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Sample records for rican natural support

  1. Cultural mechanisms in the exchange of social support among Puerto Ricans after a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Fernando I

    2012-06-01

    In this study, I uncovered the dynamics involved in the exchange (or lack) of social support among a group of Puerto Ricans who experienced a natural disaster. I coded and analyzed 12 semistructured qualitative interviews. My analysis of the interviews revealed that a reported high degree of need was not associated with any type of help seeking from the respondents' social support networks. Relevant issues that arose in explaining the lack of social support exchanges were level of comfort in help seeking and cultural issues. My findings point to the importance of culture in shaping patterns of help-seeking behavior in the aftermath of a disaster. Two of the most salient cultural explanations as to why disaster victims were reluctant to ask for help from family and friends were the issues of confianza (trust) and pena (embarrassment). I discuss the results with reference to how they might help in planning and establishing programs to maximize help seeking among Latinos/as in an emergency situation.

  2. The social basis of separatism: explaining support for the Puerto Rican Independence Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Arrarás

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 1990s, particularly in the wake of the fall of the Soviet Union, comparativists rediscovered the enduring appeal of separatist movements around the globe. Many of the most significant political events of the past decade have revolved around issues of nationalism, ethnicity, irredenta, and the like. In light of these renewed preoccupations, it is surprising that U.S. scholars have largely ignored a nationalist movement closer to home. The Puerto Rican independence movement is by far the most significant separatist tendency under the U.S. flag, and is one of the few major anticolonialist movements to survive into the twenty-first century. Although supporters of Puerto Rican independence have typically drawn only three to five percent support in local elections and in plebiscites on the island’s political status, neither have they disappeared from the political scene. The remarkable durability of the independence movement demands systematic explanation. However, as strange as it may seem, to date there have been no serious scholarly studies of the social bases of the Puerto Rican independence movement.

  3. “Uncovering the Kink Celebrating my Black Identity: Perceptions on Afro-Costa Ricans Natural Hair”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Hutchinson Miller

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is no secret the racism within the Costa Rican society especially against people of African descent. While this racism is manifested in mostly overt ways it is nonetheless present, and continues to affect people of African descent in a myriad of ways including how they feel about their natural hair. From a very early age Afro-Costa Rican children learn to look down on their natural kink reinforced verbally and through images designed for them to hide, and dislike what is naturally theirs. As a result many embraced synthetic, and other ethnic group’s natural hair, preferring to pay any amount of money besides undergoing significant hair, and scalp ill-treatment all with the objective of hiding the natural kink. The main objective of this paper is to make visible the perceptions of Afro-Costa Ricans natural hair by both Afro, and mestizo ethnic groups, and enquire about some of the effects on people of African descent in Costa Rica. The exploratory research collected data from four focus groups of teenage mestizos, 20th century newspaper, one workshop, and questionnaires filled only by Afro-Costa Ricans.

  4. Characterization of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain collection isolated from diverse Costa Rican natural ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Arrieta

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rican natural ecosystems are among the most diverse in the world. For this reason, we isolated strains of the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt to determine their diversity, distribution and abundance. A total of 146 Bt strains were obtained from environmental samples collected from diverse natural ecosystems and life zones of Costa Rica. We recovered Bt strains from 71%, 63%, 61% and 54% of soil samples, fresh leaves, other substrates and leaf litter respectively. Bt was isolated in 65%of the samples collected in the humid tropical forest in national parks (Braulio Carrillo, Gandoca Manzanillo, Sierpe, Hitoy Cerere, and Cahuita, and in 59% of the samples collected in the dry tropical forest (Parque Nacional Marino las Baulas, Palo Verde and Santa Rosa. In the very humid tropical forest (Tortuguero Bt was isolated in 75% of the samples and in the very humid tropical forest transition perhumid (Cararait was found in 69% of the samples. The strains exhibit a diverse number, size and morphology of parasporal inclusion bodies: irregular (47%,oval (20%, bipyramidal (3%, bipyramidal and cubic (1%, bipyramidal, oval and irregular (5% and bipyramidal, oval and cubic crystals (2%. Strains isolated from Braulio Carrillo, Tortuguero and Cahuita, presented predominantly irregular crystals. On the other hand, more than 60% of the isolates from Térraba-Sierpe and Hitoy-Cerere had medium oval crystals. Strains from Gandoca-Manzanillo, Palo Verde and Carara presented mainly combinations of oval and irregular crystals. Nevertheless, the greatest diversity in crystal morphology was observed in those from Santa Rosa, Llanos del Río Medio Queso and Parque Marino las Baulas. Protein analyses of the crystal-spore preparations showed ä -endotoxin with diverse electrophoretic patterns, with molecular weights in the range of 20 to 160 kDa. Fifty six percent of the strains amplified with the cry2 primer, 54% with vip3, 20% with cry1, 9% with

  5. Social Support for Exercise as a Predictor of Weight and Physical Activity Status Among Puerto Rican and Mexican Men: Results From the Latino Men's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Meredith R; Keefer, Laurie; Rademaker, Alfred; Dykema-Engblade, Amanda; Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa

    2018-07-01

    Social support is an important factor in increasing positive health outcomes and positive health behaviors across a variety of disease states including obesity. However, research examining the relationship between social support for exercise and weight and physical activity status, particularly among Latino men, is lacking. This paper examined whether social support for exercise predicted weight and physical activity status and whether the direction of these relationships differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background (Puerto Rican/Mexican). Participants were 203 men who participated in a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study addressing culture- and obesity-related variables. Both family participation social support and f amily rewards and punishment social support predicted higher weight status ( p social support did not predict weight status. The direction of the relationship between weight status and family participation social support, family rewards and punishment social support, and friend participation social support did not significantly differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background. The direction of the relationship between physical activity status and family participation social support, family rewards and punishment social support, and friend participation social support did not significantly differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background. Findings suggest that increased social support for exercise from family members may be focused on those who need it most-overweight and obese participants. Additional research is needed to explore sociocultural factors that may promote social support, physical activity, and weight loss and maintenance in Puerto Rican and Mexican men.

  6. [Difficulties and concerns identified by Puerto Rican youth with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM): their relationship with metabolic control, hopelessness, social support, and depressive symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselló, Jeannette; Maysonet Guzmán, Marielisa

    2006-12-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a chronic health condition that affects 18 of every 100,000 Puerto Rican youth. Few research studies have been performed on the problems that youth with diabetes encounter and how they are related to adherence to treatment and adequate metabolic control. Adequate metabolic control is associated with fewer short and long-term medical complications, as well as better quality of life. Adapting to the demands and stressors associated with IDDM and its treatment is a task that can prove to be difficult for youth with diabetes due to having to make adjustments, alterations, and following a prescribed regimen in their daily activities. The main purpose of this investigation was to explore difficulties and worries identified by Puerto Rican youth with IDDM. This study examined whether there is a relationship between difficulties and worries, and adequate metabolic control, hopelessness, social support and depressive symptomatology. One hundred and one youth with IDDM between the ages of 8 and 17 (45 male, 56 female) were evaluated. Analysis of frequencies, correlations, and comparison tests were performed by group (gender, age, diabetes duration, and metabolic control. Results reveal that some of the difficulties identified by Puerto Rican youth with IDDM were: not eating candy and/or cake, self-monitoring blood glucose at school, doing things on time, and waking up early. Among the worries they reported were: insulin reactions and thinking that they might have to go to the hospital.

  7. The Natural History of Oral Human Papillomavirus in Young Costa Rican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachler, Daniel C; Lang Kuhs, Krystle A; Struijk, Linda; Schussler, John; Herrero, Rolando; Porras, Carolina; Hildesheim, Allan; Cortes, Bernal; Sampson, Joshua; Quint, Wim; Gonzalez, Paula; Kreimer, Aimée R

    2017-07-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related oropharyngeal cancer are uncommon in lower-income countries, particularly compared to HPV-associated cervical cancer. However, little is known about the natural history of oral HPV in less-developed settings and how it compares to the natural history of cervical HPV. Three hundred fifty women aged 22 to 33 years from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial provided exfoliated cells from the cervical and oral regions at 2 visits 2 years apart. Samples from both visits were tested for 25 characterized α HPV types by the SPF10 PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay-LiPA25 version 1 system. Risk factors for oral HPV persistence were calculated utilizing generalized estimating equations with a logistic link. Among the 82 women with characterized α oral HPV DNA detected at baseline, 14 persisted and were detected 2 years later (17.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.9-28.5%) and was similar to the persistence of α cervical HPV (40/223; 17.7%; 95% CI, 13.1-23.9%; P = 0.86). Acquisition of new α oral HPV type was low; incident infection (1.7%; 95% CI, 0.6-3.7%). Oral HPV DNA is uncommon in young women in Latin America, and often appears to clear within a few years at similar rates to cervical HPV.

  8. Oral mouth rinses from Costa Rican natural substances with antibacterial properties applied to biofilm control in 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermudez Vargas, Silvia; Garita Herrera, Andrea; Porras Monge, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial properties of three natural substances were analyzed for the control of the dental biofilm in Costa Rica in 2013. The studied plants are the cypress, the star anise flower and the guava leaves which were chosen after being studied, demonstrating antimicrobial properties. An extract of each sample by distillation process by steam drag in the Centro de Investigaciones de Productos Naturales of the Universidad de Costa Rica. Chlorhexidine in vitro tests were performed on the three plants in different concentrations, pure, 50% and 25%, against a population of streptococcus mutans. The flower of anis lacked activity against S. mutans in the microbiological tests, the cypress showed effectiveness against S. mutans, using the pure extract and at 50% concentration. The guava leaves, an inhibitory halo was obtained. 10 mm, when using the extract in its pure form and a 7 mm halo when using it at 50% concentration, so they are effective against S. mutans. Comparing the antimicrobial activity of the three plants with that of chlorhexidine, chlorhexidine showed a greater activity, being more effective against S. mutans. The essential oil of the cypress and guava leaves showed antimicrobial activity against S. mutans, however, more tests are needed to prove its effectiveness as a mouthwash. The star anise in a steam extract did not show antimicrobial activity against S. mutans. (author) [es

  9. Playing with Nature: Supporting Preschoolers' Creativity in Natural Outdoor Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Christine; Veselack, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Conducted at two separate natural outdoor classrooms with preschool-aged children from three to five years old, this qualitative research study investigated how outdoor environments supported children's creativity and imagination. Although many studies have explored the development of creative arts in the young children, few have focused on…

  10. Seeds of Puerto Rican Trees and Shrubs: Second Installment

    Science.gov (United States)

    John K. Francis; Alberto Rodríguez

    1993-01-01

    Seed weights and germination information were obtained for 119 native Puerto Rican and naturalized exotic trees and shrubs. Fruit was collected from 34 of these species, and the weights were recorded. The data are presented in tables that list the species alphabetically by scientific names.

  11. UNDERSTANDING THE PUERTO RICAN AND HIS FAMILY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    THOMAS MARIE, SISTER

    AN UNDERSTANDING OF TRADITIONAL PUERTO RICAN FAMILY CUSTOMS AND BASIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PUERTO RICAN AND OTHER LIFE STYLES SHOULD HELP PROFESSIONAL WORKERS SOLVE THE PROBLEMS CREATED BY MIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES. THE CULTURE OF THE PUERTO RICAN CAN BE DESCRIBED IN RELATION TO THREE CONCEPTS--DIGNIDAD (SELF-ESTEEM OR SELF-WORTH), RESPETO…

  12. The Psychology of Puerto Rican Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt Diaz, Joseph O.

    The psychology of the Puerto Rican migrant to the United States mainland is explored. Puerto Ricans have been migrating to the U.S. mainland and returning to Puerto Rico for more than 125 years, and, in fact, approximately 57% of all Puerto Ricans have migrated at one time or another. The migrant experience, including the circular migration…

  13. Decision support models for natural gas dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, L.; Vollmann, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    A decision support model is presented which will give utilities the support tools to manage the purchasing of natural gas supplies in the most cost effective manner without reducing winter safety stocks to below minimum levels. In Business As Usual (BAU) purchasing quantities vary with the daily forecasts. With Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and Linear Programming (LP), two types of factors are used: seasonal weather and decision rule. Under current practices, BAU simulation uses the least expensive gas source first, then adding successively more expensive sources. Material Requirements Planning is a production planning technique which uses a parent item master production schedule to determine time phased requirements for component points. Where the MPS is the aggregate gas demand forecasts for the contract year. This satisfies daily demand with least expensive gas and uses more expensive when necessary with automatic computation of available-to-promise (ATP) gas a dispacher knows daily when extra gas supplies may be ATP. Linear Programming is a mathematical algorithm used to determine optimal allocations of scarce resources to achieve a desired result. The LP model determines optimal daily gas purchase decisions with respect to supply cost minimization. Using these models, it appears possible to raise gross income margins 6 to 10% with minimal additions of customers and no new gas supply

  14. Decision support models for natural gas dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, L. (Bentley College, Waltham, MA (United States)); Vollmann, T.E. (International Inst. for Management Development, Lausanne (Switzerland))

    A decision support model is presented which will give utilities the support tools to manage the purchasing of natural gas supplies in the most cost effective manner without reducing winter safety stocks to below minimum levels. In Business As Usual (BAU) purchasing quantities vary with the daily forecasts. With Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and Linear Programming (LP), two types of factors are used: seasonal weather and decision rule. Under current practices, BAU simulation uses the least expensive gas source first, then adding successively more expensive sources. Material Requirements Planning is a production planning technique which uses a parent item master production schedule to determine time phased requirements for component points. Where the MPS is the aggregate gas demand forecasts for the contract year. This satisfies daily demand with least expensive gas and uses more expensive when necessary with automatic computation of available-to-promise (ATP) gas a dispacher knows daily when extra gas supplies may be ATP. Linear Programming is a mathematical algorithm used to determine optimal allocations of scarce resources to achieve a desired result. The LP model determines optimal daily gas purchase decisions with respect to supply cost minimization. Using these models, it appears possible to raise gross income margins 6 to 10% with minimal additions of customers and no new gas supply.

  15. Desicion Support System For Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyazilov, E.

    2009-04-01

    recommendations should be reasonable. To resolve the above problems or to make them less significant it is necessary to develop decision support systems (DSS). DMs need not tables with initial data, analytical, forecasting and climatic information, but messages containing warnings on critical value accidence, information on probability of hazards, information on potential losses, and information on hazardous impacts and recommendations on decision making. DSS can do the following: take into account impacts on specific points and on the total area under consideration; allow for the effects of the environment on economic entities (objects) in any geographical region to be analyzed; distinguish impacts and changes caused both by different phenomena and by their combination; signal when objects are or can be in adverse environmental conditions, e.g. in the area affected by fog, storm, tropical cyclone or in the area where the probability of hazardous ice events is very high, etc. The main component of DSS is a knowledge base based on the following concept: if we know environmental conditions it is possible to predict potential impacts on the economy; if we know impacts it is possible to give a set of recommendations on how to prevent (reduce) losses or how to use natural resources most efficiently. Decision making criteria are safety of people and property, reduction of losses, increase of profit, materials saving, etc. Knowledge base is a set of rules formulated in a formalized way using if, that, else. If "Water level in S.-Petersburg >150 cm" that "To give out warning information "Hazards for building on coastal river Neva is possible" and recommendations "The valuable goods carry out in second floor" else "To switch another rule". To have a knowledge base in place it is necessary to: develop tools of identifying and getting knowledge from experts; arrange the information flow from available information systems (operational data, analyses, forecasts, climatic information) through

  16. Resident and user support for urban natural areas restoration practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster; Kristin Floress; Lynne M. Westphal; Cristy A. Watkins; Joanne Vining; Alaka Wali

    2016-01-01

    Public support is important to the success of natural areas restoration programs. Support can be especially critical in urban settings where stakeholders recreate in or reside near natural areas but may lack familiarity with practices for managing ecological processes. Surveys of on-site recreationists and nearby residents (N= 888) of 11 Chicago metropolitan natural...

  17. The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study on health disparities in Puerto Rican adults: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collado Bridgette M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study designed to examine the role of psychosocial stress on presence and development of allostatic load and health outcomes in Puerto Ricans, and potential modification by nutritional status, genetic variation, and social support. Methods Self-identified Puerto Ricans, aged 45-75 years and residing in the Boston, MA metro area, were recruited through door-to-door enumeration and community approaches. Participants completed a comprehensive set of questionnaires and tests. Blood, urine and salivary samples were extracted for biomarker and genetic analysis. Measurements are repeated at a two-year follow-up. Results A total of 1500 eligible participants completed baseline measurements, with nearly 80% two-year follow-up retention. The majority of the cohort is female (70%, and many have less than 8th grade education (48%, and fall below the poverty level (59%. Baseline prevalence of health conditions is high for this age range: considerable physical (26% and cognitive (7% impairment, obesity (57%, type 2 diabetes (40%, hypertension (69%, arthritis (50% and depressive symptomatology (60%. Conclusions The enrollment of minority groups presents unique challenges. This report highlights approaches to working with difficult to reach populations, and describes some of the health issues and needs of Puerto Rican older adults. These results may inform future studies and interventions aiming to improve the health of this and similar communities.

  18. Natural Language Navigation Support in Virtual Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Luin, J.; Nijholt, Antinus; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Giagourta, V.; Strintzis, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    We describe our work on designing a natural language accessible navigation agent for a virtual reality (VR) environment. The agent is part of an agent framework, which means that it can communicate with other agents. Its navigation task consists of guiding the visitors in the environment and to

  19. Namibia - Conservancy Support and Indigenous Natural Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The eval­u­ation employs a mixed-methods approach in which qual­itative techniques and quan­ti­ta­tive ana­lysis support each other, recognizing that the techniques...

  20. Feminist Therapy with Mainland Puerto Rican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas-Diaz, Lillian

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of feminist therapy with mainland Puerto Rican women, presenting clinical vignettes. Emphasizes the consideration of sociocultural context, including the experience of cross-cultural translocation, transculturation, the colonial background of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rican sex roles, power issues and Puertorriquenas' sense of…

  1. Puerto Rican Women as Workers and Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Blanca, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This theme issue of the "Centro Bulletin" highlights recent studies by and about employed Puerto Rican and Latina women. "La mujer en el Puerto Rico del siglo XIX" (O. Jimenez de Wagenheim), in Spanish, reviews the contributions of women to Puerto Rican economic, political, and social life during the nineteenth century.…

  2. Work accommodations and natural supports for maintaining employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbière, Marc; Villotti, Patrizia; Lecomte, Tania; Bond, Gary R; Lesage, Alain; Goldner, Elliot M

    2014-06-01

    Job tenure for people with severe mental disorders, even for those enrolled in supported employment programs, is typically brief. Few studies to date have investigated the relationship between accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace, and job tenure for this population. The main objectives of this study were to develop and to validate a new measure to describe work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace and to determine which of them are significantly related to job tenure for participants enrolled in supported employment services. In total, 124 people with a severe mental disorder enrolled in supported employment programs and who obtained only one competitive employment at the 9-month follow-up answered the Work Accommodation and Natural Support Scale (WANSS). They also provided information regarding their disclosure (or non-) of mental disorders in the workplace and the length of their job tenure. Confirmatory factor analysis conducted on the WANSS showed 40 items distributed on 6 dimensions (e.g., Schedule flexibility). Correlation results showed that disclosure was significantly related to the number of work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace. Survival analyses indicated that one WANSS dimension was more salient in predicting job tenure: Supervisor and coworker supports. The WANSS is a valid and useful tool to assess work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace that employment specialists could use in their practice.

  3. Nature-based supportive care opportunities: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Sarah; O'Callaghan, Clare C; Schofield, Penelope

    2018-03-22

    Given preliminary evidence for positive health outcomes related to contact with nature for cancer populations, research is warranted to ascertain possible strategies for incorporating nature-based care opportunities into oncology contexts as additional strategies for addressing multidimensional aspects of cancer patients' health and recovery needs. The objective of this study was to consolidate existing research related to nature-based supportive care opportunities and generate a conceptual framework for discerning relevant applications in the supportive care setting. Drawing on research investigating nature-based engagement in oncology contexts, a two-step analytic process was used to construct a conceptual framework for guiding nature-based supportive care design and future research. Concept analysis methodology generated new representations of understanding by extracting and synthesising salient concepts. Newly formulated concepts were transposed to findings from related research about patient-reported and healthcare expert-developed recommendations for nature-based supportive care in oncology. Five theoretical concepts (themes) were formulated describing patients' reasons for engaging with nature and the underlying needs these interactions address. These included: connecting with what is genuinely valued, distancing from the cancer experience, meaning-making and reframing the cancer experience, finding comfort and safety, and vital nurturance. Eight shared patient and expert recommendations were compiled, which address the identified needs through nature-based initiatives. Eleven additional patient-reported recommendations attend to beneficial and adverse experiential qualities of patients' nature-based engagement and complete the framework. The framework outlines salient findings about helpful nature-based supportive care opportunities for ready access by healthcare practitioners, designers, researchers and patients themselves. © Article author(s) (or their

  4. Regulators debate support of natural gas in electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    State regulators recently tabled a controversial proposal to encourage natural gas use in electricity generation. Proponents of natural gas support such an endorsement since state regulators can influence utility fuel-supply choices through planning incentives and disincentives. Members of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners vowed to take up the matter at their Winter Committee Meetings, February 28 to March 4 in Washington, DC. NARUC's Gas Committee offered the resolution at the NARUC Annual Convention in Los Angeles in November. Presentations and debate covered the merits and drawbacks of formal support for natural gas. Natural gas generation has fast construction and low capital-cost benefits, air quality and fuel handling advantages over other fossil fuels. Still, regulators and utility representatives expressed concern over long-term availability, over reliance on one resource and price

  5. Decision support for natural resource management; models and evaluation methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, J.; Makowski, M.; Nakayama, H.

    2001-01-01

    When managing natural resources or agrobusinesses, one always has to deal with autonomous processes. These autonomous processes play a core role in designing model-based decision support systems. This chapter tries to give insight into the question of which types of models might be used in which

  6. Natural gas purification using supported ionic liquid membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althuluth, M.A.M.; Overbeek, J.P.; Wees, H.J.; Zubeir, L.F.; Haije, W.G.; Berrouk, A.S.; Peters, C.J.; Kroon, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the possibility of the application of a supported ionic liquid membrane (SILM) for natural gas purification. The ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([emim][FAP]) was impregnated successfully in the ¿-alumina layer of a tubular

  7. The Impact of Nature Experience on Willingness to Support Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaradic, Patricia A.; Pergams, Oliver R. W.; Kareiva, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized that willingness to financially support conservation depends on one's experience with nature. In order to test this hypothesis, we used a novel time-lagged correlation analysis to look at times series data concerning nature participation, and evaluate its relationship with future conservation support (measured as contributions to conservation NGOs). Our results suggest that the type and timing of nature experience may determine future conservation investment. Time spent hiking or backpacking is correlated with increased conservation contributions 11–12 years later. On the other hand, contributions are negatively correlated with past time spent on activities such as public lands visitation or fishing. Our results suggest that each hiker or backpacker translates to $200–$300 annually in future NGO contributions. We project that the recent decline in popularity of hiking and backpacking will negatively impact conservation NGO contributions from approximately 2010–2011 through at least 2018. PMID:19809511

  8. Sexual Prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos

    2014-01-01

    Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195

  9. [Overdenture supported by natural teeth: analysis of clinical advantages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, R; Melilli, D; Pizzo, G

    2003-05-01

    Hybrid prosthesis supported by natural teeth (overdenture) is widely used in clinical practice and should be executed whenever the clinical conditions suggest it. Through a critical review of the literature, the anatomical, functional, psychological and clinical advantages are emphasized. Among the first ones, the prophylaxis of residual anatomical components, due to the limitation of bone resorption, and the preservation of sensorial proprioception are relevant. Important advantages are also represented by a better crown-root ratio of residual teeth supporting overdenture, with the consequent improvement of the longitudinal prognosis of such teeth. The greater retention and stability of overdenture in comparison with complete denture greatly improve the masticatory efficacy. The psychological advantages resulting from the dental anchorage, which allows the patient to be more confident in social life, are also relevant. Finally, when the dental support is lost, converting overdenture into complete denture is simple and quick, and makes easier the longitudinal clinical maintenance of the denture.

  10. The approaches for the decision support in case natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyazilov, Evgeny; Chunyaev, Nikita

    2013-04-01

    In spite of using highly automated systems of measurement, collecting, storing, handling, prediction and delivery of information on the marine environment, including natural hazards, the amount of damage from natural phenomena increases. Because information on the marine environment delivered to the industrial facilities not effectively used. To such information pays little attention by individual decision-makers and not always perform preventive measures necessary for reduce and prevent damage. Automation of information support will improve the efficiency management of the marine activities. In Russia develops "The Unified system of the information about World ocean" (ESIMO, http://esimo.ru/), that integrates observation, analysis, prognostic and climate data. Necessary to create tools to automatic selection natural disasters through all integrated data; notification decision-makers about arising natural hazards - software agent; provision of information in a compact form for the decision-makers; assessment of possible damage and costs to the preventive measures; providing information on the impacts of environment on economic facilities and recommendations for decision-making; the use of maps, diagrams, tables for reporting. Tools for automatic selection designed for identification of natural phenomena based on the resources ESIMO and corresponding critical values of the indicators environment. The result of this module will be constantly updated database of critical situations of environment for each object or technological process. To operational notify and provide current information about natural hazards proposes using a software agent that is installed on the computer decision-makers, which is activated in case critical situations and provides a minimum of information. In the event of natural disaster software agent should be able to inform decision-makers about this, providing information on the current situation, and the possibility for more and detailed

  11. Puerto Rican Women in International Business: Myths and Realities

    OpenAIRE

    Maritza Soto

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study Puerto Rican women in international management, specifically with respect to the perceptions and myths regarding their participation in international assignments, their application in our culture, as well as, to study the factors that affect the participation of Puerto Rican women in international business. The results obtained indicate: 1) the current myths regarding Puerto Rican women in international business positions; 2) factors that influence when...

  12. Support for Natural Small-Molecule Phenols as Anxiolytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural small-molecule phenols (NSMPs share some bioactivities. The anxiolytic activity of NSMPs is attracting attention in the scientific community. This paper provides data supporting the hypothesis that NSMPs are generally anxiolytic. The anxiolytic activities of seven simple phenols, including phloroglucinol, eugenol, protocatechuic aldehyde, vanillin, thymol, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid, were assayed with the elevated plus maze (EPM test in mice. The oral doses were 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, except for phloroglucinol for which the doses were 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg. All tested phenols had anxiolytic activity in mice. The phenolic hydroxyl group in 4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4-OH CA was essential for the anxiolytic activity in the EPM test in mice and rats compared to 4-chlorocinnamic acid (4-Cl CA. The in vivo spike recording of rats’ hippocampal neurons also showed significant differences between 4-OH CA and 4-Cl CA. Behavioral and neuronal spike recording results converged to indicate the hippocampal CA1 region might be a part of the anxiolytic pathways of 4-OH CA. Therefore, our study provides further experimental data supporting NSMPs sharing anxiolytic activity, which may have general implications for phytotherapy because small phenols occur extensively in herbal medicines.

  13. Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oquendo-Rodriguez, Aida L.

    Professions and careers related to science and mathematics lack representation of minorities. Within these underrepresented minority populations there is no other group more affected than Latina women and girls. Women in general, are still underrepresented in many areas of our society. While women's roles are changing in today's society, most changes encourage the participation of more White/Anglo women in traditionally male roles. Latina women are still more disadvantaged than White women. There is no doubt that education is significant in increasing the participation of minorities in the fields of science and mathematics, especially for minority girls (Oakes, 1990; Rodriguez, 1993). This study explored the interests, life experiences, characteristics and motivations of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses. The study identifies factors that can influence the interest of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin in science and mathematics career choices. This research is significant and relevant to educators and policy makers, especially to science and mathematics educators. The research is primarily descriptive and exploratory. It explores the social characteristics of Latina girls and professional women who have been successful in science and mathematics high school courses. The research offers the reader a visit to the participants' homes with descriptions and the opportunity to explore the thoughts and life experiences of Latina girls, their mothers and young Latina professionals of Puerto Rican origin. This research reveals the common characteristics of successful students found in the Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who where interviewed. Creating a portrait of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses in one of the school districts of western Massachusetts. The research findings reveal that teacher relationships, family expectations

  14. Multiple Lines Of Evidence Supporting Natural Attenuation: Lines Of Inquiry Supporting Monitored Natural Attenuation And Enhanced Attenuatin Of Chlorinated Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, Karen; Widemeirer, T. H.; Barden, M.J.; Dickson, W. Z.; Major, David

    2004-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring an initiative to facilitate efficient, effective and responsible use of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) and Enhanced Attenuation (EA) for chlorinated solvents. This Office of Environmental Management (EM) ''Alternative Project,'' focuses on providing scientific and policy support for MNA/EA. A broadly representative working group of scientists supports the project along with partnerships with regulatory organizations such as the Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The initial product of the technical working group was a summary report that articulated the conceptual approach and central scientific tenants of the project, and that identified a prioritized listing of technical targets for field research. This report documented the process in which: (1) scientific ground rules were developed, (2) lines of inquiry were identified and then critically evaluated, (3) promising applied research topics were highlighted in the various lines of inquiry, and (4) these were discussed and prioritized. The summary report will serve as a resource to guide management and decision making throughout the period of the subject MNA/EA Alternative Project. To support and more fully document the information presented in the summary report, the DOE is publishing a series of supplemental documents that present the full texts from the technical analyses within the various lines of inquiry (see listing). The following report--documenting our evaluation of the state of the science for the lines of evidence for supporting decision-making for MNA--is one of those supplemental documents.

  15. Disparities in allele frequencies and population differentiation for 101 disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms between Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic whites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnett Donna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in gene allele frequencies can contribute to differences in the prevalence of some common complex diseases among populations. Natural selection modulates the balance in allele frequencies across populations. Population differentiation (FST can evidence environmental selection pressures. Such genetic information is limited in Puerto Ricans, the second largest Hispanic ethnic group in the US, and a group with high prevalence of chronic disease. We determined allele frequencies and population differentiation for 101 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 30 genes involved in major metabolic and disease-relevant pathways in Puerto Ricans (n = 969, ages 45–75 years and compared them to similarly aged non-Hispanic whites (NHW (n = 597. Results Minor allele frequency (MAF distributions for 45.5% of the SNPs assessed in Puerto Ricans were significantly different from those of NHW. Puerto Ricans carried risk alleles in higher frequency and protective alleles in lower frequency than NHW. Patterns of population differentiation showed that Puerto Ricans had SNPs with exceptional FST values in intronic, non-synonymous and promoter regions. NHW had exceptional FST values in intronic and promoter region SNPs only. Conclusion These observations may serve to explain and broaden studies on the impact of gene polymorphisms on chronic diseases affecting Puerto Ricans.

  16. AIDS-related stigma and social interaction: Puerto Ricans living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Serrano-García, Irma; Toro-Alfonso, José

    2005-02-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS are stigmatized. Although personal and social consequences of this stigmatization have been documented, research regarding its impact on social interactions is scarce. Latinos, and Puerto Ricans in particular, have voiced concern regarding AIDS stigma. The authors investigated the key role of social interaction in the process of stigmatization through in-depth, semistructured interviews in a sample of 30 Puerto Ricans living with HIV/AIDS. Participants reported instances in which AIDS stigma negatively influenced social interactions with family, friends, sexual partners, coworkers, and health professionals. Some of the consequences they described were loss of social support, persecution, isolation, job loss, and problems accessing health services. Findings support the need for interventions to address AIDS stigma and its consequences.

  17. Folk Hero Modeling Therapy for Puerto Rican Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Guiseppe; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes development of a new modality for Puerto Rican adolescents which presents Puerto Rican folk heros and heroines in modeling therapy targeted towards enhancing adolescents' pride in their ethnic heritage. Evaluation of therapy using 21 adolescents indicated subjects increased in self-disclosure and self-confidence, gained pride, learned…

  18. The Puerto Ricans: Their History, Culture, and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Adalberto, Ed.

    Articles in this book cover Puerto Rican history from the Spanish colonization to the present day experience of Puerto Ricans in the United States. Political, social, economic, cultural, and historical issues are addresed by the following authors: Edna Acosta-Belen, Frank Bonilla, Juan Manuel Carrion, Diana Christopulos, Sandra Messinger Cypess,…

  19. Puerto Rican Women in International Business: Myths and Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Soto

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to study Puerto Rican women in international management, specifically with respect to the perceptions and myths regarding their participation in international assignments, their application in our culture, as well as, to study the factors that affect the participation of Puerto Rican women in international business. The results obtained indicate: 1 the current myths regarding Puerto Rican women in international business positions; 2 factors that influence when considering Puerto Rican women for international business positions and; 3 organizational units and departments where women currently hold positions in international assignments. Although there have been previous studies regarding women in management, there are none regarding Puerto Rican women's participation in international business assignments.

  20. Physical Activity in Puerto Rican Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado-Gómez, Maribel; Hughes, Daniel C; González-Mercado, Velda; Treviño-Whitaker, Rose A; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer survivors do not engage in appropriate levels of physical activity, despite the known benefits of such activity. This study aims to describe physical-activity levels and the barriers to it in a group of Puerto Rican breast cancer survivors, as well as detailing their preferences for an intervention. Participants who finished their chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for breast cancer at least 4 months prior to the study were included. Demographic, anthropometric, and clinical data were obtained. The Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) and questionnaires on exercise self-efficacy, barriers to self-efficacy, modeling, and social support were filled out by study participants. Data on access to exercise equipment and preferences regarding a physical-activity intervention were collected. Descriptive statistics and correlation analyses were performed. Fifty breast cancer survivors were recruited. Almost all the participants reported that they did not engage in any kind of strenuous physical activity (94%), with more than three fourths (76%) reporting that they did not even participate in any kind of moderate physical activity. The GLTEQ score was associated with barriers to selfefficacy, while the association with exercise self-efficacy approached significance (p = 0.055). Nearly half of the patients (44%) had access to exercise equipment. Preferred methods for the delivery of physical-activity interventions were participating in group settings (72%) and receiving material in the postal mail (44%). The study described herein reports on the low levels of physical activity being practiced by a group of Puerto Rican breast cancer survivors, despite the fact that many of them had access to exercise equipment and facilities. Further studies aimed at understanding breast cancer survivors' barriers to physical activity and at developing culturally competent interventions to increase the levels of such activity are warranted.

  1. Advanced Displays and Natural User Interfaces to Support Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-SanJose, Juan-Fernando; Juan, M. -Carmen; Mollá, Ramón; Vivó, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Advanced displays and natural user interfaces (NUI) are a very suitable combination for developing systems to provide an enhanced and richer user experience. This combination can be appropriate in several fields and has not been extensively exploited. One of the fields that this combination is especially suitable for is education. Nowadays,…

  2. Association of Types of Life Events with Depressive Symptoms among Puerto Rican Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Jaschek

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to examine the association between four types of adverse life events (family environment, separation, social adversity, and death and the development of depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth. This was a secondary analysis using three waves (2000-2004 of interview data from the Boricua Youth Study of 10-13 year old Puerto Rican youth residing in New York and Puerto Rico with no depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 977. Depressive symptoms increased with an increase in social adversity, separation, death, and death events. Youth support from parents was a significant protective factor for all adverse events and parent coping was a protective factor in social adversity events. Relying on standard diagnostic tools is ideal to identify youth meeting the criteria for a diagnosis of depression but not useful to detect youth who present with subclinical levels of depression. Youth with sub-clinical levels of depression will not get treated and are at increased risk of developing depression later in life. Adverse life events are potentially relevant to use in conjunction with other screening tools to identify Puerto Rican youth who have subclinical depression and are at risk of developing depression in later adolescence.

  3. A decision support system for firebase location in a nature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-04-19

    Apr 19, 2017 ... implemented in the form of a computerised decision support system ... seven Department of Water Affairs and Forestry reserves (spanning an area of 118km2), ... and the solution methodology of §4 are then incorporated into a ...

  4. Factors That Contribute to Community Members' Support of Local Nature Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Matthew H. E. M.; Stern, Marc J.; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Heimlich, Joe E.

    2018-01-01

    Nature centers can serve as valuable community institutions if they are seen as providing important services to the community. Through survey research in communities surrounding 16 nature centers in the United States, we examine the attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs that drive hypothetical support for nature centers from local residents.…

  5. Parenting practices among Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Dittus, Patricia; Jaccard, James; Johansson, Margaret; Bouris, Alida; Acosta, Neifi

    2007-01-01

    This study presents descriptive qualitative data about Latino parenting practices in an urban context. Focus groups were conducted with Dominican and Puerto Rican mother-adolescent pairs in the Bronx borough of NewYork City. When parenting style typologies are integrated with the Latino cultural components familismo, respeto, personalismo, and simpatía, Latino parenting practices and their underlying styles are better understood. Content analysis of parents' focus groups revealed five essential Latino parenting practices: (1) ensuring close monitoring of adolescents; (2) maintaining warm and supportive relationships characterized by high levels of parent-adolescent interaction and sharing; (3) explaining parental decisions and actions; (4) making an effort to build and improve relationships; and (5) differential parenting practices based on adolescents' gender. Mothers reported concerns related to the risks associated with living in an urban area, exposure to different cultural values, and opportunities for engaging in risky behaviors. Adolescents' recommendations for effective parenting strategies were similar to the practices reported by their mothers. The study has important applied implications for culturally competent social work practice with Latino adolescents and their families.

  6. Association of child maltreatment and depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschek, Graciela; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; He, Xin; Lee, Sunmin; Canino, Glorisa

    2016-08-01

    This article compares multiple types of child maltreatment among Puerto Rican youth. We seek to expand the limited knowledge of the effects of multiple types of maltreatment on depressive symptoms in a specific Latino population as emerging studies indicate that children who are exposed to one type of maltreatment are often exposed to other types. This study examines the predictive strength of different and multiple types of lifetime child maltreatment (i.e., physical, sexual, and emotional abuse; and neglect), and the effect of youth support from parents, youth coping, youth self-esteem, and place of residence on depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth. Secondary data analyses were performed using three annual waves (2000-2004) of data from the Boricua Youth Study. The analytic sample consists of 1041 10-13 year old Puerto Rican youth living in New York and Puerto Rico. Results indicate that: (1) youth who experienced 'sexual abuse only', 'multiple maltreatment' (2 or more types of maltreatment), 'physical abuse only' have a significant increase in depressive symptoms (75.1%, 61.6%, and 40.5% respectively) compared to those without maltreatment; and (2) place of residence, exposure to violence, and mental disorders were significant risk factors. When developing psychosocial interventions, professionals should particularly focus on youth who report past lifetime experience with child maltreatment. Particular attention should be given to children living in the Bronx, New York and similar urban low-income areas who report past lifetime experience with multiple types of child maltreatment and who present symptoms or a diagnosis of co-occurring mental health problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Depression and substance use in a middle aged and older Puerto Rican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, Katherine; Robison, Julie; Fogel, Denise; Gruman, Cynthia

    2002-01-01

    This study focuses on depression and substance use in Puerto Rican primary care patients, age 50 and older, recruited from five clinics in Hartford, CT (n = 303). One-third of the participants screened positive for depression using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, and 16 percent either reported excessive alcohol use, prescription drug abuse, and/or illegal drug use in the past year. Correlates of depression include younger age, female gender, being separated or divorced, low perceived adequacy of income, poor health status, functional limitations, few emotional supports, and a history of an "ataque de nervios." Younger age, male gender, low perceived adequacy of income, few emotional supports, suicidal ideation, and a history of an "ataque de nervios" were associated with substance use. While the relationship between excessive alcohol use and a higher rate of depression did not reach statistical significance, drug use was a strong predictor of depression, particularly prescription drug abuse. However substance use did not significantly affect the likelihood of seeking treatment for depression. These findings underscore the need for appropriate interventions for those at risk for depression among the Puerto Rican population.

  8. Trajectories of Sensation Seeking Among Puerto Rican Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S; Wall, Melanie M; Eisenberg, Ruth; Blanco, Carlos; Santaella, Julian; Ramos-Olazagasti, Maria; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector R; Brown, Qiana; Duarte, Cristiane S

    2015-12-01

    To document the natural course of sensation seeking from childhood to adolescence, characterize distinct sensation seeking trajectories, and examine how these trajectories vary according to selected predictors. Data were obtained from the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of 2,491 children and adolescents of Puerto Rican background (3 assessments from 2000 to 2004). First, age-specific sensation seeking levels were characterized, and then age-adjusted residuals were analyzed using growth mixture models. On average, sensation seeking was stable in childhood (ages 5-10 years) and increased during adolescence (ages 11-17 years). Mean scores of sensation seeking were higher in the South Bronx versus Puerto Rico and among males versus females. Four classes of sensation seeking trajectories were observed: most study participants had age-expected sensation seeking trajectories following the average for their age ("normative," 43.8%); others (37.2%) remained consistently lower than the expected average for their age ("low" sensation seeking); some (12.0%) had an "accelerated" sensation seeking trajectory, increasing at a faster rate than expected; and a minority (7.0%) had a decreasing sensation seeking trajectory that started high but decreased, reaching scores slightly higher than the age-average sensation seeking scores ("stabilizers"). Site (South Bronx versus Puerto Rico) and gender were predictors of membership in a specific class of sensation seeking trajectory. It is important to take a developmental approach when examining sensation seeking and to consider gender and the social environment when trying to understand how sensation seeking evolves during childhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A direct method of natural frequency analysis on pipeline conveying fluid with both ends supported

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yimin; Ge Seng; Wu Wei; Jie He

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A direct method which derived from Ferrari's method was used to solve quartic equations. ► Frequency equations of pipeline conveying fluid with both ends supported was studied. ► Each order natural frequencies can be obtained by using the direct method. ► The first five critical flow velocities were obtained by using numerical method. - Abstract: The natural frequency equations of fluid–structure interaction in pipeline conveying fluid with both ends supported is investigated by a direct method, and the direct method is derived from Ferrari's method which is used to solve quartic equations. The dynamic equation of pipeline conveying fluid with two variables is obtained by Hamilton's variation principle based on Euler–Bernoulli Beam theory. By using the separation of variables method and the derived method from Ferrari's method, the natural frequency equations and the critical flow velocity equations of pipeline conveying fluid with both ends supported are obtained in mathematical decoupling. Each order natural frequencies and critical flow velocities can be obtained by using numerical method. The first five order dimensionless critical flow velocities are obtained, and the results indicate that clamped–simply supported is less stable than clamped–clamped supported and more stable than simply–simply supported. All the conclusions can be applied to nuclear installations and other engineering fields of improving the vibration.

  10. Bird Perches Increase Forest Seeds on Puerto Rican Landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron B. Shiels; Lawrence R. Walker

    2003-01-01

    Landslides result in the loss of vertical vegetative structure, soil nutrients, and the soil seed bank. These losses impede timely recovery of tropical forest communities. In this study we added bird perches to six Puerto Rican landslides with three types of surfaces (bare, climbing fern, grass) in an effort to facilitate inputs of forest seeds through bird dispersal...

  11. Ladrillo and Tales of Juan Bobo: Puerto Rican Folk Tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Reinaldo; Matos, Ana

    These two illustrated elementary readers contain the Spanish and English versions of the Puerto Rican folk tales, "Ladrillo" and "Cuentos de Juan Bobo." They are part of a series of reading materials for elementary-level migrant children. These materials are intended to help the child relate to his culture, develop interest in…

  12. POPULATION DECLINES OF THE PUERTO RICAN VIREO IN GUANICA FOREST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOHN FAABORG; KATE M. DUGGER; WAYNE J. ARENDT; BETHANY L. WOODWORTH; MICHAEL E. BALTZ

    1997-01-01

    Abundance of the Puerto Rican Vireo (Vireo Zutimeri) in Guanica Forest, Puerto Rico, has declined gradually over the period 1973-1996 as determined by constant effort mist netting. Concurrent studies of breeding vireos show low nesting success, primarily due to parasitism by Shiny Cowbirds (Molothrus bonariensis). This decline may reflect the rather recent entry of the...

  13. Commercialization Trends in Higher Education: The Costa Rican Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Maria de Los Angeles

    1999-01-01

    This case study of the commercialized teaching profession in Costa Rican higher education urges circumspection; the term "efficient and productive change" camouflages the state-sanctioned commodification of the instructional enterprise. Courses are becoming proprietary courseware, machinery for selling intellectual capital is emerging,…

  14. Women of Puerto Rican Origin in the Continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Women's Bureau.

    This brief paper presents data on Puerto Rican women residing in the United States as of March of 1975. Information on population, age, marital status, household and family head, labor force participation, work experience, occupational, and income statistics is included. (Author/BS)

  15. Puerto Ricans in Science and Biomedicine: Report of a Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

    Twelve divisions and institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) cosponsored this conference to examine the barriers to participation of Puerto Ricans in the United States to careers in science and biomedicine. Areas addressed during the conference included: (1) perspectives from the NIH; (2) historical and modern perspectives of…

  16. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending among Puerto Rican Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-01-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States; and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate similar…

  17. BREEDING AND NATAL DISPERSAL IN THE PUERTO RICAN VIREO

    Science.gov (United States)

    BETHANY L. WOODWORTH; JOHN FAABORG; WAYNE J. ARENDT

    1998-01-01

    Information on dispersali s critical for understandingt he population dynamicso f birds. We estimated breeding and natal dispersal in two studies of a population of the Puerto Rican Vireo (Vireo latimeri) that is in danger of local extirpation due to low reproductive success from 7.1-29% of adult males and 12.5 - 25% of adult females changed territories between...

  18. The development of natural circulation operation support program for ship nuclear power machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Jianli; Chen, Wenzhen; Chen, Zhiyun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The natural circulation under various ocean and ship motion conditions is studied. ► A natural circulation operation support computer program (NCOSP) is developed with Simulink. ► The NCOSP program has the merit of easy input preparation, fast and accurate simulation. ► The NCOSP is suitable for the fast parameter simulation of ship nuclear power machinery. -- Abstract: The existing simulation program of ship nuclear power machinery (SNPM) cannot adequately deal with the natural circulation (NC) operation and the effects of various ocean conditions and ship motion. Aiming at the problem, the natural circulation operation support computer program for SNPM is developed, in which the momentum conservation equation of the primary loop, some heat transfer and flow resistance models and equations are modified for the various ocean conditions and ship motion. The additional pressure loss model and effective height model for the control volume in the gyration movement, simple harmonic rolling and pitching movements are also discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the transient response to load change under NC conditions is analyzed by the developed program. The results are compared with those predicted by the modified RELAP5/mod3.2 code. It is shown that the natural circulation operation support program (NCOSP) is simple in the input preparation, runs fast and has a satisfactory precision, and is therefore very suitable for the operating field support of SNPM under the conditions of NC.

  19. Perspectives of Puerto Rican Adults about Heart Health and a Potential Community Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Irina L G; Tejada, Shirley; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    Puerto Ricans are the second largest Hispanic group in the U.S. and older adults have significant health disparities. Educational programs that address heart disease risk for this population have rarely been developed and implemented. To address this gap, the Heart Healthy Initiative for Puerto Rican adults is being developed. To develop it as a participatory program, the community members were asked about their perspectives. Five focus groups with 28 participants, aged 45-60, were conducted, transcribed and analyzed using Thematic Analysis. In-depth analysis of meanings of health promoting behaviors, in the context of cultural beliefs and values was carried out. The following themes were identified: Health as balance and integration; Health as connection of self, connection with others; Cultural meanings of lifestyle choices; Stresses and struggles. Participants suggested that the program should have significant variety and a holistic perspective, be sensitive to different needs and motivations, stimulate mutual understanding and shared cultural meanings. The program needs to support lifestyle changes which maximally preserve traditions and to introduce multi-level changes. The identified cultural meanings of diet, physical activity and relationships were taken into account to develop the educational curriculum.

  20. The PSO support scheme for natural gas - subsidy to industry or environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldegard, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Some aspects of the PSO scheme for natural gas are examined critically. Two central arguments used for justifying the PSO subsidy scheme of natural gas and its distribution are reviewed; these include the 'smallholder argument' and the 'environmental argument'. The 'smallholder argument' claims that since Norway has the natural gas resources, it should also make use of the natural gas in the country, and not simply send the raw material to other countries. The 'environmental argument' states that natural gas compared to other fossil fuels such as coal and fuel oil, is a far cleaner alternative, thus an environmental-friendly alternative entitled to financial support. The arguments are critically examined by the author (ml)

  1. Influence of sensory and cultural perceptions of white rice, brown rice and beans by Costa Rican adults in their dietary choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Mattei, Josiemer; Fuster, Tamara; Willett, Walter; Campos, Hannia

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the distinct perceptions towards rice and beans that may shape the consumption of these main staple foods among Costa Ricans. We aimed to identify barriers and motivators that could change the current staple into a healthier one, and assess the sensory perceptions of these foods in this population. Focus group discussions and sensory tastings of 8 traditional white or brown rice and beans preparations were conducted in 98 Costa Ricans, aged 40-65 years. Traditional habits and family support emerged as the two main drivers for current consumption. Consuming similar amounts of rice and beans, as well as unfamiliarity with brown rice, are habits engrained in the Costa Rican culture, and are reinforced in the family and community environment. Suggested strategies for consuming more brown rice and more beans included introducing them during childhood, disseminating information of their health benefits that take into account the importance of tradition, lowering the cost, increasing availability, engaging women as agents of change and for brown rice masking the perceived unpleasant sensory characteristics by incorporating them into mixed dishes. Plain brown rice received the lowest mean hedonic liking scores. The preparations rated highest for pleasant were the beans: rice 1:1 ratio regardless of the type of rice. This study identified novel strategies to motivate Costa Rican adults to adapt their food choices into healthier ones within their cultural and sensory acceptability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Expert System for support of natural gas network management; Sistema especialista para gerenciamento de redes de gas natural: SEGRED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jonny Carlos da [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Hirano, Eduardo Wulff [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Lab. de Hidraulica e Pneumatica (LASHIP); Moura, Newton Reis de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, Luiz Gustavo de Melo [PETROBRAS S.A., Pojuca, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios de Gas Natural (UNGN)

    2004-07-01

    This work reports on the SEGRED project, which aims to develop an expert system for management of natural gas transportation networks. The system is currently being developed by LASHIP-UFSC in partnership with PETROBRAS/CENPES and TBG. The SEGRED system consists of an environment designed to support natural gas pipeline management by means of remote supervision of process parameters and analysis of the mutual interactions of those parameters by an expert system integrated to a dynamic simulator. The system is deployed through a process that contributes to making available for use the knowledge about functions such as line packing analysis and line break detection, thus enhancing the quality of execution of these tasks, which are related to the management of natural gas transportation network. The main benefits consist of promoting efforts to acquire and organize expert knowledge. This process contributes to the generation of a knowledge base with corporate technical memory, which can be made available in a permanent, expansible and useful way for decision-making. (author)

  3. Evaluating collaborative planning methods supporting programmebased planning in natural resource management

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vacik, H.; Kurttila, M.; Hujala, T.; Khadka, Chiranjeewee; Haara, A.; Pykäläinen, J.; Honkakoski, P.; Wolfslehner, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 144, NOV 2014 (2014), s. 304-315 ISSN 0301-4797 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : participatory planning * group decision making * problem identification * problem modeling * problem solving * natural resource management Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.723, year: 2014

  4. Effects of Natural Sounds on Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilation Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatmand, Vahid; Rejeh, Nahid; Heravi-Karimooi, Majideh; Tadrisi, Sayed Davood; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Jordan, Sue

    2015-08-01

    Nonpharmacologic pain management in patients receiving mechanical ventilation support in critical care units is under investigated. Natural sounds may help reduce the potentially harmful effects of anxiety and pain in hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of pleasant, natural sounds on self-reported pain in patients receiving mechanical ventilation support, using a pragmatic parallel-arm, randomized controlled trial. The study was conducted in a general adult intensive care unit of a high-turnover teaching hospital, in Tehran, Iran. Between October 2011 and June 2012, we recruited 60 patients receiving mechanical ventilation support to the intervention (n = 30) and control arms (n = 30) of a pragmatic parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Participants in both arms wore headphones for 90 minutes. Those in the intervention arm heard pleasant, natural sounds, whereas those in the control arm heard nothing. Outcome measures included the self-reported visual analog scale for pain at baseline; 30, 60, and 90 minutes into the intervention; and 30 minutes post-intervention. All patients approached agreed to participate. The trial arms were similar at baseline. Pain scores in the intervention arm fell and were significantly lower than in the control arm at each time point (p natural sounds via headphones is a simple, safe, nonpharmacologic nursing intervention that may be used to allay pain for up to 120 minutes in patients receiving mechanical ventilation support. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prototype of a web - based participative decision support platform in natural hazards and risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aye, Z.C.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Derron, M.H.; van Westen, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the current state and development of a prototype web-GIS (Geographic Information System) decision support platform intended for application in natural hazards and risk management, mainly for floods and landslides. This web platform uses open-source geospatial software and

  6. Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management Collaborative Research Support Program(SANREM CRSP)

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Keith M.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation describes the history and current program of the Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management Collaborative Research Support Program (SANREM CRSP). SANREM Objectives include increasing stakeholder income generation capacity, empowering stakeholders, particularly women, enhancing decentralized resource management, strengthening local institutions, improving market access for smallholders and communities, and promoting sustainable and environmentally sound developme...

  7. Developing an effective adaptive monitoring network to support integrated coastal management in a multiuser nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pim Vugteveen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We elaborate the necessary conceptual and strategic elements for developing an effective adaptive monitoring network to support Integrated Coastal Management (ICM in a multiuser nature reserve in the Dutch Wadden Sea Region. We discuss quality criteria and enabling actions essential to accomplish and sustain monitoring excellence to support ICM. The Wadden Sea Long-Term Ecosystem Research project (WaLTER was initiated to develop an adaptive monitoring network and online data portal to better understand and support ICM in the Dutch Wadden Sea Region. Our comprehensive approach integrates ecological and socioeconomic data and links research-driven and policy-driven monitoring for system analysis using indicators of pressures, state, benefits, and responses. The approach and concepts we elaborated are transferable to other coastal regions to accomplish ICM in complex social-ecological systems in which scientists, multisectoral stakeholders, resource managers, and governmental representatives seek to balance long-term ecological, economic, and social objectives within natural limits.

  8. The Island Image and Global Links in Puerto Rican Cinema of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Rodríguez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay looks back at the production of Puerto Rican films in the 1980s and 1990s as the point of departure for young Puerto Rican filmmakers in the first decades of the 21st century. Even as the stories of this newer generation differ, their concern with the island image and diasporic movement continue to question Puerto Rican identity. Problems of local film production and outside distribution remain for each film project. This essay analyzes a number of key films by a diverse group of directors whose goal is to rethink the concept of a Puerto Rican cinema.

  9. Prostate Cancer Mortality in Puerto Rican Men: The Effect of Body Habitus and Physical Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crespo, Carlos J

    2005-01-01

    .... The underlying hypothesis of this epidemiological research is that excess body adiposity and sedentary lifestyles are independent risk factors for prostate cancer mortality in Puerto Rican men...

  10. Prostate Cancer Mortality in Puerto Rican Men: The Effect of Body Habitus and Physical Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crespo, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    .... The underlying hypothesis of this epidemiological research is that excess body adiposity and sedentary lifestyles are independent risk factors for prostate cancer mortality in Puerto Rican men...

  11. Governmental support for driving on natural gas. An outline of political factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Knoop, J.; Overmars, P.

    2005-09-01

    Government support is crucial for the viability of the market for natural gas as engine fuel. This outlook focuses on the viewpoint of the government and the large political parties in this respect. At first this study was meant to be a brief outlook, but the study expanded in two directions. First of all, more attention was paid to the discussion on the use of natural gas as engine fuel and in line with the various incentivisation regulations in the context of more general greening taxes. The stimulation of driving on natural gas cannot be separated from similar measures for other (clean(er)) fuels. Secondly, based on the obtained insights, conclusions were drawn on the chances for government subsidy for driving on natural gas. Finally, attention has also been paid to the question if politicians recognise and acknowledge the intermediary role of natural gas in the transition towards sustainable fuels. If this is the case, the parliament will probably put more pressure on the government to stimulate driving on natural gas in view of the additional value of investments in the natural gas fuel infrastructure.[mk] [nl

  12. The relationship between social support and posttraumatic stress symptoms among youth exposed to a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Betty S; Osborne, Melissa C; Piscitello, Jennifer; Self-Brown, Shannon; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2018-01-01

    Background : Children are a vulnerable population following a natural disaster, due to their age and dependence on adults. The primary presenting problem children report after disasters is posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Prior research suggests that PTSS is inversely related to social support, which is often disrupted after a disaster. Objective : This study examined the relationship between social support (from parents, teachers, and peers) and PTSS in children affected by Hurricane Katrina. The research contributes to the literature by examining the mechanisms that drive this relationship over time. Methods : In this study, 426 children were followed over four timepoints, beginning 3-7 months after Hurricane Katrina and concluding 25-27 months post-hurricane. Three path models analysed the relationship between social support (from parents, teachers, and peers, measured by the Social Support Scale for Children) and PTSS (measured by the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index). Covariates included child age, minority status, gender, perceived life threat, and actual life threat. Nonsignificant paths were trimmed from the final models. Global fit indices were examined to determine model fit. Results : In the parent and peer social support models, PTSS exhibited statistically significant effects on social support from one wave to the next. In the teacher model, this was only true between Waves 2 and 3. Social support showed a statistically significant effect on PTSS between Wave 2 and Wave 3 in the peer model (standardized estimate = -0.26, p  social support to PTSS were significant in the parent and teacher models. Conclusion : Findings support a social selection model in which PTSS undermine social support, particularly in the first two years post-disaster. If these findings are replicated, this suggests that, in cases of limited funding, PTSS should be prioritized, given their cascading effects on social support.

  13. Transnational Mortality Comparisons Between Archipelago and Mainland Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Rodríguez-Ayuso, Idania; Gebrekristos, Hirut T; Roess, Amira; Pérez, Cynthia M; Simonsen, Lone

    2017-10-01

    Puerto Ricans in the US experience higher deaths from diabetes and other causes compared to non-Hispanic Whites and other Hispanic groups. We compared mortality in Puerto Rico to that of Puerto Ricans in the US as a first step to investigate if similar or worse mortality patterns originate from the sending country (Puerto Rico). Age-adjusted death rates were generated using national vital statistics databases in the US and territories for all-cause and the top ten causes of death among Hispanics in 2009. Mortality ratios in the archipelago of Puerto Rico (APR) were compared to mainland US Puerto Ricans (MPR). Rates for other ethnic/racial groups (Mexican Americans, Cubans, and non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks, American Indians, and Asians) were calculated to provide a context. APR had significantly higher all-cause mortality and death rates for diabetes, nephritis, pneumonia/influenza, and homicide/assault compared to MPR (APR/MPR ratio for all-cause: 1.08, diabetes: 2.04, nephritis: 1.84, pneumonia/influenza: 1.33, homicide/assault: 3.15). Death rates for diabetes and homicide/assault (particularly among men) were higher among APR compared to any other racial/ethnic groups in the US. In contrast, deaths from heart disease, cancer, and chronic liver disease were significantly lower for APR compared to MPR (MPR/APR ratio 0.72, 0.91, 0.41, respectively). Among APR women, death rates for these causes were also lower compared to any other group in the US. Substantial mortality variability exists between Puerto Ricans in Puerto Rico and those in the US, re-emphasizing the need to study of how socio-environmental determinants of health differ in sending and receiving countries. Explanations for disparate rates include access to and availability of healthcare and unique factors related to the migration experience of this group.

  14. Prematurity, atopy, and childhood asthma in Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Ramratnam, Sima K; Brehm, John M; Han, Yueh-Ying; Boutaoui, Nadia; Forno, Erick; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Alvarez, María; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2014-02-01

    Puerto Rican children share a disproportionate burden of prematurity and asthma in the United States. Little is known about prematurity and childhood asthma in Puerto Rican subjects. We sought to examine whether prematurity is associated with asthma in Puerto Rican children. We performed a case-control study of 678 children aged 6 to 14 years with (n = 351) and without (n = 327) asthma living in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Prematurity was defined by parental report for our primary analysis. In a secondary analysis, we only included children whose parents reported prematurity that required admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Asthma was defined as physician-diagnosed asthma and wheeze in the prior year. We used logistic regression for analysis. All multivariate models were adjusted for age, sex, household income, atopy (≥1 positive IgE level to common allergens), maternal history of asthma, and early-life exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. In a multivariate analysis there was a significant interaction between prematurity and atopy on asthma (P = .006). In an analysis stratified by atopy, prematurity was associated with a nearly 5-fold increased odds of asthma in atopic children (adjusted odds ratio, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.5-14.3; P = .007). In contrast, there was no significant association between prematurity and asthma in nonatopic children. Similar results were obtained in our analysis of prematurity requiring admission to the neonatal intensive care unit and asthma. Our results suggest that atopy modifies the estimated effect of prematurity on asthma in Puerto Rican children. Prematurity might explain, in part, the high prevalence of atopic asthma in this ethnic group. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Parenting Styles and Child Outcomes in Puerto Rican Families

    OpenAIRE

    Colón, Jeisianne Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate observed parenting styles among Puerto Rican parents living in Puerto Rico. Participants included 51 families with a child between the ages of 6 and 11. Families engaged in different behavioral observational tasks. Observations were coded for parenting dimensions and family parenting styles in order to determine its relationship to child outcomes. The Parenting Styles Observation Rating Scale was used to code the observations and the Child Behavior Ch...

  16. Survival and causes of mortality in juvenile Puerto Rican parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.D. Lindsey; W.J. Arendt; J. Kalina

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen juvenile Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) from wild nests in 1985, 1986 and 1987 were radio monitored an average of 110 +_ 15.9 (SE) d (range 4-209 d) post-fiedging.. Minimum survival was 67% (n = 3) in 1985, 100%( n = 4) in 1986 and 43% (n = 7) in 1987. Most mortality (three of five deaths) occurred during the first 35 d following fledging. A major...

  17. A Healthy Lifestyle Score Is Associated with Cardiometabolic and Neuroendocrine Risk Factors among Puerto Rican Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Falcón, Luis M; Gao, Xiang; Tucker, Katherine L; Mattei, Josiemer

    2015-07-01

    Although individual healthy lifestyle behaviors may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, few studies have analyzed the combined effect of multiple lifestyle components as one all-inclusive measure on such outcomes, much less in minority populations. We aimed to develop a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) that included several lifestyle recommendations and to test its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and allostatic load (AL) and their cardiometabolic and neuroendocrine factors in Puerto Ricans. In a cross-sectional study in 787 Puerto Ricans living in Boston (aged 45-75 y), we developed an HLS that ranged from 0 to 190 (higher score indicative of healthier lifestyle) and included 5 components (diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors, smoking, social support and network, and sleep). Multivariable-adjusted models were used to test associations between the HLS and biomarkers of dysregulation and odds of MetS and high AL (≥4 out of 10 components). The HLS showed adequate internal consistency (ρ = 0.31-0.69) and was inversely associated with urinary cortisol (β ± SE = -0.22 ± 0.11; P = 0.042), epinephrine (-0.20 ± 0.09; P = 0.017), and norepinephrine (-0.26 ± 0.11; P = 0.016); waist circumference (-0.014 ± 0.004; P = 0.003); and serum insulin (-0.30 ± 0.13; P = 0.028) and positively associated with plasma HDL cholesterol (0.007 ± 0.003; P = 0.021) after adjustment for potential confounders. For each 20-unit increase in HLS, participants had 19% (95% CI: 2%, 33%) and 25% (11%, 36%) lower odds of MetS or AL, respectively. Healthier scores for social support and network and smoking components were associated with lower odds of high AL (P lifestyle components. Following an overall healthy lifestyle that comprises a combination of multiple behaviors may provide stronger protection against MetS and AL in Puerto Rican adults than individual components. The HLS may be a useful tool for examining health-related outcomes. This trial was registered at

  18. Bacterial biofilm supported on granular activated carbon and on natural zeolites- an application to wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lameiras, Sandra Raquel de Vasconcelos; Quintelas, C.; Tavares, M. T.

    2004-01-01

    The removal of many heavy metals from industrial wastewater is one of the most important environmental problems to be solved today. The retention of this contaminants by a biofilm supported on granular activated carbon or on natural zeolites is one of the promising technologies for the reduction of this problem, because it is cheap and it removes a broad range of substances, heavy metals and organic compounds. This study aims the development of a system of two mini-columns in series ...

  19. Perspectives of colorectal cancer risk and screening among Dominicans and Puerto Ricans: stigma and misperceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Roberta E; Diaz, Joseph A; Kim, Ivone

    2009-11-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer among Latinos, but a lower percentage of Latinos are screened than Whites and Blacks. Along with recognized economic barriers, differences in knowledge and perceptions might impede colorectal screening among Latinos. We conducted 147 individual, qualitative interviews with Dominicans and Puerto Ricans in the northeastern United States to explore their explanatory models for colorectal cancer and screening barriers. Many participants had not previously heard of colorectal cancer. The most commonly mentioned cause of colorectal cancer was anal sex. Also considered risks were "bad food," digestion leading to constipation, and strained bowel movements. Screening barriers included stigma, misperceptions, embarrassment, and machismo. Progress toward increasing colorectal cancer screening requires normalization of this screening among Latinos. Higher patient familiarity, along with improved physician counseling and referral, might contribute to reducing stigma and other barriers, and to enhancing knowledge and Latino community support of colorectal cancer screening.

  20. Public evaluation of open space in Illinois: citizen support for natural area acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backlund, Erik A; Stewart, William P; McDonald, Cary; Miller, Craig

    2004-11-01

    Numerous studies have indicated a broad-based support for open space preservation and protection. Research also has characterized the public values and rationale that underlie the widespread support for open space. In recognition of the widespread public support for open space, various levels of government have implemented programs to provide public access to open space. There are many different types of open space, ranging from golf courses, ball parks, wildlife areas, and prairies, to name a few. This paper addresses questions related to the types of open space that should be prioritized by planners and natural resource managers. The results of this study are based on a stratified random sample of 5000 households in Illinois that were sent a questionnaire related to their support for various types of open space. Through a comparatively simple action grid analysis, the open space types that should be prioritized for public access include forest areas, stream corridors, wildlife habitat, and lakes/ponds. These were the open space types rated of the highest importance, yet were also the open space types rated the lowest in respondent satisfaction. This kind of analysis does not require the technical expertise of other options for land-use prioritizations (e.g., conjoint analysis, contingent valuation), yet provides important policy directives for planners. Although open space funds often allow for purchase of developed sites such as golf courses, ball parks, and community parks, this study indicates that undeveloped (or nature-based) open space lands are most needed in Illinois.

  1. Functionalized Natural Carbon-Supported Nanoparticles as Excellent Catalysts for Hydrocarbon Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Guo, Lisheng; Ma, Qingxiang; Gao, Xinhua; Yamane, Noriyuki; Xu, Hengyong; Tsubaki, Noritatsu

    2017-02-01

    We report a one-pot and eco-friendly synthesis of carbon-supported cobalt nanoparticles, achieved by carbonization of waste biomass (rice bran) with a cobalt source. The functionalized biomass provides carbon microspheres as excellent catalyst support, forming a unique interface between hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups. The latter, involving hydroxyl and amino groups, can catch much more active cobalt nanoparticles on surface for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis than chemical carbon. The loading amount of cobalt on the final catalyst is much higher than that prepared with a chemical carbon source, such as glucose. The proposed concept of using a functionalized natural carbon source shows great potential compared with conventional carbon sources, and will be meaningful for other fields concerning carbon support, such as heterogeneous catalysis or electrochemical fields. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Natural analogs in support of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, Jan.

    1994-08-01

    The assessment of the long-term safety and performance of the Canadian concept for disposal of nuclear fuel waste is a unique and challenging undertaking, because the predictions have to be made for time periods in the range of 10 4 to 10 6 a into the future. The data used for the assessment modelling is in large part based on observations from short-term laboratory and field experiments. Natural analogs can provide a reference for the safety assessment, providing both useful data and a qualitative illustration of the interaction of processes and materials in complex natural systems. This report reviews the available natural analog information used in support of the Canadian concept, with particular emphasis on the disposal of used CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) fuel. The introduction gives a definition of natural analogs and an overview of the various types of analogs and analog studies. The review is broken down into sections pertaining to the major components of the disposal system: the vault, the geosphere and the biosphere. Specific examples are given for each. In addition, a section deals with several comprehensive natural systems that contain a number of features and processes similar to the disposal concept and that are under study by a number of countries as part of their waste management programs. (author). 224 refs., 11 tabs., 2 figs

  3. Natural analogs in support of the Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Jan

    1994-08-01

    The assessment of the long-term safety and performance of the Canadian concept for disposal of nuclear fuel waste is a unique and challenging undertaking, because the predictions have to be made for time periods in the range of 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 6} a into the future. The data used for the assessment modelling is in large part based on observations from short-term laboratory and field experiments. Natural analogs can provide a reference for the safety assessment, providing both useful data and a qualitative illustration of the interaction of processes and materials in complex natural systems. This report reviews the available natural analog information used in support of the Canadian concept, with particular emphasis on the disposal of used CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) fuel. The introduction gives a definition of natural analogs and an overview of the various types of analogs and analog studies. The review is broken down into sections pertaining to the major components of the disposal system: the vault, the geosphere and the biosphere. Specific examples are given for each. In addition, a section deals with several comprehensive natural systems that contain a number of features and processes similar to the disposal concept and that are under study by a number of countries as part of their waste management programs. (author). 224 refs., 11 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. Effect of the nature of the support on molybdenum catalytic behavior in diesel particulate combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Silvana; Appel, Lucia G.; Schmal, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Mo/SiO 2 and Mo/TiO 2 catalysts with three different molybdenum contents were prepared using non-porous supports and the thermal spreading method for the combustion of a particulate material (PM). The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and N 2 adsorption/desorption techniques showed that the thermal spreading preparation method does not induce relevant textural changes on the supports. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed the occurrence of thermal spreading of MoO 3 onto silica and titania supports. Diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) results provided clear evidence of different Mo species on these systems: highly dispersed species on the silica catalysts and polymolybdates on the titania catalysts. It may be inferred that when prepared by the thermal spreading method the nature of the support determines the kind of molybdenum species formed in these catalysts, irrespective of the Mo content. The reactive data were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), using a physical mixture of PM and the catalysts. The silica-supported catalysts showed higher reactivity for PM combustion than the titania-supported ones, being the most active the systems with the Mo monolayer. The results suggested that the dispersed species are far more active than the polymolybdates or MoO 3 itself

  5. Rainwater, a tool for development and maintenance of nature in the city - Three development projects illustrating the water as a support of natural processes in urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Piel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of manage urban stormwater are gradually taken into account by planners and landscapers. If the ecological potential of the temporary retention techniques is correctly operated in peri-urban areas, it is too little valued in a dense urban environment. Dense urban environment where the demand of nature is becoming stronger.Presented three projects in dense urban areas, where rainwater is treated as support nature, and as a factor in natural processes.These projects also aim to show how the problem of flood is a support social, legal, and financial, to implement these natural processes, so necessary in urban areas.

  6. Factorial Structure of a Measure of Acculturation in a Puerto Rican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Brunilda; Mendez, Serafin

    1996-01-01

    The psychometric characteristics of the Cultural Life Style Inventory were studied with a sample of 402 Puerto Rican college students. Factor analysis revealed high factorial stability for Puerto Ricans. Similarities and differences with a previously studied Mexican American population are discussed. (SLD)

  7. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Acculturation and Social Networks in Puerto Rican Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhokarh, Rajanigandha; Himmelgreen, David A.; Peng, Yu-Kuei; Segura-Perez, Sofia; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether acculturation and social networks influence household food insecurity in an inner-city Puerto Rican community. Methods: A survey was administered to 200 low-income female Puerto Rican caregivers with at least 1 child 12-72 months old living in Hartford, CT. Food insecurity was measured with the Radimer/Cornell Hunger…

  8. Association between BDNF-rs6265 and obesity in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study is to examine a functional variant (rs6265) in the BDNF gene interacting with dietary intake modulate obesity traits in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study population. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped in 1147 Puerto Ricans (aged 45-75 years), and examined for association with o...

  9. Hero/Heroine Modeling for Puerto Rican Adolescents: A Preventive Mental Health Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgady, Robert G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Developed hero/heroine intervention based on adult Puerto Rican role models to foster ethnic identity, self-concept, and adaptive coping behavior. Screened 90 Puerto Rican eighth and ninth graders for presenting behavior problems in school and randomly assigned them to intervention or control groups. After 19 sessions, intervention significantly…

  10. Association between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and bone mineral density in older Puerto Rican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y livi...

  11. The Puerto Ricans--Two Communities, One Culture. (Los Puertorriquenos--Dos Comunidades, Una Cultura.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivo, Paquita

    1980-01-01

    Puerto Rican roots stem from the ethnic mixture of Indians, Europeans, and Africans. This article describes the advent of each of the groups on the island, the historical and cultural impact each made, and the retention of heritage among Puerto Rican migrants to the U.S. (DS)

  12. Childhood Asthma Prevalence among Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans: Implications for Behavioral Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, A. Magdalena

    1995-01-01

    Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982-84, were used to examine lifetime prevalence (LTP) of childhood asthma among Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans. LTP was related to Puerto Rican ethnicity, birth outside U.S. mainland, low weight for age, male gender, poverty, urban residence, and single parenthood. Implications…

  13. "So yo creo que es un proceso evolutivo": Language Ideologies among Puerto Ricans in Southeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the perspectives of Puerto Ricans living in the United States in response to a publicity campaign that focuses on the correction of linguistic features that appear in some Puerto Ricans' spoken Spanish. The campaign addresses phonetic, morphological, lexical, and syntactic features, including a specific set of words or…

  14. Perspectives of Puerto Rican Adults about Heart Health and a Potential Community Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Irina L. G.; Tejada, Shirley; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Puerto Ricans are the second largest Hispanic group in the United States, and older adults have significant health disparities. Educational programs that address heart disease risk for this population have rarely been developed and implemented. Purpose: To address this gap, the Heart Healthy Initiative for Puerto Rican adults is being…

  15. Puerto Rican Migration: The Return Flow = La Migracion Puertorriquena: El Reflujo a la Isla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivo, Paquita, Comp.

    This is a guide to materials and research on Puerto Ricans who have returned to Puerto Rico after living in the United States. Part 1 is an annotated bibliography of books, journal articles, printed documents, doctoral dissertations, master's theses, journalistic accounts, and unpublished papers on characteristics of Puerto Rican return migrants;…

  16. Bargaining power and revenue distribution in the Costa Rican mango supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zúñiga-Arias, G.; Meijer, S.A.; Ruben, R.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    By the time a European consumer eats a Costa Rican mango, the product has been traded in several transactions between producers, traders, retailers and consumers. This paper investigates the position of Costa Rican smallholders in the mango supply chain in terms of bargaining power and revenue

  17. Niche restriction and conservatism in a neotropical psittacine: the case of the Puerto Rican parrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas H.; Collazo, Jaime A.; Dinsmore, Stephen J.; Llerandi-Roman, I. C.

    2014-01-01

    currently deforested but previously occupied by parrots, to illustrate both quantitative and qualitative losses of reproductive habitat for the species. We illustrate and systematically discuss how progressive and sustained changes in landscape composition and associated limiting factors have effectively shifted and restricted the ecological niche of this species, and how this complex suite of ecological processes affects the Puerto Rican parrot in the Luquillo Mountains. Our niche restriction hypothesis is supported by the demographic response of Puerto Rican parrots recently (2006-2009) reintroduced in the lower elevation karst forest of northwestern Puerto Rico. Based on our findings, we present conservation strategies aimed at promoting the recovery of the species both in the Luquillo Mountains and elsewhere in Puerto Rico. Finally, we address the relevance of our findings to conservation of other endangered species, particularly those threatened by both habitat loss and climate change. 

  18. Applying voting theory in natural resource management: a case of multiple-criteria group decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen, Sanna; Kangas, Annika; Kangas, Jyrki

    2002-02-01

    Voting theory has a lot in common with utility theory, and especially with group decision-making. An expected-utility-maximising strategy exists in voting situations, as well as in decision-making situations. Therefore, it is natural to utilise the achievements of voting theory also in group decision-making. Most voting systems are based on a single criterion or holistic preference information on decision alternatives. However, a voting scheme called multicriteria approval is specially developed for decision-making situations with multiple criteria. This study considers the voting theory from the group decision support point of view and compares it with some other methods applied to similar purposes in natural resource management. A case study is presented, where the approval voting approach is introduced to natural resources planning and tested in a forestry group decision-making process. Applying multicriteria approval method was found to be a potential approach for handling some challenges typical for forestry group decision support. These challenges include (i) utilising ordinal information in the evaluation of decision alternatives, (ii) being readily understandable for and treating equally all the stakeholders in possession of different levels of knowledge on the subject considered, (iii) fast and cheap acquisition of preference information from several stakeholders, and (iv) dealing with multiple criteria.

  19. The Role of Informal Support Networks in Teaching the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Benjamin C.; Olson, Joanne K.; Clough, Michael P.

    2017-06-01

    This study reports the participation of 13 secondary science teachers in informal support networks and how that participation was associated with their nature of science (NOS) teaching practices 2 to 5 years after having graduated from the same science teacher education program. The nine teachers who participated in informal support networks taught the NOS at high/medium levels, while the four non-participating teachers taught the NOS at low levels. The nine high/medium NOS implementation teachers credited the informal support networks for maintaining/heightening their sense of responsibility for teaching NOS and for helping them navigate institutional constraints that impede effective NOS instruction. Several high/medium NOS instruction implementers initially struggled to autonomously frame and resolve the complexities experienced in schools and thus drew from the support networks to engage in more sophisticated forms of teacher decision-making. In contrast, the NOS pedagogical decisions of the four teachers not participating in support networks were governed primarily by the expectations and constraints experienced in their schools. Implications of this study include the need for reconsidering the structure of teacher mentorship programs to ensure they do not promote archaic science teaching practices that are at odds with reform efforts in science education.

  20. Metal supported on natural zeolite as catalysts for conversion of ethanol to gasoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiani Anis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A various of metal supported into natural zeolite was prepared via wet impregnation method. The transition metals impregnated are nickel, cobalt, copper and zinc. The catalytic properties both of physical and chemical properties were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Thermo Gravimetri Analysis (TGA-Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Surface Area Analyzer-Porositymeter and also gravimetry method for acidity measurement following by the adsorption of organic bases. The results showed that different metals impregnated into natural zeolite affected physical and chemical properties, i.e. crystalinity, surface area, pore size, pore volume and acidity. Their catalytic activity was tested for conversion ethanol to gasoline and showed high conversion up to 80-90% with the aromatics as major product.

  1. Seismic response analysis of column supported natural draught cooling tower shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanjaneyulu, K.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Appa Rao, T.V.S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Natural draught cooling towers (NDCTs) belong to the category of large civil engineering structures and are commonly used in nuclear or thermal power plants. Detailed dynamic analysis has to be carried out for design of cooling towers subjected to seismic excitation, considering the flexibility of the columns. Finite ring element formulations for dynamic analysis of cooling tower shell subjected to seismic excitation are presented in this paper. The geometry of a typical tall natural draught cooling tower is considered in this study for carrying out investigations. Transient response of the hyperbolic cooling tower shell subjected to earthquake loading has been analysed by direct time integration using acceleration-time history of North-South component of El-Centro earthquake. Parametric studies have also been carried out to study the influence of flexibility of column supports and damping on the seismic response of cooling tower shell and the results are discussed in the paper. (author)

  2. Effects of Vicarious Experiences of Nature, Environmental Attitudes, and Outdoor Recreation Benefits on Support for Increased Funding Allocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Namyun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of vicarious experiences of nature, environmental attitudes, and recreation benefits sought by participants on their support for funding of natural resources and alternative energy options. Using a national scenic trail user survey, results demonstrated that vicarious experiences of nature influenced environmental…

  3. MonitoringResources.org—Supporting coordinated and cost-effective natural resource monitoring across organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Jennifer M.; Scully, Rebecca A.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2018-05-21

    Natural resource managers who oversee the Nation’s resources require data to support informed decision-making at a variety of spatial and temporal scales that often cross typical jurisdictional boundaries such as states, agency regions, and watersheds. These data come from multiple agencies, programs, and sources, often with their own methods and standards for data collection and organization. Coordinating standards and methods is often prohibitively time-intensive and expensive. MonitoringResources.org offers a suite of tools and resources that support coordination of monitoring efforts, cost-effective planning, and sharing of knowledge among organizations. The website was developed by the Pacific Northwest Aquatic Monitoring Partnership—a collaboration of Federal, state, tribal, local, and private monitoring programs—and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration and USGS. It is a key component of a coordinated monitoring and information network.

  4. Association between a Healthy Lifestyle Score and inflammatory markers among Puerto Rican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, M; Bhupathiraju, S N; Falcon, L M; Gao, X; Tucker, K L; Mattei, J

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between multiple lifestyle components analyzed in combination and inflammation remains understudied. We aimed to assess the association between a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) that includes adherence to five behavioral components (diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors, smoking, social support and network, and sleep) and inflammatory markers, as well as the role of the HLS in inflammation among individuals with cardiometabolic conditions, in Puerto Rican adults. In a cross-sectional study of 842 Puerto Ricans adults (aged 45-75 y) living in Boston, MA, the HLS (range = 0-190; maximum indicative of healthiest adherence) was analyzed for association with three inflammatory markers: interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP). In multivariable-adjusted models, the HLS was inversely associated with IL-6 (β ± SE = -0.55 ± 0.13; P markers independently of the other HLS components. Significant inverse associations were observed for each 20-unit increase in HLS and IL-6 and TNF-α for participants with hypertension (n = 600; β ± SE = -0.58 ± 0.16; -0.46 ± 0.16, respectively) and with overweight/obesity (n = 743; β ± SE = -0.59 ± 0.13; -0.50 ± 0.14, respectively), but not for those with diabetes (n = 187) or heart disease (n = 192). The HLS was not associated with CRP, after adjustment for potential confounders. Higher adherence to multiple lifestyle behaviors was associated with lower concentrations of inflammatory markers. Because low-grade inflammation may precede chronic diseases, following an overall healthy lifestyle may help lower risk of these diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Association between Sleep Duration, Insomnia Symptoms and Bone Mineral Density in Older Boston Puerto Rican Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinya Niu

    Full Text Available To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD among older Boston Puerto Rican adults.We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47-79 y living in Massachusetts. BMD at 3 hip sites and the lumbar spine were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sleep duration (≤5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, or ≥9 h/d and insomnia symptoms (difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, early-morning awaking, and non-restorative sleep were assessed by a questionnaire. Multivariable regression was used to examine sex-specific associations between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and BMD adjusting for standard confounders and covariates.Men who slept ≥9h/d had significantly lower femoral neck BMD, relative to those reporting 8 h/d sleep, after adjusting for age, education level, smoking, physical activity, depressive symptomatology, comorbidity and serum vitamin D concentration. This association was attenuated and lost significance after further adjustment for urinary cortisol and serum inflammation biomarkers. In contrast, the association between sleep duration and BMD was not significant in women. Further, we did not find any significant associations between insomnia symptoms and BMD in men or women.Our study does not support the hypothesis that shorter sleep duration and insomnia symptoms are associated with lower BMD levels in older adults. However, our results should be interpreted with caution. Future studies with larger sample size, objective assessment of sleep pattern, and prospective design are needed before a conclusion regarding sleep and BMD can be reached.

  6. Nature of the metal-support interface in supported metal catalysts: results from x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Gates, B.C.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectra characterizing the metal-support interface in supported metal complexes and supported metal catalysts are summarized and evaluated with 29 refs. Mononuclear transition metal complexes on non-reducible metal oxide supports are bonded with metal-oxygen bonds of .apprx.2.15

  7. Oak Tree Canker Disease Supports Arthropod Diversity in a Natural Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Bok Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have many roles in nature. They may act as decomposers that obtain nutrients from dead materials, while some are pathogens that cause diseases in animals, insects, and plants. Some are symbionts that enhance plant growth, such as arbuscular mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixation bacteria. However, roles of plant pathogens and diseases in natural ecosystems are still poorly understood. Thus, the current study addressed this deficiency by investigating possible roles of plant diseases in natural ecosystems, particularly, their positive effects on arthropod diversity. In this study, the model system was the oak tree (Quercus spp. and the canker disease caused by Annulohypoxylon truncatum, and its effects on arthropod diversity. The oak tree site contained 44 oak trees; 31 had canker disease symptoms while 13 were disease-free. A total of 370 individual arthropods were detected at the site during the survey period. The arthropods belonged to 25 species, 17 families, and seven orders. Interestingly, the cankered trees had significantly higher biodiversity and richness compared with the canker-free trees. This study clearly demonstrated that arthropod diversity was supported by the oak tree canker disease.

  8. The stereognostic ability of natural dentitions versus implant-supported fixed prostheses or overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, R; Bou Serhal, C; van Steenberghe, D

    1997-06-01

    A stereognostic ability test was performed in 60 patients. Forty patients were rehabilitated by means of osseointegrated implants. One group consisted of 20 patients with fixed prostheses on implants in both the upper and lower jaws. The other 20 patients had a maxillary denture while in the mandible an overdenture was retained by means of two implants connected by a bar. They were compared to a group of 20 subjects (controls) with a non-restored natural dentition. For the stereognostic ability test, subjects had to recognise ten different test pieces by manipulating them with two antagonistic incisor teeth, avoiding any contact with other oral structures. Both response time and percentage accuracy of recognition were evaluated. The present findings indicated that subjects with an overdenture on implants did not score significantly different from those with an implant-supported fixed prosthesis. In contrast, subjects with teeth had a significantly better stereognostic ability. The percentage of correct responses was 52% for overdentures, 56% for fixed prostheses on implants and 75% for natural dentitions. From these results, it could be concluded that the stereognostic ability is impaired in subjects rehabilitated with osseointegrated implants by about one-third to one-quarter compared to subjects with natural teeth.

  9. Modeling aesthetics to support an ecosystem services approach for natural resource management decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Pieter N; Law, Sheryl A; Ma, Jane; Buonagurio, John; Boyd, James; Turnley, Jessica

    2017-09-01

    This paper reviews literature on aesthetics and describes the development of vista and landscape aesthetics models. Spatially explicit variables were chosen to represent physical characteristics of natural landscapes that are important to aesthetic preferences. A vista aesthetics model evaluates the aesthetics of natural landscapes viewed from distances of more than 1000 m, and a landscape aesthetics model evaluates the aesthetic value of wetlands and forests within 1000 m from the viewer. Each of the model variables is quantified using spatially explicit metrics on a pixel-specific basis within EcoAIM™, a geographic information system (GIS)-based ecosystem services (ES) decision analysis support tool. Pixel values are "binned" into ranked categories, and weights are assigned to select variables to represent stakeholder preferences. The final aesthetic score is the weighted sum of all variables and is assigned ranked values from 1 to 10. Ranked aesthetic values are displayed on maps by patch type and integrated within EcoAIM. The response of the aesthetic scoring in the models was tested by comparing current conditions in a discrete area of the facility with a Development scenario in the same area. The Development scenario consisted of two 6-story buildings and a trail replacing natural areas. The results of the vista aesthetic model indicate that the viewshed area variable had the greatest effect on the aesthetics overall score. Results from the landscape aesthetics model indicate a 10% increase in overall aesthetics value, attributed to the increase in landscape diversity. The models are sensitive to the weights assigned to certain variables by the user, and these weights should be set to reflect regional landscape characteristics as well as stakeholder preferences. This demonstration project shows that natural landscape aesthetics can be evaluated as part of a nonmonetary assessment of ES, and a scenario-building exercise provides end users with a tradeoff

  10. POTENTIAL ENHANCEMENTS TO NATURAL ATTENUATION: LINES OF INQUIRY SUPPORTING ENHANCED PASSIVE REMEDIATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K; Tom Early, T; Michael Heitkamp, M; Brian02 Looney, B; David Major, D; Brian Riha, B; Jody Waugh, J; Gary Wein, G

    2004-06-18

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring an initiative to facilitate efficient, effective and responsible use of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) and Enhanced Passive Remediation (EPR) for chlorinated solvents. This Office of Environmental Management (EM) ''Alternative Project,'' focuses on providing scientific and policy support for MNA/EPR. A broadly representative working group of scientists supports the project along with partnerships with regulatory organizations such as the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The initial product of the technical working group was a summary report that articulated the conceptual approach and central scientific tenants of the project, and that identified a prioritized listing of technical targets for field research. This report documented the process in which: (1) scientific ground rules were developed, (2) lines of inquiry were identified and then critically evaluated, (3) promising applied research topics were highlighted in the various lines of inquiry, and (4) these were discussed and prioritized. The summary report will serve as a resource to guide management and decision-making throughout the period of the subject MNA/EPR Alternative Project. To support and more fully document the information presented in the summary report, we are publishing a series of supplemental documents that present the full texts from the technical analyses within the various lines of inquiry (see listing). The following report - documenting our evaluation of the state of the science of the characterization and monitoring process and tools-- is one of those supplemental documents.

  11. Psychiatric comorbidity and acculturation stress among Puerto Rican substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Kevin P; Swendsen, Joel D; Dierker, Lisa; Canino, Glorisa; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2007-06-01

    Although acculturation to the United States has been associated with an increase in substance, mood, and anxiety disorders in Latino populations, few studies have examined this concept relative to comorbidity among these syndromes. This study compares the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among Puerto Ricans with substance use disorders living in San Juan (Puerto Rico) to those who have migrated to New Haven (Connecticut) and examines the association between acculturation-related stress and the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among those who have migrated to New Haven. Lifetime levels of nearly all comorbid psychiatric disorders among respondents with substance use disorders were generally similar across sites. However, the risk of any co-occurring psychiatric disorder was higher among substance use disorder cases in New Haven who reported high levels of total acculturation stress and family-specific acculturation stress. These findings were generally accounted for by associations between affective disorders and high scores on these indicators of acculturation stress. The overall prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity are remarkably similar among Puerto Rican substance abusers whether they live in San Juan or have migrated to New Haven, thereby demonstrating robustness to differences in geographic location. Nevertheless, the degree of acculturation-related family stress is positively associated with co-occurring substance and psychiatric disorders, particularly affective disorders. Intervention in family strain related to the acculturation process may diminish the development of comorbid mental disorders and assist in implementing successful treatment of substance abuse.

  12. Real-time decision support in the face of emerging natural hazard events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anders, Annett

    and losses. Motivated by these factors, the present thesis aims at developing a framework for the decision support system for real-time decision making in emerging natural hazard events. The thesis also demonstrates the implementation of the developed framework to illustrate its use and advantages...... turbines, agricultural facilities and offshore platforms. Operators of these facilities are often required to make decisions regarding the continued operations of their facilities in extreme storm events. These decisions, which in the present thesis are called real-time decisions, are often made by a small...... number of people in extremely stressful situations, ad-hoc relying on personal experiences of decision makers. On the other hand, recent advancements of information technology potentially make it possible for decision makers to access various types of information in real-time. Remarkable examples...

  13. Building mindfulness bottom-up: Meditation in natural settings supports open monitoring and attention restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymeus, Freddie; Lindberg, Per; Hartig, Terry

    2018-03-01

    Mindfulness courses conventionally use effortful, focused meditation to train attention. In contrast, natural settings can effortlessly support state mindfulness and restore depleted attention resources, which could facilitate meditation. We performed two studies that compared conventional training with restoration skills training (ReST) that taught low-effort open monitoring meditation in a garden over five weeks. Assessments before and after meditation on multiple occasions showed that ReST meditation increasingly enhanced attention performance. Conventional meditation enhanced attention initially but increasingly incurred effort, reflected in performance decrements toward the course end. With both courses, attentional improvements generalized in the first weeks of training. Against established accounts, the generalized improvements thus occurred before any effort was incurred by the conventional exercises. We propose that restoration rather than attention training can account for early attentional improvements with meditation. ReST holds promise as an undemanding introduction to mindfulness and as a method to enhance restoration in nature contacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nature and Prevalence of Mentoring Support Reported by Air Force Nurses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zabokrtsky, Deedra

    2001-01-01

    .... Four types of mentoring support: career mentoring, coaching, collegial social, and collegial task support, were measured using the Mentoring and Communication Support Scale. Participants (N = 467...

  15. Understanding Public Support for Indigenous Natural Resource Management in Northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin K. Zander

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in indigenous-led natural resource management (NRM on traditionally owned land in northern Australia has raised important questions in relation to policies that compensate indigenous Australians for providing environmental services. A choice experiment survey was mailed out to respondents across the whole of Australia to assess if and to what extent Australian people think that society benefits from these services and how much they would pay for them. More than half the respondents would in principle support indigenous NRM in northern Australia, with a high willingness to pay for carbon, biodiversity, and recreational services. Social aspects of indigenous NRM, however, were not valued by the society, emphasizing the need for awareness raising and clarifications of benefits that indigenous people gain while carrying out land management on their traditional country. Any marketing campaign should take into account preference variation across Australian society, which this research shows is substantial, particularly between people from the north and those from the south. People from the south were more likely to support indigenous NRM, a significant finding for campaigns targeting potential donors.

  16. Prototype of a Web-based Participative Decision Support Platform in Natural Hazards and Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zar Chi Aye

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the current state and development of a prototype web-GIS (Geographic Information System decision support platform intended for application in natural hazards and risk management, mainly for floods and landslides. This web platform uses open-source geospatial software and technologies, particularly the Boundless (formerly OpenGeo framework and its client side software development kit (SDK. The main purpose of the platform is to assist the experts and stakeholders in the decision-making process for evaluation and selection of different risk management strategies through an interactive participation approach, integrating web-GIS interface with decision support tool based on a compromise programming approach. The access rights and functionality of the platform are varied depending on the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders in managing the risk. The application of the prototype platform is demonstrated based on an example case study site: Malborghetto Valbruna municipality of North-Eastern Italy where flash floods and landslides are frequent with major events having occurred in 2003. The preliminary feedback collected from the stakeholders in the region is discussed to understand the perspectives of stakeholders on the proposed prototype platform.

  17. Fluid load support and contact mechanics of hemiarthroplasty in the natural hip joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawaskar, Sainath Shrikant; Ingham, Eileen; Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin

    2011-01-01

    The articular cartilage covering the ends of the bones of diarthrodial synovial joints is thought to have evolved so that the loads are transferred under different and complex conditions, with a very high degree of efficiency and without compromising the structural integrity of the tissue for the life of an individual. These loading conditions stem from different activities such as walking, and standing. The integrity of cartilage may however become compromised due to congenital disease, arthritis or trauma. Hemiarthroplasty is a potentially conservative treatment when only the femoral cartilage is affected as in case of femoral neck fractures. In hemiarthroplasty, a metallic femoral prosthesis is used to articulate against the natural acetabular cartilage. It has also been hypothesized that biphasic lubrication is the predominant mechanism protecting the cartilage through a very high fluid load support which lowers friction. This may be altered due to hemiarthroplasty and have a direct effect on the frictional shear stresses and potentially cartilage degradation and wear. This study modelled nine activities of daily living and investigated the contact mechanics of a hip joint with a hemiarthroplasty, focussing particularly on the role of the fluid phase. It was shown that in most of the activities studied the peak contact stresses and peak fluid pressures were in the superior dome or lateral roof of the acetabulum. Total fluid load support was very high (~90%) in most of the activities which would shield the solid phase from being subjected to very high contact stresses. This was dependent not only on the load magnitude but also the direction and hence on the location of the contact area with respect to the cartilage coverage. Lower fluid load support was found when the contact area was nearer the edges where the fluid drained easily. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The nature of expertise and human resource functions supporting expertise in nuclear industry organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintala, N.; Katri, S.; Eila, J.; Pahkin, K.; Anneli, L.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The nuclear industry worldwide faces the challenge of preserving the existing expertise, competence and knowledge despite of the ageing workforce and upcoming retirements. Challenges are also imposed by the reducing amount of new recruits and students entering the nuclear industry, which amounts to fewer young professionals that have the potential to become nuclear experts in the future. Although many other industries share similar challenges, the preservation of expertise in the nuclear industry is even more important due to the safety-critical nature of the nuclear operations and the special characteristics that high-reliability organizations such as nuclear power plants have. As a response to the risk of knowledge loss, nuclear organizations have engaged in knowledge capturing efforts. New information systems and organizational practices have been implemented to safeguard nuclear expertise. Recently, IAEA has proposed nuclear organizations to design and adopt people-centered programs that encompass themes such as workforce planning, recruitment, training, succession planning, leadership development and knowledge management. Thus, in order to address the current risks to nuclear expertise, attention should be focused on these different areas and corresponding human resources (HR) functions within the nuclear organizations. Our paper presents results from a project which examines the nature of expert work and human resources (HR) functions that support the development and preservation of expertise. The study adopts a qualitative cross-sectional case study design. Two organizational units from different nuclear industry organizations have been selected as cases. The research data will be gathered in April-May 2007 and preliminary results will be presented in the International Conference of Knowledge Management in Nuclear Facilities, in June 2007. The main data will comprise of thematic interviews to experts, their managers and HR representatives

  19. Development of the Inventario de Comportamiento Escolar (IDCE) for Puerto Rican Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, Jose J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The "Inventario de Comportamiento Escolar" is a teacher rating inventory for the assessment of Puerto Rican children, particularly those with a behavior pattern indicative of attention deficit disorder, learning disabilities, or academic underachievement. (JHZ)

  20. Factors associated with regional rheumatic pain disorders in a population of Puerto Ricans with diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Font, Yvonne M.; Castro-Santana, Lesliane E.; Nieves-Plaza, Mariely; Maldonado, Mirna; Mayor, Ángel M.; Vilá, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with bursitis/tendonitis disorders in Puerto Ricans with diabetes mellitus (DM). A cross-sectional study was performed in 202 adult Puerto Ricans (100 DM patients and 102 non-diabetic subjects). For each participant, a complete medical history and a musculoskeletal exam were systematically performed. Socio-demographic parameters, health-related behaviors, comorbidities, and pharmacotherapy were determined for all subj...

  1. Masculinity and gender roles among Puerto Rican men: machismo on the U.S. mainland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J B

    1998-01-01

    The literature on masculinity and gender roles in American life has mostly over-looked Latino men, or has stereotyped them by means of a distorted concept of machismo. A reconceptualization of masculinity and machismo among Puerto Rican men is presented, based on a multidimensional view of their historical and current sociocultural reality. Relevant clinical and social services for Puerto Rican men are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.

  2. Stress and the Social Determinants of Maternal Health among Puerto Rican Women: A CBPR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Damio, Grace; Cruz, Joan; D’Angelo, Karen; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative research project explores how poverty, the built environment, education, working conditions, health care access, food insecurity and perceived discrimination are experienced by Puerto Rican Latinas through the course of their lives. Five focus groups were conducted with the primary objective of documenting community experiences and perspectives regarding: 1) stress, including perceived discrimination based on race/ethnicity (racism); 2) the impact of stress on Puerto Rican wo...

  3. Aging in Puerto Rico: A Comparison of Health Status Among Island Puerto Rican and Mainland U.S. Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Catherine; Ailshire, Jennifer A

    2017-06-01

    To characterize the health status of older island Puerto Ricans, a segment of the U.S. population that has been largely overlooked in aging research. Data from the 2002 Puerto Rican Elderly Health Conditions Project and the 2002 Health and Retirement Study are used to examine differences in disease, disability, and self-rated health among island Puerto Ricans and the mainland U.S.-born older adult population. Differences are further examined by gender. Island Puerto Ricans were less likely to have heart disease, stroke, lung disease, cancer, activities of daily living (ADL) limitations, and poor self-rated health, but more likely to have hypertension and diabetes. Island Puerto Rican women had worse health relative to island Puerto Rican men. Recent challenges in the funding and provision of health care in Puerto Rico are worrisome given the large number of aging island adults, many of whom have hypertension and diabetes, two conditions that require long-term medical care.

  4. Forecasting Costa Rican Quarterly Growth with Mixed-frequency Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Rodríguez Vargas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We assess the utility of mixed-frequency models to forecast the quarterly growth rate of Costa Rican real GDP: we estimate bridge and MiDaS models with several lag lengths using information of the IMAE and compute forecasts (horizons of 0-4 quarters which are compared between themselves, with those of ARIMA models and with those resulting from forecast combinations. Combining the most accurate forecasts is most useful when forecasting in real time, whereas MiDaS forecasts are the best-performing overall: as the forecasting horizon increases, their precisionis affected relatively little; their success rates in predicting the direction of changes in the growth rate are stable, and several forecastsremain unbiased. In particular, forecasts computed from simple MiDaS with 9 and 12 lags are unbiased at all horizons and information sets assessed, and show the highest number of significant differences in forecasting ability in comparison with all other models.

  5. Influence of natural organic matter (NOM) coatings on nanoparticle adsorption onto supported lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Zhang; Avsar, Saziye Yorulmaz; Corliss, Michael K; Chung, Minsub; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2017-10-05

    As the worldwide usage of nanoparticles in commercial products continues to increase, there is growing concern about the environmental risks that nanoparticles pose to biological systems, including potential damage to cellular membranes. A detailed understanding of how different types of nanoparticles behave in environmentally relevant conditions is imperative for predicting and mitigating potential membrane-associated toxicities. Herein, we investigated the adsorption of two popular nanoparticles (silver and buckminsterfullerene) onto biomimetic supported lipid bilayers of varying membrane charge (positive and negative). The quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) measurement technique was employed to track the adsorption kinetics. Particular attention was focused on understanding how natural organic matter (NOM) coatings affect nanoparticle-bilayer interactions. Both types of nanoparticles preferentially adsorbed onto the positively charged bilayers, although NOM coatings on the nanoparticle and lipid bilayer surfaces could either inhibit or promote adsorption in certain electrolyte conditions. While past findings showed that NOM coatings inhibit membrane adhesion, our findings demonstrate that the effects of NOM coatings are more nuanced depending on the type of nanoparticle and electrolyte condition. Taken together, the results demonstrate that NOM coatings can modulate the lipid membrane interactions of various nanoparticles, suggesting a possible way to improve the environmental safety of nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Parental psychosocial stress and asthma morbidity in Puerto Rican twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Nancy E.; Bunyavanich, Supinda; Silberg, Judy L.; Canino, Glorisa; Rosner, Bernard A.; Celedón, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about paternal psychosocial factors and childhood asthma. Objective To examine the link between maternal and paternal psychosocial stress and asthma outcomes in young children. Methods Parents of 339 pairs of Puerto Rican twins were interviewed individually about their own psychosocial stress and about asthma in their children at age 1 and again about their child’s asthma at age 3. Fathers were asked about symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anti-social behavior. Mothers were asked about depressive symptoms. Outcomes assessed in children included recent asthma symptoms, oral steroid use and hospitalizations for asthma in the prior year, and asthma diagnosis. Generalized estimated equation models were used for the multivariate analysis of parental psychosocial stress and asthma morbidity in childhood. Results After multivariable adjustment, paternal PTSD symptoms, depression, and anti-social behavior were each associated with increased asthma symptoms at age 1 (e.g., OR =1.08 for each 1-point increase in PTSD score, 95% CI=1.03–1.14). Maternal depressive symptoms were associated with an increased risk of asthma hospitalizations at age 1 year. At age 3 years, maternal depressive symptoms were associated with asthma diagnosis and hospitalizations for asthma (OR for each 1-point increase in symptoms=1.16, 95% CI=1.00–1.36]). In an analysis combining 1 and 3 year outcomes, paternal depression was associated with oral steroid use, maternal depressive symptoms were associated with asthma hospitalizations and asthma diagnosis, and parental depression was associated with hospitalizations for asthma. Conclusions Both paternal and maternal psychosocial factors may influence asthma morbidity in young Puerto Rican children. PMID:21194742

  7. Nature contact and organizational support during office working hours: Benefits relating to stress reduction, subjective health complaints, and sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnstad, Siv; Patil, Grete G; Raanaas, Ruth K

    2015-01-01

    Improving social support, and providing nature contact at work are potential health promoting workplace interventions. The objective was to investigate whether nature contact at work is associated with employee's health and participation, and to study whether the possible associations between nature contact and health can be explained by perceived organizational support. Data were collected through a web-based, cross-sectional survey of employees in seven public and private office workplaces in Norway (n = 707, 40% response rate). Multiple linear and logistic regression analysis were performed on 565 participants fulfilling inclusion criteria. A greater amount of indoor nature contact at work was significantly associated with less job stress (B = -0.18, CI = -0.318 to -0.042), fewer subjective health complaints (B = -0.278, CI = -0.445 to -0.112) and less sickness absence (B = -0.061, CI = -0.009 to -0.002). Perceived organizational support mediated the associations between indoor nature contact and job stress and sickness absence, and partly mediated the association with subjective health complaints. Outdoor nature contact showed no reliable association with the outcomes in this study. Extending nature contact in the physical work environment in offices, can add to the variety of possible health-promoting workplace interventions, primarily since it influences the social climate on the workplace.

  8. A pan-European model of landscape potential to support natural pest control services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rega, Carlo; Bartual, Agustín M.; Bocci, Gionata; Sutter, Louis; Albrecht, Matthias; Moonen, Anna Camilla; Jeanneret, Philippe; Werf, van der Wopke; Pfister, Sonja C.; Holland, John M.; Paracchini, Maria Luisa

    2018-01-01

    Pest control by natural enemies (natural pest control) is an important regulating ecosystem service with significant implications for the sustainability of agro-ecosystems. The presence of semi-natural habitats and landscape heterogeneity are key determinants of the delivery of this service.

  9. Research of decision-making support in the management of natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Маряна Антоніївна Шуфнарович

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of existing mathematical methods of modeling and forecasting of conditions of the natural resources under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors is shown. It is revealed that the more effective is modeling using artificial intelligence methods. The methods of modeling and forecasting of conditions of the natural resources are developed. They are based on theory of artificial neural networks and ideas of genetic algorithms

  10. Bartonellae are Prevalent and Diverse in Costa Rican Bats and Bat Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, S D; Frank, H K; Hadly, E A

    2015-12-01

    Species in the bacterial genus, Bartonella, can cause disease in both humans and animals. Previous reports of Bartonella in bats and ectoparasitic bat flies suggest that bats could serve as mammalian hosts and bat flies as arthropod vectors. We compared the prevalence and genetic similarity of bartonellae in individual Costa Rican bats and their bat flies using molecular and sequencing methods targeting the citrate synthase gene (gltA). Bartonellae were more prevalent in bat flies than in bats, and genetic variants were sometimes, but not always, shared between bats and their bat flies. The detected bartonellae genetic variants were diverse, and some were similar to species known to cause disease in humans and other mammals. The high prevalence and sharing of bartonellae in bat flies and bats support a role for bat flies as a potential vector for Bartonella, while the genetic diversity and similarity to known species suggest that bartonellae could spill over into humans and animals sharing the landscape. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Forest conservation and the clean development mechanism. Lessons from the Costa Rican protected areas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voehringer, F.

    2004-01-01

    Deforestation is currently the source of about 20% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Avoided deforestation has, nonetheless, been ruled out as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) category in the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period, because several methodological issues were considered too difficult to resolve. This paper explores whether CDM issues such as (1) carbon quantification, (2) additionality and baseline setting, (3) leakage risks, (4) non-permanence risks, and (5) sustainable development can be adequately dealt with in large, diversified forest conservation projects. To this aim, it studies the case of the Costa Rican Protected Areas Project (PAP), an Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) project which was meant to consolidate the national park system to avoid deforestation, promote the growth of secondary forests and regenerate pastures on an area that, in total, covers 10% of the national territory. The case study examines how the issues mentioned above have been addressed in the project design and in the certification process. It is found that baseline uncertainties are the major problem in this case. Nonetheless, the case suggests the possibility to address CDM issues by specific requirements for project design and very conservative and temporary crediting. Provided that other case studies support this conclusion, eligibility of well-designed forest conservation projects under the CDM in the second commitment period may be worth considering, given the secondary benefits of avoided deforestation

  12. Donde Estan los Estudiantes Puertorriquenos/os Exitosos? [Where Are the Academically Successful Puerto Rican Students?]: Success Factors of High-Achieving Puerto Rican High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antrop-Gonzalez, Rene; Velez, William; Garrett, Tomas

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the 4 success factors that 10 working class Puerto Rican urban high school students attributed to their high academic achievement. These success factors were (a) the acquisition of social capital through religiosity and participation in school and community-based extracurricular activities, (b) having a strong Puerto Rican…

  13. A New Destination for "The Flying Bus"?: The Implications of Orlando-Rican Migration for Luis Rafael Sanchez's "La guagua aerea"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreneche, Gabriel Ignacio; Lombardi, Jane; Ramos-Flores, Hector

    2012-01-01

    Puerto Rican author Luis Rafael Sanchez's "La guagua aerea" explores the duality, hybridity, and fluidity of US-Puerto Rican identity through the frequent travel of migrants between New York City (the traditional destination city for Puerto Rican migrants) and the island. In recent years, however, the "flying bus" has adopted a…

  14. Natural amenities and rural population migration: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Ken Cordell; Vahé Heboyan; Florence Santos; John C. Bergstrom

    2011-01-01

    Research has suggested that significant relationships exist between rural population change and natural amenities. Thus, understanding and predicting domestic migration trends as a function of changes in natural amenities is important for effective regional growth and development policies and strategies. In this study, we first estimated an econometric model which...

  15. 77 FR 23105 - Supporting Safe and Responsible Development of Unconventional Domestic Natural Gas Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... 2011, natural gas provided 25 percent of the energy consumed in the United States. Its production creates jobs and provides economic benefits to the entire domestic production supply chain, as well as to... appropriate safeguards, natural gas can provide a cleaner source of energy than other fossil fuels. For these...

  16. Experimental and Numerical Characterization of Synthetic and Natural Rock Properties in Support of the NEESROCK Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, S.; Smith, S.; Maclaughlin, M.; Wartman, J.; Applegate, K. N.; Gibson, M. D.; Arnold, L.; Keefer, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    Seismically induced rock slope failures are one of the most dangerous and least understood of all seismic hazards. The NEESROCK project, a collaboration between researchers at the University of Washington, Montana Tech, and the University of Maine, is supported by the National Science Foundation through its Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) program. The overall goal of the project is to advance our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of the rock-slope failure process by integrating centrifuge physical modeling and distinct element numerical simulations in order to develop more advanced predictive tools and analysis procedures. Centrifuge experiments will calibrate and verify the numerical models. A fundamental component of this project and the primary focus of the Montana Tech research is laboratory testing of the synthetic materials used in the centrifuge models and comparison of these materials with natural rock specimens. Properties such as strength of the intact material, the geometry and strength of material interfaces, and the material's response to deformation and wave propagation are being studied with laboratory experiments that include tilt table tests, direct shear tests, laser scanning of the interface surfaces, unconfined compression tests, ultrasonic velocity tests, and free-free resonant column tests. The numerical modeling portion of the study is being used to simulate selected laboratory tests to investigate the abilities of the distinct element programs (Itasca's Universal Distinct Element Code (UDEC) and Particle Flow Code (PFC) software) to simulate the material behavior in the laboratory. Direct shear test results, in particular, are used to validate the performance of the joint constitutive models in UDEC. The experimental ultrasonic velocity tests, in combination with unconfined compression tests, are being used to investigate the relationship between static and dynamic modulus values for the project material as

  17. An Analysis of natural mentoring relationship profiles and associations with mentees’ mental health: considering links via support from important others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    We explored associations between natural mentoring relationship profiles and young adults’ life satisfaction and symptoms of depression via participants’ perceived support from important others accounting for participants’ perceived support and mental health prior to the onset of their natural mentoring relationships. Participants included 396 young adults (57% female; mean age = 30.97, SD = .6), the majority of whom identified as Black or African American (79% Black, 18% White, 3% Biracial). Most participants had completed high school but few participants (13%) had completed degrees from 4-year institutions. We used a latent profile approach to identify natural mentoring relationship profiles and employed structural equation modeling to test our study hypotheses. Slightly over half of study participants (53%) reported the presence of a natural mentor in their lives since the age of 14. Results suggest that natural mentoring relationships characterized by high levels of relational closeness and either extended relationship duration or frequent contact may promote improvements in psychological well-being among mentees over time via greater experiences of social support from important others. PMID:24132713

  18. Maxillary implant-supported overdentures opposed by (partial) natural dentitions : A 5-year prospective case series study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, G. C.; Slot, J. W. A.; Raghoebar, G. M.; Vissink, A.; Meijer, H. J. A.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the 5-year treatment outcome of maxillary implant-retained overdentures opposed by natural antagonistic teeth. Fifty consecutive patients received maxillary overdentures supported by six dental implants. Implants were placed in the anterior region, if enough bone

  19. RE: Request for Correction, Technical Support Document, Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Industrial Energy Consumers of America (IECA) joins the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in its request for correction of information developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in a background technical support document titled Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

  20. AIED 2009 Workshops Proceeedings Volume 10: Natural Language Processing in Support of Learning: Metrics, Feedback and Connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessus, Philippe; Trausan-Matu, Stefan; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Wild, Fridolin

    2009-01-01

    Dessus, P., Trausan-Matu, S., Van Rosmalen, P., & Wild, F. (Eds.) (2009). AIED 2009 Workshops Proceedings Volume 10 Natural Language Processing in Support of Learning: Metrics, Feedback and Connectivity. In S. D. Craig & D. Dicheva (Eds.), AIED 2009: 14th International Conference in Artificial

  1. Feeding Practices and Expectations among Middle-Class Anglo and Puerto Rican Mothers of 12-Month-Old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Pamela A.; Harwood, Robin L.; Schoelmerich, Axel

    2001-01-01

    Investigated differences in beliefs and practices about infant feeding among middle class Anglo and Puerto Rican mothers. Interviews and observations indicated that Anglo mothers reported earlier attainment of self-feeding and more emphasis on child rearing goals related to self-maximization. Puerto Rican mothers reported later attainment of…

  2. Carbohydrate nutrition differs by diabetes status and is associated with dyslipidemia in Boston Puerto Rican adults without diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rican adults have a greater prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and lower HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) than the general U.S. population. Carbohydrate nutrition may play a role in this disparity. Cross-sectional analyses included data from 1219 Puerto Ricans aged 45-75 y enrolled in the Boston Puer...

  3. Bargaining power and revenue distribution in the Costa Rican mango chain: a gaming simulation approach with local producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuniga Arias, G.E.; Meijer, S.; Ruben, R.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    By the time a European consumer eats a Costa Rican mango, the product has been traded in several transactions between producers, traders, retailers and consumers. This paper investigates the position of Costa Rican smallholders in the mango supply chain in terms of bargaining power and revenue

  4. Prevalence of gingivitis and calculus in 12-year-old Puerto Ricans: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias-Boneta, Augusto R; Ramirez, Karol; Rivas-Tumanyan, Sona; Murillo, Margarita; Toro, Milagros J

    2018-01-19

    Gingivitis is a common oral health problem. Untreated gingivitis may progress to periodontitis, a common cause of tooth loss. The prevalence of gingivitis and calculus among Puerto Rican children is unknown. Understanding this prevalence can support early public health preventative strategies. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of gingivitis and calculus among 12-year-old Puerto Ricans by health region and to explore differences in distribution by school type (proxy for socio-economic status) and gender. A probability-based sample of 113 schools was selected proportional to enrollment size and stratified by health region, school type, and gender. Two trained examiners evaluated the presence of gingivitis and both supragingival and subgingival dental calculus. Gingivitis was defined as the presence of gingival bleeding upon gentle probing (BOP) in at least one site, and the extent of the problem was classified according to the percentage of teeth whose gingiva presented BOP (limited: 25-49% of the teeth tested; extensive: >50% of teeth tested). Logistic and linear regression models, adjusted for health regions, were used to compare gingivitis and calculus prevalence and extent between genders and school types. Gingivitis was found in 80.41% of the 1586 children evaluated. Urban-public schoolchildren had a slightly higher prevalence (83.24%) compared to private (79.15%, p = 0.16); those in rural-public (77.59%) and private schools had similar prevalence (p = 0.15). Extensive gingivitis was present in 60.81% of all children. The mean percentage of sites presenting BOP (BOP%) was 17.79%. Rural and urban public schoolchildren presented significantly higher BOP% compared to children from private schools (p = 0.0005, p = 0.002, respectively). Dental calculus was detected in 61.59% of the sample, boys presenting significantly higher (p = 0.005) total and supragingival calculus. Rural-public schoolchildren had a significantly higher prevalence of

  5. Appraisal Support from Natural Mentors, Self-worth, and Psychological Distress: Examining the Experiences of Underrepresented Students Transitioning Through College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Noelle M; Albright, Jamie; Wittrup, Audrey; Negrete, Andrea; Billingsley, Janelle

    2018-05-01

    The current study explored whether cumulative appraisal support from as many as five natural mentors (i.e., nonparental adults from youth's pre-existing social networks who serve a mentoring role in youth's lives) led to reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety via improved global self-worth among underrepresented college students. Participants in the current study included 340 college students (69% female) attending a 4-year, predominantly White institution of higher education. Participants were first-generation college students, students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, and/or students from underrepresented racial/ethnic minority groups. Participants completed surveys during the Fall and Spring of their first year of college and in the Spring of their second and third years of college. Results of the structural equation model (including gender, race/ethnicity, and extraversion as covariates) indicated that greater total appraisal support from natural mentoring relationships predicted decreases in students' psychological distress via increases in self-worth (indirect effects assessed via boot-strapped confidence intervals; 95% CI). The strength of association between appraisal support and self-worth was not moderated by the proportion of academic natural mentors. Findings from the current study extend previous research by measuring multiple natural mentoring relationships and pinpointing supportive exchanges that may be of particular consequence for the promotion of healthy youth development. Institutional efforts to reinforce pre-existing natural mentoring relationships and encourage the onset of new natural mentoring relationships may serve to bolster the well-being and success of underrepresented students attending predominantly White universities.

  6. Responses to disasters, natural and man-made, and interventions with social supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This volume focuses on the effects of a range of traumatic events: a natural disaster (Hurricane Andrew), working with the dead (dental identification of bodies following the Mt. Carmel conflagration), and the trauma attendant to the diagnosis of a l...

  7. Support to the electric power, natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document brings together the different financial incentives proposed to the acquisition and utilization of electric power, natural gas or LPG vehicles. The financial assistance of the ADEME, the fiscal incentives and other proposals are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  8. The nature and implications of support in graduate nurse transition programs: an Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga; Currie, Tracey

    2008-01-01

    It is widely recognized that support is critical to graduate nurse transition from novice to advanced beginner-level practitioner and to the integration of neophyte practitioners into safe and effective organizational processes. Just what constitutes support, however, and why (if at all) support is important, when, ideally, support should be given, by whom, how, and for how long, have not been systematically investigated. Building on the findings (previously reported) of a year long study that had, as its focus, an exploration and description of processes influencing the successful integration of new graduate nurses into safe and effective organizational processes and systems, the findings presented in this article strongly suggest that support is critical to the process of graduate nurse transition, and that integration into "the system" is best provided during the first 4 weeks of a graduate nurse transition program and thereafter at the beginning of each ward rotation; that "informal teachers" and the graduate nurses themselves are often the best sources of support; and that the most potent barriers to support being provided are the untoward attitudes of staff toward new graduates. Drawing on the overall findings of the study, a new operational definition of support is proposed and recommendations are made for future comparative research on the issue.

  9. Enamel lesions in development, classification in Costa Rican families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo Knudsen, Gina; Berrocal Salazar, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Enamel lesions in development were identified and classified in patients of Llano Grande de Cartago, examined at the Facultad de Odontologia of the Universidad de Costa Rica. A guide is provided over the topic. 15 children and 2 Costa Rican adults were selected. Clinical examinations, radiographs and clinical photographs were used as data collection method. Dental defects of the enamel were classified according to the possible genetic causes and without genetic causes. Imperfect Amelogenesis (IA) was diagnosed in 10 of patients. Hypoplastic IA was determined in 3 siblings with autosomal recessive inheritance, for 16% of the total sample. Hypomineralized IA was identified in an adult and two of his sons, with autosomal dominant inheritance. The remaining 4 cases of IA have been sporadic. Lesions of dental fluorosis were determined in the Horowitz index in 4 individuals, from 2 unrelated families. Other defects unspecified of the enamel or hypoplasias were found in 3 individuals. Enamel lesions in development should be classified with precision, for the purpose to inform to patients affected about their condition, origin, prognosis and appropriate treatment. The basis are established to implement reliability in the construction of family genealogy, identification and classification of enamel lesions, as well as the probabilities of future generations to express the lesions in the enamel of temporary or permanent dentition [es

  10. Social support, coping strategies and their correlations with older adults' relocation adjustments after natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shiau-Fang

    2017-06-01

    The present study examines the associations among social support, coping strategies and relocation adjustment outcomes, including community cohesion, residential satisfaction and depressive symptoms, for older persons in Taiwan displaced by Typhoon Morakot. This study enrolled 372 adults aged 60 years or older who were relocated to permanent houses after Typhoon Morakot destroyed their homes on 8 August 2009. A path analysis simultaneously examined the hypothesized links among social support, coping strategies and relocation adjustment outcomes. The relationships between coping strategies and relocation outcomes varied. Problem-focused and support-seeking coping were positively related to perceived community cohesion, whereas emotion-focused coping was associated with a high number of depressive symptoms. Social support was positively related to residential satisfaction. Additionally, social support was also indirectly related to increased community cohesion and residential satisfaction through its positive relationship with support-seeking and problem-focused coping. More interventions should be implemented to enhance support within informal networks and a sense of belonging to the new resident community, thereby promoting more active coping strategies, enhancing the effectiveness of coping efforts and maximizing positive adjustment outcomes. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1006-1014. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. Perceived discrimination and health among Puerto Rican and Mexican Americans: buffering effect of the Lazo matrimonial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Ah; Ferraro, Kenneth F

    2009-06-01

    An emerging body of research shows that perceived discrimination adversely influences the mental health of minority populations, but is it also deleterious to physical health? If yes, can marriage buffer the effect of perceived discrimination on physical health? We address these questions with data from Puerto Rican and Mexican American residents of Chicago. Multivariate regression analyses reveal that perceived discrimination is associated with more physical health problems for both Puerto Rican and Mexican Americans. In addition, an interaction effect between marital status and perceived discrimination was observed: married Mexican Americans with higher perceived discrimination had fewer physical health problems than their unmarried counterparts even after adjusting for differential effects of marriage by nativity. The findings reveal that perceived discrimination is detrimental to the physical health of both Puerto Rican and Mexican Americans, but that the stress-buffering effect of marriage on physical health exists for Mexican Americans only.

  12. Effectiveness of horizontal air flow fans supporting natural ventilation in a Mediterranean multi-span greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    López, Alejandro; Valera, Diego Luis; Molina-Aiz, Francisco Domingo; Peña, Araceli

    2013-01-01

    Natural ventilation is the most important method of climate control in Mediterranean greenhouses. In this study, the microclimate and air flow inside a Mediterranean greenhouse were evaluated by means of sonic anemometry. Experiments were carried out in conditions of moderate wind (≈ 4.0 m s-1), and at low wind speed (≈ 1.8 m s-1) the natural ventilation of the greenhouse was supplemented by two horizontal air flow fans. The greenhouse is equipped with a single roof vent opening t...

  13. What Latino Puerto Ricans and non-Latinos say when they talk about Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlawish, Jason; Barg, Frances K; Augsburger, Deborah; Beaver, James; Ferguson, Allison; Nunez, Jessica

    2011-03-01

    To discover whether Latino Puerto Rican and non-Latino communities differ in the words they use to talk about Alzheimer's disease (AD). Four groups of 30 persons per group defined by self-identified ethnicity and caregiver status: Latino Puerto Ricans and non-Latino Whites, who were either caregivers or non-caregivers completed free-listing exercises to identify the words they use when they describe AD causes, symptoms, caregiving, and research risks and benefits. Both Latino Puerto Ricans and non-Latino Whites recognize AD as a disease of memory loss and other cognitive problems. Although both groups used the term "sadness" to describe AD, non-Latino Whites did not feature emotional, behavioral, or psychological problems as among the causes of AD. Although all the groups' descriptions of a person who lives with and cares for a person with AD shared the word "loving," Latino Puerto Ricans focused on a good spouse who exercises intelligence, patience, and attention on behalf of the person with AD and did not use the term "caregiver." In contrast, non-Latino Whites typically used the term "caregiver." Both groups' lists shared words that describe research as presenting harms to an AD patient and requiring a commitment of time. Latino Puerto Ricans' lists suggested an understanding of research benefits akin to clinical care. Notable differences exist in how Latino Puerto Ricans and non-Latino Whites talk about AD and AD research. Clinicians, clinical investigators, and patient educators need to consider these differences when they conduct clinical care and research and design outreach and educational materials. Copyright © 2011 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  15. Natural phosphate-supported palladium: A highly efficient and recyclable catalyst for the suzuki-miyaura coupling under microwave irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Hassine, Ayoub; Bouhrara, Mohamed; Sebti, Said; Solhy, Abderrahim; Mahfouz, Remi; Luart, Denis; Lene, Christophe; Fihri, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    This report explores Suzuki-Miyaura coupling under microwave irradiation, using a new generation of catalyst that is based on natural phosphate (NP) impregnated by palladium. This catalyst was prepared by the treatment of natural phosphate with bis(benzonitrile)palladium(II) chloride in acetone at room temperature. The catalyst displayed high catalytic activity for the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of aryl bromides and chlorides with aryl boronic acids in pure water and with the use of microwave irradiation. The low-cost and availability of the solid support, mild reaction conditions, high yields of desired products, recyclability of the catalyst and short reaction times are the notable features of these methods.

  16. Natural phosphate-supported palladium: A highly efficient and recyclable catalyst for the suzuki-miyaura coupling under microwave irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Hassine, Ayoub

    2015-01-19

    This report explores Suzuki-Miyaura coupling under microwave irradiation, using a new generation of catalyst that is based on natural phosphate (NP) impregnated by palladium. This catalyst was prepared by the treatment of natural phosphate with bis(benzonitrile)palladium(II) chloride in acetone at room temperature. The catalyst displayed high catalytic activity for the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of aryl bromides and chlorides with aryl boronic acids in pure water and with the use of microwave irradiation. The low-cost and availability of the solid support, mild reaction conditions, high yields of desired products, recyclability of the catalyst and short reaction times are the notable features of these methods.

  17. Masseter muscle fatigue during sustained clenching in subjects with complete dentures, implant-supported prostheses, and natural teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, R; van Steenberghe, D

    1993-03-01

    A sustained submaximal (50%) clenching effort was performed in four patient groups to establish whether implant-supported prosthetic reconstructions influence myoelectrical signal parameters. The first group consisted of patients with natural teeth in both jaws. The other three groups consisted of patients who were edentulous in both jaws: one group had complete dentures; one had an overdenture in the mandible on two implants connected by a bar; and the third had an implant-supported fixed prosthesis in either the maxilla or the mandible. Surface electromyography indicated an increased myoelectrical output level that paralleled a higher bite force level for implant-supported reconstructions compared with complete dentures. Power spectrum analysis revealed a downward shift of the mean power frequency during sustained clenching in all groups except the implant-supported fixed prosthesis. The absence of a spectral shift in the latter group probably reflected a fear of biting too hard and fracturing the prosthesis.

  18. Natural gas utilization in the electricity sector in a framework of supporting an energy diversification policy: the case of Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudiyanto Wahyuputro, B.

    1992-01-01

    Although the Government of Indonesia (GOI) has been trying to balance its economy, oil and gas (MIGAS) sector still has an important role. The revenue from exporting oil has been needed to sustain national economic development. For that reason, the GOI has determined to diversify and to develop alternative energy resources for domestic consumption. The alternative energy resources available are classified into non-renewable energy resources such as natural gas and coal; and renewable energy resources such as geothermal, biomass, solar energy, wind energy, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), etc. Natural gas is one of the potential non-renewable energy resources available in Indonesia abundantly. The total potential reserves in Indonesia is estimated about 109.1 TSCF, which is including proven reserve of 80.2 TSCF. By the estimated production level of 2.0 TSCF per year for the fiscal year 1993/1994, these proven reserves can be still produced for 30 years more. Besides the reserves is available abundantly, the other advantage in developing natural gas for domestic consumption is a 'clean energy' rather than other fossil fuels. So that, it should be promoted to support the energy diversification and the clean environment policies. In the other side, electricity sector has a bigger opportunity than other sectors in supporting the energy diversification policy. There are several kinds of power generating plant which utilize various types of primary energy such as oil, gas, coal, geothermal, and hydro. Nevertheless, until this moment the utilization of natural gas in the electricity sector is still low of 15 percent. Recently, the growth of electricity demand in Indonesia is very high, especially in the Java-Bali grid system. There is a wide chance for natural gas to improve its role in electricity sector, and there is an economic variable which will determine the development of natural gas reserve, that is natural gas price itself. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Appreciation for Support for Japan in Responding to the Natural Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikuma, Toshinori; Nishiyama, Hisako

    2011-01-01

    March 11, 2011, began the most difficult natural disaster ever experienced in Japan. Earthquakes, a massive tsunami, and multiple breaches at nuclear power plants have changed the lives of many Japanese people including children, teachers, and parents. Throughout this difficult time, Japanese school psychologists and teachers have been supported…

  20. What Can School Principals Do to Support Students and Their Learning during and after Natural Disasters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jo; Nicholas, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters can happen at any time. The impact they have on students, their families and the teachers relies on strategic and calm leadership by school principals. As schools are situated within communities, principals not only have a role leading within the school, they are also viewed as community leaders. This paper focuses on six New…

  1. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R E

    1993-01-01

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and colleagues first described the cervical mucus symptoms associated with ovulation natural family planning has incorporated these symptoms and advanced considerably. Ultrasonography shows that the symptoms identify ovulation precisely. According to the World Health Organisation, 93% of women everywhere can identify the symptoms, which distinguish adequately between the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Most pregnancies during trials of natural family planning occur after intercourse at times recognised by couples as fertile. Thus pregnancy rates have depended on the motivation of couples. Increasingly studies show that rates equivalent to those with other contraceptive methods are readily achieved in the developed and developing worlds. Indeed, a study of 19,843 poor women in India had a pregnancy rate approaching zero. Natural family planning is cheap, effective, without side effects, and may be particularly acceptable to the efficacious among people in areas of poverty. Images p724-a p724-b p724-c p724-d p724-e p724-f p724-g PMID:8401097

  2. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R E

    1993-09-18

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and colleagues first described the cervical mucus symptoms associated with ovulation natural family planning has incorporated these symptoms and advanced considerably. Ultrasonography shows that the symptoms identify ovulation precisely. According to the World Health Organisation, 93% of women everywhere can identify the symptoms, which distinguish adequately between the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Most pregnancies during trials of natural family planning occur after intercourse at times recognised by couples as fertile. Thus pregnancy rates have depended on the motivation of couples. Increasingly studies show that rates equivalent to those with other contraceptive methods are readily achieved in the developed and developing worlds. Indeed, a study of 19,843 poor women in India had a pregnancy rate approaching zero. Natural family planning is cheap, effective, without side effects, and may be particularly acceptable to the efficacious among people in areas of poverty.

  3. The Role of Natural Support Systems in the Post-deployment Adjustment of Active Duty Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Janet A; Olson, Jonathan; Perkins, Daniel F; Travis, Wendy J; Ormsby, LaJuana

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the relations among three different types of naturally occurring social support (from romantic partners, friends and neighbors, and unit leaders) and three indices of service member well-being (self reports of depressive symptoms, satisfaction with military life, and perceptions of unit readiness) for service members who did and did not report negative experiences associated with military deployment. Data were drawn from the 2011 Community Assessment completed anonymously by more than 63,000 USAF personnel. Regression analyses revealed that higher levels of social support was associated with better outcomes regardless of negative deployment experiences. Evidence of moderation was also noted, with all forms of social support moderating the impact of negative deployment experiences on depressive symptoms and support from unit leaders moderating the impact of negative deployment experience on satisfaction with military life. No moderation was found for perceptions of unit readiness. Subgroup analyses revealed slightly different patterns for male and female service members, with support providing fewer moderation effects for women. These findings may have value for military leaders and mental health professionals working to harness the power of naturally occurring relationships to maximize the positive adjustment of service members and their families. Implications for practices related to re-integration of post-deployment military personnel are discussed.

  4. Reactivity of nanoaggregations of platinum on supports of different nature in reactions of catalytic decomposition of hydrazine in acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anan'ev, A.V.; Boltoeva, M.Yu.; Grigor'ev, M.S.; Shilov, V.P.; Sharygin, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Platinized catalysts on the basis of supports of different chemical nature are tested in reactions of catalytic hydrazine decomposition in perchloric and nitric acid solutions. In perchloric acid catalytic activity of catalysts on the basis of ceramic materials of Termoksid brand is higher of activity of catalysts on the basis of amorphous silica gel. In nitric acid solutions opposite dependence is observed. Tendency of ceramic supports to peptization in acid solutions is pointed out. Results obtained are interpreted using conceptions of energetic heterogeneity of surface atoms and hydrazine catalytic decomposition mechanisms in different media [ru

  5. Application of the natural cellulosic supports modified chemically for the treatment of the industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassale, A.; Elbariji, S.; Lacherai, A.; Elamine, M.; Kabli, H.; Albourine, A.

    2009-01-01

    The process of purification and discoloration of industrial waters (and particularly effluents of the textile industry) can meet major difficulties: certain dyes agents get through the devices of purge without being to stop. the cost of equipment and products of purification is prohibitive. Finally, in many cases, the discoloration can be only partial because waters to be treated containing mixtures of dyes of different nature, the material of purification can be effective only screw/screw of some of them. (Author)

  6. Understanding Public Support for Indigenous Natural Resource Management in Northern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Kerstin K. Zander

    2013-01-01

    Increased interest in indigenous-led natural resource management (NRM) on traditionally owned land in northern Australia has raised important questions in relation to policies that compensate indigenous Australians for providing environmental services. A choice experiment survey was mailed out to respondents across the whole of Australia to assess if and to what extent Australian people think that society benefits from these services and how much they would pay for them. More than half the re...

  7. Effectiveness of horizontal air flow fans supporting natural ventilation in a Mediterranean multi-span greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro López

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural ventilation is the most important method of climate control in Mediterranean greenhouses. In this study, the microclimate and air flow inside a Mediterranean greenhouse were evaluated by means of sonic anemometry. Experiments were carried out in conditions of moderate wind (≈ 4.0 m s-1, and at low wind speed (≈ 1.8 m s-1 the natural ventilation of the greenhouse was supplemented by two horizontal air flow fans. The greenhouse is equipped with a single roof vent opening to the windward side and two side vents, the windward one being blocked by another greenhouse close to it, while the leeward one is free of obstacles. When no fans are used, air enters through the roof vent and exits through both side vents, thus flowing contrary to the thermal effect which causes hot air to rise and impairing the natural ventilation of the greenhouse. Using fans inside the greenhouse helps the air to circulate and mix, giving rise to a more homogeneous inside temperature and increasing the average value of normalized air velocity by 365 %. These fans also increase the average values of kinetic turbulence energy inside the greenhouse by 550 % compared to conditions of natural ventilation. As the fans are placed 4 m away from the side vents, their effect on the entrance of outside air is insufficient and they do not help to reduce the inside temperature on hot days with little wind. It is therefore recommended to place the fans closer to the side vents to allow an additional increase of the air exchange rate of greenhouses.

  8. [Overview of research projects funding in traditional Chinese medicine oncology field supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dong-Xin; Chen, Lian-Yu; Guo, Shu-Zhen; Han, Li-Wei; Zhang, Feng-Zhu

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the funding situation of traditional Chinese medicine oncology research projects supported by National Natural Science Fund from 1986-2016 was reviewed. The characteristics of funded projects were summarized from funding amount, funding expenses, funding category, and the main research contents of projects, etc. At the same time, the main problems in the projects were analyzed in this paper, in order to provide reference for the relevant fund applicants. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Post-operative hemimaxillectomy rehabilitation using prostheses supported by zygoma implants and remaining natural teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhou Qu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the stability of prostheses supported by zygoma implants and remaining teeth for subjects who had undergone hemi-maxillectomy. METHODS: Ten patients were included in the study. Oral rehabilitation was performed using a temporary prosthesis that was supported by remaining teeth for the first three months. Then, a zygoma implant was placed to provide support for a final prosthesis in addition to the remaining teeth. Each prosthesis was tailor-made according to biomechanical three-dimensional finite element analysis results. The patients were assessed using the prosthesis functioning scale of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. In addition, retention and bite force were recorded for both the temporary prosthesis and the final prosthesis. RESULTS: The mean bite force of the prosthetic first molar was increased to 69.2 N. The mean retentive force increased to 13.5 N after zygoma implant insertion. The bite force on the prosthetic first molar was improved to 229.3 N. CONCLUSION: Bite force increased significantly with the support of a zygoma implant. The use of zygoma implants in the restoration of maxillary defects improved functional outcome and patient satisfaction.

  10. The Sentence Fairy: A Natural-Language Generation System to Support Children's Essay Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbusch, Karin; Itsova, Gergana; Koch, Ulrich; Kuhner, Christine

    2008-01-01

    We built an NLP system implementing a "virtual writing conference" for elementary-school children, with German as the target language. Currently, state-of-the-art computer support for writing tasks is restricted to multiple-choice questions or quizzes because automatic parsing of the often ambiguous and fragmentary texts produced by pupils…

  11. A Model Supported Interactive Virtual Environment for Natural Resource Sharing in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbalios, N.; Ioannidou, I.; Tzionas, P.; Paraskeuopoulos, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a realistic 3D model supported virtual environment for environmental education, that highlights the importance of water resource sharing by focusing on the tragedy of the commons dilemma. The proposed virtual environment entails simulations that are controlled by a multi-agent simulation model of a real ecosystem consisting…

  12. Valuing Supporting Soil Ecosystem Services in Agriculture: A Natural Capital Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brady, M.V.; Hedlund, K.; Cong, R.G.; Hemerik, L.; Hotes, S.; Machado, S.; Mattson, L.; Schulz, E.; Thomsen, I.K.

    2015-01-01

    Soil biodiversity through its delivery of ecosystem functions and attendant supporting ecosystem services—benefits soil organisms generate for farmers—underpins agricultural production. Yet lack of practical methods to value the long-term effects of current farming practices results, inevitably, in

  13. "But you don't look Puerto Rican": the moderating effect of ethnic identity on the relation between skin color and self-esteem among Puerto Rican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Irene

    2008-04-01

    This exploratory study investigated whether ethnic identity, as assessed by Phinney's (1992) Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, functioned as a moderator in the relation between skin color (as measured by masked interviewer evaluation, participant self-report, and skin reflectance data) and self-esteem (as measured by Rosenberg's 1989 Self-Esteem Scale). In a sample of 53 English-speaking Puerto Rican women, a hierarchical multiple regression indicated that among lighter skinned women, those who felt less attached to their culture had less self-esteem than those who were more culturally embedded. Similarly, among darker skinned women, greater attachment to Puerto Rican culture was associated with greater self-esteem than a less defined ethnic identity. Findings are discussed in light of the beneficial effects of ethnic identity.

  14. Trajectories of Sensation Seeking Among Puerto-Rican Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S.; Wall, Melanie M.; Eisenberg, Ruth; Blanco, Carlos; Santaella, Julian; Ramos-Olazagasti, Maria; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector R.; Brown, Qiana; Duarte, Cristiane S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To document the natural course of sensation seeking from childhood to adolescence, characterize distinct sensation-seeking trajectories, and examine how these trajectories vary according to selected predictors. Method Data were obtained from the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of 2,491 children and adolescents of Puerto Rican background (three assessments from 2000 to 2004). First, age-specific sensation-seeking levels were characterized. Then, age-adjusted residuals were analyzed using growth mixture models (GMM). Results On average, sensation seeking was stable in childhood (ages 5–10) and increased during adolescence (ages 11–17). Mean scores of sensation seeking were higher in the South Bronx vs. Puerto Rico and among males vs. females. Four classes of sensation-seeking trajectories were observed: most study participants had age-expected sensation-seeking trajectories following the average for their age (“normative,” 43.8%); others (37.2%) remained consistently lower than the expected average for their age (“low” sensation seeking); some (12.0%) had an “accelerated” sensation-seeking trajectory, increasing at a faster rate than expected, while a minority (7.0%) had a decreasing sensation-seeking trajectory that started high but decreased, reaching scores slightly higher than the age-average sensation-seeking scores (“stabilizers”). Site (South Bronx vs. Puerto Rico) and gender were predictors of membership in a specific class of sensation-seeking trajectory. Conclusion It is important to take a developmental approach when examining sensation seeking and to consider gender and the social environment when trying to understand how sensation seeking evolves during childhood and adolescence. PMID:26598479

  15. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, R E

    1993-01-01

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and co...

  16. Naturally Occurring Peer Support through Social Media: The Experiences of Individuals with Severe Mental Illness Using YouTube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A.; Grande, Stuart W.; Aschbrenner, Kelly A.; Elwyn, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer support. Peer support includes a system of mutual giving and receiving where individuals with severe mental illness can offer hope, companionship, and encouragement to others facing similar challenges. In this study we explore the phenomenon of individuals with severe mental illness uploading videos to YouTube, and posting and responding to comments as a form of naturally occurring peer support. We also consider the potential risks and benefits of self-disclosure and interacting with others on YouTube. To address these questions, we used qualitative inquiry informed by emerging techniques in online ethnography. We analyzed n = 3,044 comments posted to 19 videos uploaded by individuals who self-identified as having schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We found peer support across four themes: minimizing a sense of isolation and providing hope; finding support through peer exchange and reciprocity; sharing strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of severe mental illness; and learning from shared experiences of medication use and seeking mental health care. These broad themes are consistent with accepted notions of peer support in severe mental illness as a voluntary process aimed at inclusion and mutual advancement through shared experience and developing a sense of community. Our data suggest that the lack of anonymity and associated risks of being identified as an individual with severe mental illness on YouTube seem to be overlooked by those who posted comments or uploaded videos. Whether or not this platform can provide benefits for a wider community of individuals with severe mental illness remains uncertain. PMID:25333470

  17. Naturally occurring peer support through social media: the experiences of individuals with severe mental illness using YouTube.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Naslund

    Full Text Available Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer support. Peer support includes a system of mutual giving and receiving where individuals with severe mental illness can offer hope, companionship, and encouragement to others facing similar challenges. In this study we explore the phenomenon of individuals with severe mental illness uploading videos to YouTube, and posting and responding to comments as a form of naturally occurring peer support. We also consider the potential risks and benefits of self-disclosure and interacting with others on YouTube. To address these questions, we used qualitative inquiry informed by emerging techniques in online ethnography. We analyzed n = 3,044 comments posted to 19 videos uploaded by individuals who self-identified as having schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We found peer support across four themes: minimizing a sense of isolation and providing hope; finding support through peer exchange and reciprocity; sharing strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of severe mental illness; and learning from shared experiences of medication use and seeking mental health care. These broad themes are consistent with accepted notions of peer support in severe mental illness as a voluntary process aimed at inclusion and mutual advancement through shared experience and developing a sense of community. Our data suggest that the lack of anonymity and associated risks of being identified as an individual with severe mental illness on YouTube seem to be overlooked by those who posted comments or uploaded videos. Whether or not this platform can provide benefits for a wider community of individuals with severe mental illness remains uncertain.

  18. Naturally occurring peer support through social media: the experiences of individuals with severe mental illness using YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A; Grande, Stuart W; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Elwyn, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer support. Peer support includes a system of mutual giving and receiving where individuals with severe mental illness can offer hope, companionship, and encouragement to others facing similar challenges. In this study we explore the phenomenon of individuals with severe mental illness uploading videos to YouTube, and posting and responding to comments as a form of naturally occurring peer support. We also consider the potential risks and benefits of self-disclosure and interacting with others on YouTube. To address these questions, we used qualitative inquiry informed by emerging techniques in online ethnography. We analyzed n = 3,044 comments posted to 19 videos uploaded by individuals who self-identified as having schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We found peer support across four themes: minimizing a sense of isolation and providing hope; finding support through peer exchange and reciprocity; sharing strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of severe mental illness; and learning from shared experiences of medication use and seeking mental health care. These broad themes are consistent with accepted notions of peer support in severe mental illness as a voluntary process aimed at inclusion and mutual advancement through shared experience and developing a sense of community. Our data suggest that the lack of anonymity and associated risks of being identified as an individual with severe mental illness on YouTube seem to be overlooked by those who posted comments or uploaded videos. Whether or not this platform can provide benefits for a wider community of individuals with severe mental illness remains uncertain.

  19. Female employment and the social reproduction of the Puerto Rican working class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safa, H I

    1984-01-01

    The rapid industrialization, migration and urbanization processes in Puerto Rico since 1940 have been responsible for the increase in the rate of female employment from 22.1% in 1960 to 27.8% in 1980, while the rate of male employment has fallen. This rise in female employment is significant in an era of growing unemployment and economic crises. There is a tendency for management to prefer young, single women workers over the older, married or formerly married women. The former tend to be better educated, work harder, complain less and are likely to be burdened with household or childcare responsibilities, which can lead to fatigue or even absenteism on the job. Their strong background in patriarchal rural traditions makes it easier for them to accept the authority of thier employers without question. With a knowledge that they can find other, similar work, the younger women are not troubled by plant problems such as production cutbacks, and layoffs. Their primary concern is not job stability, but money, which is used for future plans which include marriage, children and a new home. In contrast, older women view job security as more important. Their years of being in the labor force and the sense of self worth they have acquired as a result of it, tend to make them critical of authority. The contribution of working women to the household economy in Puerto Rican working class families varies with age and marital status. Older, married and formerly married women carry a heavier financial burden, assume a larger share of household responsibilities, and are often the sole supporters of their families. Younger women usually share their responsibilities with a relatively large number of siblings. Export-led industrialization has contributed to male outmigration from Puerto Rico, but as women lose their factory jobs due the factories being relocaged elsewhere as part of Operation Bootstrap, women too may join the migration flows.

  20. The Puerto Ricans: Culture Change and Language Deviance. Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology, Number 51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Ruby Rohrlich

    This anthropological study examines whether sociocultural factors are basic to the etiology of stuttering through (1) an investigation of the incidence of stuttering in a single ethnic group, Puerto Rican rural migrants living in two different cultural milieus (San Juan and New York City), and (2) a comparison of the sociocultural variables in the…

  1. Clinical determinants of clopidogrel responsiveness in a heterogeneous cohort of Puerto Rican Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Suarez, Dagmar F; Scott, Stuart A; Tomey, Matthew I; Melin, Kyle; Lopez-Candales, Angel; Buckley, Charlotte E; Duconge, Jorge

    2017-09-01

    Clopidogrel is by far the most prescribed platelet adenosine diphosphate (ADP) antagonist in Puerto Rico despite the advent of newer agents (prasugrel and ticagrelor). Given the paucity of data on clopidogrel responsiveness in Hispanics, we sought to determine the association between clinical characteristics and platelet reactivity in Puerto Rican patients on clopidogrel therapy. A total of 100 Puerto Rican patients on clopidogrel therapy were enrolled and allocated into two groups: Group I, without high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR); and Group II, with HTPR. Platelet function was measured ex vivo using the VerifyNow® P2Y12 assay. The cohort was comprised of Hispanic patients with coronary artery disease (57%), peripheral artery disease (32%), carotid artery stenosis (7%), cerebral artery aneurysm (2%), and stroke (2%). Mean platelet reactivity was 200 ± 61 P2Y12 reaction units (PRUs) (range: 8-324), and 35% of patients had HTPR (PRUs ⩾ 230). Multivariable logistic regression analysis determined that diabetes mellitus (DM) [odds ratio (OR) = 3.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-8.96], use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) (OR = 3.60; 95% CI: 1.09-11.82), and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) (OR = 3.10; 95% CI: 1.09-8.83) were independent predictors of HTPR ( p Puerto Rican Hispanic patients on clopidogrel, 35% had HTPR. Furthermore, DM, PPIs and CCBs predicted HTPR. Clinical outcome data are needed to identify appropriate PRU thresholds for risk prediction in the Puerto Rican population.

  2. Trans-cultural Aspects of Puerto Rican Mental Illness in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Mario

    1974-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that mental illness is considerably high among Puerto Rican adolescents in New York. Besides poverty, crowding, illiteracy, lack of skill for qualified jobs, and other sources of stress, trans-culturation is said to explain some of these facts. [Available from The Avenue Publishing Company, 18 Park Avenue, London…

  3. Phylogeography of an island endemic: the Puerto Rican freshwater crab, Epilobocera sinuatifrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin D. Cook; Catherine M. Pringle; Jane M. Hughes

    2008-01-01

    The endemic Puerto Rican crab, Epilobocera sinuatifrons (Pseudothelphusidae), has a freshwater-dependant life-history strategy, although the species has some capabilities for terrestrial movement as adults. In contrast to all other freshwater decapods on the island (e.g., caridean shrimp), E. sinuatifrons does not undertake amphidromous migration, and is restricted to...

  4. Vida/SIDA: A Grassroots Response to AIDS in Chicago's Puerto Rican Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Chicago's Puerto Rican community in West Town had a unique reaction to the spread of AIDS within its limits. They created their own institutions and tackled the epidemic themselves. In its infancy, Vida/SIDA, which translates as Life/AIDS, was solely an alternative health clinic for people with AIDS. Free of charge, it provided services such as…

  5. The Puerto Rican Prison Experience: A Multicultural Understanding of Values, Beliefs, and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Edil Torres; Wilbur, Michael P.; Roberts-Wilbur, Janice

    1998-01-01

    Counselors are challenged to use a nontraditional, multicultural approach with Puerto Rican inmates, to strive to understand their values, beliefs, experiences, and behaviors; and to question their own underlying assumptions and linear models of therapy. Five specific recommendations are made, and a comparison of beliefs and values is appended.…

  6. Acculturation and sociocultural influences on dietary intake and health status among Puerto Rican adults in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown negative consequences of acculturation on lifestyle factors, health status, and dietary intake of Hispanic immigrants in the US. Despite prevalent type 2 diabetes and low socioeconomic status (SES) among Puerto Rican adults living on the US mainland, little is known about...

  7. The prevalence of refractive conditions in Puerto Rican adults attending an eye clinic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neisha M. Rodriguez

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Hyperopia is the most common refractive error and its prevalence and seems to increase among the aging population who visited the clinics. Further programs and studies must be developed to address the refractive errors needs of the adult Puerto Rican population.

  8. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA oxidative stress has been suggested as an important pathogenic mechanism in cognitive impairment and dementia. We, therefore, examined whether urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of global DNA oxidation, was associated with cognitive function in a sample of Puerto Rican adul...

  9. Spatial Ecology of Puerto Rican Boas (Epicrates inornatus) in a Hurricane Impacted Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. Wunderle Jr.; Javier E. Mercado Bernard Parresol Esteban Terranova 2

    2004-01-01

    Spatial ecology of Puerto Rican boas (Epicrates inornatus, Boidae) was studied with radiotelemetry in a subtropical wet forest recovering from a major hurricane (7–9 yr previous) when Hurricane Georges struck. Different boas were studied during three periods relative to Hurricane Georges: before only; before and after; and after only. Mean daily movement per month...

  10. Taking a Diasporic Stance: Puerto Rican Mothers Educating Children in a Racially Integrated Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolon-Dow, Rosalie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the perspectives of second-generation Puerto Rican mothers as they discuss their experiences educating their children in a working class, lower-middle class, racially diverse neighborhood. The article examines the racialization processes that the women and their families face, despite experiencing geographic and socioeconomic…

  11. Health and Reproductive Assessment of Selected Puerto Rican Parrots ( Amazona vittata ) in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clubb, Susan; Velez, Jafet; Garner, Michael M; Zaias, Julia; Cray, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    The Puerto Rican parrot ( Amazona vittata ) has become an iconic and high-profile conservation species. The cornerstone of the recovery plan for this critically endangered species is an active captive breeding program, management of the wild population, and a long-term reintroduction program. In 2002, 40 adult Puerto Rican parrots that had not produced viable offspring were selected for reproductive assessment at 2 aviary populations in Puerto Rico (Iguaca and Río Abajo), which are the only sources of parrots for release. The goal was to enhance reproductive potential and produce productive pairings in an attempt to augment the population growth and provide ample individuals for reintroduction. Seven Hispanolian Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) that were used as surrogate parents for the Puerto Rican parrots were also included in the study. This assessment included physical examination, endoscopic evaluation, hematologic and plasma biochemical profiles, viral screening, and hormonal assays. Results of general physical examination and hematologic and plasma biochemical testing revealed overall good health and condition of this subset of the population of Puerto Rican parrots; no major infectious diseases were found. Endoscopic examination also revealed overall good health and condition, especially of females. The apparent low fertility of male birds warrants further investigation. The findings helped to define causes of reproductive failure in the selected pairs and individual birds. New pairings resulting from the assessment helped to augment reproduction of this critically endangered species.

  12. Characterization of Bioactive Constituents from Honey Produced by Costa Rican Stingless Bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamora Fallas, L.G.

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance created the need for innovations in topical treatments for wound healing. This thesis comprises a series of investigations that allowed Costa Rican Tetragonisca angustula honeys to pass from being a highly regarded traditional medicine to becoming a novel candidate for wound

  13. SURVIVAL OF CAPTIVE-REARED PUERTO RICAN PARROTS RELEASED IN THE CARIBBEAN NATIONAL FOREST

    Science.gov (United States)

    THOMAS H. WHITE; JAIME A. COLLAZO; FRANCISCO J. VILELLA

    2005-01-01

    We report first-year survival for 34 captive-reared Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) released in the Caribbean National Forest, Puerto Rico between 2000 and 2002. The purpose of the releases were to increase population size and the potential number of breeding individuals of the sole extant wild population, and to refine release protocols for eventual...

  14. DiaspoRican Art as a Space for Identity Building, Cultural Reclamation, and Political Reimagining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario-Ramos, Enid M.; Tucker-Raymond, Eli; Rosario, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The lives of Puerto Ricans in the neighborhood of Humboldt Park, Chicago, are often situated in a complex social field shaped by transnational cultural and political border crossing. We argue that artistic practices in this neighborhood are integral to building community and individual identities grounded in local meanings of the Puerto Rican…

  15. Dominican and Puerto Rican Mother-Adolescent Communication: Maternal Self-Disclosure and Youth Risk Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    A communication framework was developed to examine the influence of maternal use of self-disclosure on adolescent intentions to smoke cigarettes and to engage in sexual intercourse. Data were collected from 516 Dominican and Puerto Rican mother-adolescent dyads. Statistical analyses were conducted in AMOS using structural equation modeling.…

  16. Extended Family Ties among Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Whites: Superintegration or Disintegration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisian, Natalia; Gerena, Mariana; Gerstel, Naomi

    2006-01-01

    Addressing recent theoretical debates, this study examined the differences in extended family integration among Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Whites, as well as the importance of culture and structure in explaining these differences. Our findings showed Whites and Latinos/as have distinctive patterns of extended family integration: Mexicans and…

  17. A Brief Culturally Tailored Intervention for Puerto Ricans with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Amico, K. R.; Cruz, Noemi; O'Connell, Ann A.; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Kalichman, Seth C.; Wolf, Scott A.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    The information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model of health behavior change informed the design of a brief, culturally tailored diabetes self-care intervention for Puerto Ricans with type 2 diabetes. Participants (n = 118) were recruited from an outpatient, primary care clinic at an urban hospital in the northeast United States. ANCOVA…

  18. Partial power, partial knowledge: accounting for the dis-integration of a Costa Rican cooperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susannah R. McCandless; Marla R. Emery

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on the writings of Foucault, we argue that the multiple-service cooperative at the core of a Costa Rican highland municipality failed due to an incomplete transformation from sovereign to governmental regimes at the regional scale. The cooperative challenged sovereign power, held by the local patron and private biological reserves, with a governance model based...

  19. Racial Identity Attitudes and Ego Identity Statuses in Dominican and Puerto Rican College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses in 94 Dominican and Puerto Rican Latino college students in an urban public college setting. Simultaneous regression analyses were conducted to test the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses, and findings indicated that…

  20. Anatomy of a bottleneck: diagnosing factors limiting population growth in the Puerto Rican Parrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.R. Beissinger; Jr Wunderle; J.M. Meyers; B.E. Saether; S. Engen

    2008-01-01

    The relative importance of genetic, demographic, environmental, and catastrophic processes that maintain population bottlenecks has received little consideration. We evaluate the role of these factors in maintaining the Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata) in a prolonged bottleneck from 1973 through 2000 despite intensive conservation efforts. We first conduct a risk...

  1. Housing Dependence and Intimate Relationships in the Lives of Low-Income Puerto Rican Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sherri Lawson; Burton, Linda M.; Flippen, Chenoa A.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal ethnographic data from the Three-City Study, the authors examined the relationship between 16 low-income Puerto Rican mothers' housing dependencies and their intimate partner relations. This study traced mothers' dependent housing arrangements and entree to marital or cohabiting relationships from their teens through their…

  2. Self-reported parenting practices in Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Esther J; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2002-09-01

    Explored self-reported parenting in a Hispanic sample of mothers living in the mainland United States using a cultural framework. Participants were 130 immigrant or first-generation Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers with a child between the ages of 2 and 6 years. Mothers completed questionnaires related to their parenting behavior and also filled out a detailed demographic form and a measure of acculturation. Results suggested that both Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers engage in high levels of praise and physical affection and low levels of harsh, inconsistent, and punitive parenting behaviors. Dominican and Puerto Rican parenting was similar on measures of authoritarian and permissive parenting, but differences emerged on a measure of authoritative parenting and when parenting was considered at the more detailed level of individual behaviors. Parenting was related to several demographic characteristics, including father's education level and child age; more specifically, higher paternal education and younger age of the child were related to higher levels of authoritative parenting by mothers. Parenting and acculturation were generally not related. Discussion focused on a culturally sensitive interpretation of normative parenting among Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers.

  3. African American and Puerto Rican American Parenting Styles, Paternal Involvement, and Head Start Children's Social Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay

    2000-01-01

    Examined similarities and differences in parenting styles and paternal involvement within and between African American and Puerto Rican American parent groups and the relationship between parenting styles, child care involvement, and Head Start children's social competence. Found a significant relationship between high levels of parental…

  4. Factors associated with Neospora caninum serostatus in cattle of 20 specialised Costa Rican dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, J.J.; Perez, E.; Dolz, G.; Frankena, K.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-five specialised Costa Rican dairy farms (located in the Poás area) were used to determine neosporosis seroprevalence and the association of seropositivity with environmental and management factors. The farms involved were selected intentionally and all of them use VAMPP 5.1 (Veterinary

  5. Music Education in Puerto Rican Elementary Schools: A Study from the Perspective of Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-León, Ricardo; Lorenzo-Quiles, Oswaldo; Addessi, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    This article presents, for the first time, descriptive research on the status of music education in Puerto Rican public elementary schools. General music education at elementary schools on the island has been part of the school offering for more than 50 years. As yet, music education at this level has not been recognized as an essential discipline…

  6. Analyses in support of risk-informed natural gas vehicle maintenance facility codes and standards :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekoto, Isaac W.; Blaylock, Myra L.; LaFleur, Angela Christine; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Horne, Douglas B.

    2014-03-01

    Safety standards development for maintenance facilities of liquid and compressed gas fueled large-scale vehicles is required to ensure proper facility design and operation envelopes. Standard development organizations are utilizing risk-informed concepts to develop natural gas vehicle (NGV) codes and standards so that maintenance facilities meet acceptable risk levels. The present report summarizes Phase I work for existing NGV repair facility code requirements and highlights inconsistencies that need quantitative analysis into their effectiveness. A Hazardous and Operability study was performed to identify key scenarios of interest. Finally, scenario analyses were performed using detailed simulations and modeling to estimate the overpressure hazards from HAZOP defined scenarios. The results from Phase I will be used to identify significant risk contributors at NGV maintenance facilities, and are expected to form the basis for follow-on quantitative risk analysis work to address specific code requirements and identify effective accident prevention and mitigation strategies.

  7. The higher temperature in the areola supports the natural progression of the birth to breastfeeding continuum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Zanardo

    Full Text Available Numerous functional features that promote the natural progression of the birth to breastfeeding continuum are concentrated in the human female's areolar region. The aim of this study was to look more closely into the thermal characteristics of areola, which are said to regulate the local evaporation rate of odors and chemical signals that are uniquely important for the neonate's 'breast crawl'. A dermatological study of the areolae and corresponding intern breast quadrants was undertaken on the mothers of 70 consecutive, healthy, full-term breastfed infants. The study took place just after the births at the Policlinico Abano Terme, in Italy from January to February 2014. Temperature, pH and elasticity were assessed one day postpartum using the Soft Plus 5.5 (Callegari S.P.A., Parma, Italy. The mean areolar temperature was found to be significantly higher than the corresponding breast quadrant (34.60 ±1.40°C vs. 34.04 ±2.00°C, p<0.001 and the pH was also significantly higher (4.60±0.59 vs. 4.17±0.59, p<0.001. In contrast, the elasticity of the areolar was significantly lower (23.52±7.83 vs. 29.02±8.44%, p<0.003. Our findings show, for the first time, that the areolar region has a higher temperature than the surrounding breast skin, together with higher pH values and lower elasticity. We believe that the higher temperature of the areolar region may act as a thermal signal to guide the infant directly to the nipple and to the natural progression of the birth to breastfeeding continuum.

  8. Supporting Latino communities' natural helpers: a case study of promotoras in a research capacity building course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otiniano, Angie Denisse; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Toy, Peggy; Wallace, Steven P

    2012-08-01

    Promotores have unique access to underserved and hard-to-reach Latino communities facing health disparities. Although promotores are involved in community change, they rarely receive training that gives them the skills to be partners in research. We present a case study of promotoras who participated in a research capacity building course focused on assessing community health needs. Data comes from course application surveys, follow-up notes, and narratives from qualitative phone interviews of eight promotoras. Content analysis drawing from grounded theory was conducted to identify and describe emerging themes. Four themes emerged as promotoras discussed their experience learning basic research skills and teaching others: (1) challenges, (2) support, (3) building capacity, and (4) using research. Promotores play an important role in the health of Latino communities and are increasingly asked to participate in research processes; however they have few opportunities for training and professional development in this area. Capacity building opportunities for promotores need to be tailored to their needs and provide them with support. Fostering collaboration between promotores and partnering with local community-based organizations can help facilitate needed research skill-building among promotores.

  9. Projects of Earth Sciences Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Program Code\tProgram Title\tProgram Leader 40001001\tApplication of Caesium-137 Tracing Technique on the Wind Erosion\tYAN Ping 40001002\tSpatial Adjustment to Coordinate Regional Development and Environment Protection in the Liaohe Delta\tLI Xiuzhen 40001003\tHistorical Soil Erosion Changes of the Loess Plateau Inverted from Silt-accumulation in the Huanghe Alluvial Fan\tTAN Lihua 40001004\tOn the Study of Rock Cryogenic Weathering Processes and Mechanism in the Continental Periglacial Zone\tZHU Liping 40001005\tFeedback Mechanism Between the Near Surface Blown Sand Cloud and Wind Profiles\tDONG Zhibao 40001006\tDynamics of Regional and Urban Structure with High-speed Rail Effects\tXU Yilun 40001007\tResearch on Urban and Regional Governance of China's Urban Agglomeration Area-Case Study of Southern Jiangsu Region\tZHANG Jing-xiang 40001008\tStudies on Interpretation in Soil Remote Sensing Supported by Soil Spatial Variation and Landscape Modeling\tSHI Zhou 40001009\tStudy on the Physicochemical Property and Its Utilization Specification of Bentonite in North China\tMA Bei-yan 40001010\tEffects of Rewetting and Root Signal ABA on Root Hydraulic Conductivity of Wheat\tLI Yang-yang 40001011\tRock Weathering Induced by Lichens in Antarctica and Its Significance in Soil Genesis\tCHEN Jie 40001012\tStudy on the Inorganic Nanoparticles in Soils\tWU Jing-gui 40001013\tMechanism and Environmental Risk of Chelate Enhancement for Hyperaccumulator Remediation of Cu Polluted Soil\tWU Long-hua 40001014\tStudy on Hydraulics of Soil Erosion by Overland Flow\tZHANG Guang-hui 40001015\tInferring Snow Parameters Using Polarimetric and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Data\tLI Zhen 40001016\tThe Study of Spatio-temperal Model of Surface Slick Seeped from Offshore Oil and Gas Reservoirs\tHUANG Xiao-xia 40001017\tIntegration Method of Multitype Huge Spatial Database\tZHU Qing 40001018\tTIN Based Global Image Matching and Three Dimensional Surface Reconstruction\tJIANG Wan

  10. Human skeletal uptake of natural alpha radioactivity from {sup 210}Pb-supported {sup 210}Po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyedepo, A.C

    1998-06-01

    This thesis contributes to increasing knowledge on the dosimetry of natural alpha-particle radiation in skeletal tissues, particularly in utero, and associated risks of malignancy. Alpha-particle radiation is an established aetiological factor of cancer. In the human body, polonium-210 decayed from skeletal lead-210 ({sup 210}Pb/{sup 210}Po) is the predominant natural alpha-emitter. {sup 210}Pb displaces calcium (Ca) in mineral hydroxyapatite, especially during periods of rapid bone growth and remodelling when Ca is laid down. It was therefore necessary to study alpha activity uptake and calcification concurrently within bone. Human studies were undertaken on: fetal vertebrae, 17 - 42 weeks of gestation, 74 samples; adult vertebrae, 40 - 95 years, 40 samples; and adult ribs, 20 - 95 years, 51 samples. Specimens were unconcentrated and weighed <5 g each. TASTRAK alpha-particle autoradiography was used to assess the bone activity concentration and spatial microdistribution of {sup 210}Pb/{sup 210}Po. Alpha track data were resolved by specially written software named SPATS (Selection Program for Analysing Track Structures). Ca and phosphorus (P) were biochemically determined. Results were examined for trends in bone type, gender and chronological ageing in humans. The main research findings were: 1) The Ca content of fetal vertebrae increased linearly at a weekly rate of 0.2g Ca 100 g{sup -1} wet bone (typical values of 2, 4, 6 g 100 g{sup -1} at 16, 26 and 36 weeks). 2) The P concentration also increased with advancing fetal age. 3) The Ca:P bone weight ratio rose from 1.7 to 2.2 by 32 gestational weeks. 4) The overall range in bone {sup 210}Pb/{sup 210}Po alpha activity was 0.25 - 1.1 Bq kg{sup -1} with correlation between activity concentration and fetal age (0.47 {+-} 0.05 Bq kg{sup -1} for 17 - 26 weeks, 0.67 {+-} 0.04 Bq kg{sup -1} for 32 - 42 weeks). 5) The correlation between increased alpha radioactivity and increased Ca concentration approximating to 0

  11. Human skeletal uptake of natural alpha radioactivity from 210Pb-supported 210Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyedepo, A.C.

    1998-06-01

    This thesis contributes to increasing knowledge on the dosimetry of natural alpha-particle radiation in skeletal tissues, particularly in utero, and associated risks of malignancy. Alpha-particle radiation is an established aetiological factor of cancer. In the human body, polonium-210 decayed from skeletal lead-210 ( 210 Pb/ 210 Po) is the predominant natural alpha-emitter. 210 Pb displaces calcium (Ca) in mineral hydroxyapatite, especially during periods of rapid bone growth and remodelling when Ca is laid down. It was therefore necessary to study alpha activity uptake and calcification concurrently within bone. Human studies were undertaken on: fetal vertebrae, 17 - 42 weeks of gestation, 74 samples; adult vertebrae, 40 - 95 years, 40 samples; and adult ribs, 20 - 95 years, 51 samples. Specimens were unconcentrated and weighed 210 Pb/ 210 Po. Alpha track data were resolved by specially written software named SPATS (Selection Program for Analysing Track Structures). Ca and phosphorus (P) were biochemically determined. Results were examined for trends in bone type, gender and chronological ageing in humans. The main research findings were: 1) The Ca content of fetal vertebrae increased linearly at a weekly rate of 0.2g Ca 100 g -1 wet bone (typical values of 2, 4, 6 g 100 g -1 at 16, 26 and 36 weeks). 2) The P concentration also increased with advancing fetal age. 3) The Ca:P bone weight ratio rose from 1.7 to 2.2 by 32 gestational weeks. 4) The overall range in bone 210 Pb/ 210 Po alpha activity was 0.25 - 1.1 Bq kg -1 with correlation between activity concentration and fetal age (0.47 ± 0.05 Bq kg -1 for 17 - 26 weeks, 0.67 ± 0.04 Bq kg -1 for 32 - 42 weeks). 5) The correlation between increased alpha radioactivity and increased Ca concentration approximating to 0.0046 Bq g -1 of Ca. 6) A decreasing Ca content of adult vertebrae with increasing age from 40 - 95 years, from ∼ 14 to 5 g 100 g-1, but no correlation with age for adult rib Ca content of 10 - 30 g

  12. Hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas over a nickel catalyst supported on mesoporous alumina xerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong Gil; Youn, Min Hye; Cho, Kyung Min; Park, Sunyoung; Song, In Kyu

    Mesoporous alumina xerogel (A-SG) is prepared by a sol-gel method for use as a support for a nickel catalyst. The Ni/A-SG catalyst is then prepared by an impregnation method, and is applied to hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effect of the mesoporous alumina xerogel support on the catalytic performance of Ni/A-SG catalyst is investigated. For the purpose of comparison, a nickel catalyst supported on commercial alumina (A-C) is also prepared by an impregnation method (Ni/A-C). Both the hydroxyl-rich surface and the electron-deficient sites of the A-SG support enhance the dispersion of the nickel species on the support during the calcination step. The formation of the surface nickel aluminate phase in the Ni/A-SG catalyst remarkably increases the reducibility and stability of the catalyst. Furthermore, the high-surface area and the well-developed mesoporosity of the Ni/A-SG catalyst enhance the gasification of surface hydrocarbons that are adsorbed in the reaction. In the steam reforming of LNG, the Ni/A-SG catalyst exhibits a better catalytic performance than the Ni/A-C catalyst in terms of LNG conversion and hydrogen production. Moreover, the Ni/A-SG catalyst shows strong resistance toward catalyst deactivation.

  13. Creation of a simple natural language processing tool to support an imaging utilization quality dashboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Jordan; Koziatek, Christian; Theobald, Jason; Smith, Silas; Iturrate, Eduardo

    2017-05-01

    Testing for venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with cost and risk to patients (e.g. radiation). To assess the appropriateness of imaging utilization at the provider level, it is important to know that provider's diagnostic yield (percentage of tests positive for the diagnostic entity of interest). However, determining diagnostic yield typically requires either time-consuming, manual review of radiology reports or the use of complex and/or proprietary natural language processing software. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to develop and implement a simple, user-configurable, and open-source natural language processing tool to classify radiology reports with high accuracy and 2) to use the results of the tool to design a provider-specific VTE imaging dashboard, consisting of both utilization rate and diagnostic yield. Two physicians reviewed a training set of 400 lower extremity ultrasound (UTZ) and computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) reports to understand the language used in VTE-positive and VTE-negative reports. The insights from this review informed the arguments to the five modifiable parameters of the NLP tool. A validation set of 2,000 studies was then independently classified by the reviewers and by the tool; the classifications were compared and the performance of the tool was calculated. The tool was highly accurate in classifying the presence and absence of VTE for both the UTZ (sensitivity 95.7%; 95% CI 91.5-99.8, specificity 100%; 95% CI 100-100) and CTPA reports (sensitivity 97.1%; 95% CI 94.3-99.9, specificity 98.6%; 95% CI 97.8-99.4). The diagnostic yield was then calculated at the individual provider level and the imaging dashboard was created. We have created a novel NLP tool designed for users without a background in computer programming, which has been used to classify venous thromboembolism reports with a high degree of accuracy. The tool is open-source and available for download at http

  14. Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Low Bone Mass Among Puerto Rican Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Sabrina E; Mangano, Kelsey M; Griffith, John L; Wright, Nicole C; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Tucker, Katherine L

    2018-01-01

    Historically, osteoporosis has not been considered a public health priority for the Hispanic population. However, recent data indicate that Mexican Americans are at increased risk for this chronic condition. Although it is well established that there is heterogeneity in social, lifestyle, and health-related factors among Hispanic subgroups, there are currently few studies on bone health among Hispanic subgroups other than Mexican Americans. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass (LBM) among 953 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47 to 79 years and living on the US mainland, using data from one of the largest cohorts on bone health in this population: The Boston Puerto Rican Osteoporosis Study (BPROS). Participants completed an interview to assess demographic and lifestyle characteristics and bone mineral density measures. To facilitate comparisons with national data, we calculated age-adjusted estimates for osteoporosis and LBM for Mexican American, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black adults, aged ≥50 years, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The overall prevalence of osteoporosis and LBM were 10.5% and 43.3% for participants in the BPROS, respectively. For men, the highest prevalence of osteoporosis was among those aged 50 to 59 years (11%) and lowest for men ≥70 years (3.7%). The age-adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis for Puerto Rican men was 8.6%, compared with 2.3% for non-Hispanic white, and 3.9% for Mexican American men. There were no statistically significant differences between age-adjusted estimates for Puerto Rican women (10.7%), non-Hispanic white women (10.1%), or Mexican American women (16%). There is a need to understand specific factors contributing to osteoporosis in Puerto Rican adults, particularly younger men. This will provide important information to guide the development of culturally and linguistically tailored interventions to improve bone health in this

  15. Sleep, Depressive/Anxiety Disorders, and Obesity in Puerto Rican Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne; Rosario-Matos, Nicolás; Ramírez, Rafael R; García, Pedro; Canino, Glorisa J; Ortega, Alexander N

    2017-03-01

    Adolescents from Puerto Rican backgrounds are found to have higher rates of obesity than adolescents from other ethnic groups in the US. The objective of this study is to examine whether sleeping the recommended number of hours and depression or anxiety disorder are independently related to risk for obesity in a sample of Island Puerto Rican adolescents, and whether the association between sleep and obesity is moderated by depression or anxiety disorder. Data from the study were derived from the third wave of an island wide probability sample of Puerto Rican youth residing on the Island, 10-25 years of age (N = 825), with a response rate of 79.59%. The current study focuses on youth 10 to 19 years of age (n = 436). In this sample, youth who slept less than the recommended number of hours (defined as 7-9 h per night) had a significantly increased risk for obesity and were three times as likely to be obese. Youth who met criteria for a depressive/anxiety disorder were almost 2.5 times as likely to be obese. However, the presence of an anxiety/depressive disorders did not moderate the association between sleeping the recommended number of hours and risk for obesity. Sleeping less than the recommended number of hours may be an important risk factor for obesity status in Island Puerto Rican youth. These findings suggest that attention to healthy sleep behaviors and a sleep environment that promotes high quality sleep may be important for Puerto Rican adolescents at risk for obesity.

  16. Emigration From Puerto Rico to Florida: Multivariate Analysis of Factors That Condition Attitudes of the Puerto Rican Population Toward Organ Donation for Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; López-Navas, A I; Sánchez, Á; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ayala, M A; Garrido, G; Sebastián, M J; Ramis, G; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    The Puerto Rican population represents one of the largest immigration groups in Florida, and this has an impact on the organ transplant donation process. Our aim was to analyze attitudes toward organ donation among Puerto Ricans who currently reside in the state of Florida (USA). The population screened consisted of individuals >15 years old, who were born in Puerto Rico, living in Florida, and awaiting organs for transplant. All participants completed the "PCID-DTO Rios" questionnaire. Random selection was done according to stratification. Support from immigration associations in Spain was needed for advice on the locations of potential respondents. Study participation was anonymized and self-administered. There were 259 respondents, 37% (n = 95) were in favor of donation, 36% (n = 93) were against donation, and 27% (n = 71) were undecided. The variables associated with these attitudes were: age (P = .017); civil status (P = .021); level of education (P donation and transplant (P donation of a relative (P donation (P donation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Natural variation in dauer pheromone production and sensing supports intraspecific competition in nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Neelanjan; Meyer, Jan M; Yim, Joshua J; Mayer, Melanie G; Markov, Gabriel V; Ogawa, Akira; Schroeder, Frank C; Sommer, Ralf J

    2014-07-07

    Dauer formation, a major nematode survival strategy, represents a model for small-molecule regulation of metazoan development [1-10]. Free-living nematodes excrete dauer-inducing pheromones that have been assumed to target conspecifics of the same genotype [9, 11]. However, recent studies in Pristionchus pacificus revealed that the dauer pheromone of some strains affects conspecifics of other genotypes more strongly than individuals of the same genotype [12]. To elucidate the mechanistic basis for this intriguing cross-preference, we compared six P. pacificus wild isolates to determine the chemical composition of their dauer-inducing metabolomes and responses to individual pheromone components. We found that these isolates produce dauer pheromone blends of different composition and respond differently to individual pheromone components. Strikingly, there is no correlation between production of and dauer response to a specific compound in individual strains. Specifically, pheromone components that are abundantly produced by one genotype induce dauer formation in other genotypes, but not necessarily in the abundant producer. Furthermore, some genotypes respond to pheromone components they do not produce themselves. These results support a model of intraspecific competition in nematode dauer formation. Indeed, we observed intraspecific competition among sympatric strains in a novel experimental assay, suggesting a new role of small molecules in nematode ecology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and activity of an immobilized photocatalyst: natural porous diatomite supported titania nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; de Godoi, Fernanda Condi; Sun, Zhiming; Zeng, Qingcong; Zheng, Shuilin; Frost, Ray L

    2015-01-15

    Diatomite, a porous non-metal mineral, was used as support to prepare TiO2/diatomite composites by a modified sol-gel method. The as-prepared composites were calcined at temperatures ranging from 450 to 950 °C. The characterization tests included X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements. The XRD analysis indicated that the binary mixtures of anatase and rutile exist in the composites. The morphology analysis confirmed the TiO2 particles were uniformly immobilized on the surface of diatom with a strong interfacial anchoring strength, which leads to few drain of photocatalytic components during practical applications. In further XPS studies of hybrid catalyst, we found the evidence of the presence of Ti-O-Si bond and increased percentage of surface hydroxyl. In addition, the adsorption capacity and photocatalytic activity of synthesized TiO2/diatomite composites were evaluated by studying the degradation kinetics of aqueous Rhodamine B under UV-light irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation was found to follow pseudo-first order kinetics according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The preferable removal efficiency was observed in composites by 750 °C calcination, which is attributed to a relatively appropriate anatase/rutile mixing ratio of 90/10. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Decision Support System (DSS) to Select the Premier Fuel to Develop in the Value Chain of Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Mousaei; Mohammad Ali Hatefi

    2015-01-01

    A value chain is a series of events that takes a raw material and with each step adds value to it. Global interest in the application of natural gas (NG) in production and transportation has grown dramatically, representing a long-term, low-cost, domestic, and secure alternative to petroleum-based fuels. Many technological solutions are currently considered on the market or in development, which address the challenge and opportunity of NG. In this paper, a decision support system (DSS) is int...

  20. Evidence to support horses as natural intermediate hosts for Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Thomas; Murphy, Alice J; Kiupel, Matti; Bell, Julia A; Rossano, Mary G; Mansfield, Linda S

    2005-10-10

    Opossums (Didelphis spp.) are the definitive host for the protozoan parasite Sarcocystis neurona, the causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Opossums shed sporocysts in feces that can be ingested by true intermediate hosts (cats, raccoons, skunks, armadillos and sea otters). Horses acquire the parasite by ingestion of feed or water contaminated by opossum feces. However, horses have been classified as aberrant intermediate hosts because the terminal asexual sarcocyst stage that is required for transmission to the definitive host has not been found in their tissues despite extensive efforts to search for them [Dubey, J.P., Lindsay, D.S., Saville, W.J., Reed, S.M., Granstrom, D.E., Speer, C.A., 2001b. A review of Sarcocystis neurona and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Vet. Parasitol. 95, 89-131]. In a 4-month-old filly with neurological disease consistent with EPM, we demonstrate schizonts in the brain and spinal cord and mature sarcocysts in the tongue and skeletal muscle, both with genetic and morphological characteristics of S. neurona. The histological and electron microscopic morphology of the schizonts and sarcocysts were identical to published features of S. neurona [Stanek, J.F., Dubey, J.P., Oglesbee, M.J., Reed, S.M., Lindsay, D.S., Capitini, L.A., Njoku, C.J., Vittitow, K.L., Saville, W.J., 2002. Life cycle of Sarcocystis neurona in its natural intermediate host, the raccoon, Procyon lotor. J. Parasitol. 88, 1151-1158]. DNA from schizonts and sarcocysts from this horse produced Sarcocystis specific 334bp PCR products [Tanhauser, S.M., Yowell, C.A., Cutler, T.J., Greiner, E.C., MacKay, R.J., Dame, J.B., 1999. Multiple DNA markers differentiate Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis falcatula. J. Parasitol. 85, 221-228]. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of these PCR products showed banding patterns characteristic of S. neurona. Sequencing, alignment and comparison of both schizont and sarcocyst DNA

  1. An Alumina-Supported Ni-La-Based Catalyst for Producing Synthetic Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Rivero-Mendoza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available LaNi5, known for its hydrogen storage capability, was adapted to the form of a metal oxide-supported (γ-Al2O3 catalyst and its performance for the Sabatier reaction assessed. The 20 wt % La-Ni/γ-Al2O3 particles were prepared via solution combustion synthesis (SCS and exhibited good catalytic activity, achieving a CO2 conversion of 75% with a high CH4 selectivity (98% at 1 atm and 300 °C. Characteristics of the La-Ni/γ-Al2O3 catalyst were identified at various stages of the catalytic process (as-prepared, activated, and post-reaction and in-situ DRIFTS was used to probe the reaction mechanism. The as-prepared catalyst contained amorphous surface La–Ni spinels with particle sizes <6 nm. The reduction process altered the catalyst make-up where, despite the reducing conditions, Ni2+-based particles with diameters between 4 and 20 nm decorated with LaOx moieties were produced. However, the post-reaction catalyst had particle sizes of 4–9 nm and comprised metallic Ni, with the LaOx decoration reverting to a form akin to the as-prepared catalyst. DRIFTS analysis indicated that formates and adsorbed CO species were present on the catalyst surface during the reaction, implying the reaction proceeded via a H2-assisted and sequential CO2 dissociation to C and O. These were then rapidly hydrogenated into CH4 and H2O.

  2. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-50 - Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust. 1.401(a)-50 Section 1.401(a)-50 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)-50 Puerto Rican trusts...

  3. A review of barriers to effective asthma management in Puerto Ricans: cultural, healthcare system and pharmacogenomic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea-Alvarez, Norma; Swanson-Biearman, Brenda; Kelsen, Steven G

    2014-02-01

    Among the Hispanic community, Puerto Ricans have the highest prevalence of asthma and manifest the worst outcomes. The expected growth of the Hispanic population in the USA in the next several decades make elimination of disparate care in Puerto Rican asthmatics a matter of national importance. The purpose of this review of the literature (ROL) is to examine a variety of health system, genetic and cultural barriers in the Puerto Rican community which have created disparities in asthma care and outcomes among adult and pediatric Hispanic populations. In addition, this ROL describes several culturally sensitive, community-based educational interventions which can be used as a framework for future projects to improved asthma outcomes. Databases searched included Medline, PubMED, EBSCOhost, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Google Scholar and ERIC. Papers published in English from January 1990 to January 2012 were reviewed. Health system policies, insurer compensation patterns, clinician attitudes and cultural values/folk remedies in the Puerto Rican community represent barriers to effective asthma management, the use of controller medication and the implementation of educational interventions. In addition, genetic factors involving the beta-2 adrenergic receptor gene, which impair the response to albuterol, appear to contribute to poorer outcomes in Puerto Rican asthmatics. In contrast, several comprehensive, community-based, culturally sensitive educational interventions such as Controlling Asthma in American Cities Project (CAACP), the Racial and Ethnic Approach to Community Health in the US Program and Healthy Hoops programs (REACH) have been described. We believe that culturally sensitive community-based asthma education programs can serve as models for programs targeted toward Puerto Ricans to help decrease asthma morbidity. Moreover, greater sensitivity to Puerto Rican mores and folk remedies on the part of healthcare providers may improve the patient-clinician rapport and

  4. The complex nature of mixed farming systems requires multidimensional actions supported by integrative research and development efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, E; Gourdine, J L; Alexandre, G; Archimède, H; Vaarst, M

    2012-05-01

    Mixed farming systems (MFS) have demonstrated some success by focusing on the use of integrative and holistic mechanisms, and rationally building on and using the natural and local resource base without exhausting it, while enhancing biodiversity, optimizing complementarities between crops and animal systems and finally increasing opportunities in rural livelihoods. Focusing our analysis and discussion on field experiences and empirical knowledge in the Caribbean islands, this paper discusses the opportunities for a change needed in current MFS research-development philosophy. The importance of shifting from fragile/specialized production systems to MFS under current global conditions is argued with an emphasis on the case of Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) and the Caribbean. Particular vulnerable characteristics as well as the potential and constraints of SIDS and their agricultural sectors are described, while revealing the opportunities for the 'richness' of the natural and local resources to support authentic and less dependent production system strategies. Examples are provided of the use of natural grasses, legumes, crop residues and agro-industrial by-products. We analyse the requirement for a change in research strategies and initiatives through the development of a complex but necessary multi-/inter-/trans-disciplinary teamwork spirit. We stress as essential the collaboration and active participation of local and regional actors, stakeholders and end-users in the identification of research priorities, as well as the generation, exchange and dissemination of knowledge and technology innovations, while strengthening the leadership roles in the conduct of integrative and participative research and development projects.

  5. Analyses in Support of Risk-Informed Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance Facility Codes and Standards: Phase II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, Myra L.; LaFleur, Chris Bensdotter; Muna, Alice Baca; Ehrhart, Brian David

    2018-03-01

    Safety standards development for maintenance facilities of liquid and compressed natural gas fueled vehicles is required to ensure proper facility design and operating procedures. Standard development organizations are utilizing risk-informed concepts to develop natural gas vehicle (NGV) codes and standards so that maintenance facilities meet acceptable risk levels. The present report summarizes Phase II work for existing NGV repair facility code requirements and highlights inconsistencies that need quantitative analysis into their effectiveness. A Hazardous and Operability study was performed to identify key scenarios of interest using risk ranking. Detailed simulations and modeling were performed to estimate the location and behavior of natural gas releases based on these scenarios. Specific code conflicts were identified, and ineffective code requirements were highlighted and resolutions proposed. These include ventilation rate basis on area or volume, as well as a ceiling offset which seems ineffective at protecting against flammable gas concentrations. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors gratefully acknowledge Bill Houf (SNL -- Retired) for his assistance with the set-up and post-processing of the numerical simulations. The authors also acknowledge Doug Horne (retired) for his helpful discussions. We would also like to acknowledge the support from the Clean Cities program of DOE's Vehicle Technology Office.

  6. Childhood disadvantages and the timing of the onset of natural menopause in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Beatriz; Lozano-Keymolen, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association of early life factors with the timing of the onset of natural menopause in Costa Rica and Puerto Rico. We use Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the risk of the onset of menopause. Our results suggest that socioeconomic disadvantages, as expressed by difficulties attending school due to economic hardships or parents never living together, increase the risk of the onset of natural menopause among Puerto Rican women. Among Costa Rican women, early life nutrition, estimated using anthropometric measures, is related to the timing of the onset of natural menopause.

  7. Breast cancer patterns and lifetime risk of developing breast cancer among Puerto Rican females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazario, C M; Figueroa-Vallés, N; Rosario, R V

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiologic patterns of breast cancer and to estimate the lifetime risk probability of developing breast cancer among Hispanic females using cancer data from Puerto Rico. The age-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate (per 100,000) in Puerto Rico increased from 15.3 in 1960-1964 to 43.3 in 1985-1989. The age-adjusted breast cancer mortality rate (per 100,000) increased from 5.7 to 10.6 comparing the same two time periods (1960-1964 vs 1985-1989). Nevertheless, in 1985-1989 breast cancer incidence rate was higher in US White females (110.8 per 100,000) compared to Puerto Rican females (51.4 per 100,000; age-adjusted to the 1970 US standard population). The breast cancer mortality rate was also higher in US White females (27.4 per 100,000) than in Puerto Rican females (15.1 per 100,000; age-adjusted to the 1970 US standard population) during 1985-1989. A multiple decrement life table was constructed applying age-specific incidence and mortality rates from cross-sectional data sets (1980-1984 and 1985-1989 data for Puerto Rican females and 1987-1989 SEER data sets for US White and Black females) to a hypothetical cohort of 10,000,000 women. The probability of developing invasive breast cancer was computed for the three groups using the long version of DEVCAN: Probability of DEVeloping CANcer software, version 3.3. The lifetime risk of developing breast cancer was 5.4% for Puerto Rican females, compared to 8.8% for US Black females and 13.0% for US White females. Lifetime risk for Puerto Rican females increased from 4.5% in 1980-1984 to 5.4% in 1985-1989. Lifetime risk of breast cancer appears to be increasing in Puerto Rico, but remains lower than the probability for US White females. Therefore, the application of lifetime probability of developing invasive breast cancer estimated for the US female population will overestimate the risk for the Puerto Rican female population.

  8. Ecosystem-Level Carbon Stocks in Costa Rican Mangrove Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, M.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical mangroves provide a wide variety of ecosystem services, including atmospheric carbon sequestration. Because of their high rates of carbon accumulation, the large expected size of their total stocks (from 2 to 5 times greater than those of upland tropical forests), and the alarming rates at which they are being converted to other uses (releasing globally from 0.02 to 0.12 Pg C yr-1), mangroves are receiving increasing attention as additional tools to mitigate climate change. However, data on whole ecosystem-level carbon in tropical mangroves is limited. Here I present the first estimate of ecosystem level carbon stocks in mangrove forests of Central America. I established 28, 125 m-long, sampling transects along the 4 main rivers draining the Térraba-Sierpe National Wetland in the southern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. This area represents 39% of all remaining mangroves in the country (48300 ha). A circular nested plot was placed every 25 m along each transect. Carbon stocks of standing trees, regeneration, the herbaceous layer, litter, and downed wood were measured following internationally-developed methods compatible with IPCC "Good Practice Guidelines". In addition, total soil carbon stocks were determined down to 1 m depth. Together, these carbon estimates represent the ecosystem-carbon stocks of these forests. The average aboveground carbon stocks were 72.5 ± 3.2 MgC ha-1 (range: 9 - 241 MgC ha-1), consistent with results elsewhere in the world. Between 74 and 92% of the aboveground carbon is stored in trees ≥ 5cm dbh. I found a significant correlation between basal area of trees ≥ 5cm dbh and total aboveground carbon. Soil carbon stocks to 1 m depth ranged between 141 y 593 MgC ha-1. Ecosystem-level carbon stocks ranged from 391 MgC ha-1 to 438 MgC ha-1, with a slight increase from south to north locations. Soil carbon stocks represent an average 76% of total ecosystem carbon stocks, while trees represent only 20%. These Costa Rican mangroves

  9. Can scenario-planning support community-based natural resource management? Experiences from three countries in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry A. Waylen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM is a concept critical to managing social-ecological systems but whose implementation needs strengthening. Scenario planning is one approach that may offer benefits relevant to CBNRM but whose potential is not yet well understood. Therefore, we designed, trialed, and evaluated a scenario-planning method intended to support CBNRM in three cases, located in Colombia, Mexico, and Argentina. Implementing scenario planning was judged as worthwhile in all three cases, although aspects of it were challenging to facilitate. The benefits generated were relevant to strengthening CBNRM: encouraging the participation of local people and using their knowledge, enhanced consideration of and adaptation to future change, and supporting the development of systems thinking. Tracing exactly when and how these benefits arose was challenging, but two elements of the method seemed particularly useful. First, using a systematic approach to discuss how drivers of change may affect local social-ecological systems helped to foster systems thinking and identify connections between issues. Second, explicitly focusing on how to use and respond to scenarios helped identify specific practical activities, or "response options," that would support CBNRM despite the pressures of future change. Discussions about response options also highlighted the need for support by other actors, e.g., policy groups: this raised the question of when and how other actors and other sources of knowledge should be involved in scenario planning, so as to encourage their buy-in to actions identified by the process. We suggest that other CBNRM initiatives may benefit from adapting and applying scenario planning. However, these initiatives should be carefully monitored because further research is required to understand how and when scenario-planning methods may produce benefits, as well as their strengths and weaknesses versus other methods.

  10. An Evaluation of the Buffering Effects of Types and Sources of Support on Depressive Symptoms Among Natural Disaster-Exposed Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brian J; Sou, Kalon; Chen, Wen; Zhou, Fangjing; Chang, Kay; Latkin, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Social support is a key protective factor for people exposed to natural disasters. The effect of type and source of this support is not well documented. Investigations are needed to identify the specific modifying role of received and perceived support from family and friends on the association between disaster exposure and depressive symptoms. Face-to-face household interviews were conducted in 2014 with a random sample of 751 adults recruited from Yuexiu and Tianhe districts in Guangzhou, China. Sampling was accomplished through spatial epidemiological methods. Participants' exposure to disaster, depressive symptoms, and social support networks was recorded on tablet devices. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the potential moderating role of social support on depression symptoms. A total of 30.24% reported natural disaster exposure. Disaster exposure and received family support were significantly and positively related to depressive symptoms. In contrast, perceived family support moderated the relationship between disaster exposure and depressive symptoms. No association was found between support from friends and depressive severity. Perceived family support buffered the effect of disaster exposure in this sample, while received family support was associated with increased depression. Perceived family support is an important resource among those who experience disaster exposure and actual provision of family support may be harmful or miscarried. Natural disasters are becoming increasingly prevalent in Asia. According to the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP, 2015a), a total of 119 disaster events, accounting for more than half of the total number of disasters occurred in the world, took place in Asia in 2014, affecting 79.6 million people, among whom 6050 died. The Chinese Mainland experienced several major natural disasters, including the earthquake in Wechuan, Sichuan Province, in 2008 and natural disasters affected more

  11. Ataques de Nervios and their psychiatric correlates in Puerto Rican children from two different contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Irene; Rivera, Fernando; Ramirez, Rafael; Guarnaccia, Peter J; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Héctor R

    2009-12-01

    Among Latino adults and children, ataques de nervios has been associated with an array of psychiatric disorders. Using data from a probability sample of Puerto Rican children, aged 5 to 13 years (N = 2491), we assessed the lifetime prevalence and psychiatric correlates of ataques in youth residing in the South Bronx, New York and San Juan, Puerto Rico. Baseline site comparisons indicated that between 4% and 5% of children had a lifetime prevalence of ataques (either by child or parent report) and that ataques were associated with greater global impairment and a host of childhood disorders within the previous twelve months. Ataques were also correlated with greater exposure to violence, as well as more stressful life events for the South Bronx sample. After controlling for several covariates, ataques continued to be significantly associated with psychopathology. Ataques are, therefore, a significant correlate of global impairment and childhood psychopathology among Puerto Rican youth.

  12. Stress and the social determinants of maternal health among Puerto Rican women: a CBPR approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Damio, Grace; Cruz, Joan; D'Angelo, Karen; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-11-01

    This qualitative research project explores how poverty, the built environment, education, working conditions, health care access, food insecurity and perceived discrimination are experienced by Puerto Rican Latinas through the course of their lives. Five focus groups were conducted with the primary objective of documenting community experiences and perspectives regarding: 1) stress, including perceived discrimination based on race/ethnicity (racism); 2) the impact of stress on Puerto Rican women of reproductive age, their families, and/or their community; and 3) stressors that affect maternal health. Focus groups were conducted in English and Spanish in the two cities with the highest rates of premature birth and low infant birthweight in the state of Connecticut. Focus group findings indicate that participants perceived poverty, food insecurity, lack of access to quality education, and unsafe environments as significant life stressors affecting maternal and child health.

  13. Hydrological classification of natural flow regimes to support environmental flow assessments in intensively regulated Mediterranean rivers, Segura River Basin (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmar, Oscar; Velasco, Josefa; Martinez-Capel, Francisco

    2011-05-01

    Hydrological classification constitutes the first step of a new holistic framework for developing regional environmental flow criteria: the "Ecological Limits of Hydrologic Alteration (ELOHA)". The aim of this study was to develop a classification for 390 stream sections of the Segura River Basin based on 73 hydrological indices that characterize their natural flow regimes. The hydrological indices were calculated with 25 years of natural monthly flows (1980/81-2005/06) derived from a rainfall-runoff model developed by the Spanish Ministry of Environment and Public Works. These indices included, at a monthly or annual basis, measures of duration of droughts and central tendency and dispersion of flow magnitude (average, low and high flow conditions). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated high redundancy among most hydrological indices, as well as two gradients: flow magnitude for mainstream rivers and temporal variability for tributary streams. A classification with eight flow-regime classes was chosen as the most easily interpretable in the Segura River Basin, which was supported by ANOSIM analyses. These classes can be simplified in 4 broader groups, with different seasonal discharge pattern: large rivers, perennial stable streams, perennial seasonal streams and intermittent and ephemeral streams. They showed a high degree of spatial cohesion, following a gradient associated with climatic aridity from NW to SE, and were well defined in terms of the fundamental variables in Mediterranean streams: magnitude and temporal variability of flows. Therefore, this classification is a fundamental tool to support water management and planning in the Segura River Basin. Future research will allow us to study the flow alteration-ecological response relationship for each river type, and set the basis to design scientifically credible environmental flows following the ELOHA framework.

  14. Disproportionate impact of diabetes in a Puerto Rican community of Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Steve; Silva, Abigail; Shah, Ami M

    2006-12-01

    We assessed the impact of diabetes in a large Puerto Rican community of Chicago by measuring the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes and calculating the diabetes mortality rate. Data were analyzed from a comprehensive health survey conducted in randomly selected households in community areas. Questions on diagnosed diabetes and selected risk factors were asked. In addition, vital records data were analyzed in order to calculate the age-adjusted diabetes mortality rate. When possible, rates were compared to those found in other studies. The diabetes prevalence located in this community (20.8%: 95% CI = 10.1%-38.0%) is the highest ever reported for Puerto Ricans and one of the highest ever reported in the United States for a non-Native American population. For instance, it is twice the prevalence for Puerto Ricans in New York (11.3%) and Puerto Rico (9.3%-9.6%). Diagnosed diabetes was found to be significantly associated with obesity (p = 0.023). The prevalence was particularly high among older people, females, those born in the US, and those with a family history of diabetes. Notably, the diabetes mortality rate (67.6 per 100,000 population) was more than twice the rate for all of Chicago (31.2) and the US (25.4). Understanding why the diabetes prevalence and mortality rates for Puerto Ricans in this community are so much higher than those of other communities is imperative for primary and secondary prevention. Collaboration between researchers, service providers and community members can help address the issues of diabetes education, early screening and diagnosis, and effective treatment needed in this community.

  15. Influential Factors of Puerto Rican Mother-Child Communication About Sexual Health Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Maria Idalí; Granberry, Phillip; Person, Sharina; Allison, Jeroan; Rosal, Milagros; Rustan, Sarah

    2016-11-01

    Introduction Latina mothers play a central role in raising and socializing their children; however, few studies have examined the cultural, socio-cognitive and neighborhood-related variables influencing the level of communication between Puerto Rican mothers and their children about sexuality and sexual health. This cross-sectional study sought to examine these influences. Methods Puerto Rican mothers with children aged 10-19 years (n = 193) were selected randomly for an ethnographic interview as part of a community participatory action research project in a U.S. urban northeastern community. Results Bivariate analyses found statistically significant associations between the child's age (p = 0.002), the mother's past communication about traditional gender role norms of women (marianismo) (p < 0.001), her positive outcome expectations for communications with her child (p < 0.025), and her perceptions of the physical condition (p < 0.001) and sexual health problems (p = 0.047) in the neighborhood. In a multivariate model, all of these variables remained significant except sexual health problems, and mother's attitudes toward the obligations of children to parents (familismo) emerged as a factor associated with a decrease in the number of sexual health topics that mothers raised with their children. No significant effects were found for mother's spiritual and religious experience (religiosidad). Discussion Our study highlights the importance of marianismo as a framework within which Puerto Rican mothers communicate sexual health information as well as the need to improve mothers' confidence discussing sexual health issues with their children. Future public health interventions to promote communication about sexuality and sexual health among Puerto Rican mothers should consider addressing this issue as a part of comprehensive neighborhood improvement projects.

  16. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Xingwang; Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened beverages or sweetened solid foods are associated with cognitive function. The present study included 737 participants without diabetes, aged 45–75 years, from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, 200...

  17. Supporting natural resource management—The role of economics at the Department of the Interior—A workshop report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindilli, Emily J.; Crowley, Christian S.L.; Cline, Sarah A.; Good, Anthony J.; Shapiro, Carl D.; Simon, Benjamin M.

    2018-04-19

    The first U.S. Department of the Interior Economics Workshop was held April 5–7, 2017 in Washington, D.C., to identify, highlight, and better understand needs and opportunities for economic analysis to support the Department of the Interior’s mission. The Economics Workshop, jointly convened by the Department of the Interior Office of Policy Analysis and the U.S. Geological Survey Science and Decisions Center, provided an opportunity for Department of the Interior’s economists to share expertise and experiences and to build collaboration and communication channels across the Department of the Interior.Natural and cultural resource managers face complex questions and often have to balance competing stakeholder interests. Per the mission statement, the Department of the Interior “protects and manages the Nation’s natural resources and cultural heritage; provides scientific and other information about those resources; and honors its trust responsibilities or special commitments to American Indians, Alaska Natives, and affiliated island communities.” Economic analysis is relevant to issues integral to nearly all the land and water management decisions made by the Department of the Interior. More than 80 Department of the Interior economists gathered at the Economics Workshop to share their work, discuss common challenges, and identify approaches to advance the use and contribution of economics at the Department of the Interior.

  18. Maxillary implant-supported overdentures opposed by (partial) natural dentitions: a 5-year prospective case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boven, G C; Slot, J W A; Raghoebar, G M; Vissink, A; Meijer, H J A

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the 5-year treatment outcome of maxillary implant-retained overdentures opposed by natural antagonistic teeth. Fifty consecutive patients received maxillary overdentures supported by six dental implants. Implants were placed in the anterior region, if enough bone was present (n = 25 patients) Implant were placed in the posterior region if implant placement in the anterior region was not possible (n = 25 patients). Variables assessed included survival of implants, condition of hard and soft peri-implant tissues and patients' satisfaction. The five-year implant survival rate was 97·0% and 99·3%, and mean radiographic bone loss was 0·23 and 0·69 mm in the anterior and posterior group, respectively. Median scores for plaque, calculus, gingiva, bleeding and mean scores for pocket probing depth were low and stayed low. Patients' satisfaction after treatment was high in both groups. Within the limits of this 5-year study, it is concluded that six dental implants (placed in the anterior or posterior region) connected with a bar and opposed to natural antagonistic teeth result in acceptable results for clinical parameters and good outcomes for marginal bone level changes and patient satisfaction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Supportive breeding boosts natural population abundance with minimal negative impacts on fitness of a wild population of Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Maureen A; Rabe, Craig D; Vogel, Jason L; Stephenson, Jeff J; Nelson, Doug D; Narum, Shawn R

    2012-01-01

    While supportive breeding programmes strive to minimize negative genetic impacts to populations, case studies have found evidence for reduced fitness of artificially produced individuals when they reproduce in the wild. Pedigrees of two complete generations were tracked with molecular markers to investigate differences in reproductive success (RS) of wild and hatchery-reared Chinook salmon spawning in the natural environment to address questions regarding the demographic and genetic impacts of supplementation to a natural population. Results show a demographic boost to the population from supplementation. On average, fish taken into the hatchery produced 4.7 times more adult offspring, and 1.3 times more adult grand-offspring than naturally reproducing fish. Of the wild and hatchery fish that successfully reproduced, we found no significant differences in RS between any comparisons, but hatchery-reared males typically had lower RS values than wild males. Mean relative reproductive success (RRS) for hatchery F1 females and males was 1.11 (P = 0.84) and 0.89 (P = 0.56), respectively. RRS of hatchery-reared fish (H) that mated in the wild with either hatchery or wild-origin (W) fish was generally equivalent to W × W matings. Mean RRS of H × W and H × H matings was 1.07 (P = 0.92) and 0.94 (P = 0.95), respectively. We conclude that fish chosen for hatchery rearing did not have a detectable negative impact on the fitness of wild fish by mating with them for a single generation. Results suggest that supplementation following similar management practices (e.g. 100% local, wild-origin brood stock) can successfully boost population size with minimal impacts on the fitness of salmon in the wild. PMID:23025818

  20. Challenges for implementing water quality monitoring and analysis on a small Costa Rican catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golcher, Christian; Cernesson, Flavie; Tournoud, Marie-George; Bonin, Muriel; Suarez, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The Costa Rican water regulatory framework (WRF) (2007), expresses the national concern about the degradation of surface water quality observed in the country since several years. Given the urgency of preserving and restoring the surface water bodies, and facing the need of defining a monitoring tool to classify surface water pollution, the Costa-Rican WRF relies on two water quality indexes: the so-called "Dutch Index" (D.I) and the Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted to Costa Rica (BMWP'CR), allowing an "easy" physicochemical and biological appraisal of the water quality and the ecological integrity of water bodies. Herein, we intend to evaluate whether the compound of water quality indexes imposed by Costa Rican legislation, is suitable to assess rivers local and global anthropogenic pressure and environmental conditions. We monitor water quality for 7 points of Liberia River (northern pacific region - Costa Rica) from March 2013 to July 2015. Anthropogenic pressures are characterized by catchment land use and riparian conditions. Environmental conditions are built from rainfall daily series. Our results show (i) the difficulties to monitor new sites following the recent implementation of the WRF; (ii) the statistical characteristics of each index; and (iii) a modelling tentative of relationships between water quality indexes and explanatory factors (land-use, riparian characteristics and climate conditions).

  1. Acculturation and Intention to Breastfeed among a Population of Predominantly Puerto Rican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelona de Mendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Latinas have high overall breastfeeding initiation rates, yet Puerto Ricans have among the lowest exclusive breastfeeding rates. This study sought to determine if acculturation was associated with intent to breastfeed in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. A cohort of Latina women were enrolled in Proyecto Buena Salud, and provided information on infant feeding intent (n = 1,323). Acculturation was assessed via the Psychological Acculturation Scale (PAS), language preference, and generation in the United States. Increasing acculturation as measured by English language preference (aOR 0.61 [95% CI 0.42-0.88]) and second or third generation in the United States (aOR 0.70 [95% CI 0.52-0.95)] was inversely associated with odds of intending to exclusively breastfeed. Similarly, women with higher levels of acculturation as measured by the PAS (aOR 0.67 [95% CI 0.45-0.99]), English language preference (aOR 0.48 [95% CI 0.33-0.70]) and second or third generation in the United States (aOR 0.42 [95% CI 0.31-0.58]) were less likely to report intent to combination feed as compared with women with lower acculturation. Acculturation was inversely associated with intent to exclusively breastfeed and intent to combination feed in this predominantly Puerto Rican sample. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Application of DNA fingerprinting to the recovery program of the endangered Puerto Rican parrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, M.K.; White, B.N.

    1992-01-01

    The Puerto Rican parrot was reduced to 13 animals in 1975 and as a conservation measure, a captive population was established from a few founders taken from the wild between 1973 and 1983. The number of successful breeding pairs in captivity has been !ow, and the captive breeding program has not been as productive as that of the closely related Hispaniolan parrot. Therefore, a genetic study was initiated to examine the relative levels of relatedness of the captive founders using levels of bandsharing in DNA fingerprints. Unrelated captive founder Puerto Rican parrots had the same average level of bandsharing (0.41) as second-degree relatives of the Hispaniolan parrot (0.38, P > 0,05), with an inbreeding coefficient of 0.04. High levels of bandsharing (>40%) between pairs of males and females correlated with reproductive failure, suggesting that inbreeding depression is partly responsible for the !ow number of' breeding pairs. Consequently, DNA profiling can be used to guide the captive breeding program for the Puerto Rican parrot, and other endangered species, by identifying pairs of males and females with low levels of bandsharing.

  3. Influential Factors of Puerto Rican Mother–Child Communication About Sexual Health Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberry, Phillip; Person, Sharina; Allison, Jeroan; Rosal, Milagros; Rustan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latina mothers play a central role in raising and socializing their children; however, few studies have examined the cultural, socio-cognitive and neighborhood-related variables influencing the level of communication between Puerto Rican mothers and their children about sexuality and sexual health. This cross-sectional study sought to examine these influences. Methods Puerto Rican mothers with children aged 10–19 years (n = 193) were selected randomly for an ethnographic interview as part of a community participatory action research project in a U.S. urban northeastern community. Results Bivariate analyses found statistically significant associations between the child’s age (p = 0.002), the mother’s past communication about traditional gender role norms of women (marianismo) (p communications with her child (p communicate sexual health information as well as the need to improve mothers’ confidence discussing sexual health issues with their children. Future public health interventions to promote communication about sexuality and sexual health among Puerto Rican mothers should consider addressing this issue as a part of comprehensive neighborhood improvement projects. PMID:27461018

  4. Importance of vitamin D and vitamin D levels status in Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Martínez, Edu B; Pérez, Cynthia M; Cruz, Sofia K; Khorsandi, Shayan; Chardón, Camile; Ferder, Leon

    2013-11-01

    There is growing and compelling evidence demonstrating the extra-skeletal role of vitamin D and the importance of maintaining adequate levels of this nutrient. Currently, there is very limited information available on the vitamin D status in children and adults in underserved groups, including Puerto Ricans. We assessed the vitamin D status of 4,090 Puerto Ricans living in six geographical regions in the island. Only 31.5% of the studied population had sufficient vitamin D levels (>30 ng/ml). The 18-39 year age group and the females showed inadequate (<30 ng/ml) levels of vitamin D (76.9% and 69.8%, respectively). Participants aged 60 or older showed the highest mean values of serum 25(OH)D (28.8 ng/ml) and the highest percentage (37.1%) of sufficient levels (>30 ng/ml). Future studies are certainly warranted to understand the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and influencing factors (including obesity) in Puerto Ricans.

  5. Artificial Cavities and Nest Site Selection by Puerto Rican Parrots: a Multiscale Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. White, Jr.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined nest site selection by Puerto Rican Parrots, a secondary cavity nester, at several spatial scales using the nest entrance as the central focal point relative to 20 habitat and spatial variables. The Puerto Rican Parrot is unique in that, since 2001, all known nesting in the wild has occurred in artificial cavities, which also provided us with an opportunity to evaluate nest site selection without confounding effects of the actual nest cavity characteristics. Because of the data limitations imposed by the small population size of this critically endangered endemic species, we employed a distribution-free statistical simulation approach to assess site selection relative to characteristics of used and unused nesting sites. Nest sites selected by Puerto Rican Parrots were characterized by greater horizontal and vertical visibility from the nest entrance, greater density of mature sierra palms, and a more westerly and leeward orientation of nest entrances than unused sites. Our results suggest that nest site selection in this species is an adaptive response to predation pressure, to which the parrots respond by selecting nest sites offering advantages in predator detection and avoidance at all stages of the nesting cycle. We conclude that identifying and replicating the “nest gestalt” of successful nesting sites may facilitate conservation efforts for this and other endangered avian species.

  6. Profiling the venom gland transcriptomes of Costa Rican snakes by 454 pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz Libia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A long term research goal of venomics, of applied importance for improving current antivenom therapy, but also for drug discovery, is to understand the pharmacological potential of venoms. Individually or combined, proteomic and transcriptomic studies have demonstrated their feasibility to explore in depth the molecular diversity of venoms. In the absence of genome sequence, transcriptomes represent also valuable searchable databases for proteomic projects. Results The venom gland transcriptomes of 8 Costa Rican taxa from 5 genera (Crotalus, Bothrops, Atropoides, Cerrophidion, and Bothriechis of pitvipers were investigated using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. 100,394 out of 330,010 masked reads produced significant hits in the available databases. 5.165,220 nucleotides (8.27% were masked by RepeatMasker, the vast majority of which corresponding to class I (retroelements and class II (DNA transposons mobile elements. BLAST hits included 79,991 matches to entries of the taxonomic suborder Serpentes, of which 62,433 displayed similarity to documented venom proteins. Strong discrepancies between the transcriptome-computed and the proteome-gathered toxin compositions were obvious at first sight. Although the reasons underlaying this discrepancy are elusive, since no clear trend within or between species is apparent, the data indicate that individual mRNA species may be translationally controlled in a species-dependent manner. The minimum number of genes from each toxin family transcribed into the venom gland transcriptome of each species was calculated from multiple alignments of reads matched to a full-length reference sequence of each toxin family. Reads encoding ORF regions of Kazal-type inhibitor-like proteins were uniquely found in Bothriechis schlegelii and B. lateralis transcriptomes, suggesting a genus-specific recruitment event during the early-Middle Miocene. A transcriptome-based cladogram supports the large

  7. Diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility of oxytetracycline-resistant isolates of Stenotrophomonas sp. and Serratia sp. associated with Costa Rican crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, C; Wachlin, A; Altendorf, K; García, F; Lipski, A

    2007-12-01

    To ameliorate the identification, evaluate the diversity, and determine the antimicrobial sensitivity of 19 oxytetracycline-resistant isolates of Stenotrophomonas sp. and Serratia sp. associated with Costa Rican crops. Phenotypical, chemotaxonomical, and molecular data allocated most isolates to the species Sten. maltophilia and Ser. marcescens. The API profiles, antimicrobial resistance patterns (ATB system), and BOX-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genomic fingerprints of isolates of Stenotrophomonas sp. exhibited a higher degree of heterogeneity than those obtained for the isolates of Serratia sp. The former group of bacteria exhibited multiresistance to antimicrobials. In contrast, isolates of Serratia sp. were sensitive to the majority of the drugs tested. Changes in the results of the antibiograms throughout incubation, which indicate an induction of tolerance, were observed for isolates of both the species. Minimum inhibitory concentration of oxytetracycline, determined using E-test stripes, were rather elevated. The occurrence of two species of opportunistic pathogens in crop-associated materials poses a risk to consumers in the community. The phenotypic and genotypic data presented could support epidemiologist and physicians dealing with infections caused by environmental strains of these taxa.

  8. Construction of the Cognitive Dimension of the Scientific Literacy in the Students through the Costa Rican Biological Sciences Olympics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Camacho-Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This research recognizes the cognitive contributions to the students participating in the Third Costa Rican Biological Sciences Olympics that will define the advancement and strengthening in the construction of its conceptual dimension in the scientific literacy.  This paper is based, mainly, on qualitative approach techniques (ethnographic design:  case study; however, some data are interpreted through quantitative methodologies (descriptive design with an explanatory and exploratory touch for the analysis of a sample of 54 high school students, finalists in the category A of the Olympics, through the use of tools such as a documentary study and a survey, in July 2009.  The information generated was analyzed using elements of inferential and descriptive statistics, figures and histograms.  It was proved that there is a better cognitive management in the topics assessed, an increase in the students’ academic performance as the tests are applied, a commitment for the academic update supported by the development of several tasks for previous preparation, curriculum contributions unprecedented based on our sample, a consent to optimize student’s knowledge about Biology, which will allow the application of scientific notions to diversify and renew the knowledge, according to what is established in the principles of scientific literacy.

  9. The 'temporal effect' in hominids: Reinvestigating the nature of support for a chimp-human clade in bone morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Alannah; Groves, Colin; Cardini, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    In 2004, an analysis by Lockwood and colleagues of hard-tissue morphology, using geometric morphometrics on the temporal bone, succeeded in recovering the correct phylogeny of living hominids without resorting to potentially problematic methods for transforming continuous shape variables into meristic characters. That work has increased hope that by using modern analytical methods and phylogenetically informative anatomical data we might one day be able to accurately infer the relationships of hominins, including the closest extinct relatives of modern humans. In the present study, using 3D virtually generated models of the hominid temporal bone and a larger suite of geometric morphometric and comparative techniques, we have re-examined the evidence for a Pan-Homo clade. Despite differences in samples, as well as the type of raw data, the effect of measurement error (and especially landmark digitization by a different operator), but also a broader perspective brought in by our diverse set of approaches, our reanalysis largely supports Lockwood and colleagues' original results. However, by focusing not only mainly on shape (as in the original 2004 analysis) but also on size and 'size-corrected' (non-allometric) shape, we demonstrate that the strong phylogenetic signal in the temporal bone is largely related to similarities in size. Thus, with this study, we are not suggesting the use of a single 'character', such as size, for phylogenetic inference, but we do challenge the common view that shape, with its highly complex and multivariate nature, is necessarily more phylogenetically informative than size and that actually size and size-related shape variation (i.e., allometry) confound phylogenetic inference based on morphology. This perspective may in fact be less generalizable than often believed. Thus, while we confirm the original findings by Lockwood et al., we provide a deep reinterpretation of their nature and potential implications for hominid phylogenetics

  10. A Profile of Puerto Rican Health in the United States: Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1982-84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Eric; And Others

    The health conditions and health status of Hispanic Americans will assume increased importance as their population increases. The goal of this book of charts is to present data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) on Puerto Ricans. The Puerto Rican HHANES sampling procedure is a multi-stage probability sample of…

  11. Identification of Long Bone Fractures in Radiology Reports Using Natural Language Processing to support Healthcare Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmeier, Robert W; Masino, Aaron J; Casper, T Charles; Dean, Jonathan M; Bell, Jamie; Enriquez, Rene; Deakyne, Sara; Chamberlain, James M; Alpern, Elizabeth R

    2016-11-09

    Important information to support healthcare quality improvement is often recorded in free text documents such as radiology reports. Natural language processing (NLP) methods may help extract this information, but these methods have rarely been applied outside the research laboratories where they were developed. To implement and validate NLP tools to identify long bone fractures for pediatric emergency medicine quality improvement. Using freely available statistical software packages, we implemented NLP methods to identify long bone fractures from radiology reports. A sample of 1,000 radiology reports was used to construct three candidate classification models. A test set of 500 reports was used to validate the model performance. Blinded manual review of radiology reports by two independent physicians provided the reference standard. Each radiology report was segmented and word stem and bigram features were constructed. Common English "stop words" and rare features were excluded. We used 10-fold cross-validation to select optimal configuration parameters for each model. Accuracy, recall, precision and the F1 score were calculated. The final model was compared to the use of diagnosis codes for the identification of patients with long bone fractures. There were 329 unique word stems and 344 bigrams in the training documents. A support vector machine classifier with Gaussian kernel performed best on the test set with accuracy=0.958, recall=0.969, precision=0.940, and F1 score=0.954. Optimal parameters for this model were cost=4 and gamma=0.005. The three classification models that we tested all performed better than diagnosis codes in terms of accuracy, precision, and F1 score (diagnosis code accuracy=0.932, recall=0.960, precision=0.896, and F1 score=0.927). NLP methods using a corpus of 1,000 training documents accurately identified acute long bone fractures from radiology reports. Strategic use of straightforward NLP methods, implemented with freely available

  12. Influence of connection type on the biomechanical behavior of distal extension mandibular removable partial dentures supported by implants and natural teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Li, Zhiyong; Shen, Shiqian; Chen, Shaowu; Chen, Sulin; Wang, Jiawei

    2016-02-01

    Few studies are performed to evaluate the influence of connection type on the stress distribution of distal extension mandibular removable partial dentures (RPDs) supported by both implants and natural teeth. In this study, five three-dimensional finite element models were prepared to simulate mandibular bilateral partially edentulous arches. Four were RPDs supported by both implants and natural teeth, and the other one was RPDs supported only by natural teeth. The maximum equivalent (EQV) stress values of bone around implants, the abutments, and the mucosa displacements of the related supporting structures were measured. It was found that a non-rigid telescopic coping was more favorable to protect the implant than a rigid telescopic coping. Compared with other connection types, the easy resilient attachment (ERA) system seemed to be effective to associate implant without complications. However, the results obtained in the present study should be cautiously interpreted in the clinic.

  13. A Decision Support System (DSS to Select the Premier Fuel to Develop in the Value Chain of Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mousaei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A value chain is a series of events that takes a raw material and with each step adds value to it. Global interest in the application of natural gas (NG in production and transportation has grown dramatically, representing a long-term, low-cost, domestic, and secure alternative to petroleum-based fuels. Many technological solutions are currently considered on the market or in development, which address the challenge and opportunity of NG. In this paper, a decision support system (DSS is introduced for selecting the best fuel to develop in the value chain of NG through four options, namely compressed NG (CNG, liquefied NG (LNG, dimethyl ether (DME, and gas-to-liquids (GTL. The DSS includes a model which uses the technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS to select the best fuel in the value chain of NG based on the attributes such as market situations, technology availability, and transportation infrastructure. The model recommends some key guidelines for two branches of countries, i.e. those which have NG resources and the others. We believe that applying the proposed DSS helps the oil and gas/energy ministries in a most effective and productive manner dealing with the complicated fuel-related production and transportation decision-making situations.

  14. Host-based identification is not supported by morphometrics in natural populations of Gyrodactylus salaris and G. thymalli (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, K; Shinn, A P; Bachmann, L; Bakke, T A

    2007-12-01

    Gyrodactylus salaris is a serious pest of wild pre-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Norway. The closely related G. thymalli, originally described from grayling (Thymallus thymallus), is assumed harmless to both grayling and salmon. The 2 species are difficult to distinguish using traditional, morphometric methods or molecular approaches. The aim of this study was to explore whether there is a consistent pattern of morphometrical variation between G. salaris and G. thymalli and to analyse the morphometric variation in the context of 'diagnostic realism' (in natural populations). Specimens from the type-material for the 2 species are also included. In total, 27 point-to-point measurements from the opisthaptoral hard parts were used and analysed by digital image processing and uni- and multivariate morphometry. All populations most closely resembled its respective type material, as expected from host species, with the exception of G. thymalli from the Norwegian river Trysilelva. We, therefore, did not find clear support in the morphometrical variation among G. salaris and G. thymalli for an a priori species delineation based on host. The present study also indicates an urgent need for more detailed knowledge on the influence of environmental factors on the phenotype of gyrodactylid populations.

  15. Raman Spectroscopy and Electrochemical Investigations of Pt Electrocatalyst Supported on Carbon Prepared through Plasma Pyrolysis of Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Cristina Santos Evangelista

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical and electrochemical characterisations of Pt-based electrocatalysts supported on carbon (Vulcan carbon, C1, and carbon produced by plasma pyrolysis of natural gas, C2 toward ethanol electrooxidation were investigated. The Pt20/C180 and Pt20/C280 electrocatalysts were prepared by thermal decomposition of polymeric precursors at 350°C. The electrochemical and physicochemical characterisations of the electrocatalysts were performed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscope (TEM, Raman scattering, cyclic voltammetry, and chronoamperometry tests. The XRD results show that the Pt-based electrocatalysts present platinum metallic which is face-centered cubic structure. The results indicate that the Pt20/C180 electrocatalyst has a smaller particle size (10.1–6.9 nm compared with the Pt20/C280 electrocatalyst; however, the Pt20/C280 particle sizes are similar (12.8–10.4 nm and almost independent of the reflection planes, which suggests that the Pt crystallites grow with a radial shape. Raman results reveal that both Vulcan carbon and plasma carbon are graphite-like materials consisting mostly of sp2 carbon. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry data obtained in this study indicate that the deposition of Pt on plasma carbon increases its electrocatalytic activity toward ethanol oxidation reaction.

  16. Supports of and Barriers to Pursuing a Natural Resource Degree and Career: Perspectives of Culturally Diverse Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcarczyk, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Federal natural resource agencies are facing a human resource crisis. Many natural resource professionals are reaching retirement and attracting young adults to fill vacancies may prove difficult. Although currently on the rise from a recent fall, enrollment in natural resource degree programs has not increased overall in the past three decades,…

  17. Human natural killer cell maturation defect supports in vivo CD56(bright to CD56(dim lineage development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Inés Domaica

    Full Text Available Two populations of human natural killer (NK cells can be identified in peripheral blood. The majority are CD3(-CD56(dim cells while the minority exhibits a CD3(-CD56(bright phenotype. In vitro evidence indicates that CD56(bright cells are precursors of CD56(dim cells, but in vivo evidence is lacking. Here, we studied NK cells from a patient that suffered from a melanoma and opportunistic fungal infection during childhood. The patient exhibited a stable phenotype characterized by a reduction in the frequency of peripheral blood CD3(-CD56(dim NK cells, accompanied by an overt increase in the frequency and absolute number of CD3(-CD56(bright cells. These NK cells exhibited similar expression of perforin, CD57 and CD158, the major activating receptors CD16, NKp46, NKG2D, DNAM-1, and 2B4, as well as the inhibitory receptor CD94/NKG2A, on both CD56(bright and CD56(dim NK cells as healthy controls. Also, both NK cell subpopulations produced IFN-γ upon stimulation with cytokines, and CD3(-CD56(dim NK cells degranulated in response to cytokines or K562 cells. However, upon stimulation with cytokines, a substantial fraction of CD56(dim cells failed to up-regulate CD57 and CD158, showed a reduction in the percentage of CD16(+ cells, and CD56(bright cells did not down-regulate CD62L, suggesting that CD56(dim cells could not acquire a terminally differentiated phenotype and that CD56(bright cells exhibit a maturation defect that might result in a potential altered migration pattern. These observations, support the notion that NK cells of this patient display a maturation/activation defect that precludes the generation of mature NK cells at a normal rate accompanied by CD56(dim NK cells that cannot completely acquire a terminally differentiated phenotype. Thus, our results provide evidence that support the concept that in vivo CD56(bright NK cells differentiate into CD56(dim NK cells, and contribute to further understand human NK cell ontogeny.

  18. Body composition using deuterated water, index of insulin resistance and cortisol levels in Costa Rican school in the metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde Vindas, Allan Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Body composition in the Costa Rican child population is evaluated and analyzed to determine the relationship with the index of insulin resistance and serum cortisol levels. 113 children in the metropolitan area were studied using deuterium isotope techniques as reference method for overweight and obesity. Morning cortisol levels were determined by immunoassay techniques (ELISA). The insulin resistance index of 113 Costa Rican boys and girls is obtained by the homeostatic method and the relationship between body composition with index of insulin resistance or levels of cortisol [es

  19. Clonality, genetic diversity and support for the diversifying selection hypothesis in natural populations of a flower-living yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, C M; Pozo, M I; Bazaga, P

    2011-11-01

    Vast amounts of effort have been devoted to investigate patterns of genetic diversity and structuring in plants and animals, but similar information is scarce for organisms of other kingdoms. The study of the genetic structure of natural populations of wild yeasts can provide insights into the ecological and genetic correlates of clonality, and into the generality of recent hypotheses postulating that microbial populations lack the potential for genetic divergence and allopatric speciation. Ninety-one isolates of the flower-living yeast Metschnikowia gruessii from southeastern Spain were DNA fingerprinted using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Genetic diversity and structuring was investigated with band-based methods and model- and nonmodel-based clustering. Linkage disequilibrium tests were used to assess reproduction mode. Microsite-dependent, diversifying selection was tested by comparing genetic characteristics of isolates from bumble bee vectors and different floral microsites. AFLP polymorphism (91%) and genotypic diversity were very high. Genetic diversity was spatially structured, as shown by amova (Φ(st)  = 0.155) and clustering. The null hypothesis of random mating was rejected, clonality seeming the prevailing reproductive mode in the populations studied. Genetic diversity of isolates declined from bumble bee mouthparts to floral microsites, and frequency of five AFLP markers varied significantly across floral microsites, thus supporting the hypothesis of diversifying selection on clonal lineages. Wild populations of clonal fungal microbes can exhibit levels of genetic diversity and spatial structuring that are not singularly different from those shown by sexually reproducing plants or animals. Microsite-dependent, divergent selection can maintain high local and regional genetic diversity in microbial populations despite extensive clonality. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Landslide susceptibility mapping based on Support Vector Machine: A case study on natural slopes of Hong Kong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, X.; Tham, L. G.; Dai, F. C.

    2008-11-01

    The Support Vector Machine (SVM) is an increasingly popular learning procedure based on statistical learning theory, and involves a training phase in which the model is trained by a training dataset of associated input and target output values. The trained model is then used to evaluate a separate set of testing data. There are two main ideas underlying the SVM for discriminant-type problems. The first is an optimum linear separating hyperplane that separates the data patterns. The second is the use of kernel functions to convert the original non-linear data patterns into the format that is linearly separable in a high-dimensional feature space. In this paper, an overview of the SVM, both one-class and two-class SVM methods, is first presented followed by its use in landslide susceptibility mapping. A study area was selected from the natural terrain of Hong Kong, and slope angle, slope aspect, elevation, profile curvature of slope, lithology, vegetation cover and topographic wetness index (TWI) were used as environmental parameters which influence the occurrence of landslides. One-class and two-class SVM models were trained and then used to map landslide susceptibility respectively. The resulting susceptibility maps obtained by the methods were compared to that obtained by the logistic regression (LR) method. It is concluded that two-class SVM possesses better prediction efficiency than logistic regression and one-class SVM. However, one-class SVM, which only requires failed cases, has an advantage over the other two methods as only "failed" case information is usually available in landslide susceptibility mapping.

  1. Acculturation and Adverse Birth Outcomes in a Predominantly Puerto Rican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelona de Mendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Latinas in the United States on average have poorer birth outcomes than Whites, yet considerable heterogeneity exists within Latinas. Puerto Ricans have some of the highest rates of adverse outcomes and are understudied. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation was associated with adverse birth outcomes in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted from 2006 to 2011. A convenience sample of pregnant Latina women were recruited from a tertiary care hospital in Massachusetts. Acculturation was measured in early pregnancy; directly via the Psychological Acculturation Scale, and via proxies of language preference and generation in the United States. Birth outcomes (gestational age and birthweight) were abstracted from medical records (n = 1362). Results After adjustment, psychological acculturation, language preference, and generation was not associated with odds of preterm birth. However, every unit increase in psychological acculturation score was associated with an increase in gestational age of 0.22 weeks (SE = 0.1, p = 0.04) among all births. Women who preferred to speak Spanish (β = -0.39, SE = 0.2, p = 0.02) and who were first generation in the US (β = -0.33, SE = 0.1, p = 0.02) had significantly lower gestational ages than women who preferred English or who were later generation, respectively. Similarly, women who were first generation had babies who weighed 76.11 g less (SE = 35.2, p = 0.03) than women who were later generation. Discussion We observed a small, but statistically significant adverse impact of low acculturation on gestational age and birthweight in this predominantly Puerto Rican population.

  2. Association between BDNF rs6265 and Obesity in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Yong Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been associated with regulation of body weight and appetite. The goal of this study was to examine the interactions of a functional variant (rs6265 in the BDNF gene with dietary intake for obesity traits in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped in 1147 Puerto Rican adults and examined for association with obesity-related traits. Men (n=242 with the GG genotype had higher BMI (P=0.009, waist circumference (P=0.002, hip (P=0.002, and weight (P=0.03 than GA or AA carriers (n=94. They had twice the risk of being overweight (BMI≥25 relative to GA or AA carriers (OR = 2.08, CI = 1.02–4.23, and P=0.043. Interactions between rs6265 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA intake were associated with BMI, hip, and weight, and n-3 : n-6 PUFA ratio with waist circumference in men. In contrast, women (n=595 with the GG genotype had significantly lower BMI (P=0.009, hip (P=0.029, and weight (P=0.027 than GA or AA carriers (n=216. Women with the GG genotype were 50% less likely to be overweight compared to GA or AA carriers (OR = 0.05, CI = 0.27–0.91, and P=0.024. In summary, BDNF rs6265 is differentially associated with obesity risk by sex and interacts with PUFA intake influencing obesity traits in Boston Puerto Rican men.

  3. Self-reliance, mental health need, and the use of mental healthcare among island Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Alexander N; Alegría, Margarita

    2002-09-01

    This paper examines the relationship between self-reliance (preference to solve emotional problems on one's own) and 5 mental healthcare utilization outcomes for Puerto Ricans living in low-income areas. A random probability community sample of noninstitutionalized Puerto Ricans, ages 18-69, living in low-income areas of the island were selected and interviewed in 1992-93 and 1993-94. A series of logistic regression models tested the association between self-reliance and 5 mental health utilization measures, after adjusting for covariates measuring predisposing, enabling, need and barrier factors: any use of mental health services, any use of general health services for mental healthcare, any use of specialty care, use of psychotropic medications, and retention in mental healthcare. Self-reliance was found to be negatively associated with all 5 dependent service utilization measures. Those with a positive self-reliant attitude were 40% less likely to use care on any of the 5 outcome measures. An interaction was also observed between definite need for mental healthcare and having a self-reliant attitude when predicting mental health service use. Definite needers with a self-reliant attitude were 54%-58% less likely to use mental health services compared with definite needers who did not have a self-reliant attitude. Further, decreases in self-reliant attitude over the two data collection periods were associated with increases in mental health service use. Our findings suggest that self-reliance is a significant and robust predictor of mental healthcare utilization among Puerto Ricans living in low-income areas of the island.

  4. A twin study of early-childhood asthma in Puerto Ricans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supinda Bunyavanich

    Full Text Available The relative contributions of genetics and environment to asthma in Hispanics or to asthma in children younger than 3 years are not well understood.To examine the relative contributions of genetics and environment to early-childhood asthma by performing a longitudinal twin study of asthma in Puerto Rican children ≤ 3 years old.678 twin infants from the Puerto Rico Neo-Natal Twin Registry were assessed for asthma at age 1 year, with follow-up data obtained for 624 twins at age 3 years. Zygosity was determined by DNA microsatellite profiling. Structural equation modeling was performed for three phenotypes at ages 1 and 3 years: physician-diagnosed asthma, asthma medication use in the past year, and ≥ 1 hospitalization for asthma in the past year. Models were additionally adjusted for early-life environmental tobacco smoke exposure, sex, and age.The prevalences of physician-diagnosed asthma, asthma medication use, and hospitalization for asthma were 11.6%, 10.8%, 4.9% at age 1 year, and 34.1%, 40.1%, and 8.5% at 3 years, respectively. Shared environmental effects contributed to the majority of variance in susceptibility to physician-diagnosed asthma and asthma medication use in the first year of life (84%-86%, while genetic effects drove variance in all phenotypes (45%-65% at age 3 years. Early-life environmental tobacco smoke, sex, and age contributed to variance in susceptibility.Our longitudinal study in Puerto Rican twins demonstrates a changing contribution of shared environmental effects to liability for physician-diagnosed asthma and asthma medication use between ages 1 and 3 years. Early-life environmental tobacco smoke reduction could markedly reduce asthma morbidity in young Puerto Rican children.

  5. The impact of war on Puerto Rican families: challenges and strengthened family relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaly Freytes, I; Hannold, Elizabeth M; Resende, Rosana; Wing, Kristen; Uphold, Constance R

    2013-08-01

    We describe the impact of war on Puerto Rican Veterans and family members. We used qualitative research methods to collect and analyze data. We interviewed 8 Veterans and 8 family members. We used the constant comparison method to review data to identify prominent themes. Two categories emerged: (1) Challenges associated with post-deployment family reintegration, and (2) A positive aftermath of war on the family. Overall, findings indicate that OEF/OIF Veterans and family members were not prepared for the changes they encounter post-deployment. Despite these challenges, some Veterans and family members strengthened their relationships and renewed their appreciation for one another.

  6. Maternal seric alpha-fetoprotein: determination of the medium values in Costa Rican pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas Chaves, P.; Villalobos Castro, A.

    1999-01-01

    The present study focuses on the normal mean values of AFP in 124 Costa rican pregnant women. In the women 554 determinations were done between the fifteenth and twentieth week of gestation. For this purpose, and Irma test and normal values were established. The concentration values of AFP were expressed as multiples of the median, considering a value of 2.5 Mm as the normal superior limit and of 0.25 as the inferior limit. The confidence limits of the median were 24-57 Ku/I and the 2.5MM value located between 60-143 Ku/I. (author)

  7. [CHALLENGES IN THE INTERVENTION OF PUERTO RICAN ADOLESCENTS THAT SHOW SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Yovanska Duarté; Dávila, Paloma Torres; Hernández, Samariz Laboy

    2015-01-01

    This article is a case study of a Puerto Rican adolescent with suicidal behavior. The adolescent began a Socio-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Suicidal Behavior (SCBT), an ambulatory treatment, after being hospitalized for a suicide attempt. The SCBT incorporates an ecological and developmental perspective to CBT. She initially presented low self-esteem, and significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. At the end of treatment, the adolescent revealed a significant change in symptoms, and a better use of her coping skills. No suicidal ideation was presented during previous months, neither during follow up. Case analysis allowed treatment protocol modifications, particularly family sessions and communication skills, thus contributing to its further feasibility.

  8. Granular cell tumor in an endangered Puerto Rican Amazon parrot (Amazon vittata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, C.F.; Latimer, K.S.; Goldade, S.L.; Rivera, A.; Dein, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    A 3 cm diameter mass from the metacarpus of a Puerto Rican Amazon parrot was diagnosed as a granular cell tumour based on light microscopy. The cytoplasmic granules were periodic-acid Schiff positive and diastase resistant. Ultrastructural characteristics of the cells included convoluted nuclei and the presence of numerous cytoplasmic tertiary lysosomes. This is only the second granular cell tumour reported in a bird. We speculate that most granular cell tumours are derived from cells that are engaged in some type of cellular degradative process, creating a similar morphologic appearance, but lacking a uniform histogenesis.

  9. Biomechanical evaluation of the natural abutment teeth in combined tooth-implant-supported telescopic prostheses: a three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Chao; Huang, Yuanding; Feng, Tianming; Zou, Huawei; Fan, Yubo

    2017-07-01

    Telescopic overdentures supported by the combination of natural teeth and implants have been thought a valuable treatment for the severely compromised partially edentulous patients. But the combination of teeth and implants involves highly complex biomechanical problems. This study is to evaluate biomechanical behaviors of the natural abutment teeth with the treatment of combined tooth-implant supported telescopic crown prostheses in mandible through 3D FEA. According to this study, the prosthetic option supported by a combination of teeth and implants and retained by double crowns could protect teeth and their periodontal support tissues acting as a rigid splint, and may be a valuable treatment option for partially edentulous patients with severely reduced remaining teeth in mandible.

  10. Historical and Retrospective Survey of Monitored Natural Attenuation: A Line of Inquiry Supporting Monitored Natural Attenuation and Enhanced Passive Remediation of Chlorinated Solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LOONEY, BB.

    2004-01-01

    As requested by the Savannah River Technology Center, Groundwater Services, Inc. (GSI), has conducted a historical analysis of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) application at chlorinated solvent sites. The objective of the analysis was to document trends, characteristics, successes, and barriers in the use of MNA as a remedy at chlorinated solvent sites. The analysis consisted of the following: (1) a review of recent literature regarding application of natural attenuation at chlorinated solvent sites, (2) a review of regulatory and industry guidance directing evaluation and implementation of MNA as a remedy at chlorinated solvent sites, and (3) a historical survey distributed to MNA experts, which requested data relating to the evaluation and implementation of MNA at chlorinated solvent sites

  11. Development of a natural analogue database to support the safety case of the Korean radioactive waste disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, M.H.; Park, T.J.; Kim, I.Y.; Jeong, J. [Korea Atomic Research Institute, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, K.W. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this study, the status of natural analogue studies in Korea is briefly summarized and applicability of existing natural analogue information to the Korean safety case has been evaluated. To enable effective application of natural analogue information to the overall evaluation of long-term safety (the 'safety case') for the geological disposal of radioactive wastes, a natural analogue database has been developed by collecting, classifying, and evaluating relevant data. The natural analogue data collected were classified into categories based on site information, components/processes of the disposal system, properties/phenomena, reference, safety case application, application method, and suitability to a safety case. Suitability of the natural analogue data to a specific safety case was evaluated based upon the importance and the applicability to the Korean safety case. As a result, 75 natural analogue datasets were selected as important for the Korean safety case. The database developed can now be utilized in the RD and D (Research, Development, and Demonstration) program development for natural analogue studies. In addition, the methodology developed and the database compiled in this study may assist in the development of safety case including safety assessment for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Korea as well as in other countries. (authors)

  12. Development of a natural analogue database to support the safety case of the Korean radioactive waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, M.H.; Park, T.J.; Kim, I.Y.; Jeong, J.; Choi, K.W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the status of natural analogue studies in Korea is briefly summarized and applicability of existing natural analogue information to the Korean safety case has been evaluated. To enable effective application of natural analogue information to the overall evaluation of long-term safety (the 'safety case') for the geological disposal of radioactive wastes, a natural analogue database has been developed by collecting, classifying, and evaluating relevant data. The natural analogue data collected were classified into categories based on site information, components/processes of the disposal system, properties/phenomena, reference, safety case application, application method, and suitability to a safety case. Suitability of the natural analogue data to a specific safety case was evaluated based upon the importance and the applicability to the Korean safety case. As a result, 75 natural analogue datasets were selected as important for the Korean safety case. The database developed can now be utilized in the RD and D (Research, Development, and Demonstration) program development for natural analogue studies. In addition, the methodology developed and the database compiled in this study may assist in the development of safety case including safety assessment for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Korea as well as in other countries. (authors)

  13. Use of natural analogues to support radionuclide transport models for deep geological repositories for long lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    Plans to dispose high level and long lived radioactive wastes in deep geological repositories have raised a number of unique problems, mainly due to the very long time-scales which have to be considered. An important way to help to evaluate performance and provide confidence in the assessment of safety in the long term is to carry out natural analogue studies. Natural analogues can be regarded as long term natural experiments the results or outcome of which can be observed, but which, by definition, are uncontrolled by humans. Studies of natural analogues have been carried out for more than two decades, although the application of information from them is only relatively recently becoming scientifically well ordered. This report is part of a the IAEA's programme on radioactive waste management dealing with disposal system technology for high level and long lived radioactive waste. It presents the current status of natural analogue information in evaluating models for radionuclide transport by groundwater. In particular, emphasis is given to the most useful aspects of quantitative applications for model development and testing (geochemistry and coupled transport models). The report provides an overview of various natural analogues as reference for those planning to develop a research programme in this field. Recommendations are given on the use of natural analogues to engender confidence in the safety of disposal systems. This report is a follow up of Technical Reports Series No. 304 on Natural Analogues in Performance Assessments for the Disposal of Long Lived Radioactive Waste (1989)

  14. Developing a science teacher education course that supports student teachers' thinking and teaching about the nature of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Pete; Newton, Len; McCarthy, Sue

    2012-04-01

    Background and purpose . This paper reports on part of an ongoing research project in England concerning the Nature of Science (NOS). The particular focus is on the initial thinking of the graduate scientists starting a one-year, Postgraduate Certificate of Education (PGCE) course and the way the course approaches adopted influence their views and understanding of NOS and their teaching. The research is set against a wealth of literature indicating that teachers find it difficult to teach curricula that emphasise NOS. Thus a key impetus for research in this area has been to look for ways that beginning teachers might be better prepared to face such challenges. Sample The paper draws on data from three cohorts of secondary PGCE students in a university-schools partnership, involving a total of 169 students. Design and method The research lies within a design research tradition. It has used mixed methods, involving written tasks, interviews and focus groups, with an iterative approach where the outcomes from one cohort have been used to inform course developments in successive years. Results The results from these cohorts suggest that, while the students starting the course have a less restricted view of NOS than indicated by some other studies, in most cases there is a lack of breadth and depth to their understanding. There is some evidence that the use of specific tasks focusing on NOS in university-based sessions may be helping to develop and deepen understanding. However, the impact of current approaches remains fairly limited and attempts to develop teaching practices often face considerable barriers in the school-based practicum. Conclusions Graduate science students' understanding of NOS as they embark on the PGCE is not highly developed. Hence, the emphasis on aspects of NOS in the school curriculum presents a considerable challenge. This study suggests that there is a need to both further develop an explicit focus on NOS in university-based sessions and to

  15. Association of major depression and diabetes in medically indigent Puerto Rican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disdier-Flores, Orville M

    2010-03-01

    Studies have found that major depression and diabetes mellitus are strongly associated. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the association between major depression and diabetes in a large medically indigent population of Puerto Rican adults living on the island. A secondary database analysis through a cross-sectional design was used for this study. Participants were selected from the Puerto Rico Commonwealth Health Plan database, beneficiaries of the public health sector. Adult's subjects with at least one claim during 2002 were included. The final sample consisted of 1,026,625 adult insured. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) was used for disease classifications. The prevalence of diabetes was 14.6% in subjects with major depression and 9.7% for those without major depression (POR 1.59, p diabetes appears to be significantly higher in Puerto Rican adults with major depression compared to those without this psychiatric disorder. Longitudinal prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to shed light on the temporal or causal relationship and to test whether effective prevention and treatment can reduce the risk of developing diabetes.

  16. Ataques de nervios and somatic complaints among island and mainland Puerto Rican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Irene; Ramirez, Rafael; Guarnaccia, Peter; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector

    2011-06-01

    Previous research has documented the association between the Latino cultural idiom of distress, ataques de nervios (i.e., "attacks of nerves"), and unexplained neurological symptoms among adults. However, the associations between ataques and somatic complaints in children have not been sufficiently explored. In this study, we assessed the relation between this anxiety-related experience, henceforth ataques, and somatic complaints in a probability sample of Puerto Rican youth, ages 5-13 years, living in San Juan, Puerto Rico (N = 1353) and in the South Bronx, New York (N = 1138). When both sites were combined, children with ataques were significantly more likely to have either a lifetime prevalence of asthma or headaches, and tended to have more stomach aches and a history of epilepsy or seizure than children without ataques. Further within site analyses showed a similar patterning of complaints for the South Bronx sample as for the combined sample. However, children in San Juan with ataques were only slightly more likely to experience headaches, and at risk for injury, than those without ataques. In addition, comparisons between ataque sufferers across sites indicated that children in San Juan with ataques were at elevated risk for serious illness or injury in comparison to those in the South Bronx with ataques. Ataques are significantly associated with a wide range of physical complaints in Puerto Rican youth. However, their pattern of associations differs by context. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Toward a Puerto Rican popular nosology: nervios and ataque de nervios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, Peter J; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Marano, Melissa Rivera

    2003-09-01

    This paper is about naming illnesses--about who determines what categories are used and the implications of these determinations. The central concerns of medical/psychiatric anthropology have been to understand popular categories of and systems for classification of illness, to examine the relationship of illness categories to cultural understandings of the body, and to interpret the role of categories of illness in mediating between the personal and social spheres. At the same time, the paper also discusses the interplay of popular categories and psychiatric diagnoses. This paper examines the multiple experiences of nervios among Puerto Ricans in Puerto Rico and New York City. Our contention is that nervios is more than a diffuse idiom of distress, and that there are different categories and experiences of nervios which provide insights into how distress is experienced and expressed by Puerto Ricans and point to different social sources of suffering. The data in this paper come from the responses to a series of open-ended questions which tapped into people's general conceptions of nervios and ataques de nervios. These questions were incorporated into follow-up interviews to an epidemiological study of the mental health of adults in Puerto Rico. The results suggest ways to incorporate these different categories of nervios into future research and clinical work with different Latino groups in the United States and in their home countries.

  18. DETERMINATION OF MAXIMAL OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF COSTA RICAN FIRST DIVISION FOOTBALL PLAYERS DURING 2008 PRESEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Salas-Cabrera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the cardiorespiratory profile (VO2max of Costa Rican first division football players during preseason and compare VO2max by players’ positions. Methodology: A total of 9 Costa Rican first division football teams were evaluated in this study for a total sample of 219 professional players ages 20-36 with an average age of 24.64 ± 4.35 years, average body weight of 73.34 kg ± 7.34, and a fat percentage of 9.78 % ± 3.64. In order to evaluate the VO2max of players, the treadmill protocol was used as recommended by Wilmore and Costill (2007. This was a maximal test. Results: an average VO2max of 57.71 ml/kg/min ± 8.8 was found; however, no statistically significant differences were found (p = .752 between positions. Conclusion: there were no differences in VO2max by positions.

  19. The influence of gender stereotypes on eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Fuster-Baraona, Tamara; Garita, Carlos; Sánchez, Marta; Smith-Castro, Vanesa; Valverde-Cerros, Oscar; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoán

    2015-01-01

    To identify the influence of gender stereotypes on eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents. Qualitative, descriptive research was used in this study. Adolescents and parents were recruited from socioeconomically diverse populations in rural and urban areas of San José, Costa Rica. Subjects were 92 adolescents (14 to 17 years old) and 48 parents. Focus group data were transcribed and entered into the qualitative data analysis software Atlas.ti version 5.0. Analyses were grounded on the social cognitive theory. Five themes emerged from the focus group discussions: (1) Costa Rican adolescents associate the consumption of moderate quantities of healthy foods with femininity and male homosexuality. (2) The consumption of hearty portions of nonhealthy foods was associated with masculinity and male heterosexuality. (3) There is an emerging view that it is acceptable for heterosexual male adolescents to take care of their bodies through healthy eating. (4) Body care among female adolescents is an element of femininity and body image. (5) Parents reinforce their daughters' persistent concern with weight control because they perceive it as feminine behavior. Health promoters should be aware of the existing and changing food stereotypes around gender as an avenue for the promotion of healthy eating.

  20. Estimated prevalence of dengue viremia in Puerto Rican blood donations, 1995 through 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Lyle R; Tomashek, Kay M; Biggerstaff, Brad J

    2012-08-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) nucleic acid amplification testing of blood donations during epidemics in endemic locations, including Puerto Rico, has suggested possible sizable transfusion transmission risk. Estimates of the long-term prevalence of DENV viremic donations will help evaluate the potential magnitude of this risk in Puerto Rico. Estimates of the prevalence of DENV viremia in the Puerto Rican population at large from 1995 through 2010 were derived from dengue case reports and their onset dates obtained from islandwide surveillance, estimates of case underreporting, and extant data on the duration of DENV viremia and the unapparent-to-apparent dengue infection ratio. Under the assumptions that viremia prevalence in blood donors was similar to that of the population at large and that symptomatic persons do not donate, statistical resampling methods were used to estimate the prevalence of dengue viremia in blood donations. Over the 16-year period, the maximum and mean daily prevalences of dengue viremia (per 10,000) in blood donations in Puerto Rico were estimated at 45.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 36.5-55.4) and 7.0 (95% CI, 3.9-10.1), respectively. Prevalence varied considerably by season and year. These data suggest a substantial prevalence of DENV viremia in Puerto Rican blood donations, particularly during outbreaks. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Long-term association of economic inequality and mortality in adult Costa Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrek, Sepideh; Dow, William H; Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Despite the large number of studies, mostly in developed economies, there is limited consensus on the health effects of inequality. Recently a related literature has examined the relationship between relative deprivation and health as a mechanism to explain the economic inequality and health relationship. This study evaluates the relationship between mortality and economic inequality, as measured by area-level Gini coefficients, as well as the relationship between mortality and relative deprivation, in the context of a middle-income country, Costa Rica. We followed a nationally representative prospective cohort of approximately 16,000 individuals aged 30 and over who were randomly selected from the 1984 census. These individuals were then linked to the Costa Rican National Death Registry until Dec. 31, 2007. Hazard models were used to estimate the relative risk of mortality for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality for two indicators: canton-level income inequality and relative deprivation based on asset ownership. Results indicate that there was an unexpectedly negative association between canton income inequality and mortality, but the relationship is not robust to the inclusion of canton fixed-effects. In contrast, we find a positive association between relative deprivation and mortality, which is robust to the inclusion of canton fixed-effects. Taken together, these results suggest that deprivation relative to those higher in a hierarchy is more detrimental to health than the overall dispersion of the hierarchy itself, within the Costa Rican context. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of the nature and textural properties of different supports on the thermal behavior of Keggin type heteropolyacids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRU POPA

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain highly dispersed heteropolyacids (HPAs species, H3PMo12VO40 and H3PVMo11O40 were supported on various supports: silica (Aerosil - Degussa and Romsil types and TiO2. The structure and thermal decomposition of supported and unsupported HPAs were followed by different techniques (TGA-DTA, FTIR, XRD, low temperature nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy. All the supported HPAs were prepared by impregnation using the incipient wetness technique with a 1:1 mixture of water–ethanol. Samples were prepared with different concentrations to examine the effect of loading on the thermal behavior of the supported acid catalysts. The thermal stability was evaluated with reference to the bulk solid acids and mechanical mixtures. After deposition on silica types supports, an important decrease in thermal stability was observed on the Romsil types and a small decrease on the Aerosil type. The stability of the heteropolyacids supported on titania increased due to an anion-support interaction, as the thermal decomposition proceeded in two steps. The structure of the HPAs was not totally destroyed at 450 ºC as some IR bands were still preserved. A relatively uniform distribution of HPAs on the support surface was observed for all compositions of the active phase. No separate crystallites of solid phase HPAs were found in the SEM images.

  3. Force health protection support following a natural disaster: the 227th Medical Detachment's role in response to Superstorm Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Scott E; Faulkenberry, Jason B

    2014-01-01

    On 3 November 2012, in the wake of Superstorm Sandy, the 227th Preventive Medicine Medical Detachment deployed to support relief operations in New Jersey and New York State. The unit was on the severe weather support mission (SWRF) and ordered to provide preventive medicine support to relief personnel within the affected area. In addition, teams from the 227th conducted environmental surveillance in the two-state region where Army Corps of Engineers were pumping floodwaters from affected neighborhoods. The 227th rapid deployment highlights the complexities associated with defense support to civil authorities and provides excellent teaching points that may enhance units expeditionary posture, regardless of mission. 2014.

  4. The association between cognitive decline and incident depressive symptoms in a sample of older Puerto Rican adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Tyler; Dávila, Ana Luisa; Clay, Olivio; Markides, Kyriakos S; Andel, Ross; Crowe, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Older Puerto Rican adults have particularly high risk of diabetes compared to the general US population. Diabetes is associated with both higher depressive symptoms and cognitive decline, but less is known about the longitudinal relationship between cognitive decline and incident depressive symptoms in those with diabetes. This study investigated the association between cognitive decline and incident depressive symptoms in older Puerto Rican adults with diabetes over a four-year period. Households across Puerto Rico were visited to identify a population-based sample of adults aged 60 years and over for the Puerto Rican Elderly: Health Conditions study (PREHCO); 680 participants with diabetes at baseline and no baseline cognitive impairment were included in analyses. Cognitive decline and depressive symptoms were measured using the Mini-Mental Cabán (MMC) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. We examined predictors of incident depressive symptoms (GDS ≥ 5 at follow-up but not baseline) and cognitive decline using regression modeling. In a covariate-adjusted logistic regression model, cognitive decline, female gender, and greater diabetes-related complications were each significantly associated with increased odds of incident depressive symptoms (p Puerto Ricans with diabetes who also experienced cognitive decline. Efforts are needed to optimize diabetes management and monitor for depression and cognitive decline in this population.

  5. The Puerto Rican Community and Its Children on the Mainland: A Source Book for Teachers, Social Workers and Other Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordasco, Francesco; Bucchioni, Eugene

    This collection of readings is organized in four parts. Part I, "Aspects of Puerto Rican culture," includes the following articles: "Explicit and implicit culture in Puerto Rico: a case study in educational anthropology," T. Brameld; "Respeto, relajo, and interpersonal relations in Puerto Rico," A. Lauria;…

  6. Effects of model choice and forest structure on inventory-based estimations of Puerto Rican forest biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Brandeis; Maria Del Rocio; Suarez Rozo

    2005-01-01

    Total aboveground live tree biomass in Puerto Rican lower montane wet, subtropical wet, subtropical moist and subtropical dry forests was estimated using data from two forest inventories and published regression equations. Multiple potentially-applicable published biomass models existed for some forested life zones, and their estimates tended to diverge with increasing...

  7. Retardation in Intellectual Development of Lower-Class Puerto Rican Children in New York City. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alexander

    To study the home environment of the Puerto Rican as it relates to the children's academic achievement, 45 working class families were interviewed and these variables were investigated: achievement, classroom behavior inventory in relation to academic achievement, the effect of bilinguality on academic achievement, the influence of examiner…

  8. Theory-Based Predictors of Intention to Engage in Precautionary Sexual Behavior among Puerto Rican High School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, Andres A.

    2004-01-01

    Predictors of intention to abstain from sexual intercourse or use condoms consistently with both main and other partners were investigated in 431 Puerto Rican high school students. The basis for this study was the theories of reasoned action (TRA) and planned behavior (TPB), and two predictors from the theory of interpersonal behavior (TIB). As…

  9. Pintando Tambien se Aprende. Aspectos de la Cultura Puertorriquena (One Can Also Learn From Coloring. Aspects of Puerto Rican Culture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilla de Ruibal, Carmen Alicia

    This workbook-style text is intended to introduce the Puerto Rican child and Spanish speaking children generally to the history, geography, customs and traditions of Puerto Rico. The introduction in the form of a teacher's guide provides objectives, suggested procedures, and additional activities. The student portion of the text is divided into…

  10. Comparison of passive fog gauges for determining fog duration and fog interception by a Puerto Rican elfin cloud forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, F; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Scatena, F.N.

    2011-01-01

    Between 5 March and 10 May 2001, the performance of three types of passive fog gauges (wire harp WH, standard fog collector SC and Juvik gauge JU) was compared at a wind-exposed Puerto Rican elfin cloud forest site. The gauges were used to determine the timing and duration of fog, as well as

  11. A Study of the Predictive Validity of the Children's Depression Inventory for Major Depression Disorder in Puerto Rican Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Medina, Carmen L.; Bernal, Guillermo; Rossello, Jeannette; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the predictive validity of the Children's Depression Inventory items for major depression disorder (MDD) in an outpatient clinic sample of Puerto Rican adolescents. The sample consisted of 130 adolescents, 13 to 18 years old. The five most frequent symptoms of the Children's Depression Inventory that best predict the…

  12. Technical basis, supporting information, and strategy for development and implementation of DOE policy for natural phenomena hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.C.

    1991-09-01

    Policy for addressing natural phenomenon comprises a hierarchy of interrelated documents. The top level of policy is contained in the code of Federal Regulations which establishes the framework and intent to ensure overall safety of DOE facilities when subjected to the effects of natural phenomena. The natural phenomena to be considered include earthquakes and tsunami, winds, hurricanes and tornadoes, floods, volcano effects and seiches. Natural phenomena criteria have been established for design of new facilities; evaluation of existing facilities; additions, modifications, and upgrades to existing facilities; and evaluation criteria for new or existing sites. Steps needed to implement these four general criteria are described. The intent of these criteria is to identify WHAT needs to be done to ensure adequate protection from natural phenomena. The commentary provides discussion of WHY this is needed for DOE facilities within the complex. Implementing procedures identifying HOW to carry out these criteria are next identified. Finally, short and long term tasks needed to identify the implementing procedure are tabulated. There is an overall need for consistency throughout the DOE complex related to natural phenomena including consistent terminology, policy, and implementation. 1 fig, 6 tabs.

  13. Is the Nature of Communication Relevant to the Supportiveness of Women's Relationships With Probation and Parole Agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morash, Merry; Kashy, Deborah A; Smith, Sandi W; Cobbina, Jennifer E

    2018-05-01

    This article reports on a study of the connection of probation and parole agents' communication with relationship supportiveness as perceived by both women offenders and agents. For a sample of offenders and their agents, multilevel modeling was used to control for nonindependence of data for women assigned to the same agent. Consistent with communication theory, a conversational approach was positively related to measures of a supportive relationship, and an authoritarian/ conformity pattern of communication was negatively related to a supportive relationship. For low-risk offenders, attention to client-identified problems was positively related to more supportive relationships. For women with high risk for reoffending, the agents viewed themselves as less supportive if they addressed a high proportion of offender-identified needs. Findings suggest the efficacy of training to promote agents' conversational communication and attention to offender-identified problems. Findings also suggest the need to more fully explore agents' experience in working with very high-risk offenders.

  14. Natural and human drivers of salinity in reservoirs and their implications in water supply operation through a Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Eva; Gómez-Beas, Raquel; Linares-Sáez, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    changes from 3800 to 5100 μScm-1 in the deepest layers are found with a similar daily water inflow. On the other hand, when reservoir water level is low, salinity increases around 1000 μScm-1 are found with a 2 m water level falling. In view of the influence of water level in the reservoir dynamics, this factor should be considered when dam operation decisions are taken by managers in terms of satisfying the water demand. The results will be implemented in a Decision Support System that is being displayed in the Guadalhorce River and which includes prediction of water quantity and quality in the reservoir in terms of salinity, involving water level and water inflow forecasting as the main factors to control the state of the reservoir and therefore with implications in water management. This methodology could be implemented in other reservoirs with high salinity and be adapted to other substances (such as nutrients and heavy metals) associated to water inflow in water bodies where water quality and quantity are driven by human decisions factors besides natural factors such as floods and dynamics of flows in the reservoir.

  15. Impact of relationship dynamics and gender roles in the protection of HIV discordant heterosexual couples: an exploratory study in the Puerto Rican context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura; Pérez-Jiménez, David

    2009-03-01

    Most of the HIV/AIDS prevention efforts have not taken into consideration the context of the relationship and the gender constructs that influence relationship dynamics. These efforts have failed to view HIV prevention as a collaborative process between partners. Therefore, it is important to explore how relationship dynamics and gender constructs influence how men and women involved in an HIV discordant heterosexual relationship, visualize their role in the protection of their partners in order to design more effective prevention interventions. Five Puerto Rican HIV discordant heterosexual couples were interviewed via a qualitative semi-structured interview. The taped interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis according to a set of defined categories. Women visualized their role as one of convincing their partners to use protection as well as being strong and firm in the demand of its use. Men viewed their role as one of being more supportive and willing to use protection, but recognized their resistance towards the use of condoms. Relationship dynamics such as communication and support promoted protection. Traditional and non-traditional gender roles were assumed by both men and women. Traditional gender roles inhibited protection but were also used in positive ways to promote it. Men showed a greater initiative to break with traditional gender norms. A positive relationship, marked by communication and support could serve as a facilitator in the protection and in the transformation of traditional gender norms. This points out to the need of viewing HIV/AIDS prevention as a collaborative rather than individualistic process.

  16. Attitudes toward euthanasia, assisted suicide and termination of life-sustaining treatment of Puerto Rican medical students, medical residents, and faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Rivera, J; Rodríguez, R; Otero Igaravidez, Y

    2000-01-01

    To elicit the opinion of Puerto Rican medical students, residents and internal medicine faculty as to the appropriateness of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide and end-of-life management. Survey using a 16-item questionnaire answered within a two-month period in the fall of 1996. Rounds or faculty meetings at teaching hospitals located in the north, south and southwest of the island of Puerto Rico. There were 424 participants. The questionnaires of 279 medical students, 75 medical residents, and 35 internal medicine faculty members were analyzed. Thirty-five questionnaires, which were incomplete or answered by non-Puerto Rican participants, were excluded. Frequency of support of active euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment with informed consent was determined. Whether it was ethical to prescribe full doses of drugs needed to alleviate pain even if it would hasten death, or agree to limit or restrict resources for the terminally ill was also determined. Forty per cent of the students, 33% of the residents, and 20% of the faculty supported euthanasia. If physician-assisted suicide were legalized, 50 per cent of the students, 43 per cent of the residents and 45 percent of the faculty would not be opposed to it. Sixty-eight per cent of the students, 67 per cent of the residents and 88 per cent of the faculty would support withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment for dying patients with informed consent. Seventy-nine per cent of residents, 80 per cent of the faculty but only 54 per cent of medical students would prescribe full doses of drugs needed to alleviate pain in dying patients even if they would hasten death. Thirty-six per cent of the residents and faculty would agree to limit the use of medical resources for the terminally ill but only sixteen per cent of medical students would do so. The acceptance of euthanasia was inversely proportional to the clinical experience of the respondents: 40

  17. Naturally Occurring Peer Support through Social Media: The Experiences of Individuals with Severe Mental Illness Using YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naslund, J.A.; Grande, S.W.; Aschbrenner, K.A.; Elwyn, G.

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer

  18. Leaf allocation patterns and 13C and 15N natural abundances of tropical lianas (Passiflora sp.) as dependent on external climbing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Martin; Spiegel, Ann-Kathrin; Kazda, Marian

    2013-01-01

    The transformation from self-supporting lianas to host-supported climbing lianas is related to re-allocation of biomass and nutrients among plant organs. Therefore, first, variations in leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf carbon and nitrogen allocation and (13)C and (15)N natural abundances were analysed among three tropical Passiflora species (P. edulis, P. ligularis, and P. tripartita) in a greenhouse study. Second, the influence of a climbing support was considered for each species and parameter. P. ligularis leaves were most enriched in (13)C in both treatments when compared with the other two species. This enrichment was caused by a high LMA, which is related to a high internal resistance to CO(2) diffusion. For P. edulis and P. tripartita, δ(13)C was additionally increasing with nitrogen content per area. Generally, there were no differences when considering carbon and nitrogen allocation to leaves of host-supported and self-supporting lianas. The only hints towards increased investment into leaves after the transition from self-supporting to host-supported stages could be seen by a trend to increased leaf areas and masses. δ(13)C values of supported P. edulis or P. tripartita plants were significantly increasing faster than those of non-supported plants once the interactions of leaf mass or nitrogen content per area were accounted for. Hence, the offer of a climbing support had only a minor impact on δ(13)C or δ(15)N values in vitro, but this could be different with increasing age of lianas in vivo.

  19. Dissociation, childhood trauma, and ataque de nervios among Puerto Rican psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Garrido-Castillo, Pedro; Bennasar, Mari Carmen; Parrilla, Elsie M; Laria, Amaro J; Ma, Guoguang; Petkova, Eva

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the relationships of dissociation and childhood trauma with ataque de nervios. Forty Puerto Rican psychiatric outpatients were evaluated for frequency of ataque de nervios, dissociative symptoms, exposure to trauma, and mood and anxiety psychopathology. Blind conditions were maintained across assessments. Data for 29 female patients were analyzed. Among these 29 patients, clinician-rated dissociative symptoms increased with frequency of ataque de nervios. Dissociative Experiences Scale scores and diagnoses of panic disorder and dissociative disorders were also associated with ataque frequency, before corrections were made for multiple comparisons. The rate of childhood trauma was uniformly high among the patients and showed no relationship to dissociative symptoms and disorder or number of ataques. Frequent ataques de nervios may, in part, be a marker for psychiatric disorders characterized by dissociative symptoms. Childhood trauma per se did not account for ataque status in this group of female outpatients.

  20. Ataques de nervios in relation to anxiety sensitivity among island Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintrón, Jennifer A; Carter, Michele M; Sbrocco, Tracy

    2005-12-01

    This study investigated the symptom profile of ataques de nervios (ADN) among Puerto Rican volunteers from the community who self-identified as having experienced at least one ataque. As expected, the most commonly reported ataques-specific symptoms were crying, anger, nervousness, and becoming hysterical. Comparing the responses of those with ADN to those with no history of ADN but who reported elevated anxiety sensitivity (AS) indicated that both groups were comparable on measures of depression, state and trait anxiety, and associated panic symptoms. As expected, both groups scored significantly higher on all measures than did participants with no history of ADN and low AS with the exception of the measure of state anxiety. It is unclear, however, whether the overlap in symptom severity between those with ADN and those with elevated anxiety sensitivity indicates that ADN and AS are the same or distinct conditions.

  1. Experience of nervousness and anxiety disorders in Puerto Rican women: psychiatric and ethnopsychological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss-Chioino, J D

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of case materials describe variations in the experiences of Puerto Rican women diagnosed as having an anxiety disorder, in treatment with mental health clinicians, physicians, or traditional healers. Their common complaints are examined as core symbolic elements in culturally patterned complexes of meanings focused around personal trauma, stressful life events, personal and social reactions, expectations about treatment, and the course of illness. Many of these women report themselves to be "nervous," to be "sick from nerves," or to have had an "ataque de nervios." "Nervousness" is the base symbolic domain in Puerto Rico of what psychiatry labels "anxiety disorder," although it is also a common complaint of many disorders. What "nervousness" means to patients/clients and their clinicians or healers is examined within the frames of multilayered popular and biomedical interpretations. The special difficulties of women in Puerto Rico are highlighted, and psychiatric and ethnopsychological (Spiritist) models of etiology and treatment are compared.

  2. Evaluations of Conflicts Between Latino Values and Autonomy Desires Among Puerto Rican Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos Solís, Myriam; Smetana, Judith G; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina

    2017-09-01

    Puerto Rican adolescents (N = 105; M age  = 15.97 years, SD = 1.40) evaluated hypothetical situations describing conflicts between Latino values (family obligations and respeto) and autonomy desires regarding personal, friendship, and dating activities. Adolescents judged that peers should prioritize Latino values over autonomy, which led to greater feelings of pride than happiness. However, they believed that teens would prioritize autonomy over Latino values, which led to greater feelings of happiness than pride. Adolescents reasoned about autonomy desires as personal issues, whereas reasoning about Latino values was multifaceted, including references to conventions and concerns for others. Furthermore, judgments and reasoning depended on the type of autonomy desire and Latino value and sometimes, by participants' age and sex. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. Anthropology in a postcolonial colony: Helen I. Safa's contribution to Puerto Rican ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duany, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses Helen I. Safa's legacy to anthropological thought in Puerto Rico. The first part of the article locates Safa's research on the Island within a long tradition of fieldwork by U.S. scholars since the early twentieth century. More recent research, conducted mostly by Puerto Rican women anthropologists and other social scientists, has expanded upon Safa's insights on gender and work. The second part of the essay analyzes Safa's major empirical work, The Urban Poor of Puerto Rico: A Study in Development and Inequality. Above all, this book helped overcome the theoretical impasse over the culture of poverty that characterized much of urban anthropology during the 1960s and 1970s. The article concludes with an appraisal of the relevance of Safa's work for the ethnography of contemporary Puerto Rico.

  4. A cross-taxa survey of organochlorine pesticide contamination in a Costa Rican wildland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemens, J.A.; Wieland, M.L.; Flanagin, V.J.; Frick, J.A.; Harper, R.G

    2003-04-01

    Amphibians, turtles, mice and birds from a protected Costa Rican wildland were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and metabolites. - Amphibians, turtles, birds (mostly passerines) and mice collected from a conservation area in northwestern Costa Rica were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide contamination. Six of 39 amphibians (three of eight species), three of six turtles (two species), one of eight mice (one species) and 19 of 55 birds (five of seven species) contained OCs at levels up to 580 ng/g. The most frequently detected compound in 23 of 108 organisms was p,p'DDE. Dieldrin, delta-BHC, heptachlor, p,p'DDD, and endosulfan II were each found in at least four organisms, while eight other OCs were found in at least one organism. The presence of OCs in taxa from the conservation area indicates the likelihood of long-distance transport of such compounds through the atmosphere.

  5. Habitat association, size, stomach contents, and reproductive condition of Puerto Rican boas (Epicrates inornatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Puerto Rican boa occurs in a variety of habitats, including wet montane forest, lowland wet forest, mangrove forest, wet limestone karst, and offshore cays, and from sea level to 480 m. Mean SVL of 49 encountered boas (live and road-killed) was 136.9 ?? 35.1 (range = 38.8-205 cm), with a mean mass of 952.1 ?? 349.0 g (n = 47; range = 140-1662 g). Prey in digestive tracts (n = 29) included remains of black rats, house mice, three species of anoles, bats, common ground-doves, domestic fowl chicks, and invertebrates. Females were in reproductive condition in late April through mid-August and had an average brood size of 21.8 ?? 6.0 (n = 9, range = 13-30 ).

  6. Breadwinning women: Economic contribution of married and cohabiting women to Costa Rican households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Salazar Mayorga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the economic contribution of married and cohabiting women to the household income, in comparison to the income their partners generate, in Costa Rica.  From a perspective of gender roles, human capital theory and female labor participation, this paper examines what variables influence the probability of contribution.  Based on data by the 2014 National Household Survey, this study found that 51% percent of married or cohabiting women do not generate any income, which shows there is an unequal economic relationship in half of Costa Rican households and the males assume the breadwinning role.  Household chores and the number of children reduce the probability of economic contribution.  On the other hand, women with more years of schooling have a higher probability to contribute equally to the couple’s total income.

  7. A cross-taxa survey of organochlorine pesticide contamination in a Costa Rican wildland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemens, J.A.; Wieland, M.L.; Flanagin, V.J.; Frick, J.A.; Harper, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Amphibians, turtles, mice and birds from a protected Costa Rican wildland were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and metabolites. - Amphibians, turtles, birds (mostly passerines) and mice collected from a conservation area in northwestern Costa Rica were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide contamination. Six of 39 amphibians (three of eight species), three of six turtles (two species), one of eight mice (one species) and 19 of 55 birds (five of seven species) contained OCs at levels up to 580 ng/g. The most frequently detected compound in 23 of 108 organisms was p,p'DDE. Dieldrin, delta-BHC, heptachlor, p,p'DDD, and endosulfan II were each found in at least four organisms, while eight other OCs were found in at least one organism. The presence of OCs in taxa from the conservation area indicates the likelihood of long-distance transport of such compounds through the atmosphere

  8. Factors associated with regional rheumatic pain disorders in a population of Puerto Ricans with diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Yvonne M.; Castro-Santana, Lesliane E.; Nieves-Plaza, Mariely; Maldonado, Mirna; Mayor, Ángel M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with bursitis/tendonitis disorders in Puerto Ricans with diabetes mellitus (DM). A cross-sectional study was performed in 202 adult Puerto Ricans (100 DM patients and 102 non-diabetic subjects). For each participant, a complete medical history and a musculoskeletal exam were systematically performed. Socio-demographic parameters, health-related behaviors, comorbidities, and pharmacotherapy were determined for all subjects. For DM patients, disease duration, glycemic control, and DM long-term complications were also examined. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the factors associated with bursitis/tendonitis disorders. The mean (SD) age for DM patients and non-diabetic controls were 53.3 (12.9) and 50.0 (13.1) years; 64.0 and 64.7 % of DM patients and controls were females, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of bursitis/tendonitis was higher in DM patients than among non-diabetics (59.0 % vs. 29.4 %, pdiabetics. Specifically, DM patients had a higher frequency of flexor tenosynovitis, De Quervain’s tenosynovitis, lateral epicondylitis, medial epicondylitis, trochanteric bursitis, and anserine bursitis than non-diabetic subjects (p<0.05). Among DM patients, multivariate analyses showed that those with bursitis/tendonitis were more likely to be female [OR (95 % CI) 4.55 (1.42, 14.55)] and have peripheral vascular disease [OR (95 % CI) 8.48 (1.71, 41.93)]. In conclusion, bursitis/tendonitis disorders were common in this population of Hispanics with DM. Among DM patients, bursitis/tendonitis disorders were more frequent in women and those with long-term complications such as peripheral vascular disease. PMID:24522480

  9. Boricua de pura cepa: Ethnic identity, cultural stress and self-concept in Puerto Rican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen-Duan, Jenny; Jacquez, Farrah; Sáez-Santiago, Emily

    2018-05-17

    The available literature on ethnic identity among Puerto Ricans has focused on those living in the United States, with little to no attention placed on examining ethnic identity and psychological constructs among youth living in Puerto Rico. Using a colonial mentality framework, the current study examined the associations between ethnic identity, cultural stress, and self-concept among adolescent boys and girls living in Puerto Rico. The current cross-sectional study surveyed participants (N = 187) recruited from several junior high schools in the metropolitan area in Puerto Rico. Relations between ethnic identity, cultural stress, and self-concept differed by gender. First, cultural stress was associated with self-concept for boys, such that higher cultural stress predicted lower self-concept. Second, among girls, cultural stress moderated the relation between ethnic identity and self-concept. Specifically, for girls experiencing high cultural stress, exploration and resolution of their ethnic identity was associated with higher ratings of self-concept. Although cultural stress has been widely understood as a phenomena associated with immigrants, our study indicated that cultural stress is important in understanding self-concept of youth living in Puerto Rico. For boys, cultural stress, but not ethnic identity, is particularly important to their self-concept. Among girls experiencing high cultural stress, exploration and resolution of ethnic identity was associated with higher self-concept. Results suggested that the cultural stress associated with the colonial context of Puerto Rico is salient in ethnic identity and self-concept development, even though Puerto Rican youth are the ethnic majority in the island. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. CONDICIONES ACTUALES DEL FINANCIAMIENTO DE LAS PYMES COSTARRICENSES. (Current financing conditions for costa rican SME companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizette Brenes Bonilla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los temas indagados en el Segundo estudio nacional realizado por el Observatorio Costarricense de Mipymes durante el 2011 corresponde al financiamiento de las micros, pequeñas y medianas empresas costarricenses. Se consultaron las fuentes de financiamiento más utilizadas, la presentación de solicitudes de crédito durante los últimos cinco años, la utilización que en general hacen estas empresas de los diferentes medios de financiamiento y sus requerimientos actuales. De forma similar a lo que ocurre en otros países, los fondos propios constituyen la principal opción para estas empresas. Por ello, en este trabajo han sido analizadas las condiciones que propician la autofinanciación o el uso de otras opciones. Por medio del análisis estadístico de la información recopilada en la encuesta, se comprueba que algunas variables relativas a la gestión empresarial, tales como la fuente de financiamiento inicial, la experiencia del (de la empresario(a y la prioridad que dan al manejo de aspectos financieros, presentan una asociación significativa con las estrategias de financiamiento en las mipymes costarricenses. ABSTRACT Financing was one of the areas investigated in the Second National Survey of micro, small and medium sized Costa Rican companies during 2011. The most used financing sources, credit applications during the last five years, end use of this credit, and current credit requirements in various financing institutions were investigated. Similar to other countries, own funding was the main option for these companies. Thus, this work examines the conditions that facilitate the use of self financing or other options available. Through statistic analysis of the information collected, variables like initial funding source, previous experience of the entrepreneur and priority given to financial management were shown to present a definite relationship to financing strategies for Costa Rican SMEs.

  11. Occurrence and correlates of overweight and obesity among island Puerto Rican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Jeremiah R; Pérez, Edna Acosta; Prelip, Michael; McCarthy, William J; Feldman, Jonathan M; Canino, Glorisa; Ortega, Alexander N

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: This article provides 2005-2008 population-based prevalence data on obesity and overweight among youth residing in Puerto Rico. Data for this report are from the Asthma, Depression, and Anxiety in Puerto Rican Youth (ADA) study. Measures included height and weight level data on youth in Puerto Rico aged 10 to 19 years with and without asthma as well as body mass index data on their caregivers. A total of 436 youth-caregiver dyads were selected and weighted to represent the general population of youth in Puerto Rico using 2008 US Census data. Household surveys demonstrated that 40% of youth aged 10 to 19 were overweight or obese. Twenty-five percent met moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity guidelines, however, physical activity was not associated with overweight or obesity in this sample. In multivariate analyses, females were 50% less likely than males to be overweight or obese. Older youth were 73% less likely to be overweight or obese than younger youth. Youth whose parents were obese were more than two times more likely to be overweight or obese than those whose parents were at a desirable weight. Youth in Puerto Rico have higher rates of overweight and obesity and lower compliance to moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity guidelines than rates reported for youth on the mainland. More population-based research is needed to understand the epidemiology of obesity and overweight among island Puerto Rican youth and the contribution of physical activity to the phenomenon.

  12. Sex Education Approaches at Costa Rican Public Universities: An Exploratory Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Preinfalk-Fernández

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research paper aims to show the panorama and scope of the current existing sex education practices carried out by the Costa Rican public universities. It analyzes different initiatives, its theoretical approaches that guide the actions, their purposes and other relevant aspects. The analysis includes secondary information as well as the point of view of students and university staff, as inputs for decision-making aimed at improving the overall education of young people. The findings take part of an exploratory research based on qualitative and quantitative methodologies based on gender and constructionism perspective. The information was gathered via the application of a questionnaire to a specific uneven stratified cluster groups, composed by 766 enrolled undergraduate students since first semester 2011 at Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica. The statistical margin of error was 1.5% and the confidence level of 95%. In addition, two focus groups with students and depth interviews with 16 persons were made. Data were tabulated with CSPRO software and analyzed using R software.  The findings suggest that Costa Rican universities recognize the importance of sex education as an essential part of overall development of students. Most of the initiatives are institutionalized; however, the lack of guidelines or policies on the subject, in most institutions, affects quality, consolidation and expansion of services. The need to strengthen and expand training activities on sexuality was identified as well. The students have a high opinion about the services offered, but few of them use these services, because they are perceived as less accessible and friendly. This paper concludes that it is a priority to maintain and strengthen existing initiatives on sexual education, so that they can effectively satisfy the needs of youth, with timely interventions and quality to enjoy a healthy and safe sexuality free from violence.

  13. Concept-Development of a Structure Supported Membrane for Deployable Space Applications - From Nature to Manufacture and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Martin; Belvin, W. K.

    2012-01-01

    Current space applications of membrane structures include large area solar power arrays, solar sails, antennas, and numerous other large aperture devices like the solar shades of the new James Webb Space Telescope. These expandable structural systems, deployed in-orbit to achieve the desired geometry, are used to collect, reflect and/or transmit electromagnetic radiation. This work, a feasibility study supporting a diploma thesis, describes the systematic process for developing a biologically inspired concept for a structure supported (integrated) membrane, that features a rip stop principle, makes self-deployment possible and is part of an ultra-light weight space application. Novel manufacturing of membrane prototypes and test results are presented for the rip-stop concepts. Test data showed that the new membrane concept has a higher tear resistance than neat film of equivalent mass.

  14. Individual differences in the spontaneous recruitment of brain regions supporting mental state understanding when viewing natural social scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dylan D; Kelley, William M; Heatherton, Todd F

    2011-12-01

    People are able to rapidly infer complex personality traits and mental states even from the most minimal person information. Research has shown that when observers view a natural scene containing people, they spend a disproportionate amount of their time looking at the social features (e.g., faces, bodies). Does this preference for social features merely reflect the biological salience of these features or are observers spontaneously attempting to make sense of complex social dynamics? Using functional neuroimaging, we investigated neural responses to social and nonsocial visual scenes in a large sample of participants (n = 48) who varied on an individual difference measure assessing empathy and mentalizing (i.e., empathizing). Compared with other scene categories, viewing natural social scenes activated regions associated with social cognition (e.g., dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and temporal poles). Moreover, activity in these regions during social scene viewing was strongly correlated with individual differences in empathizing. These findings offer neural evidence that observers spontaneously engage in social cognition when viewing complex social material but that the degree to which people do so is mediated by individual differences in trait empathizing.

  15. Electrochemistry Study on PVC-LiClO4 Polymer Electrolyte Supported by Bengkulu Natural Bentonite for Lithium Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghufira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research bentonite was used as filler to produce polymer electrolyte (PVCLiClO4. Some weight variation of bentonite have been made by addition, such as 0% wt/wt; 5% wt/wt ; 10% wt/wt ; 15% wt/wt ; 20% wt/wt ; and 25% wt/wt of bentonite to the mixture of 0,5 gramof PVC and 0,125 gram of LiClO4. Ionic conductivity of polymer electrolyte was tested using impedance spectroscopy. The result of the research was showed that a mixture of PVCBentonite(10% wt/wt-LiClO4 gives the highest ionic conductivity (4,86 x 10-3 S.Cm-1. This result indicated that the presence of natural bentonite can be used as a filler in the current composite polymer electrolyte and can increase the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte.

  16. GEOINFORMATION AND CARTOGRAPHIC SUPPORT FOR MONITORING NATURAL AND TECHNOGENIC PROCESSES BASED ON ATLAS MAPPING IN THE SAKHALIN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Melkiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing anthropogenic impact often leads to emergence and development of negative processes on the lands, thereby reducing their economic value. Land of the Sakhalin Region located on the border of the Eurasian continent and the Pacific ocean, where interaction between geospheric shells is intense and therefore, exposed to a variety of active natural processes characteristic of such zones. Among the many processes that take place here very actively, one can be name seismic, volcanic, abrasion, morpholithodynamic, monsoon atmospheric circulation and several others. Active geothermal processes, combined with abundant moisture lead to changes in the biosphere (the gigantism of plants. It is therefore important to conduct periodic monitoring to assess the state of the environment, the pace of development and definition of processes speed.The operative regional land monitoring is possible only on the basis of data of Earth remote sensing with the regular updating of thematic maps using GIS technologies.The Sakhalin State University has been performing the analysis of the peculiarities of naturalclimatic conditions of the region, affecting the method of conducting monitoring of lands, as well as the interpretation of its results. When conducting scientific research the methods of geoinformation mapping, spatial analysis, thematic interpretation were used etc.As a result technology of integrated regional land monitoring in the Sakhalin has been developed and implemented on the Station of satellite data reception by Sakhalin State University, allowing one to receive, store, analyze, and provide map information on the assessment of the condition of lands, taking into account the specific natural conditions of the territory.The article presents a technological scheme of integrated regional monitoring of the land, reveals the content of databases on processes that change the state of the land and evidence-based period of space observations for them

  17. Late-life anxiety disorders among Puerto Rican primary care patients: impact on well-being, functioning, and service utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Robison, Julie T; Tolin, David F; Blank, Karen

    2004-01-01

    With the growing population of older Hispanic adults there is a need for additional research on the mental health care of this patient group. This study explored the impact of anxiety disorders on the health status of 291 older (>/=50 years) Puerto Rican primary care patients (n = 65 with anxiety disorders, n = 226 without anxiety disorders). All analyses controlled for potential confounding variables, including depression diagnosis and physical health burden. Logistic regression indicated that anxiety disorders were associated with higher psychological distress, suicidality, and emergency room service utilization, as well as lower instrumental functioning and perceived health quality. Analysis of covariance indicated that both anxiety disorder status and history of ataque de nervios were related to higher percentages of lifetime somatic symptoms. These data highlight the need for improved recognition and treatment of anxiety disorders in older Puerto Rican adults.

  18. Ataques de nervios in the Puerto Rican Diagnostic Interview Schedule: the impact of cultural categories on psychiatric epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, P J; Rubio-Stipec, M; Canino, G

    1989-09-01

    This paper examines the effect of the cultural category ataques de nervios on responses to the Puerto Rican Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS), a Spanish version of structured psychiatric diagnostic interview developed for the NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. An ataque de nervios scale was created from the Somatization items of the DIS to explore the effect of this culturally meaningful category of distress on responses to a standard psychiatric interview. Analysis of 1,513 cases from a representative sample of the island of Puerto Rico indicated that people reporting ataque symptoms fit the social characteristics described for ataques sufferers in the ethnographic literature. Qualitative data indicated that Puerto Ricans were reporting ataques de nervios in the panic section of the DIS. Questions are raised about the validity of the somatization and panic sections of the DIS in cross-cultural research with Hispanics.

  19. Experimental Study of the Effect of Language (English and Spanish on Advertisement Effectiveness with Puerto Rican Hispanic University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lebrón

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though the population of Puerto Rico includes a large percent of residents with some knowledge of the English language (bilinguals, the vast majority communicates using Spanish, which is their native language. Not surprisingly, the majority of advertisements in Puerto Rican media use the Spanish language. The common sense assumption that Spanish advertising is significantly superior to English advertising when targeting Puerto Rican Hispanics living in Puerto Rico is tested experimentally in this study. The Social Value component of the Theory of Consumption Values was used to generate several Hypotheses that would favor the use of English language. The experiment used magazine-like printed illustrated advertisements to test the hypotheses, all of them dealing with relative effectiveness of Spanish versus English language advertisements. The results show that Spanish advertisements and English advertisements were about the same in terms of their persuasion effectiveness.

  20. Afro-Costa Rican women and delayed multiculturalism: constitutional reform of the (white republic of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela MUÑOZ MUÑOZ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the reform of Article 1 of the Political Constitution of Costa Rica to acknowledge the multicultural and pluriethnic character of the nation, in terms of its protagonists and timing of approval. On the one hand, it suggests a relationship between racial formation processes and a constitutional multicultural delay. On the other, it recognizes the challenges and strategies of Afro-Costa Rican women to reframe this reform in terms of social justice.

  1. Gun Violence, African Ancestry, and Asthma: A Case-Control Study in Puerto Rican Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Han, Yueh-Ying; Brehm, John M; Forno, Erick; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Cloutier, Michelle M; Alvarez, María; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to gun violence and African ancestry have been separately associated with increased risk of asthma in Puerto Rican children. The objective of this study was to examine whether African ancestry and gun violence interact on asthma and total IgE in school-aged Puerto Rican children. This is a case-control study of 747 Puerto Rican children aged 9 to 14 years living in San Juan, Puerto Rico (n = 472), and Hartford, Connecticut (n = 275). Exposure to gun violence was defined as the child's report of hearing gunshots more than once, and the percentage of African ancestry was estimated using genome-wide genotypic data. Asthma was defined as parental report of physician-diagnosed asthma and wheeze in the previous year. Serum total IgE (IU/mL) was measured in study participants. Multivariate logistic and linear regressions were used for the analysis of asthma and total IgE, respectively. In multivariate analyses, there was a significant interaction between exposure to gun violence and African ancestry on asthma (P = .001) and serum total IgE (P = .04). Among children exposed to gun violence, each quartile increase in the percentage of African ancestry was associated with approximately 45% higher odds of asthma (95% CI, 1.15-1.84; P = .002) and an approximately 19% increment in total IgE (95% , 0.60-40.65, P = .04). In contrast, there was no significant association between African ancestry and asthma or total IgE in children not exposed to gun violence. Our results suggest that exposure to gun violence modifies the estimated effect of African ancestry on asthma and atopy in Puerto Rican children. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The symptom experiences of Puerto Rican children undergoing cancer treatments and alleviation practices as reported by their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mercado, Velda J; Williams, Phoebe D; Williams, Arthur R; Pedro, Elsa; Colon, Gloria

    2017-02-01

    Although symptoms during cancer treatments are prevalent and are important clinical outcomes of childhood cancer, the symptom experiences of Puerto Rican children along with the symptom alleviation/care practices that parents provide during cancer treatments have received limited attention. To examine the occurrence/severity of symptoms on the Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist-Children (TRSC-C), reported by mothers of Puerto Rican children undergoing cancer treatments and identifying mothers' symptom alleviation/management strategies. Descriptive study conducted between January and May 2012. Mothers of 65 Puerto Rican children/adolescents undergoing cancer treatments responded to the Spanish versions of the TRSC-C, Symptom Alleviation: Self-Care Methods, and a Demographic and Health form. The children/adolescents' mean age was 9.2 (1-17) years; 62% were boys; 56 had chemotherapy; 9 had chemoradiotherapy. Children diagnoses were 35.4% leukemia, 24.6% solid tumors, 24.6% nervous system tumors, and 15.4% other. On the TRSC-C, the symptoms experienced by 70% or more of the children were: irritability (77%), nausea (75%), and hair loss (72%). On the Symptom Alleviation: Self-Care Methods, the most commonly reported symptom alleviation category was "taking prescribed medicines." Puerto Rican mothers reported the use of alleviation practices to treat their children experiencing symptoms during pediatric cancer treatments. Patients and caregivers need to be educated about treatment-induced side effects, and the life-threatening consequences of underreporting and undermanagement. Symptoms should always be addressed at the time of initiation of primary or adjuvant cancer therapy because pretreatment symptoms may persist or get worse across the trajectory of treatment. A continuous assessment and management of symptoms during the childhood cancer trajectory can optimize clinical care and improve quality of life of patients and families. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia

  3. Wet canopy evaporation from a Puerto Rican lower montane rain forest: the importance of realistically estimated aerodynamic conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Holwerda; L.A. Bruijnzeel; F.N. Scatena; H.F. Vugts; A.G.C.A. Meesters

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall interception (I) was measured in 20 m tall Puerto Rican tropical forest with complex topography for a 1-year period using totalizing throughfall (TF) and stemflow (SF) gauges that were measured every 2–3 days. Measured values were then compared to evaporation under saturated canopy conditions (E) determined with the Penman–Monteith (P–M) equation, using (i)...

  4. A comprehensive study on photocatalytic activity of supported Ni/Pb sulfide and oxide systems onto natural zeolite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaahamdi-Milani, Majid [Department of Chemistry, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 311-86145, Shahreza, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Young Researchers and Elite Club, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza, E-mail: arnezamzadeh@iaush.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 311-86145, Shahreza, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Young Researchers and Elite Club, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razi Chemistry Research Center (RCRC), Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Increase in photocatalytic activity of hybridized/supported PbO/NiO and PbS/NiS systems with respect to semiconductors alone. • Higher efficiency of PbO/NiO than PbS/NiS. • Positive role of p-n junction for enhancement of photocatalytic activity of the used semiconductors. - Abstract: The Ni(II)-Pb(II) exchanged clinoptilolite nanoparticles (NCP) were transformed to corresponding oxides and sulfides via calcination and sulfiding processes, respectively. The obtained catalysts were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TEM and DRS and used in photodegradation of p-nitrophenol (4-NP) aqueous solution under Hg-lamp irradiation. Results showed considerable increase in activity of the coupled semiconductors with respect to monocomponent one. In NiO-PbO-NCP system, conduction band (CB) of NiO is enough negative for easily migration of photogenerated electrons to CB-PbO level, while such phenomena take place from more negative CB-PbS level to CB-NiS level in NiS-PbS-NCP. These phenomena significantly prevented from electron-hole recombination which increased photocatalytic activity of the coupled semiconductors. Best photodegradation activities obtained by NiO{sub 1.3%}–PbO{sub 14.7%}-NCP and NiS{sub 2.1%}–PbS{sub 10.0%}-NCP, confirming semiconductors' mass-ratio dependence of the photocatalytic process. The supported coupled semiconductors showed blue shifts in band gap energies with respect to the bulk semiconductors which confirm formation of semiconductors nanoparticles inside the zeolite framework. The highest degradation percentage of 4-NP was obtained at: 0.5 g L{sup −1} photocatalysts, 15 mg L{sup −1} 4-NP at pH 7.5.

  5. The nature of the Syntaxin4 C-terminus affects Munc18c-supported SNARE assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Rehman

    Full Text Available Vesicular transport of cellular cargo requires targeted membrane fusion and formation of a SNARE protein complex that draws the two apposing fusing membranes together. Insulin-regulated delivery and fusion of glucose transporter-4 storage vesicles at the cell surface is dependent on two key proteins: the SNARE integral membrane protein Syntaxin4 (Sx4 and the soluble regulatory protein Munc18c. Many reported in vitro studies of Munc18c:Sx4 interactions and of SNARE complex formation have used soluble Sx4 constructs lacking the native transmembrane domain. As a consequence, the importance of the Sx4 C-terminal anchor remains poorly understood. Here we show that soluble C-terminally truncated Sx4 dissociates more rapidly from Munc18c than Sx4 where the C-terminal transmembrane domain is replaced with a T4-lysozyme fusion. We also show that Munc18c appears to inhibit SNARE complex formation when soluble C-terminally truncated Sx4 is used but does not inhibit SNARE complex formation when Sx4 is C-terminally anchored (by a C-terminal His-tag bound to resin, by a C-terminal T4L fusion or by the native C-terminal transmembrane domain in detergent micelles. We conclude that the C-terminus of Sx4 is critical for its interaction with Munc18c, and that the reported inhibitory role of Munc18c may be an artifact of experimental design. These results support the notion that a primary role of Munc18c is to support SNARE complex formation and membrane fusion.

  6. Emotional engagement with participatory simulations as a tool for learning and decision-support for coupled human-natural systems: Flood hazards and urban development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Corey, B.; Camp, J. V.; John, N. J.; Sengupta, P.

    2015-12-01

    The complex interactions between land use and natural hazards pose serious challenges in education, research, and public policy. Where complex nonlinear interactions produce unintuitive results, interactive computer simulations can be useful tools for education and decision support. Emotions play important roles in cognition and learning, especially where risks are concerned. Interactive simulations have the potential to harness emotional engagement to enhance learning and understanding of risks in coupled human-natural systems. We developed a participatory agent-based simulation of cities at risk of river flooding. Participants play the role of managers of neighboring cities along a flood-prone river and make choices about building flood walls to protect their inhabitants. Simulated agents participate in dynamic real estate markets in which demand for property, and thus values and decisions to build, respond to experience with flooding over time. By reducing high-frequency low-magnitude flooding, flood walls may stimulate development, thus increasing tax revenues but also increasing vulnerability to uncommon floods that overtop the walls. Flood waves are launched stochastically and propagate downstream. Flood walls that restrict overbank flow at one city can increase the amplitude of a flood wave at neighboring cities, both up and downstream. We conducted a pilot experiment with a group of three pre-service teachers. The subjects successfully learned key concepts of risk tradeoffs and unintended consequences that can accompany flood-control measures. We also observed strong emotional responses, including hope, fear, and sense of loss. This emotional engagement with a model of coupled human-natural systems was very different from previous experiments on participatory simulations of purely natural systems for physics pedagogy. We conducted a second session in which the participants were expert engineers. We will present the results of these experiments and the

  7. Evidence to support a conspecific nature of allopatric cytological races of Anopheles nitidus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songsawatkiat, Siripan; Baimai, Visut; Thongsahuan, Sorawat; Otsuka, Yasushi; Taai, Kritsana; Hempolchom, Chayanit; Srisuka, Wichai; Poolphol, Petchaboon; Choochote, Wej; Saeung, Atiporn

    2014-01-01

    Metaphase karyotype investigation on two allopatric strains of Anopheles nitidus Harrison, Scanlon, and Reid (Diptera: Culicidae) was conducted in Thailand during 2011-2012. Five karyotypic forms, i.e., Form A (X1, Y1), Form B (X1, Y2), Form C (X2, Y3), Form D (X1, X3, Y4), and Form E (X1, X2, X3, Y5) were obtained from a total of 21 isofemale lines. Forms A, B, and C were confined to Phang Nga Province, southern Thailand, whereas Forms D and E were restricted to Ubon Ratchathani Province, northeastern Thailand. Cross-mating experiments among the five isofemale lines, which were representative of five karyotypic forms of An. nitidus, revealed genetic compatibility by providing viable progenies and synaptic salivary gland polytene chromosomes through F2 generations. The results suggest that the forms are conspecific, and An. nitidus comprises five cytological races. The very low intraspecific sequence variations (average genetic distances = 0.002-0.008) of the nucleotide sequences in ribosomal DNA (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunits I and II) among the five karyotypic forms were very good supportive evidence. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. COMPARISON BETWEEN JOB STRESS PREDICTORS BASED ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, AGE, GENDER AND SENIORITY IN A GROUP OF ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS FROM THE COSTA RICAN PUBLIC SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Alberto Azofeifa Mora

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to relate and compare job stress predictors with physical activity levels, age, seniority, and gender in administrative employees in the Costa Rican public sector. A total of 395 individuals from this sector were surveyed. Subjects answered a socio-demographic questionnaire (age, gender, seniority, and marital status. In order to assess job stress predictors, the Job Stress Survey (JSS was applied, which was comprised of two dimensions (intensity and frequency and including predictors such as pressure at work (PT, lack of social support (FA, lack of organization (FO, and lack of personal accomplishment (FRP. To determine the level of physical activity, a short version of the IPAQ was applied. Results indicate that male subjects have a slightly higher level of physical activity compared to female subjects. In addition, females show higher levels of job pressure as a stress predictor. Subjectively, the higher the physical activity level the lower the stressors, compared to lower levels of physical activity. We conclude that the high levels of physical inactivity exhibited may be associated with higher job stress perceived and that role overload could be an important factor to consider as a source of stress in females.

  9. [Analysis of hot spots and trend of molecular pharmacognosy research based on project supported by National Natural Science Foundation of 1995-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Wen; Liu, Yang; Tong, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Ce; Li, Hai-Yan

    2016-05-01

    This study collected 1995-2014 molecular pharmacognosy study, a total of 595 items, funded by Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC). TDA and Excel software were used to analyze the data of the projects about general situation, hot spots of research with rank analytic and correlation analytic methods. Supported by NSFC molecular pharmacognosy projects and funding a gradual increase in the number of, the proportion of funds for pharmaceutical research funding tends to be stable; mainly supported by molecular biology methods of genuine medicinal materials, secondary metabolism and Germplasm Resources Research; hot drugs including Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Rehmanniae, Cordyceps sinensis, hot contents including tanshinone biosynthesis, Rehmannia glutinosa continuous cropping obstacle. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. What is the perceived nature of parental care and support for young people with cystic fibrosis as they enter adult health services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Nicola; Lowton, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The majority of those diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (CF) now live to adulthood. In response to increased survival age, transition services have been developed to ensure smooth transfer from paediatric to adult specialist healthcare, although the majority of treatment and care continues to be delivered in the home. However, little is known about how young adults and staff conceptualise the nature of the parental role after young people have left paediatric care. The aim of this study is to explore the nature of parental support that is perceived to be available at this time. As part of a larger study of transitional care, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 young people with CF aged 13-24 years (32 with experience of transition and/or adult CF services) and 23 specialist healthcare professionals (14 working in adult care) across two CF centres in Southeast England. Interviews took place in young people's homes or within CF services, using a topic guide and were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Four domains of perceived parental support were identified by the young people interviewed, with varying degrees of continuity into adult care: (1) Providing non-clinical practical and emotional support; (2) Acting as 'troubleshooters' in times of health-related crisis; (3) Working in partnership with offspring in ongoing disease management in the home and clinic; (4) Acting as 'protectors' of their children. Young people and service staff expressed tensions in managing parental involvement in post-paediatric consultations and the degree to which parents should be aware of their offspring's deteriorating health and social concerns. Parental anxiety and over-involvement was perceived by many young people and staff as unsupportive. We suggest that although health and social care providers are mindful of the tensions that arise for those leaving paediatric services, the place of parental support in adult care is currently contentious for these 'new

  11. Effect of nature-based sounds' intervention on agitation, anxiety, and stress in patients under mechanical ventilator support: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatmand, Vahid; Rejeh, Nahid; Heravi-Karimooi, Majideh; Tadrisi, Sayed Davood; Zayeri, Farid; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Jasper, Melanie

    2013-07-01

    Few studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of nature-based sounds (N-BS) on agitation, anxiety level and physiological signs of stress in patients under mechanical ventilator support. Non-pharmacological nursing interventions such as N-BS can be less expensive and efficient ways to alleviate anxiety and adverse effects of sedative medications in patients under mechanical ventilator support. This study was conducted to identify the effect of the nature-based sounds' intervention on agitation, anxiety level and physiological stress responses in patients under mechanical ventilation support. A randomized placebo-controlled trial design was used to conduct this study. A total of 60 patients aged 18-65 years under mechanical ventilation support in an intensive care unit were randomly assigned to the control and experimental groups. The patients in the intervention group received 90 min of N-BS. Pleasant nature sounds were played to the patients using media players and headphones. Patients' physiological signs were taken immediately before the intervention and at the 30th, 60th, 90th minutes and 30 min after the procedure had finished. The physiological signs of stress assessed were heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure. Data were collected over eight months from Oct 2011 to June 2012. Anxiety levels and agitation were assessed using the Faces Anxiety Scale and Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale, respectively. The experimental group had significantly lower systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, anxiety and agitation levels than the control group. These reductions increased progressively in the 30th, 60th, 90th minutes, and 30 min after the procedure had finished indicating a cumulative dose effect. N-BS can provide an effective method of decreasing potentially harmful physiological responses arising from anxiety in mechanically ventilated patients. Nurses can incorporate N-BS intervention as a non-pharmacologic intervention into the

  12. Hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG) over nickel catalysts supported on cationic surfactant-templated mesoporous aluminas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong Gil; Youn, Min Hye; Park, Sunyoung; Jung, Ji Chul; Kim, Pil; Chung, Jin Suk; Song, In Kyu

    Two types of mesoporous γ-aluminas (denoted as A-A and A-S) are prepared by a hydrothermal method under different basic conditions using cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) as a templating agent. A-A and A-S are synthesized in a medium of ammonia solution and sodium hydroxide solution, respectively. Ni/γ-Al 2O 3 catalysts (Ni/A-A and Ni/A-S) are then prepared by an impregnation method, and are applied to hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effect of a mesoporous γ-Al 2O 3 support on the catalytic performance of Ni/γ-Al 2O 3 is investigated. The identity of basic solution strongly affects the physical properties of the A-A and A-S supports. The high surface-area of the mesoporous γ-aluminas and the strong metal-support interaction of supported catalysts greatly enhance the dispersion of nickel species on the catalyst surface. The well-developed mesopores of the Ni/A-A and Ni/A-S catalysts prohibit the polymerization of carbon species on the catalyst surface during the reaction. In the steam reforming of LNG, both Ni/A-A and Ni/A-S catalysts give better catalytic performance than the nickel catalyst supported on commercial γ-Al 2O 3 (Ni/A-C). In addition, the Ni/A-A catalyst is superior to the Ni/A-S catalyst. The relatively strong metal-support interaction of Ni/A-A catalyst effectively suppresses the sintering of metallic nickel and the carbon deposition in the steam reforming of LNG. The large pores of the Ni/A-A catalyst also play an important role in enhancing internal mass transfer during the reaction.

  13. Position of the American Dietetic Association: food and nutrition professionals can implement practices to conserve natural resources and support ecological sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Alison H; Gerald, Bonnie L

    2007-06-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association to encourage environmentally responsible practices that conserve natural resources, minimize the quantity of waste generated, and support the ecological sustainability of the food system-the process of food production, transformation, distribution, access, and consumption. Registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, play various roles in the food system and work in settings where efforts to conserve can have significant effects. Natural resources that provide the foundation for the food system include biodiversity, soil, land, energy, water, and air. A food system that degrades or depletes its resource base is not sustainable. Making wise food purchases and food management decisions entails understanding the external costs of food production and foodservice and how these external costs affect food system sustainability. This position paper provides information, specific action-oriented strategies, and resources to guide registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, in food decision making and professional practice. Food and nutrition professionals also can participate in policy making at the local, state, and national levels, and can support policies that encourage the development of local sustainable food systems. Our actions today have global consequences. Conserving and protecting resources will contribute to the sustainability of the global food system now and in the future.

  14. Natural Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset shows the locations of known tracts of high quality natural communities in Kansas, generalized to the PLSS section. It is not a compehensive dataset of...

  15. Comparative study of activated carbon, natural zeolite, and green sand supports for CuOX and ZnO sites as ozone decomposition catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhariyah, A. S.; Pradyasti, A.; Dianty, A. G.; Bismo, S.

    2018-03-01

    This research was based on ozone decomposition in industrial environment. Ozone is harmful to human. Therefore, catalysts were made as a mask filter to decompose ozone. Comparison studies of catalyst supports were done using Granular Activated Carbon (GAC), Natural Zeolite (NZ), and Green Sand (GS). GAC showed the highest catalytic activity compared to other supports with conversion of 98%. Meanwhile, the conversion using NZ was only 77% and GS had been just 27%. GAC had the highest catalytic activity because it had the largest pore volume, which is 0.478 cm3/g. So GAC was used as catalyst supports. To have a higher conversion in ozone decomposition, GAC was impregnated with metal oxide as the active site of the catalyst. Active site comparison was made using CuOX and ZnO as the active site. Morphology, composition, and crystal phase were analyzed using SEM-EDX, XRF, and XRD methods. Mask filter, which contained catalysts for ozone decomposition, was tested using a fixed bed reactor at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The result of conversion was analyzed using iodometric method. CuOX/GAC and ZnO/GAC 2%-w showed the highest catalytic activity and conversion reached 100%. From the durability test, CuOX/GAC 2%-w was better than ZnO/GAC 2%-w because the conversion of ozone to oxygen reached 100% with the lowest conversion was 70% for over eight hours.

  16. Maxillary overdentures supported by anteriorly or posteriorly placed implants opposed by a natural dentition in the mandible: a 1-year prospective case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slot, Wim; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J A

    2014-02-01

    For maxillary overdenture therapy, treatment guidelines are missing. There is a need for longitudinal studies. The purpose of this 1-year prospective case series study was to assess the treatment outcome of maxillary overdentures supported by six dental implants opposed by natural antagonistic teeth in the mandible. Fifty patients were treated with a maxillary overdenture supported by six dental implants, either placed in the anterior region (n = 25 patients) or in the posterior region (n = 25 patients). Items of evaluation were the following: survival of implants, condition of hard and soft peri-implant tissues, and patients' satisfaction. One-year implant survival rate was 98% in the anterior group and 99.3% in the posterior group. Mean radiographic bone loss in the anterior and posterior groups after 1 year of loading was 0.22 and 0.50 mm, respectively. Mean scores for plaque, calculus, gingiva, bleeding, and pocket probing depth were low, and patients' satisfaction was high, with no differences between the groups. Six dental implants placed in either the anterior region or the posterior region of the edentulous maxilla, connected with a bar, and opposed by antagonistic teeth in the mandible supply a proper base for the support of an overdenture. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Communication about sex and HPV among Puerto Rican mothers and daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-López, Vivian; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Vélez, Camille; Gonzalez, Velda J; Diaz-Toro, Elba C; Calo, William A; Savas, Lara S; Pattatucci, Angela; Fernández, María E

    2017-08-01

    Although opportunities to vaccinate against human papillomavirus (HPV) are available, vaccination rates in Puerto Rico remain low. Communication between parents and adolescents about sexual topics may influence decisions about HPV vaccination uptake, particularly among young women; yet, few studies have addressed this issue. This qualitative study explored Puerto Rican mothers' and daughters' communication on sex-related topics, and HPV, including the HPV vaccine. Thirty participants, including 9 mothers and 21 daughters, participated in seven focus groups. Participants were divided into groups of mothers and daughters, and further stratified by vaccination status. Transcripts were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach to identify emergent themes. Focus group data revealed four main themes: (1) limited parent-daughter communication about sex-related topics; (2) daughters' discomfort discussing sex-related topics with their parents; (3) parental focus on abstinence; and, (4) limited parent-daughter communication about HPV and the HPV vaccine. Although daughters in this study struggled with feelings of embarrassment, invasion of privacy, encouragement of abstinence, and the fear of parents' reaction to them being sexually active prior to marriage, they also recognized the need to increase the parent-daughter communication about sex-related topics including HPV and the HPV vaccine. Educational efforts should target both daughters and parents to increase communication skills and self-efficacy and to enable them to discuss sexual health in open and nonjudgmental conversations.

  18. Are ataques de nervios in Puerto Rican children associated with psychiatric disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, Peter J; Martinez, Igda; Ramirez, Rafael; Canino, Glorisa

    2005-11-01

    To provide the first empirical analysis of a cultural syndrome in children by examining the prevalence and psychiatric correlates of ataques de nervios in an epidemiological study of the mental health of children in Puerto Rico. Probability samples of caretakers of children 4-17 years old in the community (N = 1,892; response rate: 90%) and in clinical services (N = 761; response rate 72%) were administered structured interviews to assess the presence and correlates of ataques de nervios. Nine percent of children in the community sample and 26% of children in the clinical sample had a reported history of an ataque de nervios. In contrast to the overall community and clinical samples, which had more boys in them, the ataque de nervios groups in both samples had more girls in them. Family history of ataques de nervios was associated with ataques de nervios in children in both samples. Across a wide range of depression, anxiety, and disruptive disorders, children who reported an ataque de nervios were more likely to meet research criteria for psychiatric disorder in both samples. Ataques de nervios are a frequently reported cultural syndrome among children in Puerto Rico. Adolescent girls are more likely to report this experience. Ataques de nervios have a significant relationship with psychiatric disorder and impairment in Puerto Rican children.

  19. Identification of endangered or threatened Costa Rican tree species by wood anatomy and fluorescence activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Róger; Wiemann, Michael C; Olivares, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    A total of 45 native Costa Rican tree species are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES) includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other species based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened species of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction) wood samples of these species, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight species, water extract fluorescence was positive in six species and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 species. Almost all species were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus) or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii) semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of species, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification.

  20. Corpses and Capital: Narratives of Gendered Violence in Two Costa Rican Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Barbas Rhoden

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In a region prone to violence and political corruption, Costa Rica has been touted as an ecological paradise, a stable democracy, and an egalitarian society. However, Costa Rican fiction from the late twentieth century contests this idyllic image and presents instead a world of intrigue, violence, and criminality. El año del laberinto (2000 by Tatiana Lobo and Cruz de olvido (1999 by Carlos Cortés are two novels that serve as an excellent introduction to developments in postwar fiction and scholarship from Central America. In my analysis, I first situate the novels in the context of Central American cultural and political developments in recent decades and then consider the linking of narrative, gender, and violence in the novels. My study centers on the authors' use of crime to challenge national myths and to deconstruct narratives that have been instrumental in constructing cherished national identities. Of particular importance is the depiction of gendered bodies and the violence practiced upon them, as well as the politics surrounding bodies and violence in national narratives and in the authors' contemporary stories.

  1. Identification of endangered or threatened Costa Rican tree species by wood anatomy and fluorescence activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róger Moya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 45 native Costa Rican tree species are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other species based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened species of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction wood samples of these species, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight species, water extract fluorescence was positive in six species and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 species. Almost all species were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of species, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification.

  2. Dimensional Assessment of Anxiety in Puerto Rican Patients: Evaluating Applicability of Psychological Questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barrios, Polaris; Morales-Rodríguez, Carlos M; Merced-Morales, Kritzianel; Lampón, Anabelle; González, Rafael; Martínez, Karen

    2016-09-01

    A dimensional assessment model as a supplement to the diagnosis process could overcome the current pitfalls in classifying psychopathology in ethnic minorities. The aim of the study described herein was to examine a sample of Puerto Rican patients diagnosed with anxiety disorder in order to evaluate the psychometric properties of the specific scales that assess the following 3 domains: clinical symptoms, personality/trait, and affective style. 80 subjects were recruited and interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to identify the presence of anxiety disorders. Following this, various questionnaires assessing each proposed domain were administered to the participants. Reliability and validity of these questionnaires were examined using Cronbach's alpha and exploratory factor analysis. The effect of the individual items of the questionnaires on the overall reliability and validity was assessed using factor scores component matrix. Analyses revealed moderate to high reliability and validity scores within all 3 domains. The sample obtained moderate to high scores on the scales comprising clinical and personality/trait domains. The use of self-report scales in accordance with the proposed dimensional framework may be an effective way to supplement categorical diagnoses within the Hispanic population represented by this sample.

  3. Diameter growth performance of tree functional groups in Puerto Rican secondary tropical forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Adame

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding the factors that control tree growth in successional stands is particularly important for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential and timber yield of secondary tropical forests. Understanding the factors that control tree growth in successional stands is particularly important for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential and timber yield of secondary tropical forests. Yet, the high species diversity of mixed tropical forests, including many uncommon species, hinders the development of species-specific diameter growth models.Area of study: In these analyses, we grouped 82 species from secondary forests distributed across 93 permanent plots on the island of Puerto Rico.Material and Methods: Species were classified according to regeneration strategy and adult height into six functional groups. This classification allowed us to develop a robust diameter growth model using growth data collected from 1980-1990. We used mixed linear model regression to analyze tree diameter growth as a function of individual tree characteristics, stand structure, functional group and site factors.Main results: The proportion of variance in diameter growth explained by the model was 15.1%, ranging from 7.9 to 21.7%. Diameter at breast height, stem density and functional group were the most important predictors of tree growth in Puerto Rican secondary forest. Site factors such as soil and topography failed to predict diameter growth.Keywords: Caribbean forests; growth model; tropical forest succession; Puerto Rico.

  4. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xingwang; Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened beverages or sweetened solid foods are associated with cognitive function. The present study included 737 participants without diabetes, aged 45–75 years, from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, 2004–9. Cognitive function was measured with a battery of seven tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning, digit span, clock drawing, figure copying, and Stroop and verbal fluency tests. Usual dietary intake was assessed with a validated FFQ. Greater intakes of total sugars, added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages, but not of sugar-sweetened solid foods, were significantly associated with lower MMSE score, after adjusting for covariates. Adjusted OR for cognitive impairment (MMSE score sugars and 2·28 (95 % CI 1·26, 4·14) for added sugars, comparing the highest with lowest intake quintiles. Greater intake of total sugars was also significantly associated with lower word list learning score. In conclusion, higher sugar intake appears to be associated with lower cognitive function, but longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the direction of causality. PMID:21736803

  5. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xingwang; Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Tucker, Katherine L

    2011-11-01

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened beverages or sweetened solid foods are associated with cognitive function. The present study included 737 participants without diabetes, aged 45-75 years, from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, 2004-9. Cognitive function was measured with a battery of seven tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning, digit span, clock drawing, figure copying, and Stroop and verbal fluency tests. Usual dietary intake was assessed with a validated FFQ. Greater intakes of total sugars, added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages, but not of sugar-sweetened solid foods, were significantly associated with lower MMSE score, after adjusting for covariates. Adjusted OR for cognitive impairment (MMSE score sugars and 2.28 (95 % CI 1.26, 4.14) for added sugars, comparing the highest with lowest intake quintiles. Greater intake of total sugars was also significantly associated with lower word list learning score. In conclusion, higher sugar intake appears to be associated with lower cognitive function, but longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the direction of causality.

  6. Parental feeding styles and adolescents' healthy eating habits. Structure and correlates of a Costa Rican questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Smith-Castro, Vanesa; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoán; Garita-Arce, Carlos; Sánchez-López, Marta; Chinnock, Anne

    2010-10-01

    This study designed and validated a questionnaire aimed at examining parental feeding styles to encourage healthy eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents. Adolescents (n=133; mean age 15.4 years), and their parents, participated in the study. The parents completed a parental feeding style questionnaire, and the adolescents completed 3-day food records. Confirmatory factor analyses suggest four distinct parental feeding styles, (a) verbal encouragement of healthy eating behaviors; (b) use of verbal sanctions to indirectly control the intake of healthy food; (c) direct control of access to and intake of food; and (d) use of food to regulate emotions and behavior. There were no correlations between dietary intake and the verbal encouragement of healthy eating behaviors, but there were significant negative correlations between (1) "the use of verbal sanctions to indirectly control the intake of healthy food", and the consumption of fruit and vegetable, of calcium, iron, vitamin B6 and folic acid intake, and (2) between the "direct control of access to and intake of food" and fast food consumption and total carbohydrates intake. The use of food to regulate emotions and behavior was positively correlated with high energy-dense food consumption. Stratification of the data shows significant differences by gender in the correlations between parental feeding style and dietary intake. Understanding parental feeding styles in a Latin American context is a first step in helping researchers develops culturally-appropriate parenting intervention/prevention strategies to encourage healthy eating behaviors during adolescence.

  7. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a native Puerto Rican patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pilar-Morales, Esteban A; Cali, Ignazio; Chapas, Javier; Bertrán-Pasarell, Jorge; Puoti, Gianfranco; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Nobo, Ulises

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is often a challenge for most physicians given its extremely low incidence and different clinico-pathological presentations. We report the case of a 56-year old patient native to Puerto Rico suspected of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCD). The symptoms at onset were notorious for bilateral cortical blindness followed by rapidly progressive cognitive decline, visual deficit, increased levels of CSF 14-3-3 and tau along with positive brain MRI and EEG, are highly indicative of CJD. The definite diagnosis was confirmed by the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center (NPDPSC), in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Lack of genetic mutations in the prion protein (PrP) gene, widespread histopathological changes and the accumulation of scrapie PrP (PrPSc) in the brain confirmed the diagnosis of sCJD. The patient, admitted to our institution in 2011, represents the first detailed report of sCJD in a native Puerto Rican patient living in Puerto Rico.

  8. Clinical Manifestations Associated with Overweight/Obesity in Puerto Ricans with Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Fred-Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the clinical manifestations associated with overweight/obesity in Hispanics from Puerto Rico with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS. Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed in 144 patients with FMS (per American College of Rheumatology (ACR classification criteria. Sociodemographic features, FMS-related symptoms, tender points (per ACR criteria, comorbidities, and FMS treatment were examined. BMI was calculated and patients were grouped into two categories: BMI ≤ 24.9 kg/m2 (nonoverweight/obese and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (overweight/obese. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate differences between the study groups. Results. The mean (standard deviation (SD age of patients was 50.2 (9.9 years; 95.1% were females and 75.7% were overweight/obese. In the bivariate analysis, overweight/obese patients were more likely to have self-reported memory impairment, anxiety, shortness of breath, and urinary frequency than nonoverweight/obese patients. In addition, the tender point count was higher in the overweight/obese group. In the logistic regression analyses, self-reported memory impairment and urinary frequency differences remained significant after adjusting for confounding variables. Conclusion. In this population of Puerto Ricans with FMS, overweight/obese patients experienced more FMS-related manifestations than nonoverweight/obese individuals. However, prospective studies are needed to confirm these associations and to elucidate if weight reduction interventions could favorably impact the severity of FMS.

  9. Clinical Manifestations Associated with Overweight/Obesity in Puerto Ricans with Fibromyalgia Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred-Jiménez, Ruth M; Arroyo-Ávila, Mariangelí; Mayor, Ángel M; Ríos, Grissel; Vilá, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the clinical manifestations associated with overweight/obesity in Hispanics from Puerto Rico with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed in 144 patients with FMS (per American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria). Sociodemographic features, FMS-related symptoms, tender points (per ACR criteria), comorbidities, and FMS treatment were examined. BMI was calculated and patients were grouped into two categories: BMI ≤ 24.9 kg/m(2) (nonoverweight/obese) and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) (overweight/obese). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate differences between the study groups. Results. The mean (standard deviation (SD)) age of patients was 50.2 (9.9) years; 95.1% were females and 75.7% were overweight/obese. In the bivariate analysis, overweight/obese patients were more likely to have self-reported memory impairment, anxiety, shortness of breath, and urinary frequency than nonoverweight/obese patients. In addition, the tender point count was higher in the overweight/obese group. In the logistic regression analyses, self-reported memory impairment and urinary frequency differences remained significant after adjusting for confounding variables. Conclusion. In this population of Puerto Ricans with FMS, overweight/obese patients experienced more FMS-related manifestations than nonoverweight/obese individuals. However, prospective studies are needed to confirm these associations and to elucidate if weight reduction interventions could favorably impact the severity of FMS.

  10. Software for the decision making support on the design of natural gas distribution networks; Software de apoio a decisao para o projeto de rede urbanas de distribuicao de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldbarg, Marco C.; Goldbarg, Elizabeth F.G. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Campos, Michel F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This work presents a computational system to aid the decision making process of installing new networks to distribute natural gas in an urban area. The system is called POM-DIGAS. The purpose of the software is to optimize the design of natural gas distribution networks. The general optimization problem comprises two combinatorial problems. The first one refers to the definition of the network layout. In this problem the objective is to minimize the total length of the network. The second combinatorial problem considers the pipe size optimization in which one must choose the diameters of the pipes regarding the demand requirements. POM-DIGAS is a composite of models and algorithms developed to tackle the two combinatorial problems. Furthermore, the software has a geographic information mode, a tool to automatically acquire several types of data concerning the project and a mode with distinct flow equations in order to allow the utilization of different methodologies for computing the network flows. The system was applied to a case study developed for the city of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte. This work was supported by RedeGasEnergia, FINEP and PETROBRAS. (author)

  11. Virginia Natural Heritage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage About Natural Heritage Overview, Mission Natural Heritage Inventory Community Ecology Program ) | Strategic Plan (PDF) | Executive Progress Report (PDF) | Code of Ethics (PDF) Your browser does not support

  12. Analysis of Precipitation (Rain and Snow) Levels and Straight-line Wind Speeds in Support of the 10-year Natural Phenomena Hazards Review for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dewart, Jean Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Deola, Regina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-10

    This report provides site-specific return level analyses for rain, snow, and straight-line wind extreme events. These analyses are in support of the 10-year review plan for the assessment of meteorological natural phenomena hazards at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These analyses follow guidance from Department of Energy, DOE Standard, Natural Phenomena Hazards Analysis and Design Criteria for DOE Facilities (DOE-STD-1020-2012), Nuclear Regulatory Commission Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800, 2007) and ANSI/ ANS-2.3-2011, Estimating Tornado, Hurricane, and Extreme Straight-Line Wind Characteristics at Nuclear Facility Sites. LANL precipitation and snow level data have been collected since 1910, although not all years are complete. In this report the results from the more recent data (1990–2014) are compared to those of past analyses and a 2004 National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration report. Given the many differences in the data sets used in these different analyses, the lack of statistically significant differences in return level estimates increases confidence in the data and in the modeling and analysis approach.

  13. Description of the supporting factors of final project in Mathematics and Natural Sciences Faculty of Syiah Kuala University with multiple correspondence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyana, Asep; Nurhasanah; Maulizasari

    2018-05-01

    Syiah Kuala University (Unsyiah) is hoped to have graduates who are qualified for working or creating a field of work. A final project course implementation process must be effective. This research uses data from the evaluation conducted by Mathematics and Natural Sciences Faculty (FMIPA) of Unsyiah. Some of the factors that support the completion of the final project are duration, guidance, the final project seminars, facility, public impact, and quality. This research aims to know the factors that have a relationship with the completion of the final project and identify similarities among variables. The factors that support the completion of the final project at every study program in FMIPA are (1) duration, (2) guidance and (3) facilities. These factors are examined for the correlations by chi-square test. After that, the variables are analyzed with multiple correspondence analysis. Based on the plot of correspondence, the activities of the guidance and facilities in Informatics Study Program are included in the fair category, while the guidance and facilities in the Chemistry are included in the best category. Besides that, students in Physics can finish the final project with the fastest completion duration, while students in Pharmacy finish for the longest time.

  14. An information-motivation-behavioral skills analysis of diet and exercise behavior in Puerto Ricans with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Chandra Y; Rivet Amico, K; Fisher, William A; Egede, Leonard E; Fisher, Jeffrey D

    2010-11-01

    Frameworks are needed to inform diabetes self-care programs for diverse populations. We tested the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model in a sample of Puerto Ricans with Type 2 diabetes (N = 118). Structural equation models evaluated model fit and interrelations between IMB constructs. For diet behavior, information and motivation related to behavioral skills ( r = 0.19, p motivation related to behavioral skills (r = 0.53, p < .001), and behavioral skills related to behavior (r = 0.45, p < .001). The IMB model could inform interventions targeting these behaviors in diabetes.

  15. An Information—Motivation—Behavioral Skills Analysis of Diet and Exercise Behavior in Puerto Ricans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Amico, K. Rivet; Fisher, William A.; Egede, Leonard E.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Frameworks are needed to inform diabetes self-care programs for diverse populations. We tested the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model among Puerto Ricans with Type 2 diabetes (N=118). Structural equation models evaluated model fit and interrelations among constructs. For diet behavior, information and motivation related to behavioral skills (r=0.19, pmotivation related to behavioral skills (r=0.53, p<0.001), and behavioral skills related to behavior (r=0.45, p<0.001). The IMB model could inform interventions targeting these behaviors in diabetes. PMID:20453056

  16. Pampered sons, (wo)manly men, or do-nothing machos? Costa Rican men coming of age under neoliberalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannon, Susan E; Kemp, Eagan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how young men in Costa Rica negotiate ideas of manhood under neoliberalism. We draw on interview data involving 23 men, ages 15–35, residing in one Costa Rican city. Comparing men across three different class locations, we find diverse "markers of manhood." Our data suggest an emerging globally dominant masculine ideal among an elite class of men, a declining locally dominant masculine ideal among working-class men, and a cynical, possibly counter-cultural masculine ideal among poor men. We conclude that masculinities are not only fluid, but tied to changing economic circumstances and class structures.

  17. "Chronicity," "nervios" and community care: a case study of Puerto Rican psychiatric patients in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, M

    1992-06-01

    The role of ethnicity, community structure, and folk concepts of mental illness in facilitating the adaptation of long term psychiatric patients to community living has received little attention. This article examines the cultural concepts of mental illness and the community involvement of 30 Puerto Rican psychiatric patients participating in a New York City treatment program. It is shown that many of the attributes usually associated with chronic mental illness do not apply to this population. It is argued that the folk concept of nervios helps to foster the integration of these patients in a wide range of community networks. The impact of gentrification on these patients' community integration is also discussed.

  18. A Nature-Based Social-Emotional Approach to Supporting Young Children's Holistic Development in Classrooms with and without Walls: The Social-Emotional and Environmental Education Development (SEED) Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a nature-based social-emotional approach to supporting young children's holistic development that can be applied in a range of early childhood settings from forest kindergartens and nature-based preschools to more traditional center-based early childhood programs. "The Social-Emotional and Environmental Education…

  19. Evidence to support natural hybridization between Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles kleini (Diptera: Culicidae): possibly a significant mechanism for gene introgression in sympatric populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax is still a public health problem in the Republic of Korea (ROK), particularly regarding the recent re-emergence of this malarial species near the demilitarized zone in northwestern Paju City, Gyeonggi-do Province. Currently, at least 4 species (An. kleini, An. pullus, An. belenrae and An. lesteri) of the Hyrcanus Group are reported as possible natural vectors of vivax malaria in the ROK, and An. sinensis, which is the most dominant species, has long been incriminated as an important natural vector of this P. vivax. However, An. sinensis was ranked recently as a low potential vector. According to the discovery of natural hybrids between An. sinensis (a low potential vector for P. vivax) and An. kleini (a high potential vector for P. vivax) in Paju City, intensive investigation of this phenomenon is warranted under laboratory conditions. Methods Mosquitoes were collected during 2010-2012 from Paju City, ROK. Hybridization experiments used iso-female line colonies of these anophelines together with DNA analysis of ribosomal DNA [second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2)] and mitochondrial DNA [cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)] of the parental colonies, F1-hybrids and repeated backcross progenies were performed intensively by using a PCR-based assay and pyrosequencing technology. Results The results from hybridization experiments and molecular investigations revealed that the mitochondrial COI gene was introgressed from An. sinensis into An. kleini. The An. sinensis progenies obtained from consecutive repeated backcrosses in both directions, i.e., F2-11 progeny [(An. sinensis x An. kleini) x An. sinensis] and F3-5 progeny [(An. kleini x An. sinensis) x An. kleini] provided good supportive evidence. Conclusions This study revealed introgression of the mitochondrial COI gene between An. sinensis and An. kleini through consecutive repeated backcrosses under laboratory conditions. This new body of knowledge will be

  20. Dental and periodontal health and treatment needs in a mother/child rural Puerto Rican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Del Valle, Lydia M

    2010-03-01

    Oral research directed toward the maternal and child dyads is important because mothers are a source of dental caries pathogens and are the health behavior managers and trainers of children. The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate the oral health status of the mothers in a sample of 100 children aged 12 to 60 months from a rural community in Puerto Rico, and 2) to compare the children with their mothers' oral health status. A sample of 71 women and 100 of their children, (Mean Age = 28.8 years +/- 9.0, and 36.41 mos +/- 18.2, respectively) were evaluated for DMFT/S and periodontal health or deft/s. A NIDCR calibrated dentist performed all dental evaluations of children and mothers utilizing NIDCR criteria. Descriptive statistics were produced. Mothers' bleeding point prevalence in at least one site was 63%; prevalence of at least one site with pocket depth of 4 to 6 mm was 37 %. Calculus prevalence was, no calculus 25%, supragingival calculus 56.7%, subgingival calculus 2.2%, supra and sub gingival calculus 16.3%. Mean Dental Indices for mothers were DMFS (16.51 -/+ 0.02), DMFT (12.20 +/- 6.76), Caries (2.93 +/- 2.86), Filling (7.07 +/- 8.76), Missing (2.93 +/- 4.53). Children's Mean Dental Indices were defs (4.32 +/- 9.7), deft (2.30 +/- 4.0), decalcifications lesions (1.36 +/-1.9), caries (1.96 +/- 3.2) and surfaces caries (3.81 +/- 8.68), fillings (0.22 +/- 0.83) and extracted teeth (0.043 +/- 0.45). Significant levels of treated and untreated caries and gingival disease were observed in this sample. The importance for primary and secondary prevention, as well as treatment for periodontal and dental disease, in rural Puerto Rican communities is evident from this investigation.

  1. HEALTH ASSESSMENT OF CAPTIVE PSITTACINE SPECIES IN PRERELEASE PROGRAMS AT COSTA RICAN RESCUE CENTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Chavarría, Esteban; Umaña-Castro, Rodolfo; Abou-Madi, Noha; Solano-González, Stefany; Retamosa-Izaguirre, Mónica; Jiménez-Soto, Mauricio; Blanco-Peña, Kinndle

    2017-12-01

    With stricter laws regulating the capture and possession of wild animals in Costa Rica, local wildlife-rescue centers have been overwhelmed by an influx of confiscated or relinquished illegal pets, specifically of psittacine species. As part of a nationwide health-assessment program targeting these centers, 122 birds representing five psittacine species ( Ara macao, Amazona autumnalis, Amazona auropalliata, Amazona farinosa, Aratinga finschi) and one hybrid macaw ( Ara macao × Ara ambiguus) were examined and tested between January 2011 and October 2012. Physical examination, hematology, and serum biochemical analyses were performed. Blood and feathers were tested for psittacine beak and feather disease virus (PBFDV) and avian polyomavirus (APV) via PCR. A DNA-based prevalence and sequence analysis characterized the strains of PBFDV and APV isolated. Physical abnormalities observed in 36% of the 122 birds examined were limited to thin body condition and poor feather quality. None of the feather abnormalities were characteristic of disease caused by either PBFDV or APV. Results of hematological and biochemical analyses were within normal limits except for five birds with leukocytosis and heterophilia, three birds with uric acid values above 16 mg/dl, and two additional birds with AST values above 400 IU/L. No hemoparasites were detected during blood smear examination. Overall prevalences of 9.8% (12/122) for PBFDV and 3.3% (4/122) for APV were documented, with only one bird testing positive for both PBFDV and APV. Birds from two of the eight centers were negative for both viruses. Findings from this study constitute the beginning of a standardized surveillance program for Costa Rican rescue centers, targeting the management of avian species enrolled in propagation and reintroduction programs and expanding of the spectrum of pathogen surveillance and husbandry recommendations in prerelease centers.

  2. Do Puerto Rican youth with asthma and obesity have higher odds for mental health disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Canino, Glorisa; Ramírez, Rafael; Prelip, Michael; Martin, Molly; Ortega, Alexander N

    2012-01-01

    Island Puerto Rican (PR) youth experience disproportionately high asthma and obesity rates compared with other racial/ethnic groups on the U.S. mainland. Previous research has demonstrated associations of chronic disease with psychiatric disorders. We examined the relationship among anxiety/depressive disorders, asthma, and obesity in an epidemiologic community sample of youth. The sample (n = 656) was derived from the second wave of an island-wide probabilistic representative household sample of PR youth stratified and based on whether or not they had a diagnosis of asthma and/or depressive/anxiety disorder. For this study, we used the subpopulation ages 10-19 years. Asthma and obesity were significantly related to higher odds of depressive/anxiety disorders in youth. Obesity moderated the relationship between asthma attacks and depressive/anxiety disorders. The relationship between asthma attack and higher odds for depressive/anxiety disorders was only present in the non-obese group. Among the obese, females show a significant increase from 11% to 36% in the prevalence of anxiety/depressive disorders. Asthma and obesity were highly prevalent and a significant association was found between asthma attack and depressive/anxiety disorders. The effects of asthma and obesity were not additive; the prevalence for psychiatric disorder for those having both conditions did not increase above the prevalence associated having only one of the conditions. Future studies should consider including longitudinal designs and examine the extent to which important variables not included in this study, such as body image dissatisfaction (particularly among females), teasing, and discrimination may moderate the relationship among obesity and depressive and anxiety disorders in youth. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Regional scenario building as a tool to support vulnerability assessment of food & water security and livelihood conditions under varying natural resources managements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Julia; Liersch, Stefan; Dickens, Chris; Kabaseke, Clovis; Mulugeta Lemenih, Kassaye; Sghaier, Mongi; Hattermann, Fred

    2013-04-01

    state and availability of natural resources. Major concerns in all CS are the fast growing populations and natural resources degradation because of unsustainable natural resource management. Land use and resource competition are a consequence of unclear land tenure systems and limited resources availability. Scarce rainfall with high annual variability causes food insecurity if yield failures cannot be compensated, e.g. because of lacking financial resources. In all case studies critical uncertainties were identified to be more or less related to "poor governance". Missing governmental and political stability and effectiveness as well as corruption hamper the implementation of laws and policies related to natural resource management. Other critical uncertainties lie in the social domain. They are either related to demographic patterns like emigration or immigration varying the pressure on natural resources use or to the society in general like the evolvement of people's environmental awareness or voice and accountability. Methodological outcomes of the scenario building were that the complexity of the process requires the use of reliable and powerful tools to support the communication process. Concept maps were found to be a useful tool in this regard.

  4. Performance evaluation of an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor with natural zeolite as support material when treating high-strength distillery wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, N. [Renewable Energy Technology Center (CETER), ' ' Jose Antonio Echeverria' ' Polytechnical University, Calle 127 s/n, CP 19390, Apdo. 6028, Habana 6 Marianao, Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba); Montalvo, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Santiago de Chile University, Ave. Lib. Bernardo O' Higgins 3363, Santiago de Chile (Chile); Borja, R.; Travieso, L.; Raposo, F. [Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC), Avenida Padre Garcia Tejero 4, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Guerrero, L. [Department of Chemical, Biotechnological and Environmental Processes, Federico Santa Maria Technical University, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Sanchez, E.; Colmenarejo, M.F. [Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales (CSIC), C/Serrano, 115-Duplicado, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Cortes, I. [Environment Nacional Center, Chile University, Ave. Larrain 9975, La Reina, Santiago de Chile (Chile)

    2008-11-15

    The performance of two laboratory-scale fluidized bed reactors with natural zeolite as support material when treating high-strength distillery wastewater was assessed. Two sets of experiments were carried out. In the first experimental set, the influences of the organic loading rate (OLR), the fluidization level (FL) and the particle diameter of the natural zeolite (D{sub P}) were evaluated. This experimental set was carried out at an OLR from 2 to 5 g COD (chemical oxygen demand)/l d, at FL 20% and 40% and with D{sub P} in the range of 0.2-0.5 mm (reactor 1) and of 0.5-0.8 mm (reactor 2). It was demonstrated that OLR and FL had a slight influence on COD removal, whereas they had a strong influence on the methane production rate. The COD removal was slightly higher for the highest particle diameter used. The second experimental set was carried out at an OLR from 3 to 20 g COD/l d with 25% of fluidization and D{sub P} in the above-mentioned ranges for reactors 1 and 2. The performance of the two reactors was similar; no significant differences were found. The COD removal efficiency correlated with the OLR based on a straight line. COD removal efficiencies higher than 80% were achieved in both reactors without significant differences. In addition, a straight line equation with a slope of 1.74 d{sup -1} and an intercept on the y-axis equal to zero described satisfactorily the effect of the influent COD on the COD removal rate. It was also observed that both COD removal rate and methane production (Q{sub M}) increased linearly with the OLR, independently of the D{sub P} used. (author)

  5. Detection of yellow dwarf virus onion (OYDV) and garlic common latent virus (GCLV) in Costa Rican garlic (Allium sativum L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen Watson, Anny Vannesa; Chacon Cerdas, Randall; Zuniga Vega, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Viral diseases have been responsible for significant losses in crop yield of garlic in the world. Costa Rican material Garlic has been analyzed to determine the incidence of : onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), the leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), shallot latent virus (SLV) and garlic common latent virus (GLCV). The DAS-ELISA technique has been used for status native plant material. Bulbs field apparently normal (N), normal with yellow tunic (TA) and deformed (D) and normal field sheets (N), symptomatic (S) and possible presence of viral vectors (VT) were used. Vitroplants product have analyzed the introduction of apices of 1,0 and 0,5 cm in length teeth from normal (N) and yellow tunic (TA). The 33% of the bulbs GCLV field were analyzed for positive (TA), whereas OYDV was detected 100% appearance regardless. 100% of the plantlets have presented without infection of GCLV, the OYDV only those introduced in apices of 1,0 cm from bulbs with yellow robes have shown without effect. GCLV is determined for 100% of the samples for both batches OYDV bulb formation in vitro and in only 50%. In the Costa Rican garlic has concluded that are present the viruses of GCLV and OYDV, with a high incidence on local material and differential infection according to the organ analyzed. Various methodologies combined are recommended together with the apexes vitro cultivation, for more effective viral clearance and thus increase the value and boost the local seed crop. (author) [es

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation of the psychosocial impact of assistive device scale (PIADS) for Puerto Rican assistive technology users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellano, Elsa M; Jutai, Jeffrey W

    2013-01-01

    Assistive technology (AT) is important for individuals with disabilities' independence and participation in daily life, and there is a lack of valid AT outcome tools for the Puerto Rican population. This pilot study examined the content validity of a new adaptation of the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Device Scale (PIADS): the Puerto Rican-Spanish PIADS (PR-PIADS). Following standard procedures, the cultural adaptation methodology included a bilingual multidisciplinary committee review of the original (English language) and Spanish versions of the PIADS and pilot testing of the preliminary version of the PR-PIADS with 20 AT users. The committee recommended a total of 58 semantic and conceptual modifications of the Spanish PIADS. Pilot data analysis resulted in 4 additional semantic and conceptual modifications of items that did not reach the minimum content validity ratio of 0.42 for a panel composed by 20 members: competence (0), efficiency (-0.6), performance (-0.95), and eagerness to take chances (-0.6). This pilot study demonstrated evidence of initial content validity of the PR-PIADS. Future research is required before using this tool with greater confidence to address the construct validity and reliability that are also critical to a successful cultural adaptation.

  7. Puerto Rican understandings of child disability: methods for the cultural validation of standardized measures of child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannotti, Mary E; Handwerker, W Penn

    2002-12-01

    Validating the cultural context of health is important for obtaining accurate and useful information from standardized measures of child health adapted for cross-cultural applications. This paper describes the application of ethnographic triangulation for cultural validation of a measure of childhood disability, the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) for use with children living in Puerto Rico. The key concepts include macro-level forces such as geography, demography, and economics, specific activities children performed and their key social interactions, beliefs, attitudes, emotions, and patterns of behavior surrounding independence in children and childhood disability, as well as the definition of childhood disability. Methods utilize principal components analysis to establish the validity of cultural concepts and multiple regression analysis to identify intracultural variation. Findings suggest culturally specific modifications to the PEDI, provide contextual information for informed interpretation of test scores, and point to the need to re-standardize normative values for use with Puerto Rican children. Without this type of information, Puerto Rican children may appear more disabled than expected for their level of impairment or not to be making improvements in functional status. The methods also allow for cultural boundaries to be quantitatively established, rather than presupposed. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  8. Analysis of twelve polymorphous bookmarks in the DNA of a population sample of the Costa Rican Central Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, E.; Lobo, J.; Leon, P.

    1999-01-01

    To establish databases of allele frequencies in a Costa Rican Central Valley population sample. Peripheral blood samples from more than 40 individual were used to isolate DNA and analyze each sample with 10 dinucleotide repeat genetic markers and with 2 mini satellite repeats, using the polymerase chain reaction. Alleles were identified by comparison with DNA from CEPH family members. Genotypes were determined by labelling one of the two Pcr primers with 32P before amplification, electrophoresis in sequencing gels and autoradiography. Analysis of this data set indicates that these samples is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and shows no evidence of linkage disequilibrium between markers. These data are compared with results from other human populations analyzed with the same markers, finding similarities in allele frequencies among them. Notably, the Costa Rican sample presents the lowest heterozygosity value, with 4 of the 10 dinucleotide markers tested, followed by a Cerdenian sample. In contrast, the two African samples presented the highest heterozygosity indexes with a larger number of alleles. (L. Jimenez) [es

  9. The Impact of Local Participation on Community Support for Natural Resource Management: The Case of Mining in Northern Canada and Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its oftentimes complex, contested, and multi-scale character, natural resource management (NRM tends to be a challenging task that has been met with various political approaches in order to meet demands for legitimacy. One approach to enhancing the legitimacy of NRM that has gained increased attention within the academic literature is the adoption of local participatory democracy in decision-making processes. Advocates of participatory democracy in NRM propose that local participation achieves the following outcomes: increased legitimacy because it ensures that local needs and priorities are successfully met; decision-making based on more complete information, which helps avoid unexpected negative outcomes; and a sense of belonging and influence among the public, leading to increased perceptions of support and partnership, as opposed to NRM which is imposed on the community. Nevertheless, comprehensive empirical studies that document how public participation affects legitimacy remain rare. Using 2015 data collected on people’s attitudes towards mining in northern Saskatchewan, Canada, and Norrbotten and Västerbotten counties, Sweden, this paper empirically assesses whether and how perceptions of local participation affect the legitimacy of mining development. In turn, this paper finds that perceived public participation does affect the public’s propensity to support mining development and this propensity is mediated by people’s perceptions of the interests present in the decision-making process, their normative beliefs concerning which actors should be allowed to participate in the decision-making process, and certain individual-level and contextual-level factors.

  10. Learning the Rules of the Game: The Nature of Game and Classroom Supports When Using a Concept-Integrated Digital Physics Game in the Middle School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Phillip Michael, Jr.

    Games in science education is emerging as a popular topic of scholarly inquiry. The National Research Council recently published a report detailing a research agenda for games and science education entitled Learning Science Through Computer Games and Simulations (2011). The report recommends moving beyond typical proof-of-concept studies into more exploratory and theoretically-based work to determine how best to integrate games into K-12 classrooms for learning , as well as how scaffolds from within the game and from outside the game (from peers and teachers) support the learning of applicable science. This study uses a mixed-methods, quasi-experimental design with an 8th grade class at an independent school in southern Connecticut to answer the following questions: 1. What is the nature of the supports for science content learning provided by the game, the peer, and the teacher, when the game is used in a classroom setting? 2. How do the learning gains in the peer support condition compare to the solo play condition, both qualitatively and quantitatively? The concept-integrated physics game SURGE (Scaffolding Understanding through Redesigning Games for Education) was selected for this study, as it was developed with an ear towards specific learning theories and prior work on student understandings of impulse, force, and vectors. Stimulated recall interviews and video observations served as the primary sources and major patterns emerged through the triangulation of data sources and qualitative analysis in the software QSR NVivo 9. The first pattern which emerged indicated that scaffolding from within the game and outside the game requires a pause in game action to be effective, unless that scaffolding is directly useful to the player in the moment of action. The second major pattern indicated that both amount and type of prior gaming experience has somewhat complex effects on both the uses of supports and learning outcomes. In general, a high correlation was found

  11. The Role of Educational Leadership on Participation in the Costa Rican National Program of Science and Technology Fairs at Escuela Abraham Lincoln in the Coastal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the role that Costa Rican educational leaders play in implementing the National Program of Science and Technology Fairs (Programa Nacional de Ferias de Ciencia y Tecnologia [PRONAFECYT]) initiative. The study provides an examination of leadership practices, instructional strategies, and professional…

  12. Mental Disorder and Supernatural Influence: Beliefs of Puerto Ricans in Two Connecticut Urban Communities About the Cause and Treatment of Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviria, Moises; Wintrob, Ronald

    This report is based upon information obtained from personal interviews with a representative sample of Puerto Rican adults, both patients and non-patients, 20 years of age and over, living in two urban communities in central Connecticut, with 1,000 and 8,000 Spanish-speaking residents, respectively. The findings of this research are summarized as…

  13. The Federal Role in Meeting the Education Needs of Chicanos and Puerto Ricans with Special Emphasis on Higher Education. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda (L.) and Associates, Bethesda, MD.

    Federal efforts to meet higher educational needs of Chicanos and Puerto Ricans are analyzed in this report. As part of a study conducted by L. Miranda and Associates, 15 Federal agencies were surveyed to determine their programs and their financial commitment to Hispanic postsecondary education, and the participation of Hispanics in each agency's…

  14. Impact of nest predators, competitors, and ectoparasites on Pearly-eyed Thrashers, with comments on the potential implications for Puerto Rican Parrot recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne J. Arendt

    2000-01-01

    Over the past 17 years, research on a rain forest population of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus), with additional observations on nesting Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) within the Sierra de Luquillo, Puerto Rico, has shown that reproductive success of thrashers and parrots is often greatly reduced as a result of the additive effects of a diverse...

  15. Geography of Service Delivery: On the Role of Mental Health Service Structure in Community Senior Services for Puerto Rican Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez Ortiz, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the role of mental health services structure in community senior centers and how it interacts with Puerto Rican older adults' historical, social, and cultural experiences to relate to their perceptions, awareness, and utilization of mental health services. The study was carried out within a concurrent…

  16. A Study of the Spanish Translation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised with Puerto Rican Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria D.; And Others

    Two studies were performed with Puerto Rican children and adolescents in Puerto Rico and Connecticut to determine the reliability and predictive validity of the Spanish translation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Ninos-Revisada (EIWN-R). Results suggest that the EIWN-R is a reliable…

  17. Comparison of Scores on the WAIS and Its Puerto Rican Counterpart, Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos, in an Institutionalized Latin American Psychiatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Todd McLin; Rodriguez, Vene L.

    1979-01-01

    Compared vocabulary and block design subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and its Puerto Rican counterpart, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA), in hospitalized Latins and Trans-Caribbean Blacks. EIWA scores were significantly higher than WAIS scores. Equivalence of EIWA and WAIS estimates is questioned.…

  18. Forecasting energy consumption and energy related CO2 emissions in Greece. An evaluation of the consequences of the Community Support Framework II and natural gas penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christodoulakis, N.M.; Kalyvitis, S.C.; Lalas, D.P.; Pesmajoglou, S.

    2000-01-01

    This study seeks to assess the future demand for energy and the trajectory of CO2 emissions level in Greece, taking into account the impact of the Community Support Framework (CSF) II on the development process and the penetration of natural gas, which is one of the major CSF II interventions, in the energy system. Demand equations for each sector of economic activity (traded, non-traded, public and agricultural sector) and for each type of energy (oil, electricity and solid fuels) are derived. The energy system is integrated into a fully developed macroeconometric model, so that all interactions between energy, prices and production factors are properly taken into account. Energy CO2 forecasts are then derived based on alternative scenarios for the prospects of the Greek economy. According to the main findings of the paper the growth pattern of forecast total energy consumption closely follows that of forecast output showing no signs of decoupling. As regards CO2 emissions, they are expected to increase with an annual average rate, which is higher than world forecasts. 17 refs

  19. In vivo measurements of maximal occlusal force and minimal pressure threshold on overdentures supported by implants or natural roots: a comparative study, Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mericske-Stern, R; Hofmann, J; Wedig, A; Geering, A H

    1993-01-01

    Numerous investigations give evidence of improvement of masticatory performance when edentulous patients have had implants placed. A comparative study was carried out to investigate the oral function and tactile sensibility of patients restored with implant-supported overdentures. Twenty-six patients with ITI implants and 18 patients with natural-tooth roots were selected. The minimal pressure threshold perceived in vertical and horizontal directions was registered with dynamometers. Maximal occlusal force was recorded with a miniature bite recorder placed between each pair of antagonistic teeth on both jaw sides separately. All measurements were repeated three times and the average was calculated. The records of minimal perceived pressure revealed a significantly higher threshold (factor 100) for the implant group. In both test groups, values registered in the vertical direction were slightly increased. A tendency for test subjects with implants to reach higher maximal occlusal force was observed, but not at a statistically significant level. In both test groups, the average maximum was found on the second premolar. The minimal pressure threshold seems to depend on the presence of receptors in the periodontal ligament. The records of maximal occlusal force, which were similar in both test groups, lead to the assumption that the limitation in maximal occlusal capacity of overdenture wearers is multifactorial and does not depend on the presence of a periodontal ligament.

  20. Primary and booster vaccination with DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent vaccine in Costa Rican children who had received a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idis Faingezicht

    2002-10-01

    protective/seropositive titers for Hib, HB, and tetanus and about 50% for diphtheria and Bordetella pertussis. At 15 months of age, virtually all the toddlers responded with a strong boost response to all the vaccine antigens, whether they received the DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent vaccine or the DTPw/Hib vaccine as a booster. Both booster regimens were equally well tolerated, indicating that up to five doses of the HB vaccine can be given without impact on safety. Conclusions. Our study confirms that the DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent vaccine is highly immunogenic as a primary vaccination in children who received an HB vaccine at birth, with the pentavalent combination inducing both persisting immunity and boostable memory. The pentavalent vaccine was safe both for primary and booster vaccinations. Thus, this study in Costa Rican infants supports the routine use of the pentavalent DTPw-HB/Hib vaccine as part of childhood vaccination programs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  1. Genetics of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy and the Costa Rican contribution

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    Alejandro Leal

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT is the most common hereditary illness of the peripheral nervous system. The genetics and the physiopathological aspects of the disease clarified until know, are here summarized. More than twenty genes and ten additional loci have been related with HMSN. These findings contribute to understand the metabolism of peripheral nerves and give the basis for molecular diagnostics and future therapy. Several Costa Rican families with CMT have been identified, specially with axonal forms. Two families present mutations in the myelin protein zero gene (MPZ. In addition, linkage have been found between the disease and locus 19q13.3 in an extended family, and a mutation segregating with the disease is present in a candidate gene of the critical interval. Costa Rica has several advantages for genetical studies, that can contribute importantly in the generation of knowledge in the neurogenetical field. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 475-483. Epub 2004 Dic 15.El grupo de neuropatías motoras y sensoriales hereditarias (HMSN o enfermedad de Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT es el padecimiento hereditario más común del sistema nervioso periférico. El propósito de este trabajo es resumir los aspectos genéticos y fisiopatológicos más actuales de esta enfermedad. Más de veinte genes y diez loci adicionales han sido relacionados con HMSN. Estos hallazgos han contribuido con la comprensión del metabolismo de los nervios periféricos y sirven de base para el diagnóstico molecular y el diseño de terapias. Diversas familias costarricenses con CMT han sido identificadas: dos de ellas presentan mutaciones en el gen que codifica por la mielina proteína cero (MPZ. Además, un análisis de ligamiento localizó el gen que causa una forma axonal de la enfermedad en el cromosoma 19q13.3 en una extensa familia; también se detectó en esa región una mutación que co-segrega con la enfermedad y que

  2. Acculturation and gestational weight gain in a predominantly puerto rican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alison

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying risk factors that affect excess weight gain during pregnancy is critical, especially among women who are at a higher risk for obesity. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation, a possible risk factor, was associated with gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Methods We utilized data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic women in Western Massachusetts, United States. Height, weight and gestational age were abstracted from medical records among participants with full-term pregnancies (n=952. Gestational weight gain was calculated as the difference between delivery and prepregnancy weight. Acculturation (measured via a psychological acculturation scale, generation in the US, place of birth and spoken language preference was assessed in early pregnancy. Results Adjusting for age, parity, perceived stress, gestational age, and prepregnancy weight, women who had at least one parent born in Puerto Rico/Dominican Republic (PR/DR and both grandparents born in PR/DR had a significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (0.9 kg for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 2.2kg for grandparents born in PR/DR and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 0.06 kg/wk for grandparents born in PR/DR vs. women who were of PR/DR born. Similarly, women born in the US had significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (1.0 kg and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk vs. women who were PR/ DR born. Spoken language preference and psychological acculturation were not significantly associated with total or rate of pregnancy weight gain. Conclusion We found that psychological acculturation was not associated with gestational weight gain while place of birth and higher generation in the US were significantly associated with higher gestational weight gain. We interpret these findings to suggest the potential importance of the

  3. Acculturation and gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Bermudez, Odilia I; Hyatt, Raymond R; Must, Aviva

    2012-11-21

    Identifying risk factors that affect excess weight gain during pregnancy is critical, especially among women who are at a higher risk for obesity. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation, a possible risk factor, was associated with gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. We utilized data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic women in Western Massachusetts, United States. Height, weight and gestational age were abstracted from medical records among participants with full-term pregnancies (n=952). Gestational weight gain was calculated as the difference between delivery and prepregnancy weight. Acculturation (measured via a psychological acculturation scale, generation in the US, place of birth and spoken language preference) was assessed in early pregnancy. Adjusting for age, parity, perceived stress, gestational age, and prepregnancy weight, women who had at least one parent born in Puerto Rico/Dominican Republic (PR/DR) and both grandparents born in PR/DR had a significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (0.9 kg for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 2.2 kg for grandparents born in PR/DR) and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 0.06 kg/wk for grandparents born in PR/DR) vs. women who were of PR/DR born. Similarly, women born in the US had significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (1.0 kg) and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk) vs. women who were PR/ DR born. Spoken language preference and psychological acculturation were not significantly associated with total or rate of pregnancy weight gain. We found that psychological acculturation was not associated with gestational weight gain while place of birth and higher generation in the US were significantly associated with higher gestational weight gain. We interpret these findings to suggest the potential importance of the US "obesogenic" environment in influencing unhealthy

  4. An insight into the antibiofilm properties of Costa Rican stingless bee honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, L G; Beukelman, C J; van den Berg, A J J; Aerts, P C; Quarles van Ufford, H C; Nijland, R; Arias, M L

    2017-04-02

    There is an increasing search for antibiofilm agents that either have specific activity against biofilms or may act in synergy with antimicrobials. Our objective is to examine the the antibiofilm properties of stingless bee honeys. Meliponini honeys from Costa Rica were examined along with Medihoney as a reference. All honeys were submitted to a screening composed of minimum inhibitory concentration, inhibition of biofilm formation and biofilm destruction microplate-based assays against a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm forming strain. Dialysis led to the isolation of an antibiofilm fraction in Tetragonisca angustula honeys. The honey antibiofilm fraction was evaluated for protease activity and for any synergistic effect with antibiotics on a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. The active fraction was then separated through activity guided isolation techniques involving SDS-PAGEs, anion exchange and size exclusion fast protein liquid chromatographies. The fractions obtained and the isolated antibiofilm constituents were tested for amylase and DNase activity. A total of 57 Meliponini honeys from Costa Rica were studied in this research. The honeys studied belonged to the Tetragonisca angustula (n=36) and Melipona beecheii (n=21) species. Costa Rican Tetragonisca angustula honeys can inhibit the planktonic growth, biofilm formation, and are capable of destroying a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. The antibiofilm effect was observed in the protein fraction of Tetragonisca angustula honeys. The biofilm destruction proteins allowed ampicillin and vancomycin to recover their antimicrobial activity over a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. The antibiofilm proteins are of bee origin, and their activity was not due to serine, cysteine or metalloproteases. There were 2 proteins causing the antibiofilm action; these were named the Tetragonisca angustula biofilm destruction factors (TABDFs). TABDF-1 is a monomeric protein of approximately 50kDa that is responsible of the amylase activity

  5. Is subclinical anxiety an endophenotype for bipolar I patients? A study from a Costa Rican sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Javier; Hare, Elizabeth; Pacheco, Adriana; Escamilla, Michael; Raventos, Henriette

    2010-05-01

    Although genetic influences on bipolar I disorder are well established, localization of genes that predispose to the illness has been difficult. Some genes predisposing to bipolar I disorder may be transmitted without expression of the categorical clinical phenotype. One strategy to overcome this obstacle is the use of quantitative endophenotypes, as has been done for other medical disorders. We analyzed 30 bipolar I extended families (300 subjects, average family size 10.34 members, range: 2-31) and 20 unrelated healthy controls from a Costa Rican sample. Heritability and genetic correlation of the state and trait scale from the Anxiety State and Trait Inventory was computed by using the general linear model (SOLAR package software). We also assessed variation of both scores among groups (patients, relatives and controls) and tested independence of affection status. Heritability for state is 0.45 (SE=0.11, p=0.0000001) and for trait is 0.89 (SE=0.06, p=6.22e-29). Genetic correlation for state and trait is 0.29, (SE=0.12, p=0.038-3.19e-8). Bipolar I patients showed the highest trait score (F=12.17 [5,24], p=0.002), (bipolar I patients>relatives with other pathologies, >healthy relatives>unrelated healthy controls) with normal distribution in healthy individuals and no difference regarding depression and mania current status, (F=0.230, df=1, p=0.632 and F=1.401, df=1, p=0.238, respectively), contrary to the state score. Confounding factors such as comorbid disorders could affect the interaction of subclinical anxiety with mania. Due to our limited budget we were not able to re-evaluate the subjects and conduct a test retest to assess the STAI reliability and mood state independence of anxiety traits over different times. Further research is needed to evaluate if anxiety traits are specially related to bipolar I disorder in comparison with other traits such as anger, attention or response inhibition deficit, pathological impulsivity or low self-directedness. Anxiety

  6. Can climate variability information constrain a hydrological model for an ungauged Costa Rican catchment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Montano, Beatriz; Westerberg, Ida K.; Fuentes-Andino, Diana; Hidalgo-Leon, Hugo; Halldin, Sven

    2017-04-01

    Long-term hydrological data are key to understanding catchment behaviour and for decision making within water management and planning. Given the lack of observed data in many regions worldwide, hydrological models are an alternative for reproducing historical streamflow series. Additional types of information - to locally observed discharge - can be used to constrain model parameter uncertainty for ungauged catchments. Climate variability exerts a strong influence on streamflow variability on long and short time scales, in particular in the Central-American region. We therefore explored the use of climate variability knowledge to constrain the simulated discharge uncertainty of a conceptual hydrological model applied to a Costa Rican catchment, assumed to be ungauged. To reduce model uncertainty we first rejected parameter relationships that disagreed with our understanding of the system. We then assessed how well climate-based constraints applied at long-term, inter-annual and intra-annual time scales could constrain model uncertainty. Finally, we compared the climate-based constraints to a constraint on low-flow statistics based on information obtained from global maps. We evaluated our method in terms of the ability of the model to reproduce the observed hydrograph and the active catchment processes in terms of two efficiency measures, a statistical consistency measure, a spread measure and 17 hydrological signatures. We found that climate variability knowledge was useful for reducing model uncertainty, in particular, unrealistic representation of deep groundwater processes. The constraints based on global maps of low-flow statistics provided more constraining information than those based on climate variability, but the latter rejected slow rainfall-runoff representations that the low flow statistics did not reject. The use of such knowledge, together with information on low-flow statistics and constraints on parameter relationships showed to be useful to

  7. Litterfall Production Prior to and during Hurricanes Irma and Maria in Four Puerto Rican Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbin Liu

    2018-06-01

    biogeochemical processes and soil communities in these Puerto Rican forests.

  8. Natural aphrodisiacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloul, Rany

    2010-01-01

    The search for a remedy or a prescription that can enhance sexual function and/or treat male erectile dysfunction has been an obsession throughout known history. Whether it was an Eastern civilization or a Western one, religious or atheist, man's aspiration for a better or best "manhood" has been a history-time goal. This review will discuss the current research done on the most popular natural aphrodisiacs and examine the weight of evidence to support or discourage the use of any of these substances to enhance sexual desire and/or function. Review of the current evidence on the use of natural substances as aphrodisiacs. Efficacy of natural aphrodisiacs in enhancing sexual function in men and women. There is little evidence from literature to recommend the usage of natural aphrodisiacs for the enhancement of sexual desire and/or performance. Data on yohimbine's efficacy does not support the wide use of the drug, which has only mild effects in the treatment of psychogenic ED. Although there's a positive trend towards recommending ginseng as an effective aphrodisiac, however, more in depth studies involving large number of subjects and its mechanism of action are needed before definite conclusions could be reached. Data on the use of natural aphrodisiacs in women is limited. The current body of objective evidence does not support the use of any natural aphrodisiac as an effective treatment for male or female sexual dysfunctions. Potent men and men with ED will continue the search for natural aphrodisiacs despite the current disappointing data on their effectiveness. Care should be taken regarding the fraud addition of sildenafil analogues to natural aphrodisiacs.

  9. Natural history and parental experience of children with trisomy 18 based on a questionnaire given to a Japanese trisomy 18 parental support group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosho, Tomoki; Kuniba, Hideo; Tanikawa, Yuko; Hashimoto, Yoko; Sakurai, Hiroko

    2013-07-01

    We conducted a questionnaire-based study in collaboration with a Japanese trisomy 18 parental support group. Sixty-five children (female, 68%) with full trisomy 18 were evaluated. Diagnosis was made prenatally in 17% (11/65) and 57% (37/65) were born following a cesarean. The mean gestational age at delivery was 38 weeks and 6 days, and the mean birth weight was 1,920 g (-2.6SD). A total of 51% (24/47) of children had apneic episodes. Thirteen children experienced generalized seizures, and a minority was seizure-free with medication. Parents of 36% (18/50) of children were offered intensive treatment. A total of 45% (27/60) of children received intermittent mandatory ventilation, which was weaned off in half of them. Nine had surgeries, including esophageal atresia/omphalocele correction, cardiac surgery, and tracheostomy. A total of 15% (8/55) were fed fully orally, and 45% (29/64) were discharged home. Slow but constant psychomotor development was observed, and in four long-term survivors over 10 years, two walked unassisted. Factors significantly associated with survival over 1 year included diagnosis after birth, absence of prematurity, heavier birth weight, absence of esophageal atresia, extubation, ability to feed orally without medical assistance, and home discharge. Parents appeared to be positive about caring for their children, and the children seemed to interact with parents and siblings as long as they lived, resulting in quality family time. The family point of view, as well as knowledge of natural history, should be considered when policy statements about the care of children with trisomy 18 are made. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Analysis of antibodies to newly described Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens supports MSPDBL2 as a predicted target of naturally acquired immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Kevin K A; Osier, Faith H A; Salanti, Ali; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Drought, Laura; Failly, Marilyne; Martin, Christophe; Marsh, Kevin; Conway, David J

    2013-10-01

    Prospective studies continue to identify malaria parasite genes with particular patterns of polymorphism which indicate they may be under immune selection, and the encoded proteins require investigation. Sixteen new recombinant protein reagents were designed to characterize three such polymorphic proteins expressed in Plasmodium falciparum schizonts and merozoites: MSPDBL1 (also termed MSP3.4) and MSPDBL2 (MSP3.8), which possess Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains, and SURFIN4.2, encoded by a member of the surface-associated interspersed (surf) multigene family. After testing the antigenicities of these reagents by murine immunization and parasite immunofluorescence, we analyzed naturally acquired antibody responses to the antigens in two cohorts in coastal Kenya in which the parasite was endemic (Chonyi [n = 497] and Ngerenya [n = 461]). As expected, the prevalence and levels of serum antibodies increased with age. We then investigated correlations with subsequent risk of clinical malaria among children <11 years of age during 6 months follow-up surveillance. Antibodies to the polymorphic central region of MSPDBL2 were associated with reduced risk of malaria in both cohorts, with statistical significance remaining for the 3D7 allelic type after adjustment for individuals' ages in years and antibody reactivity to whole-schizont extract (Chonyi, risk ratio, 0.51, and 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28 to 0.93; Ngerenya, risk ratio, 0.38, and 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.82). For the MSPDBL1 Palo Alto allelic-type antigen, there was a protective association in one cohort (Ngerenya, risk ratio, 0.53, and 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.89), whereas the other antigens showed no protective associations after adjustment. These findings support the prediction that antibodies to the polymorphic region of MSPDBL2 contribute to protective immunity.

  11. Perceptions of breast and cervical cancer risk and screening among Dominicans and Puerto Ricans in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Roberta E; Risica, Patricia Markham

    2004-01-01

    This study explored perceptions of cancer, risk, and screening among Dominicans and Puerto Ricans in Rhode Island. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of 147 adults. Perceived risks for breast cancer were predominantly associated with carelessness about health care, trauma to the breast, and breastfeeding. Cervical cancer risks were mostly attributed to carelessness about health care and sexual behaviors. A strong sense of fatalism and embarrassment coexisted with positive beliefs about check-ups and screening. Participants cited confianza (trust, confidence) in their doctor, and their doctor's provision of information and explanations, as important factors in decreasing embarrassment and increasing their likelihood of getting screened. While familiarity with mammography and Pap testing was great among participants, many did not practice sustained, regular screening, and held misconceptions about tests and screening guidelines. Respondents' perceptions of having sufficient information often did not correspond to their having the accurate information necessary to promote informed screening decisions.

  12. The mental health relevance of idioms of distress. Anger and perceptions of injustice among New York Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogler, L H; Cortes, D E; Malgady, R G

    1994-06-01

    Cultural sensitivity in mental health research is enhanced by examining the collective perceptions of members of ethnic groups about their own idiomatic expressions of distress. Such an examination was conducted with Puerto Ricans living in New York City, beginning with focus group discussions. Their prevailing idioms of distress, based upon themes of anger and injustice, were correlated widely with professionally developed measures of anxiety, depression, and somatization and with utilization of professional mental health care. By examining the relationship between idioms of distress, saliently volunteered by members of the ethnic ingroup, on the one hand, and professional care and assessments of mental health, on the other, we increase our culturally based understanding of mental health in the community.

  13. Specific activity and derived intervention levels for cesium-137 in Costa Rican export goods: tuna fish, coffee and powdered milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria, L.G.; Mora, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    Cesium-137 is a fission product of 235 U and 239 Pu. After a major nuclear accident, it is released into the atmosphere and in the far field region it will produce radioactively contaminated food and drinking water. This paper will study the specific activity of 137 Cs in three Costa Rican export products: tuna fish, coffee and powdered milk. The average specific activities found are as follows: 0.89 ± 0.41, 1.16 ± 0.76 and 4.53 ± 2.00 Bq kg -1 . They represent low values compared to their derived intervention levels: 1.25 x 10 7 , 1.25 x 10 7 and 2.44 x 10 5 Bq kg -1 , respectively. (Author)

  14. Cyber Espionage in the International and Costa Rican Law: A Form of Violation of the Human Right to Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Masís Solís

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime is a dangerous consequence of the evolution of information technology. This is how it is conceptualized the issues addressed in this paper. As a methodology, it is discussed and analysed published articles, Costa Rican law, and international regulations concerning cybercrime –such as the Convention on Cybercrime of 2001–, and introduce case law connected to the topic. In this paper, cyber espionage is viewed as an example of the way in which cybercrime jeopardizes and radically affects the human and fundamental right to intimacy. Finally, it is presented a number of conclusions in which it is underscored the importance of international cooperation for the investigation and punishment of cybercrime, as well as to locate the offenders. It is also suggested that it is crucial that due process is respected in the phase of investigation, as well as the human rights of the persons involved.

  15. DIFERENCIAS POR GÉNERO EN EL EMPRENDIMIENTO EMPRESARIAL COSTARRICENSE. (Gender differences in the costa rican entrepreneurial environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizette Brenes Bonilla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El Observatorio de Mipymes realizó el Segundo estudio nacional de micros, pequeñas y medianas empresas (mipymes costarricenses durante el 2011, por medio de una encuesta aplicada a 1167 mipymes. En este trabajo se obtienen resultados desglosados por género para algunas variables principales indagadas en dicho estudio, las cuales permiten identificar características de las personas propietarias de estas empresas y las condiciones en que emprendieron sus negocios. Con el propósito de comprobar si las diferencias observadas son significativas, se aplicaron las pruebas correspondientes. Los resultados muestran que la participación femenina en el parque empresarial mipymes costarricense es muy baja y está limitada principalmente a las microempresas. Además, se verifican diferencias por género estadísticamente significativas que develan mayores dificultades para las mujeres en aspectos tales como: falta de experiencia en el sector empresarial, menor conocimiento del negocio, falta de recursos para emprender en forma individual y mayor dependencia respecto a los ingresos de la empresa. ABSTRACT The SME Observatory developed the Second National Survey of micro, small and medium sized Costa Rican companies (SMEs during 2011 using survey answers from 1167 SMEs. This work generated gender classified data for a few of the variables examined that led to the identification of characteristics for female business owners, and the limitations in which they developed their businesses. Tests for the validation of significant differences observed were applied. Results show that female participation in the Costa Rican SME population is very low and limited to micro enterprises only. Besides, statistically different gender differences revealed greater difficulties for women in areas like the lack of entrepreneurial experience, lesser knowledge of the business, lack of resources for individual entrepreneurship and a great dependency from the company

  16. A locally funded Puerto Rican parrot (Amazona vittata genome sequencing project increases avian data and advances young researcher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksyk Taras K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amazona vittata is a critically endangered Puerto Rican endemic bird, the only surviving native parrot species in the United States territory, and the first parrot in the large Neotropical genus Amazona, to be studied on a genomic scale. Findings In a unique community-based funded project, DNA from an A. vittata female was sequenced using a HiSeq Illumina platform, resulting in a total of ~42.5 billion nucleotide bases. This provided approximately 26.89x average coverage depth at the completion of this funding phase. Filtering followed by assembly resulted in 259,423 contigs (N50 = 6,983 bp, longest = 75,003 bp, which was further scaffolded into 148,255 fragments (N50 = 19,470, longest = 206,462 bp. This provided ~76% coverage of the genome based on an estimated size of 1.58 Gb. The assembled scaffolds allowed basic genomic annotation and comparative analyses with other available avian whole-genome sequences. Conclusions The current data represents the first genomic information from and work carried out with a unique source of funding. This analysis further provides a means for directed training of young researchers in genetic and bioinformatics analyses and will facilitate progress towards a full assembly and annotation of the Puerto Rican parrot genome. It also adds extensive genomic data to a new branch of the avian tree, making it useful for comparative analyses with other avian species. Ultimately, the knowledge acquired from these data will contribute to an improved understanding of the overall population health of this species and aid in ongoing and future conservation efforts.

  17. Psychosocial factors influencing the frequency of fast-food consumption among urban and rural Costa Rican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Smith-Castro, Vanessa; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Aragón, M Catalina; Herrera-Raven, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors that influence fast-food consumption in urban and rural Costa Rican adolescents. A self-administered questionnaire designed for the study asked about sociodemographic information, frequency of fast-food consumption, meaning of "fast food," location of purchase, and psychosocial correlates. Five psychosocial factors were extracted by using principal components analysis with Varimax rotation method and eigenvalues. Descriptive statistics and a hierarchical linear regression model were used to predict the frequency of fast-food consumption. Responses from 400 adolescents (ages 12-17 y) reveal that daily consumption of fast food was 1.8 times more frequently mentioned by rural adolescents compared with urban youth. Urban and rural differences were found in the way adolescents classified fast foods (rural adolescents included more traditional foods like chips, sandwiches, and Casado-a dish consisting of rice, black beans, plantains, salad, and a meat), and in purchasing locations (rural adolescents identified neighborhood convenience stores as fast-food restaurants). Living in rural areas, convenience and availability of foods, and the presence of external loci of control were predictors of a higher frequency of fast-food consumption, whereas health awareness predicted a lower frequency. The development of interventions to reduce fast-food consumption in Costa Rican adolescents should consider not only convenience, but also the availability of these foods where adolescents are more exposed, particularly in rural areas. Interventions such as improving the convenience of healthy fast foods available in school canteens and neighborhood stores, policies to increase the price of unhealthy fast food, and activities to provide adolescents with the skills to increase self-efficacy and reduce the effect of external loci of control are recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Science support for evaluating natural recovery of polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in fish from Crab Orchard Lake, Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Bethany K.; Hinck, Jo E.; Calfee, Robin D.; Linder, Greg L.; Little, Edward E.

    2018-05-11

    .S. Fish and Wildlife Service sought technical support to understand environmental drivers of current (2017) PCB residues in fish tissue and patterns in PCB residues through time to inform the fish-consumption advisory for Crab Orchard Lake. This project is planned in two phases (Tasks 1 and 2); the first phase is included in this report.Task 1, reported here, includes a review of existing literature and a brief overview focused on environmental and biochemical/physiological processes that drive PCB residues in fish tissue. This review specifically targets processes that are relevant for freshwater lacustrine environments such as those at Crab Orchard Lake. In addition to discussions of environmental fate, metabolism, and accumulation of PCBs, this review includes a brief scientifically based explanation of approaches used to establish fish-consumption advisories.A planned second task (Task 2) will include a compilation and summary of existing data on PCB residues in fish tissue samples from Crab Orchard Lake. This summary will also place Crab Orchard Lake data in a broader geographic context through a comparison with fish data from other Midwestern lakes.When Task 1 and Task 2 are complete, resource managers will have (a) a synthesis of existing literature that characterizes the processes influencing the fate of residual PCBs remaining in systems such as Crab Orchard Lake, (b) a summary of natural PCB attenuation processes for use in risk communication with the public, and (c) a summary of existing data on PCBs in fish tissues from Crab Orchard Lake, including exploratory plots of tissue residues through time. Overall, this project will provide data to help resource managers better understand the ecological and public health consequences of residual PCBs in Crab Orchard Lake.

  19. [Analysis of funding of projects on obstetrics and gynecology supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China from 2007 to 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, S H; Huang, Q S; Yao, S Z

    2017-04-25

    Objective: To summarize the funding of scientific research projects on obstetrics and gynecology by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) from 2007 to 2016 and to display the hotspots of scientific research on obstetrics and gynecology. Methods: A systemic search was performed for the information of projects supported by NSFC from 2007 to 2016. The indicators for analysis included the number of projects, total investment, project categories, research units and research field. The research direction of each project was decided based on title, summary and key words provided by the profile of each project. Results: The total investment on obstetrics and gynecology by NSFC was 23.214 million with a total of 82 projects in 2007. It increased year by year and reached the peak in 2014 (359 projects 208.990 million). The investment and number of projects remained stable after 2014. General projects (1 109 projects 608.000 million) formed the majority of projects. Youth science fund projects (1 035 projects 214.976 million) increased steadily and the number was nearly equal to general projects. There were only a small amount of key projects (20 projects 54.720 million) and major projects (7 projects 38.400 million). The investment varied in different research units. The greatest 10 units (less than 6% of total), including 7 comprehensive universities, 2 medical universities and 1 institute of medicine, got 1 113 projects invested (43.84% of total, 1 113/2 539). The hot areas like gynecological tumor (920 projects 350.615 million), hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy (91 projects 37.470 million) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (77 projects 29.540 million) were more likely to receive investment, while some interdisciplinary science like maternal and child health (28 projects 12.050 million), imaging and biomedicine (37 projects 14.770 million) began to achieve attention in recent years. Conclusions: The number of researches invested will be increased

  20. Decision support in the natural gas distribution process of the Ceara state, Brazil; Apoio a decisao no processo de distribucao do gas natural no ambito do estado do Ceara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo, Clarice Augusta Carvalho; Arruda, Joao Bosco Furtado; Nobre, Junior, Ernesto Ferreira [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Transportes. Nucleo de Pesquisa em Logistica, Transporte e Desenvolvimento (NUPELTD); br, barruda@det ufc; br, nobre@det ufc

    2003-07-01

    The participation of natural gas has improved more and more in Brazilian energetic die. In Ceara, the use of natural gas has increased a lot and the expectations are the best. However it's necessary to guarantee a better infrastructure of distribution and interaction among the actors of the sector. This paper is part of a bigger project that intends to contribute with this improvement through an application of multicriteria techniques in the natural gas distribution process in Ceara. The aim of the project is to choose the market segment to be prioritized due to a possible context of restriction of gas offer in order of its potential demands. Nowadays paper, however, only makes a quick analysis of the actual gas situation in Ceara and a small explanation about multicriteria techniques, specifically, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Besides, through a simulation of the problem and an application of the analytic hierarchy process, this paper intends to demonstrate the applicability of these methods in this problem. (author)

  1. Decision support in the natural gas distribution process of the Ceara state, Brazil; Apoio a decisao no processo de distribucao do gas natural no ambito do estado do Ceara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo, Clarice Augusta Carvalho; Arruda, Joao Bosco Furtado; Nobre Junior, Ernesto Ferreira [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Transportes. Nucleo de Pesquisa em Logistica, Transporte e Desenvolvimento (NUPELTD)]. E-mail: claricerabelo@aol.com; barruda@det.ufc.br; nobre@det.ufc.br

    2003-07-01

    The participation of natural gas has improved more and more in Brazilian energetic die. In Ceara, the use of natural gas has increased a lot and the expectations are the best. However it's necessary to guarantee a better infrastructure of distribution and interaction among the actors of the sector. This paper is part of a bigger project that intends to contribute with this improvement through an application of multicriteria techniques in the natural gas distribution process in Ceara. The aim of the project is to choose the market segment to be prioritized due to a possible context of restriction of gas offer in order of its potential demands. Nowadays paper, however, only makes a quick analysis of the actual gas situation in Ceara and a small explanation about multicriteria techniques, specifically, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Besides, through a simulation of the problem and an application of the analytic hierarchy process, this paper intends to demonstrate the applicability of these methods in this problem. (author)

  2. Use of the Outdoor Classroom and Nature-Study to Support Science and Literacy Learning: A Narrative Case Study of a Third-Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    A case study of an exemplary third grade teacher's use of the outdoor classroom for meeting both state science and language arts standards is described. Data from the researcher's field journal, teacher lesson plans, and teacher interviews document how this teacher used nature-study to bridge outdoor classroom experiences with the state science…

  3. Pharmacogenetic association study on clopidogrel response in Puerto Rican Hispanics with cardiovascular disease: a novel characterization of a Caribbean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez-Suarez DF

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Dagmar F Hernandez-Suarez,1 Mariana R Botton,2 Stuart A Scott,2 Matthew I Tomey,3 Mario J Garcia,4 Jose Wiley,4 Pedro A Villablanca,5 Kyle Melin,6 Angel Lopez-Candales,7 Jessicca Y Renta,8 Jorge Duconge9 1Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Department of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, San Juan, PR, USA; 2Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; 3Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; 4Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine New York, NY, USA; 5Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 6Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR, USA; 7Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Department of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, San Juan, PR, USA; 8Department of Biochemistry, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR, USA; 9Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR, USA Introduction: High on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR to clopidogrel imparts an increased risk for ischemic events in adults with coronary artery disease. Platelet reactivity varies with ethnicity and is influenced by both clinical and genetic variables; however, no clopidogrel pharmacogenetic studies with Puerto Rican patients have been reported. Therefore, we sought to identify clinical and genetic determinants of on-treatment platelet reactivity in a cohort of Puerto Rican patients with cardiovascular disease. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 111 patients on 75 mg/day maintenance dose of clopidogrel. Patients were allocated into 2 groups: Group I, without HTPR; and Group II, with HTPR. Platelet function was

  4. Impact of psychiatric and social characteristics on HIV sexual risk behavior in Puerto Rican women with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaphy, Emily Lenore Goldman; Loue, Sana; Sajatovic, Martha; Tisch, Daniel J

    2010-11-01

    Latinos in the United States have been identified as a high-risk group for depression, anxiety, and substance abuse. HIV/AIDS has disproportionately impacted Latinos. Review findings suggest that HIV-risk behaviors among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) are influenced by a multitude of factors including psychiatric illness, cognitive-behavioral factors, substance use, childhood abuse, and social relationships. To examine the impact of psychiatric and social correlates of HIV sexual risk behavior in Puerto Rican women with SMI. Data collected longitudinally (from 2002 to 2005) in semi-structured interviews and from non-continuous participant observation was analyzed using a cross-sectional design. Bivariate associations between predictor variables and sexual risk behaviors were examined using binary and ordinal logistic regression. Linear regression was used to examine the association between significant predictor variables and the total number of risk behaviors the women engaged in during the 6 months prior to baseline. Just over one-third (35.9%) of the study population (N = 53) was diagnosed with bipolar disorder and GAF scores ranged from 30 to 80 with a median score of 60. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 50 years (M = 32.6 ± 8.7), three-fourths reported a history of either sexual or physical abuse or of both in childhood, and one-fourth had abused substances in their lifetimes. Bivariate analyses indicated that psychiatric and social factors were differentially associated with sexual risk behaviors. Multivariate linear regression models showed that suffering from increased severity of psychiatric symptoms and factors and living below the poverty line are predictive of engagement in a greater number of HIV sexual risk behaviors. Puerto Rican women with SMI are at high risk for HIV infection and are in need of targeted sexual risk reduction interventions that simultaneously address substance abuse prevention and treatment, childhood abuse, and the

  5. "Monkeys, babies, idiots" and "primitives": nature-nurture debates and philanthropic foundation support for American anthropology in the 1920s and 1930s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehn, Kersten Jacobson

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long discussion among historians about the impact that foundation policies had on the development of the social sciences during the interwar era. This discussion has centered on the degree to which foundation officers, particularly from the Rockefeller boards, exercised a hegemonic influence on research. In this essay, I argue that the field of American cultural anthropology has been neglected and must be reconsidered as a window into foundation intervention in nature-nurture debates. Despite foundation efforts to craft an anthropology policy that privileged hereditarian explanations, I contend that cultural anthropologists were committed to proving the primacy of "nurture," even when that commitment cost them valuable research dollars. It was this commitment that provided an essential bulwark for the discipline. Ironically, it was the need to negotiate with foundations about the purpose of their research that helped cultural anthropologists to articulate their unique, and thus intrinsically valuable, approach to nature-nurture debates.

  6. Development of the TRSSS-1 Satellite as the Major Component of the Space Based Information System(SBIS) for Effective Decision Support System for Thailand's Natural Resources and Environmental Management

    OpenAIRE

    Musigasam, Weerapant; Ditsariyakue, Praneet; Aphicholati, Navanit; Vibulsresth, Suvit

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes development of the first Thailand Remote Sensing Satellite System (TRSSS-1) by the National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT), Ministry of Science Technology and Environment (MOSTE). The TRSSS-1 project has primarily been developed as a major component of the Space Base Information System (SBIS) for effective decision support system for Thailand's natural resources and environmental management. The Space Based Information System consists of three components namely, the u...

  7. Dawsonite and other carbonate veins in the Cretaceous Izumi Group, SW Japan: a natural support for fracture self-sealing in mud-stone cap-rock in CGS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, Yasuko; Funatsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Takashi [Institute for Geo-Resources and environment, GSJ, AISI, 1-1-1 Higashi, Central 7, Tsukuba, ibaraki 305-8567 (Japan); Take, Shuji [Kishiwada Nature Club, c/o Kishiwada City Natural History Museum, Sakai-Machi 5-6, Kishiwada, Osaka 596-0072 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Dawsonite-bearing carbonate veins are abundant in a compact mud-stone layer of the lower part of the Izumi Group, SW Japan. The mode of occurrence of the veins probably indicates fracturing and mineral sealing associated with upwelling of CO{sub 2}-rich fluid evolved in the reservoir beneath. The carbonate veins studied here can be a natural support to fracturing and healing of mud-stone cap-rock in the CO{sub 2} geological storage. (authors)

  8. Structure and nature of the metal-support interface: characterization of iridium clusters on magnesium oxide by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zon, van F.B.M.; Maloney, S.D.; Gates, B.C.; Koningsberger, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to characterize the metal-support interface in catalysts consisting of very small Ir clusters of nearly uniform nuclearity on the surface of MgO powder. [Ir4(CO)12] on MgO was converted in high yield into [HIr4(CO)11]- and sep. into [Ir6(CO)15]2-. EXAFS data

  9. Maxillary Overdentures Supported by Anteriorly or Posteriorly Placed Implants Opposed by a Natural Dentition in the Mandible : A 1-Year Prospective Case Series Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Jan; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J. A.

    Background: For maxillary overdenture therapy, treatment guidelines are missing. There is a need for longitudinal studies. Purpose: The purpose of this 1-year prospective case series study was to assess the treatment outcome of maxillary overdentures supported by six dental implants opposed by

  10. "We Do Not Know What Is the Real Story Anymore": Curricular Contextualization Principles That Support Indigenous Students in Understanding Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Tapia, Ingrid; Krajcik, Joseph; Reiser, Brian

    2018-01-01

    We propose a process of contextualization based on seven empirically derived contextualization principles, aiming to provide opportunities for Indigenous Mexican adolescents to learn science in a way that supports them in fulfilling their right to an education aligned with their own culture and values. The contextualization principles we…

  11. MCSDSS: A Multi-Criteria Decision Support System for Merging Geoscience Information with Natural User Interfaces, Preference Ranking, and Interactive Data Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, S. A.; Gentle, J.

    2015-12-01

    The multi-criteria decision support system (MCSDSS) is a newly completed application for touch-enabled group decision support that uses D3 data visualization tools, a geojson conversion utility that we developed, and Paralelex to create an interactive tool. The MCSDSS is a prototype system intended to demonstrate the potential capabilities of a single page application (SPA) running atop a web and cloud based architecture utilizing open source technologies. The application is implemented on current web standards while supporting human interface design that targets both traditional mouse/keyboard interactions and modern touch/gesture enabled interactions. The technology stack for MCSDSS was selected with the goal of creating a robust and dynamic modular codebase that can be adjusted to fit many use cases and scale to support usage loads that range between simple data display to complex scientific simulation-based modelling and analytics. The application integrates current frameworks for highly performant agile development with unit testing, statistical analysis, data visualization, mapping technologies, geographic data manipulation, and cloud infrastructure while retaining support for traditional HTML5/CSS3 web standards. The software lifecylcle for MCSDSS has following best practices to develop, share, and document the codebase and application. Code is documented and shared via an online repository with the option for programmers to see, contribute, or fork the codebase. Example data files and tutorial documentation have been shared with clear descriptions and data object identifiers. And the metadata about the application has been incorporated into an OntoSoft entry to ensure that MCSDSS is searchable and clearly described. MCSDSS is a flexible platform that allows for data fusion and inclusion of large datasets in an interactive front-end application capable of connecting with other science-based applications and advanced computing resources. In addition, MCSDSS

  12. The immobilisation of trypsin and glucose oxidase onto natural rubber-g.co-HEMA - high energy radiation derived copolymeric support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, S.; Guthrie, J.T.; Beddows, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    Natural rubber has been grafted with 2-HEMA by three different methods each involving Co(60)γ-radiation as the initiation source. The grafted samples were used in the immobilisation of glucose oxidase and trypsin. Optimisation of immobilisation involving trypsin was studied with regard to the pH and the type of crosslinking agent. It was observed that the immobilised enzyme had superior stability over a wider pH range when compared to the free trypsin. The retention of activity demonstrated by the immobilised trypsin was significant. That of immobilised glucose oxidase was far from being satisfactory. (author)

  13. [Analysis on Research Projects Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China at the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases during 2003-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-jun; Zheng, Bin; Yi, Feng-yun; Xiong, Yan-hong; Zhang, Min-qi

    2015-04-01

    The data of the National Natural Science Foundation (NSFC) projests obtained by the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD), Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) during 2003-2013 were collected from internet-based science information system of NSFC, and NSFC search tool of Dingxiang Garden (http://nsfc.biomart.cn/). The number of funded projects, their subject classification and approved amount were analyzed, and compared with the other institutes of China CDC. Furthermore, the rationalization proposals were given in order to enhance the level of foundation management in the future.

  14. Insulin autoantibodies: evidence of autoimmune disease among a group of Puerto Rican children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Pijem, L; Nieves-Rivera, F

    2001-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease caused by a cell-specific destruction of the insulin producing cells of the pancreas. Although Puerto Rico has the highest incidence of type 1 diabetes among Latin American countries, there is scanty data on the presence of antibodies against insulin producing cells. To this end, 20 children (8 males, 12 females), ages 1-15 years, admitted to the University Pediatric Hospital with type 1 diabetes de novo between November 2000 and April 2001 were prospectively studied to determine the presence of serum antibodies against Islet cells (ICA), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-65) and insulin autoantibodies (IAA). IAA was found to be present in 45% of the subjects with 85% of positive rate in subjects under age 5. GAD-65 was present in 66% and ICA was present in 23% of the subjects. We found evidence of autoimmunity against islet cell surface and intracellular components among a cohort of Puerto Rican children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. These findings compared favorably with reports from other ethnicities.

  15. Proposal for Managing Eco-efficient Operations Plant Dedicated to Waste Handling at Costa Rican Institute of Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Chinchilla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, different eco-efficient specifications were established considered by Ingeniería y Construcciónor IC (Engineering and Construction, a business of the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (ICE, in Spanish, at the time of developing an operational plant devoted to the handling of waste, in order to make rational use of resources and generate the lowest environmental impact. Initially a general diagnosis was conducted to learn about the current process of waste management in IC, as well as the identification and assessment of its aspects and environmental impacts. An ecoefficiency proposal program was subsequently prepared to be implemented once the ordinary, special and hazardous waste plant is operating. As part of this investigation, eco-efficient measures and technologies were also identified; this can be adopted by IC or any organization to improve its waste management. Finally, it is necessary that the Eco-efficient Management Program (PGE, in Spanish is organized, planned and systematized over time; in addition, the need to have an Ecoefficiency Management Committee arises, which will allow to implement it and measure it through a series of indicators.

  16. Association of depression, psycho-social stress and acculturation with respiratory disease among Puerto Rican adults in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Stanislav; Tucker, Katherine L; Gao, Xiang; Falcon, Luis M; Qawi, Imrana; Brugge, Doug

    2011-04-01

    To assess associations between acculturation, depression, and self-reported stress score with reported diagnosis of respiratory disease (RD) in Puerto Rican adults, participants (N = 1,168) were identified from areas of high Hispanic density in the Boston, MA metropolitan area. Eligible participants were interviewed in the home by bilingual interviewers in either Spanish or English. Scales included topics ranging from general background to depressive symptomatology. Respiratory disease was self-reported and checked against prescribed medication. More than one-third (37.8%) of subjects reported doctor-diagnosed RD. A final binary logistical regression model (N = 850), which was adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age, education, poverty) showed that RD was significantly associated with psychological acculturation (OR = 1.97, P = 0.005), depressive symptomatology (OR = 1.52, P = 0.03) high perceived stress score (OR = 1.97, P = 0.009), and current smoking (OR = 1.61, P = 0.03). Significant inverse associations included a high level of language acculturation (OR = 0.65, P = 0.03), light (OR = 0.67, P = 0.01) and moderate to heavy physical activity versus sedentary physical activity (OR = 0.40, P = 0.03). We found self reported physician diagnosed RD was associated with high perceived stress and depression, as well as higher levels of psychological acculturation. Longitudinal research is needed to determine if there is a causal pathway for these associations.

  17. The seismogenic zone in the Central Costa Rican Pacific margin: high-quality hypocentres from an amphibious network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Ivonne G.; Husen, Stephan; Flueh, Ernst R.

    2014-10-01

    Transition from subduction of normal to thickened oceanic crust occurs in the central portion of the Costa Rican margin, where large interplate earthquakes ( M ~ 7) and abundant interseismic seismicity have been associated with subduction of bathymetric highs. We relocated ~1,300 earthquakes recorded for 6 months by a combined on- and offshore seismological network using probabilistic earthquake relocation in a 3D P-wave velocity model. Most of the seismicity originated at the seismogenic zone of the plate boundary, appearing as an 18° dipping, planar cluster from 15 to 25-30 km depth, beneath the continental shelf. Several reverse focal mechanisms were resolved within the cluster. The upper limit of this interseismic interplate seismicity seems to be controlled primarily by the overlying-plate thickness and coherency, which in turn is governed by the erosional processes and fluid release and escape at temperatures lower than ~100 to 120 °C along the plate boundary. The downdip limit of the stick-slip behaviour collocates with relative low temperatures of ~150 to 200 °C, suggesting that it is controlled by serpentinization of the mantle wedge. The distribution of the interseismic interplate seismicity is locally modified by the presence of subducted seamounts at different depths. Unlike in northern Costa Rica, rupture of large earthquakes in the last two decades seems to coincide with the area defined by the interseismic interplate seismicity.

  18. Adaptation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess diets of Puerto Rican and non-Hispanic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, K L; Bianchi, L A; Maras, J; Bermudez, O I

    1998-09-01

    To study issues of diet and health among Hispanic adults living in the northeastern United States, the authors adapted a version of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)/Block food frequency questionnaire. Foods that contributed to nutrient intake of Puerto Rican adults in the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) were ranked to identify items to be added to the food list. Portion sizes were compared across HHANES and the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II) to assess the adequacy of the assumed values. Within line items, frequencies of consumption of individual foods were ranked and these data were used to adjust the weighting factors within the database. To test the revised form, 24-hour recalls were collected from 90 elderly Hispanics and 35 elderly non-Hispanic whites. These data were coded into the original and revised food frequency forms and nutrient intake results were compared with recall results by paired t-test, and by Pearson and intraclass correlations. Added foods include plantains, avocado, mango, cassava, empanadas, and custard. Portion sizes differed significantly between HHANES and NHANES II, and were left open-ended. Estimated mean nutrient intakes and correlations with recall data were lower with the original versus the revised form. The authors conclude that the use in minority populations of food frequency questionnaires developed for the general population is likely to result in biased estimates of intake unless modifications are made in the questionnaires.

  19. GC-MS profiling, descriptive sensory analysis, and consumer acceptance of Costa Rican papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit purees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Veronika M; Esquivel, Patricia; Cubero Castillo, Elba; Carle, Reinhold; Steingass, Christof B

    2018-05-15

    Volatiles of papaya purees from four Costa Rican cultivars were analysed by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 83 volatiles was assigned in the purees, of which 19 were detected for the first time as papaya constituents. As revealed by multivariate statistics, i.e., principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), the purees may be allocated to terpene- and lactone-rich ('SH-5'), ester-containing ('Criolla'), and intermediate chemotypes ('Pococí' and 'Silvestre'). Descriptive sensory analysis and a consumer acceptance test were additionally performed. Floral, fruity, and honey-like notes were perceived at significantly higher intensities in 'SH-5' puree. The latter descriptors strongly correlated with volatiles discriminating 'SH-5' in the PCA and PLS-DA, respectively. Consumer acceptance of the papaya purees differed significantly. 'Pococí' and 'SH-5' purees appear to be suitable for improving the nutritional value of blended fruit juices without impairing their sensory quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of the nature of conductive support on the electrocatalytic activity of electrodeposited Ni films towards methanol oxidation in 1 M KOH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R.N.; Singh, A.; Anindita; Mishra, D. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2008-12-15

    The study of electrochemical behaviour of dispersed Ni on graphite, glassy carbon, and Ti electrodes, obtained by an electro-deposition method, is carried out in 1 M KOH + 1 M CH{sub 3}OH at 25 C. Results show that the nature of substrate influences the apparent electrocatalytic activities of the Ni over layer greatly. It is observed that at E = 0.50 V vs. Hg/HgO (25 C), the dispersed Ni on graphite is approx. 300 times more active than that dispersed on Ti and is approx. 260 times more active than that dispersed on glassy carbon. Further, these electrodes show quite good resistance against electrode poisoning by the methanol oxidation intermediates/products. (author)

  1. Is Waist-to-Height Ratio a Better Obesity Risk-Factor Indicator for Puerto Rican Children than is BMI or Waist Circumference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Soto, Winna T; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Linnette

    2016-03-01

    Puerto Rican children could have a higher prevalence of obesity, compared to US children or even to US Hispanic children. Obese youths are more likely to have risk factors for cardiovascular conditions, such as hypertension. Although BMI provides a simple, convenient measurement of obesity, it does not measure body fat distribution, associated with mortality and morbidity. Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) have been suggested to estimate obesity health risks. This study aimed to explore the association of a single blood pressure reading with 3 different obesity indicators (WC, BMI, and WHtR). A representative sample of students (first to sixth grade) from public and private schools in Puerto Rico was selected. The sample size consisted of 249 students, representing a 63% response rate. According to the sex-specific BMIs, approximately 38.1% of the children were obese or overweight. The prevalence of obesity was slightly higher when determined using WHtR but lower when using WC as the overweight indicator. The prevalence of high blood pressure among students was 12.5%; an additional 11.3% of the students were classified as possible prehypertensive. Regardless of the weight indicator used, overweight children were shown to have a higher risk of pre-hypertension/hypertension (as defined by a single BP measure) than were non-overweight children. The odds for high blood pressure were almost 3 times higher using WHtR. Logistic regression showed a stronger relationship between WHtR and the risk of pre-hypertension/hypertension than that between the former and either BMI or WC. This study suggests the possibility of higher prevalence of high blood pressure in obese Puerto Rican children. The waist-to height ratio could be the best indicator to measure obesity and potential hypertension in Puerto Rican children.

  2. Examining the influence of family environments on youth violence: a comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, non-Latino Black, and non-Latino White adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martínez, Lorena M; Padilla, Mark B; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo

    2011-08-01

    Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of familism, we examine differences in the risk for severe youth violence, as well its associations with family cohesion, parental engagement, adolescent autonomy, household composition, and immigrant generation among Mexican (n = 1,594), Puerto Rican (n = 586), Cuban (n = 488), and non-Latino Black (n = 4,053), and White (n = 9,921) adolescents with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicate a gradient of risk; White youth had the lowest risk for severe violence and Puerto Rican youth had the highest risk compared to all other racial/ethnic subgroups. Within-group analysis indicates that family factors are not universally protective or risk-inducing. While family cohesion decreased the risk of severe violence among all groups, parental engagement was associated with increased risk among Blacks and Whites, and adolescent autonomy was associated with increased risk among Puerto Ricans and Cubans. In addition, Cuban and White adolescents who lived in single parent households or who did not live with their parents, had higher risk for severe violent behaviors than their counterparts who lived in two parent households. Among Latinos, the association of immigrant generation was in opposite directions among Mexicans and Cubans. We conclude that family and immigration factors differentially influence risk for violence among Latino subgroups and highlight the significance of examining subgroup differences and developing intervention strategies that are tailored to the needs of each ethnic subgroup.

  3. Key plants preserve elements of culture: a study over distance and time of fresh crops in Puerto Rican markets in Hartford, Connecticut, "A moveable feast".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David W; Anderson, Gregory J

    2014-04-01

    People retain culinary customs when they migrate. We tested this commitment via the study of Puerto Rican fresh produce markets in the continental United States over time, 18 yr, and space, by comparisons with source markets in Puerto Rico (PR). A survey of Puerto Rican markets in Hartford (HT), Connecticut in 1993-1994 was repeated in 2009-2010. A comparative study was made at open-air markets in PR in 2009. Surveys recorded fresh crops, and interviews with vendors and Hartford Puerto Rican residents provided context. We recorded 84 plant crops (64 species; 32 families) for seven categories. The largest category was viandas (fresh, starchy "root" crops and immature fruits), followed by saborizantes (flavorings). In the second HT survey, 80% of the crops were still present. And ∼90% of the HT 1993-1994 crops and ∼75% of the HT 2009-2010 crops were shared with markets in PR. On the basis of our results, we suggest two new concepts. The persistence of these largely tropical foods in a temperate market far removed from tropical PR shows the importance of basic foods as an element of cultural identification. We recognize this stability as an example of "culinary cultural conservation". Second, analysis of these fresh produce markets leads to the conclusion that viandas are the most prominent in diversity, persistence over time and distance, volume, and in terms of consumers' "willingness to pay". Accordingly, we consider the viandas a good example of a "cultural keystone food group", a food group that is emblematic of a community's culinary conservation.

  4. Predominance and high antibiotic resistance of the emerging Clostridium difficile genotypes NAPCR1 and NAP9 in a Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ureña, Diana; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; Montoya-Ramírez, Mónica; del Mar Gamboa-Coronado, María; Somogyi, Teresita; Rodríguez, César; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn

    2016-05-11

    Clostridium difficile is the major causative agent of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In a 2009 outbreak of C. difficile-associated diarrhea that was recorded in a major Costa Rican hospital, the hypervirulent NAP1 strain (45%) predominated together with a local genotype variant (NAPCR1, 31%). Both strains were fluoroquinolone-resistant and the NAPCR1 genotype, in addition, was resistant to clindamycin and rifampicin. We now report on the genotypes and antibiotic susceptibilities of 68 C. difficile isolates from a major Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks. In contrast to our previous findings, no NAP1 strains were detected, and for the first time in a Costa Rican hospital, a significant fraction of the isolates were NAP9 strains (n=14, 21%). The local NAPCR1 genotype remained prevalent (n=18, 26%) and coexisted with 14 strains (21%) of classic hospital NAP types (NAP2, NAP4, and NAP6), eight new genotypes (12%), four environmental strains classified as NAP10 or NAP11 (6%), three strains without NAP designation (4%) and seven non-toxigenic strains (10%). All 68 strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 88% were resistant to clindamycin and 50% were resistant to moxifloxacin and rifampicin. Metronidazole and vancomycin susceptibilities were universal. The NAPCR1 and NAP9 strains, which have been associated with more severe clinical infections, were more resistant to antibiotics than the other strains. Altogether, our results confirm that the epidemiology of C. difficile infection is dynamic and that A(-)B(+) strains from the NAP9 type are on the rise not only in the developed world. Moreover, our results reveal that the local NAPCR1 strains still circulate in the country without causing outbreaks but with equally high antibiotic-resistance rates and levels.

  5. Green synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of natural bentonite-supported copper nanoparticles for the solvent-free synthesis of 1-substituted 1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazoles and reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Rostami-Vartooni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Cu nanoparticles were immobilized on the surface of natural bentonite using Thymus vulgaris extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The natural bentonite-supported copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs/bentonite were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, selected area electron diffraction (SAED and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET analysis. Afterward, the catalytic performance of the prepared catalyst was investigated for the solvent-free synthesis of 1-substituted 1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazoles and reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP in water. It was found that the Cu NPs/bentonite is a highly active and recyclable catalyst for related reactions.

  6. Association of Cigarette Smoking and Metabolic Syndrome in a Puerto Rican Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Calo

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study supports previous reports of an increased risk of MetSyn among current smokers, particularly those with a heavier consumption. Tobacco control strategies, such as preventing smoking initiation and disseminating evidence-based cessation programs, are necessary to reduce the burden of MetSyn in Puerto Rico.

  7. Rediscovery of Eugenia fajardensis (Myrtaceae), a rare tree from the Puerto Rican Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge C. Trejo-Torres; Marcos A. Caraballo-Ortiz; Miguel A. Vives-Heyliger; Christian W. Torres-Santana; William Cetzal-Ix; Joel A. Mercado-Diaz; Tomas A. Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Eugenia fragrans var.? fajardensis was described in 1895 and raised to species status in 1923 as E. fajardensis. In 1925, it was relegated to the synonymy of Anamomis fragrans (Myrcianthes fragrans). Since 2001, we have re-discovered wild plants and herbarium specimens, including a previously unidentified isotype of E. fajardensis, supporting the validity of this...

  8. Resource Utilization by Native and Invasive Earthworms and Their Effects on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Puerto Rican Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yu Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resource utilization by earthworms affects soil C and N dynamics and further colonization of invasive earthworms. By applying 13C-labeled Tabebuia heterophylla leaves and 15N-labeled Andropogon glomeratus grass, we investigated resource utilization by three earthworm species (invasive endogeic Pontoscolex corethrurus, native anecic Estherella sp, and native endogeic Onychochaeta borincana and their effects on soil C and N dynamics in Puerto Rican soils in a 22-day laboratory experiment. Changes of 13C/C and 15N/N in soils, earthworms, and microbial populations were analyzed to evaluate resource utilization by earthworms and their influences on C and N dynamics. Estherella spp. utilized the 13C-labeled litter; however, its utilization on the 13C-labeled litter reduced when cultivated with P. corethrurus and O. borincana. Both P. corethrurus and O. borincana utilized the 13C-labeled litter and 15C-labeled grass roots and root exudates. Pontoscolex corethrurus facilitated soil respiration by stimulating 13C-labeled microbial activity; however, this effect was suppressed possibly due to the changes in the microbial activities or community when coexisting with O. borincana. Increased soil N mineralization by individual Estherella spp. and O. borincana was reduced in the mixed-species treatments. The rapid population growth of P. corethrurus may increase competition pressure on food resources on the local earthworm community. The relevance of resource availability to the population growth of P. corethrurus and its significance as an invasive species is a topic in need of future research.

  9. Investigation of KIF6 Trp719Arg in a case-control study of myocardial infarction: a Costa Rican population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance A Bare

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The 719Arg allele of KIF6 (rs20455 was associated with coronary events in Caucasian participants of five prospective studies. We investigated whether this KIF6 variant was associated with non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI in a case-control study of an admixed population from the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Genotypes of the KIF6 variant were determined for 4,134 men and women. Cases (1,987 had survived a first MI; controls (2,147 had no history of MI and were matched to cases by age, sex, and area of residence. We tested the association between the KIF6 719Arg allele and non-fatal MI by conditional logistic regression and adjusted for admixture of founder populations.Compared with the reference Trp/Trp homozygotes, KIF6 719Arg carriers were not at significantly higher risk for non-fatal MI in this study after adjustment for traditional risk factors or admixture (OR= 1.12; 95%CI, 0.98-1.28. Heterozygotes of the KIF6 Trp719Arg variant were at increased risk of non-fatal MI: the adjusted odds ratio was 1.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.34, but this association would not be significant after a multiple testing correction.We found that carriers of the KIF6 719Arg allele were not at increased risk of non-fatal MI in a case-control study of Costa Ricans living in the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

  10. Pleistocene vertical motions of the Costa Rican outer forearc from subducting topography and a migrating fracture zone triple junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joel H.; Kluesner, Jared W.; Silver, Eli A.; Bangs, Nathan L.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the links between subducting slabs and upper-plate deformation is a longstanding goal in the field of tectonics. New 3D seismic sequence stratigraphy, mapped within the Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project (CRISP) seismic-reflection volume offshore southern Costa Rica, spatiotemporally constrains several Pleistocene outer forearc processes and provides clearer connections to subducting plate dynamics. Three significant shelf and/or slope erosional events at ca. 2.5–2.3 Ma, 1.95–1.78 Ma, and 1.78–1.19 Ma, each with notable differences in spatial extent, volume removed, and subsequent margin response, caused abrupt shifts in sedimentation patterns and rates. These shifts, coupled with observed deformation, suggest three primary mechanisms for Pleistocene shelf and slope vertical motions: (1) regional subaerial erosion and rapid subsidence linked to the southeastward Panama Fracture Zone triple-junction migration, with associated abrupt bathymetric variations and plate kinematic changes; (2) transient, kilometer-scale uplift and subsidence due to inferred subducting plate topography; and (3) progressive outer wedge shortening accommodated by landward- and seaward-dipping thrust faults and fold development due to the impinging Cocos Ridge. Furthermore, we find that the present-day wedge geometry (to within ∼3 km along strike) has been maintained through the Pleistocene, in contrast to modeled landward margin retreat. We also observe that deformation, i.e., extension and shortening, is decoupled from net margin subsidence. Our findings do not require basal erosion, and they suggest that the vertical motions of the Costa Rican outer forearc are not the result of a particular continuous process, but rather are a summation of plate to plate changes (e.g., passage of a fracture zone triple junction) and episodic events (e.g., subducting plate topography).

  11. Socio-Cognitive Correlates to School Achievement Using the TEMAS (Tell-Me-A-Story) Culturally Sensitive Test with Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grades At Risk Puerto Rican Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardalda, Elsa B.; Costantino, Giuseppe

    The Tell-Me-A-Story (TEMAS) Culturally Sensitive Test was administered to 74 Puerto Rican students in a New York City school in order to measure such personality resources as conflict resolution skills and cognitive structuring of narratives. The resulting data was used to examine the degree to which these early adolescents' personality resources…

  12. Effect of SiO 2-ZrO 2 supports prepared by a grafting method on hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas over Ni/SiO 2-ZrO 2 catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong Gil; Youn, Min Hye; Song, In Kyu

    SiO 2-ZrO 2 supports with various zirconium contents are prepared by grafting a zirconium precursor onto the surface of commercial Carbosil silica. Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 catalysts are then prepared by an impregnation method, and are applied to hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effect of SiO 2-ZrO 2 supports on the performance of the Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 catalysts is investigated. SiO 2-ZrO 2 prepared by a grafting method serves as an efficient support for the nickel catalyst in the steam reforming of LNG. Zirconia enhances the resistance of silica to steam significantly and increases the interaction between nickel and the support, and furthermore, prevents the growth of nickel oxide species during the calcination process through the formation of a ZrO 2-SiO 2 composite structure. The crystalline structures and catalytic activities of the Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 catalysts are strongly influenced by the amount of zirconium grafted. The conversion of LNG and the yield of hydrogen show volcano-shaped curves with respect to zirconium content. Among the catalysts tested, the Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 (Zr/Si = 0.54) sample shows the best catalytic performance in terms of both LNG conversion and hydrogen yield. The well-developed and pure tetragonal phase of ZrO 2-SiO 2 (Zr/Si = 0.54) appears to play an important role in the adsorption of steam and subsequent spillover of steam from the support to the active nickel. The small particle size of the metallic nickel in the Ni(20 wt.%)/SiO 2-ZrO 2 (Zr/Si = 0.54) catalyst is also responsible for its high performance.

  13. The injection of biomethane produced from sludge from sewage stations into the French natural gas distribution network. Scientific and technical support report. Scientific and technical support related to the problem of injection of biomethane produced from sludges from sewage stations into the French natural gas distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Jaeg, Jean-Philippe; Leroux, Carole; Pernelet-Joly, Valerie; Solal, Cecilia; Saddoki, Sophia

    2013-04-01

    This report aimed at producing an assessment of health risks (for consumers as well as for professionals) related to the injection of biogas produced from water treatment stations into the natural gas transport and distribution network. Data on the chemical composition of raw bio-gases produced by sewage stations and of biomethane produced from sludge from these stations have been obtained from different sources and measurements. After a recall of works performed in answer to a first expertise mission which comprised an approach to the assessment of microbiological risks, this report presents the various data and their sources. It discusses the characterisation (i.e. the various components) of raw bio-gases and of biomethane produced from sludge from sewage stations, and of natural gas. The last part proposes an identification of risks through a qualitative approach

  14. A Pilot Intervention to Promote Safer Sex in Heterosexual Puerto Rican Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David Wyatt; Ronis, David L

    2014-09-01

    Although the sexual transmission of HIV occurs in the context of an intimate relationship, preventive interventions with couples are scarce, particularly those designed for Hispanics. In this article, we present the effect of a pilot intervention directed to prevent HIV/AIDS in heterosexual couples in Puerto Rico. The intervention was theory-based and consisted of five three-hour group sessions. Primary goals included increasing male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation as a safer sex method, and promoting favorable attitudes toward these behaviors. Twenty-six couples participated in this study. Fifteen were randomly assigned to the intervention group and eleven to a control group. Retention rates at post-intervention and follow-up were 82% for the whole sample. Results showed that there was a significant increase in the use of male condoms with main partners in the intervention group when compared with the control group. Couples in the intervention group also had better scores on secondary outcomes, such as attitudes toward condom use and mutual masturbation, HIV information, sexual decision-making, and social support. We found that these effects persisted over the three month follow up. A significant effect was also observed for the practice of mutual masturbation, but not for sexual negotiation. These results showed that promoting male condom use in dyadic interventions among heterosexual couples in Puerto Rico is feasible. Our findings suggest that because vaginal penetration has been constructed as the sexual script endpoint among many Hispanic couples, promoting other non-penetrative practices, such as mutual masturbation, may be difficult.

  15. The Mediterranean Diet Score Is More Strongly Associated with Favorable Cardiometabolic Risk Factors over 2 Years Than Other Diet Quality Indexes in Puerto Rican Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Josiemer; Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bigornia, Sherman J; Noel, Sabrina E; Tucker, Katherine L

    2017-04-01

    Background: Multiple diet quality scores have been used to evaluate adherence to specific dietary recommendations or to consumption of healthful foods and nutrients. It remains unknown which score can more strongly predict longitudinal changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. Objective: We aimed to determine associations of 5 diet quality scores [AHA diet score (AHA-DS), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005, Mediterranean diet score (MeDS), and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)] with 2-y changes in cardiometabolic risk factors in adults 45-75 y old. Methods: Data from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study were analyzed ( n = 1194). Diet quality scores were calculated from a baseline-validated food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted, repeated-subjects, mixed-effects models, adjusted for baseline measures, estimated associations between each z score and 14 individual cardiometabolic factors measured at 2 y. Results: MeDS was significantly associated with lower 2-y waist circumference (β coefficient ± SE: -0.52 ± 0.26, P = 0.048); body mass index (BMI; -0.23 ± 0.08, P = 0.005); log-insulin (-0.06 ± 0.02, P = 0.005); log-homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; -0.05 ± 0.02, P = 0.030), and log-C-reactive protein (-0.13 ± 0.03, P = 0.0002). Similar but weaker associations were observed for the AHEI with BMI, insulin, and HOMA-IR. The AHA-DS was inversely associated with BMI (-0.17 ± 0.08, P = 0.033). Neither the HEI-2005 nor DASH was significantly associated with any variable. Traditional Puerto Rican foods consumed by individuals with high MeDSs included vegetables and meats in homemade soups, orange juice, oatmeal, beans and legumes, fish, whole milk, corn oil, and beer. Conclusions: The MeDS comprises food components and scores associated with a favorable cardiometabolic profile over 2 y in Puerto Rican adults. An overall healthy diet may be particularly beneficial for

  16. Health disparities between island and mainland Puerto Ricans Disparidades de salud entre puertorriqueños que viven en la isla de Puerto Rico y en tierra firme estadounidense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Y. F. Ho

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To detect health disparities among three populations-Puerto Ricans living in Puerto Rico as well as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic whites living on the United States (U.S. mainland. METHODS: Data from two similarly designed surveys conducted in 1999-2000 were analyzed. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS provided data on Puerto Ricans living on the island and on non-Hispanic whites in the U.S. Another survey of Puerto Ricans living in New York City provided data on mainland Puerto Ricans. The age- and sex-standardized weighted prevalences of various health parameters (e.g., obesity, diabetes, smoking, and physical illness and indicators of access to health care (e.g., frequencies of routine checkups and diabetes care were compared between populations by means of standardized rate ratios (SRR. RESULTS: Puerto Ricans living on the mainland and those living on the island had a similar prevalence of obesity (21% to 22%. Compared with islanders, mainland Puerto Ricans had a higher prevalence of diabetes (SRR = 1.4; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.01 to 2.0; those with diabetes also showed higher prevalences of smoking (SRR = 4.2; 95% CI = 2.3 to 7.7 and physical illness (SRR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1 to 2.0 than Puerto Ricans living on the island. While mainland Puerto Ricans were similar to non-Hispanic whites in terms of their utilization of primary prevention and diabetes care, island Puerto Ricans trailed behind significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Puerto Ricans living on the U.S. mainland and those living in Puerto Rico both need to target lowering their prevalence of obesity and diabetes. For island Puerto Ricans, improved education about the significance of primary prevention and diabetes care is needed. For mainland Puerto Ricans, the accessibility of the primary health care system renders it a potentially effective venue for interventions, particularly for smoking cessation. More studies are warranted to identify factors

  17. Natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, J W

    1967-08-01

    This report on the natural gas industry of Canada includes: composition and uses of natural gas, production statistics, exploration and development, reserve estimates, natural gas processing, transportation, and marketing. For the Canadian natural gas industry, 1966 was a year of moderate expansion in all phases, with a strong demand continuing for sulfur and liquid hydrocarbons produced as by-products of gas processing. Value of natural gas production increased to $199 million and ranked sixth in terms of value of mineral ouput in Canada. Currently, natural gas provides over 70% of Canada's energy requirements. Proved remaining marketable reserves are estimated to be in excess of a 29-yr supply.

  18. The effect of supplementation with vitamin A on serum and liver concentrations in Puerto Rican crested toads (Peltophryne lemur) and its lack of impact on brown skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Christopher; Lentini, Andrew; Berkvens, Charlene; Crawshaw, Graham

    2014-01-01

    "Brown skin disease" (BSD) is a clinical syndrome of dysecdysis, chronic weight loss and death, previously reported in Puerto Rican crested toads (Peltophryne lemur). Although vitamin A deficiency has been suggested, its cause remains unknown and multiple treatments have failed to prevent or reverse the condition. This study compared the efficacy of vitamin A supplementation, administered in different forms and by different routes, in 48 captive born Puerto Rican crested toads fed from metamorphosis on gut-loaded, dusted, commercially raised crickets. Forty-five toads started to show clinical signs of BSD at 9 months of age; all toads were treated orally with an oil-based vitamin A formulation twice weekly for 2 months but continued to deteriorate. Two treatment groups were then compared: Animals in one group (n=19) received 2 IU injectable vitamin A (Aquasol-A) per gram bodyweight subcutaneously twice weekly for 3 months with no change in diet. Toads in the other group (n=22) received a single oral dose of vitamins A, D3 , and E, and were fed on earthworms and crickets gut-loaded with produce and a finely-ground alfalfa-based pellet, dusted with the same vitamin/mineral supplement. All affected animals developed severe BSD equally and died during, or were euthanized at the end of, the treatment regimen, with no clinical improvement. Animals supplemented with Aquasol-A had significantly higher liver vitamin A concentrations compared with the other treatment group, whereas serum retinol concentrations showed no significant difference. Vitamin A supplementation does not appear a successful treatment once BSD symptoms have developed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. High population density of black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in Costa Rican lowland wet forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weghorst, Jennifer A

    2007-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to estimate the population density and demographic structure of spider monkeys living in wet forest in the vicinity of Sirena Biological Station, Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica. Results of a 14-month line-transect survey showed that spider monkeys of Sirena have one of the highest population densities ever recorded for this genus. Density estimates varied, however, depending on the method chosen to estimate transect width. Data from behavioral monitoring were available to compare density estimates derived from the survey, providing a check of the survey's accuracy. A combination of factors has most probably contributed to the high density of Ateles, including habitat protection within a national park and high diversity of trees of the fig family, Moraceae. Although natural densities of spider monkeys at Sirena are substantially higher than those recorded at most other sites and in previous studies at this site, mean subgroup size and age ratios were similar to those determined in previous studies. Sex ratios were similar to those of other sites with high productivity. Although high densities of preferred fruit trees in the wet, productive forests of Sirena may support a dense population of spider monkeys, other demographic traits recorded at Sirena fall well within the range of values recorded elsewhere for the species.

  20. Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Bakar, Wan Azelee Wan Abu; Ali, Rusmidah

    2010-01-01

    Natural gas fuel is a green fuel and becoming very demanding because it is environmental safe and clean. Furthermore, this fuel emits lower levels of potentially harmful by-products into the atmosphere. Most of the explored crude natural gas is of sour gas and yet, very viable and cost effective technology is still need to be developed. Above all, methanation technology is considered a future potential treatment method for converting the sour natural gas to sweet natural gas.

  1. Cancer disparities between mainland and island Puerto Ricans Disparidades en la incidencia de cáncer en puertorriqueños residentes en los Estados Unidos y Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Y. F. Ho

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Examination of cancer rates in a single Hispanic subgroup-Puerto Ricans-and comparison of incidence rates among mainland Puerto Ricans living in the United States, island Puerto Ricans in Puerto Rico, and U.S. non-Hispanic whites to reveal ethnic-specific cancer patterns and disparities in Puerto Ricans. METHODS: Incidence data were obtained from the cancer registries of Puerto Rico and three U.S. northeastern states (New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut with a high density of mainland Puerto Ricans. Age-adjusted rates were compared by standardized rate ratios (SRRs. RESULTS: Total cancer incidence was the lowest in island Puerto Ricans, intermediate for mainland Puerto Ricans, and highest in U.S. non-Hispanic whites. Compared to mainland Puerto Ricans, islanders had significantly lower rates (p OBJETIVOS: Se analizaron las tasas de cáncer en un subgrupo de hispanos residentes en los Estados Unidos de América -los puertorriqueños (PRREUA y se compararon sus tasas de incidencia con las de los puertorriqueños que residen en Puerto Rico (PRRPR y la población estadounidense blanca sin ascendencia hispana (EUBNH a fin de encontrar patrones de cáncer y disparidades de orden étnico específicos para los puertorriqueños. MÉTODOS: Se obtuvieron los datos de incidencia de los registros de cáncer de Puerto Rico y tres estados del nordeste de los Estados Unidos (New York, New Jersey y Connecticut que tienen una elevada densidad de PRREUA. Se compararon las tasas ajustadas por la edad mediante las razones de las tasas estandarizadas (SRR. RESULTADOS: La incidencia total de cáncer fue menor en los PRRPR, intermedia en los PRREUA y mayor en los EUBNH. Los PRRPR presentaron tasas significativamente menores que los PRREUA (P < 0,05 en los principales tipos de cáncer -de pulmón (SRR = 0,36 en hombres; SRR = 0,29 en mujeres, próstata (SRR = 0,71, mama (SRR = 0,73 y colorrectal (SRR = 0,74 en hombres y SRR = 0,65 en mujeres- así como en

  2. Tendencias cuánticas en empresas orientadas hacia el conocimiento: Análisis de caso de una experiencia costarricense. Quantic trends in knowledge-based companies: A case analysis of a Costa Rican experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Zúñiga Ramírez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El artículo desarrolla un debate sobre la aplicación de los conceptos propios de los modelos tradicionales de la Ciencia Administrativa, a la sazón amparados bajo la llamada escuela “newtoniana”, vis a vis con aquellos más contemporáneos y asertivos, cobijados bajo la óptica de los novedosos enfoques administrativos de corte “cuántico” para el caso específico de una empresa orientada hacia el conocimiento. La indagación supone que una firma de esta naturaleza, y que es abordada como un análisis de caso en el entorno de negocios costarricense, debería presentar una visión más cercana a los enfoques más recientes de la Administración, precisamente porque, por su giro de negocios, los desafíos ambientales y organizativos que enfrenta son muy importantes. Del análisis de la información que destila de sus directores de proyectos, hemos podido concluir que, pese a lo anterior, sus puntos de vista presentan tendencias que no son lo suficientemente contestes con los enfoques cuánticos, lo que representa un factor que le resta competitividad a la compañía, así como su capacidad de adaptación y flexibilidad en el funcionamiento de sus operaciones.   Abstract This article presents a debate between the application of concepts related to the traditional model of administrative sciences, included within the so-called ‘newtonian’ school, and the application of more contemporary concepts, covered under the new ‘quantic’ administrative approaches, using the specific case of a knowledge-based enterprise. The inquiry supposes that a company of this nature, which is also taken as a case study in the Costa Rican business environment, should hold a closer position to the more recent administrative focuses, especially because its business orientation presents important administrative and environmental challenges. From the information collected from the project managers involved in this firm, we have concluded that their

  3. Sample of learners and teachers perception on the implementation of the affectivity and integral sexuality in the Costa Rican Educational Program Percepción de una muestra de educandos y docentes sobre la implementación del programa educación para la afectividad y la sexualidad integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle León León

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The case study focuses on the relevance of the Affectivity and Integral Sexuality in the Costa Rican Educational Program (EAIS implementation. This program was proposed by the Ministry of Public Education (MEP in 2013. It was implemented using a mixed approach under a dominant mixed classification. To gather data for the different study categories (knowledge of the topic, teaching models, and methodological strategies, a questionnaire was applied to nineteen students and some semi-structured interviews were carried out for five Science teachers from a high school within the Costa Rican Metropolitan Area. Some contributions were emphasized in matrices (charts and contrasted through of triangulation both of theory and participants. Within the main conclusions stands out the relevance of programs for the effectiveness and integral sexuality supported by professionals in education and the learning population of the study. In addition, it was identified that the participants’ ´knowledge of the study (learners and instructors was merely biological oriented.Recibido 12 de enero de 2013 • Corregido 08 de marzo de 2013 • Aceptado 13 de marzo de 2013La investigación versa sobre la pertinencia de la implementación del programa Educación para la Afectividad y la Sexualidad Integral (EASI propuesto por el Ministerio de Educación Pública de Costa Rica (MEP, a partir del año 2013. Esta se realizó  con el enfoque mixto, en la clasificación de mixto dominante. Para recopilar la información de las categorías del estudio (nivel de conocimiento del tema, modelos de enseñanza y estrategias metodológicas, se aplicó un cuestionario a diecinueve estudiantes (11 de sétimo y 8 de noveno año y se realizaron entrevistas semi-estructuradas a 5 docentes de enseñanza de las ciencias de un colegio diurno del área metropolitana costarricense. Algunos de los aportes fueron resaltados en matrices (tablas y contrastados mediante la triangulación de

  4. PLURALIZING NATURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    Denmark is widely recognised for its democratic approach to planning and the idea of planning for the common good. This interest in the common good and common values seems also to be reflected in the way which nature restoration is planned and managed – one common nature directed by the public...... authorities. But nature restoration is far from being a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production it can be the source of dissonance – ‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particular sensitive to site......-specificity. As exemplified by the Skjern River Restoration Project (1999-2003), one interpretation of the landscape sometimes suppresses other valid interpretations neglecting its diverse history. However, evidence from Switzerland suggests that planning for the common good, in the case of nature restoration, does...

  5. Natural Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Ann M.

    2006-01-01

    Natural philosophy” is often used by European historians as an umbrella term to designate the study of nature before it can easily be identified with what we call “science” today, to avoid the modern and potentially anachronistic connotations of that term. But “natural philosophy” (and its equivalents in different languages) was also an actor's category, a term commonly used throughout the early modern period and typically defined quite broadly as the study of natural bodies. As the central ...

  6. Dissonant Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2013-01-01

    Nature restoration is far from being a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production it can be the source of dissonance – ‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particular sensitive to site-specificity. As exempl...... and allows for multiple interpretations to coexist. Evidence can be found in the Re-naturalization of River Aire (2002-2015), a restoration project, which reveals approaches that could be labelled landscape architecture specific....

  7. Temporal naturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolin, Lee

    2015-11-01

    Two people may claim both to be naturalists, but have divergent conceptions of basic elements of the natural world which lead them to mean different things when they talk about laws of nature, or states, or the role of mathematics in physics. These disagreements do not much affect the ordinary practice of science which is about small subsystems of the universe, described or explained against a background, idealized to be fixed. But these issues become crucial when we consider including the whole universe within our system, for then there is no fixed background to reference observables to. I argue here that the key issue responsible for divergent versions of naturalism and divergent approaches to cosmology is the conception of time. One version, which I call temporal naturalism, holds that time, in the sense of the succession of present moments, is real, and that laws of nature evolve in that time. This is contrasted with timeless naturalism, which holds that laws are immutable and the present moment and its passage are illusions. I argue that temporal naturalism is empirically more adequate than the alternatives, because it offers testable explanations for puzzles its rivals cannot address, and is likely a better basis for solving major puzzles that presently face cosmology and physics. This essay also addresses the problem of qualia and experience within naturalism and argues that only temporal naturalism can make a place for qualia as intrinsic qualities of matter.

  8. Living in cities, naturally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartig, Terry; Kahn, Peter H

    2016-05-20

    Natural features, settings, and processes in urban areas can help to reduce stress associated with urban life. In this and other ways, public health benefits from, street trees, green roofs, community gardens, parks and open spaces, and extensive connective pathways for walking and biking. Such urban design provisions can also yield ecological benefits, not only directly but also through the role they play in shaping attitudes toward the environment and environmental protection. Knowledge of the psychological benefits of nature experience supports efforts to better integrate nature into the architecture, infrastructure, and public spaces of urban areas. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Unnaturalised racial naturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Adam

    2014-06-01

    Quayshawn Spencer (2014) misunderstands my treatment of racial naturalism. I argued that racial naturalism must entail a strong claim, such as "races are subspecies", if it is to be a substantive position that contrasts with anti-realism about biological race. My recognition that not all race naturalists make such a strong claim is evident throughout the article Spencer reviews (Hochman, 2013a). Spencer seems to agree with me that there are no human subspecies, and he endorses a weaker form of racial naturalism. However, he supports his preferred version of 'racial naturalism' with arguments that are not well described as 'naturalistic'. I argue that Spencer offers us an unnaturalised racial naturalism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Matematica Natural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Patricia; Medearis, Linda

    Matematica Natural (Natural Mathematics) is a mathematics curriculum for young children based on the assumption that they learn mathematics through concrete, real life, relevant experiences and that educational differences rather than cultural differences influence math achievement. The curriculum uses hands-on materials and activities to teach…

  11. Natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feliciano, Vanusa Maria Delage

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic radiation, as well as cosmogenic radiation, terrestrial radiation, radon and thorium are introduced in this chapter 3. The distribution of natural radiation sources is treated, where the percentage distribution of the contribution relative to exposure to radiation from natural and artificial sources is also included

  12. Framing nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This PhD thesis is about communication concerning nature in the Netherlands. The purpose of this exploratory study is to take both a theoretical and an empirical look at whether (implicit) religious elements play a role in this communication about nature in the Netherlands.

    In this PhD

  13. Natur formet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Malene Hauxner, "Fra naturlig natur til SUPERNATUR – Europæisk landskabsarkitektur 1967-2007 set fra Danmark", Risskov: Ikaros Press, 2011.......Anmeldelse af Malene Hauxner, "Fra naturlig natur til SUPERNATUR – Europæisk landskabsarkitektur 1967-2007 set fra Danmark", Risskov: Ikaros Press, 2011....

  14. A key to the adult Costa Rican "helicopter" damselflies (Odonata: Pseudostigmatidae with notes on their phenology and life zone preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Hedström

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a key to the Costa Rican species of Pseudostigmatidae, comprising three genera with the following species: Megaloprepus caerulatus, Mecistogaster linearis, M. modesta, M. ornata and Pseudostigma aberrans. Pseudostigma accedens, which may occur in the region, is also included. For each species we give a brief account of morphology, phenology and life zone preferences, including distributional maps based on more than 270 records. These are not all of the known specimens from the area, but a high enough number to give a relatively good picture of the distribution and status of the species. We found M. caerulatus to be active during the first half of the year in seasonal, tropical semidry lowland forest and tropical moist forest at mid-elevation, but like M. linearis, M. caerulatus was active all year round in non-seasonal, tropical wet lowland forest and tropical moist forest at mid-elevation. Mecistogaster modesta also flew year round in non-seasonal, tropical wet lowland forest and tropical moist evergreen forest at mid-elevation, and likewise in seasonal and non-seasonal, tropical premontane moist forest. Only a few findings, however, have been made of M. modesta in seasonal, tropical semi-dry decidu-ous forest and seasonal, tropical moist evergreen forest. Mecistogaster ornata was missing entirely from non-sea-sonal, tropical wet lowland forest and non-seasonal, tropical moist forest at mid- elevation, while this species was active year round in seasonal, tropical dry lowland forest and tropical semi-dry forest, as well as in seasonal, tropical moist evergreen forest and tropical premontane moist forest, both at mid-elevation. Pseudostigma aberrans has so far been found too few times in Costa Rica for any indication of flight time preferenceSe presenta una clave de las especies de Pseudostigmatidae de Costa Rica. Esta familia está representada en este país por tres géneros con las siguientes especies: Megaloprepus caerulatus

  15. Natural radiation; A radiacao natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliciano, Vanusa Maria Delage

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic radiation, as well as cosmogenic radiation, terrestrial radiation, radon and thorium are introduced in this chapter 3. The distribution of natural radiation sources is treated, where the percentage distribution of the contribution relative to exposure to radiation from natural and artificial sources is also included.

  16. Sciences & Nature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... Sciences & Nature, the Scientific Journal edited by the University of ... Subjects covered include agronomy, sciences of the earth, environment, biological, ...

  17. Pluralising Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2017-01-01

    suppress other valid perceptions, in conflict with the need for different groups of people to be able to identify with the same territory. However, planning for the common good, in the case of nature restoration, does not necessarily mean planning for one common nature. Understanding and working......Denmark is recognised for its democratic approach to planning, and for the idea of planning for the common good. This interest in the common good and in common values also seems to be reflected in the way that the restoration of nature is planned and managed, suggesting that there is one common...... “nature” that everyone can agree on. But nature restoration is far from being an unproblematic undertaking. As with any other type of heritage production, it can be the source of dissonance. As exemplified by the Skjern River Restoration Project, one perception of a landscape and its value as “nature” can...

  18. Writing Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Asdal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the Nordic Journal of Science and Technology Studies is interested in how nature, in different versions and forms, is invited into our studies, analyses, and stories. How is it that we “write nature”? How is it that we provide space for, and actually describe the actors, agents, or surroundings, in our stories and analyses? The articles in the issue each deal with different understandings of both the practices of writing and the introduction of various natures into these. In this introduction to the issue the editors engage with actor-network theory as a material semiotic resource for writing nature. We propose to foreground actor-network theory as a writing tool, at the expense of actor-network theory as a distinct vocabulary. In doing this and pointing out the semiotic origins to material-semiotics we also want to problematize a clear-cut material approach to writing nature.

  19. Tech Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Kate

    2002-01-01

    Discusses technology-support issues, including staff training, cost, and outsourcing. Describes how various school districts manage technology-support services. Features the Technology Support Index, developed by the International Society for Technology in Education, to gauge the operation of school district technology-support programs. (PKP)

  20. Evaluation of discriminating power of 13 Y chromosome markers with high rate of mutation (RM Y-STR) in the Costa Rican population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano Matamoros, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The Y chromosome microsatellites analysis has had among its purposes the obtaining of a male haplotype from mixtures with high prevalence of female genetic material, such as sexual offenses. The currently available markers set as AmpFISTR® Yfiler® have offered haplotype resolution to level of incomplete patrilineal line. This limitation has been particularly important when is needed to supplement paternity studies. The implementation expected of the 13 Y chromosome microsatellites with high mutation rate (RM Y-STR) recently described, has improved the discriminating power of microsatellite analysis of Y in the forensic context. However, for implemetation it has been necessary to obtain the frequencies of haplotypes in the Costa Rican population. In addition, the discriminating power of the new markers is evaluated and compared with current markers set, such as AmpFISTR® Yfile®, to determine whether the former have an advantage over the latter. The use of a powerful new tool has been claimed for a more efficient and effective application of justice in Costa Rica, specially in sexual offenses [es

  1. Love and hooking up in the new millennium: communication technology and relationships among urban African American and Puerto Rican young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdall, Anna R; Kraft, Joan Marie; Andes, Karen; Carter, Marion; Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Hock-Long, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Communication technology is a central feature of young people's lives, but its role in romantic and sexual relationships has not been thoroughly examined. This article describes how young adults use communication technology for partnering across relationship stages (formation, maintenance, and dissolution) and types (serious/casual), and proposes implications of usage in relationships. This study analyzed qualitative data from a five-week, prospective, coital diary method with related debriefing interviews (N = 70) of African American and Puerto Rican men and women aged 18 to 25 years in Hartford and Philadelphia. Cell phones, including calls, text messaging, and mobile Internet, were the most common forms of communication technology used for partnering goals. Participants reported using cell phones to pursue partnering goals across all relationship stages, including formation (meeting, screening, and getting to know new partners), maintaining existing relationships, and breaking up. Cell phone uses depended on the type of relationship (serious/casual) and the participants' intentions and desires. Results indicated that cell phones are an important element of communication among young adults in romantic and sexual relationships. Specific features of cell phone communication shape the process and context of partnering. Future research should explore emerging communication technologies and implications for psychosocial development, dating violence, and sexual behavior.

  2. Emancipating Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The issue of riverine flooding in the UK is closely tied up with computer simulations. Arguably, these modelling practices are ripe with the anticipation of nature. They aspire to pre-empt it, hence expect it to be ‘out there’, and ultimately work through formalized distillations of it – hydrodyn......The issue of riverine flooding in the UK is closely tied up with computer simulations. Arguably, these modelling practices are ripe with the anticipation of nature. They aspire to pre-empt it, hence expect it to be ‘out there’, and ultimately work through formalized distillations...... of it – hydrodynamic equations – which have their own anticipations and place their own demands on their modellers. Through the experience of a flood modelling apprenticeship I argue that the taking-place of such anticipations paradoxically relies on the birth of a hybrid, the model-modeller, and thus on a nature...

  3. Natural aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Scorer, R S

    1958-01-01

    Natural Aerodynamics focuses on the mathematics of any problem in air motion.This book discusses the general form of the law of fluid motion, relationship between pressure and wind, production of vortex filaments, and conduction of vorticity by viscosity. The flow at moderate Reynolds numbers, turbulence in a stably stratified fluid, natural exploitation of atmospheric thermals, and plumes in turbulent crosswinds are also elaborated. This text likewise considers the waves produced by thermals, transformation of thin layer clouds, method of small perturbations, and dangers of extra-polation.Thi

  4. Provincialising Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Provincialising Nature: Multidisciplinary Approaches to the Politics of the Environment in Latin America offers a timely analysis of some of the crucial challenges, contradictions and promises within current environmental discourses and practices in the region. This book shows both challenging...... scenarios and original perspectives that have emerged in Latin America in relation to the globally urgent issues of climate change and the environmental crisis. Two interconnected analytical frameworks guide the discussions in the book: the relationship between nature, knowledge and identity and their role...

  5. Natural gas vehicles in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1991-01-01

    The technology of compressed natural gas (CNG) for road vehicles originated 50 years ago in Italy, always able to adapt itself to changes in energy supply and demand situations and national assets. Now, due to the public's growing concern for air pollution abatement and recent national energy policies calling for energy diversification, the commercialization of natural gas road vehicles is receiving new momentum. However, proper fuel taxation and an increased number of natural gas distribution stations are required to support this growing market potential. Operators of urban bus fleets stand to gain substantially from conversion to natural gas automotive fuels due to natural gas being a relatively cheap, clean alternative

  6. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 3. Nature Watch Diversity of Bats. G Marimuthu. Feature Article Volume 1 Issue 3 March 1996 pp 103-110. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/03/0103-0110. Author Affiliations.

  7. Nature's Palette

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Brooke B.; Brewer, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Flower petals, acorn hats, exoskeletons of beetles, and lichens are just a few of the objects students may find in a surprising array of vivid colors. These tiny examples from nature's palette can be discovered in a school yard, a park, or even along the edges of a paved sidewalk...it simply takes careful observation! This article describes a…

  8. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 9. Nature Watch - Coral Reefs and their Fauna: An Underwater Fantasyland. Anuradha Bhat. Feature Article Volume 9 Issue 9 September 2004 pp 62-73. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 3. Nature Watch: Symbiosis in Coastal Marine Communities. Neelam Pereira. Feature Article Volume 20 Issue 3 March 2015 pp 245-253. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 5. Nature Watch - Thinking Like a Tahr: When Males and Females go their Separate Ways. M D Madhusudan. Feature Article Volume 3 Issue 5 May 1998 pp 43-47 ...

  11. Natural Propositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernfelt, Frederik

    Preface -- Introduction -- The generality of signs -- Dicisigns -- Some consequences of the dicisign doctrine -- Dicisigns and cognition -- Natural propositions--the evolution of semiotic self-control -- Dicisigns beyond language -- Operational and optimal iconicity in Peirce's diagrammatology...... -- Cows, red cows, and red herrings -- Corollarial and theorematic experiments with diagrams -- Strategies of research: Peirce's enlightenment maxims -- Perspective -- References -- Index....

  12. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 7. Nature Watch - Singapore's Jurong BirdPark: A Study Model. Abraham Verghese. Feature Article Volume 6 Issue 7 July 2001 pp 74-88. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Kritikkens natur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz-Jakobsen, Claus

    1999-01-01

    Artiklen introducerer det nye forskningsfelt inden for samtænkning af litteratur, kultur og natur, den såkaldt økologiske kritik, og kaster et kritisk blik på  dens brug af romantisk litteratur som proto-økologisk kanon....

  14. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 7. Nature Watch - The Odyssey of the Olive Ridley. Kartik Shanker. Feature Article Volume 4 Issue 7 July 1999 pp 68-78. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/07/0068-0078 ...

  15. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Nature Watch - Secrets of the Shieldtails. Kartik Shanker. Feature Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 64-70. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/08/0064-0070 ...

  16. Nature Watch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... ... 20; Issue 1. Nature Watch: A Tale of Two Turtles. V Deepak. Feature Article Volume 20 Issue 1 January 2015 pp 47-54. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/020/01/0047-0054. Keywords. Ecology; endemic; India; turtles; tortoises; Western Ghats.

  17. Natural Heritage Inventory Element Occurrence

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The database consists of three state-wide coverages representing location records for plant and animal species and natural community types contained in the Kansas...

  18. Nutritional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

  19. Project to support formation of an energy and environment technology demonstration project in fiscal 1999. International joint demonstration and research project (Sichuan Province natural gas DME project); 1999 nendo Shisensho tennen gas DME project seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    DME can be manufactured from such raw materials as natural gas, coal bed gas and coal. NKK who is developing a technology to synthesize efficiently the DME being a new energy has been commissioned from NEDO to investigate and study a project to manufacture DME using natural gas produced in Sinchuan Province, and utilize it as fuel for power generation, transportation and LPG substitution. In the present research, the DME manufacturing plant size was assumed to be 500 tons a day (165 x 10{sup 3} tons annually). This output nearly corresponds to the current LPG consumption. The required amount of natural gas as the raw material is 0.2 x 10{sup 9} Nm{sup 3}/year, wherein, since the total production quantity of natural gas in Sinchuan Province is 10 x 10{sup 9} Nm{sup 3}/year, there is no problem in the supply of natural gas as the raw material. The construction cost was estimated to be 11 billion yen taking into consideration the device fabrication cost and construction labor cost in China. Furthermore, as a result of discussing the economy considering the natural gas material cost, industrial water cost, and labor cost for plant operation, the internal profit rate for the total capital after tax was found a little over 10%, proving the project to have excellent economic performance. (NEDO)

  20. Provincialising Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Provincialising Nature: Multidisciplinary Approaches to the Politics of the Environment in Latin America offers a timely analysis of some of the crucial challenges, contradictions and promises within current environmental discourses and practices in the region. This book shows both challenging...... scenarios and original perspectives that have emerged in Latin America in relation to the globally urgent issues of climate change and the environmental crisis. Two interconnected analytical frameworks guide the discussions in the book: the relationship between nature, knowledge and identity and their role...... in understanding recent and current practices of climate change and environmental policy. The different chapters in this volume contribute to this debate by offering multidisciplinary perspectives on particular aspects of these two frameworks and through a multidirectional outlook that links the local, national...

  1. Unbounded Naturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Taggart

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available nbsp;font face="Times, serif"font size="3"In the Anglo-American reception of John McDowellrsquo;s /font/fontfont face="Times, serif"font size="3"emMind and World/em/font/fontfont face="Times, serif"font size="3", there has been little attention paid to the developmental aspect of his lsquo;partially re-enchantedrsquo; naturalism. In lsquo;Naturalism Unboundedrsquo;, I argue that McDowellrsquo;s story of our normal upbringing (/font/fontfont face="Times, serif"font size="3"emBildung/em/font/fontfont face="Times, serif"font size="3" presents problems for his claim that we have a lsquo;standing obligationrsquo; to reflect on our perceptual experiences. I follow this critique up with a Hegelian-inspired attempt to retain and revise the vital points he makes about experience./font/font

  2. Natural games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, Jani; Annila, Arto

    2011-01-01

    A course of a game is formulated as a physical process that will consume free energy in the least time. Accordingly, the rate of entropy increase is the payoff function that will subsume all forms of free energy that motivate diverse decisions. Also other concepts of game theory are related to their profound physical counterparts. When the physical portrayal of behavior is mathematically analyzed, the course of a game is found to be inherently unpredictable because each move affects motives in the future. Despite the non-holonomic character of the natural process, the objective of consuming free energy in the least time will direct an extensive-form game toward a Lyapunov-stable point that satisfies the minimax theorem. -- Highlights: → Behavior in the context of game theory is described as a natural process. → The rate of entropy increase, derived from statistical physics of open systems, is identified as the payoff function. → Entropy as the payoff function also clarifies motives of collaboration and subjective nature of decision making. → Evolutionary equation of motion that accounts for the course of a game is inherently unpredictable.

  3. Maternal seric alpha-fetoprotein: determination of the medium values in Costa Rican pregnant women; Alfa-fetoproteina serica materna: determinacion de los valores medios normales en mujeres embarazadas costarricenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas Chaves, P [Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud (Costa Rica); Universidad de Costa Rica (Costa Rica). Centro Internacional de Investigacion y Adiestramiento Medico de la Universidad de Louisiana; Rodriguez Aguilar, S [Instituto Costarricense de Investigacion y Ensenanza en Nutricion y Salud (Costa Rica); Villalobos Castro, A [Hospital Dr. Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia (Costa Rica). Seccion de Ginecoobstetricia; Contreras Carmona, P [Hospital Dr. Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia (Costa Rica)

    1999-07-01

    The present study focuses on the normal mean values of AFP in 124 Costa rican pregnant women. In the women 554 determinations were done between the fifteenth and twentieth week of gestation. For this purpose, and Irma test and normal values were established. The concentration values of AFP were expressed as multiples of the median, considering a value of 2.5 Mm as the normal superior limit and of 0.25 as the inferior limit. The confidence limits of the median were 24-57 Ku/I and the 2.5MM value located between 60-143 Ku/I. (author)

  4. Supporting Families to Support Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John; Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.

    2018-01-01

    Collaboration between students' families and the school is an essential component to promoting student mental and behavioral health. Many schools structure their mental health services using a Multi-Tiered System of Supports that offers three different tiers of support from universal supports to personalized help for students with serious…

  5. Which naturalism for bioethics? A defense of moderate (pragmatic) naturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Eric

    2008-02-01

    There is a growing interest in various forms of naturalism in bioethics, but there is a clear need for further clarification. In an effort to address this situation, I present three epistemological stances: anti-naturalism, strong naturalism, and moderate pragmatic naturalism. I argue that the dominant paradigm within philosophical ethics has been a form of anti-naturalism mainly supported by a strong 'is' and 'ought' distinction. This fundamental epistemological commitment has contributed to the estrangement of academic philosophical ethics from major social problems and explains partially why, in the early 1980s, 'medicine saved the life of ethics'. Rejection of anti-naturalism, however, is often associated with strong forms of naturalism that commit the naturalistic fallacy and threaten to reduce the normative dimensions of ethics to biological imperatives. This move is rightly dismissed as a pitfall since ethics is, in part, a struggle against the course of nature. Rejection of naturalism has drawbacks, however, such as deterring bioethicists from acknowledging the implicit naturalistic epistemological commitments of bioethics. I argue that a moderate pragmatic form of naturalism represents an epistemological position that best embraces the tension of anti-naturalism and strong naturalism: bioethics is neither disconnected from empirical knowledge nor subjugated to it. The discussion is based upon historical writings in philosophy and bioethics.

  6. Roadway supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stassen, P

    1980-01-01

    Support systems in stone drifts and tunnels are discussed. Timber supports, steel arches, cold-bent sheet-metal arches, shotcrete and combined support arrangements are described. Brickwork and reinforced concrete are also covered. Supports in roadways leading to the face and in-seam roads are discussed including timber supports, steel arches, articulated arches on timber chocks, support accessories and the withdrawal and reshaping of arches. The subject of strata bolting, the aims of strata bolting, methods of strata bolting, systems of rock-bolting, end plates and wire mesh, and bolt and anchorage monitoring are also discussed. Injection techniques, injection parameters, injection methods, grouts, includes an example of the application of injection techniques are covered and combined injection/dowelling arrangements are examined. (55 refs.) (In French)

  7. Advances in the use of DNA barcodes to build a community phylogeny for tropical trees in a Puerto Rican forest dynamics plot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W John Kress

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Species number, functional traits, and phylogenetic history all contribute to characterizing the biological diversity in plant communities. The phylogenetic component of diversity has been particularly difficult to quantify in species-rich tropical tree assemblages. The compilation of previously published (and often incomplete data on evolutionary relationships of species into a composite phylogeny of the taxa in a forest, through such programs as Phylomatic, has proven useful in building community phylogenies although often of limited resolution. Recently, DNA barcodes have been used to construct a robust community phylogeny for nearly 300 tree species in a forest dynamics plot in Panama using a supermatrix method. In that study sequence data from three barcode loci were used to generate a well-resolved species-level phylogeny.Here we expand upon this earlier investigation and present results on the use of a phylogenetic constraint tree to generate a community phylogeny for a diverse, tropical forest dynamics plot in Puerto Rico. This enhanced method of phylogenetic reconstruction insures the congruence of the barcode phylogeny with broadly accepted hypotheses on the phylogeny of flowering plants (i.e., APG III regardless of the number and taxonomic breadth of the taxa sampled. We also compare maximum parsimony versus maximum likelihood estimates of community phylogenetic relationships as well as evaluate the effectiveness of one- versus two- versus three-gene barcodes in resolving community evolutionary history.As first demonstrated in the Panamanian forest dynamics plot, the results for the Puerto Rican plot illustrate that highly resolved phylogenies derived from DNA barcode sequence data combined with a constraint tree based on APG III are particularly useful in comparative analysis of phylogenetic diversity and will enhance research on the interface between community ecology and evolution.

  8. Assessing the association between pesticide exposure and cognitive development in rural Costa Rican children living in organic and conventional coffee farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chensheng; Essig, Christa; Root, Christa; Rohlman, Diane S; McDonald, Tom; Sulzbacher, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    We examined the association between pesticide exposure and cognitive development among rural Costa Rican children in a cross-sectional study. Study participants aged 4-10 years included 17 children whose parents worked in La Amistad organic coffee plantation and 18 Las Mellizas children whose parents worked in their own small conventional coffee farms. Two spot-urine samples were collected from each participant and analyzed for organophosphorus and pyrethroids pesticide metabolites. We administered the computerized Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS), a figure-drawing task, and a long-term memory test to evaluate study participant's cognitive development. Although urinary pesticide metabolite levels did not vary considerably between these two groups of children, we found that Las Mellizas children performed better in BARS and the figure drawing tests than did La Amistad. The results from the linear mixed-effects models suggested that family socioeconomic status (SES) might be a significant contributor to the variation of the outcomes of the neurobehavioral tests. The effect of pesticide exposure, however, as measured in a snapshot fashion, did not play a significant role to the performance of the cognitive development evaluation. Regardless of the study limitations, needed effort should be devoted to the improvement of the SES on the La Amistad families so that their children's cognitive development would not be compromised further. Additionally, future studies should focus on addressing the limitations imposed on the snapshot assessment of pesticide exposure and on conducting cognitive development evaluation so the link between childhood pesticide exposure and their cognitive development can be thoroughly investigated.

  9. Hazard prioritization and risk characterization of antibiotics in an irrigated Costa Rican region used for intensive crop, livestock and aquaculture farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Elba; Fournier, María Luisa; García, Fernando; Molina, Andrea; Chavarría, Guadalupe; Alfaro, Margarita; Ramírez, Fernando; Rodríguez, César

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics alter the homeostasis of microbial communities and select for antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the wild. Thus, the accumulation of unnaturally high concentration of these substances in the environment due to their use in human activities can be regarded as a neglected form of pollution, especially in countries with agricultural-based economies. Qualitative and quantitative information on antibiotic usage in Costa Rica is scarce, hence the design and enforcement of prevention strategies and corrective measures is difficult. To address this issue, and aiming in the long run to contribute with a more rational use of pharmaceuticals in the tropics, we characterized the hazard associated with the antibiotics used during 2008 in agriculture, aquaculture, pig farming, veterinary medicine and human medicine in the major irrigation district of Costa Rica. Hazard indicators were calculated based on antibiotic use and a weighted algorithm that also considered antibiotic fate, toxicity, and resistance. Moreover, hazard quotients were computed using maximum environmental concentrations reported for Costa Rican surface waters and predicted no effect concentrations for aquatic organisms. The number of antibiotics used in the ATID during the study were n = 38 from 15 families. Antibiotic consumption was estimated at 1169-109908 g ha(-1) year(-1) and, distinctively, almost half of this figure was traced back to phenicols. Tetracyclines, with a particular contribution of oxytetracycline, were the most widely used antibiotics in agriculture and veterinary medicine. Oxytetracycline, florfenicol, chlortetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sulfamethazine, trimethoprim and tylosin, in that order showed the highest hazard indicators. Moreover, hazard quotients greater than 1 were calculated for oxacillin, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine, and ciprofloxacin. Studies dealing with the ecotoxicology of tetracyclines, sulfonamides

  10. Serological Reactivity and Identification of Immunoglobulin E-Binding Polypeptides of Ganoderma applanatum Crude Spore Cytoplasmic Extract in Puerto Rican Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilá-Héreter, Frances; Rivera-Mariani, Félix E; Bolaños-Rosero, Benjamín

    2017-01-01

    The allergenic potential of Ganoderma applanatum basidiospores has been demonstrated previously in Puerto Rico. However, basidiomycete allergens are not available for inclusion in allergy diagnostic panels. Therefore, we sought to confirm allergic sensitization to G. applanatum crude spore cytoplasmic extract through reactivity in serological assays and detection of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding polypeptides. Via an indirect ELISA, serological reactivity was compared between groups of individuals with different allergic profiles. Group 1 (n = 51) consisted of individuals with sIgE to the allergens included in the diagnostic panels; group 2 (n = 14) comprised individuals with no sIgE to the allergens tested; and group 3 (n = 22) included individuals with no allergic history. To visualize IgE-binding polypeptides, group 1 sera were examined via Western blotting (WB). Polypeptide bands with the highest reactivity were analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS) for putative identification. The serological reactivity of group 1 was significantly higher than that of group 3 in an indirect ELISA (p = 0.03). Sixty-five percent of group 1 individuals showed reactivity to polypeptide bands in WB. Bands of 81 and 56 kDa had the highest reactivity proportions among the reactive sera, followed by a 45-kDa band. MS analysis of these 3 polypeptides suggests that they are basidiomycete-derived enzymes with aconitate hydratase, catalase, and enolase functions. G. applanatum spores have allergenic components recognized by Puerto Rican individuals, which could eventually be considered as markers in cases of fungal allergy and be included in diagnostic allergen panels in Puerto Rico and tropical regions. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among Costa Rican elementary school children Prevalencia del sobrepeso y la obesidad entre escolares de nivel primario en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Patricia Núñez-Rivas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Given that excessive body weight during childhood influences the development of several chronic diseases in adulthood, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in urban and rural Costa Rican elementary school children. METHODS: The study was carried out from July 2000 to April 2001. A total of 1718 students ages 7-12 were selected from 34 schools in the capital city of San José and in other nearby urban and rural areas. Both younger children (ones aged 7 through 9 years and older children (ones aged 10 through 12 years with a body mass index (BMI at or above the sex-specific 85th percentile were considered overweight. The younger children were classified as being obese if their triceps skinfold was greater than or equal to the 85th percentile for age and sex using the percentiles by age for children in the United States of America as normative standards. The older children were considered obese if they had a BMI at or above the sex-specific 85th percentile and both the triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness at or above the 90th percentile. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight was 34.5%. Children aged 7-9, boys, children from urban areas, and children of a higher socioeconomic status had a higher prevalence of overweight. The prevalence of obesity was 26.2%. A higher prevalence of obesity was found among children aged 7-9, boys, children from urban areas, and children of middle socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of obesity that we found in the Costa Rican children, primary and secondary prevention measures are needed in order to reduce the proportion of deaths due to chronic nontransmissible diseases among Costa Rican adults in the coming decades.OBJETIVO: Dado que el peso corporal excesivo durante la niñez influye en el desarrollo de varias enfermedades crónicas en la adultez, se llevó a cabo este estudio en escolares de nivel primario de áreas urbanas y rurales

  12. Imagining Nature during Music Listening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole; Beck, Bolette Daniels

    2018-01-01

    Nature, its delights and horrors, its creatures, its challenges and affordances play an underrated role in receptive music therapy, especially Guided Imagery and Music (GIM). In general, people from Western cultures are challenged in their mostly recreational relationship with nature, while ancient...... and traditional cultures worship nature as a place of holiness and wholeness. In GIM, a client or a group listens to music in a relaxed state and multi-modal imagery is evoked and supported by the music. The imagery is shared with the guide/therapist. This chapter will focus on ‘nature imagery’ in GIM through...... a primarily qualitative, exploratory study....

  13. Juan Cristóbal Gundlach’s collections of Puerto Rican birds with special regard to types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylke Frahnert

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The German naturalist Juan Cristóbal Gundlach (1810–1896 conducted, while a resident of Cuba, two expeditions to Puerto Rico in 1873 and 1875–6, where he explored the southwestern, western, and northeastern regions of this island. Gundlach made representative collections of the island’s fauna, which formed the nucleus of the first natural history museums in Puerto Rico. When the natural history museums closed, only a few specimens were passed to other institutions, including foreign museums. None of Gundlach’s and few of his contemporaries’ specimens have survived in Puerto Rico. We located 191 bird specimens (43 species collected there by Gundlach, all of which are in foreign institutions, especially Museum für Naturkunde Berlin. Here we list all located specimens and include data associated with them. Six new species were described out of the Gundlach collections from Puerto Rico, three of which are still taxonomically recognized today. Information about the types of those taxa is given.

  14. Natural games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Jani; Annila, Arto

    2011-10-01

    A course of a game is formulated as a physical process that will consume free energy in the least time. Accordingly, the rate of entropy increase is the payoff function that will subsume all forms of free energy that motivate diverse decisions. Also other concepts of game theory are related to their profound physical counterparts. When the physical portrayal of behavior is mathematically analyzed, the course of a game is found to be inherently unpredictable because each move affects motives in the future. Despite the non-holonomic character of the natural process, the objective of consuming free energy in the least time will direct an extensive-form game toward a Lyapunov-stable point that satisfies the minimax theorem.

  15. Natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, Marc; Frot, Patricia; Gambini, Denis-Jean; Gauron, Christine; Moureaux, Patrick; Herbelet, Gilbert; Lahaye, Thierry; Pihet, Pascal; Rannou, Alain

    2014-08-01

    This sheet belongs to a collection which relates to the use of radionuclides essentially in unsealed sources. Its goal is to gather on a single document the most relevant information as well as the best prevention practices to be implemented. These sheets are made for the persons in charge of radiation protection: users, radioprotection-skill persons, labor physicians. Each sheet treats of: 1 - the radio-physical and biological properties; 2 - the main uses; 3 - the dosimetric parameters; 4 - the measurement; 5 - the protection means; 6 - the areas delimitation and monitoring; 7 - the personnel classification, training and monitoring; 8 - the effluents and wastes; 9 - the authorization and declaration administrative procedures; 10 - the transport; and 11 - the right conduct to adopt in case of incident or accident. This sheet deals specifically with natural uranium

  16. Next nature : nature changes along with us

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensvoort, van K.M.; Grievink, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    We debate saving nature, we dream about escaping to nature, but rarely do we ask "What is nature?". The Next Nature book radically shifts your notion of nature. Where technology and nature are traditionally seen as opposed, they now appear to merge or even trade places. With our urge to design our

  17. Natural isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    14 C dates between 600 and 900 AD were obtained for early Iron Age sites in Natal, and from 1300 to 1450 AD for rock engraving sites in Bushmanland. Palaeoenvironmental data derived from the dating of samples related to sedimentary and geomorphic features in the central and northern Namib Desert enabled the production of a tentative graph for the changes in humidity in the region over the past 40000 years. These results suggest that relatively humid conditions came to an end in the Namib at ±25000 BP (before present). The increased precision of the SIRA mass spectrometer enabled the remeasurement of 13 C and 18 O in the Cango stalagmite. This data confirmed that the environmental temperatures in the Southern Cape remained constant to within ±1 o C during the past 5500 years. Techniques and applications for environmental isotopes in hydrology were developed to determine the origin and movement of ground water. Isotopic fractionation effects in light elements in nature were investigated. The 15 N/ 14 N ratio in bones of animals and humans increases in proportion to the aridity of the environment. This suggests that 15 N in bone from dated archaeological sites could be used to detect changes in past climatic conditions as naturally formed nitrate minerals are higly soluble and are only preserved in special, very dry environments. The sources and sinks of CO 2 on the South African subcontinent were also determined. The 13 C/ 12 C ratios of air CO 2 obtained suggest that the vegetation provides the major proportion of respired CO 2 . 9 refs., 1 fig

  18. Long-Term Outcomes in Puerto Ricans with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Receiving Early Treatment with Disease-Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs using the American College of Rheumatology Definition of Early RA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Rosario, Noemí; Arroyo-Ávila, Mariangelí; Fred-Jiménez, Ruth M; Díaz-Correa, Leyda M; Pérez-Ríos, Naydi; Rodríguez, Noelia; Ríos, Grissel; Vilá, Luis M

    2017-01-01

    Early treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) results in better long-term outcomes. However, the optimal therapeutic window has not been clearly established. To determine the clinical outcome of Puerto Ricans with RA receiving early treatment with conventional and/or biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) based on the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) definition of early RA. A cross-sectional study was performed in a cohort of Puerto Ricans with RA. Demographic features, clinical manifestations, disease activity, functional status, and pharmacotherapy were determined. Early treatment was defined as the initiation of DMARDs (conventional and/or biologic) in less than 6 months from the onset of symptoms attributable to RA. Patients who received early (disease duration was 14.9 years and 337 (87.0%) patients were women. One hundred and twenty one (31.3%) patients received early treatment. In the multivariate analysis adjusted for age and sex, early treatment was associated with better functional status, lower probability of joint deformities, intra-articular injections and joint replacement surgeries, and lower scores in the physician's assessments of global health, functional impairment and physical damage of patients. Using the ACR definition of early RA, this group of patients treated with DMARDs within 6 months of disease had better long-term outcomes with less physical damage and functional impairment.

  19. Marco referencial para el análisis de los programas de enseñanza media en el área de física y de química propuestos por el Ministerio de Educación Pública Costarricense / Referencial frame work for the analysis of the third and fourth cycles study programs in the physics and chemistry fields proposed by the Costa Rican Public Education Ministry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artavia Herrera, Yeudin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo presenta el marco referencial para el análisis de los programas de estudio propuestos por el Ministerio de Educación Pública (MEP en la enseñanza de la Física y la Química para la educación diversificada. Se considera el aporte que el MEP ofrece a los docentes de Física y Química, desde su posición de ente controlador de la educación costarricense. Así como el aporte de diversos autores que ofrecen variadas concepciones sobre la temática de enseñanza de la ciencia en general y de la Física y la Química en particular.Abstract:This article presents the referencial frame work for the analysis of the study programs proposed by the Public Education Ministry (MEP for the teaching of Physics and Chemistry in the third and fourth cicles. The contribution given to the Physics and Chemistry teachers by the Ministry of education has been taken into consideration since it`s the controlling entity in Costa Rican education. Besides, relevant ideas from several authors who have a variety of concepts about science teaching and Physics and Chemistry specifically were used to support the research.

  20. Diaspora portoricaine et musique rap à New-York : entre latinité et culture africaine américaine Puerto Rican diaspora and rap music in New-York city: between “latininad” and African American culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Partel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Le rap a atteint un succès sans précédent auprès des jeunes urbains aux Etats-Unis et dans les grandes mégalopoles du monde entier. Ce genre musical, figure de proue du hip-hop, s’est affirmé dès les années 1970 comme un moyen d’expression diasporique reflétant les expériences, les rapports complexes et les interactions culturelles entre Africains Américains, Jamaïcains et Portoricains de la diaspora vivant à New York. Cependant, le positionnement des artistes issus de la diaspora portoricaine a été peu étudié. Nourri de séjours d’observation participante et de recherches réalisés entre 2005 et 2008, ainsi que de la fréquentation assidue des concerts du collectif artistique portoricain The Terror Squad auxquels l’auteur a pu assister, cet article se propose doncd’analyser le rôle central des artistes issus de la diaspora portoricaine de New York à travers l’étude du rap, élément le plus médiatisé du hip-hop. Il devient ainsi possible de mieux entrevoir les tensions, convergences et interactions culturelles qui régissent les rapports complexes qui s’établissent entre la latinité des Portoricains et la culture africaine-américaine urbaine depuis plus d’une trentaine d’années dans le milieu du rap.Rap music has achieved unprecedented success among urban youth in the United States and in big cities around the world. As a key element of hip-hop this musical style has been asserting its strength since the 1970s as a reflection of the diasporic experience and the complex cultural interactions between African Americans, Jamaicans and Puerto Ricans of the diaspora living in New York. However, scant research has been conducted on the role of Puerto Rican artists of the diaspora living in New York. Therefore, based on field trips and participant observation undertaken between 2005 and 2008 and the concerts of the Puerto Rican rap group The Terror Squad that the author was able to attend frequently, the