL L-1 during 42 culture days. At the end of culture, the shrimps weights on 25M (532.0 mg and 15M (540.0 mg treatments were higher (p L. vannamei post-larvae cultured without water exchange.

  5. Factors associated with regional rheumatic pain disorders in a population of Puerto Ricans with diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Font, Yvonne M.; Castro-Santana, Lesliane E.; Nieves-Plaza, Mariely; Maldonado, Mirna; Mayor, Ángel M.; Vilá, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with bursitis/tendonitis disorders in Puerto Ricans with diabetes mellitus (DM). A cross-sectional study was performed in 202 adult Puerto Ricans (100 DM patients and 102 non-diabetic subjects). For each participant, a complete medical history and a musculoskeletal exam were systematically performed. Socio-demographic parameters, health-related behaviors, comorbidities, and pharmacotherapy were determined for all subj...

  6. Masculinity and gender roles among Puerto Rican men: machismo on the U.S. mainland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J B

    1998-01-01

    The literature on masculinity and gender roles in American life has mostly over-looked Latino men, or has stereotyped them by means of a distorted concept of machismo. A reconceptualization of masculinity and machismo among Puerto Rican men is presented, based on a multidimensional view of their historical and current sociocultural reality. Relevant clinical and social services for Puerto Rican men are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.

  7. Stress and the Social Determinants of Maternal Health among Puerto Rican Women: A CBPR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Damio, Grace; Cruz, Joan; D’Angelo, Karen; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative research project explores how poverty, the built environment, education, working conditions, health care access, food insecurity and perceived discrimination are experienced by Puerto Rican Latinas through the course of their lives. Five focus groups were conducted with the primary objective of documenting community experiences and perspectives regarding: 1) stress, including perceived discrimination based on race/ethnicity (racism); 2) the impact of stress on Puerto Rican wo...

  8. Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, David; Brücker, Christoph; Hegner, Franziska; Balmert, Alexander; Bleckmann, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus) were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times.

  9. Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hess

    Full Text Available Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times.

  10. Aging in Puerto Rico: A Comparison of Health Status Among Island Puerto Rican and Mainland U.S. Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Catherine; Ailshire, Jennifer A

    2017-06-01

    To characterize the health status of older island Puerto Ricans, a segment of the U.S. population that has been largely overlooked in aging research. Data from the 2002 Puerto Rican Elderly Health Conditions Project and the 2002 Health and Retirement Study are used to examine differences in disease, disability, and self-rated health among island Puerto Ricans and the mainland U.S.-born older adult population. Differences are further examined by gender. Island Puerto Ricans were less likely to have heart disease, stroke, lung disease, cancer, activities of daily living (ADL) limitations, and poor self-rated health, but more likely to have hypertension and diabetes. Island Puerto Rican women had worse health relative to island Puerto Rican men. Recent challenges in the funding and provision of health care in Puerto Rico are worrisome given the large number of aging island adults, many of whom have hypertension and diabetes, two conditions that require long-term medical care.

  11. Corpses and Capital: Narratives of Gendered Violence in Two Costa Rican Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Barbas Rhoden

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In a region prone to violence and political corruption, Costa Rica has been touted as an ecological paradise, a stable democracy, and an egalitarian society. However, Costa Rican fiction from the late twentieth century contests this idyllic image and presents instead a world of intrigue, violence, and criminality. El año del laberinto (2000 by Tatiana Lobo and Cruz de olvido (1999 by Carlos Cortés are two novels that serve as an excellent introduction to developments in postwar fiction and scholarship from Central America. In my analysis, I first situate the novels in the context of Central American cultural and political developments in recent decades and then consider the linking of narrative, gender, and violence in the novels. My study centers on the authors' use of crime to challenge national myths and to deconstruct narratives that have been instrumental in constructing cherished national identities. Of particular importance is the depiction of gendered bodies and the violence practiced upon them, as well as the politics surrounding bodies and violence in national narratives and in the authors' contemporary stories.

  12. Parental feeding styles and adolescents' healthy eating habits. Structure and correlates of a Costa Rican questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Smith-Castro, Vanesa; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoán; Garita-Arce, Carlos; Sánchez-López, Marta; Chinnock, Anne

    2010-10-01

    This study designed and validated a questionnaire aimed at examining parental feeding styles to encourage healthy eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents. Adolescents (n=133; mean age 15.4 years), and their parents, participated in the study. The parents completed a parental feeding style questionnaire, and the adolescents completed 3-day food records. Confirmatory factor analyses suggest four distinct parental feeding styles, (a) verbal encouragement of healthy eating behaviors; (b) use of verbal sanctions to indirectly control the intake of healthy food; (c) direct control of access to and intake of food; and (d) use of food to regulate emotions and behavior. There were no correlations between dietary intake and the verbal encouragement of healthy eating behaviors, but there were significant negative correlations between (1) "the use of verbal sanctions to indirectly control the intake of healthy food", and the consumption of fruit and vegetable, of calcium, iron, vitamin B6 and folic acid intake, and (2) between the "direct control of access to and intake of food" and fast food consumption and total carbohydrates intake. The use of food to regulate emotions and behavior was positively correlated with high energy-dense food consumption. Stratification of the data shows significant differences by gender in the correlations between parental feeding style and dietary intake. Understanding parental feeding styles in a Latin American context is a first step in helping researchers develops culturally-appropriate parenting intervention/prevention strategies to encourage healthy eating behaviors during adolescence.

  13. Forecasting Costa Rican Quarterly Growth with Mixed-frequency Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Rodríguez Vargas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We assess the utility of mixed-frequency models to forecast the quarterly growth rate of Costa Rican real GDP: we estimate bridge and MiDaS models with several lag lengths using information of the IMAE and compute forecasts (horizons of 0-4 quarters which are compared between themselves, with those of ARIMA models and with those resulting from forecast combinations. Combining the most accurate forecasts is most useful when forecasting in real time, whereas MiDaS forecasts are the best-performing overall: as the forecasting horizon increases, their precisionis affected relatively little; their success rates in predicting the direction of changes in the growth rate are stable, and several forecastsremain unbiased. In particular, forecasts computed from simple MiDaS with 9 and 12 lags are unbiased at all horizons and information sets assessed, and show the highest number of significant differences in forecasting ability in comparison with all other models.

  14. Parental psychosocial stress and asthma morbidity in Puerto Rican twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Nancy E.; Bunyavanich, Supinda; Silberg, Judy L.; Canino, Glorisa; Rosner, Bernard A.; Celedón, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about paternal psychosocial factors and childhood asthma. Objective To examine the link between maternal and paternal psychosocial stress and asthma outcomes in young children. Methods Parents of 339 pairs of Puerto Rican twins were interviewed individually about their own psychosocial stress and about asthma in their children at age 1 and again about their child’s asthma at age 3. Fathers were asked about symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anti-social behavior. Mothers were asked about depressive symptoms. Outcomes assessed in children included recent asthma symptoms, oral steroid use and hospitalizations for asthma in the prior year, and asthma diagnosis. Generalized estimated equation models were used for the multivariate analysis of parental psychosocial stress and asthma morbidity in childhood. Results After multivariable adjustment, paternal PTSD symptoms, depression, and anti-social behavior were each associated with increased asthma symptoms at age 1 (e.g., OR =1.08 for each 1-point increase in PTSD score, 95% CI=1.03–1.14). Maternal depressive symptoms were associated with an increased risk of asthma hospitalizations at age 1 year. At age 3 years, maternal depressive symptoms were associated with asthma diagnosis and hospitalizations for asthma (OR for each 1-point increase in symptoms=1.16, 95% CI=1.00–1.36]). In an analysis combining 1 and 3 year outcomes, paternal depression was associated with oral steroid use, maternal depressive symptoms were associated with asthma hospitalizations and asthma diagnosis, and parental depression was associated with hospitalizations for asthma. Conclusions Both paternal and maternal psychosocial factors may influence asthma morbidity in young Puerto Rican children. PMID:21194742

  15. The effects of different routes of inulin administration on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (Fenneropenaeus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Zare, Parviz; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of different routes of inulin administration as prebiotic on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae. Four hundred and fifty Indian white shrimp post-larvae (PL1) were stocked in nine tanks. The tanks were assigned into three treatments: feeding with inulin-treated (110 mg L(-1)) Artemia nauplii (I-T), feeding with inulin-enriched (110 mg L(-1)) Artemia nauplii (I-E) and control which repeated triplicates. Feeding trial was performed until PL11 stage and then gut microbiota was studied using culture based method. Also, survival rate was calculated at the end of feeding trial. Our results showed that feeding on inulin enriched or treated Artemia nauplii had no significant effect on total viable culturable autochthonous bacteria and Vibrio spp. levels of the gut microbiota (p > 0.05). However, a remarkable increase of lactic acid bacteria levels (LAB) was observed in I-E treatment (p shrimp post-larvae (p shrimp but determination the mode of action of prebiotic on various aspects of shrimp larviculture merit further research.

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF A LOCAL PROBIOTIC BACTERIUM USING 16S rRNA GENE SEQUENCE THAT WAS USED FOR FIELD TRIAL TO ENHANCED WHITELEG SHRIMP (Litopenaeus vannamei SURVIVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tb. Haeru Rahayu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of local probiotics in the culture of aquatic organisms is increasing with the demand for more environmental-friendly aquaculture practices. The local bacterium isolate considered as a probiotic was added into the water of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei culture in a field trial. Four rectangular plastic ponds (ca. 20 m x 30 m per pond were used for 100 days experimentation for six consecutive crops in two years experiment. Survival, harvest size, feed conversion ratio (FCR and Vibrio bacterial count was compared with those of shrimp receiving and none of local isolate. Identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequence shown those isolate was Bacillus pumilus strain DURCK14 with 99% homology. Water shrimp pond added a local isolate had significantly higher survival at about 10.0% to 11.7% than shrimp without added the isolate (p<0.05, and better FCR, but no significant different in shrimp harvest size. Vibrio bacterial was undetected by total plate count. Moreover, it shown better projected yields on an annual basis (three crops per year.

  17. The effects of season, aeration and light intensity on the performance of pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) polycultured with seaweed (Gracilaria verrucosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, T.; Desrina; Hutabarat, J.; Anggoro, S.; Zainuri, M.; Sarjito; Basuki, F.; Yuniarti, T.

    2018-04-01

    This study was aimed to determine impact of stocking season, additional oxygen supply and light intensity on performance of pacific white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) polycultured with seaweed Gracilaria verrucosa. Three sets of experiments were used and each experiment was conducted separately in 3 different season (factor W). Three factors and the interaction, that is, stocking seasons (W1: March-June;. W2 : July-October and W3 : November-February), Oxygen supply (O, with or without supply aeration of 6.5 ppm) and light intensity (with or without addition of light 640 lux) was observed. The experiment was conducted in 16 polyethilen net place in concrete tanks (1.2 m3). Shrimp (average weight 0.1 g and lenght 1.2 cm) with density 94 shrimp/m3 and seaweed 2.188 g/m3, cultured for 94 days. Data collected included absolute growth, specific growth rate (SGR), survival rate (SR) and biomass production of shrimp and seaweed. The result showed that culture period March to June, additonal light and suply DO gave the best result with shrimp absolute growth 13.23 g, SGR 5.09 %/day, SR 99.64 % and biomass production 1.256.36 g/m3. Absolute growth of G. verrucosa was 5.223.75g, SGR 268 %/day and biomass production 12.608.55 g/m3.

  18. Bacterial dynamics in intestines of the black tiger shrimp and the Pacific white shrimp during Vibrio harveyi exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota play important roles in health of their host, contributing to maintaining the balance and resilience against pathogen. To investigate effects of pathogen to intestinal microbiota, the bacterial dynamics upon a shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi, exposures were determined in two economically important shrimp species; the black tiger shrimp (BT) and the Pacific white shrimp (PW). Both shrimp species were reared under the same diet and environmental conditions. Shrimp survival rates after the V. harveyi exposure revealed that the PW shrimp had a higher resistance to the pathogen than the BT shrimp. The intestinal bacterial profiles were determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA sequences under no pathogen challenge control and under pathogenic V. harveyi challenge. The DGGE profiles showed that the presence of V. harveyi altered the intestinal bacterial patterns in comparison to the control in BT and PW intestines. This implies that bacterial balance in shrimp intestines was disrupted in the presence of V. harveyi. The barcoded pyrosequencing analysis showed the similar bacterial community structures in intestines of BT and PW shrimp under a normal condition. However, during the time course exposure to V. harveyi, the relative abundance of bacteria belong to Vibrio genus was higher in the BT intestines at 12h after the exposure, whereas relative abundance of vibrios was more stable in PW intestines. The principle coordinates analysis based on weighted-UniFrac analysis showed that intestinal bacterial population in the BT shrimp lost their ability to restore their bacterial balance during the 72-h period of exposure to the pathogen, while the PW shrimp were able to reestablish their bacterial population to resemble those seen in the unexposed control group. This observation of bacterial disruption might correlate to different mortality rates observed between the two shrimp species

  19. adoption of improved aquaculture practices by shrimp farmers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Adesope

    use of check trays and adjustment of feed accordingly (95.0%), formation of ... Key words: adoption, improved aquaculture, shrimp farmers ... Brackish water shrimp farming is getting more attention because of high profitability ..... water and pond water whereas 52.5% of farmers did not observe the actual acclimatisation.

  20. Shrimp Tropomyosin Retains Antibody Reactivity after Exposure to Acidic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although shrimp can be found in certain high acid food matrices, the allergenic capacity of shrimp tropomyosin exposed to low pH condition has not been fully clarified. Thus, a model marinade comprising white vinegar adjusted to different pH was used to determine the effects of acid-induced denatura...

  1. Biology, genome organization and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of parvoviruses are now know to infect marine shrimp, and these viruses alone or in combination with other viruses have the potential to cause major losses in shrimp aquaculture globally. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the biology, genome organization, gene expression, and...

  2. Controlled reproduction of penaeid shrimp: a contribution to its improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfaro Montoya, J.

    2001-01-01

    This dissertation deals with controlled reproduction of penaeid shrimp. New knowledge about natural reproductive activity of Penaeus occidentalis in Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica, is presented. Since in vitro fertilization of open thelycum shrimp proved unsuccessful, a hypothesis is given to

  3. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinh, Le Xuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…

  4. Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) Recruitment in West Greenland Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. A.; Storm, L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Lipid class and fatty acid compositions were determined in shrimp larvae (Pandalus borealis and P. montagui) collected along transects across banks on the West Greenland shelf in June 1999, May and July 2000. The lipid class contents were investigated as indices of larval shrimp lipid condition a...

  5. Defensive enrolment in mantis shrimp larvae (Malacostraca: Stomatopoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haug, C.; Haug, J.T.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a possible new defensive behaviour of larval stages of mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda). Mantis shrimp larvae are rarely observed in nature, thus the study is based on postures of museum material and functional morphological aspects. Specimens described here are tightly enrolled, their pleon

  6. Pink shrimp as an indicator for restoration of everglades ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, familiar to most Floridians as either food or bait shrimp, is ubiquitous in South Florida coastal and offshore waters and is proposed as an indicator for assessing restoration of South Florida's southern estuaries: Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the mangrove estuaries of the lower southwest coast. Relationships between pink shrimp and salinity have been determined in both field and laboratory studies. Salinity is directly relevant to restoration because the salinity regimes of South Florida estuaries, critical nursery habitat for the pink shrimp, will be altered by changes in the quantity, timing, and distribution of freshwater inflow planned as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project (CERP). Here we suggest performance measures based on pink shrimp density (number per square meter) in the estuaries and propose a restoration assessment and scoring scheme using these performance measures that can readily be communicated to managers, policy makers, and the interested public. The pink shrimp is an appropriate restoration indicator because of its ecological as well as its economic importance and also because scientific interest in pink shrimp in South Florida has produced a wealth of information about the species and relatively long time series of data on both juveniles in estuarine nursery habitats and adults on the fishing grounds. We suggest research needs for improving the pink shrimp performance measure.

  7. Population Structure and Recruitment of Penaeid Shrimps from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    larger shrimps located in deeper waters (Brito et al.,. 1998; Abdula ... species, the role of the shallow coastal areas (less than 8-10 m) of the ... and define the recruitment season of penaeid shrimps ... later processing in the laboratory. A 0.5 L ...

  8. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavinck, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing metier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested metier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers…

  9. Carriage of vibrio species by shrimps harvested from the coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Vibrio spp in unprocessed shrimps and their susceptibility to antibiotics. Design: A prospective study of Vibrio spp associated with shrimps harvested from the coastal waters of South West Cameroon. Setting: A laboratory based study at the Department of Life Sciences, University ...

  10. Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, Saori; Boopathy, Raj

    2011-07-01

    Shrimp farming accounts for more than 40% of the world shrimp production. Luminous vibriosis is a shrimp disease that causes major economic losses in the shrimp industry as a result of massive shrimp kills due to infection. Some farms in the South Asia use antibiotics to control Vibrio harveyi, a responsible pathogen for luminous vibriosis. However, the antibiotic-resistant strain was found recently in many shrimp farms, which makes it necessary to develop alternative pathogen control methods. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolic products of organisms, and they have been used as food preservatives for a long time. Organic acids are also commonly added in feeds in animal husbandry, but not in aquaculture. In this study, growth inhibitory effects of short-chain fatty acids, namely formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, on V. harveyi were investigated. Among four acids, formic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.035% formic acid suppressed growth of V. harveyi. The major inhibitory mechanism seems to be the pH effect of organic acids. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) values at 96 h inoculation for all organic acids were determined to be 0.023, 0.041, 0.03, and 0.066% for formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, respectively. The laboratory study results are encouraging to formulate shrimp feeds with organic acids to control vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture farms.

  11. Molecular variations in Vibrio alginolyticus and V. harveyi in shrimp-farming systems upon stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anix Vivek Santhyia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed to investigate the genomic variations in the shrimp farm isolates of Vibrio alginolyticus and V. harveyi when the isolates were subjected to environmental stress. Samples of shrimps, water and sediment were collected from Southern Indian coastal shrimp farms. Vibrio isolates were biochemically identified and confirmed using 16S rDNA and gyrB gene specific PCR. The bacterial strains were genotyped by PCR fingerprinting using GTG(5 and IS (Insertion Sequence primers. Seven strains each of V. alginolyticus and V. harveyi were subjected to 10 passages through trypticase soya broth (TSB, which contained different NaCl concentrations (3, 6 and 8% and trypticase soya agar (TSA. V. alginolyticus was also passaged through TSB with a 12% NaCl concentration. PCR fingerprinting, which was performed on the strains that were passaged through different salt concentrations, confirmed that V. alginolyticus and V. harveyi could affect the genomic variations, depending on the environmental conditions of the culture. The study highlights the complex genotypic variations that occur in Vibrio strains of tropical aquatic environment because of varied environmental conditions, which result in genetic divergence and/or probable convergence. Such genetic divergence and/or convergence can lead to the organismal adaptive variation, which results in their ability to cause a productive infection in aquatic organisms or generation of new strains.

  12. 78 FR 50383 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Republic of Indonesia: Final Negative Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Packing Co., Inc.; Lafitte Frozen Foods Corp.; M&M Shrimp (Biloxi Freezing and Processing); Ocean Springs... to as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on or... Facilities for LTAR 21. Government Provision of Shrimp Breeding Stock and Seed for LTAR 22. Government Loans...

  13. Influence of Thermal Preparation Method on Mineral Composition of Shrimps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Valentin GORAN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study goal was to evaluate the effects of 3 different cooking methods (boiling, roasting, and microwaving on mineral concentrations of shrimps from the Bucharest market. Mineral content in shrimp samples was evaluated by ICP-OES, and relative humidity was assessed by thermogravimetry. Cooking method insignificantly influenced the level of Fe. Ca and K levels were higher in cooked samples compared to raw shrimps, independent of cooking method. Essential (Cu, Se, and Zn, and non-essential and toxic (Al, Cd, Ni, and Pb elements levels were significantly increased in boiled shrimps, compared to raw and the other 2 types of cooked samples. Generally, after cooking the lowest values of essential trace elements concentration was registered in roasted samples. The highest percentage of water loss was found in boiled samples. In general, thermal preparation increased mineral concentrations in cooked samples compared to raw shrimps.

  14. Efficient use of shrimp waste: present and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandra, Prameela; Challa, Murali Mohan; Jyothi, Hemalatha Kalangi Padma

    2012-01-01

    The production of shrimp waste from shrimp processing industries has undergone a dramatic increase in recent years. Continued production of this biomaterial without corresponding development of utilizing technology has resulted in waste collection, disposal, and pollution problems. Currently used chemical process releases toxic chemicals such as HCl, acetic acid, and NaOH into aquatic ecosystem as byproducts which will spoil the aquatic flora and fauna. Environmental protection regulations have become stricter. Now, there is a need to treat and utilize the waste in most efficient manner. The shrimp waste contains several bioactive compounds such as chitin, pigments, amino acids, and fatty acids. These bioactive compounds have a wide range of applications including medical, therapies, cosmetics, paper, pulp and textile industries, biotechnology, and food applications. This current review article present the utilization of shrimp waste as well as an alternative technology to replace hazardous chemical method that address the future trends in total utilization of shrimp waste for recovery of bioactive compounds.

  15. Study on irradiation preservation of frozen shelled shrimps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunquan; Zhu Jiating; Zhao Yongfu; Yu Gang; Zhang Weidong; Jin Yudong; Ji Ping

    2004-01-01

    The effect of irradiaiton preservation of frozen shelled shrimps for export was studied. The microbial indexd, nutritional ingredient, physico-chemical index for irradiation frozen shelled shrimps were detected. The results showed that 3-5 kGy irradiation dose could kill more than 99% of all kinds of microorganisms in frozen shelled shrimps, the content of most amino acids in shelled shrimps increased, after being irradiated by 1-9 kGy dose, the total amino acids had been obvisouly higher than CK, the increased range was 0.33%-24.6%, the content of the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) decreased. Compared with the CK, the content of the heavy metal elements etc had no obvious change, the presrvation duration of irradiated shelled shrimp was twelve months longer than that of CK when storage temperature was under -7 degree C soft frozen, Compared with -18 degree C the effect of irradiation preservation had no obvious change. (authors)

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of the Hepatopancreas in the Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under Acute Ammonia Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xia; Kong, Jie; Luan, Sheng; Dai, Ping; Meng, Xianhong; Cao, Baoxiang; Luo, Kun

    2016-01-01

    In the practical farming of Litopenaeus vannamei, the intensive culture system and environmental pollution usually results in a high concentration of ammonia, which usually brings large detrimental effects to shrimp, such as increasing the susceptibility to pathogens, reducing growth, decreasing osmoregulatory capacity, increasing the molting frequency, and even causing high mortality. However, little information is available on the molecular mechanisms of the detrimental effects of ammonia stress in shrimp. In this study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis between ammonia-challenged and control groups from the same family of L. vannamei to identify the key genes and pathways response to ammonia stress. The comparative transcriptome analysis identified 136 significantly differentially expressed genes that have high homologies with the known proteins in aquatic species, among which 94 genes are reported potentially related to immune function, and the rest of the genes are involved in apoptosis, growth, molting, and osmoregulation. Fourteen GO terms and 6 KEGG pathways were identified to be significantly changed by ammonia stress. In these GO terms, 13 genes have been studied in aquatic species, and 11 of them were reported potentially involved in immune defense and two genes were related to molting. In the significantly changed KEGG pathways, all the 7 significantly changed genes have been reported in shrimp, and four of them were potentially involved in immune defense and the other three were related to molting, defending toxicity, and osmoregulation, respectively. In addition, majority of the significantly changed genes involved in nitrogen metabolisms that play an important role in reducing ammonia toxicity failed to perform the protection function. The present results have supplied molecular level support for the previous founding of the detrimental effects of ammonia stress in shrimp, which is a prerequisite for better understanding the molecular

  17. Suppression of Shrimp Melanization during White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthangkul, Jantiwan; Amparyup, Piti; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2015-01-01

    The melanization cascade, activated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system, plays a key role in the production of cytotoxic intermediates, as well as melanin products for microbial sequestration in invertebrates. Here, we show that the proPO system is an important component of the Penaeus monodon shrimp immune defense toward a major viral pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Gene silencing of PmproPO(s) resulted in increased cumulative shrimp mortality after WSSV infection, whereas incubation of WSSV with an in vitro melanization reaction prior to injection into shrimp significantly increased the shrimp survival rate. The hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity of WSSV-infected shrimp was extremely reduced at days 2 and 3 post-injection compared with uninfected shrimp but was fully restored after the addition of exogenous trypsin, suggesting that WSSV probably inhibits the activity of some proteinases in the proPO cascade. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation assays, the viral protein WSSV453 was found to interact with the proPO-activating enzyme 2 (PmPPAE2) of P. monodon. Gene silencing of WSSV453 showed a significant increase of PO activity in WSSV-infected shrimp, whereas co-silencing of WSSV453 and PmPPAE2 did not, suggesting that silencing of WSSV453 partially restored the PO activity via PmPPAE2 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Moreover, the activation of PO activity in shrimp plasma by PmPPAE2 was significantly decreased by preincubation with recombinant WSSV453. These results suggest that the inhibition of the shrimp proPO system by WSSV partly occurs via the PmPPAE2-inhibiting activity of WSSV453. PMID:25572398

  18. Suppression of shrimp melanization during white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthangkul, Jantiwan; Amparyup, Piti; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2015-03-06

    The melanization cascade, activated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system, plays a key role in the production of cytotoxic intermediates, as well as melanin products for microbial sequestration in invertebrates. Here, we show that the proPO system is an important component of the Penaeus monodon shrimp immune defense toward a major viral pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Gene silencing of PmproPO(s) resulted in increased cumulative shrimp mortality after WSSV infection, whereas incubation of WSSV with an in vitro melanization reaction prior to injection into shrimp significantly increased the shrimp survival rate. The hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity of WSSV-infected shrimp was extremely reduced at days 2 and 3 post-injection compared with uninfected shrimp but was fully restored after the addition of exogenous trypsin, suggesting that WSSV probably inhibits the activity of some proteinases in the proPO cascade. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation assays, the viral protein WSSV453 was found to interact with the proPO-activating enzyme 2 (PmPPAE2) of P. monodon. Gene silencing of WSSV453 showed a significant increase of PO activity in WSSV-infected shrimp, whereas co-silencing of WSSV453 and PmPPAE2 did not, suggesting that silencing of WSSV453 partially restored the PO activity via PmPPAE2 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Moreover, the activation of PO activity in shrimp plasma by PmPPAE2 was significantly decreased by preincubation with recombinant WSSV453. These results suggest that the inhibition of the shrimp proPO system by WSSV partly occurs via the PmPPAE2-inhibiting activity of WSSV453. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Modeling Transfer of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus During Peeling of Raw Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xingning; Pang, Haiying; Wang, Wen; Fang, Weihuan; Fu, Yingchun; Li, Yanbin

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to qualify the transfer of Vibrio parahaemolyticus during the shrimp peeling process via gloves under 3 different scenarios. The 1st 2 scenarios provided quantitative information for the probability distribution of bacterial transfer rates from (i) contaminated shrimp (6 log CFU/g) to non-contaminated gloves (Scenario 1) and (ii) contaminated gloves (6 log CFU/per pair) to non-contaminated shrimp (Scenario 2). In Scenario 3, bacterial transfer from contaminated shrimp to non-contaminated shrimp in the shrimp peeling process via gloves was investigated to develop a predictive model for describing the successive bacterial transfer. The range of bacterial transfer rate (%) in Scenarios 1 and 2 was 7% to 91.95% and 0.04% to 12.87%, respectively, indicating that the bacteria can be transferred from shrimp to gloves much easier than that from gloves to shrimp. A Logistic (1.59, 0.14) and Triangle distribution (-1.61, 0.12, 1.32) could be used to describe the bacterial transfer rate in Scenarios 1 and 2, respectively. In Scenario 3, a continuously decay patterning with fluctuations as the peeling progressed has been observed at all inoculation levels of the 1st shrimp (5, 6, and 7 log CFU/g). The bacteria could be transferred easier at 1st few peels, and the decreasing bacterial transfer was found in later phase. Two models (exponential and Weibull) could describe the successive bacterial transfer satisfactorily (pseudo-R 2 > 0.84, RMSE peeling process. The bacterial transfer rate distribution and predictive model derived from this work could be used in risk assessment of V. parahaemolyticus to ensure peeled shrimp safety. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Apparent carbohydrate and lipid digestibility of feeds for whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae, cultivated at different salinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Gucic

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most commercially farmed species worldwide because of its fast growth, good survival rate at high farming densities, and osmoregulatory capacity, which makes it an excellent candidate for cultures at different salinities. The knowledge of shrimp nutritional requirements is critical in the formulation of diets to allow optimal growth at different environmental conditions and development stages. The effect of salinity on apparent digestibility of shrimp feed is not well known, and this information is required in shrimp diet formulation. For this purpose, the apparent digestibility coefficients of carbohydrates (ACD and lipids (ALD were determined for juvenile whiteleg shrimps under controlled culture conditions. We evaluated the apparent digestibility of six commercial (D1:37CP, D2:38CP, D3:39CP, D4:34CP, D5:35CP, and D6:37CP and two experimental (E1:33CP and E2:33CP diets for juvenile whiteleg shrimp cultivated at three salinities (5, 35 and 50psu in 60L aquariums. ACD and ALD were determined in vivo using chromic oxide as an inert marker. Our results showed that ALD in most cases was over 80%, independent of salinity, except the E1:33CPdiet which had 74.0% at 50psu. Diet D3:39CP showed the highest ALD coefficient (90.1 and 90.6% at 5 and 35psu, respectively. For ACD, differences were detected between commercial and experimental diets at every salinity level, although salinity effect on ACD was not significant. Diet D4:34CP had the highest coefficient (92.4% at 5psu, and E2:33CP at 35 and 50psu (97.3 and 94.7%. This study demonstrated that there is no significant effect of saline variations on carbohydrate and lipid digestibility by juvenile whiteleg shrimp, under the experimental conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 61 (3: 1201-1213. Epub 2013 September 01.

  1. Risk factors associated with white spot syndrome virus infection in a Vietnamese rice-shrimp farming system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsin, F; Turnbull, J F; Hao, N V; Mohan, C V; Phi, T T; Phuoc, L H; Tinh, N T; Morgan, K L

    2001-10-29

    White spot disease (WSD) is a pandemic disease caused by a virus commonly known as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Several risk factors for WSD outbreaks have been suggested. However, there have been very few studies to identify risk factors for WSD outbreaks in culture systems. This paper presents and discusses the risk factors for WSSV infection identified during a longitudinal observational study conducted in a Vietnamese rice-shrimp farming system. A total of 158 variables were measured comprising location, features of the pond, management practices, pond bottom quality, shrimp health and other animals in the pond. At the end of the study period WSSV was detected in 15 of the 24 ponds followed through the production cycle (62.5%). One hundred and thirty-nine variables were used in univariate analyses. All the variables with a p-value Hemigrapsus spp. crabs during the first month of production, feeding vitamin premix or legumes, presence of high numbers of shrimp with bacterial infection and the presence of larger mud crabs or gobies at harvest. No associations were detected with WSSV at harvest and stocking density, presence, or number or weight of wild shrimp in the pond. The multivariate model to identify outcomes associated with WSSV infection highlighted the presence of high mortality as the main variable explaining the data. The results obtained from this study are discussed in the context of WSD control and areas requiring further investigation are suggested.

  2. Immunization with Hypoallergens of shrimp allergen tropomyosin inhibits shrimp tropomyosin specific IgE reactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Y Y Wai

    Full Text Available Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1 has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49 and epitope deletion (MED171. Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy.

  3. Effects of dietary chlorogenic acid on growth performance, antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal condition and combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Li, Zheng; Li, Jian; Duan, Ya-Fei; Niu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Huang, Zhong; Lin, Hei-Zhao

    2015-04-01

    An eight-week feeding trial followed by an acute combined stress test of low-salinity and nitrite were performed to evaluate effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on growth performance and antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp were randomly allocated in 12 tanks (30 shrimp per tank) and triplicate tanks were fed with a control diet or diets containing different levels of CGA (100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) feed) as treatment groups. Growth performance including weight gain (WG), biomass gain (BG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed intake were determined after feeding for 56 days. Antioxidant capacity were evaluated by determining the activity of total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) as well as the gene expression of GSH-Px and CAT in the hepatopancreas of shrimp at the end of feeding trial and again at the end of the combined stress test. The results indicated that supplemention of CGA had no significant effects on the growth performance and the activities of TAS, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT in hepatopancreas of shrimp cultured under normal conditions for 56 days. However, compared with the control group, CGA (200, 400 mg kg(-1) feed) significantly improved the resistance of L. vannamei against the combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite, as indicated by the significant (P shrimp treated with CGA in the combined tress test. Our findings suggested that CGA possessed dual-modulatory effects on antioxidant capacity of L. vannamei and could be a potential feed additive that can enhance shrimp resistance against environmental stresses. The recommended application dosage is 200 mg kg(-1) and further studies are needed to clarify the action model of CGA efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Donde Estan los Estudiantes Puertorriquenos/os Exitosos? [Where Are the Academically Successful Puerto Rican Students?]: Success Factors of High-Achieving Puerto Rican High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antrop-Gonzalez, Rene; Velez, William; Garrett, Tomas

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the 4 success factors that 10 working class Puerto Rican urban high school students attributed to their high academic achievement. These success factors were (a) the acquisition of social capital through religiosity and participation in school and community-based extracurricular activities, (b) having a strong Puerto Rican…

  5. A New Destination for "The Flying Bus"?: The Implications of Orlando-Rican Migration for Luis Rafael Sanchez's "La guagua aerea"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreneche, Gabriel Ignacio; Lombardi, Jane; Ramos-Flores, Hector

    2012-01-01

    Puerto Rican author Luis Rafael Sanchez's "La guagua aerea" explores the duality, hybridity, and fluidity of US-Puerto Rican identity through the frequent travel of migrants between New York City (the traditional destination city for Puerto Rican migrants) and the island. In recent years, however, the "flying bus" has adopted a…

  6. Examining the influence of family environments on youth violence: a comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, non-Latino Black, and non-Latino White adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martínez, Lorena M; Padilla, Mark B; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo

    2011-08-01

    Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of familism, we examine differences in the risk for severe youth violence, as well its associations with family cohesion, parental engagement, adolescent autonomy, household composition, and immigrant generation among Mexican (n = 1,594), Puerto Rican (n = 586), Cuban (n = 488), and non-Latino Black (n = 4,053), and White (n = 9,921) adolescents with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicate a gradient of risk; White youth had the lowest risk for severe violence and Puerto Rican youth had the highest risk compared to all other racial/ethnic subgroups. Within-group analysis indicates that family factors are not universally protective or risk-inducing. While family cohesion decreased the risk of severe violence among all groups, parental engagement was associated with increased risk among Blacks and Whites, and adolescent autonomy was associated with increased risk among Puerto Ricans and Cubans. In addition, Cuban and White adolescents who lived in single parent households or who did not live with their parents, had higher risk for severe violent behaviors than their counterparts who lived in two parent households. Among Latinos, the association of immigrant generation was in opposite directions among Mexicans and Cubans. We conclude that family and immigration factors differentially influence risk for violence among Latino subgroups and highlight the significance of examining subgroup differences and developing intervention strategies that are tailored to the needs of each ethnic subgroup.

  7. Feeding Practices and Expectations among Middle-Class Anglo and Puerto Rican Mothers of 12-Month-Old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Pamela A.; Harwood, Robin L.; Schoelmerich, Axel

    2001-01-01

    Investigated differences in beliefs and practices about infant feeding among middle class Anglo and Puerto Rican mothers. Interviews and observations indicated that Anglo mothers reported earlier attainment of self-feeding and more emphasis on child rearing goals related to self-maximization. Puerto Rican mothers reported later attainment of…

  8. Carbohydrate nutrition differs by diabetes status and is associated with dyslipidemia in Boston Puerto Rican adults without diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rican adults have a greater prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and lower HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) than the general U.S. population. Carbohydrate nutrition may play a role in this disparity. Cross-sectional analyses included data from 1219 Puerto Ricans aged 45-75 y enrolled in the Boston Puer...

  9. Bargaining power and revenue distribution in the Costa Rican mango chain: a gaming simulation approach with local producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuniga Arias, G.E.; Meijer, S.; Ruben, R.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    By the time a European consumer eats a Costa Rican mango, the product has been traded in several transactions between producers, traders, retailers and consumers. This paper investigates the position of Costa Rican smallholders in the mango supply chain in terms of bargaining power and revenue

  10. Effects of dietary inulin and mannan oligosaccharide on immune related genes expression and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Liu, Hong; Dai, Xilin; Li, Jingjing; Ding, Fujiang

    2018-05-01

    The effects of inulin and mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) at different doses (2.5, 4 and 10 mg/g) in singular or combined diet on growth rate, immune related genes expression, and resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio alginolyticus in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were investigated. At the end of 28-day singular feeding experiment, the highest values of specific growth rate (SGR) and the expression of toll-like receptor1, 2 and 3 (TLR1, 2, 3), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), crustin, anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) as well as prophenoloxidase (proPO) were observed in shrimp individually fed with 5 mg/g dietary inulin or MOS, respectively. Compared with individual treatments, diet containing combined prebiotics (5 mg/g inulin and MOS) significantly improved the expression of TLRs, STAT, proPO, crustin and ALF in L. vannamei after four-week feeding. Additionally, Pacific white shrimp fed with combined dietary prebiotics showed significantly higher expression of immune related genes and lower cumulative mortality in WSSV and Vibrio alginolyticus challenges, compared to the singular feeding groups and control. These results in the present study demonstrated that the combined supplementation of inulin (5 mg/g) and MOS (5 mg/g) remarkably enhanced innate immune response and pathogen resistance of shrimp, and should be considered as a promising immunostimulatory additive for the culture of Pacific white shrimp. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Transcriptome, antioxidant enzyme activity and histopathology analysis of hepatopancreas from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed with aflatoxin B1(AFB1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Lei; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Wang, Mengqiang; Yang, Guang; Qi, Cancan; Wang, Baojie

    2017-09-01

    Aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus or Aspergillus parasiticus fungi during grain and feed processing and storage. Aflatoxins cause severe health problems reducing the yield and profitability of shrimp cultures. We sought to understand the interaction between shrimp immunity and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), analyzing transcriptome expression, antioxidant enzyme activity, and histological features of the hepatopancreas of shrimp fed with AFB1. From over 4 million high-quality reads, de novo unigene assembly produced 103,644 fully annotated genes. A total of 1024 genes were differentially expressed in shrimp fed with AFB1, being involved in functions, such as peroxidase metabolism, signal transduction, transcriptional control, apoptosis, proteolysis, endocytosis, and cell adhesion and cell junction. Upon AFB1 challenge, there were severe histological alterations in shrimp hepatopancreas. AFB1 challenge increased the activity of several antioxidant enzymes. Our data contribute to improve the current understanding of host-AFB1 interaction, providing an abundant source for identification of novel genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Adding the White Legged Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei on Growth and Survival of Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon in Intensive Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Tarsim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in the framework of a project to develop a viable shrimp polyculture technology under intensive farming. The objectives were to assess the effect of adding white legged shrimp (Penaeus vannamei on growth and survival of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon in intensive Farming. Tiger shrimp were stocked in 2800-3400 m2 earthen ponds at 40 individuals/m2 and reared for 133 days. White legged shrimp added at 70 day at 8±2 individuals/m2. Growth rate and total yield affected by addition of this species. Final  affected by white legged shrimp addition. No adding effects were found on the water quality parameters. The results indicate that, at densities tested, white legged shrimp addition to the intensive farming of tiger shrimp polyculture is viable as species increase crop production Key words: Penaeus vannamei, P. monodon, growth, survival, polyculture

  13. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  14. Analyzing the development of Indonesia shrimp industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wati, L. A.

    2018-04-01

    This research aimed to analyze the development of shrimp industry in Indonesia. Porter’s Diamond Theory was used for analysis. The Porter’s Diamond theory is one of framework for industry analysis and business strategy development. The Porter’s Diamond theory has five forces that determine the competitive intensity in an industry, namely (1) the threat of substitute products, (2) the threat of competition, (3) the threat of new entrants, (4) bargaining power of suppliers, and (5) bargaining power of consumers. The development of Indonesian shrimp industry pretty good, explained by Porter Diamond Theory analysis. Analysis of Porter Diamond Theory through four main components namely factor conditions; demand condition; related and supporting industries; and firm strategy, structure and rivalry coupled with a two-component supporting (regulatory the government and the factor of chance). Based on the result of this research show that two-component supporting (regulatory the government and the factor of chance) have positive. Related and supporting industries have negative, firm and structure strategy have negative, rivalry has positive, factor condition have positive (except science and technology resources).

  15. Determination of Contamination Profiles of Human Bacterial Pathogens in Shrimp Obtained from Java, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewanti-Hariyadi, R. [Center for Assessment of Traditional Foods, Department of Food Technology and Human Nutrition, Bogor Agricultural University (Indonesia); Suliantari,; Nuraida, L. [Department of Food Technology and Human Nutrition, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Bogor Agricultural University (Indonesia); Fardiaz, S. [Inter University for Food and Nutrition, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor (Indonesia)

    2005-01-15

    Shrimp continues to be an important export commodity for Indonesia and contributed significantly to the country’s revenue. However, shrimp exports have been frequently rejected by importing countries due to filth, Salmonella and insanitary conditions. This study was conducted to evaluate the profiles of bacterial contamination of ocean and aquaculture shrimp obtained from the area of West, Central and East Java; frozen shrimp and shrimp during industry production of frozen shrimp. The study indicated that both ocean and aquaculture shrimp obtained from the study area were heavily contaminated. On the average, shrimp obtained from West Java were more contaminated than those obtained from East and Central Java. The total bacterial counts were generally higher in ocean shrimp than those of aquaculture ones. Salmonella was present in two of 32 samples of ocean shrimp and in four of 32 samples of aquaculture shrimp obtained from the study area. Vibrio cholerae was not detected in shrimp from West Java, but was found in three out of 16 samples obtained from East and Central Java. V. parahaemolyticus was frequently identified in aquaculture shrimp but absent in fresh ocean shrimp. Studies on shrimp collected from six sampling points during frozen shrimp production revealed that processing will reduce the number of total bacterial, E. coli, and Staphylococal counts. However, the processing did not effectively reduce the incidence of Salmonella or V. parahaemolyticus when the raw material has been contaminated with the pathogens. Sizing and grading as well as arrangement of shrimp before freezing were considered as the critical points where bacteria should be controlled to inhibit growth and cross contamination with bacteria such as Listeria. Implementation of Good Agricultural Practices in production of raw shrimp as well as Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point at the line processing are expected to improve the quality of fresh and frozen shrimp. (author)

  16. Performance of a constructed wetland treating intensive shrimp aquaculture wastewater under high hydraulic loading rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.-F.; Jing, S.-R.; Lee, D.-Y.; Chang, Y.-F.; Chen, Y.-M.; Shih, K.-C.

    2005-01-01

    A water treatment unit, mainly consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetland cells, was integrated into a commercial-scale recirculating aquaculture system for intensive shrimp culture. This study investigated performance of the treatment wetlands for controlling water quality. The results showed that the FWS-SF cells effectively removed total suspended solids (55-66%), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (37-54%), total ammonia (64-66%) and nitrite (83-94%) from the recirculating water under high hydraulic loading rates (1.57-1.95 m/day). This led to a water quality that was suitable for shrimp culture and effluent that always satisfied the discharge standards. The area ratios of wetlands to culture tank being demonstrated (0.43) and calculated (0.096) in this study were both significantly lower than the reported values. Accordingly, a constructed wetland was technically and economically feasible for managing water quality of an intensive aquaculture system. - A constructed wetland was found to be technically and economically feasible for managing water quality of an intensive recirculating aquaculture system

  17. Enamel lesions in development, classification in Costa Rican families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo Knudsen, Gina; Berrocal Salazar, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Enamel lesions in development were identified and classified in patients of Llano Grande de Cartago, examined at the Facultad de Odontologia of the Universidad de Costa Rica. A guide is provided over the topic. 15 children and 2 Costa Rican adults were selected. Clinical examinations, radiographs and clinical photographs were used as data collection method. Dental defects of the enamel were classified according to the possible genetic causes and without genetic causes. Imperfect Amelogenesis (IA) was diagnosed in 10 of patients. Hypoplastic IA was determined in 3 siblings with autosomal recessive inheritance, for 16% of the total sample. Hypomineralized IA was identified in an adult and two of his sons, with autosomal dominant inheritance. The remaining 4 cases of IA have been sporadic. Lesions of dental fluorosis were determined in the Horowitz index in 4 individuals, from 2 unrelated families. Other defects unspecified of the enamel or hypoplasias were found in 3 individuals. Enamel lesions in development should be classified with precision, for the purpose to inform to patients affected about their condition, origin, prognosis and appropriate treatment. The basis are established to implement reliability in the construction of family genealogy, identification and classification of enamel lesions, as well as the probabilities of future generations to express the lesions in the enamel of temporary or permanent dentition [es

  18. A Nonluminescent and Highly Virulent Vibrio harveyi Strain Is Associated with “Bacterial White Tail Disease” of Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by “white tail” and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of “white tail” but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as “bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)”. Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system. PMID:22383954

  19. Nursery Culture Performance of Litopenaeus vannamei with Probiotics Addition and Different C/N Ratio Under Laboratory Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIDANARNI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of bioflocs technology and probiotics has improved water quality and production of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei culture. This experiment was to verify the effect of probiotic bacteria addition and different carbon:nitrogen (C:N ratio on water quality and performance of Pacific white shrimp nursery culture. Nursery culture was carried out for 25 days in an aquarium under laboratory condition with stock density of one Post-Larvae (PL (poslarval per liter (24 PL/aquarium of PL16 shrimp. Different C:N ratio resulted a significant difference on shrimp production performance. Treatment of 10 C:N ratio demonstrated the best shrimp growth (20.37 + 0.48% per day in weight and 6.05 + 0.41% per day in length, harvesting yield (1180 + 62 g/m3 and feed efficiency (121 + 6%. There was however no significant difference observed between treatments in water quality.

  20. Nursery Culture Performance of Litopenaeus vannamei with Probiotics Addition and Different C/N Ratio Under Laboratory Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIDANARNI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of bioflocs technology and probiotics has improved water quality and production of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei culture. This experiment was to verify the effect of probiotic bacteria addition and different carbon:nitrogen (C:N ratio on water quality and performance of Pacific white shrimp nursery culture. Nursery culture was carried out for 25 days in an aquarium under laboratory condition with stock density of one Post-Larvae (PL (poslarval per liter (24 PL/aquarium of PL16 shrimp. Different C:N ratio resulted a significant difference on shrimp production performance. Treatment of 10 C:N ratio demonstrated the best shrimp growth (20.37 ± 0.48% per day in weight and 6.05 ± 0.41% per day in length, harvesting yield (1180 ± 62 g/m3 and feed efficiency (121 ± 6%. There was however no significant difference observed between treatments in water quality.

  1. Perceived discrimination and health among Puerto Rican and Mexican Americans: buffering effect of the Lazo matrimonial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Ah; Ferraro, Kenneth F

    2009-06-01

    An emerging body of research shows that perceived discrimination adversely influences the mental health of minority populations, but is it also deleterious to physical health? If yes, can marriage buffer the effect of perceived discrimination on physical health? We address these questions with data from Puerto Rican and Mexican American residents of Chicago. Multivariate regression analyses reveal that perceived discrimination is associated with more physical health problems for both Puerto Rican and Mexican Americans. In addition, an interaction effect between marital status and perceived discrimination was observed: married Mexican Americans with higher perceived discrimination had fewer physical health problems than their unmarried counterparts even after adjusting for differential effects of marriage by nativity. The findings reveal that perceived discrimination is detrimental to the physical health of both Puerto Rican and Mexican Americans, but that the stress-buffering effect of marriage on physical health exists for Mexican Americans only.

  2. Greater epitope recognition of shrimp allergens by children than by adults suggests that shrimp sensitization decreases with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Rosalía; Sánchez-Garcia, Silvia; Lin, Jing; Fu, Zhiyan; Ibáñez, María Dolores; Carrillo, Teresa; Blanco, Carlos; Goldis, Marina; Bardina, Ludmila; Sastre, Joaquín; Sampson, Hugh A

    2010-06-01

    Shellfish allergy is a long-lasting disorder typically affecting adults. Despite its high prevalence, there is limited information about allergenic shrimp proteins and the epitopes implicated in such allergic reactions. We sought to identify the IgE-binding epitopes of the 4 shrimp allergens and to characterize epitope recognition profiles of children and adults with shrimp allergy. Fifty-three subjects, 34 children and 19 adults, were selected with immediate allergic reactions to shrimp, increased shrimp-specific serum IgE levels, and positive immunoblot binding to shrimp. Study subjects and 7 nonatopic control subjects were tested by means of peptide microarray for IgE binding with synthetic overlapping peptides spanning the sequences of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp tropomyosin, arginine kinase (AK), myosin light chain (MLC), and sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein (SCP). The Wilcoxon test was used to determine significant differences in z scores between patients and control subjects. The median shrimp IgE level was 4-fold higher in children than in adults (47 vs 12.5 kU(A)/L). The frequency of allergen recognition was higher in children (tropomyosin, 81% [94% for children and 61% for adults]; MLC, 57% [70% for children and 31% for adults]; AK, 51% [67% for children and 21% for adults]; and SCP, 45% [59% for children and 21% for adults]), whereas control subjects showed negligible binding. Seven IgE-binding regions were identified in tropomyosin by means of peptide microarray, confirming previously identified shrimp epitopes. In addition, 3 new epitopes were identified in tropomyosin (epitopes 1, 3, and 5b-c), 5 epitopes were identified in MLC, 3 epitopes were identified in SCP, and 7 epitopes were identified in AK. Interestingly, frequency of individual epitope recognition, as well as intensity of IgE binding, was significantly greater in children than in adults for all 4 proteins. Children with shrimp allergy have greater shrimp-specific IgE antibody levels and

  3. What Latino Puerto Ricans and non-Latinos say when they talk about Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlawish, Jason; Barg, Frances K; Augsburger, Deborah; Beaver, James; Ferguson, Allison; Nunez, Jessica

    2011-03-01

    To discover whether Latino Puerto Rican and non-Latino communities differ in the words they use to talk about Alzheimer's disease (AD). Four groups of 30 persons per group defined by self-identified ethnicity and caregiver status: Latino Puerto Ricans and non-Latino Whites, who were either caregivers or non-caregivers completed free-listing exercises to identify the words they use when they describe AD causes, symptoms, caregiving, and research risks and benefits. Both Latino Puerto Ricans and non-Latino Whites recognize AD as a disease of memory loss and other cognitive problems. Although both groups used the term "sadness" to describe AD, non-Latino Whites did not feature emotional, behavioral, or psychological problems as among the causes of AD. Although all the groups' descriptions of a person who lives with and cares for a person with AD shared the word "loving," Latino Puerto Ricans focused on a good spouse who exercises intelligence, patience, and attention on behalf of the person with AD and did not use the term "caregiver." In contrast, non-Latino Whites typically used the term "caregiver." Both groups' lists shared words that describe research as presenting harms to an AD patient and requiring a commitment of time. Latino Puerto Ricans' lists suggested an understanding of research benefits akin to clinical care. Notable differences exist in how Latino Puerto Ricans and non-Latino Whites talk about AD and AD research. Clinicians, clinical investigators, and patient educators need to consider these differences when they conduct clinical care and research and design outreach and educational materials. Copyright © 2011 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Elimination of Chloramphenicol by Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon and White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Suseno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chloramphenicol (CAP has been illegally used in many shrimp farms in South East Asia, including Indonesia. We performed an experiment of elimination simulation of CAP in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon and white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei. After 5 days of depuration process, the concentration of CAP in P. monodon decreased to 94.85% (muscle, 97.98% (cephalothoraxes, and 90.30% (exoskeleton. The elimination half-life of CAP in P monodon was 0.596 day in the muscle, 0.716 day in cephalothorax, and 0.437 day in exoskeleton. On the other hand, concentrations of CAP in L. vannamei decreased to 97.74% (muscle, 90.30% (cephalothoraxes, and 97.63% (exoskeleton. The elimination half-life of CAP in L. vannamei was 0.6624 day (muscle, 0.859 day (cephalothorax, and 0.796 day (exoskeleton. CAP was retained better by P. monodon compared to L. vannamei.

  5. Effectivity of prebiotic mannan oligosaccharides as the immunity enhancer and growth response on whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei against white spot disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linuwih Aluh Prastiti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the immune response and growth performance of white shrimp administered with prebiotic mannan oligosaccharides (MOS with dosages of (0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.8% in diet and used in the feeding trial. Shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei (the initial average weight was 3.416±0.064 g were fed at satiation, three times a day. A completely randomized design was used  in the study. Shrimps were cultured at the stock density of 15 shrimps 40/L for each treatment in triplicates. After 30 days of the feeding trial, shrimp were challenged with white spot syndrome virus filtrate by intramuscular injection. The total gut bacteria, total haemocyte count (THC, phenoloxydase (PO, and respiratory burst (RB activity were observed 4 times, before the experiment, day 30th before challenge test, day 32nd after challenge test, and day 36th the end of the experiment. The shrimp survival was observed at day 36th to evaluate the immune responses. The results showed that THC, PO activity, RB activity, growth performance, and shrimp survival administered with prebiotic 0.8% were significantly higher (P<0.05 than control. The administration of prebiotic with dose 0.8% was the best result and could effectively improve the immune responses and growth performance of whiteleg shrimp. Keywords: prebiotic, whiteleg shrimp, white spot disease  ABSTRAK Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi respons imun dan performa pertumbuhan pada udang vaname yang diberi prebiotik mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS dengan dosis berbeda (0%, 0,2%, 0,4%, dan 0,8% pada pakan. Udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei (dengan rata-rata bobot 3,41 ± 0,06 g diberi pakan tiga kali sehari secara at satiation. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap. Udang dipelihara dengan kepadatan 15 ekor per 40/L pada setiap perlakuan dengan tiga kali pengulangan. Setelah 30 hari pemberian pakan, udang diuji tantang menggunakan white spot syndrome virus dengan

  6. When and How to Worry about OA: Greenland Shrimp Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    We use a bio-economic model of the Greenland shrimp fishery to study potential ocean acidification (OA) impacts in arctic resources. Predicted changes in pH in Baffin Bay describe an anticipated though uncertain drop. Efforts to understand changes in shrimp quantity/ quality from OA reflect...... significant uncertainty and ambiguity about direction and magnitude. Estimates on change in growth parameters show a small, statistically insignificant drop that creates expectation of only limited direct biological shifts in the bio-economic model. Indirect changes to shrimp populations in Baffin Bay from...... climate change are anticipated due to expected declines in primary production that then result in equivalent reductions in secondary production, but the range could be positive or negative. Thus, the scientific findings on the OA impacts for shrimp are sufficiently ambiguous that our results find...

  7. 2008 Economic Survey of Gulf State Shrimp License Holders

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This mail survey collected data on the economic performance of active commercial shrimp harvesters who primarily operated in inshore waters of western Florida,...

  8. Genetic diversity and historical demography of kuruma shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of kuruma shrimp ( Penaeus japonicus ) species complex off China based on ... of 454-bp at 5' end of mitochondrial DNA control region were conducted. ... analyses suggested a late Pleistocene population expansion for both variety I ...

  9. Sustainable shrimp farming in India - Prospects and challenges

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Shrimp farming has grown into a multi-crore industry in India. It has vast potential for further expansion. However, this growing industry needs to develop appropriate indigenous technologies in specific areas to make it a sustainable and profitable...

  10. Physicochemical changes in minimal ozone-treated fresh shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated fresh shrimp were evaluated tandem with microbiological efficacy of treatment during iced storage of up to 10 days. Safely discharged from commercially available domestic-type ozone facility, a previously defined minimal ozone treatment ...

  11. Commercially important penaeid shrimp larvae in the estuaries of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Larval stages of the penaeid shrimps, Metapenaeus dobsoni (Miers), M. affinis (Milne - Edwards) and Penaeus merguiensis De Man were mostly distributed at the lower reaches of Mandovi and Zuari estuaries. While larvae of M. dobsoni and M. affinis...

  12. Job satisfaction in the shrimp trawl fisheries of Chennai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Bavinck, M.

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing métier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested métier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers of Chennai (former Madras). Research took place in 2007 and 2008 (N = 137). Results suggest a general satisfaction with being in the fishery. However...

  13. Green Approaches to Extract Astaxanthin from Shrimp Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Errico, Massimiliano; El-Houri, Rime Bahij

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower oil and its methyl ester have recently been shown as potential green solvents which could substitute traditional organic solvents. This study investigates the economic feasibility of using these green solvents to extract astaxanthin from shrimp processing waste. The feasibility of comme......Sunflower oil and its methyl ester have recently been shown as potential green solvents which could substitute traditional organic solvents. This study investigates the economic feasibility of using these green solvents to extract astaxanthin from shrimp processing waste. The feasibility...

  14. Price transmission in the trans-atlantic northern shrimp value chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Staahl, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    affect northern shrimp fisheries. In this paper, price transmission in the trans-Atlantic northern shrimp value chain is analysed using a Vector Auto Regressive model in Error Correction form. Cointegration, the Law of One Price (LOP) and weak exogeneity are tested. The results reveal linkages from......Recent research has found that markets for farmed shrimp and wild-caught northern shrimp in Europe are integrated, indicating that northern shrimp prices are affected by total supply and demand of shrimp. Thus, the continued growth of global aquaculture production and associated price decline...

  15. North Kalimantan is Free From EMS (Early Mortality Syndrome) in the Shrimps

    OpenAIRE

    Lestiawan, Sab; Jati, Nugroho Sasongko; Wiro, Hermas

    2014-01-01

    The acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (AHPNS) or also known worldwide as early mortility syndrome (EMS) is very dangerous for the shrimps industry since it really strikes the shrimps by larvae size. The EMS attacks shrimps at 20 to 30 days of age and at 40 days of age as well. All the shrimps that are being infected will be dead righ away. The EMS has caused the significant economic losses in the shrimps industry due to the mass mortality of the shrimps in Vietnam (in the years of 2010...

  16. Social Support for Exercise as a Predictor of Weight and Physical Activity Status Among Puerto Rican and Mexican Men: Results From the Latino Men's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Meredith R; Keefer, Laurie; Rademaker, Alfred; Dykema-Engblade, Amanda; Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa

    2018-07-01

    Social support is an important factor in increasing positive health outcomes and positive health behaviors across a variety of disease states including obesity. However, research examining the relationship between social support for exercise and weight and physical activity status, particularly among Latino men, is lacking. This paper examined whether social support for exercise predicted weight and physical activity status and whether the direction of these relationships differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background (Puerto Rican/Mexican). Participants were 203 men who participated in a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study addressing culture- and obesity-related variables. Both family participation social support and f amily rewards and punishment social support predicted higher weight status ( p social support did not predict weight status. The direction of the relationship between weight status and family participation social support, family rewards and punishment social support, and friend participation social support did not significantly differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background. The direction of the relationship between physical activity status and family participation social support, family rewards and punishment social support, and friend participation social support did not significantly differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background. Findings suggest that increased social support for exercise from family members may be focused on those who need it most-overweight and obese participants. Additional research is needed to explore sociocultural factors that may promote social support, physical activity, and weight loss and maintenance in Puerto Rican and Mexican men.

  17. Integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation: Potential for blue carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nesar; Thompson, Shirley; Glaser, Marion

    2018-05-01

    Globally, shrimp farming has had devastating effects on mangrove forests. However, mangroves are the most carbon-rich forests, with blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions seriously augmented due to devastating effects on mangrove forests. Nevertheless, integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation has emerged as a part of the potential solution to blue carbon emissions. Integrated mangrove-shrimp farming is also known as organic aquaculture if deforested mangrove area does not exceed 50% of the total farm area. Mangrove destruction is not permitted in organic aquaculture and the former mangrove area in parts of the shrimp farm shall be reforested to at least 50% during a period of maximum 5 years according to Naturland organic aquaculture standards. This article reviews integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation that can help to sequester blue carbon through mangrove restoration, which can be an option for climate change mitigation. However, the adoption of integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from blue carbon sequestration.

  18. Effect of Adding the White Legged Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) on Growth and Survival of Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in Intensive Farming

    OpenAIRE

    . Tarsim

    2007-01-01

    This experiment was carried out in the framework of a project to develop a viable shrimp polyculture technology under intensive farming. The objectives were to assess the effect of adding white legged shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) on growth and survival of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in intensive Farming. Tiger shrimp were stocked in 2800-3400 m2 earthen ponds at 40 individuals/m2 and reared for 133 days. White legged shrimp added at 70 day at 8±2 individuals/m2. Growth rate and total yield af...

  19. Comparative spring mechanics in mantis shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patek, S N; Rosario, M V; Taylor, J R A

    2013-04-01

    Elastic mechanisms are fundamental to fast and efficient movements. Mantis shrimp power their fast raptorial appendages using a conserved network of exoskeletal springs, linkages and latches. Their appendages are fantastically diverse, ranging from spears to hammers. We measured the spring mechanics of 12 mantis shrimp species from five different families exhibiting hammer-shaped, spear-shaped and undifferentiated appendages. Across species, spring force and work increase with size of the appendage and spring constant is not correlated with size. Species that hammer their prey exhibit significantly greater spring resilience compared with species that impale evasive prey ('spearers'); mixed statistical results show that species that hammer prey also produce greater work relative to size during spring loading compared with spearers. Disabling part of the spring mechanism, the 'saddle', significantly decreases spring force and work in three smasher species; cross-species analyses show a greater effect of cutting the saddle on the spring force and spring constant in species without hammers compared with species with hammers. Overall, the study shows a more potent spring mechanism in the faster and more powerful hammering species compared with spearing species while also highlighting the challenges of reconciling within-species and cross-species mechanical analyses when different processes may be acting at these two different levels of analysis. The observed mechanical variation in spring mechanics provides insights into the evolutionary history, morphological components and mechanical behavior, which were not discernible in prior single-species studies. The results also suggest that, even with a conserved spring mechanism, spring behavior, potency and component structures can be varied within a clade with implications for the behavioral functions of power-amplified devices.

  20. Trajectories of Sensation Seeking Among Puerto Rican Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S; Wall, Melanie M; Eisenberg, Ruth; Blanco, Carlos; Santaella, Julian; Ramos-Olazagasti, Maria; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector R; Brown, Qiana; Duarte, Cristiane S

    2015-12-01

    To document the natural course of sensation seeking from childhood to adolescence, characterize distinct sensation seeking trajectories, and examine how these trajectories vary according to selected predictors. Data were obtained from the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of 2,491 children and adolescents of Puerto Rican background (3 assessments from 2000 to 2004). First, age-specific sensation seeking levels were characterized, and then age-adjusted residuals were analyzed using growth mixture models. On average, sensation seeking was stable in childhood (ages 5-10 years) and increased during adolescence (ages 11-17 years). Mean scores of sensation seeking were higher in the South Bronx versus Puerto Rico and among males versus females. Four classes of sensation seeking trajectories were observed: most study participants had age-expected sensation seeking trajectories following the average for their age ("normative," 43.8%); others (37.2%) remained consistently lower than the expected average for their age ("low" sensation seeking); some (12.0%) had an "accelerated" sensation seeking trajectory, increasing at a faster rate than expected; and a minority (7.0%) had a decreasing sensation seeking trajectory that started high but decreased, reaching scores slightly higher than the age-average sensation seeking scores ("stabilizers"). Site (South Bronx versus Puerto Rico) and gender were predictors of membership in a specific class of sensation seeking trajectory. It is important to take a developmental approach when examining sensation seeking and to consider gender and the social environment when trying to understand how sensation seeking evolves during childhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nitric oxide as an antimicrobial molecule against Vibrio harveyi infection in the hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Wong, Nai-Kei; Jiang, Xiao; Luo, Xing; Zhang, Lvping; Yang, Dan; Ren, Chunhua; Hu, Chaoqun

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key effector molecule produced in the innate immune systems of many species for antimicrobial defense. However, how NO production is regulated during bacterial infection in invertebrates, especially crustaceans, remains poorly understood. Vibrio harveyi, a Gram-negative marine pathogen, is among the most prevalent and serious threats to the world's shrimp culture industry. Its virulence typically manifests itself through shrimp hepatopancreas destruction. In the current study, we found that NO generated by an in vitro donor system (NOC-18) could rapidly and effectively kill V. harveyi. In addition, injection of heat-killed V. harveyi increased the concentration of NO/nitrite and the mRNA expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the commercially most significant shrimp species. Live V. harveyi challenge also induced NO/nitrite production and NOS gene expression in primary L. vannamei hepatopancreatic cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Co-incubation of l-NAME, an inhibitor selective for mammalian constitutive NOSs, dose-dependently blocked V. harveyi-induced NO/nitrite production, without affecting V. harveyi-induced NOS mRNA expression. Furthermore, l-NAME treatment significantly increased the survival rate of infecting V. harveyi in cultured primary hepatopancreatic cells of L. vannamei. As a whole, we have demonstrated that endogenous NO produced by L. vannamei hepatopancreatic cells occurs in enzymatically regulated manners and is sufficient to act as a bactericidal molecule for V. harveyi clearance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical determinants of clopidogrel responsiveness in a heterogeneous cohort of Puerto Rican Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Suarez, Dagmar F; Scott, Stuart A; Tomey, Matthew I; Melin, Kyle; Lopez-Candales, Angel; Buckley, Charlotte E; Duconge, Jorge

    2017-09-01

    Clopidogrel is by far the most prescribed platelet adenosine diphosphate (ADP) antagonist in Puerto Rico despite the advent of newer agents (prasugrel and ticagrelor). Given the paucity of data on clopidogrel responsiveness in Hispanics, we sought to determine the association between clinical characteristics and platelet reactivity in Puerto Rican patients on clopidogrel therapy. A total of 100 Puerto Rican patients on clopidogrel therapy were enrolled and allocated into two groups: Group I, without high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR); and Group II, with HTPR. Platelet function was measured ex vivo using the VerifyNow® P2Y12 assay. The cohort was comprised of Hispanic patients with coronary artery disease (57%), peripheral artery disease (32%), carotid artery stenosis (7%), cerebral artery aneurysm (2%), and stroke (2%). Mean platelet reactivity was 200 ± 61 P2Y12 reaction units (PRUs) (range: 8-324), and 35% of patients had HTPR (PRUs ⩾ 230). Multivariable logistic regression analysis determined that diabetes mellitus (DM) [odds ratio (OR) = 3.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-8.96], use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) (OR = 3.60; 95% CI: 1.09-11.82), and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) (OR = 3.10; 95% CI: 1.09-8.83) were independent predictors of HTPR ( p Puerto Rican Hispanic patients on clopidogrel, 35% had HTPR. Furthermore, DM, PPIs and CCBs predicted HTPR. Clinical outcome data are needed to identify appropriate PRU thresholds for risk prediction in the Puerto Rican population.

  3. Vida/SIDA: A Grassroots Response to AIDS in Chicago's Puerto Rican Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Chicago's Puerto Rican community in West Town had a unique reaction to the spread of AIDS within its limits. They created their own institutions and tackled the epidemic themselves. In its infancy, Vida/SIDA, which translates as Life/AIDS, was solely an alternative health clinic for people with AIDS. Free of charge, it provided services such as…

  4. The Puerto Rican Prison Experience: A Multicultural Understanding of Values, Beliefs, and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Edil Torres; Wilbur, Michael P.; Roberts-Wilbur, Janice

    1998-01-01

    Counselors are challenged to use a nontraditional, multicultural approach with Puerto Rican inmates, to strive to understand their values, beliefs, experiences, and behaviors; and to question their own underlying assumptions and linear models of therapy. Five specific recommendations are made, and a comparison of beliefs and values is appended.…

  5. Acculturation and sociocultural influences on dietary intake and health status among Puerto Rican adults in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown negative consequences of acculturation on lifestyle factors, health status, and dietary intake of Hispanic immigrants in the US. Despite prevalent type 2 diabetes and low socioeconomic status (SES) among Puerto Rican adults living on the US mainland, little is known about...

  6. The prevalence of refractive conditions in Puerto Rican adults attending an eye clinic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neisha M. Rodriguez

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Hyperopia is the most common refractive error and its prevalence and seems to increase among the aging population who visited the clinics. Further programs and studies must be developed to address the refractive errors needs of the adult Puerto Rican population.

  7. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA oxidative stress has been suggested as an important pathogenic mechanism in cognitive impairment and dementia. We, therefore, examined whether urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of global DNA oxidation, was associated with cognitive function in a sample of Puerto Rican adul...

  8. Spatial Ecology of Puerto Rican Boas (Epicrates inornatus) in a Hurricane Impacted Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. Wunderle Jr.; Javier E. Mercado Bernard Parresol Esteban Terranova 2

    2004-01-01

    Spatial ecology of Puerto Rican boas (Epicrates inornatus, Boidae) was studied with radiotelemetry in a subtropical wet forest recovering from a major hurricane (7–9 yr previous) when Hurricane Georges struck. Different boas were studied during three periods relative to Hurricane Georges: before only; before and after; and after only. Mean daily movement per month...

  9. Taking a Diasporic Stance: Puerto Rican Mothers Educating Children in a Racially Integrated Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolon-Dow, Rosalie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the perspectives of second-generation Puerto Rican mothers as they discuss their experiences educating their children in a working class, lower-middle class, racially diverse neighborhood. The article examines the racialization processes that the women and their families face, despite experiencing geographic and socioeconomic…

  10. Health and Reproductive Assessment of Selected Puerto Rican Parrots ( Amazona vittata ) in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clubb, Susan; Velez, Jafet; Garner, Michael M; Zaias, Julia; Cray, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    The Puerto Rican parrot ( Amazona vittata ) has become an iconic and high-profile conservation species. The cornerstone of the recovery plan for this critically endangered species is an active captive breeding program, management of the wild population, and a long-term reintroduction program. In 2002, 40 adult Puerto Rican parrots that had not produced viable offspring were selected for reproductive assessment at 2 aviary populations in Puerto Rico (Iguaca and Río Abajo), which are the only sources of parrots for release. The goal was to enhance reproductive potential and produce productive pairings in an attempt to augment the population growth and provide ample individuals for reintroduction. Seven Hispanolian Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) that were used as surrogate parents for the Puerto Rican parrots were also included in the study. This assessment included physical examination, endoscopic evaluation, hematologic and plasma biochemical profiles, viral screening, and hormonal assays. Results of general physical examination and hematologic and plasma biochemical testing revealed overall good health and condition of this subset of the population of Puerto Rican parrots; no major infectious diseases were found. Endoscopic examination also revealed overall good health and condition, especially of females. The apparent low fertility of male birds warrants further investigation. The findings helped to define causes of reproductive failure in the selected pairs and individual birds. New pairings resulting from the assessment helped to augment reproduction of this critically endangered species.

  11. Characterization of Bioactive Constituents from Honey Produced by Costa Rican Stingless Bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamora Fallas, L.G.

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance created the need for innovations in topical treatments for wound healing. This thesis comprises a series of investigations that allowed Costa Rican Tetragonisca angustula honeys to pass from being a highly regarded traditional medicine to becoming a novel candidate for wound

  12. SURVIVAL OF CAPTIVE-REARED PUERTO RICAN PARROTS RELEASED IN THE CARIBBEAN NATIONAL FOREST

    Science.gov (United States)

    THOMAS H. WHITE; JAIME A. COLLAZO; FRANCISCO J. VILELLA

    2005-01-01

    We report first-year survival for 34 captive-reared Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) released in the Caribbean National Forest, Puerto Rico between 2000 and 2002. The purpose of the releases were to increase population size and the potential number of breeding individuals of the sole extant wild population, and to refine release protocols for eventual...

  13. Dominican and Puerto Rican Mother-Adolescent Communication: Maternal Self-Disclosure and Youth Risk Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    A communication framework was developed to examine the influence of maternal use of self-disclosure on adolescent intentions to smoke cigarettes and to engage in sexual intercourse. Data were collected from 516 Dominican and Puerto Rican mother-adolescent dyads. Statistical analyses were conducted in AMOS using structural equation modeling.…

  14. Partial power, partial knowledge: accounting for the dis-integration of a Costa Rican cooperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susannah R. McCandless; Marla R. Emery

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on the writings of Foucault, we argue that the multiple-service cooperative at the core of a Costa Rican highland municipality failed due to an incomplete transformation from sovereign to governmental regimes at the regional scale. The cooperative challenged sovereign power, held by the local patron and private biological reserves, with a governance model based...

  15. Racial Identity Attitudes and Ego Identity Statuses in Dominican and Puerto Rican College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses in 94 Dominican and Puerto Rican Latino college students in an urban public college setting. Simultaneous regression analyses were conducted to test the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses, and findings indicated that…

  16. Anatomy of a bottleneck: diagnosing factors limiting population growth in the Puerto Rican Parrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.R. Beissinger; Jr Wunderle; J.M. Meyers; B.E. Saether; S. Engen

    2008-01-01

    The relative importance of genetic, demographic, environmental, and catastrophic processes that maintain population bottlenecks has received little consideration. We evaluate the role of these factors in maintaining the Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata) in a prolonged bottleneck from 1973 through 2000 despite intensive conservation efforts. We first conduct a risk...

  17. Housing Dependence and Intimate Relationships in the Lives of Low-Income Puerto Rican Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sherri Lawson; Burton, Linda M.; Flippen, Chenoa A.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal ethnographic data from the Three-City Study, the authors examined the relationship between 16 low-income Puerto Rican mothers' housing dependencies and their intimate partner relations. This study traced mothers' dependent housing arrangements and entree to marital or cohabiting relationships from their teens through their…

  18. African American and Puerto Rican American Parenting Styles, Paternal Involvement, and Head Start Children's Social Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay

    2000-01-01

    Examined similarities and differences in parenting styles and paternal involvement within and between African American and Puerto Rican American parent groups and the relationship between parenting styles, child care involvement, and Head Start children's social competence. Found a significant relationship between high levels of parental…

  19. Factors associated with Neospora caninum serostatus in cattle of 20 specialised Costa Rican dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, J.J.; Perez, E.; Dolz, G.; Frankena, K.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-five specialised Costa Rican dairy farms (located in the Poás area) were used to determine neosporosis seroprevalence and the association of seropositivity with environmental and management factors. The farms involved were selected intentionally and all of them use VAMPP 5.1 (Veterinary

  20. Music Education in Puerto Rican Elementary Schools: A Study from the Perspective of Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-León, Ricardo; Lorenzo-Quiles, Oswaldo; Addessi, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    This article presents, for the first time, descriptive research on the status of music education in Puerto Rican public elementary schools. General music education at elementary schools on the island has been part of the school offering for more than 50 years. As yet, music education at this level has not been recognized as an essential discipline…

  1. RESPONSE OF GHOST SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS) BIOTURBATION TO ORGANIC MATTER ENRICHMENT OF ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia p;ugettensis) are the dominant invertebrate fauna on Pacific estuarine tide flats, occupying >80% of intertidal area in some estuaries. Burrowing shrimp are renowned for their bioturbation of intertidal sedi...

  2. 78 FR 33347 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... States (``HTSUS''), are products which are processed from warmwater shrimp and prawns through freezing..., spices or sauce are included in the scope. In addition, food preparations (including dusted shrimp...

  3. Simulating environmental effects on brown shrimp production in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) are a commercially important fishery species of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Young shrimp settle in estuarine salt marsh...

  4. Economic Data Collection for Gulf of Mexico South Atlantic Shrimp Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Economic Survey of Federal Gulf and Atlantic Shrimp Permit Holders collects data about operating expenses and costs of owning and maintaining shrimp...

  5. Use of slaughter house waste as a feed for shrimps and prawns

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.; Krishnakumari, L.

    Feeding experiments with some shrimps and fishes (Metapenaeus monoceros, Metapenaeus dobsoni, Sarotherodon mossambicus and Etroplus suratensis) using slaughter house waste as food, showed that the shrimps and arotherodon were able to utilize...

  6. Expression Profiling of WSSV ORF 199 and Shrimp Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme in WSSV Infected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jeena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is one of the major viral pathogens affecting shrimp aquaculture. Four proteins, WSSV199, WSSV 222, WSSV 249 and WSSV 403, from WSSV are predicted to encode a RING-H2 domain, which in presence of ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (E2 in shrimp can function as viral E3 ligase and modulate the host ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Modulation of host ubiquitin proteasome pathway by viral proteins is implicated in viral pathogenesis. In the present study, a time course expression profile analysis of WSSV Open Reading Frame (ORF 199 and Penaeus monodon ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (PmUbc was carried out at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post WSSV challenge by semi-quantitative RT-PCR as well as Real Time PCR. EF1α was used as reference control to normalize the expression levels. A significant increase in PmUbc expression at 24 h post infection (h.p.i was observed followed by a decline till 72 h.p.i. Expression of WSSV199 was observed at 24 h.p.i in WSSV infected P. monodon. Since the up-regulation of PmUbc was observed at 24 h.p.i where WSSV199 expression was detected, it can be speculated that these proteins might interact with host ubiquitination pathway for viral pathogenesis. However, further studies need to be carried out to unfold the molecular mechanism of interaction between host and virus to devise efficient control strategies for this chaos in the shrimp culture industry.

  7. Monitoring of Vibrio harveyi quorum sensing activity in real time during infection of brine shrimp larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defoirdt, Tom; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, has been linked to the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, in vitro experiments have shown that many bacterial pathogens regulate the expression of virulence genes by this cell-to-cell communication process. Moreover, signal molecules have been detected in samples retrieved from infected hosts and quorum sensing disruption has been reported to result in reduced virulence in different host-pathogen systems. However, data on in vivo quorum sensing activity of pathogens during infection of a host are currently lacking. We previously reported that quorum sensing regulates the virulence of Vibrio harveyi in a standardised model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae. Here, we monitored quorum sensing activity in Vibrio harveyi during infection of the shrimp, using bioluminescence as a read-out. We found that wild-type Vibrio harveyi shows a strong increase in quorum sensing activity early during infection. In this respect, the bacteria behave remarkably similar in different larvae, despite the fact that only half of them survive the infection. Interestingly, when expressed per bacterial cell, Vibrio harveyi showed around 200-fold higher maximal quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence when associated with larvae than in the culture water. Finally, the in vivo quorum sensing activity of mutants defective in the production of one of the three signal molecules is consistent with their virulence, with no detectable in vivo quorum sensing activity in AI-2- and CAI-1-deficient mutants. These results indicate that AI-2 and CAI-1 are the dominant signals during infection of brine shrimp.

  8. Effect of irradiation on nutrient quality of the frozen shelled shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Junjie; Liu Bojing

    2004-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on nutrient quality including amino acids, protein, fatty acids, Vitamin A, and Vitamin E in the refrigerated shelled sea shrimp and river shrimp were studied. The results showed that there was no significant change on protein, fatty acids and amino acids of irradiation 2kGy at shrimps compared with the non-irradiated shrimp. Vitamin A, and Vitamin E were decreased with the increasing of dose

  9. Impact of value chain governance on the development of small scale shrimp farmers in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    T. M. H. Ho; P. Burny

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of this paper is to identify the tendency of shrimp value chain development and impact of its governance on the small scale shrimp farmers in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach - Data from the shrimp farmers surveys in Mekong delta, Vietnam from 2008-2010 with the update information in 2014 were taken to analyse by the value chain analysis method. Findings – Traditional governance type of the shrimp value chain in the early state (before 2004) showed the different levels of coordina...

  10. Impact of value chain governance on the development of small scale shrimp farmers in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Thi Minh, Hop; Burny, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of this paper is to identify the tendency of shrimp value chain development and impact of its governance on the small scale shrimp farmers in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach - Data from the shrimp farmers surveys in Mekong delta, Vietnam from 2008-2010 with the update information in 2014 were taken to analyse by the value chain analysis method. Findings – Traditional governance type of the shrimp value chain in the early state (before 2004) showed the different levels of co...

  11. Global and local governance of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi Thu, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Mekong Delta is one of seven ecological regions in Vietnam where aquaculture and shrimp products are internationally traded and the shrimp farmers are firmly embedded in a global system of production and trade. The growth of shrimp aquaculture, in addition to population growth and higher levels of investment, has left coastal resources in the Mekong Delta increasingly vulnerable to rapid changes in land and resource use. The shrimp industry, made up of multiple stakeholders and fragmente...

  12. Sleep, Depressive/Anxiety Disorders, and Obesity in Puerto Rican Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne; Rosario-Matos, Nicolás; Ramírez, Rafael R; García, Pedro; Canino, Glorisa J; Ortega, Alexander N

    2017-03-01

    Adolescents from Puerto Rican backgrounds are found to have higher rates of obesity than adolescents from other ethnic groups in the US. The objective of this study is to examine whether sleeping the recommended number of hours and depression or anxiety disorder are independently related to risk for obesity in a sample of Island Puerto Rican adolescents, and whether the association between sleep and obesity is moderated by depression or anxiety disorder. Data from the study were derived from the third wave of an island wide probability sample of Puerto Rican youth residing on the Island, 10-25 years of age (N = 825), with a response rate of 79.59%. The current study focuses on youth 10 to 19 years of age (n = 436). In this sample, youth who slept less than the recommended number of hours (defined as 7-9 h per night) had a significantly increased risk for obesity and were three times as likely to be obese. Youth who met criteria for a depressive/anxiety disorder were almost 2.5 times as likely to be obese. However, the presence of an anxiety/depressive disorders did not moderate the association between sleeping the recommended number of hours and risk for obesity. Sleeping less than the recommended number of hours may be an important risk factor for obesity status in Island Puerto Rican youth. These findings suggest that attention to healthy sleep behaviors and a sleep environment that promotes high quality sleep may be important for Puerto Rican adolescents at risk for obesity.

  13. THE EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC ON IMMUNITY IMPROVEMENT IN THE FRY AND SPAWNER PRODUCTION OF PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryanti Haryanti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve immune system of Pacific white shrimp L. vannamei from any kinds of diseases, various probiotic agents were tested such as Bacillus sp. BC, Alteromonas sp. BY-9 and mixed of both. The probiotics were cultured and added directly to the larval rearing tank (106 cfu/mL equal to 0.5 liter/m3 up to PL-12. In cultured shrimp spawners, probiotic was mixed with feed coated with chitosan, and without adding probiotic as control. In the present experiment, shrimp fry and spawners were reared in tank capacity of 5 m3 and 8 m3. Immunity response was analyzed by quantitative value of the immunity related gene expression with RTqPCR. The results showed that survival rate of shrimp fry cultured with mixed probiotic was 63.16% (PL-8 and 53.46% (PL-12, while control 13.35% (PL-8 and 12.48% (PL-12 respectively. The number of shrimp hemocytes starting from 420 to 530.5 x 104 cells/mL and after challenged with WSSV (for 72 hrs exposure between two treatments of Alteromonas sp. BY-9 and Bacillus cereus BC was not significantly different P>0.05 (402.5 and 432.5 x 104 cells/mL, while in mixed probiotic and control treatments were 391.75 and 229.0 x 104 cells/mL, respectively. The analysis of immunity gene expression revealed that the use of probiotic from larval stages up to spawner has been proved in increasing immunity responses quantified from ProPO activating system (prophenoloxidase/proPO as much as 1.6-2.0 fold, clotting system (transglutaminase, clotting protein of 1.5-2 fold, Antimicrobial Peptide System (anti-LPS factor, crustin, lysozyme, penaiedin2 of 1.5-2.8 fold, and Antioxidant defense mechanism (superoxidase dismutase/SOD, glutathione peroxidase/GPx of 1.8-2.0 fold compared to control.

  14. Strong population genetic structure and larval dispersal capability of the burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The burrowing ghost shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis, is a vital member of the estuarine benthic community. Dense populations of shrimp are found in the major estuaries of Washington and Oregon. Our study determines the genetic structure of shrimp populations in order to gain ...

  15. Analysis of Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on Vannamei Shrimp using binary logit model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviana, P. P.; Fithriasari, K.

    2018-04-01

    Mostly Indonesian citizen consume vannamei shrimp as their food. Vannamei shrimp also is one of Indonesian exports comodities mainstay. Vannamei shrimp in the ponds and markets could be contaminated by Salmonella sp bacteria. This bacteria will endanger human health. Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on vannamei shrimp could be affected by many factors. This study is intended to identify what factors that supposedly influence the Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on vannamei shrimp. The researchers used the testing result of Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on vannamei shrimp as response variable. This response variable has two categories: 0 = if testing result indicate that there is no Salmonella sp on vannamei shrimp; 1 = if testing result indicate that there is Salmonella sp on vannamei shrimp. There are four factors that supposedly influence the Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on vannamei shrimp, which are the testing result of Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on farmer hand swab; the subdistrict of vannamei shrimp ponds; the fish processing unit supplied by; and the pond are in hectare. This four factors used as predictor variables. The analysis used is Binary Logit Model Approach according to the response variable that has two categories. The analysis result indicates that the factors or predictor variables which is significantly affect the Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on vannamei shrimp are the testing result of Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on farmer hand swab and the subdistrict of vannamei shrimp ponds.

  16. 75 FR 44229 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may... are packed with marinade, spices or sauce are included in the scope of this order. In addition, food... to IQF freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. Battered shrimp is a shrimp-based...

  17. 78 FR 50385 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Shrimp Co.; JBS Packing Co., Inc.; Lafitte Frozen Foods Corp.; M&M Shrimp (Biloxi Freezing and Processing... prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may be..., spices or sauce are included in the scope. In addition, food preparations (including dusted shrimp...

  18. 75 FR 51756 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... shrimp and prawns through freezing and which are sold in any count size. The products described above may... are packed with marinade, spices or sauce are included in the scope of this order. In addition, food... subjected to IQF freezing immediately after application of the dusting layer. Battered shrimp is a shrimp...

  19. Livelihood Capabilities and Pathways of Shrimp Farmers in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Phung Ha, Ha; Dijk, van J.W.M.; Bosma, R.H.; Sinh, L.X.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is a major livelihood activity in the Mekong Delta in the southernmost part of Vietnam. The Vietnamese government has promoted shrimp farming as a way to reduce poverty, provide employment opportunities and increase exports to support economic development. The shrimp farming system,

  20. Global and local governance of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Thu, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Mekong Delta is one of seven ecological regions in Vietnam where aquaculture and shrimp products are internationally traded and the shrimp farmers are firmly embedded in a global system of production and trade. The growth of shrimp aquaculture, in addition to population growth and higher

  1. 75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  2. 75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  3. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY... duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely...

  4. 77 FR 36998 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Survey AGENCY: National... under the Shrimp Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The regulations for the Gulf Shrimp Vessel and Gear... and Gear Characterization Form. The form will be provided by NMFS at the time of permit application...

  5. 78 FR 40436 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Survey AGENCY: National... under the Shrimp Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The regulations for the Gulf Shrimp Vessel and Gear... Gear Characterization Form. The form will be provided by NMFS at the time of permit application and...

  6. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) to penaeid shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haryadi, D.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Vlak, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) is a common polychaete in shrimp ponds built on intertidal land and is natural food for shrimp in traditionally managed ponds in Indonesia. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an important viral pathogen of the shrimp, can replicate in this polychaete (Desrina

  7. 75 FR 22370 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ...-893, A-549-822, A-552-802] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's... certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and... Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador, 69 FR 76913 (December 23, 2004) (Ecuador Final...

  8. 78 FR 50381 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Malaysia: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Corp.; M&M Shrimp (Biloxi Freezing and Processing); Ocean Springs Seafood Market, Inc.; Paul Piazza... to as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on or... Zones 12. Provision of Seed and Fry for LTAR 13. Loans Under the Fund for Food Program 14. Loans Under...

  9. IMPROVED PRODUCTION OF TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon THROUGH PROBIOTICS APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irsyaphiani Insan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in Brebes District, the North coast of Java. Tiger shrimp farming in Indonesia, particularly in this area faced some problems which caused by improper pond preparation, disease, and low seed quality. Probiotic was applied in pond to solve this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of tiger shrimp in ponds with probiotic applications. Six experimental ponds (each measuring 0.5 ha were selected of which three were probiotic ponds and three were controlled. Tiger shrimp postlarvae (PL-30 were stocked at density of four shrimps/m2. Tiger shrimps were reared for three months. Shrimps were fed by commercial pellet. In the first month, shrimp were fed about 7%-5% of the total biomass; in the second months, 3.5%-3% of the total biomass; and in the third month, 2.5%-2% of the total biomass. The treatments in this study were the application of probiotics with concentration of 3 mg/L that were given every five days and control (without probiotics. The results showed the rearing period was 92 ± 6 days in probiotic ponds and 76 ± 16 days in controlled pond. The shrimp in controlled pond should be harvest earlier caused by the high mortality. The average final weight was 16.2 ± 0.7 g in probiotic pond and 15.6 ± 1.9 g in controlled pond. The survival rate was 64.13 ± 12.63% in probiotic pond and 44.17 ± 14.15% in controlled pond. Production was 208 ± 46 kg/pond/cycle in probiotic pond and 123 ± 6 kg/pond/cycle in controlled pond. The result showed that probiotic plays an important role in maintaining water quality parameters and health management as well as increases the survival of shrimp.

  10. Current status of viral diseases in Indian shrimp aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandel, G M; John, K Riji; Rosalind George, M; Prince Jeyaseelan, M J

    The intensification of aquaculture has been unique in showing the overwhelming changes in global food production in the last 100 years. Presently, it is playing a vital role in the economies of several countries. Conversely, it is also to be noted that the progression of aquaculture has been the foundation of anthropogenic alteration of a gigantic hierarchy and hence not astonishingly, it resulted in spread and emergence of an increasing group of new unknown diseases. In India, Penaeus monodon, black tiger shrimp was previously the foremost-cultivated shrimp species. Subsequently in 2008, the American white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has effectively replaced it. The change in dominant species has affected disease concerns in India as well as in world shrimp aquaculture. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most deleterious for both species. Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), Monodon baculovirus (MBV) and Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) are the other significant infectious agents of P. monodon and L. vannamei. An emerging disease of loose shell syndrome (LSS) was already reported from India during late 1998. A more recent disease of L. vannamei in India is monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS), a component of which seems to be Laem-Singh virus (LSNV). Thus, most of the information in this review relates to new emerging pathogens that threaten the cultivation shrimp industry in India.

  11. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger B. Luz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100 Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Magnetically tunable oil droplet lens of deep-sea shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaka, M.; Hirota, N.; Oba, Y.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the tunable properties of a bio-lens from a deep-sea shrimp were investigated for the first time using magnetic fields. The skin of the shrimp exhibited a brilliantly colored reflection of incident white light. The light reflecting parts and the oil droplets in the shrimp's skin were observed in a glass slide sample cell using a digital microscope that operated in the bore of two superconducting magnets (maximum strengths of 5 and 13 T). In the ventral skin of the shrimp, which contained many oil droplets, some comparatively large oil droplets (50 to 150 μm in diameter) were present. A distinct response to magnetic fields was found in these large oil droplets. Further, the application of the magnetic fields to the sample cell caused a change in the size of the oil droplets. The phenomena observed in this work indicate that the oil droplets of deep sea shrimp can act as lenses in which the optical focusing can be modified via the application of external magnetic fields. The results of this study will make it possible to fabricate bio-inspired soft optical devices in future.

  13. TAT improves in vitro transportation of fortilin through midgut and into hemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Ai, Qinghui; Wang, Xiaojie

    2012-06-01

    Fortilin is a multifunctional protein implicated in many important cellular processes. Since injection of Pm-fortilin reduces shrimp mortality caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), there is potential application of fortilin in shrimp culture. In the present study, in order to improve trans-membrane transportation efficiency, the protein transduction domain of the transactivator of transcription (TAT) peptide was fused to fortilin. The Pichia pastoris yeast expression system, which is widely accepted in animal feeds, was used for production of recombinant fusion protein. Green fluorescence protein (GFP) was selected as a reporter because of its intrinsic visible fluorescence. The fortilin, TAT and GFP fusion protein were constructed. Their trans-membrane transportation efficiency and effects on immune response of shrimp were analyzed in vitro. Results showed that TAT peptide improved in vitro uptake of fortilin into the hemocytes and midgut of Litopenaeus vannamei. The phenoloxidase (PO) activity of hemocytes incubated with GFP-Fortilin or GFP-Fortilin-TAT was significantly increased compared with that in the control without expressed fortilin. The PO activity of hemocytes incubated with 200 μg mL-1 GFP-Fortilin-TAT was significantly higher than that in the group with the same concentration of GFP-Fortilin. Hemocytes incubated with GFP-Fortilin-TAT at all concentrations showed significantly higher nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity than those in the control or in the GFP-Fortilin treatment. The present in vitro study indicated that TAT fusion protein improved the immune effect of fortilin.

  14. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-50 - Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust. 1.401(a)-50 Section 1.401(a)-50 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)-50 Puerto Rican trusts...

  15. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Haug

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages, alima and erichthus (the latter two representing later larval stages. These categories, however, do not reflect the existing morphological diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world 1928-30. These new larval types all represent erichthus-type larvae, especially differing in their shield morphologies. The shield morphology ranges from almost spherical to rather disc-like, with sometimes extremely elongated spines, but only a general systematic assignment of the larvae was possible. Further investigations of these larvae are crucial to understand their life habits and ecological impact, especially as stomatopod and other crustacean larvae might have a much more important position in the marine ecosystems than their corresponding adults.

  16. Shrimp cephalothorax meal in laying hen diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas-Duran, Catalina; Chacon-Villalobos, Alejandro; Zamora-Sanchez, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The effect of shrimp meal (SM) was measure in commercial laying hen diets. Pleuroncodes planipes was used in Costa Rica, from April to September 2013, to obtain a meal (SM) with a yield of 15%, particle size of 256 μg and negative for Salmonella sp. Proximate analysis was performed to the SM: crude protein (40,67%), ether extract (11,05%), crude fiber (7,12%), ash (27,48%), calcium (9,03%), phosphorus (2,66%), amino acid profile, pepsin digestibility (84%) and acidity (8,34). Subsequently, a trial was performed with 140 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens, fed with four different diets containing increasing levels of inclusion of SM (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) during four weeks; and formulated according to the ideal protein and digestible amino acids concepts; being isocaloric and isoproteic. The variables experimentally evaluated were: production percentage, feed intake, body weight, mortality, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Only egg weight changed significantly between treatments in the third week (p [es

  17. Characterization and PCR Detection Of Binary, Pir-Like Toxins from Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates that Cause Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND in Shrimp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratchanok Sirikharin

    Full Text Available Unique isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND have previously been identified as the causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND in shrimp. AHPND is characterized by massive sloughing of tubule epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas (HP, proposed to be induced by soluble toxins released from VPAHPND that colonize the shrimp stomach. Since these toxins (produced in broth culture have been reported to cause AHPND pathology in reverse gavage bioassays with shrimp, we used ammonium sulfate precipitation to prepare protein fractions from broth cultures of VPAHPND isolates for screening by reverse gavage assays. The dialyzed 60% ammonium sulfate fraction caused high mortality within 24-48 hours post-administration, and histological analysis of the moribund shrimp showed typical massive sloughing of hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells characteristic of AHPND. Analysis of the active fraction by SDS-PAGE revealed two major bands at marker levels of approximately 16 kDa (ToxA and 50 kDa (ToxB. Mass spectrometry analysis followed by MASCOT analysis revealed that both proteins had similarity to hypothetical proteins of V. parahaemolyticus M0605 (contig034 GenBank accession no. JALL01000066.1 and similarity to known binary insecticidal toxins called 'Photorhabdus insect related' proteins A and B (Pir-A and Pir-B, respectively, produced by the symbiotic, nematode bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. In in vivo tests, it was shown that recombinant ToxA and ToxB were both required in a dose dependent manner to cause AHPND pathology, indicating further similarity to Pir-A and -B. A single-step PCR method was designed for detection of the ToxA gene and was validated using 104 bacterial isolates consisting of 51 VPAHPND isolates, 34 non-AHPND VP isolates and 19 other isolates of bacteria commonly found in shrimp ponds (including other species of Vibrio and Photobacterium. The results showed 100% specificity and sensitivity for

  18. Experimental studies on the larval development of the shrimps Crangon crangon and C. allmanni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criales, M. M.; Anger, K.

    1986-09-01

    Larvae of the shrimps Crangon crangon L. and C. allmanni Kinahan were reared in the laboratory from hatching through metamorphosis. Effects of rearing methods (larval density, application of streptomycin, food) and of salinity on larval development were tested only in C. crangon, influence of temperature was studied in both species. Best results were obtained when larvae were reared individually, with a mixture of Artemia sp. and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis as food. Streptomycin had partly negative effects and was thus not adopted for standard rearing techniques. All factors tested in this study influenced not only the rates of larval survival and moulting, but also morphogenesis. In both species, in particular in C. crangon, a high degree of variability in larval morphology and in developmental pathways was observed. Unsuitable conditions, e.g. crowding in mass culture, application of antibiotics, unsuitable food (rotifers, phytoplankton), extreme temperatures and salinities, tend to increase the number of larval instars and of morphological forms. The frequency of moulting is controlled mainly by temperature. Regression equations describing the relations between the durations of larval instars and temperature are given for both Crangon species. The number of moults is a linear function of larval age and a power function of temperature. There is high variation in growth (measured as carapace length), moulting frequency, morphogenesis, and survival among hatches originating from different females. The interrelations between these different measures of larval development in shrimps and prawns are discussed.

  19. Analysis of the marine shrimp farm production chain in Rio Grande do Sul state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Randow de Freitas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify, describe, and analyze the main links of the marine shrimp culture production chain in the extreme south of Brazil, specifically in the Rio Grande and São José do Norte municipalities, Rio Grande do Sul state. The research was carried out through prior bibliographic, in loco research and the application of interviews and questionnaires to identify the entire local productive process from the inputs needed for production to the arrival at the final consumer. The results indicate that the production chain requires actions in the process until the product’s final commercialization. Even as a growing market in Brazil, more investments, better support from the Government for the installation of new farmers, a reduction of bureaucracy in public agencies, training of actors involved in production, and some other points identified in this study can help decision makers, inherent to the activity, to establish sustainable production strategies aimed at lasting and full development of local shrimp production.

  20. Ecological generalism facilitates the evolution of sociality in snapping shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Katherine C; Maia, Rafael; Duffy, J Emmett; Hultgren, Kristin M; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2017-12-01

    Evidence from insects and vertebrates suggests that cooperation may have enabled species to expand their niches, becoming ecological generalists and dominating the ecosystems in which they occur. Consistent with this idea, eusocial species of sponge-dwelling Synalpheus shrimps from Belize are ecological generalists with a broader host breadth and higher abundance than non-eusocial species. We evaluate whether sociality promotes ecological generalism (social conquest hypothesis) or whether ecological generalism facilitates the transition to sociality (social transition hypothesis) in 38 Synalpheus shrimp species. We find that sociality evolves primarily from host generalists, and almost exclusively so for transitions to eusociality. Additionally, sponge volume is more important for explaining social transitions towards communal breeding than to eusociality, suggesting that different ecological factors may influence the independent evolutionary origins of sociality in Synalpheus shrimps. Ultimately, our results are consistent with the social transition hypothesis and the idea that ecological generalism facilitates the transition to sociality. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  1. Detection of irradiation in cuticles of commercial shrimps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, K.; Stachowicz, W.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory for Detection of Irradiated Food has more and more orders for detection of irradiation in shrimps. A method adapted to achieve detection of irradiation in this material is a thermoluminescence measure. However, the procedure is time-consuming - needs several days to receive the result. The aim of presented study was to elaborate the EPR examination of the possible irradiation in this product. As a result od the performed studies it can be concluded, that the EPR measurement of cuticles of shrimps can be adapted as the preliminary, screening test proving the irradiation of shrimp. It has to be stressed, however, that the lack of a specific, hydroxyapatite born EPR signal in the spectrum cannot suggest that sample was not irradiated

  2. Macroalgal bioindicators (growth, tissue N, {delta}{sup 15}N) detect nutrient enrichment from shrimp farm effluent entering Opunohu Bay, Moorea, French Polynesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, David T. [Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2538 McCarthy Mall, Edmondson 152, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)], E-mail: david.t.lin@ucla.edu; Fong, Peggy [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, 621 Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Nutrient enrichment from shrimp aquaculture poses an increasing environmental threat due to the industry's projected rapid growth and unsustainable management practices. Traditional methods to monitor impacts emphasize water quality sampling; however, there are many advantages to bioindicators, especially in developing countries. We investigated the usefulness of three bioindicators-growth, tissue nitrogen content and nitrogen stable isotope signature ({delta}{sup 15}N)-in the tropical red macroalga Acanthophora spicifera. Algae were collected, cultured, and deployed in a spatial array around the outflow from a shrimp farm in Moorea, French Polynesia, to detect nitrogenous wastes. All three parameters were highest adjacent to the shrimp farm indicating nutrient enrichment, and {delta}{sup 15}N values confirmed the shrimp farm as the dominant nutrient source (5.63-5.96 per mille ). Isotope ratios proved the most sensitive indicator, as {delta}{sup 15}N signatures were detected at the most distant sites tested, confirming their usefulness in tracing nutrients and mapping the spatial extent of enrichment.

  3. Prevalence study of Vibrio species and frequency of the virulence genes of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from fresh and salted shrimps in Genaveh seaport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hosseini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio species are important seafood-borne pathogens that are responsible for 50-70% of gasteroenteritis. The present study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of Vibrio species and the distribution of tdh, tlh and trh virulence genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from fresh and salted shrimp samples. Totally, 60 fresh and salted shrimp samples were collected from the Genaveh seaport. Microbial culture was used to isolate Vibrio species. In addition, the presences of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholera, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio harveyi and the virulence genes of V. parahaemolyticus were studied using the PCR method. Results showed that 20% of fresh and 23.33% of salted shrimp samples were positive for Vibrio species. In studied samples, V. vulnificus had the highest prevalence rate (8.33%, while V. cholera had the lowest prevalence rate (1.66%. From a total of 4 detected V. parahaemolyticus, all of them had tlh gene (100%. The distribution of tdh and trh genes in isolated V. parahaemolyticus strains were 50% and 25%, respectively. High prevalence of Vibrio species and especially virulent V. parahaemolyticus in samples confirmed the lack of hygienic condition in the production and distribution centers of shrimp.

  4. Breast cancer patterns and lifetime risk of developing breast cancer among Puerto Rican females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazario, C M; Figueroa-Vallés, N; Rosario, R V

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiologic patterns of breast cancer and to estimate the lifetime risk probability of developing breast cancer among Hispanic females using cancer data from Puerto Rico. The age-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate (per 100,000) in Puerto Rico increased from 15.3 in 1960-1964 to 43.3 in 1985-1989. The age-adjusted breast cancer mortality rate (per 100,000) increased from 5.7 to 10.6 comparing the same two time periods (1960-1964 vs 1985-1989). Nevertheless, in 1985-1989 breast cancer incidence rate was higher in US White females (110.8 per 100,000) compared to Puerto Rican females (51.4 per 100,000; age-adjusted to the 1970 US standard population). The breast cancer mortality rate was also higher in US White females (27.4 per 100,000) than in Puerto Rican females (15.1 per 100,000; age-adjusted to the 1970 US standard population) during 1985-1989. A multiple decrement life table was constructed applying age-specific incidence and mortality rates from cross-sectional data sets (1980-1984 and 1985-1989 data for Puerto Rican females and 1987-1989 SEER data sets for US White and Black females) to a hypothetical cohort of 10,000,000 women. The probability of developing invasive breast cancer was computed for the three groups using the long version of DEVCAN: Probability of DEVeloping CANcer software, version 3.3. The lifetime risk of developing breast cancer was 5.4% for Puerto Rican females, compared to 8.8% for US Black females and 13.0% for US White females. Lifetime risk for Puerto Rican females increased from 4.5% in 1980-1984 to 5.4% in 1985-1989. Lifetime risk of breast cancer appears to be increasing in Puerto Rico, but remains lower than the probability for US White females. Therefore, the application of lifetime probability of developing invasive breast cancer estimated for the US female population will overestimate the risk for the Puerto Rican female population.

  5. Transcriptome analysis of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) challenged by Vibrio parahaemolyticus reveals unique immune-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhendong; Babu, V Sarath; Wan, Quanyuan; Zhou, Meng; Liang, Risheng; Muhammad, Asim; Zhao, Lijuan; Li, Jun; Lan, Jiangfeng; Lin, Li

    2018-06-01

    Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is an important cultural species worldwide. However, Vibrio spp. infections have caused a great economic loss in Pacific white shrimp culture industry. The immune responses of Pacific white shrimp to the Vibrio spp. is not fully characterized. In this study, the transcriptomic profiles of L. vannamei hemocytes were explored by injecting with or without Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Totally, 42,632 high-quality unigenes were obtained from RNAseq data. Comparative genome analysis showed 2258 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) following the Vibrio challenge, including 1017 up-regulated and 1241 down-regulated genes. Eight DEGs were randomly selected for further validation by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and the results showed that are consistent with the RNA-seq data. Due to the lack of predictable adaptive immunity, shrimps rely on an innate immune system to defend themselves against invading microbes by recognizing and clearing them through humoral and cellular immune responses. Here we focused our studies on the humoral immunity, five genes (SR, MNK, CTL3, GILT, and ALFP) were selected from the transcriptomic data, which were significantly up-regulated by V. parahaemolyticus infection. These genes were widely expressed in six different tissues and were up-regulated by both Gram negative bacteria (V. parahaemolyticus) and Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). To further extend our studies, we knock-down those five genes by dsRNA in L. vannamei and analyzed the functions of specific genes against V. parahaemolyticus and S. aureus by bacterial clearance analysis. We found that the ability of L. vannamei was significantly reduced in bacterial clearance when treated with those specific dsRNA. These results indicate that those five genes play essential roles in antibacterial immunity and have its specific functions against different types of pathogens. The obtained data will shed a new light on the immunity

  6. The Effect of Latitudinal Variation on Shrimp Reproductive Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kerk, Madelon; Jones Littles, Chanda; Saucedo, Omar; Lorenzen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive strategies comprise the timing and frequency of reproductive events and the number of offspring per reproductive event, depending on factors such as climate conditions. Therefore, species that exhibit plasticity in the allocation of reproductive effort can alter their behavior in response to climate change. Studying how the reproductive strategy of species varies along the latitudinal gradient can help us understand and predict how they will respond to climate change. We investigated the effects of the temporal allocation of reproductive effort on the population size of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) along a latitudinal gradient. Multiple shrimp species exhibit variation in their reproductive strategies, and given the economic importance of brown shrimp to the commercial fishing sector of the Unites States, changes in the timing of their reproduction could have significant economic and social consequences. We used a stage-based, density-dependent matrix population model tailored to the life history of brown shrimp. Shrimp growth rates and environmental carrying capacity were varied based on the seasonal climate conditions at different latitudes, and we estimated the population size at equilibrium. The length of the growing season increased with decreasing latitude and the reproductive strategy leading to the highest population size changed from one annual birth pulse with high reproductive output to continuous low-output reproduction. Hence, our model confirms the classical paradigm of continuous reproduction at low latitudes, with increased seasonality of the breeding period towards the poles. Our results also demonstrate the potential for variation in climate to affect the optimal reproductive strategy for achieving maximum population sizes. Certainly, understanding these dynamics may inform more comprehensive management strategies for commercially important species like brown shrimp.

  7. The Effect of Latitudinal Variation on Shrimp Reproductive Strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelon van de Kerk

    Full Text Available Reproductive strategies comprise the timing and frequency of reproductive events and the number of offspring per reproductive event, depending on factors such as climate conditions. Therefore, species that exhibit plasticity in the allocation of reproductive effort can alter their behavior in response to climate change. Studying how the reproductive strategy of species varies along the latitudinal gradient can help us understand and predict how they will respond to climate change. We investigated the effects of the temporal allocation of reproductive effort on the population size of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus along a latitudinal gradient. Multiple shrimp species exhibit variation in their reproductive strategies, and given the economic importance of brown shrimp to the commercial fishing sector of the Unites States, changes in the timing of their reproduction could have significant economic and social consequences. We used a stage-based, density-dependent matrix population model tailored to the life history of brown shrimp. Shrimp growth rates and environmental carrying capacity were varied based on the seasonal climate conditions at different latitudes, and we estimated the population size at equilibrium. The length of the growing season increased with decreasing latitude and the reproductive strategy leading to the highest population size changed from one annual birth pulse with high reproductive output to continuous low-output reproduction. Hence, our model confirms the classical paradigm of continuous reproduction at low latitudes, with increased seasonality of the breeding period towards the poles. Our results also demonstrate the potential for variation in climate to affect the optimal reproductive strategy for achieving maximum population sizes. Certainly, understanding these dynamics may inform more comprehensive management strategies for commercially important species like brown shrimp.

  8. Ozone Disinfection of Vibrio vulnificus in Shrimp Pond Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyah Pita Rengga, Wara; Cahya Julyta Putri, Echa; Wulansarie, Ria; Suryanto, Agus

    2018-03-01

    One variety of shrimp, L.Vanamei, often uses brackish water during the operation in the shrimp pond. Chlorination and ultraviolet are usually used for disinfection of brackish water. However, it is ineffective and forms sediment in the water distribution. It can be a negative impact on the water quality cause a contamination on the shrimp, so the farmers might have loss of profit because Vibrio vulnificus causes infection and dead on the shrimp. It affects the safety of consumers and should be minimized. The purpose of this study is to reduce the number of V. vulnificus bacteria in the pond water. The water was put in the storage tanks then pumped to filter out the impurities of the water. Furthermore, the water set the flow rate in 1 LPM, 2 LPM, and 3 LPM. After that, the ozone was injected to the water flow to sterilize the V. vulnificus bacteria. Finally, the water was returned to the original tank. The water from the tank was taken through a valve and analyzed in 0, 3, 7, 12, 18, 24, 30 minutes. The sample was analyzed immediately using a Total Plate Count method to determine the number of V. vulnificus bacteria in the shrimp pond water. The flow rate shows that the longer time of ozone made a lower amount of Vibrio v. bacteria. In 2 LPM water, it shows the optimum results of V. vulnificus. bacteria reduction for 88.1% compared to the flow rate of 1 LPM and 3 LPM with the bacteria reduction of 68,8% and 70.6%. This study shows that the ozone with a flow rate of 2 LPM circulation is the most effective method to help reducing the number of V. vulnificus in brackish water distribution system in the shrimp environment and potentially as a disinfectant.

  9. Effect of irradiation on biochemistry properties of shrimp allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Kefei; Gao Meixu; Li Chunhong; Li Shurong; Pan Jiarong

    2007-01-01

    Study on the effects of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation at the dose of 0,3,5,7,10 kGy on shrimp allergen biochemistry properties was conducted. The results indicated that the allergen protein molecule can be broken down to smaller molecules or coagulated to larger molecules by irradiation. The hydrophobicity and turbidity of irradiated allergen increased with the increase of absorbed dose. The results also show that allergen solution is more sensitive to irradiation than allergen in solid state or in the whole shrimp. (authors)

  10. Analysis of the sulphite content in shrimps and prawns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Bonerba

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Food additives are redefined in European legislation (EC Regulation No. 1333/2008. Sulphur dioxide (E220 and sulphite (E221- E228 are widely used in food processing as preservatives because they slow down bacterial growth on foods and prevent oxidation or browning developing on shrimp and lobster. Shellfish processors, farmers and fishermen have long used sulfiting agents in a variety of species of warm and coldwater crustaceans as a treatment to prevent prawns and shrimps melanosis (blackspot, which is a natural process that makes the shell black after harvesting caused by Polyphenoloxidase enzyme systems which remain active during refrigeration or ice storage. Sulfite-induced hypersensitivity is the most well-established adverse response in humans to this food additive. In the present study the presence of sulfites in different frozen and thawed shrimp and prawn species belonging to Penaeoidea superfamily has been evaluated by the Monier-Williams procedure, in order to carry out a risk assessment and evaluate the levels of consumer exposure to this class of additives from these fish products. In addition to assessing and monitoring the correct use of the additive, according to the limits imposed by the European regulations, the correct consumer information on labels was also evaluated. Analysis were performed on both whole shrimp (shell on and inedible parts (head and peeled shell. Sulphites concentration in frozen samples (expressed as SO2 mg/kg mean value±S.D. was 214±17.43 for head on shell on shrimps; 170.73±14.99 for shell on headless shrimps; 112.90±27.55 for peeled and deveined shrimps. Thawed shrimps were purchased at mass retailers channel and local fish markets and local seafood retailers and purveyors: for these samples, all head on shell on, the sulphites concentration (expressed as SO2 mg/kg mean value±S.D. was 160.05±26.15 and 292.54±146.04, respectively. Non-edible parts showed, in all samples, much higher concentrations.

  11. SHRIMP MARICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN ECUADOR: SOME RESOURCE POLICY ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Southgate, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    During the past 15 years, Ecuador has become the Western Hemisphere's leading producer and exporter of shrimp. Growth has come about largely through mariculture development. About 8,000 metric tons (MT) of shrimp have been captured off the Ecuadorian coast each year since the late 1970s. Meanwhile, pond output has increased several-fold, from less than 5,000 MT in 1979 to over 100,000 MT 12 years later (Table 1). Mariculture has expanded largely at the expense of renewable natural resources. ...

  12. Ecosystem-Level Carbon Stocks in Costa Rican Mangrove Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, M.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical mangroves provide a wide variety of ecosystem services, including atmospheric carbon sequestration. Because of their high rates of carbon accumulation, the large expected size of their total stocks (from 2 to 5 times greater than those of upland tropical forests), and the alarming rates at which they are being converted to other uses (releasing globally from 0.02 to 0.12 Pg C yr-1), mangroves are receiving increasing attention as additional tools to mitigate climate change. However, data on whole ecosystem-level carbon in tropical mangroves is limited. Here I present the first estimate of ecosystem level carbon stocks in mangrove forests of Central America. I established 28, 125 m-long, sampling transects along the 4 main rivers draining the Térraba-Sierpe National Wetland in the southern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. This area represents 39% of all remaining mangroves in the country (48300 ha). A circular nested plot was placed every 25 m along each transect. Carbon stocks of standing trees, regeneration, the herbaceous layer, litter, and downed wood were measured following internationally-developed methods compatible with IPCC "Good Practice Guidelines". In addition, total soil carbon stocks were determined down to 1 m depth. Together, these carbon estimates represent the ecosystem-carbon stocks of these forests. The average aboveground carbon stocks were 72.5 ± 3.2 MgC ha-1 (range: 9 - 241 MgC ha-1), consistent with results elsewhere in the world. Between 74 and 92% of the aboveground carbon is stored in trees ≥ 5cm dbh. I found a significant correlation between basal area of trees ≥ 5cm dbh and total aboveground carbon. Soil carbon stocks to 1 m depth ranged between 141 y 593 MgC ha-1. Ecosystem-level carbon stocks ranged from 391 MgC ha-1 to 438 MgC ha-1, with a slight increase from south to north locations. Soil carbon stocks represent an average 76% of total ecosystem carbon stocks, while trees represent only 20%. These Costa Rican mangroves

  13. Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp ( Pandalus borealis )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, J.; Modberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Thirteen storage trials and ten challenge tests were carried out to examine microbial changes, spoilage and the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Shrimp in brine as well as brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were produced...... and lactic acids were studied. Furthermore, the effect of adding diacetate to brined shrimp was evaluated. A single batch of cooked and peeled shrimp was used to study both industrially and manually processed brined shrimp with respect to the effect of process hygiene on microbial changes and the shelf life...... of products. Concentrations of microorganisms on newly produced brined shrimp from an industrial scale processing line were 1.0-2.3 log (CFU g(-1)) higher than comparable concentrations in manually processed samples. This resulted in a substantially shorter shelf life and a more diverse spoilage microflora...

  14. A quantitative method to measure and evaluate the peelability of shrimps (Pandalus borealis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Dang, Tem Thi; Orlien, Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    A novel, standardized method has been developed in order to provide a quantitative description of shrimp peelability. The peeling process was based on the measure of the strength of the shell-muscle attachment of the shrimp using a texture analyzer, and calculated into the peeling work. The self......-consistent method, insensitive of the shrimp size, was proven valid for assessment of ice maturation of shrimps. The quantitative peeling efficiency (peeling work) and performance (degree of shell removal) showed that the decrease in peeling work correlated with the amount of satisfactory peeled shrimps, indicating...... an effective weakening of the shell-muscle attachment. The developed method provides the industry with a quantitative analysis for measurement of peeling efficiency and peeling performance of shrimps. It may be used for comparing different maturation conditions in relation to optimization of shrimps peeling....

  15. The effects of a thermophile metabolite, tryptophol, upon protecting shrimp against white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fei; Jin, Min

    2015-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a shrimp pathogen responsible for significant economic loss in commercial shrimp farms and until now, there has been no effective approach to control this disease. In this study, tryptophol (indole-3-ethanol) was identified as a metabolite involved in bacteriophage-thermophile interactions. The dietary addition of tryptophol reduced the mortality in shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus when orally challenged with WSSV. Our results revealed that 50 mg/kg tryptophol has a better protective effect in shrimp than 10 or 100 mg/kg tryptophol. WSSV copies in shrimp were reduced significantly (P shrimp, and thus holds significant promise as a novel and efficient therapeutic approach to control WSSV in shrimp aquaculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ataques de Nervios and their psychiatric correlates in Puerto Rican children from two different contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Irene; Rivera, Fernando; Ramirez, Rafael; Guarnaccia, Peter J; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Héctor R

    2009-12-01

    Among Latino adults and children, ataques de nervios has been associated with an array of psychiatric disorders. Using data from a probability sample of Puerto Rican children, aged 5 to 13 years (N = 2491), we assessed the lifetime prevalence and psychiatric correlates of ataques in youth residing in the South Bronx, New York and San Juan, Puerto Rico. Baseline site comparisons indicated that between 4% and 5% of children had a lifetime prevalence of ataques (either by child or parent report) and that ataques were associated with greater global impairment and a host of childhood disorders within the previous twelve months. Ataques were also correlated with greater exposure to violence, as well as more stressful life events for the South Bronx sample. After controlling for several covariates, ataques continued to be significantly associated with psychopathology. Ataques are, therefore, a significant correlate of global impairment and childhood psychopathology among Puerto Rican youth.

  17. Stress and the social determinants of maternal health among Puerto Rican women: a CBPR approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Damio, Grace; Cruz, Joan; D'Angelo, Karen; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-11-01

    This qualitative research project explores how poverty, the built environment, education, working conditions, health care access, food insecurity and perceived discrimination are experienced by Puerto Rican Latinas through the course of their lives. Five focus groups were conducted with the primary objective of documenting community experiences and perspectives regarding: 1) stress, including perceived discrimination based on race/ethnicity (racism); 2) the impact of stress on Puerto Rican women of reproductive age, their families, and/or their community; and 3) stressors that affect maternal health. Focus groups were conducted in English and Spanish in the two cities with the highest rates of premature birth and low infant birthweight in the state of Connecticut. Focus group findings indicate that participants perceived poverty, food insecurity, lack of access to quality education, and unsafe environments as significant life stressors affecting maternal and child health.

  18. AIDS-related stigma and social interaction: Puerto Ricans living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Serrano-García, Irma; Toro-Alfonso, José

    2005-02-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS are stigmatized. Although personal and social consequences of this stigmatization have been documented, research regarding its impact on social interactions is scarce. Latinos, and Puerto Ricans in particular, have voiced concern regarding AIDS stigma. The authors investigated the key role of social interaction in the process of stigmatization through in-depth, semistructured interviews in a sample of 30 Puerto Ricans living with HIV/AIDS. Participants reported instances in which AIDS stigma negatively influenced social interactions with family, friends, sexual partners, coworkers, and health professionals. Some of the consequences they described were loss of social support, persecution, isolation, job loss, and problems accessing health services. Findings support the need for interventions to address AIDS stigma and its consequences.

  19. Disproportionate impact of diabetes in a Puerto Rican community of Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Steve; Silva, Abigail; Shah, Ami M

    2006-12-01

    We assessed the impact of diabetes in a large Puerto Rican community of Chicago by measuring the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes and calculating the diabetes mortality rate. Data were analyzed from a comprehensive health survey conducted in randomly selected households in community areas. Questions on diagnosed diabetes and selected risk factors were asked. In addition, vital records data were analyzed in order to calculate the age-adjusted diabetes mortality rate. When possible, rates were compared to those found in other studies. The diabetes prevalence located in this community (20.8%: 95% CI = 10.1%-38.0%) is the highest ever reported for Puerto Ricans and one of the highest ever reported in the United States for a non-Native American population. For instance, it is twice the prevalence for Puerto Ricans in New York (11.3%) and Puerto Rico (9.3%-9.6%). Diagnosed diabetes was found to be significantly associated with obesity (p = 0.023). The prevalence was particularly high among older people, females, those born in the US, and those with a family history of diabetes. Notably, the diabetes mortality rate (67.6 per 100,000 population) was more than twice the rate for all of Chicago (31.2) and the US (25.4). Understanding why the diabetes prevalence and mortality rates for Puerto Ricans in this community are so much higher than those of other communities is imperative for primary and secondary prevention. Collaboration between researchers, service providers and community members can help address the issues of diabetes education, early screening and diagnosis, and effective treatment needed in this community.

  20. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Xingwang; Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened beverages or sweetened solid foods are associated with cognitive function. The present study included 737 participants without diabetes, aged 45–75 years, from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, 200...

  1. MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR SHRIMP (PENAEUS MONODON, FABRICIUS FARMING AT BHAGBANPUR REGION IN PURBA MEDINIPUR DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sahu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp culture can give miracles towards socio-economic development for a large number of rural people. Its sustainable development can be achieved through the application of scientific methodology, input of technical knowledge at the crisis time, quality control mechanism targeted to marketing strategy, sufficient supply of institutional credit and Government involvement in the marketing strategy. An optimum output cannot be assured even after taking the risk of huge investment. The export policy promotion and distinct quality measures are the major thrust area for the recent days. Government efforts in implementing a proper planning and management oriented marketing strategies are required for the sustainability of the industry.

  2. Challenges for implementing water quality monitoring and analysis on a small Costa Rican catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golcher, Christian; Cernesson, Flavie; Tournoud, Marie-George; Bonin, Muriel; Suarez, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The Costa Rican water regulatory framework (WRF) (2007), expresses the national concern about the degradation of surface water quality observed in the country since several years. Given the urgency of preserving and restoring the surface water bodies, and facing the need of defining a monitoring tool to classify surface water pollution, the Costa-Rican WRF relies on two water quality indexes: the so-called "Dutch Index" (D.I) and the Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted to Costa Rica (BMWP'CR), allowing an "easy" physicochemical and biological appraisal of the water quality and the ecological integrity of water bodies. Herein, we intend to evaluate whether the compound of water quality indexes imposed by Costa Rican legislation, is suitable to assess rivers local and global anthropogenic pressure and environmental conditions. We monitor water quality for 7 points of Liberia River (northern pacific region - Costa Rica) from March 2013 to July 2015. Anthropogenic pressures are characterized by catchment land use and riparian conditions. Environmental conditions are built from rainfall daily series. Our results show (i) the difficulties to monitor new sites following the recent implementation of the WRF; (ii) the statistical characteristics of each index; and (iii) a modelling tentative of relationships between water quality indexes and explanatory factors (land-use, riparian characteristics and climate conditions).

  3. Acculturation and Intention to Breastfeed among a Population of Predominantly Puerto Rican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelona de Mendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Latinas have high overall breastfeeding initiation rates, yet Puerto Ricans have among the lowest exclusive breastfeeding rates. This study sought to determine if acculturation was associated with intent to breastfeed in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. A cohort of Latina women were enrolled in Proyecto Buena Salud, and provided information on infant feeding intent (n = 1,323). Acculturation was assessed via the Psychological Acculturation Scale (PAS), language preference, and generation in the United States. Increasing acculturation as measured by English language preference (aOR 0.61 [95% CI 0.42-0.88]) and second or third generation in the United States (aOR 0.70 [95% CI 0.52-0.95)] was inversely associated with odds of intending to exclusively breastfeed. Similarly, women with higher levels of acculturation as measured by the PAS (aOR 0.67 [95% CI 0.45-0.99]), English language preference (aOR 0.48 [95% CI 0.33-0.70]) and second or third generation in the United States (aOR 0.42 [95% CI 0.31-0.58]) were less likely to report intent to combination feed as compared with women with lower acculturation. Acculturation was inversely associated with intent to exclusively breastfeed and intent to combination feed in this predominantly Puerto Rican sample. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The social basis of separatism: explaining support for the Puerto Rican Independence Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Arrarás

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 1990s, particularly in the wake of the fall of the Soviet Union, comparativists rediscovered the enduring appeal of separatist movements around the globe. Many of the most significant political events of the past decade have revolved around issues of nationalism, ethnicity, irredenta, and the like. In light of these renewed preoccupations, it is surprising that U.S. scholars have largely ignored a nationalist movement closer to home. The Puerto Rican independence movement is by far the most significant separatist tendency under the U.S. flag, and is one of the few major anticolonialist movements to survive into the twenty-first century. Although supporters of Puerto Rican independence have typically drawn only three to five percent support in local elections and in plebiscites on the island’s political status, neither have they disappeared from the political scene. The remarkable durability of the independence movement demands systematic explanation. However, as strange as it may seem, to date there have been no serious scholarly studies of the social bases of the Puerto Rican independence movement.

  5. Application of DNA fingerprinting to the recovery program of the endangered Puerto Rican parrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, M.K.; White, B.N.

    1992-01-01

    The Puerto Rican parrot was reduced to 13 animals in 1975 and as a conservation measure, a captive population was established from a few founders taken from the wild between 1973 and 1983. The number of successful breeding pairs in captivity has been !ow, and the captive breeding program has not been as productive as that of the closely related Hispaniolan parrot. Therefore, a genetic study was initiated to examine the relative levels of relatedness of the captive founders using levels of bandsharing in DNA fingerprints. Unrelated captive founder Puerto Rican parrots had the same average level of bandsharing (0.41) as second-degree relatives of the Hispaniolan parrot (0.38, P > 0,05), with an inbreeding coefficient of 0.04. High levels of bandsharing (>40%) between pairs of males and females correlated with reproductive failure, suggesting that inbreeding depression is partly responsible for the !ow number of' breeding pairs. Consequently, DNA profiling can be used to guide the captive breeding program for the Puerto Rican parrot, and other endangered species, by identifying pairs of males and females with low levels of bandsharing.

  6. Importance of vitamin D and vitamin D levels status in Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Martínez, Edu B; Pérez, Cynthia M; Cruz, Sofia K; Khorsandi, Shayan; Chardón, Camile; Ferder, Leon

    2013-11-01

    There is growing and compelling evidence demonstrating the extra-skeletal role of vitamin D and the importance of maintaining adequate levels of this nutrient. Currently, there is very limited information available on the vitamin D status in children and adults in underserved groups, including Puerto Ricans. We assessed the vitamin D status of 4,090 Puerto Ricans living in six geographical regions in the island. Only 31.5% of the studied population had sufficient vitamin D levels (>30 ng/ml). The 18-39 year age group and the females showed inadequate (<30 ng/ml) levels of vitamin D (76.9% and 69.8%, respectively). Participants aged 60 or older showed the highest mean values of serum 25(OH)D (28.8 ng/ml) and the highest percentage (37.1%) of sufficient levels (>30 ng/ml). Future studies are certainly warranted to understand the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and influencing factors (including obesity) in Puerto Ricans.

  7. Artificial Cavities and Nest Site Selection by Puerto Rican Parrots: a Multiscale Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. White, Jr.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined nest site selection by Puerto Rican Parrots, a secondary cavity nester, at several spatial scales using the nest entrance as the central focal point relative to 20 habitat and spatial variables. The Puerto Rican Parrot is unique in that, since 2001, all known nesting in the wild has occurred in artificial cavities, which also provided us with an opportunity to evaluate nest site selection without confounding effects of the actual nest cavity characteristics. Because of the data limitations imposed by the small population size of this critically endangered endemic species, we employed a distribution-free statistical simulation approach to assess site selection relative to characteristics of used and unused nesting sites. Nest sites selected by Puerto Rican Parrots were characterized by greater horizontal and vertical visibility from the nest entrance, greater density of mature sierra palms, and a more westerly and leeward orientation of nest entrances than unused sites. Our results suggest that nest site selection in this species is an adaptive response to predation pressure, to which the parrots respond by selecting nest sites offering advantages in predator detection and avoidance at all stages of the nesting cycle. We conclude that identifying and replicating the “nest gestalt” of successful nesting sites may facilitate conservation efforts for this and other endangered avian species.

  8. Association of Types of Life Events with Depressive Symptoms among Puerto Rican Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Jaschek

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to examine the association between four types of adverse life events (family environment, separation, social adversity, and death and the development of depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth. This was a secondary analysis using three waves (2000-2004 of interview data from the Boricua Youth Study of 10-13 year old Puerto Rican youth residing in New York and Puerto Rico with no depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 977. Depressive symptoms increased with an increase in social adversity, separation, death, and death events. Youth support from parents was a significant protective factor for all adverse events and parent coping was a protective factor in social adversity events. Relying on standard diagnostic tools is ideal to identify youth meeting the criteria for a diagnosis of depression but not useful to detect youth who present with subclinical levels of depression. Youth with sub-clinical levels of depression will not get treated and are at increased risk of developing depression later in life. Adverse life events are potentially relevant to use in conjunction with other screening tools to identify Puerto Rican youth who have subclinical depression and are at risk of developing depression in later adolescence.

  9. Brine Shrimp Toxicity Evaluation Of Some Tanzanian Plants Used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants which are used by traditional healers in Tanzania have been evaluated to obtain preliminary data of their toxicity using the brine shrimps test. The results indicate that 9 out of 44 plant species whose extracts were tested exhibited high toxicity with LC50 values below 20μg/ml. These include Aloe lateritia Engl.

  10. Juvenile Penaeid Shrimp Density, Spatial Distribution and Size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of habitat characteristics (mangrove creek, sandflat, mudflat and seagrass meadow) water salinity, temperature, and depth on the density, spatial distribution and size distribution of juveniles of five commercially important penaied shrimp species (Metapenaus monoceros, M. stebbingi, Fenneropenaeus indicus, ...

  11. Primary carbon sources for juvenile penaeid shrimps in a mangrove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were determined in a variety of primary producers (mangroves, epiphytes, phytoplankton and seagrasses), sediments and in five penaeid shrimp species (Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) indicus, P. japonicus, P. semisulcatus, Metapenaeus monoceros and M. stebbingi), collected ...

  12. Absorption and retention of selenium from shrimps in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugel, S. H.; Sandstrom, B.; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the bioavailability of selenium in shrimps, a possible good source of selenium, by measurements of the absorption and retention of selenium and the effects on plasma selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity. Twelve healthy young subjects (9F...... of the study, after 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The selenium intake increased from 39.4 +/- 15.3 mug/d to 127 +/- 5.5 mug/d with the addition of shrimps. The apparent absorption of selenium from shrimps was 83 +/- 4%, Faecal and urinary selenium excretion was 32.5 +/- 17.0 mug/d and 21.2 +/- 9.0 mug/d, re spectively...... and the total retention of selenium was 3.1 +/- 1.1 mg. Plasma selenium concentrations were 95.2 +/- 9.7 mug/L and 101.5 +/- 9.7 mug/L before and after six weeks of shrimp intake, respectively (p...

  13. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Shrimps in Tehran during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background During fishing and transport, preservation and quality of fish products are importantas well as storage to prevent the growth of pathogenic and toxin producing bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sea food-borne diseases worldwidedue to contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare theprevalence and contamination of S. aureus in marine and farmed shrimps in Tehran fishery center.Methods: A total of 300 samples, including 150 marine, 150 farmed shrimps were selected duringSeptember 2013 to December 2013. Isolation and identification of S. aureus from isolated sampleswere carried out according to conventional methods, and antibiotic susceptibility test wasperformed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methodResults: The results of this study showed that 30% of marine and 20% off armed shrimps werecontaminated with S. aureus. The highest resistance was observed with penicillin and ampicillin,whereas 100% were sensitive to vancomycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin.Conclusions: Due to relatively high contamination of shrimp by S. aureus more attention shouldbe given during processing and manufacturing.

  14. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Shrimps in Tehran during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background During fishing and transport, preservation and quality of fish products are importantas well as storage to prevent the growth of pathogenic and toxin producing bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sea food-borne diseases worldwidedue to contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare theprevalence and contamination of S. aureus in marine and farmed shrimps in Tehran fishery center.Methods: A total of 300 samples, including 150 marine, 150 farmed shrimps were selected duringSeptember 2013 to December 2014. Isolation and identification of S. aureus from isolated sampleswere carried out according to conventional methods, and antibiotic susceptibility test wasperformed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method.Results: The results of this study showed that 30% of marine and 20% off armed shrimps werecontaminated with S. aureus. The highest resistance was observed with penicillin and ampicillin,whereas 100% were sensitive to vancomycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin.Conclusions: Due to relatively high contamination of shrimp by S. aureus more attention shouldbe given during processing and manufacturing.

  15. A new alpheid shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alpheidae) from South Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyên Van Xuân,

    2001-01-01

    A new alpheid shrimp, Thuylamea camelus gen. nov. & spec. nov., from Dong Hoa, a coastal community of Can Gio district, and northwest of Vung Tau (Cap St. Jacques), Vietnam, is described and illustrated. The new genus appears not to be closely related to any of the previously described genera. It

  16. Lunar Cycles, Catchability of Penaeid Shrimps and Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Penaeidae, fishing effort, lunar phases, profitability, spatial closures. ... closures during periods of the lunar cycle with predictably low catch-per- ... each lunar phase and month using two-way ANOVA. ... shrimps, for which the CPUE declined throughout the fishing season ... (Garcia, 1988) and abundance of.

  17. Toward Improved Environmental and Social Management of Indian Shrimp Farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, L.G.

    2002-01-01

    In the last decade, Indian shrimp aquaculture production tripled from 30,000 tons (1990) to 102,000 tons (1999). This fast development, combined with a lack of adequate planning and regulation, caused a number of environmental problems and social conflicts, including conversion of mangroves, water

  18. Population structure and expansion of kuruma shrimp ( Penaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequence analyses on the specific intron from the elongation factor-1α gene were conducted to examine the population genetic structure and expansion of kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) off Taiwan. Five populations including 119 individuals were separately sampled from the north of East China Sea (ECS), west of ...

  19. Distribution and biology of Indo-Pacific insular hypogeal shrimps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciolek, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Ten species of caridean shrimps, representing nine genera in five families, have been found in exposures of the marine water table at 28 islands from Hawaii to the western Indian Ocean. Synthesis of literature information and personal observations indicate that, as a group, these shrimps are characterized by red body pigment, reduced but pigmented eyes, euryhalinity, a proclivity for interstitial seawater in limestone or lava rock, generalized food requirements, and probable pre-Pleistocene origins. The shrimps have not been found in waters cooler than about 20°C.Species are often solitary, but as many as five are known to coexist. Six of the species have widely scattered populations, some as far apart as Hawaii and the Red Sea. Passive oceanic dispersal is endorsed as a general explanation for such apparently disjunct distributions. On the basis of an assumed primary habitat requirement of interstitial marine water, which could include that in shallow submerged rock as well as that in emergent (insular) rock, I hypothesize a much more cosmopolitan distribution of these shrimps in the Indo-Pacific Tropical Zone.

  20. Authenticating the origin of different shrimp products on the Tunisian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KAIS

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... methods (with various modifications) and the use of commercial kit such as Chelex ... Authenticity determination of prawn and shrimp species in commercial frozen, pre-cooked products. .... primers have equal length (23 nucleotides), GC content ..... Temperatures in Diffusion-Generated Chemical Gradients.

  1. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... additives as defined in section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; or if they are food... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  2. Multilevel analysis of elastic morphology: The mantis shrimp's spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, M V; Patek, S N

    2015-09-01

    Spring systems, whether natural or engineered, are composed of compliant and rigid regions. Biological springs are often similar to monolithic structures that distribute compliance and rigidity across the whole system. For example, to confer different amounts of compliance in distinct regions within a single structure, biological systems typically vary regional morphology through thickening or elongation. Here, we analyze the monolithic spring in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) raptorial appendages to rapidly acquire or process prey. We quantified the shape of cross-sections of the merus segment of the raptorial appendage. We also examined specific regions of the merus that are hypothesized to either store elastic energy or provide structural support to permit energy storage in other regions of the system. We found that while all mantis shrimp contain thicker ventral bars in distal cross-sections, differences in thickness are more pronounced in high-impact "smasher" mantis shrimp than in the slower-striking "spearer" mantis shrimp. We also found that spearer cross-sections are more circular while those of smashers are more eccentric with elongation along the dorso-ventral axis. The results suggest that the regional thickening of ventral bars provides structural support for resisting spring compression and also reduces flexural stiffness along the system's long axis. This multilevel morphological analysis offers a foundation for understanding the evolution and mechanics of monolithic systems in biology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Levels of PAHs in shrimps, Penaeus monodon from Jones Creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High concentrations were recorded during the rainy season and during the first quarter of the year. The investigated samples were classified as minimally contaminated when compared with FDA levels of PAHs in shrimp samples. Distribution patterns showed that PAHs with 3 and 4 rings dominated confirming the pyrogenic ...

  4. Fishing methods for sustainable shrimp fisheries in the Canary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the past 20 years, experimental cruises have been conducted around the Canary Islands (North-West Africa) to investigate the biodiversity of the deep-sea ecosystem and to explore new fisheries resources. Although pandalid shrimps were shown to be very abundant in this region, information is lacking regarding ...

  5. Job satisfaction in the shrimp trawl fisheries of Chennai, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavinck, M.

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing métier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested métier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members

  6. Biological activity of Penaeus monodon GILT in shrimp pathogen protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aekkaraj Nualla-ong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT contains a CXXC active site motif that possesses thiol reductase activity by catalyzing the disulfide bond reduction of exogenous antigens. Mutating the active site of human GILT to change the cysteine residues to serine residues eliminates this property. Our previous study reported that Penaeus monodon GILT (PmGILT contained a CXXS active site motif. Therefore, we assessed the enzymatic activity of PmGILT and demonstrated that it displayed identical thiol reductase activity at an acidic pH. In addition, the biological activity of PmGILT against shrimp pathogens, including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and Gram-negative bacteria, was investigated. The neutralization of WSSV with PmGILT indicated the inhibition of WSSV invasion into shrimp hemocyte cells. Moreover, the relative percentage survival of shrimp injected with PmGILT-treated virus solution was 75%. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of PmGILT was confirmed by the growth inhibition of Vibrio harveyi. These results establish the role of PmGILT in the inhibition of the virulence of two major shrimp pathogens.

  7. Characterization of myosin light chain in shrimp hemocytic phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fang; Wang, Zhiyong; Wang, Xiaoqing

    2010-11-01

    Myosin light chain, a well-known cytoskeleton gene, regulates multiple processes that are involved in material transport, muscle shrink and cell division. However, its function in phagocytosis against invading pathogens in crustacean remains unknown. In this investigation, a myosin light chain gene was obtained from Marsupenaeus japonicus shrimp. The full-length cDNA of this gene was of 766 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 462 bp encoding a polypeptide of 153 amino acids. The myosin light chain protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Subsequently the specific antibody was raised using the purified GST fusion protein. As revealed by immuno-electron microscopy, the myosin light chain protein was only expressed in the dark bands of muscle. In the present study, the myosin light chain gene was up-regulated in the WSSV-resistant shrimp as revealed by real-time PCR and western blot. And the phagocytic percentage and phagocytic index using FITC-labeled Vibrio parahemolyticus were remarkably increased in the WSSV-resistant shrimp, suggesting that the myosin light chain protein was essential in hemocytic phagocytosis. On the other hand, RNAi assays indicated that the phagocytic percentage and phagocytic index were significantly decreased when the myosin light chain gene was silenced by sequence-specific siRNA. These findings suggested that myosin light chain protein was involved in the regulation of hemocytic phagocytosis of shrimp. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. DIAGNOSIS OF SHRIMP TRAWLING IN THE STATE OF PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Rangel Andrade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With a technical approach, this diagnosis aims to fill a gap in the overview of the activity, considering its technical aspects that manage the fishing effort of shrimping of Penambuco. From October 2013 to August 2014, the fishing grounds were identified used in this activity, as well as the fishing method, the number of boats and fishermen acting, type of boat and gears used. Analyses were performed with the major communities operating in this fishery (Recife, Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Barra de Sirinhaém and São Jose da Coroa Grande. The analyzes of the catch were tested using one-way ANOVA (α 5%. They observed two traditional types: the beach seining and trawing. It was cataloged about 50 vessels in the activity, with approximately 100 fishermen. They are caught mainly three types of shrimp: pink (Farfantepenaeus spp., Seabob (Xiphopenaeus kroyeri and white (Lithopenaeus schmitii. Statistical data concentrated in the metropolitan area of Recife and Barra de Sirinhaém. There seems to be a direct relationship rainfall with shrimp production because with increased rainfall, there is a higher volume of landing fishery. Barra de Sirinhaém is the main area used in the State. Keywords: ‘mangote’; trawling fishing; pink shrimp; Farfantepenaeus spp.

  9. Histological characterization of peppermint shrimp ( Lysmata wurdemanni) androgenic gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Dong; Lin, Tingting

    2017-12-01

    The androgenic gland (AG) is an important endocrine gland for male reproductive function in crustaceans. In the present study, we investigated the histological characteristics of the androgenic gland of peppermint shrimp, Lysmata wurdemanni. The peppermint shrimp matures as male first, then some individuals may become euhermaphrodite after several moltings (transitional phase). Euhermaphrodite-phase shrimp acts as male at intermolts. However, it can be fertilized as a female immediately after molting. Considering the male reproductive function acts in its lifespan except for at larval stages, and female reproductive system starts to develop at transitional phase, we hypothesized that AG activity might be reduced to allow and promote vitellogenesis onset in early transitional phase and the following euhermaphrodite phase. So AG cell structure might be different in three phases in L. wurdemanni. The results showed that AG exists in the male in transitional and euhermaphrodite phases. The gland cell clusters surrounding the ejaculatory ducts locate at the roots of the fifth pereopods. The nucleus diameters are similar in the three phases while the nucleus- to-cell ratio is the lowest in euhermaphrodite phase. Our results indicated that for the individuals that will become euhermaphrodite, the cellular structure of AG changes since transitional phase. Male reproductive function which is still available in euhermaphrodite-phase shrimp should be due to the existence of the gland.

  10. Chitosan from shrimp shell ( Crangon crangon ) and fish scales ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chitosan is a naturally available biopolymer. It has been prepared by alkaline N deacetylation process of shrimp (Crangon crangon) chitin and fish (Labeorohita) chitin. The physico-chemical properties such as the degree of deacetylation (DD), solubility, water binding capacity, fat binding capacity and chitosan yield have ...

  11. Authenticating the Origin of Different Shrimp Products on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes a polymerase chain reaction using restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay based on the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene to identify commercial food products of wide range of Penaeidae and Pandalidae shrimp species commercialised in the Tunisian market. Phylogenetic analyses ...

  12. Physicochemical Characterization of Biopolymer Chitosan Extracted from Shrimp Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezamaddin Mengelizadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a deacetylated derivative of chitin, which is a naturally abundant mucopolysaccharide, supporting the matter of crustaceans, insects, and fungi. Because of its unique properties, such as non-toxicity, biodegradability, and biocompatibility, chitosan has a wide range of applications in various fields. The objective of the present work is to extract the polymer chitosan from Persian Gulf shrimp shells. In order to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the extracted chitosan, degree of deacetylation, molecular weight, water and fat binding capacities extraction rate, and apparent viscosity were measured using a variety of techniques including viscometry, weight measurement method and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results of the study of the physicochemical properties, molecular weight (6.7×105 Da, degree of deacetylation (57%, ash content as well as yield (0.5% of the prepared chitosan indicated that shrimp processing wastes (shrimp shells are a good source of chitosan. The water binding capacity (521% and fat binding capacity (327% of the prepared chitosan are in good agreement with the other studies. The elemental analysis showed the C, H and N contents of 35.92%, 7.02%, and 8.66%, respectively. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of chitosan was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results indicated the high potential of chitosan as an antibacterial agent. Moreover, the results of the study indicated that shrimp shells are a rich source of chitin as 25.21% of the shell’s dry weight.

  13. Quantitative prediction of shrimp disease incidence via the profiles of gut eukaryotic microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinbo; Yu, Weina; Dai, Wenfang; Zhang, Jinjie; Qiu, Qiongfen; Ou, Changrong

    2018-04-01

    One common notion is emerging that gut eukaryotes are commensal or beneficial, rather than detrimental. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have been taken to discern the factors that govern the assembly of gut eukaryotes, despite growing interest in the dysbiosis of gut microbiota-disease relationship. Herein, we firstly explored how the gut eukaryotic microbiotas were assembled over shrimp postlarval to adult stages and a disease progression. The gut eukaryotic communities changed markedly as healthy shrimp aged, and converged toward an adult-microbiota configuration. However, the adult-like stability was distorted by disease exacerbation. A null model untangled that the deterministic processes that governed the gut eukaryotic assembly tended to be more important over healthy shrimp development, whereas this trend was inverted as the disease progressed. After ruling out the baseline of gut eukaryotes over shrimp ages, we identified disease-discriminatory taxa (species level afforded the highest accuracy of prediction) that characteristic of shrimp health status. The profiles of these taxa contributed an overall 92.4% accuracy in predicting shrimp health status. Notably, this model can accurately diagnose the onset of shrimp disease. Interspecies interaction analysis depicted how the disease-discriminatory taxa interacted with one another in sustaining shrimp health. Taken together, our findings offer novel insights into the underlying ecological processes that govern the assembly of gut eukaryotes over shrimp postlarval to adult stages and a disease progression. Intriguingly, the established model can quantitatively and accurately predict the incidences of shrimp disease.

  14. Starvation stress affects the interplay among shrimp gut microbiota, digestion and immune activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wen-Fang; Zhang, Jin-Jie; Qiu, Qiong-Fen; Chen, Jiong; Yang, Wen; Ni, Sui; Xiong, Jin-Bo

    2018-05-24

    Aquatic animals are frequently suffered from starvation due to restricted food availability or deprivation. It is currently known that gut microbiota assists host in nutrient acquisition. Thus, exploring the gut microbiota responses would improve our understanding on physiological adaptation to starvation. To achieve this, we investigated how the gut microbiota and shrimp digestion and immune activities were affected under starvation stress. The results showed that the measured digestion activities in starved shrimp were significantly lower than in normal cohorts; while the measured immune activities exhibited an opposite trend. A structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that changes in the gut bacterial community were directly related to digestive and immune enzyme activities, which in turn markedly affected shrimp growth traits. Notably, several gut bacterial indicators that characterized the shrimp nutrient status were identified, with more abundant opportunistic pathogens in starved shrimp, although there were no statistical differences in the overall diversity and the structures of gut bacterial communities between starved and normal shrimp. Starved shrimp exhibited less connected and cooperative interspecies interaction as compared with normal cohorts. Additionally, the functional pathways involved in carbohydrate and protein digestion, glycan biosynthesis, lipid and enzyme metabolism remarkably decreased in starved shrimp. These attenuations could increase the susceptibility of starved shrimp to pathogens infection. In summary, this study provides novel insights into the interplay among shrimp digestion, immune activities and gut microbiota in response to starvation stress. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Quantitative risk assessment of WSSV transmission through partial harvesting and transport practices for shrimp aquaculture in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Zazueta, Edgar; Martínez-Cordero, Francisco Javier; Chávez-Sánchez, María Cristina; Montoya-Rodríguez, Leobardo

    2017-10-01

    This quantitative risk assessment provided an analytical framework to estimate white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission risks in the following different scenarios: (1) partial harvest from rearing ponds and (2) post-harvest transportation, assuming that the introduction of contaminated water with viral particles into shrimp culture ponds is the main source of viral transmission risk. Probabilities of infecting shrimp with waterborne WSSV were obtained by approaching the functional form that best fits (likelihood ratio test) published data on the dose-response relationship for WSSV orally inoculated through water into shrimp. Expert opinion defined the ranges for the following uncertain factors: (1) the concentrations of WSSV in the water spilled from the vehicles transporting the infected shrimp, (2) the total volume of these spills, and (3) the dilution into culture ponds. Multiple scenarios were analysed, starting with a viral load (VL) of 1×10 2 mL -1 in the contaminated water spilled that reached the culture pond, whose probability of infection of an individual shrimp (P i ) was negligible (1.7×10 -7 ). Increasing the VL to 1×10 4.5 mL -1 and 1×10 7 mL -1 yielded results into very low (P i =5.3×10 -5 ) and high risk (P i =1.6×10 -2 ) categories, respectively. Furthermore, different pond stocking density (SD) scenarios (20 and 30 post-larvae [PL]/m 2 ) were evaluated, and the probability of infection of at least one out of the total number of shrimp exposed (P N ) was derived; for the scenarios with a low VL (1×10 2 mL -1 ), the P N remained at a negligible risk level (P N , 2.4×10 -7 to 1.8×10 -6 ). For most of the scenarios with the moderate VL (1×10 4.5 mL -1 ), the P N scaled up to a low risk category (P N , 1.1×10 -4 to 5.6×10 -4 ), whereas for the scenarios with a high VL (1×10 7 mL -1 ), the risk levels were high (P N , 2.3×10 -2 to 3.5×10 -2 ) or very high (P N , 1.1×10 -1 to 1.6×10 -1 ) depending on the volume of contaminated water

  16. Cytokine profile of rats fed a diet containing shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lage Borges

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that shrimps reduced the tensile strength of scars in rat skin. The aim of the present study was to assess the cytokine profile of rats fed shrimp. METHODS: Group 1 (control received a regular diet and Group 2 (experimental received a diet containing 33% shrimp for nine days. The two diets contained the same amounts of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Serum cytokine levels were determined by ELISA and a segment of the jejunum was taken to investigate its histological morphology and eosinophil infiltrate. RESULTS: The experimental group had lower serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 (14.4±1.9 versus 18.11±2.6pg/mL; p<0.05 and IL-10 (5.0±0.98 versus 7.5±1.2pg/mL; p<0.05 and higher levels of IL-6 (17.8±2.3 versus 3.2±0.4pg/mL, p<0.001 than controls. Morphologically, the shrimp-based diet caused an architectural disorganization of the intestinal mucosa and a greater amount of eosinophils in the jejunal villus. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that shrimp consumption leads to a significant increase in the cytokine IL-6, a decrease in the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10 in the serum of rats, and high eosinophil infiltration in the jejunum. The cytokine profile typical of inflammation and the histological aspect of the jejunum are compatible with food allergy.

  17. Application of risk perception and communication strategies to manage disease outbreaks of coastal shrimp farming in developing countires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan

    2008-01-01

    Coastal shrimp aquaculture is one of the major economic activities of the people of developing countries especially in Southeast Asia and Latin America. Risk and uncertainty are very common issues in coastal shrimp industry like in any other business. Various types of risks are associated in shrimp...... farming like, production risks, technical risks, economical risks and disease of shrimp. However, risk of economic losses due to shrimp mortality (for diseases) is the major concern of the shrimp producers of Bangladesh, India, Thailand, China and many other countries. Poor water quality and high stocking...... density usually initiate the rapid growth of virus and bacteria in a shrimp farm which in turn cause the disease and mortality of shrimp. Coastal shrimp farms are very densely located in Bangladesh and other Southeast Asian countries. As a result, the viral and bacterial diseases can be easily spread from...

  18. Selection and identification of non-pathogenic bacteria isolated from fermented pickles with antagonistic properties against two shrimp pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokaeifar, Hadi; Balcázar, José Luis; Kamarudin, Mohd Salleh; Sijam, Kamaruzaman; Arshad, Aziz; Saad, Che Roos

    2012-06-01

    In this study, potential probiotic strains were isolated from fermented pickles based on antagonistic activity against two shrimp pathogens (Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus). Two strains L10 and G1 were identified by biochemical tests, followed by16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis as Bacillus subtilis, and characterized by PCR amplification of repetitive bacterial DNA elements (Rep-PCR). Subsequently, B. subtilis L10 and G1 strains were tested for antibacterial activity under different physical conditions, including culture medium, salinity, pH and temperature using the agar well diffusion assay. Among the different culture media, LB broth was the most suitable medium for antibacterial production. Both strains showed the highest level of antibacterial activity against two pathogens at 30 °C and 1.0% NaCl. Under the pH conditions, strain G1 showed the greatest activity against V. harveyi at pH 7.3-8.0 and against V. parahaemolyticus at pH 6.0-8.0, whereas strain L10 showed the greatest activity against two pathogens at pH 7.3. The cell-free supernatants of both strains were treated with four different enzymes in order to characterize the antibacterial substances against V. harveyi. The result showed considerable reduction of antibacterial activity for both strains, indicating the proteinaceous nature of the antibacterial substances. A wide range of tolerance to NaCl, pH and temperature was also recorded for both strains. In addition, both strains showed no virulence effect in juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. On the basis of these results and safety of strains to L. vannamei, they may be considered for future challenge experiments in shrimp as a very promising alternative to the use of antibiotics.

  19. A Profile of Puerto Rican Health in the United States: Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1982-84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Eric; And Others

    The health conditions and health status of Hispanic Americans will assume increased importance as their population increases. The goal of this book of charts is to present data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) on Puerto Ricans. The Puerto Rican HHANES sampling procedure is a multi-stage probability sample of…

  20. Teachers of Language and Culture: A Thoughtful Look and Review of the Costa Rican Indigenous Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Guevara-Víquez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay is part of the products from the Reconstruction of Knowledge project –attached to the Division of Rural Education of the National University of Costa Rica. This work seeks to create a thoughtful look regarding the existing indigenous education model in Costa Rica in general– and particularly in Talamanca. A methodology based on collaborative action research with indigenous teachers in the region of Talamanca Bribri and Talamanca Cabécar was used as a starting point. This methodology combined focus group discussions and individual interviews with a qualitative approach that allowed generating a series of critical impressions about the education system where they work. All this will lead to a summary of insights and specific recommendations that would strengthen the educational system for the indigenous population of Talamanca and would allow moving towards a true model of Intercultural Bilingual Education.

  1. Aging and Sexuality: Perceptions of a Puerto Rican Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Judith; Drew, Benjamin

    While there are acknowledged physical, psychological, and social benefits to be derived from maintaining sexual activity in old age, the negative cultural attitudes displayed by younger members of society as well as by their own peers constitute a barrier to the achievement of a satisfactory sex life for the elderly. A study was undertaken to…

  2. Vaccination Enhances Early Immune Responses in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after Secondary Exposure to Vibrio alginolyticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Morni, Wan Zabidii W.; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Huang, Chien-Lun; Li, Chang-Che; Hsieh, Jen-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent work suggested that the presence of specific memory or some form of adaptive immunity occurs in insects and shrimp. Hypervariable pattern recognition molecules, known as Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules, are able to mount specific recognition, and immune priming in invertebrates. In the present study, we attempted to understand the immune response pattern of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received primary (PE) and secondary exposure (SE) to Vibrio alginolyticus. Methodology Immune parameters and proliferation of haematopoietic tissues (HPTs) of shrimp which had received PE and SE to V. alginolyticus were measured. In the PE trial, the immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of shrimp that received heat-killed V. alginolyticus (HVa) and formalin-inactivated V. alginolyticus (FVa) were measured. Mortality, immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to HVa after 7 days) and 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to FVa after 7 days) following SE to live V. alginolyticus (LVa) were measured. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were examined for the 7∼35-day-HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp. Results HVa-receiving shrimp showed an earlier increase in the immune response on day 1, whereas FVa-receiving shrimp showed a late increase in the immune response on day 5. The 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed enhancement of immunity when encountering SE to LVa, whereas 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp showed a minor enhancement in immunity. 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed higher proliferation and an HPT mitotic index. Both phagocytic activity and clearance maintained higher for both HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp after 28 days. Conclusions HVa- and FVa-receiving shrimp showed the bacteria agglutinated prior to being phagocytised. FVa functions as a vaccine, whereas HVa functions as an inducer and can be used as an immune adjuvant. A combined mixture of FVa and HVa can serve as a

  3. A Bioeconomic model of ocean acidification in the Baffin Bay/ Davis Strait Shrimp Fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    We examine the case of the shrimp fishery in Baffin Bay/Davis Straight for potential effects of Ocean Acidification (OA), including: 1. the overall productivity of the shrimp fishery, 2. the spatial spread of the shrimp fishery, 3. the quality of the shrimp brought to market, and hence price...... and indirect costs of OA by comparing optimal bio-economic use of the shrimp fishery without ecosystem productivity shifts due to OA and with shifts due to OA. The demand side includes product differentiation to account for price differentials from different quality levels. The supply side includes costs...... or indirectly as the energy requirements of reproduction and growth shift the characteristics of the shrimp throughout the lifecycle....

  4. An investigation on the application of ohmic heating of cold water shrimp and brine mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Juhl; Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Brøkner Kavli, Sissel Therese

    2016-01-01

    Cooking is an important unit-operation in the production of cooked and peeled shrimps. The present study explores the feasibility of using ohmic heating for cooking of shrimps. The focus is on investigating the effects of different process parameters on heating time and quality of ohmic cooked...... shrimps (Pandalus Borelias). The shrimps were heated to a core temperature of 72 °C in a brine solution using a small batch ohmic heater. Three experiments were performed: 1) a comparative analyses of the temperature development between different sizes of shrimps and thickness (head and tail region...... of the shrimp) over varying salt concentrations (10 kg m−3 to 20 kg m−3) and electric field strengths (1150 V m−1 to 1725 V m−1) with the heating time as the response; 2) a 2 level factorial experiment for screening the impact of processing conditions using electric field strengths of 1250 V m−1 and 1580 V m−1...

  5. Effects of Shrimp Meal Fermented with Aspergillus niger On Physical Quality of Broiler Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalal Rosyidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The research materials were 75 broiler chickens of 1 day old and feeds. The research employed five treatments, namely (P0: feed without addition of fermented shrimp meal, P1: feed with 5 % addition of fermented shrimp meal, P2: feed with 7.5 % addition of fermented shrimp meal, P3: feed with 10 % addition of fermented shrimp meal, P4: feed with 12.5 % addition of fermented shrimp meal. Every treatment was repeated 3 times, with 5 chickens respectively. Variables of this research were Water Holding Capacity (WHC, cooking loss and tenderness of broiler meat. Data were analyzed by completely randomized design, if there was a significant effect, it was followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The result of this research showed that the use of fermented shrimp meal in broiler feed can improve WHC, degrading cooking loss and improving tenderness of broiler meat.   Keywords : Water holding capacity, cooking loss, tenderness

  6. The effect of gamma irradiation on physical and nutritional quality of Penaeus Monodon shrimps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.L.; Jobin, M.; Latreille, B.; Nouchpramool, K.; Gagnon, M.

    1995-01-01

    Two lots of frozen precooked shrimps from Thailand ''PENAEUS MONODON'' Black tiger variety were irradiated at 1.8 to 3.6 kGy. This way, it was hoped to compare the effects of gamma irradiation on the chemical and physical qualities of frozen precooked shrimps after transportation from Thailand to Canada. The results indicated that the color measurement expressed in terms of lightness (L*) showed a relative stability during storage of processed shrimps. However, based on the value (θ) a more intense red color was observed for the control and the reference. The cooked irradiated and nonirradiated shrimps presented a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.01) of 22% in firmness during the first week of storage. Thus, irradiation did not impair the firmness of shrimps after treatment or during storage. Also, based on the statistical analysis, the irradiation treatment did not affect the content of amino acids of precooked shrimps. (Author)

  7. The Effect of Copper on the Color of Shrimps: Redder Is Not Always Healthier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ana; Romero, Yanet; Castillo, Tania; Mascaró, Maite; López-Rull, Isabel; Simões, Nuno; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Barbosa, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to test the effects of copper on the color of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in vivo. Forty-eight shrimps (L. vannamei) were exposed to a low concentration of copper (1 mg/L; experimental treatment) and forty-eight shrimps were used as controls (no copper added to the water). As a result of this experiment, it was found that shrimps with more copper are significantly redder than those designated as controls (hue (500–700 nm): P = 0.0015; red chroma (625–700 nm): P<0.0001). These results indicate that redder color may result from exposure to copper and challenge the commonly held view that highly pigmented shrimps are healthier than pale shrimps. PMID:25229639

  8. Novel alternative to antibiotics in shrimp hatchery: effects of the essential oil of Cinnamosma fragrans on survival and bacterial concentration of Penaeus monodon larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianarivelo, R; Danthu, P; Benoit, C; Ruez, P; Raherimandimby, M; Sarter, S

    2010-08-01

    The activity of two essential oils (EOs) of Cinnamosma fragrans, an endemic plant to Madagascar (B8: linalool-type and B143: 1,8-cineole-type), against bacterial isolates from a shrimp hatchery of Penaeus monodon and their effects on the survival and bacterial concentration of larvae were determined. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using a broth dilution technique. The bacterial concentrations of both larvae and water tank were assessed on Marine agar and Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Sucrose agar. The assays took place in OSO Farming's shrimp hatchery in Madagascar. EOs were directly added to the water tank. Regarding the survival, the assays in larval culture (four replicates each of B8, B143, E and control) showed that B8 oil had a similar effect (P > 0.05) as the antibiotic (Erythromycin) and was more active than B143 (P larvae for all assays. Both C. fragrans essential oils, as antibiotic, exhibited significantly higher survival rates and lower bacterial concentrations of the larvae than the control (oil and antibiotic free). The potential of C. fragrans essential oil to control the bacterial load in in vivo conditions, thereby enhancing survival rate of P. monodon larvae, makes it a relevant option for developing a novel alternative to antibiotics in shrimp hatchery culture.

  9. Molecular variations in Vibrio alginolyticus and V. harveyi in shrimp-farming systems upon stress

    OpenAIRE

    Santhyia,Anix Vivek; Mulloorpeedikayil,Rosalind George; Kollanoor,Riji John; Jeyaseelan,Prince M.J.

    2015-01-01

    A study was performed to investigate the genomic variations in the shrimp farm isolates of Vibrio alginolyticus and V. harveyi when the isolates were subjected to environmental stress. Samples of shrimps, water and sediment were collected from Southern Indian coastal shrimp farms. Vibrio isolates were biochemically identified and confirmed using 16S rDNA and gyrB gene specific PCR. The bacterial strains were genotyped by PCR fingerprinting using GTG(5) and IS (Insertion Sequence) primers. Sev...

  10. Resilience and livelihood dynamics of shrimp farmers and fishers in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi Phung, H.

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp aquaculture and fishery, the two important economic sectors in Vietnam, have been promoted by the government to reduce poverty, provide job opportunities, and to increase exports to support economic development. However, this expansion of fishery and aquaculture has also had negative effects. Hundreds of thousands of hectares of mangrove forest have been replaced by shrimp ponds and, as a result, have brought ecological risks like water pollution, causing shrimp disease outbreaks. The...

  11. Social and ecological challenges of market-oriented shrimp farming in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ngo Thi Phuong

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is one of the largest shrimp exporters in the world. Since 2010, Vietnam has earned about two billion dollars annually through shrimp exports. As a fertile area of greatest potential for agricultural production in Vietnam, the Mekong Delta has been a major contributor to the country's achievements, especially in the agricultural sector. During recent decades, trade liberation along with various policies in support of aquaculture has accelerated the development of shrimp production in the Delta. Based on an ethnographic study of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, I assert that along with great rewards arising from the expansion of shrimp farming areas, productivity, and export value, the shrimp industry has brought various environmental, economic and social challenges. Consequently, shrimp farming is a risky business and local inhabitants have relied on various strategies to cope with these challenges. Risk mitigation in shrimp production and labor migration are the two important strategies of local inhabitants for securing their livelihoods. Water pollution and poor quality post-larvae shrimp are direct consequences of market-oriented production.

  12. Acute toxic effects of endosulfan sulfate on three life stages of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Venturella, John J; Shaddrick, Brian; Fulton, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, the primary degradation product of the insecticide endosulfan, was determined in three life stages of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). After 96 h exposure to endosulfan sulfate, the grass shrimp adult LC50 was 0.86 microg/L (95% CI 0.56-1.31), the grass shrimp larvae LC50 was 1.64 microg/L (95% CI 1.09-2.47) and the grass shrimp embryo LC50 was 45.85 microg/L (95% CI 23.72-88.61 microg/L). This was compared to the previously published grass shrimp 96-h LC50s for endosulfan. The toxicity of the two compounds was similar for the grass shrimp life stages with adults more sensitive than larvae and embryos. The presence of sediment in 24h endosulfan sulfate-exposures raised LC50s for both adult and larval grass shrimp but not significantly. The USEPA expected environmental concentrations (EEC) for total endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate and the calculations of risk quotients (RQ) based on the more sensitive adult grass shrimp 96-h LC50 clearly show that environmental concentrations equal to acute EECs would prove detrimental to grass shrimp or other similarly sensitive aquatic organisms. These results indicate that given the persistence and toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, future risk assessments should consider the toxicity potential of the parent compound as well as this degradation product.

  13. Effect of cinnamaldehyde on melanosis and spoilage of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Honglei; Chen, Hangjun; Fang, Xiangjun; Mao, Jinlin; Gao, Haiyan

    2012-08-15

    Shrimp is a very perishable product and postmortem changes occur rapidly. Sulfiting agents were once and are still widely used as a preservative in the shrimp industry. However, the application of sulfite in shrimp may pose a risk to human health. Thus development of a natural preservative as a sulfite alternative to extend the shelf life of Pacific white shrimp is urgently needed. The effects of cinnamaldehyde essential oil (1 and 5 g kg(-1) ) on the shelf life of Pacific white shrimp stored at 4 °C were investigated. As the concentration of cinnamaldehyde increased, residual polyphenoloxidase (PPO) enzyme activity decreased. Kinetic analysis showed that cinnamaldehyde was a noncompetitive inhibitor for the oxidation of L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) by PPO of Pacific white shrimp. Based on this study, shrimp treated with 5 g kg(-1) cinnamaldehyde possessed the lowest aerobic plate count, total volatile basic nitrogen, and pH values in all treatments after 10 days of storage. According to the results of L*, cinnamaldehyde showed inhibitory activity toward the formation of melanosis. Treatment with cinnamaldehyde could improve the sensory properties and extend the shelf life of Pacific white shrimp to 8 days. Therefore, cinnamaldehyde could be used as a promising natural preservative for inhibiting melanosis and preventing the growth of microbes during the chilled storage of Pacific white shrimp. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Ultrastructural and pathogenesis of Monodon baculovirus in SPF shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei imported to Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Bahari-Meimandi, S.A.; Afsharnasab, M.; Motallebi Moghanjoghi, A.A.; Azaritakami, G.; Sharifrohani, M.

    2014-01-01

    Viral pathogens are major causes of outbreaks in shrimp farms throughout the world. Monodon baculovirus has been known to be invasive in 85-100% of the shrimp hatcheries, in early or late stages of shrimp. Three-hundred and sixty juvenile of Litopenaeus vannamei with average (±SD) size of 7.99±0.54 g and 3600 post larvae 10-15 were prepared from Shrimp Research Station located in Helleh and 3 hatcheries from Bushehr Province, southern part of Iran, respectively. They were allocated to 9 glass...

  15. Biokinetics of 237Np in mussels and shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guary, J.C.; Fowler, S.W.

    1977-01-01

    Neptunium-237 kinetics were studied in marine shrimp and mussels using a thick source alpha counting technique. Bioaccumulation of 237 Np from water was relatively slow in both species, reaching whole body concentration factors of only 15 to 20 after three months. Surface adsorption was implicated in the initial uptake. Both uptake and loss of the radioisotope were not significantly affected by temperature; this may be a reflection of the physical nature of the uptake. By virtue of the large amounts of accumulated 237 Np associated with the exoskeleton of shrimp, molting will play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of this transuranic in the marine environment. Rapid growth of organisms like mussels acts to reduce the 237 Np concentration in tissues during a period of decontamination

  16. Guiding brine shrimp through mazes by solving reaction diffusion equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Krishma; Fenton, Flavio

    Excitable systems driven by reaction diffusion equations have been shown to not only find solutions to mazes but to also to find the shortest path between the beginning and the end of the maze. In this talk we describe how we can use the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model, a generic model for excitable media, to solve a maze by varying the basin of attraction of its two fixed points. We demonstrate how two dimensional mazes are solved numerically using a Java Applet and then accelerated to run in real time by using graphic processors (GPUs). An application of this work is shown by guiding phototactic brine shrimp through a maze solved by the algorithm. Once the path is obtained, an Arduino directs the shrimp through the maze using lights from LEDs placed at the floor of the Maze. This method running in real time could be eventually used for guiding robots and cars through traffic.

  17. Body composition using deuterated water, index of insulin resistance and cortisol levels in Costa Rican school in the metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde Vindas, Allan Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Body composition in the Costa Rican child population is evaluated and analyzed to determine the relationship with the index of insulin resistance and serum cortisol levels. 113 children in the metropolitan area were studied using deuterium isotope techniques as reference method for overweight and obesity. Morning cortisol levels were determined by immunoassay techniques (ELISA). The insulin resistance index of 113 Costa Rican boys and girls is obtained by the homeostatic method and the relationship between body composition with index of insulin resistance or levels of cortisol [es

  18. Isolation and characterization of potential probiotic bacteria from pustulose ark (Anadara tuberculosa suitable for shrimp farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Sánchez-Ortiz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In aquaculture, probiotics have been tested for enhancing the immune system and promoting growth and survival rate of many marine species like shrimp and mollusks. In order to isolate bacteria with a high probiotic potential for marine shellfish aquaculture, homogenates of the gastrointestinal tract from adult mangrove cockle, Anadara tuberculosa, were obtained to perform in vitro and in vivo assays. Isolates were tested in vitro for hemolytic activity, hydrophobicity, tolerance to ammonia nitrogen, salinity and pH as well as for growth kinetics, extracellular enzymatic activity, autoaggregation, coaggregation and molecular identification. Three bacteria with high degree of hydrophobicity (>60% adherence to p-xylene and four bacteria with medium hydrophobicity, which showed different patterns of attachment to monopolar solvents (chloroform and ethyl acetate and a high tolerance to ammonia nitrogen (200 mg L-1, were selected. Six different treatments: T1 (without addition of cultured bacteria; T2 (MAt29, Enterococcus casseliflavus; T3 (MAt35, Citrobacter koseri; T4 (GAtBl, Bacillus subtilis subtilis; T5 (GAt7, Staphylococcus sp.; and T6 (1:1:1:1 mix of strains T2, T3, T4 and T5, were used to evaluate the specific growth rate, and cellular immune response of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The best specific growth rate was observed for T6 and T4 treatments related to Bacillus subtilis subtilis. A significant difference in total hemocytes count (P < 0.05 was found for T4 treatment with respect to control group. Strains isolated from A. tuberculosa had a beneficial effect on the growth and immune response of L. vannamei, so they have potential use as probiotics in aquaculture of marine shellfish.

  19. Cultural Diversity of Interpersonal Communication Competence: A Study of Puerto Rico Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby C. Vaught

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most research and theories of interpersonal communication reflect mainstream U.S. culture. In an attempt to better understand the communication practices of Spanish-speaking cultures, an exploratory study of interpersonal communication was conducted involving Puerto Rican managers. The Index of Interpersonal Communication Competence (IICC was translated into Spanish and administered in two large international pharmaceutical companies in Puerto Rico. The results of the study are discussed in terms of implications for communication theory and applied communication research.

  20. Ozone Technology for Pathogenic Bacteria of Shrimp (Vibrio sp.) Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulansarie, Ria; Dyah Pita Rengga, Wara; Rustamadji

    2018-03-01

    One of important marine commodities in Indonesia, shrimps are susceptible with Vibrio sp bacteria infection. That infection must be cleared. One of the technologies for disinfecting Vibrio sp. is ozone technology. In this research, Vibrio sp. is a pathogenic bacterium which infects Penaeus vannamei. Ozone technology is applied for threatening Vibrio sp. In this research, ozonation was performed in different pH. Those are neutral, acid (pH=4), and base (pH=9). The sample was water from shrimp embankment from Balai Besar Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau (BBPBAP) located in Jepara. That water was the habitat of Penaeus vannamei shrimp. The brand of ozonator used in this research was “AQUATIC”. The used ozonator in this research had 0,0325 g/hour concentration. The flow rate of sample used in this research was 2 L/minute. The ozonation process was performed in continuous system. A tank, pipe, pump, which was connected with microfilter, flowmeter and ozone generator were the main tools in this research. It used flowmeter and valve to set the flow rate scalable as desired. The first step was the insert of 5 L sample into the receptacle. Then, by using a pump, a sample supplied to the microfilter to be filtered and passed into the flow meter. The flow rate was set to 2 LPM. Furthermore, gas from ozonator passed to the flow for the disinfection of bacteria and then was recycled to the tank and the process run continuously. Samples of the results of ozonation were taken periodically from time 0, 3, 7, 12, 18, 24 to 30 minutes. The samples of the research were analyzed using Total Plate Count (TPC) test in BBPBAP Jepara to determine the number of Vibrio sp. bacteria. The result of this research was the optimal condition for pathogenic bacteria of shrimp (Vibrio sp.) ozonation was in neutral condition.

  1. Chemical and visual communication during mate searching in rock shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Eliecer R; Thiel, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Mate searching in crustaceans depends on different communicational cues, of which chemical and visual cues are most important. Herein we examined the role of chemical and visual communication during mate searching and assessment in the rock shrimp Rhynchocinetes typus. Adult male rock shrimp experience major ontogenetic changes. The terminal molt stages (named "robustus") are dominant and capable of monopolizing females during the mating process. Previous studies had shown that most females preferably mate with robustus males, but how these dominant males and receptive females find each other is uncertain, and is the question we examined herein. In a Y-maze designed to test for the importance of waterborne chemical cues, we observed that females approached the robustus male significantly more often than the typus male. Robustus males, however, were unable to locate receptive females via chemical signals. Using an experimental set-up that allowed testing for the importance of visual cues, we demonstrated that receptive females do not use visual cues to select robustus males, but robustus males use visual cues to find receptive females. Visual cues used by the robustus males were the tumults created by agitated aggregations of subordinate typus males around the receptive females. These results indicate a strong link between sexual communication and the mating system of rock shrimp in which dominant males monopolize receptive females. We found that females and males use different (sex-specific) communicational cues during mate searching and assessment, and that the sexual communication of rock shrimp is similar to that of the American lobster, where females are first attracted to the dominant males by chemical cues emitted by these males. A brief comparison between these two species shows that female behaviors during sexual communication contribute strongly to the outcome of mate searching and assessment.

  2. Antibacterial marine bacterium deter luminous vibriosis in shrimp larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Inhibitory activity of a marine pigmented bacterium - Alteromonas sp. - isolated from Penaeus monodon Fabricius larva against pathogenic and environmental isolates of Vibrio harveyi was studied. All the isolates were inhibited to varying degrees by Alteromonas sp. in vitro. The antibacterial substance produced by the Alteromonas sp. was soluble in organic solvent and closely bound to the external surface of bacterial cells. The antibacterial Alteromonas sp., when allowed to colonize on shrimp...

  3. Agro fertilizer from Myanmar traditional shrimp sauce and paste waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee Yee Nwe; Myint Khine; Nyunt Wynn

    2001-01-01

    The new growth agro fertilizer (npi) compost prepared from Myanmar traditional shrimp sauce and paste waste mixed with other ingredients [agricultural waste and animal waste (night soil)] was found to promote and enhance the growth as well as the rice crop to produce in higher percentage yield per acre as compare to the use of normal rice crops fertilizer and even to that of the current used EM compost fertilizer. (author)

  4. Acculturation and Adverse Birth Outcomes in a Predominantly Puerto Rican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelona de Mendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Latinas in the United States on average have poorer birth outcomes than Whites, yet considerable heterogeneity exists within Latinas. Puerto Ricans have some of the highest rates of adverse outcomes and are understudied. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation was associated with adverse birth outcomes in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted from 2006 to 2011. A convenience sample of pregnant Latina women were recruited from a tertiary care hospital in Massachusetts. Acculturation was measured in early pregnancy; directly via the Psychological Acculturation Scale, and via proxies of language preference and generation in the United States. Birth outcomes (gestational age and birthweight) were abstracted from medical records (n = 1362). Results After adjustment, psychological acculturation, language preference, and generation was not associated with odds of preterm birth. However, every unit increase in psychological acculturation score was associated with an increase in gestational age of 0.22 weeks (SE = 0.1, p = 0.04) among all births. Women who preferred to speak Spanish (β = -0.39, SE = 0.2, p = 0.02) and who were first generation in the US (β = -0.33, SE = 0.1, p = 0.02) had significantly lower gestational ages than women who preferred English or who were later generation, respectively. Similarly, women who were first generation had babies who weighed 76.11 g less (SE = 35.2, p = 0.03) than women who were later generation. Discussion We observed a small, but statistically significant adverse impact of low acculturation on gestational age and birthweight in this predominantly Puerto Rican population.

  5. Association between BDNF rs6265 and Obesity in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Yong Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been associated with regulation of body weight and appetite. The goal of this study was to examine the interactions of a functional variant (rs6265 in the BDNF gene with dietary intake for obesity traits in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped in 1147 Puerto Rican adults and examined for association with obesity-related traits. Men (n=242 with the GG genotype had higher BMI (P=0.009, waist circumference (P=0.002, hip (P=0.002, and weight (P=0.03 than GA or AA carriers (n=94. They had twice the risk of being overweight (BMI≥25 relative to GA or AA carriers (OR = 2.08, CI = 1.02–4.23, and P=0.043. Interactions between rs6265 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA intake were associated with BMI, hip, and weight, and n-3 : n-6 PUFA ratio with waist circumference in men. In contrast, women (n=595 with the GG genotype had significantly lower BMI (P=0.009, hip (P=0.029, and weight (P=0.027 than GA or AA carriers (n=216. Women with the GG genotype were 50% less likely to be overweight compared to GA or AA carriers (OR = 0.05, CI = 0.27–0.91, and P=0.024. In summary, BDNF rs6265 is differentially associated with obesity risk by sex and interacts with PUFA intake influencing obesity traits in Boston Puerto Rican men.

  6. Self-reliance, mental health need, and the use of mental healthcare among island Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Alexander N; Alegría, Margarita

    2002-09-01

    This paper examines the relationship between self-reliance (preference to solve emotional problems on one's own) and 5 mental healthcare utilization outcomes for Puerto Ricans living in low-income areas. A random probability community sample of noninstitutionalized Puerto Ricans, ages 18-69, living in low-income areas of the island were selected and interviewed in 1992-93 and 1993-94. A series of logistic regression models tested the association between self-reliance and 5 mental health utilization measures, after adjusting for covariates measuring predisposing, enabling, need and barrier factors: any use of mental health services, any use of general health services for mental healthcare, any use of specialty care, use of psychotropic medications, and retention in mental healthcare. Self-reliance was found to be negatively associated with all 5 dependent service utilization measures. Those with a positive self-reliant attitude were 40% less likely to use care on any of the 5 outcome measures. An interaction was also observed between definite need for mental healthcare and having a self-reliant attitude when predicting mental health service use. Definite needers with a self-reliant attitude were 54%-58% less likely to use mental health services compared with definite needers who did not have a self-reliant attitude. Further, decreases in self-reliant attitude over the two data collection periods were associated with increases in mental health service use. Our findings suggest that self-reliance is a significant and robust predictor of mental healthcare utilization among Puerto Ricans living in low-income areas of the island.

  7. Association of child maltreatment and depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschek, Graciela; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; He, Xin; Lee, Sunmin; Canino, Glorisa

    2016-08-01

    This article compares multiple types of child maltreatment among Puerto Rican youth. We seek to expand the limited knowledge of the effects of multiple types of maltreatment on depressive symptoms in a specific Latino population as emerging studies indicate that children who are exposed to one type of maltreatment are often exposed to other types. This study examines the predictive strength of different and multiple types of lifetime child maltreatment (i.e., physical, sexual, and emotional abuse; and neglect), and the effect of youth support from parents, youth coping, youth self-esteem, and place of residence on depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth. Secondary data analyses were performed using three annual waves (2000-2004) of data from the Boricua Youth Study. The analytic sample consists of 1041 10-13 year old Puerto Rican youth living in New York and Puerto Rico. Results indicate that: (1) youth who experienced 'sexual abuse only', 'multiple maltreatment' (2 or more types of maltreatment), 'physical abuse only' have a significant increase in depressive symptoms (75.1%, 61.6%, and 40.5% respectively) compared to those without maltreatment; and (2) place of residence, exposure to violence, and mental disorders were significant risk factors. When developing psychosocial interventions, professionals should particularly focus on youth who report past lifetime experience with child maltreatment. Particular attention should be given to children living in the Bronx, New York and similar urban low-income areas who report past lifetime experience with multiple types of child maltreatment and who present symptoms or a diagnosis of co-occurring mental health problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A twin study of early-childhood asthma in Puerto Ricans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supinda Bunyavanich

    Full Text Available The relative contributions of genetics and environment to asthma in Hispanics or to asthma in children younger than 3 years are not well understood.To examine the relative contributions of genetics and environment to early-childhood asthma by performing a longitudinal twin study of asthma in Puerto Rican children ≤ 3 years old.678 twin infants from the Puerto Rico Neo-Natal Twin Registry were assessed for asthma at age 1 year, with follow-up data obtained for 624 twins at age 3 years. Zygosity was determined by DNA microsatellite profiling. Structural equation modeling was performed for three phenotypes at ages 1 and 3 years: physician-diagnosed asthma, asthma medication use in the past year, and ≥ 1 hospitalization for asthma in the past year. Models were additionally adjusted for early-life environmental tobacco smoke exposure, sex, and age.The prevalences of physician-diagnosed asthma, asthma medication use, and hospitalization for asthma were 11.6%, 10.8%, 4.9% at age 1 year, and 34.1%, 40.1%, and 8.5% at 3 years, respectively. Shared environmental effects contributed to the majority of variance in susceptibility to physician-diagnosed asthma and asthma medication use in the first year of life (84%-86%, while genetic effects drove variance in all phenotypes (45%-65% at age 3 years. Early-life environmental tobacco smoke, sex, and age contributed to variance in susceptibility.Our longitudinal study in Puerto Rican twins demonstrates a changing contribution of shared environmental effects to liability for physician-diagnosed asthma and asthma medication use between ages 1 and 3 years. Early-life environmental tobacco smoke reduction could markedly reduce asthma morbidity in young Puerto Rican children.

  9. An investigation into mechanical strength of exoskeleton of hydrothermal vent shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas, E-mail: tomar@purdue.edu

    2015-04-01

    This investigation reports a comparison of the exoskeleton mechanical strength of deep sea shrimp species Rimicaris exoculata and shallow water shrimp species Pandalus platyceros at temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 80 °C using nanoindentation experiments. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations suggest that both shrimp exoskeletons have the Bouligand structure. Differences in the structural arrangement and chemical composition of both shrimps are highlighted by SEM and EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray) analyses. The variation in the elastic moduli with temperature is found to be correlated with the measured compositional differences. The reduced modulus of R. exoculata is 8.26 ± 0.89 GPa at 25 °C that reduces to 7.61 ± 0.65 GPa at 80 °C. The corresponding decrease in the reduced modulus of P. platyceros is from 27.38 ± 2.3 GPa at 25 °C to 24.58 ± 1.71 GPa at 80 °C. The decrease in reduced moduli as a function of temperature is found to be dependent on the extent of calcium based minerals in exoskeleton of both types of shrimp exoskeletons. - Highlights: • Shrimp species Pandalus platyceros and Rimicaris exoculata exoskeletons are analyzed. • Temperature dependent properties of shrimp exoskeleton are compared. • Mechanical properties are correlated with structure and composition of exoskeleton. • Mechanical properties reduce with increase in temperature. • Presence of biominerals gives better thermal stability to structure.

  10. An investigation into mechanical strength of exoskeleton of hydrothermal vent shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    This investigation reports a comparison of the exoskeleton mechanical strength of deep sea shrimp species Rimicaris exoculata and shallow water shrimp species Pandalus platyceros at temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 80 °C using nanoindentation experiments. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations suggest that both shrimp exoskeletons have the Bouligand structure. Differences in the structural arrangement and chemical composition of both shrimps are highlighted by SEM and EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray) analyses. The variation in the elastic moduli with temperature is found to be correlated with the measured compositional differences. The reduced modulus of R. exoculata is 8.26 ± 0.89 GPa at 25 °C that reduces to 7.61 ± 0.65 GPa at 80 °C. The corresponding decrease in the reduced modulus of P. platyceros is from 27.38 ± 2.3 GPa at 25 °C to 24.58 ± 1.71 GPa at 80 °C. The decrease in reduced moduli as a function of temperature is found to be dependent on the extent of calcium based minerals in exoskeleton of both types of shrimp exoskeletons. - Highlights: • Shrimp species Pandalus platyceros and Rimicaris exoculata exoskeletons are analyzed. • Temperature dependent properties of shrimp exoskeleton are compared. • Mechanical properties are correlated with structure and composition of exoskeleton. • Mechanical properties reduce with increase in temperature. • Presence of biominerals gives better thermal stability to structure

  11. Effects of Microphallus turgidus (Trematoda: Microphallidae) on the predation, behavior, and swimming stamina of the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Alyssa K; Pung, Oscar J

    2004-06-01

    The effect of the trematode Microphallus turgidus on its second intermediate host, the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was tested. To do so, we measured the susceptibility of infected and uninfected shrimp to predation by the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus. Shrimp behavior was compared in the presence and absence of a fish predator, and the swimming stamina and backthrust escape responses of infected and uninfected shrimp were measured. Infected shrimp were more likely to be eaten by a predator than uninfected shrimp, had lower swimming stamina, and spent more time swimming and less time motionless in the presence of a predator. There was no difference between backthrust distances traveled in response to a stimulus by either infected or uninfected shrimp. Thus, M. turgidus may increase the predation of P. pugio in the wild, possibly by affecting the swimming stamina and predator avoidance responses of the shrimp.

  12. 76 FR 64307 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ...) and peeled shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent... with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product constituting between four and 10...

  13. Shrimp pond wastewater treatment using pyrolyzed chicken feather as adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Wei Chek; Jbara, Mohamad Hasan; Palaniandy, Puganeshwary; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian

    2017-10-01

    In this study, chicken feather fiber was used as a raw material to prepare a non-expensive adsorbent by pyrolysis without chemical activation. The main pollutants treated in this study were chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) from shrimp pond wastewater containing high concentrations of nutrients, which caused the eutrophication phenomenon in adjacent water. Batch adsorption studies were performed to investigate the effect of pH (5-8), mass of adsorbent (0.5-3 g), and shaking time (0.5-2 h) on the removal efficiency of COD and NH3- N. Experimental results showed that the optimum conditions were as follows: pH 5, 0.5 g of adsorbent, and 0.5 h of shaking. Under these conditions, 34.01% and 40.47% of COD and NH3-N were removed, respectively, from shrimp pond wastewater. The adsorption processes were best described by the Langmuir isotherm model for COD and NH3-N removal, with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 36.9 and 7.24 mg/g for COD and NH3-N, respectively. The results proved that chicken feather could remove COD and NH3-N from shrimp pond wastewater. However, further studies on thermal treatment should be carried out to increase the removal efficiency of pyrolyzed chicken feather fiber.

  14. Conservation by irradiation of the blanched and cooled shrimps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouissi Tarek

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we studied the gamma radiation influence on the initial reduction of contaminated germs and on physicochemical characteristics of shrimps storage and cooled at 21 days. These doses of 1.5; 2.5 and 3. 5 KGy proved insufficient to reduce in a significant way the initial rate of contamination mesophiles,, halophilous and psychrotrophes germs. 3.5 KGy was the most effectiveness. The contamination focal germs miss in the control samples. The toxinfections germs miss completely in all samples. In addition to the pH, the nitrogen basic volatile total and trimethylamine quantity increased during the cooled storage of shrimps. The capacity of water retention decreased indifferently by the doses applied. The irradiation made it possible to lengthen the shelf life of shrimps from 10 and 6 days respectively for 3,5 and 2,5 KGy. Finally, the irradiation doses did not affect neither the loss of weight during cooking neither the variations of pH at the end of dry and wet cooking.(author)

  15. The impact of war on Puerto Rican families: challenges and strengthened family relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaly Freytes, I; Hannold, Elizabeth M; Resende, Rosana; Wing, Kristen; Uphold, Constance R

    2013-08-01

    We describe the impact of war on Puerto Rican Veterans and family members. We used qualitative research methods to collect and analyze data. We interviewed 8 Veterans and 8 family members. We used the constant comparison method to review data to identify prominent themes. Two categories emerged: (1) Challenges associated with post-deployment family reintegration, and (2) A positive aftermath of war on the family. Overall, findings indicate that OEF/OIF Veterans and family members were not prepared for the changes they encounter post-deployment. Despite these challenges, some Veterans and family members strengthened their relationships and renewed their appreciation for one another.

  16. Maternal seric alpha-fetoprotein: determination of the medium values in Costa Rican pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas Chaves, P.; Villalobos Castro, A.

    1999-01-01

    The present study focuses on the normal mean values of AFP in 124 Costa rican pregnant women. In the women 554 determinations were done between the fifteenth and twentieth week of gestation. For this purpose, and Irma test and normal values were established. The concentration values of AFP were expressed as multiples of the median, considering a value of 2.5 Mm as the normal superior limit and of 0.25 as the inferior limit. The confidence limits of the median were 24-57 Ku/I and the 2.5MM value located between 60-143 Ku/I. (author)

  17. [CHALLENGES IN THE INTERVENTION OF PUERTO RICAN ADOLESCENTS THAT SHOW SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Yovanska Duarté; Dávila, Paloma Torres; Hernández, Samariz Laboy

    2015-01-01

    This article is a case study of a Puerto Rican adolescent with suicidal behavior. The adolescent began a Socio-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Suicidal Behavior (SCBT), an ambulatory treatment, after being hospitalized for a suicide attempt. The SCBT incorporates an ecological and developmental perspective to CBT. She initially presented low self-esteem, and significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. At the end of treatment, the adolescent revealed a significant change in symptoms, and a better use of her coping skills. No suicidal ideation was presented during previous months, neither during follow up. Case analysis allowed treatment protocol modifications, particularly family sessions and communication skills, thus contributing to its further feasibility.

  18. Granular cell tumor in an endangered Puerto Rican Amazon parrot (Amazon vittata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, C.F.; Latimer, K.S.; Goldade, S.L.; Rivera, A.; Dein, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    A 3 cm diameter mass from the metacarpus of a Puerto Rican Amazon parrot was diagnosed as a granular cell tumour based on light microscopy. The cytoplasmic granules were periodic-acid Schiff positive and diastase resistant. Ultrastructural characteristics of the cells included convoluted nuclei and the presence of numerous cytoplasmic tertiary lysosomes. This is only the second granular cell tumour reported in a bird. We speculate that most granular cell tumours are derived from cells that are engaged in some type of cellular degradative process, creating a similar morphologic appearance, but lacking a uniform histogenesis.

  19. Chromatographic, NMR and vibrational spectroscopic investigations of astaxanthin esters: application to "Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil" obtained from processing of Nordic shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, B; Thibault, M-H; Djaoued, Y; Pelletier, C; Touaibia, M; Tchoukanova, N

    2015-11-07

    Astaxanthin (ASTX) is a keto carotenoid, which possesses a non-polar linear central conjugated chain and polar β-ionone rings with ketone and hydroxyl groups at the extreme ends. It is well known as a super anti-oxidant, and recent clinical studies have established its nutritional benefits. Although it occurs in several forms, including free molecule, crystalline, aggregates and various geometrical isomers, in nature it exists primarily in the form of esters. Marine animals accumulate ASTX from primary sources such as algae. Nordic shrimps (P. borealis), which are harvested widely in the Atlantic Ocean, form a major source of astaxanthin esters. "Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil" was developed as a novel product in a shrimp processing plant in Eastern Canada. A compositional analysis of the shrimp oil was performed, with a view to possibly use it as a nutraceutical product for humans and animals. Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil contains 50% MUFAs and 22% PUFAs, of which 20% are omega-3. In addition, the shrimp oil contains interesting amounts of EPA and DHA, with 10%/w and 8%/w, respectively. Astaxanthin concentrations varied between 400 and 1000 ppm, depending on the harvesting season of the shrimp. Astaxanthin and its esters were isolated from the oil and analysed by NMR, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Astaxanthin mono- and diesters were synthesized and used as standards for the analysis of astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil. NMR and vibrational spectroscopy techniques were successfully used for the rapid characterization of monoesters and diesters of astaxanthin. Raman spectroscopy provided important intermolecular interactions present in the esterified forms of astaxanthin molecules. Also discussed in this paper is the use of NMR, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopy for the detection of astaxanthin esters in shrimp oil.

  20. Evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

    2014-10-01

    Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) β-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.