WorldWideScience

Sample records for rica entitled environmental

  1. Columbia River System Operation Review final environmental impact statement. Appendix P: Canadian Entitlement Allocation Agreements (CEAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The System Operation Review (SOR) is a study and environmental compliance process being used by the three Federal agencies to analyze future operations of the system and river use issues. The goal of the SOR is to achieve a coordinated system operation strategy for the river that better meets the needs of all river users. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The purpose of this technical appendix is to provide the environmental review necessary to enter into agreements regarding the distribution between Federal and non-Federal project owners with respect to delivery of the Canadian Entitlement obligation to Canada for the period 1998 through 2024

  2. Environmental monitoring with TLD in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, P.; Mora, E.

    2003-01-01

    Using thermoluminescent dosimeters (Harshaw TLD-200) the first set of costarican data on absorbed doses in air from natural radiation is obtained. During the period from September 1996 to october 2000 eight different sites throughout the country were chosen to instal the TLD stations. Each station had eight cards (five were changed every three months and three changed annually). The dosimeters were read in the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory using a 4000 Harshaw reader and with the help a mathematical algorithm and the equipment calibration factors the dose rate in air (nGy h -1 ) was calculated. The national average is 108.9 ± 32.4 nGy h -1 , the lowest values (in nGy h -1 ) were obtain at sea level at Quebrada Honda with 53 ± 11 and the highest values (in nGy h -1 ) at Cartago with 160 ± 19. A slight increase with altitude is observed even though the Cartago station was always the highest. The values found agree with reported worldwide values for environmental doses in air. (Author) [es

  3. Environmental indicators and bio monitoring: Costa Rica experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Hidalgo, K.

    2012-01-01

    An experience carried out on rice, watermelon and melon crops were applied in Costa Rica. In sediment and water samples using bio monitoring techniques were found pesticides and pollution levels.The water bodies, sediments and ecological quality was determined by the BMWP- CR Index technique.

  4. Does Eco-Certification Have Environmental Benefits? Organic Coffee in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Blackman, Allen; Naranjo, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    Eco-certification of coffee, timber and other high-value agricultural commodities is increasingly widespread. In principle, it can improve commodity producers’ environmental performance, even in countries where state regulation is weak. However, evidence needed to evaluate this hypothesis is virtually nonexistent. To help fill this gap, we use detailed farm-level data to analyze the environmental impacts of organic coffee certification in central Costa Rica. We use propensity score matching t...

  5. Payments for environmental services in Costa Rica: from Rio to Rio and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porras, Ina; Miranda, Miriam; Barton, David; Chacon-Cascante, Adriana

    2012-05-15

    Costa Rica has shown how a small developing country can grab the bull of environmental degradation by the horns, and reverse one of the highest deforestation rates in Latin America to become the poster child of environment success. Key to its achievement has been the country's payments for environmental services (PES) programme, which began in 1997 and which many countries are now looking to learn from, especially as water markets and schemes to reward forest conservation and reduced deforestation (REDD+) grow. Within Costa Rica too, there is a need to first reflect on how the contexts for, and challenges facing, PES have changed; and continue building a robust programme that can ensure the coming decade is as successful as the past one.

  6. Payments for environmental services in Costa Rica: from Rio to Rio and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porras, Ina; Miranda, Miriam; Barton, David; Chacon-Cascante, Adriana

    2012-05-15

    Costa Rica has shown how a small developing country can grab the bull of environmental degradation by the horns, and reverse one of the highest deforestation rates in Latin America to become the poster child of environment success. Key to its achievement has been the country's payments for environmental services (PES) programme, which began in 1997 and which many countries are now looking to learn from, especially as water markets and schemes to reward forest conservation and reduced deforestation (REDD+) grow. Within Costa Rica too, there is a need to first reflect on how the contexts for, and challenges facing, PES have changed; and continue building a robust programme that can ensure the coming decade is as successful as the past one.

  7. Auctioning payment entitlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    Payment entitlements is a new commodity that arises from the new European common agricultural policy. The agricultural subsidies are decoupled from the actual production and replaced by the so-called payment entitlements. A payment entitlement has a farm specific value and may be freely traded. T...

  8. Outdoor and indoor dose assessment using environmental thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Costa Rica lies at the intersection of the Cocos and Caribbean plates in Central America. It has mountain ranges with many active volcanoes along its territory. Its soils are predominantly of volcanic origin. Natural radiation measurements utilising environmental CaF 2 :Dy thermoluminescence dosimeters were used for the first time in Costa Rica by the Dosimetry Section of the Atomic, Nuclear and Molecular Sciences Research Center of the University of Costa Rica. Seven hundred outdoor measurements were obtained in a 3.5-year period at eight different sites throughout the country. One hundred and seventy-four indoor readings were also collected at four sites for a 2-year period. Population-weighted averages give 82 nGy h -1 for outdoors and 130 nGy h -1 for indoors. The values lie on the upper range of worldwide reported values due to reported soil characteristics rich in uranium and potassium. A preliminary population-weighted value of 0.74 mSv/year for the effective dose is calculated for natural terrestrial gamma radiation in Costa Rica

  9. Social perception and environmental behavior of communities close to a tropical urban river in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Ureña Santos, Claudio; Barrientos, Zaidett

    2017-01-01

    Urban green areas are important to keep balance in the cities, but few studies consider people`s perception of these areas. We evaluated and compared the environmental perception of two urban communities in San José, Costa Rica. The analyzed communities are separated by the Ocloro River; one has a low socioeconomic status and the other a medium-high level. We conducted surveys in 40 homes located less than 150 m from the river, and local government employees in charge of natural resources man...

  10. Community-based approaches to strategic environmental assessment: Lessons from Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, A. John; Sims, Laura; Spaling, Harry

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a community-based approach to strategic environmental assessment (SEA) using a case study of the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad's (ICE) watershed management agricultural program (WMAP) in Costa Rica. The approach focused on four highly interactive workshops that used visioning, brainstorming and critical reflection exercises. Each workshop represented a critical step in the SEA process. Through this approach, communities in two rural watersheds assessed the environmental, social and economic impacts of a proposed second phase for WMAP. Lessons from this community-based approach to strategic environmental assessment include a recognition of participants learning what a participatory SEA is conceptually and methodologically; the role of interactive techniques for identifying positive and negative impacts of the proposed program and generating creative mitigation strategies; the effect of workshops in reducing power differentials among program participants (proponent, communities, government agencies); and, the logistical importance of notice, timing and location for meaningful participation. The community-based approach to SEA offers considerable potential for assessing regional (watershed) development programs focused on sustainable resource-based livelihoods

  11. Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants: An Editorial Reflection of Articles in the IJERPH Special Issue Entitled, “Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesia Ferguson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Children are at increased vulnerability to many environmental contaminants compared to adults due to their unique behavior patterns, increased contaminant intake per body weight, and developing biological systems. Depending upon their age, young children may crawl on the floor and may practice increased hand to mouth activity that may increase their dose-intake of specific contaminants that accumulate in dust and other matrices. Children are also smaller in size than adults, resulting in a greater body burden for a given contaminant dose. Because children undergo rapid transitions through particular developmental stages they are also especially vulnerable during certain growth-related time windows. A Special Issue was organized focused on the latest findings in the field of children’s environmental exposure for these reasons. This editorial introduces articles in this Special Issue and emphasizes their main findings in advancing the field. From the many articles submitted to this Special Issue from around the world, 23 were accepted and published. They focus on a variety of research areas such as children’s activity patterns, improved risk assessment methods to estimate exposures, and exposures in various contexts and to various contaminants. The future health of a nation relies on protecting the children from adverse exposures and understanding the etiology of childhood diseases. The field of children’s environmental exposures must consider improved and comprehensive research methods aimed at introducing mitigation strategies locally, nationally, and globally. We are happy to introduce a Special Issue focused on children’s environmental exposure and children’s health and hope that it contributes towards improved health of children.

  12. Children's Exposure to Environmental Contaminants: An Editorial Reflection of Articles in the IJERPH Special Issue Entitled, "Children's Exposure to Environmental Contaminants".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alesia; Solo-Gabriele, Helena

    2016-11-09

    Children are at increased vulnerability to many environmental contaminants compared to adults due to their unique behavior patterns, increased contaminant intake per body weight, and developing biological systems. Depending upon their age, young children may crawl on the floor and may practice increased hand to mouth activity that may increase their dose-intake of specific contaminants that accumulate in dust and other matrices. Children are also smaller in size than adults, resulting in a greater body burden for a given contaminant dose. Because children undergo rapid transitions through particular developmental stages they are also especially vulnerable during certain growth-related time windows. A Special Issue was organized focused on the latest findings in the field of children's environmental exposure for these reasons. This editorial introduces articles in this Special Issue and emphasizes their main findings in advancing the field. From the many articles submitted to this Special Issue from around the world, 23 were accepted and published. They focus on a variety of research areas such as children's activity patterns, improved risk assessment methods to estimate exposures, and exposures in various contexts and to various contaminants. The future health of a nation relies on protecting the children from adverse exposures and understanding the etiology of childhood diseases. The field of children's environmental exposures must consider improved and comprehensive research methods aimed at introducing mitigation strategies locally, nationally, and globally. We are happy to introduce a Special Issue focused on children's environmental exposure and children's health and hope that it contributes towards improved health of children.

  13. Academic entitlement in pharmacy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Jeff; Romanelli, Frank; Smith, Kelly M

    2012-12-12

    The constructs of academic entitlement and student consumerism refer to students' attitudes toward education as a commodity and the underlying belief that as consumers, they should be catered to and given the opportunity to participate in the education process according to their preferences. Most discussions regarding these attitudes are anecdotal, but the pervasiveness of these accounts and the troubling effects that ensue warrant attention. Grade inflation, student incivility, altered classroom practices, and decreased faculty morale are all potential aftereffects of teaching students who hold academic entitlement beliefs. Numerous factors are posited as attributing to academic entitlement including personal issues, societal pressures, and broad academic practices. This paper discusses these factors and offers faculty members and administrators recommendations regarding practices that may curb or alleviate issues associated with academically entitled students.

  14. The foundations of environmental health at the University of Costa Rica. A professional's must do La formación en salud ambiental en la Universidad de Costa Rica. El quehacer de un profesional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinia Alvarado Zeledón

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a synopsis of the historical evolution that the professional profile of Environmental Health in Costa Rica, has had so far. It also tends to recognize the sanitary developments that the country has experienced over the past 70 years, under the availability of the human resources area, particularly.The University of Costa Rica has made an important contribution when attempting to provide the country with a skilled and trained human resources department, in terms of health helping the Costarrican community.This human resources department was initially designed to inspection basic issues of environmental sanitation, such as water waste, vector control and health infrastructure. This, in a country that in the decade of the 30's, had an economy based on agriculture, mainly in which environmental conditions not yet reached alarming levels. Along with the pass of time, these conditions required of a professional able to anticipate scenarios and correct conditions adverse to human development in this Central-American Country. The professional profile of Environmental Health, is therefore, a profile constantly being updated.El presente artículo pretende ser una sinopsis acerca de la evolución histórica que ha tenido el perfil profesional de la salud ambiental en Costa Rica. Así mismo, procura hacer un reconocimiento de las transformaciones sanitarias que el país ha vivido durante los últimos 70 años, a la luz de la disponibilidad de recursos humanos, en esta área en particular.En este sentido, la Universidad de Costa Rica ha realizado una contribución importante al procurar dotar al país de un recurso humano capacitado y formado en competencias que han favorecido las condiciones de salud de la población costarricense.Este recurso humano estaba concebido inicialmente para realizar inspecciones en temas básicos de saneamiento ambiental, relacionados con excretas, aguas residuales, control de vectores, infraestructura sanitaria

  15. Environmental service payments: evaluating biodiversity conservation trade-offs and cost-efficiency in the Osa Conservation Area, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, D N; Faith, D P; Rusch, G M; Acevedo, H; Paniagua, L; Castro, M

    2009-02-01

    The cost-efficiency of payments for environmental services (PES) to private landowners in the Osa Conservation Area, Costa Rica, is evaluated in terms of the trade-off between biodiversity representation and opportunity costs of conservation to agricultural and forestry land-use. Using available GIS data and an 'off-the-shelf' software application called TARGET, we find that the PES allocation criteria applied by authorities in 2002-2003 were more than twice as cost-efficient as criteria applied during 1999-2001. Results show that a policy relevant assessment of the cost-effectiveness of PES relative to other conservation policies can be carried out at regional level using available studies and GIS data. However, there are a number of data and conceptual limitations to using heuristic optimisation algorithms in the analysis of the cost-efficiency of PES. Site specific data on probabilities of land-use change, and a detailed specification of opportunity costs of farm land, labour and capital are required to use algorithms such as TARGET for ranking individual sites based on cost-efficiency. Despite its conceptual soundness for regional conservation analysis, biodiversity complementarity presents a practical challenge as a criterion for PES eligibility at farm level because it varies depending on the set of areas under PES contracts at any one time.

  16. Environmental management for the control of Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811, (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in Costa Rica: a pilot project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Zeledón

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available An ecological control method, using environmental management operations, based on biological and behavioral characteristics of Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811, was implemented as a pilot project in an area of Costa Rica where the bug is prevalent. The sample was represented by 20 houses with peridomestic colonies (two also had indoor infestation, divided in two equivalent groups of 10 each. In one group we intervened the houses, i.e. all objects or materials that were serving as artificial ecotopes for the bugs were removed, and the second group was used as control houses. After a year of periodic follow up, it became evident that in those houses with a modified environment the number of insects had decreased notoriously even after the first visits and this was more evident after a period of 12.5 to 13.5 months in which no insects were detected in eight of the houses. It also became clear that in this group of houses, recolonization by wild bugs from the surrounding areas, became more difficult, probably due to the absence of protection from bug predators. In the control houses, with the exception of three in which the inhabitants decided to intervene on their own, and another house with a peculiar situation, the insect populations remained the same or even showed a tendency to increase, as confirmed at the end of the experiment. We believe that the method is feasible, low costing and non contaminating. It could be used successfully in other places where T. dimidiata is common and also in countries where other species colonize peridomestic areas of homes. Environmental management of this kind should seek the participation of the members of the communities, in order to make it a more permanent control measure.

  17. Genetic and environmental factors that have an effect in dairy cattle foot injuries in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Solano-López

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Foot injuries are one of the most important health problems in dairy herds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of genetic and environmental factors on the occurrence of foot injuries (FI in Costa Rica’s dairy cattle. A total of 130 844 cows (417 895 lactations from 358 herds users of the VAMPP (Veterinary Automated Management and Production control Programme software were analyzed between 1990 and 2015. The frequency of FI reports was 16.7% and 7.0% per cow and lactation, respectively. The most frequent FI were white line separation (34.3%, laminitis (13.0%, and sole ulcer (12.8%. FI was analyzed by a logistic regression, which determined significant effects of the following factors: zone, herd within zone, calving number, racial type, period and calving month, lactation stage, herd size, and the cow random effect. Cows with the highest propensity to suffer FI events came from the humid premontane forest zone (OR=1.76, were in the fourth calving (OR=1.29, Holstein breed (OR=1.77, calved between 1995 and 1999 (OR=1.73, April (OR=1.20, were in the second month of lactation (OR=22.2, and came from herds with at least 100 cows (OR=1.22. The heritability for FI, estimated by linear and threshold models, were 0.02±0.002 and 0.05±0.004, respectively; and the repeatability estimates were 0.03±0.001 and 0.05, respectively. Cows with FI presented 16.1 additional days open. There is a high impact of this disease in the evaluated dairy herds.

  18. Assessing the links among environmental contaminants, endocrinology, and parasites to understand amphibian declines in montane regions of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Christopher J; Ralicki, Hannah F; Laurencio, David; Crocker-Buta, Sarah; Malone, John H

    2018-01-01

    Amphibians inhabiting montane riparian zones in the Neotropics are particularly vulnerable to decline, but the reasons are poorly understood. Because environmental contaminants, endocrine disruption, and pathogens often figure prominently in amphibian declines it is imperative that we understand how these factors are potentially interrelated to affect montane populations. One possibility is that increased precipitation associated with global warming promotes the deposition of contaminants in montane regions. Increased exposure to contaminants, in turn, potentially elicits chronic elevations in circulating stress hormones that could contribute to montane population declines by compromising resistance to pathogens and/or production of sex steroids regulating reproduction. Here, we test this hypothesis by examining contaminant levels, stress and sex steroid levels, and nematode abundances in male drab treefrogs, Smilisca sordida, from lowland and montane populations in Costa Rica. We found no evidence that montane populations were more likely to possess contaminants (i.e., organochlorine, organophosphate and carbamate pesticides or benzidine and chlorophenoxy herbicides) than lowland populations. We also found no evidence of elevational differences in circulating levels of the stress hormone corticosterone, estradiol or progesterone. However, montane populations possessed lower androgen levels, hosted more nematode species, and had higher nematode abundances than lowland populations. Although these results suggested that nematodes contributed to lower androgens in montane populations, we were unable to detect a significant inverse relationship between nematode abundance and androgen level. Our results suggest that montane populations of this species are not at greater risk of exposure to contaminants or chronic stress, but implicate nematodes and compromised sex steroid levels as potential threats to montane populations.

  19. Assessing the links among environmental contaminants, endocrinology, and parasites to understand amphibian declines in montane regions of Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Leary

    Full Text Available Amphibians inhabiting montane riparian zones in the Neotropics are particularly vulnerable to decline, but the reasons are poorly understood. Because environmental contaminants, endocrine disruption, and pathogens often figure prominently in amphibian declines it is imperative that we understand how these factors are potentially interrelated to affect montane populations. One possibility is that increased precipitation associated with global warming promotes the deposition of contaminants in montane regions. Increased exposure to contaminants, in turn, potentially elicits chronic elevations in circulating stress hormones that could contribute to montane population declines by compromising resistance to pathogens and/or production of sex steroids regulating reproduction. Here, we test this hypothesis by examining contaminant levels, stress and sex steroid levels, and nematode abundances in male drab treefrogs, Smilisca sordida, from lowland and montane populations in Costa Rica. We found no evidence that montane populations were more likely to possess contaminants (i.e., organochlorine, organophosphate and carbamate pesticides or benzidine and chlorophenoxy herbicides than lowland populations. We also found no evidence of elevational differences in circulating levels of the stress hormone corticosterone, estradiol or progesterone. However, montane populations possessed lower androgen levels, hosted more nematode species, and had higher nematode abundances than lowland populations. Although these results suggested that nematodes contributed to lower androgens in montane populations, we were unable to detect a significant inverse relationship between nematode abundance and androgen level. Our results suggest that montane populations of this species are not at greater risk of exposure to contaminants or chronic stress, but implicate nematodes and compromised sex steroid levels as potential threats to montane populations.

  20. Nicaraguan Migrants in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquette, Catherine M.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This document is the executive summary of a detailed document entitled, Nicaraguan Migrants and Poverty in Costa Rica, which was prepared for the World Bank in 2006. The more detailed background paper from which this summary is derived was commissioned as a background paper in preparation for an upcoming poverty mission by the World Bank to Costa Rica. This summary and the larger document from which it comes provides: (1 a general overview of the socioeconomic and health situation of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and (2 a review of the poverty characteristics of these migrants. The primary data sources for the larger paper were successive recent rounds of the Annual National Household Survey in Costa Rica and the 2000 Census. The more detailed report on which this summary is based also reviews issues of data quality, comparability, and methodological problems with respect to existing information on Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica. As a summary, the document below, does not include detailed citations, which are of course included in the larger report. Readers are thus, referred to the larger report for citations and more detailed information on the data included in this summary.

  1. Nicaraguan Migrants in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Marquette

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This document is the executive summary of a detailed document entitled, Nicaraguan Migrants and Poverty in Costa Rica, which was prepared for the World Bank in 2006. The more detailed background paper from which this summary is derived was commissioned as a background paper in preparation for an upcoming poverty mission by the World Bank to Costa Rica. This summary and the larger document from which it comes provides: (1 a general overview of the socioeconomic and health situation of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and (2 a review of the poverty characteristics of these migrants. The primary data sources for the larger paper were successive recent rounds of the Annual National Household Survey in Costa Rica and the 2000 Census. The more detailed report on which this summary is based also reviews issues of data quality, comparability, and methodological problems with respect to existing information on Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica. As a summary, the document below, does not include detailed citations, which are of course included in the larger report. Readers are thus, referred to the larger report for citations and more detailed information on the data included in this summary.

  2. 43 CFR 426.5 - Ownership entitlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... nonexempt land; (ii) Married couples who hold equal interests are entitled to receive irrigation water on a... entitled to receive irrigation water on that land owned jointly in marriage up to a maximum of 320 acres of... tenant, provided each tenant holds an equal interest in the tenancy; (vi) Partnerships subject to prior...

  3. Measurement of Psychological Entitlement in 28 Countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M.; Piotrowski, J.; Cieciuch, J.; Calogero, R.M.; Van Hiel, A.; Argentero, P.; Baltatescu, S.; Baran, T.; Bardhwaj, G.; Bukowski, M.; Chargazia, M.; Clinton, A.; Halik, M.H.; Ilisko, D.; Khachatryan, N.; Klicperová-Baker, Martina; Košťál, Jaroslav; Kovacs, M.; Letovancova, E.; Liik, K.; Marganski, A.; Michałowski, J.; Nord, I.; Paspalanova, E.; de Leon, P.P.; Techera, J.; Rojas, M.; Różycka, J.; Sawicka, A.; Seibt, B.; Semkiv, I.; Tiliouine, H.; Truong, H.K.; Van den Bos, K.; Wills-Herrera, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2017), s. 207-217 ISSN 1015-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-11062S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : psychological entitlement * Entitlement Attitudes Questionnaire * cross-cultural research * measurement invariance Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 2.328, year: 2016 http://econtent.hogrefe.com/doi/abs/10.1027/1015-5759/a000286

  4. Academic Entitlement and Academic Performance in Graduating Pharmacy Students

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffres, Meghan N.; Barclay, Sean M.; Stolte, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To determine a measurable definition of academic entitlement, measure academic entitlement in graduating doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, and compare the academic performance between students identified as more or less academically entitled.

  5. The expansion of commodity crops for export in Argentina and Costa Rica. Socio environmental conflicts and peasant struggle for environmental justice

    OpenAIRE

    Silvetti, Felicitas; Caceres, Daniel Mario

    2016-01-01

    El trabajo analiza la expansión del monocultivo extractivista en Costa Rica y la Argentina en detrimento del capital natural y las poblaciones campesinas. La metodología incluyó entrevistas realizadas a campo en ambos países y consultas a fuentes documentales, periodísticas y bibliográficas. Se concluye que los conflictos ecosociales son provocados por la ausencia de un ordenamiento territorial, la escasa fiscalización estatal en materia ambiental y la alianza de los gobiernos con el capital ...

  6. Costa Rica

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    politiques de la concurrence en Amérique centrale, financé par le CRDI (et qui englobait l'étude sur le Costa Rica susmentionnée), a permis de cerner ces manques et de déterminer quel genre de lois et d'autorités en matière de concurrence conviennent le mieux aux réalités politique, juridique et culturelle de chacun des ...

  7. Teaching a Cross-Disciplinary Environmental Science, Policy, and Culture Course on Costa Rica's Ecotourism to Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Toni; Rodgers, Vikki L.

    2012-01-01

    Within the business world, there is growing evidence and increasing acceptance that sustainability and environmental practices are the main drivers for current innovation and success. We developed an interdisciplinary, offshore course where undergraduate business students could truly investigate and experience the benefits of environmentally and…

  8. Between availability and entitlement: The Constitution, Grootboom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between availability and entitlement: The Constitution, Grootboom and the right to food. Danie Brand. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  9. 38 CFR 21.3045 - Entitlement charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Survivors' and Dependents' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C...) Entitlement charges for elementary and secondary education. (1) When an eligible spouse or surviving spouse is... of the course or courses as a result of being— (A) Ordered, in connection with the Persian Gulf War...

  10. Tax treaty entitlement issues concerning dual residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanghavi, D.

    2014-01-01

    The question whether a dual resident taxpayer is entitled to tax treaties concluded by each residence state with a third state has been controversial. Since 2008, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Commentary on Article 4(1) of the OECD Model states that such a

  11. Rights as entitlements and rights as claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo, Marco Antônio Oliveira de

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Há pelo menos dois registros diferentes sobre o significado de “direitos”. Segundo um deles, os direitos são relações entre dois termos: uma pessoa e um bem; para o outro, os direitos são relações entre três termos: um indivíduo, uma pessoa e uma ação ou algo. Os registros são diferentes, mas não são totalmente incompatíveis. De acordo com a interpretação de direitos como entitlements, trata-se de direitos morais ou legais, ou seja, as relações de ordem moral ou jurídica das pessoas com bens (de benefícios concedidos a pessoas por uma lei humana, moral ou legal. Como uma espécie de direitos, os direitos humanos são vistos como direitos (entitlements das pessoas ou dos indivíduos a bens essenciais, dos quais podem-se inferir reivindicações (claims contra outras pessoas ou contra governos e representantes. Falamos sobre direitos humanos geralmente desta forma. Mas de acordo com o outro registro, os direitos em sentido próprio têm que ser interpretados como claims. Neste artigo, pretendo apresentar alguns argumentos em favor da vantagem de expor todos os enunciados significativos dos direitos como entitlements em termos explícitos de claims

  12. Entitlement and organizational behaviors: the moderating role of narcissism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Szalkowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychological entitlement (active, passive, and revenge, narcissism and two types of organizational behaviors in employees. Interactions between narcissism and psychological entitlement as predictors of organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB and counterproductive work behaviors (CWB were explored. Predictors were analyzed in an effort to determine whether psychological entitlement plays a more destructive role among narcissistic employees than among non-narcissistic ones and whether the effects of narcissism on OCB and CWB are mediated by entitlement. Participants and procedure Data were obtained from 100 employees (34% men aged 22 to 59 years (M = 37.00, SD = 9.30 from public and private companies. Participants were asked to complete the Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale (OCBS, the Counterproductive Organizational Behaviors Scale (COBS, the Entitlement Questionnaire, and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI. Results Positive aspects of entitlement were positively associated with OCB only among narcissistic employees, and active entitlement mediated the effects of narcissism on CWB. Active entitlement was negatively related to CWB. Negative aspects of entitlement were negatively related to OCB and unrelated to CWB. Conclusions This study provides evidence for positive (healthy aspects of entitlement for organizations. The unexpected interaction between narcissism and entitlement in predicting higher levels of OCB suggests that among narcissistic employees, healthy aspects of entitlement are desirable and profitable for an organization. Psychological entitlement was observed to be an important predictor of organizational behaviors beyond narcissism itself.

  13. Reforming Equalization: Balancing Efficiency, Entitlement and Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bev Dahlby

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide an overview of the equalization grant system in Canada and the issues that have been raised concerning the reform of the fiscal transfer system. Any reforms to the equalization grant system have to balance three concerns — “efficiency” effects that arise through federal financing of transfers, and the incentive effects on provincial fiscal policies, “entitlement” to reasonably comparable public services at reasonably comparable levels of taxation, and “ownership” of resources and independence of fiscal policies by provincial governments. Five proposals for reform of the equalization system are discussed. With regard to the inclusion rate for resource revenues in equalization formula, we argue that the rate should be reduced from 50 per cent to 25 per cent and that ceiling on total equalization payments should be eliminated. We argue against the proposal to exempt from the calculation of equalization entitlements that are deposited in provincial sovereign wealth funds because this would not reduce total equalization entitlements in present value terms, it would be complex to implement if it extended to all forms of savings by provinces (such as debt reduction, and it would not alter the resource rich provinces’ incentives to save more of their resource revenues. We argue against a proposal to reduce CHT and CST to provinces with above average fiscal capacities because this would reduce their incentive to develop and tax their resources, and it would be counter to the purpose of these block grants, which is to reduce the vertical fiscal imbalance between the federal and the provincial governments. We review the Gusen (2012a proto-type model for incorporating variations in costs and needs in the computation of the equalization entitlements and argue that this procedure seems feasible and merits further analysis.

  14. 42 CFR 31.11 - Persons entitled to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons entitled to treatment. 31.11 Section 31.11... § 31.11 Persons entitled to treatment. To the extent and under the circumstances prescribed in this part, the following persons shall be entitled to medical, surgical, and dental treatment and...

  15. 20 CFR 725.219 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; child. 725.219... of entitlement; child. (a) An individual is entitled to benefits as a child for each month beginning... month in which any one of the following events first occurs: (1) The child dies; (2) The child marries...

  16. 20 CFR 725.218 - Conditions of entitlement; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; child. 725.218... Conditions of entitlement; child. (a) An individual is entitled to benefits where he or she meets the... the child of a deceased miner who: (1) Was receiving benefits under section 415 or part C of title IV...

  17. 20 CFR 410.212 - Conditions of entitlement; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; child. 410.212...; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.212 Conditions of entitlement; child. (a) An individual is entitled to benefits if such individual: (1) Is the child or stepchild (see § 410.330) of (i) a deceased miner...

  18. 20 CFR 410.213 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; child. 410.213...; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.213 Duration of entitlement; child. (a) An individual is entitled to benefits as a child for each month beginning with the first month in which all of the conditions of...

  19. Can a sense of entitlement increase stealing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravert, Christina Annette

    Are people more likely to steal when the payoff they deserve is determined randomly or when it depends on their performance in a difficult task? In this paper I investigate how the probability of stealing is affected by the way in which payoff is earned. After answering a short survey one group...... to take the (undeserved) maximum payoff than the participants in the random payment scheme. In contrast to previous findings in the cheating literature, stealing is an all-or-nothing decision rather than a trade-off between a slightly higher payoff and the desire to keep ones moral values intact....... The results support the theory that unethical behavior is increased by a sense of entitlement, which is more pronounced when wealth depends on performance than on the roll of a die....

  20. Environmental risk assessment of pesticides in the River Madre de Dios, Costa Rica using PERPEST, SSD, and msPAF models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramo, R.; Brink, van den P.J.; Ruepert, C.; Castillo, L.; Gunnarsson, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the ecological risks (ERA) of pesticides to aquatic organisms in the River Madre de Dios (RMD), which receives surface runoff water from banana, pineapple, and rice plantations on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Water samples collected over 2 years at five sites in the RMD

  1. Teaching Rational Entitlement and Responsibility: A Socratic Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Godden

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on a Socratic exercise that introduces participants to the norm of rational entitlement, as distinct from political entitlement, and the attendant norm of rational responsibility. The exercise demonstrates that, because participants are not willing to exchange their own opinion at random for another differing opinion to which the owner is, by the participants’ own admission, entitled, they treat their entitlement to their own opinion differently, giving it a special status. This gives rise to rational obligations such as the obligation to provide reasons, and a willingness to risk those opinions to the force of the better reason.

  2. Academic Entitlement in the Context of Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrey, Jean; Joakim, Erin; Schoner, Vivian; Hambly, Derrick; Silver, Amber; Jayasundera, Rohan; Nelson, Allen

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the linkages between students' sense of entitlement and their approaches to learning, based on survey research at a large public university in Canada. Through literature review and pilot testing, a questionnaire instrument was developed that measures four constructs: academic entitlement, deep learning, surface learning and…

  3. Entitlement Attitudes Predict Students' Poor Performance in Challenging Academic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donna; Halberstadt, Jamin; Aitken, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Excessive entitlement--an exaggerated or unrealistic belief about what one deserves--has been associated with a variety of maladaptive behaviors, including a decline in motivation and effort. In the context of tertiary education, we reasoned that if students expend less effort to obtain positive outcomes to which they feel entitled, this should…

  4. 42 CFR 31.2 - Persons entitled to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons entitled to treatment. 31.2 Section 31.2... Public Health Service § 31.2 Persons entitled to treatment. To the extent and under the circumstances... treatment and hospitalization by the Service: (a) Coast Guard. (1) Commissioned officers, chief warrant...

  5. Personality, Self-Regulated Learning, and Academic Entitlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Chelsea K.; Jackson, Dennis L.

    2017-01-01

    The current study explored the relation between the Big-Five personality domains, self-regulated learning, and academic entitlement. Academic entitlement is defined as the tendency to possess expectations of unearned academic success, unearned/undeserved academic services, and/or the expectation of unrealistic accommodation (Chowning and Campbell…

  6. Academic Entitlement and Its Relationship with Perception of Cheating Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Rafik Z.

    2017-01-01

    Cheating is an epidemic in higher education. The author examined the psychological variable of academic entitlement and its relationship with the ethical perception of cheating using a sample of business students. Contrary to some previous research, the author found that millennials were only slightly more academically entitled than students from…

  7. JOSÉ MARTÍ - život a dílo se zaměřením na jeho eseje Madre América a Nuestra América

    OpenAIRE

    Bočková, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    In my Bachelor thesis entitled "JOSÉ MARTÍ - life and work with orientation to his essays Madre América and Nuestra América" I am going to pursue two of his principal essays titled Madre América and Nuestra América which contain Marti's ideas related to the self- determination of the nations of Latin America. In order to analyse the respective themes, I consider necessary to introduce the author first. In my opinion, José Martí is one of the most important figures in the Cuban colonial era; h...

  8. Proposal for a protocol on environmental impact assessment in the context of incineration with energy recovery from municipal solid waste in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Salas, Alvaro Enrique

    2015-01-01

    A proposal for a protocol is performed for the evaluation of environmental impact in the context of incineration with energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW). An analysis of the related and current regulations is done at national and international level. The methodology of the Secretaria Tecnica Nacional Ambiental (SETENA) for environmental impact assessment has been exposed. Susceptible environmental factors and elements of the heat treatment of RSU that generate environmental impacts are identified. The air has been the environmental factor extensively addressed in the investigation. The aspects included in the protocol proposal are defined in order to generate conclusions and determinants recommendations on environmental viability of any work, activity or project [es

  9. Irazu, Costa Rica Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Located 25 km from San Jose, Irazu is the highest volcano in Costa Rica and also has the country's earliest historic eruption (1772).

  10. Respuesta ambiental en el Pacífico frente a la subducción de la dorsal asísmica de Cocos (Panamá y Costa Rica Environmental response in the Pacific to aseismic Cocos Ridge subduction (Panama and Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos De Gracia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el efecto de la Subducción de la Dorsal Asísmica de Cocos (DAC durante las etapas finales de la formación del Istmo. Realizamos muestreos con bultos en afloramientos fosilíferos en las penínsulas de Burica y Nicoya. Las condiciones paleoecológicas y paleoambientales fueron reconstruidas a partir de la comparación entre la estructura de las comunidades fósiles, con las comunidades modernas dragadas de los mares de Panamá, usando análisis de componentes principales. Los resultados indican que antes del cierre del Istmo, existieron islas oceánicas y un afloramiento moderado en Burica. Posterior al cierre, el choque de la DAC provocó la elevación del fondo marino y las aguas que se encontraban a 2 300m pasaron a 40m. El afloramiento se intensificaba en mar abierto pero la dorsal había formado islas en Burica que limitaban el efecto del afloramiento en la costa. La subducción de la DAC continuó y las islas se unieron gradualmente a tierra firme y desaparecieron, permitiendo el afloramiento. Durante el Pleistoceno medio un segundo proceso de levantamiento acelerado continuó elevando el fondo marino y formó la Cordillera de Talamanca. La cordillera creó una barrera que bloqueó el paso de los vientos Alisios y originó condiciones ecológicas y optimas que permiten el crecimiento de los mejores arrecifes de coral costeros del Pacífico oriental tropical (POT entre Panamá y Costa Rica.Environmental response in the Pacific to aseismic Cocos Ridge subduction (Panama and Costa Rica. The evolution of the marine communities along the Pacific coast of Central America, may have changed in response to the formation of the Isthmus of Panama. To evaluate the effect of the Aseismic Cocos Ridge (DAC subduction on the marine benthic communities, we reconstructed benthic assemblages from Neogene fossiliferous formations in Burica and Nicoya peninsulas of Panama and Costa Rica. Paleoecological and paleoenvironmental conditions

  11. Biodiversidad en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Wenker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentación (en español Con una naturaleza rica y diversificada, Costa Rica se presenta hoy en día como un país modelo a nivel mundial por lo que a preservación del medio ambiente y de la biodiversidad se refiere. Tatiana Wenker elaboró una documentación audiovisuel variada que aborda la problemática mundial de preservación del medio ambiente, poniendo de relieve las iniciativas costarricenses sobre el particular. Nos lleva a uno de los parques naturales más grandes de América Central y a l...

  12. Passivo ambiental: revisão teórica de custos na indústria do petróleo Environmental liabilities: theoretical revision of costs in the industry of the oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Bezerra Galdino

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma revisão teórica sobre o passivo ambiental para uso de gestores públicos ou privados, bem como de pesquisadores no setor de exploração de petróleo. Essa revisão, além de apresentar uma definição de passivo ambiental, também define os tipos e técnicas de passivo coletadas pela Agência de Proteção Ambiental Americana (EPA, técnicas essas que objetivam a estimação de diversos tipos de custos ambientais, decorrentes de atividades passadas ou presentes, da produção de bens que causaram ou, provavelmente, venham a causar danos ao meio ambiente e, conseqüentemente, algumas implicações de natureza legal, econômica e social.The objective of this work is to present a theoretical revision on the environmental liabilities for use of public or private managers, as well as of researchers in the sector of oil exploration. This revision, besides presenting a definition of environmental liabilities, also defines the types and techniques of liabilities collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, which aim the estimation of different types of ambient costs, resulting from past or present activities, of the production of goods that caused or, will probably, come to cause damages to the environment and, consequently, some implications of legal, economic and social nature.

  13. [Distribution and environmental conditions related to the behavior in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) (Cetacea: Delphinidae) in Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero-Pardo, Priscilla

    2007-06-01

    Habitat characteristics influencing behavior in animal species vary locally. The influence that a particular environmental characteristic can have on a species depends not only on other variables, but on morphological, physiological and social conditions of that species. In this study, developed from June 1996 to July 1997, I studied whether specific behaviors are related to particular distribution areas and environmental factors in the bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and the spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). The study area was covered along oblicuous linear transects, and the behavior of single groups was observed from 15 min to 5 h. Environmental factors such as depth, temperature, salinity and distance from shore, among others, were considered. For the bottlenose dolphin, foraging/feeding activities showed exclusive coincidence with river mouths, coral reef and mangrove areas, while social and milling activities where seen close to feeding areas. Traveling occurred along different points parallel to the coast, with a low percentage of cases across the gulf (16.56 %), suggesting that the bottlenose rarely crosses from one side to the other. In the spotted dolphin, several behaviors were observed simultaneously in the schools and it was not possible to associate areas with particular behaviors. The lack of significant relationships among activities and particular environmental variables (ANOVA tests) is attributed to three aspects: (a) transitions among activities generally occurred into a low variable area, (b) dolphins often traveled along large areas without changing activities and (c) environmental conditions in Golfo Dulce are homogeneous. In the two species the highest average in the number of individuals per group corresponded to the category of active socializing, followed by traveling, passive socializing and feeding. In the case of the bottlenose dolphin, the smallest group size was associated with feeding activities (ANOVA, F= 2.624, p=0.037, n=156

  14. Social policy and entitlements : a proposal for reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nentjes, Andries; Meijer, G; Heijman, WJM; VanOphem, JAC; Verstegen, BHJ

    2006-01-01

    Welfare states citizens have entitlements to a variety of social services provided for free or a price far below cost, such as education, health care, social security and housing. Every citizen benefits, but in their present organisation the social services also have major deficiencies: lack of

  15. Safe water: an enquiry into water entitlements and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Privatisation of water delivery is a human rights issue in two distinct ways. Firstly, it implies an institutional change that will tend to impinge on existing access to water. While basic water entitlements are supposed to be protected by human rights law, this is likely to influence

  16. Intellectual Freedom and Economic Sufficiency as Educational Entitlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jane Fowler

    2001-01-01

    Using the theories of John Stuart Mill and Karl Marx, this article supports the educational entitlements of intellectual freedom and economic sufficiency. Explores these issues in reference to their implications for teaching, the teaching profession and its training. Concludes that ideas cannot be controlled by the interests of the dominant class.…

  17. 21 CFR 1.401 - Who is entitled to appeal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is entitled to appeal? 1.401 Section 1.401 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption What Is the Appeal...

  18. Review Article: Revisiting the Entitlement Approach to Famine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sen's (1981b) entitlement approach conceptualises famine as the characteristics of some people not having enough food to eat but not of there being not enough food to eat. Famine from this perspective is one that occurs without a decline in the macro level supply of food and, hence, it is all about demand failure/shift in the ...

  19. 75 FR 52619 - Entitlement and Termination Requirements for Stepchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... site, Social Security Online, at http://www.socialsecurity.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Electronic... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 404 [Docket No. SSA-2006-0154] RIN 0960-AF78 Entitlement and Termination Requirements for Stepchildren AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION...

  20. Cover Letter Dear Editor, Please find enclosed a paper entitled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ajamein

    Dear Editor,. Please find enclosed a paper entitled ' Intrinsic Kinetics of Fischer- Tropsch Synthesis Over a. Promoted Iron Catalyst '. I am submitting to your journal to be considered for publication as a research paper in Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. The manuscript has not been previously published, is not ...

  1. Robert Nozick's entitlement theory of justice: a critique | Nnajiofor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of this paper is to critique Robert Nozick's entitlement theory of justice which was drafted as an argument against traditional distribution theories. Nozick's theory of justice claims that whether a distribution is just or not depend entirely on how it came about. By contrast, justice according to equality, need, desert or ...

  2. 20 CFR 410.214 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... entitlement to brother's benefits may be established for any month before January 1973, based on a disability... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother...; Duration of Entitlement; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.214 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother...

  3. Design and validation of a model to offer environmental consulting services to minimize oil pollution at gas stations: case study: a gas station in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon Hernandez, Teresita

    2016-01-01

    An environmental consulting service was designed and validated to minimize hydrocarbon contamination at gas stations, to be used by Migliore S.A. in order to strengthen and increase the number of services offered in the market niche of these companies. A matrix was synthesized with tools such as SWOT, deployment of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and international analysis. With the standardized protocols it will be possible to increase in a fluid way, the offer of consulting services. The final validation of the model allowed to verify the functionality of the same, through the generation of solid evaluation criteria that allowed a good knowledge of the gas station, case study, to offer a timely solution to your particular case, in a simple way and harmonious. The company providing environmental consulting services Migliore S.A. can count on a better commercial development, using the designed model [es

  4. Conferences on electronic waste in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa Gutierrez, Floria

    2006-01-01

    The management system of electronic waste is a project organized and financed by the bilateral agreement Costa Rica - Holanda, it is integrated by governmental and non-governmental enterprises. It was divided in two phases, first performed in 2003 which provided a diagnosis on the management of electronic resources, based on the diagnosis a propose of strategy for recycling was made. The second phase is given in 2005 with the implementation and realization of the project including two pilots plans located one at the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica and another in the community of Escazu, at the end some recommendations were given to strengthen the system. The electronic waste were divided in white line, gray and brown line; those with pollutants such as phosphorus, chromium, cadmium, barium, lead, beryllium, mercury are toxic and have different effects on human health. The project in Costa Rica has taken as examples several recycling plants in different countries, among them one installed in Belgica. As an outstanding figure of the diagnosis made it was determined that Costa Rica has no legal support regarding the handling of such materials. It has been accumulated in 2007 more than 24 260 tonnes and is growing rapidly year after year. Within the achieved progress in the implementation of the project are: the creation of a legal support, the organization of the compliance unit of the project, the valuation of environmental costs and the increase of enterprises offering the service of primary treatment [es

  5. Wealth and the inflated self: class, entitlement, and narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piff, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    Americans may be more narcissistic now than ever, but narcissism is not evenly distributed across social strata. Five studies demonstrated that higher social class is associated with increased entitlement and narcissism. Upper-class individuals reported greater psychological entitlement (Studies 1a, 1b, and 2) and narcissistic personality tendencies (Study 2), and they were more likely to behave in a narcissistic fashion by opting to look at themselves in a mirror (Study 3). Finally, inducing egalitarian values in upper-class participants decreased their narcissism to a level on par with their lower-class peers (Study 4). These findings offer novel evidence regarding the influence of social class on the self and highlight the importance of social stratification to understanding basic psychological processes.

  6. What Are Occupational Pension Plan Entitlements Worth in Britain?

    OpenAIRE

    Disney, Richard; Whitehouse, Edward

    1996-01-01

    The acquisition of rights by workers in private pension plans underpins retirement behavior, recruitment policy, and wage structure but there is controversy as to how these individual pension rights should be valued. The paper combines four data-sets to calculate pension entitlements for a sample of 3,000 British workers in 1987. Expected scheme tenure is a key variable in valuation; younger workers and women face greater initial uncertainty as to their pension outcomes, which is resolved as ...

  7. Manganese concentrations in drinking water from villages near banana plantations with aerial mancozeb spraying in Costa Rica: Results from the Infants' Environmental Health Study (ISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Barbeau, Benoit; Bouchard, Maryse F; Mora, Ana María; Skytt, Åsa; Córdoba, Leonel; Quesada, Rosario; Lundh, Thomas; Lindh, Christian H; Mergler, Donna

    2016-08-01

    Elevated manganese (Mn) in drinking water has been reported worldwide. While, naturally occurring Mn in groundwater is generally the major source, anthropogenic contamination by Mn-containing fungicides such as mancozeb may also occur. The main objective of this study was to examine factors associated with Mn and ethylenethiourea (ETU), a degradation product of mancozeb, in drinking water samples from villages situated near banana plantations with aerial spraying of mancozeb. Drinking water samples (n = 126) were obtained from 124 homes of women participating in the Infants' Environmental Health Study (ISA, for its acronym in Spanish), living nearby large-scale banana plantations. Concentrations of Mn, iron (Fe), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and ethylenethiourea (ETU), a degradation product of mancozeb, were measured in water samples. Only six percent of samples had detectable ETU concentrations (limit of detection (LOD) = 0.15 μg/L), whereas 94% of the samples had detectable Mn (LOD = 0.05 μg/L). Mn concentrations were higher than 100 and 500 μg/L in 22% and 7% of the samples, respectively. Mn was highest in samples from private and banana farm wells. Distance from a banana plantation was inversely associated with Mn concentrations, with a 61.5% decrease (95% CI: -97.0, -26.0) in Mn concentrations for each km increase in distance. Mn concentrations in water transported with trucks from one village to another were almost 1000 times higher than Mn in water obtained from taps in houses supplied by the same well but not transported, indicating environmental Mn contamination. Elevated Mn in drinking water may be partly explained by aerial spraying of mancozeb; however, naturally occurring Mn in groundwater, and intensive agriculture may also contribute. Drinking water risk assessment for mancozeb should consider Mn as a health hazard. The findings of this study evidence the need for health-based World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on Mn in

  8. Environmental issues, interdisciplinarity, social theory and intellectual production in Latin America Tópicos ambientais, interdisciplinaridade, teoria social e produção intelectual na América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila da Costa Ferreira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available While dealing with both interdisciplinarity and environment and society area as fields that harbor scientific contentions regarding ideas, practices, institutions and habitus (Bourdieu, this paper aims at providing an account of the multifaceted processes implied in the institutionalization of environmental concerns in Latin-American academia and research centers. The paper discusses the extent to which one can legitimately talk about "a Latin- American scientific specificity", supposedly resulting from peculiar theoretical approaches or even from particular socio-environmental features (such as widespread poverty and high rates of social inequality, along with unparalleled levels of biodiversity. Last but not least, the paper seeks to draw a sort of thematic map (via bibliographical review as well as a consideration of the levels of scientific institutionalization of environmental issues in six different research centers located in Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Uruguay and Brazil.Ao tratar a interdisciplinaridade e a área de ambiente e sociedade enquanto campos que lidam com questões científicas relacionadas com idéias, práticas, instituições e habitus (Bourdieu, esse artigo pretende contribuir para a compreensão dos processos multifacetados implicados na institucionalização da questão ambiental na academia e centros de pesquisa latino-americanos. O texto discute em que medida pode-se legitimamente falar de uma "especificidade científica latino-americana", supostamente resultante de abordagens teóricas peculiares ou mesmo de situações sócio-ambientais particulares (como pobreza e altas taxas de desigualdade, junto a incomparáveis índices de biodiversidade. Por último, mas também importante, o texto pretende trazer um panorama temático (através da revisão bibliográfica assim como apontar os níveis de institucionalização científica da área ambiental em seis centros de pesquisa localizados na Argentina, Chile, M

  9. REDD+ IN COSTA RICA, WHAT CAN BE IMPROVED?: Indigenous Peoples Human Rights within REDD+

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho Mejia, Monica Judith

    2014-01-01

    This thesis analyses the development of REDD+ in Costa Rica. It sets out to analyse what the obligations of Costa Rica are under International Human Rights Law with regard to Indigenous Peoples at the moment of implementing REDD+; what laws should be changed before implementing REDD+ whether Costa Rica wants to fulfil its international obligations towards Indigenous Peoples; what impact the Payment for Environmental Services programme has had on Indigenous Peoples; and how the Costa Rican gov...

  10. 75 FR 68035 - Proposed Information Collection (Evidence for Transfer of Entitlement of Education Benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... (Evidence for Transfer of Entitlement of Education Benefits) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Veterans Benefits... receive education benefits under the transfer of entitlement provision of law. Affected Public...

  11. 78 FR 59772 - Proposed Information Collection (Evidence for Transfer of Entitlement of Education Benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... (Evidence for Transfer of Entitlement of Education Benefits) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Veterans Benefits... receive education benefits under the transfer of entitlement provision of law. Affected Public...

  12. 78 FR 46418 - Proposed Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Obligation to Report Factors Affecting... entitlement factors. Individual factors such as income, marital status, and the beneficiary's number of...

  13. Environmental Effects of Irrigation in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions Efectos Ambientales del Riego en Regiones Áridas y Semi-Áridas en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Fernández Cirelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the state of the art with respect to the environmental effects of irrigated agriculture on water and soil quality in arid and semi-arid regions on a field scale. Information is scarce and fragmentary. Examples in selected areas of other arid and semi-arid regions in the world clearly show the importance of studying the environmental impact of irrigation practices on water and soil quality. Studies mainly refer to waterlogging and salinization. As regards agrochemicals, fertilizers have been taken into account through nitrate leaching. The impact of micropollutants such as pesticides and heavy metals on water and soil quality is studied mainly by modeling. Pharmaceutical compounds emerge as pollutants when wastewater is used for irrigation without any previous treatment, situation which is now the object of new studies. There is an obvious need to study in-depth knowledge related to appropriate technologies for the use, treatment, and reuse of wastewater which is a valuable resource in arid and semi-arid regions.En este trabajo se presenta una revisión del estado del arte relativo a los efectos ambientales de la agricultura bajo riego en la calidad del agua y de los suelos en regiones semiáridas y áridas de América Latina a escala de campo. La información relevada es escasa y fragmentaria. Ejemplos en áreas seleccionadas de otras regiones del mundo muestran claramente la importancia del estudio del impacto ambiental de las prácticas de riego en la calidad de agua y del suelo. La mayor parte de los estudios se refieren a anegamiento y salinización de suelos. En relación a los agroquímicos, los fertilizantes han recibido mayor atención, en particular considerando la lixiviación de nitratos. El impacto de los microcontaminantes, como los pesticidas o los metales pesados, se ha estudiado mayormente a través de la aplicación de modelos. Los compuestos farmacéuticos surgen como contaminantes cuando las aguas servidas

  14. Social Vulnerability to Climate Change and the Architecture of Entitlements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adger, W.N.; Kelly, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to outline a conceptual model of vulnerability to climate change as the first step in appraising and understanding the social and economic processes which facilitate and constrain adaptation. Vulnerability as defined here pertains to individuals and social groups. It is the state of individuals, of groups, of communities defined in terms of their ability to cope with and adapt to any external stress placed on their livelihoods and well-being. This proposed approach puts the social and economic well-being of society at the centre of the analysis, thereby reversing the central focus of approaches to climate impact assessment based on impacts on and the adaptability of natural resources or ecosystems and which only subsequently address consequences for human well-being. The vulnerability or security of any group is determined by the availability of resources and, crucially, by the entitlement of individuals and groups to call on these resources. This perspective extends the concept of entitlements developed within neoclassical and institutional economics. Within this conceptual framework, vulnerability can be seen as a socially-constructed phenomenon influenced by institutional and economic dynamics. The study develops proxy indicators of vulnerability related to the structure of economic relations and the entitlements which govern them, and shows how these can be applied to a District in coastal lowland Vietnam. This paper outlines the lessons of such an approach to social vulnerability for the assessment of climate change at the global scale. We argue that the socio-economic and biophysical processes that determine vulnerability are manifest at the local, national, regional and global level but the state of vulnerability itself is associated with a specific population. Aggregation one level to another is therefore not appropriate and global-scale analysis is meaningful only in so far as it deals with the vulnerability of the global

  15. 20 CFR 408.816 - When does SVB entitlement end due to death?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When does SVB entitlement end due to death? 408.816 Section 408.816 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Suspensions and Terminations Termination § 408.816 When does SVB entitlement end due to death? Your SVB entitlement ends wit...

  16. Academic Entitlement: Relations to Perceptions of Parental Warmth and Psychological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lisa A.; McCormick, Wesley H.

    2018-01-01

    Academic entitlement characterises students who expect positive academic outcomes without personal effort. The current study examined the relations of perceived parental warmth and parental psychological control with two dimensions of academic entitlement (i.e., entitled expectations and externalised responsibility) among college students.…

  17. The Search for Value and Meaning in the Cocoa Supply Chain in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica Haynes; Frederick Cubbage; D. Evan Mercer; Erin Sills

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative interviews with participants in the cocoa (Theobroma cacao) supply chain in Costa Rica and the United States were conducted and supplemented with an analysis of the marketing literature to examine the prospects of organic and Fairtrade certification for enhancing environmentally and socially responsible trade of cocoa from Costa Rica. Respondents were...

  18. Technical, environmental and economical evaluation of three types of treatment for lettuce growing in vegetables gardens, in Santa María de Guácimo, Limón, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez-Ramírez, Fiorella; Campos-Rodríguez, Rooel; Jiménez-Morales, María Fernanda; Brenes-Peralta, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Tecnológico de Costa Rica has developed collaborative actions with the Guácimo local Government (Limón province, Costa Rica) through research and a doctoral thesis. As a follow-up, another research and extension project was proposed, called Establishment of vegetables home gardens using solid waste in a pilot group in the Santa María de Guácimo community. This project carried out activities like the analysis of prior sudies regarding solid waste generation and composition in the community, as...

  19. Employee entitlements during pregnancy and maternal psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Rowe, Heather J; Fisher, Jane R W

    2007-12-01

    Antenatal psychological well-being is multifactorially determined, including by social circumstances. Evidence suggests that workplace conditions are salient determinants of mental health, but it is not known whether employment conditions influence antenatal psychological well-being. To investigate the relationship between employment conditions and antenatal psychological well-being in Australian women. A sociodemographically diverse consecutive cohort of employed nulliparous women was recruited in late pregnancy. Data were collected by a structured interview assessing sociodemographic characteristics, employment arrangements, experience of pregnancy-related discrimination, and access to maternity leave entitlements. Participants completed two standardised psychometric measures of maternal mood: the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) and the Profile of Mood States (PoMS). Comparisons of self-reported mood were made between women by experience of workplace adversity, using a composite measure of workplace events. Of 205 eligible women, 165 agreed to participate. Of these, 114 of 165 (69%) reported at least one form of workplace adversity during pregnancy. More women without private health insurance (78%) reported workplace adversity than those who were privately insured (57%) (chi2(1)=6.95, P=0.008). Women experiencing workplace adversity had significantly worse psychological well-being as indicated by the EDS score (7.7+/-5.1) than those who were experiencing no workplace adversity (5.5+/-3.4), mean difference (95% CI)=-2.2 (-3.7 to -0.8), P=0.003. Similar results were reported for the PoMS. Workplace adversity during pregnancy is associated with poorer maternal psychological well-being. Workplace conditions and entitlements are salient factors for consideration in assessments of antenatal psychosocial well-being.

  20. América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Olalla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza el sentido intelectualista de la producción literaria modernista de Latinoamérica. Dicho enfoque es revisado en la obra del escritor argentino Manuel Ugarte (1875-1951 El porvenir de América Latina (1910. Nuestra lectura ofrece algunas líneas para la discriminación de las diversas fuentes ideológicas del intelectualismo en el “americanismo literario”. Consideramos en tal sentido la perspectiva historicista con la que Ugarte describe la composición social de América Latina.

  1. Original article Entitlement and subjective well-being: a three-nations study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The current study investigated the role of three facets of entitlement (active, passive and revenge in various forms of subjective well-being (SWB: hedonistic and two facets of eudaimonic well-being (social and psychological. Social well-being was based on Keyes’ model (1998 and psychological well-being on Ryff’s model (1989. Participants and procedure The study was performed in three nations (Poland, Puerto Rico and Vietnam on student samples (Poland, n = 245, Vietnam, n = 115, and Puerto Rico, n = 300. To assess entitlement level the Entitlement Questionnaire was used. The level of hedonistic well-being was measured with the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, and eudaimonic well-being by the Mental Health Continuum–Short Form (MHC-SF. Results Active entitlement was positively related to all aspects of SWB. Revenge entitlement was negatively related to hedonistic and psychological SWB in all samples and negatively related to social well-being only in Poland. Passive entitlement was unrelated to SWB. Conclusions The current study shows cross-cultural similarities in relationships of entitlement with hedonistic and psychological well-being and cross-cultural differences in the relationship of entitlement with social well-being. Additionally, the study indicates positive meaning of healthy aspects of entitlement for subjective well-being and negative meaning of dysfunctional aspects of entitlement for subjective well-being.

  2. Educacion Fisica in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Donna

    1980-01-01

    The goal of Costa Rica's Department of Physical Education and Sports is the "utilization of sport, physical education, and recreation as instruments of socialization and contribution to the improved health of Costa Ricans." (JN)

  3. Identifying Two Groups of Entitled Individuals: Cluster Analysis Reveals Emotional Stability and Self-Esteem Distinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Michael L; LoPilato, Alexander C; Campbell, W Keith; Miller, Joshua D

    2016-12-01

    The present study hypothesized that there exist two distinct groups of entitled individuals: grandiose-entitled, and vulnerable-entitled. Self-report scores of entitlement were collected for 916 individuals using an online platform. Model-based cluster analyses were conducted on the individuals with scores one standard deviation above mean (n = 159) using the five-factor model dimensions as clustering variables. The results support the existence of two groups of entitled individuals categorized as emotionally stable and emotionally vulnerable. The emotionally stable cluster reported emotional stability, high self-esteem, more positive affect, and antisocial behavior. The emotionally vulnerable cluster reported low self-esteem and high levels of neuroticism, disinhibition, conventionality, psychopathy, negative affect, childhood abuse, intrusive parenting, and attachment difficulties. Compared to the control group, both clusters reported being more antagonistic, extraverted, Machiavellian, and narcissistic. These results suggest important differences are missed when simply examining the linear relationships between entitlement and various aspects of its nomological network.

  4. de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Arellano Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es una contribución al estudio simultáneo de elementos ontológicos y metodológicos comprometidos con el conocimiento de la organización sociotécnica de la investigación científica universitaria. Se trata de la presentación de un análisis asistido informáticamente de bases de datos que genera mapas, de los que se pueden intelegir organización de relaciones heterogéneas de propiedades científico-técnicas y sociales contenidas en las fuentes de información, que son simultáneamente cuantitativas y cualitativas. Para ilustrar lo anterior, realizamos un estudio de caso analizando informáticamente las bases de datos de los proyectos de investigación en ciencias básicas de la Universidad de Costa Rica entre 1977 y 2005.

  5. Environmental groups in politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, P.; Goyder, J.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; (Part I) the environmental movement (environmental groups and the attentive public; the episodic development of the environmental movement; the underlying values of environmentalism; the roots of environmental concern; the social limits to growth; elite manipulation of values); the organisation of environmental groups; environmental groups in national politics; environmental groups in local politics; (Part II) the Henley Society; Friends of the Earth; the National Trust; the Royal Society for Nature Conservation; the European Environmental Bureau. (U.K.)

  6. Universidad de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Blanco Solís

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La formación inicial del grupo de profesionales en educación, exige hoy más que nunca de servicios efectivos de Orientación en la comunidad universitaria, puesto que los cambios económicos, las transformaciones sociales, las demandas del mercado de trabajo y los requerimientos de las profesiones, plantean un futuro difícil para la población estudiantil universitaria. Ante esta realidad, se realizó una investigación para dar respuesta al siguiente problema. De acuerdo con las percepciones de un grupo de estudiantes de la Escuela de Formación Docente de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ¿qué necesidades de orientación se encuentran asociadas a su formación inicial para enfrentar constructivamente los cambios, demandas y desafíos del Sistema Educativo Costarricense? El paradigma de investigación utilizado comprende la investigación social cualitativa. Para aplicar esta metodología se utilizó como técnica de recolección de la información, los grupos de discusión y el análisis de contingencias como técnica de análisis de la información. El logro de los objetivos de la investigación permitió identificar las siguientes necesidades de orientación en la población estudiada: autoafirmación profesional, habilidades de vida y madurez vocacional.

  7. FORUM: Instructional Communication and Millennial Students: Millennial Students in the College Classroom: Adjusting to Academic Entitlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Zachary W.; Martin, Matthew M.

    2016-01-01

    Academic entitlement (AE) refers to the expectation of educational success despite the input of personal effort needed to earn it (Boswell, 2012). Entitled students feel that learning should require minimal work and that difficulties encountered during the learning process should be attributed to instructors, rather than themselves. AE has become…

  8. The Effects of Reducing the Entitlement Period to Unemployment Insurance Benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, N.; van der Klaauw, B.

    This paper exploits a substantial reform of the Dutch UI law to study the effect of the entitlement period on job finding and subsequent labor market outcomes. Using detailed administrative data covering the full population we find that reducing the entitlement period increases the job finding rate,

  9. 76 FR 2758 - Agency Information Collection (Evidence for Transfer of Entitlement of Education Benefits (CFR 21...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... for Transfer of Entitlement of Education Benefits (CFR 21.7080)) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... INFORMATION: Title: Evidence for Transfer of Entitlement of Education Benefits (CFR 21.7080). OMB Control... DOD Form 2366-1 to determine whether the dependent qualifies to receive education benefits under the...

  10. Gender Differences in Pay Histories and Views on Pay Entitlement among University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Serge; Curtis, James

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether gender differences in recent pay experience influence entitlement views by providing different standards for female and male students' judgments of their entitlements. Responses from 309 undergraduate students reveal that income gaps in the full-time working world extended to their own recent work experiences and that these past…

  11. 76 FR 28789 - Draft Alert Entitled “Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease From Dampness in Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... NIOSH-238] Draft Alert Entitled ``Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease From Dampness in Office... Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the availability of a draft Alert entitled ``Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease from...

  12. 24 CFR 81.93 - Creation of Participant's Security Entitlement; security interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Creation of Participant's Security... Procedures § 81.93 Creation of Participant's Security Entitlement; security interests. (a) A Participant's... Entitlement of a Participant in favor of the United States to secure deposits of public money, including...

  13. 18 CFR 1314.5 - Creation of Participant's Security Entitlement; security interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Creation of Participant... FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS § 1314.5 Creation of Participant's Security Entitlement; security interests. (a) A... Security Entitlement of a Participant in favor of the United States to secure deposits of public money...

  14. 12 CFR 615.5454 - Creation of participant's security entitlement; security interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creation of participant's security entitlement... Procedures for Farm Credit Securities § 615.5454 Creation of participant's security entitlement; security... public money, including without limitation deposits to the Treasury tax and loan accounts, or other...

  15. 12 CFR 1511.4 - Creation of Participant's Security Entitlement; security interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creation of Participant's Security Entitlement... CORPORATION BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURE § 1511.4 Creation of Participant's Security Entitlement; security interests... to secure deposits of public money, including without limitation deposits to the Treasury tax and...

  16. Permissive Parenting and Mental Health in College Students: Mediating Effects of Academic Entitlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Alison L.; Hirsch, Jameson K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Student mental health may suffer due to unreasonable expectations associated with academic entitlement; permissive parenting may be one source of these expectations. The authors examined the role of academic entitlement as a mediator of the relationship between permissive parenting and psychological functioning. Participants:…

  17. Entitlement attitude in the workplace and its relationship to job satisfaction and organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Asenova Dragova-Koleva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background This article is focused on the entitlement attitude in an organizational context. Its purpose was to examine the relationship of entitlement and its 3 components (active, passive and revengefulness with job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Participants and procedure Two independent studies were conducted to examine the discussed relationships. In study 1 and study 2 there participated respectively 110 and 95 full-time employees from both genders working in public and private organizations. The 30-item Bulgarian version of the Entitlement Questionnaire was used. Job satisfaction measurement included employees’ affective response to their overall job and to various aspects of their job. The three aspects of organizational commitment (affective, instrumental and normative were measured. Results Active entitlement had a positive effect on satisfaction with results, satisfaction with supervisor, pay satisfaction and overall job satisfaction. It was not related to organizational commitment. Passive entitlement had a positive effect on satisfaction with tasks, but it correlated negatively with pay satisfaction. Higher level of passive entitlement predicted instrumental commitment. Revengefulness was negatively related to task satisfaction, satisfaction with supervisor and overall satisfaction, and had a negative effect on affective commitment. Conclusions Different forms of entitlement have a diverse influence on the various aspects of job satisfaction and components of organizational commitment. Active and passive types of entitlement are more adaptive, whereas revengefulness is a maladaptive and dysfunctional attitude.

  18. 7 CFR 272.11 - Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements (SAVE) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements (SAVE... FOR PARTICIPATING STATE AGENCIES § 272.11 Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements (SAVE... and Naturalization Service (INS), in order to verify the validity of documents provided by aliens...

  19. Permissive parenting and mental health in college students: Mediating effects of academic entitlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Alison L; Hirsch, Jameson K

    2016-01-01

    Student mental health may suffer due to unreasonable expectations associated with academic entitlement; permissive parenting may be one source of these expectations. The authors examined the role of academic entitlement as a mediator of the relationship between permissive parenting and psychological functioning. Participants were 524 undergraduate students at a single institution (52% female; age range = 18-22). Data collection was completed in May 2011. Cross-sectional design. Participants completed online self-report measures of parenting styles, academic entitlement, stress, depressive symptoms, and well-being. Permissive parenting was associated with greater academic entitlement and, in turn, to more perceived stress and poorer mental health. Mother/father differences were found in some cases. Academic entitlement may partially explain why permissive parenting is detrimentally related to mental health for college students. Implications for academic affairs and counseling include helping students develop an appreciation of the role of self-regulation in college success.

  20. Federalism, entitlements, and discretionary grants: the fiscal context of national support for immunization programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, V J

    2000-10-01

    This paper defines the appropriation and resource allocation structure of federal government programs that deliver vaccines to the public through state and local governments, with a special focus on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Section 317 program. The paper places these programs in the context of the overall intergovernmental finance system of the United States, and the manner in which that system has responded to societal changes in other areas, such as unemployment insurance and environmental protection. The paper concludes that a changing environment for vaccine financing, and uncertain appropriations for state government immunization infrastructure, may have made the current CDC Section 317 program inadequate. Increased entitlement resources for federally funded vaccines have not been matched with increased and stable resources for the balance of program costs. To the contrary, funding provided to the Section 317 program has proven unstable, and its discretionary appropriations have proven vulnerable to both executive and legislative branch earmarking for such activities as overseas disease eradication or home state earmarking by congressional appropriations subcommittee members. In addition, the rigidity of some CDC program requirements makes it difficult for states to effectively use program funds. Consideration should be given to strengthening the Section 317 program and its relationships to other federal aid programs to ensure that adequate immunization protections are provided in all states to adequately protect all citizens.

  1. The dystrophinopathies in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Azofeifa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A five-years long study aiming to describe the basic genetic epidemiology of the dystrophinopathies in Costa Rica recruited 31 patients with clinical symptoms of DMD/BMD at the National Children’s Hospital (HNN. This center is the obligate reference hospital of the national health system for genetic diseases, however, the geographic origin of the patients, a low percentage of deletions and a high proportion of de novo mutations found among them indicate that a significant ascertainment bias impedes a substantial scientific approach to confront and alleviate the problems posed by these severe diseases in Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 485- 490. Epub 2004 Dic 15.Un estudio de cinco años tendiente a describir la epidemiología genética básica de las distrofinopatías en Costa Rica detectó 31 pacientes con sintomatología de DMD o de BMD en el Hospital Nacional de Niños (HNN, el centro de referencia del sistema nacional de salud para enefrmedades hereditarias, sin embargo, la distribución geográfica de los pacientes, un bajo porcentaje de deleciones y una muy elevada proporción de mutaciones de novo indican que un significante sesgo de averiguación impide el estudio científico de riguroso tendiente a disminuir el impacto de estas enfermedades en Costa Rica.

  2. African Journals Online: Costa Rica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  3. El IDRC en Costa Rica

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    El IDRC también fortaleció al centro de información agrícola del país y sus investigadores ... El trabajo del nodo ayudó a mejorar la posi- ción negociadora de América Central en ... problemas de salud y medio ambiente. ... Seguridad social.

  4. Seismological programs in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, W.; Spall, Henry

    1983-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1970's, a series of programs in seismology were initiated by different Costa Rican institutions, and some of these programs are still in the process of development. The institutions are Insituto Costaricense de Electricidad (ICE)- The Costa Rica Institute of Electricity

  5. Crônica de uma praga anunciada epidemias agrícolas e história ambiental do café nas Américas Chronicle of a plague foretold crop epidemics and the environmental history of coffee in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Mccook

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As epidemias agrícolas fornecem um ponto de vista privilegiado para a história ambiental global e transnacional de commodities. A epidemia da ferrugem, causada pelo fungo Hemileia nastatrix, é uma das mais sérias doenças que têm atingido a indústria global de café. No século XIX, ela devastou as plantações de café no Velho Mundo. Também reduziu agudamente a produção de café do tipo arábica na África, Ásia e no Pacífico. Esse foi um dos fatores que permitiu aos países da Américas dominarem a produção global no século XX. Essa epidemia foi detectada nas Américas pela primeira vez na década de 1970. A sua história nas Américas, e as tentativas de seu controle lançam luzes sobre dois paradigmas maiores que moldaram a história ambiental do café no final do século XX. São eles: o paradigma tecnicista, dominante entre meados do século XX até o início dos anos 1990; e o paradigma da sustentabilidade, cujo domínio emergiu em meados dos anos 1980 e se mantém até o presente.Crop epidemics provide a portal into the global and transnational environmental history of commodities. The coffee rust epidemic, caused by the fungus Hemileia vastatrix, is one of the most serious diseases to have afflicted the global coffee industry. In the nineteenth century, it devastated the coffee plantations in the Old World. It sharply curtailed arabica coffee production in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific. This was one of the factors that allowed the Americas do dominate global coffee production in the twentieth century. The coffee rust epidemic was first detected in the Americas in the 1970s. The history of the rust epidemic in the Americas, and attempts to control it, shed light on two major paradigms that shaped the environmental history of coffee in the late twentieth century. The paradigm of technification, which dominated from the mid-20th century to the early 1990s; and the paradigm of sustainability, which dominated emerged in the

  6. Oil in Costa Rica; El petroleo en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa de la Portilla, Gloria [Direccion Sectorial de Energia, Ministerio del Ambiente y Energia (Costa Rica)

    1997-07-01

    Costa Rica is a rich country in natural resources that can be taken in advantage for power aims, specially the hydraulic and biomass. Nevertheless its development has been based on the oil derivatives, resource that they do not have. The power resources of this country, the oil supply, the demand of oil derivatives are mentioned, the installed capacity and an evaluation is made of the prices of fuels in this country. [Spanish] Costa Rica es un pais rico en recursos naturales que pueden ser aprovechados con fines energeticos, especialmente los hidraulicos y los biomasicos. Sin embargo su desarrollo se ha basado en los derivados del petroleo, recurso que no poseen. Se mencionan los recursos energeticos de este pais, la oferta petrolera, la demanda de derivados del petroleo, la capacidad instalada y se hace una evaluacion de los precios de combustibles en este pais.

  7. Environmental entitlements: Dynamics and institutions in community-based natural resource management

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, M.; Mearns, R.; Scoones, I.

    1999-01-01

    Metadata only record While community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) now attracts widespread international attention, its practical implementation frequently falls short of expectations. This paper contributes to emerging critiques by focusing on the implications of intracommunity dynamics and ecological heterogeneity. It builds a conceptual framework highlighting the central role of institutions - regularized patterns of behavior between individuals and groups in society - in me...

  8. residentes nativos de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Herring

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando datos del Registro Nacional de defunciones de los años 1996-2005 se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas por edad para personas nacidas en Nicaragua versus personas nacidas en Costa Rica. Así mismo, utilizando modelos de regresión binomial se determinaron los riesgos relativos de mortalidad de los inmigrantes nicaragüenses versus personas nativas de Costa Rica con ajustes por edad, urbanización, desempleo, pobreza, educación y segregación residencial. Los hombres y mujeres nacidos en Nicaragua tuvieron un riesgo reducido de mortalidad de 32% y 34% respectivamente con relación a sus contrapartes nacidas en Costa Rica. Se notó que los riesgos de mortalidad por enfermedades infecciosas, cáncer, enfermedades crónicas pulmonares, enfermedades cardiovasculares, y enfermedades crónicas del hígado eran significativamente reducidos entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua. El exceso significativo de mortalidad por homicidios se encontró entre los hombres nacidos en Nicaragua (RT = 1,35, 95% IC: 1,19; 1,53 y en mujeres (RT = 1,41, 95% IC: 1,02; 1,95. El riesgo relativo de causas de mortalidad de origen de tipo exógeno entre los inmigrantes nicaragüenses fue más grande entre los grupos de edad joven en áreas de baja densidad de inmigrantes nicaragüenses. La población nacida en Nicaragua residiendo en Costa Rica tiene un riesgo reducido de mortalidad por causas generales versus las personas nacidas en Costa Rica en los años entre 1996-2005. Esto se debe a una mortalidad por enfermedad reducida, la cual es bastante marcada. El homicidio es un una razón de mayor mortalidad entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua versus los nativos costarricenses. Hay una gran necesidad de llevar acabo investigaciones adicionales sobre el rol de la migración, estatus socioeconómico y comportamientos entorno a la salud para poder explicar más a fondo los patrones de mortalidad diferenciales entre los inmigrantes nicarag

  9. Can we make a new deal? Entitlement reform sounds alluring, but the reality is stark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, L

    1995-01-20

    After simmering for more than a decade, the Great Entitlement Debate promises to dominate the 1995 congressional agenda. But lost amid a tangle of conflicting parochial interests, voter confusion and searing partisan rhetoric are some harsh truths about our options.

  10. 20 CFR 404.337 - When does my entitlement to widow's and widower's benefits start and end?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When does my entitlement to widow's and widower's benefits start and end? 404.337 Section 404.337 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... does my entitlement to widow's and widower's benefits start and end? (a) We will find you entitled to...

  11. 20 CFR 725.228 - Effect of conviction of felonious and intentional homicide on entitlement to benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intentional homicide on entitlement to benefits. 725.228 Section 725.228 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT... intentional homicide on entitlement to benefits. An individual who has been convicted of the felonious and intentional homicide of a miner or other beneficiary shall not be entitled to receive any benefits payable...

  12. Corporate Governance in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto E. Arce; Edgar Robles C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines corporate governance practices in Costa Rica. First, it estimates corporate governance charter measures using firm-level data for 87 Costa Rican firms and studies their impact on the firms` performance; here, the mean of the corporate governance charters for the publicly traded firms is equal to 56. 14. Second, new evidence is presented on de jure and de facto corporate governance charter measures at the firm level and on their effect on the performance of the firm. The re...

  13. El IDRC en Costa Rica

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economía Ambiental de América Latina v el Caribe, CATIE también está ayudando a promover el análisis económico de los problemas ambientales en toda la región. El IDRC apoya este programa para ayudar .... impactos del cambio climático sobre el agua. □ Promoción de dietas bajas en sal. Financiamiento: CA ...

  14. GUIDELINES FOR A COMPREHENSIVE PLAN ON SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT, MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WATER RESOURCES, COASTAL SPACE IN EL COCO, NICOYA PENINSULA, COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    Orias-Arguedas, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    This document is the continuation of the article entitled: “The Expansion of El Coco Coastal Urban Space and Its Relationship with Vulnerability to Pollution of Water Resources, Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica,” included in the Central American Geographic Magazine, Issue No.50, I Semester 2013. The conditions of water resources in El Coco urban coastal space are questioned depending on factors, categories, impact indicators, vulnerability ranges, and those involved in the decision-making process...

  15. «Theater of Sorrows»: Rhetoric and Space in Francisco Romero's «Llanto Sagrado de la América Meridional»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Martín García

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the text entitled Llanto sagrado de la América Meridional written by the Augustinian friar Francisco Romero. The work presents a kind of spiritual mapping of american land. Therefore, the text divides the territory of the continent according to their proximity or remoteness from the true faith. Our main objective will be to examine the rhetorical mechanisms that lie behind this description of the Indian space.

  16. CRISIS HOSPITALARIA EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Fernández Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La comunicación interpersonal, muchas veces es dejada de lado por los comunicólogos, sin embargo tiene suma gravitación en las relaciones cotidianas entre las personas y en los procesos comunicacionales, toca el lenguaje de los gestos, la (in comunicación política, ceremonial y protocolo, intermediación en la comunicación, los jóvenes se incomunican. Respecto al Periodismo Investigativo señala que a pesar de los riesgos que implica el periodismo investigativo, muchos profesionales de América Latina no dudan en practicarlo, escudriñando muchas veces en temas que de no ser por ellos permanecerían ocultos. En otro artículo se habla de la importante repercusión que tuvo en América Latina el concurso CHASQUI, el que contó con la participación de profesionales de todo el continente. Incluye la entrega de entrevistas a destacados comunicadores de América Latina. Una sección está dedicada a las nuevas tecnologías: red de noticias y transmisiones vía satélite.

  17. Environmental management & audit 2: Management systems

    OpenAIRE

    2018-01-01

    The present scientific monograph, entitledEnvironmental management & audit“, is the result of three years’ work on an international project entitledEnvironmental management in Russian companies – retraining courses for the sensibilization for and integration of Eco-Audit programs in corporate decision-making (RECOAUD)”. Within its more than 600 pages, the monograph features interesting texts written by 31 authors from the European Union and the Russian Federation, edited by dr. Borut Jere...

  18. Oxigenoterapia hiperbárica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Costa

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A Oxigenoterapia Hiperbárica (OHB é um método terapêutico que consiste na administração por via inalatória de oxigénio a uma pressão superior à pressão atmosférica.O objectivo da OHB é reduzir a hipóxia tecidular (seja ela de causa vascular, traumática, tóxica ou infecciosa através de uma importante elevação da pressão parcial de oxigénio.As suas indicaçõs incluem, entre outras, intoxicações pelo monóxido de carbono, acidentes de mergulho (doença de descompressão, embolias gasosas arterials, gangrena gasosa, osteomielite refractária, isquemia traumática aguda, feridas crónicas e queimaduras.Embora dispendiosa, a sua capacidade de reduzir a morbilidade dependente de lesões tecidulares agudas ou crónicas, pode revelar-se economicamente compensadora. SUMMARY: Hyperbaric oxygen (OHB therapy is the intermittent administration of 100% oxygen at a pressure greater than sea levelThe object of OHB is to reduce peripheral tissue hipoxia (vascular, traumatic, toxic or infectious by increasing the tissue oxygen levels.The indications for OHB include carbon monoxide poisoning, diving accidents (decompression sickness, gas embolism, gas gangrene, refractory osteomyelitis, acute traumatic ischemia, chronic wounds and thermal burns.Although hyperbaric therapy is costly, the ability to reduce morbidity associated with acute and chronic tissue injury can be cost effective. Palavras Chave: Hipóxia tecidular, oxigenoterapia hiperbárica, indicações, Key-Words: Peripheral tissue hypoxia, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, indications

  19. Entitlement to vote in the Canton of Geneva and entitlement to vote and eligibility for election in the Canton of Vaud

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    You are reminded that, at commune level, certain international civil servants and their family members: are entitled to vote in the Canton of Geneva are entitled to vote and are eligible for election in the Canton of Vaud. For further information, in particular regarding the special procedure to be followed to apply to exercise these entitlements, you are invited to consult the information published, in French only, on the Swiss Mission’s website: for the Canton of Genevafor the Canton of VaudThe dates of the forthcoming ballots are available on the official websites of the cantonal administrative authorities: for Geneva: referendum and forthcoming ballots ; for Vaud: forthcoming ballots In this context, please note, especially with regard to eligibility for election, that: in accordance with Articles S I 3.05 and I 3.06 of the Staff Rules "Members of the personnel wishing to take part in the public and political life of a State shall comply with the relevant legislat...

  20. Entitlement to vote in the Canton of Geneva and entitlement to vote and eligibility for election in the Canton of Vaud

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2011-01-01

    You are reminded that, at commune level, certain international civil servants and their family members: are entitled to vote in the Canton of Geneva are entitled to vote and are eligible for election in the Canton of Vaud. For further information, in particular regarding the special procedure to be followed to apply to exercise these entitlements, you are invited to consult the information published, in French only, on the Swiss Mission’s website (topic « Privileges and immunities (Manual) » : http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/fr/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/manvot/manvt1.html (for the Canton of Geneva), http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/fr/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/manvot/manvt2.html (for the Canton of Vaud). The dates of the forthcoming ballots are available on the official websites of the cantonal administrative authorities : for Geneva: http://www.ge.ch/votations-elections/prochains-scrutins/; for Vaud: http://www.vd.ch/fr/themes/etat-droit-financ...

  1. Seven songs from Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Sàenz, Michèle S. de

    1996-01-01

    In July of 1973, through the benificence of Professor Juan de Dios Trejos, music teacher from Cartago, Costa Rica, I had the pleasure of meeting doña Leticia de Céspedes. This tiny woman was in her nineties, with neatly cropped snow white hair and blue eyes. She received me in her humble home in Tres Ríos, a town located between San José and Cartago. Sra. de Céspedes had learned to read and transcribe music. She taught piano and guitar. She too, was interested in music whi...

  2. Approaching Corporate Social Responsibility through Kenneth Burke's Notions of Terministic Screens and Entitlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    summarizes Burke's essay, "Antinomies of Definition," from a Grammar of Motives as demonstrating that 'the intrinsic and the extrinsic can change places' "such that to define is always to contextualize and to uncover the absence of a solid ground for a claim to knowledge."2   So if the intrinsic...... allow for user agency, whereas entitlement appears to be focused more at the cultural level, with the agency shared by the 'tribe,' the language itself, and the context of situation.1 In other words, "terministic screens" appear to be extrinsic, while "entitlement" appears to be intrinsic.  Carmichael...... and extrinsic can change places, the interpretive process of "terministic screens" and the constitutive process of "entitlement" may well be reciprocal.  The implications of this reciprocity can be used as a basis for understanding the linguistic and cultural components of Corporate Social Responsibility...

  3. Restricted health care entitlements for child migrants in Europe and Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Liv Stubbe; Norredam, Marie; Mock-Munoz de Luna, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Background: More than 300 000 asylum seeking children were registered in Europe alone during 2015. In this study, we examined entitlements for health care for these and other migrant children in Europe and Australia in a framework based on United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child (UNCRC......). Methods: Survey to child health professionals, NGO's and European Ombudspersons for Children in 30 EU/EEA countries and Australia, supplemented by desktop research of official documents. Migrant children were categorised as asylum seekers and irregular/undocumented migrants. Results: Five countries....... Twelve European countries have limited entitlements to health care for asylum seeking children, including Germany that stands out as the country with the most restrictive health care policy for migrant children. In Australia entitlements for health care are restricted for asylum seeking children...

  4. Proactividad Medioambiental en la Empresa: Clasificación Empírica y Determinación de Aspectos Clave (Environmental proactiveness in the company: an empirical categorization and its key components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Val Segarra Oña

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available La proactividad medioambiental es partefundamental de la responsabilidad socialcorporativa de las empresas y genera beneficiostanto tangibles como intangibles. En estetrabajo se presenta un modelo de evaluacióny clasificación empresarial en función de laorientación hacia el medioambiente. Un análisisempírico a través de técnicas cuantitativasaplicadas a noventa y seis empresas industrialesespañolas ubicadas en la Comunidad Valencianapermite clasificar la muestra en tres gruposdiferentes. Se identifican también los factores quedeterminan dicha orientación y que caracterizanel grado de proactividad medioambiental. Losresultados obtenidos, por una parte, permitenorientar adecuadamente las actividades internasde la empresa al poner de manifiesto las causasy efectos que la proactividad medioambientaltiene sobre la competitividad de las empresasy, por otra parte, deben servir de guía paradefinir, de manera eficiente, las políticas públicasencaminadas a mejorar y aumentar la implicaciónmedioambiental del tejido empresarial.   ABSTRACT Environmental proactiveness is afundamental component of any company´scorporate social responsibility that producesboth tangible and intangible benefits. Thispaper presents an evaluation and categorizationmodel from an environmental point of view.An empirical analysis made with quantitativetechniques to 96 Spanish industrial companieslocated in the Valencia Community, allowedus to distribute the sample in three distinctivegroups. The factors leading to that distributionand characterizing the degree of environmentalproactiveness were also identified. The resultsmake possible to steer a company´s internalactivities by highlighting the causes and effectsthat environmental proactiveness has on itscompetitiveness, and serve as a guide to shape uppublic policies aimed at increasing and improvingthe environmental involvement of businessnetworks.

  5. Combating global warming. Possible rules, regulations and administrative arrangements for a global market in CO2 emission entitlements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    When in 1991 the UNCTAD secretariat launched its research into the idea of controlling carbon dioxide emissions through a system of 'tradeable permits', there was little support for this approach. Some felt that the idea was premature and should not detract from efforts to introduce more conventional measures, such as environmental taxes and new regulations. However, in a few short years, the idea of using tradeable market-based instruments to combat global warming has gained widespread acceptance. The UNCTAD secretariat's 1992 study on a global system of tradeable carbon emission entitlements (UNCTAD/RDP/DFP/1), was widely regarded as a major breakthrough in this area. This study argued that tradeable permits were both an efficient means of controlling man-made carbon dioxide emissions at minimum cost, and an effective mechanism for transferring resources to developing countries and countries in transition, to help them to contribute to the international effort to abate emissions of greenhouse gases. The study contained a detailed assessment of key technical elements of a tradeable CO 2 entitlements system, including permit allocation techniques, resource transfers, equity/distributional implications, institutional and administrative requirements. The present publication explores the institutional requirements for both policy-making and the organization of a global market in CO 2 emission allowances. It shows that one can start with a simple pilot scheme based on the joint implementation of commitments, which constitutes the cornerstone of the Framework Convention, and evolve gradually to a more complete system on the basis of 'learning by doing'. Since the use of markets can dramatically lower the cost of controlling greenhouse gas emissions, it is clearly in the self-interest of major emitters to act as 'market leaders' willing to pioneer

  6. Learning Based on the Project Entitled "Design and Construction of a Wooden Bridge"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barris, Cristina; Torres, Lluís; Simon, Enric

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a case involving the application of project-based learning carried out with students in the Mechanical Engineering degree program at the University of Girona. The project, entitled "Design and construction of a wooden bridge", was conducted at the Polytechnic School in the third-year Structures…

  7. The Impact of Active Labor Market Programs and Benefit Entitlement Rules on the Duration of Unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.; Zweimüller, J.

    2000-01-01

    Swiss policy makers created a unique link between unemployment benefits and active labor market programs (ALMPs) by making benefit payments conditional on program attendance after 7 months of unemployment duration. We evaluate the effect of ALMPs and benefit entitlement on the duration of

  8. 75 FR 69521 - Evidence for Transfer of Entitlement of Education Benefits; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0708] Evidence for Transfer of Entitlement of Education Benefits; Correction AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) published a collection of...

  9. The Relationship between Academic Entitlement, Academic Performance, and Satisfaction with Life in a College Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reysen, Rebekah H.

    2013-01-01

    Although academic entitlement (AE) has become a popular topic of discussion in the media, it has received very little scholarly focus in the higher education literature to date. AE has been defined as a belief held by students that they deserve high grades in school despite a lack of effort put forth into their work (Chowning & Campbell,…

  10. Student Entitlement Models in Australia's National Training System: Expert Views. Occasional Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Kaye; McKenna, Suzy

    2016-01-01

    This occasional paper provides the views of 17 "thought leaders" in the Australian vocational education and training (VET) sector. Their insight and opinions were sought to inform a larger research project focused on the student entitlement reforms that were introduced into the national VET system from 2012. These individuals offered a…

  11. Generation Me in the spotlight : Linking reality TV to materialism, entitlement, and narcissism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opree, S.J.; Kühne, R.

    2016-01-01

    Today’s youth, the Generation Me, is deemed materialistic, entitled, and narcissistic. Individuality has become an important value in child-rearing and is cultivated in the media—especially within the reality TV genre. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adolescents’ and emerging

  12. Human Rights as Practice: Dalit Women's Collective Action to Secure Livelihood Entitlements in rural South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangubhai, Y.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate how Dalit women in rural South India secure livelihood entitlements by analysing processes of social exclusion as well as collective action by these women through their perspectives. This problematic requires focus on how caste, class and gender mutually construct

  13. 76 FR 30366 - Draft Alert Entitled “Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease From Dampness in Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Docket Number NIOSH-238] Draft Alert Entitled ``Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease From Dampness in Office... Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [FR Doc. 2011...

  14. International comparison of systems to determine entitlements to medical specialist care: performance and organizational issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Stolk (Elly); A.A. de Bont (Antoinette); M.J. Poley (Marten); S. Jerak (Sonja); M. Stroet (Mary); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSummary Objective: CVZ has asked us to provide a comparison of criteria and procedures that different countries use to determine entitlements to medical specialist care. This question was asked within the context of the recent introduction of the DBC (diagnosis treatment combinations)

  15. 20 CFR 725.201 - Who is entitled to benefits; contents of this subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... surviving spouse or child, or the surviving dependent brothers or sisters, where there is no surviving... part the term “total disability” shall mean partial disability with respect to a claim for which... entitlement to benefits applicable to a miner, or a surviving spouse, child, parent, brother, or sister, and...

  16. 24 CFR 350.5 - Creation of Participant's Security Entitlement; Security Interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Creation of Participant's Security... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 350.5 Creation of Participant's Security Entitlement... States to secure deposits of public money, including without limitation deposits to the Treasury tax and...

  17. 12 CFR 987.4 - Creation of Participant's Security Entitlement; security interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creation of Participant's Security Entitlement... BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURE FOR CONSOLIDATED OBLIGATIONS § 987.4 Creation of Participant's Security... of the United States to secure deposits of public money, including, without limitation, deposits to...

  18. Entitlement Can Both Decrease and Increase Consumer Susceptibility to Social Influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Martine; Fennis, Bob; van Ittersum, Koert; Trampe, Debra; Diehl, Kristin; Yoon, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Two studies indicate that entitlement—a sense that one deserves special treatment and is exempt from normal social demands—can both buffer and boost consumers’ proneness to social influence. Specifically, Study 1 shows that entitlement reduces susceptibility to consistency appeals. Study 2, however,

  19. 31 CFR 354.4 - Creation of Participant's Security Entitlement; security interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.4... Entitlement is created when a Federal Reserve Bank indicates by book-entry that a Book-entry Sallie Mae... the books of a Federal Reserve Bank is thereby effected and perfected, and has priority over any other...

  20. 41 CFR 302-2.3 - What determines my entitlements and allowances for relocation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What determines my entitlements and allowances for relocation? 302-2.3 Section 302-2.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-EMPLOYEES ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS...

  1. A Non-Member Spouse's Entitlement To The Member's Pension Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motseotsile Clement Marumoagae

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important that married couples seek legal advice with regard to the assets falling within their joint estate, more particularly their retirement benefits. This article reflects on the entitlement (if any of non-member spouses to their spouses' retirement fund benefits. Pension benefits can be due before, during or after divorce, and parties to the marriage should be aware of their rights with regard to the accruing pension benefits of their spouses. While it is settled law that non-member spouses are entitled to receive a portion of their member spouses' pension benefits (known as "pension interest" immediately on divorce, it is not particularly clear whether non-member spouses are also entitled to receive the same before or sometime after divorce. In this article I provide a contextual understanding of the entitlements (if any which spouses or former spouses of members of pension funds have on such member spouses' retirement benefits. Furthermore, it shown in this article that various divisions of South African High Courts have been inconsistent in how they have approached the issue of the pension interest between divorcing spouses or divorced ex-spouses.

  2. 38 CFR 3.274 - Relationship of net worth to pension entitlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship of net worth to pension entitlement. 3.274 Section 3.274 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Regulations...

  3. Developmental Trajectories of Work Values and Job Entitlement Beliefs in the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Angela; Krahn, Harvey J.; Galambos, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    Employing a life span developmental systems perspective, this study used a 5-wave (1985-1992) Canadian longitudinal data set (N = 404) to examine trajectories of intrinsic and extrinsic work values and job entitlement beliefs from age 18 to 25. Piecewise growth models (Slope 1: age 18-20; Slope 2: age 20-25) showed intriguing patterns of change.…

  4. Measuring policy entitlements at the micro-level: maternity and parental leave in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bártová, A.; Emery, T.

    2018-01-01

    Comparative social policy analysis has been shaped by the measurement of policy as a macro phenomenon. However, social policy theories have consistently asserted that policy entitlements vary across class, gender, ethnicity and the life-course. This paper synthesises a number of innovations to

  5. 20 CFR 404.467 - Nonpayment of benefits; individual entitled to disability insurance benefits or childhood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... type of substantial gainful activity. (b) Childhood disability benefits. An individual who has attained... Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.467 Nonpayment of benefits; individual entitled to disability insurance benefits... definition of disability for disability insurance benefits purposes based on statutory blindness, as defined...

  6. 5 CFR 1651.2 - Entitlement to funds in a deceased participant's account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.2 Entitlement to funds in a deceased participant's account. (a) Death... participant will be paid as a death benefit to the individual or individuals surviving the participant, in the... representation in accordance with § 1651.6; (4) If there are no beneficiaries or persons as described in...

  7. Is the Narcissistic Personality Inventory Still Relevant? A Test of Independent Grandiosity and Entitlement Scales in the Assessment of Narcissism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Price, Joanna; Campbell, W. Keith

    2012-01-01

    Some scholars have called for the replacement of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) with more narrow scales measuring grandiosity and entitlement instead. In the current study, the authors examined the relations among the NPI and measures of grandiosity and entitlement, as well as in relation to a measure of the Five-Factor Model (FFM).…

  8. 20 CFR 410.250 - Effect of conviction of felonious and intentional homicide on entitlement to benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intentional homicide on entitlement to benefits. 410.250 Section 410.250 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... conviction of felonious and intentional homicide on entitlement to benefits. An individual who has been finally convicted by a court of competent jurisdiction of the felonious and intentional homicide of a...

  9. Ecotourism and Sustainable Development in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Buchsbaum, Bernardo Duha

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a synopsis of the current issues facing ecotourism in Costa Rica; critically examine the impacts and challenges of ecotourism; analyze the potential of ecotourism as a strategy for sustainable development; look at ways in which ecotourism and sustainable development can be evaluated; and suggest ways to improve current ecotourism practices and policies for Costa Rica. What are the impacts and challenges of ecotourism? What are the possible benefits that...

  10. Entitlement to concessionary public transport and wellbeing: a qualitative study of young people and older citizens in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alasdair; Goodman, Anna; Roberts, Helen; Steinbach, Rebecca; Green, Judith

    2013-08-01

    Access to transport is an important determinant of health, and concessionary fares for public transport are one way to reduce the 'transport exclusion' that can limit access. This paper draws on qualitative data from two groups typically at risk of transport exclusion: young people (12-18 years of age, n = 118) and older citizens (60+ years of age, n = 46). The data were collected in London, UK, where young people and older citizens are currently entitled to concessionary bus travel. We focus on how this entitlement is understood and enacted, and how different sources of entitlement mediate the relationship between transport and wellbeing. Both groups felt that their formal entitlement to travel for free reflected their social worth and was, particularly for older citizens, relatively unproblematic. The provision of a concessionary transport entitlement also helped to combat feelings of social exclusion by enhancing recipients' sense of belonging to the city and to a 'community'. However, informal entitlements to particular spaces on the bus reflected less valued social attributes such as need or frailty. Thus in the course of travelling by bus the enactment of entitlements to space and seats entailed the negotiation of social differences and personal vulnerabilities, and this carried with it potential threats to wellbeing. We conclude that the process, as well as the substance, of entitlement can mediate wellbeing; and that where the basis for providing a given entitlement is widely understood and accepted, the risks to wellbeing associated with enacting that entitlement will be reduced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Ibarra Cárdenas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La existencia de ciertos rasgos autoritarios que afectan a los derechos de participación política y al cumplimiento de los acuerdos democráticos, ha sido motivo de crisis y colapso de varios gobiernos en América Latina. La importancia de la función judicial radica en que siempre y cuando mantenga la "independencia" y la "imparcialidad" como principios que le caracterizan, puede reforzar la cooperación entre agentes políticos y sociales por medio de: a el desarrollo de una cultura jurídica de respeto y promoción de los derechos, y b un poder judicial que establezca una relación estable entre comportamiento humano y prescripción normativa, es decir, que en la justificación de sus decisiones articule de manera satisfactoria el código de valores socialmente construido, y el marco normativo establecido por la regla de reconocimiento del sistema jurídico.

  12. de papa en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeidy Montero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Especies del género Meloidogyne causan importantes daños al cultivo de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L alrededor del mundo. Su efecto puede ser directo al disminuir el rendimiento o indirecto al infectar los tubérculos y causar agallas o protuberancias, que les confiere una apariencia verrugosa, que afecta su calidad y reduce su valor comercial. En Capellades y Llano Grande de Cartago, Costa Rica, fueron encontrados tubérculos de papa, de la variedad Floresta y del clon Bananito, con numerosas protuberancias en su superficie. De las protuberancias se extrajo hembras ovígeras de Meloidogyne spp. Estudios morfológicos (diseño perineal de las hembras y moleculares (PCR y PCRRFLP mostraron que las hembras extraídas de las protuberancias pertenecen a la especie M. incognita. Se recomienda estudiar las causas que promueven la infección de los tubérculos en ambas localidades, ya que cerca del 90% del área cultivada de papa en el país corresponde a la variedad Floresta. En adición, se debe prestar especial atención a las zonas semilleristas, ya que los tubérculos-semilla podrían servir como fuente de inóculo y contribuir a la diseminación del patógeno a otras áreas.

  13. Entitlement theory of justice and end-state fairness in the allocation of goods

    OpenAIRE

    Ju, Biung-Ghi; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.

    2016-01-01

    Robert Nozick allegedly introduced his liberal theory of private ownership as an objection to theories of end-state justice. Nevertheless, we show that, in a stylized framework for the allocation of goods in joint ventures, both approaches can be seen as complementary. More precisely, in such a context, self-ownership (the basis for Nozick's entitlement theory of justice) followed by voluntary transfer (Nozick's principle of just transfer) can lead to end-state fairness (as well as Pareto eff...

  14. Are undocumented migrants’ entitlements and barriers to healthcare a public health challenge for the European Union?

    OpenAIRE

    De Vito, Elisabetta; de Waure, Chiara; Specchia, Maria Lucia; Parente, Paolo; Azzolini, Elena; Frisicale, Emanuela Maria; Favale, Marcella; Teleman, Adele Anna; Ricciardi, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Undocumented migrants (UMs) are at higher risk for health problems because of their irregular status and the consequences of economic and social marginalization. Moreover, the emergent reality of undocumented migration in Europe calls for action in the field of management of UM’s health demands as their access to health services has become a sensitive political and social issue. In this light, this paper aims to address UMs’ entitlement and barriers to healthcare and related policies citing e...

  15. Intervención ambiental en sitios contaminados por plomo: la experiencia en los Estados Unidos de América Environmental intervention in sites contaminated by lead: the United States of America experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Ceto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante una década, los organismos estatales y federales han trabajado de manera conjunta con las comunidades a lo largo del territorio estadounidense, con el objeto de valorar el riesgo a la salud que implica la contaminación por plomo en las zonas residenciales. A menudo dichas comunidades han estado vinculadas con instalaciones destinadas anteriormente a actividades como la minería y la metalurgia; sin embargo, existen otras industrias como por ejemplo la fabricación de pinturas y el reciclaje de baterías, también identificadas como fuentes de contaminación por este metal. La vasta experiencia en las tareas de limpieza de los sitios contaminados ha puesto de manifiesto que los amplios programas destinados a identificar y manejar las vías de exposición pueden ayudar, de manera efectiva, a disminuir los niveles de plomo en sangre de las poblaciones más suceptibles, como la de los de niños en edades tempranas. Los programas de intervención ambiental son más efectivos cuando en las localidades afectadas se ejecutan programas de educación/intervención en salud, orientados al desarrollo de estrategias individualizadas para manejar el riesgo que implica la presencia de dicho metal en el ambiente.For a decade, state and federal agencies have worked jointly with communities throughout the USA, with the objective of measuring the health-risk from lead pollution in residential zones. Often these communities have been linked with facilities previously associated with activities like mining and metallurgy; nevertheless, there are other industries like paint manufacturing and battery recycling, that have also been identified as lead pollution sources. The vast experience in cleaning up the contaminated sites has shown that ample programs designed to identify and handle the exposure routes can help, in an effective manner, to diminish blood lead levels (BLL in susceptible populations, such as in young children. Environmental intervention

  16. Perceived entitlement causes discrimination against attractive job candidates in the domain of relatively less desirable jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Margaret; Pitesa, Marko; Pillutla, Madan M; Thau, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    People generally hold positive stereotypes of physically attractive people and because of those stereotypes often treat them more favorably. However, we propose that some beliefs about attractive people, specifically, the perception that attractive individuals have a greater sense of entitlement than less attractive individuals, can result in negative treatment of attractive people. We examine this in the context of job selection and propose that for relatively less desirable jobs, attractive candidates will be discriminated against. We argue that the ascribed sense of entitlement to good outcomes leads to perceptions that attractive individuals are more likely to be dissatisfied working in relatively less desirable jobs. When selecting candidates for relatively less desirable jobs, decision makers try to ascertain whether a candidate would be satisfied in those jobs, and the stereotype of attractive individuals feeling entitled to good outcomes makes decision makers judge attractive candidates as more likely to be dissatisfied in relatively less (but not more) desirable jobs. Consequently, attractive candidates are discriminated against in the selection for relatively less desirable jobs. Four experiments found support for this theory. Our results suggest that different discriminatory processes operate when decision makers select among candidates for relatively less desirable jobs and that attractive people might be systematically discriminated against in a segment of the workforce. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Handbook of environmental and resource economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, J.C.J.M. van den [eds.

    1999-07-01

    The book contains 79 chapters by experts divided into ten parts entitled: introduction; economics of natural resources; economics of environmental policy; international aspects of environmental economics and policy; space in environmental economics; environmental macroeconomics; economic valuation and evaluation; interdisciplinary issues; methods and models in environmental and resource economics; and prospects. Chapters of particular relevance to the energy sector are entitled: lessons from using transferable permits to control air pollution in the United States; equity in environmental policy with an application to global warming; transboundary environmental problems; tax instruments for curbing CO{sub 2} emissions; transport and the environment; energy-economy-environment models; decompositions methodology in energy demand and environmental analysis, and input-output structural decomposition analysis of energy and the environment.

  18. Banco Central de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter, Franz

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available This new building is intended to house the various services of the Central Bank of Costa Rica. It has a prestressed concrete structure, and consists of a basement parking space for 105 vehicles, and nine storeys, providing altogether a floor surface of 12,000 ms2. The building rests on a ground area of 40 by 60 ms, and the main structure occupies 22 by 45 ms. This Bank is located in a district of narrow streets, but its main side overlooks a green open space, which will improve its visibility and appearance. The building structure is made up of a framework of prestressed beams and columns. The beams have been concreted at the site, and the joists, which are also prestressed, are factory made. This framework, at each floor level, constitutes the basis of a continuous slab, which renders the total structure exceedingly stiff. The main continuous girders span 11.22 ms spaces, and vary in cross section. The prestressing reinforcements consist of 6 Loeba type cables. This is an original design by Dr. Leonhardt, in which the cables are placed on three horizontal layers, of parabolic outline. Each cable is made up of 12 x 5.4 mm wires, with a breaking stress of 180 kg/mm2 The tensioning stress was 108 kg/mm2, and the total prestress load is 29,700 kgs. The cables run in corrugated metal tubes, and these were kept in precise position with the aid of distance pieces.El nuevo edificio, destinado a agrupar los servicios del Banco Central de Costa Rica, está constituido por una estructura de hormigón pretensado. El inmueble dispone de un sótano, estacionamiento propio para 105 vehículos y nueve plantas, con una superficie total de 12.000 metros cuadrados. Se asienta sobre una base de 40x60 m, donde se levanta un núcleo central de 22x45 metros. Está situado en un barrio de calles estrechas, pero tiene su fachada, principal frente a una zona verde que le proporcionará mayor categoría y visibilidad. La estructura se compone de una retícula de vigas

  19. Pleural mesothelioma in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maineri-Hidalgo, Jose Alberto; Putvinsky, Vladimir; Mainieri-Breedy, Giovanna

    2006-01-01

    The mesothelioma is a neoplasia originated in the serous membranes that drape the cellomic cavities and there cover the visceras that they contain, whose development has related to the exhibition to the asbestos. The present study describes the characteristics of the cases of mesothelioma pleural diagnosed in 3 adults hospitals in Costa Rica. 29 cases of pleural mesothelioma were found between 1972 and 2002 after reviewing the pathology service archives of the 3 national general hospitals of the Costa Rican social security health system. The incidence rate in 2002 was 1 case per 2 million; there were 15 females and 14 males, with a mean age of 54 years. Twenty cases presented with pleural effusion being dyspnea, chest pain, cough, fever and weight loss the most frequent symptoms. The disease was detected in all the cases because of an abnormal chest X-ray. The method used to obtain tissue for histological diagnosis was thoracotomy for 15 cases, pleural biopsy in 8, thoracoscopy in 4 and autopsy in 2. The histological diagnosis in 16 cases was fibrous mesothelioma, 10 malignant and 6 benign, 11 were epithelial (all malignant) and 2 were malignant mixed mesothelioma. The treatment in all the benign cases was surgical resection and none recurred. Two of the malignant lesions were resected, 1 had an extrapleural pneumonectomy along with pericardial and diaphragmatic resection, but the survival was not better than the rest of the malignant cases, with an average survival rate for all of them of only 6 months. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy showed no additional benefit. (author) [es

  20. Agentic and communal narcissism and satisfaction with life: The mediating role of psychological entitlement and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żemojtel-Piotrowska, Magdalena A; Piotrowski, Jarosław P; Maltby, John

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the mediational role of self-esteem (as an enhancement) and psychological entitlement (as a cost) in the relationship between an agentic-communal model of grandiose narcissism and satisfaction with life. Two hundred and forty-eight university undergraduate students completed measures of agentic and communal narcissism, self-esteem, psychological entitlement and satisfaction with life. The findings suggest that there is support for the usefulness of the agentic-communal model of narcissism, and, consistent with predictions in the wider literature, self-esteem and psychological entitlement mediated the relationship between agentic-communal narcissism and life satisfaction. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  1. Construction waste in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abarca Guerrero, L.; Maas, G.J.; Lambert, A.J.D.; Troyo, F

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, construction waste is becoming a serious environmental problem due to the continuing growing population and urbanization, which demand material resources, water and energy. Information and data about the sector in those economies is scarce and some of the information found

  2. Forests of hope: Costa Rica. Restoring hope in the clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, L

    1996-01-01

    The rapid population growth in Central America has created pressure on the largest tract of cloud forest spanning the Talamanca Mountains in Costa Rica and Panama. Of immediate concern is restoring hope in the forest and improving the standard of living among local people. Such is the goal of the Amistad Conservation and Development (AMISCONDE) project in the communities of Cerro Punta, Panama, and San Rafael in Costa Rica. Through agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, environmental education, and community development, AMISCONDE aims to restore the degraded lands in the reserve's buffer zone and improve the income of the people. All the local people, the farmers, women and children have benefited from the project. Some of the activities carried out to meet its objectives include helping the farmers improve the productivity and marketability of their products by teaching them new technologies and giving agricultural credits to farmers, women, and youth groups. In addition, AMISCONDE conducts training courses to address the economic, social and educational needs of women and communities. It is assured that the community and the group will be prepared to continue on their own after the official AMISCONDE office is gone.

  3. Counterstatement to Article Entitled "A Framework for Evaluation of Marine Spatial Data Geoportals Using Case Studies"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seip Christian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In December 2014 in volume 60 issue 4 a paper was published entitled “A Framework for Evaluation of Marine Spatial Data Geoportals Using Case Studies” by Marina Tavra, Vlado Cetl and Tea Duplancic Leder which is suspected to constitute academic misconduct. This comment reasons that the core of the paper was taken from another source and thus does not offer new and original scientific work and therefore does not add knowledge to the body of science. Furthermore it argues that apart from the plagiarism the paper shows major weaknesses and thus should have not been published even it was not plagiarized.

  4. Alien Registration Number Verification via the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Service's Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ainslie, Frances M; Buck, Kelly R

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implications of conducting high-volume automated checks of the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services Systematic Allen Verification for Entitlements System (SAVE...

  5. La retórica en Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gamonal Arroyo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La Retórica, una disciplina antigua que data del siglo V a.C., está muy presente enInternet, un medio de comunicación social que nació en el siglo XX. La AntigüedadClásica renace para esclarecer este fenómeno de las nuevas tecnologías de lainformación. La Retórica ayuda a explicar el intrincado concepto de Internet, afacilitar su práctica cotidiana y a su construcción de una forma ordenada y sistemática.

  6. CONSIDERACIONES TEÓRICAS Y EMPÍRICAS ACERCA DE LA FECUNDIDAD ADOLESCENTE

    OpenAIRE

    ADRIANA CAROLINA SILVA ÁRIAS; PATRICIA GONZÁLEZ ROMÁN; MARISOL TORRES RODRÍGUEZ

    2008-01-01

    Este artículo realiza una revisión teórica y empírica acerca de los factores que inciden en la fecundidad adolescente. Entre las variables analizadas se encuentran, el estrato socioeconómico, la jefatura femenina, el nivel educativo, el empleo femenino, el uso de la planificación familiar, el aborto, entre otros. Dentro de la evidencia empírica se encuentra, que para Colombia la tasa de fecundidad adolescente se ha incrementando durante los últimos diez años, alcanzando niveles semejantes a l...

  7. Narcissistic self-esteem or optimal self-esteem? A Latent Profile Analysis of self-esteem and psychological entitlement

    OpenAIRE

    Stronge, Sam; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Sibley, Chris G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the relationship between self-esteem and narcissism has produced conflicting results, potentially caused by hidden subpopulations that exhibit distinct positive or negative associations. This research uses Latent Profile Analysis to identify profiles within a national panel study (N = 6,471) with differing relationships between psychological entitlement and self-esteem. We identified a narcissistic self-esteem profile (9%) characterised by high entitlement and high self-esteem, ...

  8. Effects of customer entitlement on service workers' physical and psychological well-being: a study of waitstaff employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Glenda M; Neville, Lukas B

    2011-10-01

    This exploratory study examines the nature of customer entitlement and its impact on front-line service employees. In an open-ended qualitative inquiry, 56 individuals with waitstaff experience described the types of behaviors entitled customers engage in and the kinds of service-related "perks" these individuals feel deserving of. Participants explained how they responded to entitled customers, how and when managers became involved, and how their dealings with these patrons influenced their subjective physical and psychological well-being. We found that the behaviors of entitled customers negatively impacted waitstaff employees. Participants reported physiological arousal, negative affect, burnout, and feelings of dehumanization as a result of dealing with these patrons. While respondents drew on a variety of strategies to manage their encounters with entitled customers, they indicated workplace support was often informal and described feeling abandoned by management in dealing with this workplace stressor. Approaching customer entitlement as a form of microaggression, we offer recommendations for practice and suggest new directions for future research. . (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The Making of a Good Woman: Extended Parental Leave Entitlements and Mothers' Work Commitment in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, Markus; Ziefle, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    The authors investigate the relationship between family policy and women's attachment to the labor market, focusing specifically on policy feedback on women's subjective work commitment. They utilize a quasi-experimental design to identify normative policy effects from changes in mothers' work commitment in conjunction with two policy changes that significantly extended the length of statutory parental leave entitlements in Germany. Using unique survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and difference-in-differences, triple-differenced, and instrumental variables estimators for panel data, they obtain consistent empirical evidence that increasing generosity of leave entitlements led to a decline in mothers' work commitment in both East and West Germany. They also probe potential mediating mechanisms and find strong evidence for role exposure and norm setting effects. Finally, they demonstrate that policy-induced shifts in mothers' preferences have contributed to. retarding women's labor force participation after childbirth in Germany, especially as far as mothers' return to full-time employment is concerned.

  10. Entitled vengeance: A meta-analysis relating narcissism to provoked aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kyler

    2016-07-01

    Narcissism has long been used to predict aggressive or vengeful responses to provocations from others. The strength of this relation can, however, vary widely from study to study. Narcissism and revenge were examined in 84 independent samples (N = 11297), along with the moderating role of sample type (i.e., child/adolescent, prisoner, undergraduate, or general samples), type of narcissism measure used (i.e., Narcissistic Personality Inventory, Psychological Entitlement Scale, Short D3, etc.), the nature of the provocation, and the type of provoked aggression examined. Narcissism was positively related to provoked aggression across studies (ρ = .25), but that relation was stronger in child/adolescent samples (ρ = .36) and when measures of entitlement or vulnerable narcissism were employed (ρ = .29). Implications for practical research, as well as neglected areas of research on narcissism and provoked aggression are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:362-379, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Entitlement to Sickness Benefits in Sweden: The Social Insurance Officers Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Müssener

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social insurance offices (SIOs handle a wide range of complex assessments of the entitlement to sickness benefits for an increasing number of clients on sick leave and consequently, the demands on the SIOs have increased considerably.Aim: To gain deeper knowledge of the problems experienced by the SIOs in their work associated with entitlement to sickness benefits.Method: A descriptive and explorative qualitative approach was used to analyse data from two focus-group interviews, including six participants in each group.Results: The participants discussed different dilemmas in regard to; physicians’ responsibility for issuing sickness certificates, interactions with the insured individuals, disclosure of decisions, communications with medical consultants, documentation of sickness benefit claims, threats in the workplace, as well as their own competence. The SIOs regarded incomplete information on sickness certificates as a main problem, because they frequently had to contact the client and the physicians who issued the certificates in order to obtain further details, leading to delays in the decision-making whether to grant sickness benefits.Conclusions: More knowledge regarding SIOs work is required to improve the methods used in the sickness insurance system and to ensure adequate training of new staff members.

  12. Economic Entitlements via Entrepreneurial Conduct? Women and Financial Inclusion in Neo-liberal India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kalpana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the gendered local character of neoliberalism at the household level by focusing on microcredit/finance programs in India. Microfinance promoted by the state as an informal activity targeting women is intended to alleviate income inequalities, even as it contributes to maintaining the world capitalist system. In India the inception of microfinance-based Self Help Groups (SHGs or peer groups of women savers and borrowers in the 1990s has coincided with a rightward turn towards neoliberal policies of structural adjustment, privatization and economic deregulation. In this paper, I show how Indian policy makers have endeavored to make women's economic entitlements contingent upon their disciplined financial behavior and their willing participation in neoliberal agendas of creating and deepening 'self-regulating' markets at village levels. Drawing on an ethnographic study conducted in a South Indian state, I show that the community level 'neoliberal disciplining' that microfinance entails does not proceed without resistance. Whilst SHGs seek to constitute women as fiscally disciplined savers and borrowers, women stake their 'rightful' entitlement to bank credit even as they reject outright the entrepreneurial subjectivities they are expected to assume. They pursue purposes and ends that extend well beyond 'financial inclusion.'

  13. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  14. The Costa Rica GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Project as a Learning Science Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Rojas, María Dolores; Zuñiga, Ana Lourdes Acuña; Ugalde, Emmanuel Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    GLOBE is a global educational program for elementary and high school levels, and its main purpose in Costa Rica is to develop scientific thinking and interest for science in high school students through hydrology research projects that allow them to relate science with environmental issues in their communities. Youth between 12 and 17 years old…

  15. Regional analysis of soil-atmosphere nitrous oxide emissions in the Northern Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plant, R.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Regional analysis of greenhouse gas emissions is becoming increasingly important in answering questions related to environmental change, and typically employs a Geographic Information System (GIS) linked with a process-based simulation model. For the Northern Atlantic Zone (NAZ) in Costa Rica (281

  16. Human Rights Discourse in the Sustainable Development Agenda Avoids Obligations and Entitlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carmel; Blaiklock, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Our commentary on Forman et al paper explores their thesis that right to health language can frame global health policy responses. We examined human rights discourse in the outcome documents from three 2015 United Nations (UN) summits and found rights-related terms are used in all three. However, a deeper examination of the discourse finds the documents do not convey the obligations and entitlements of human rights and international human rights law. The documents contain little that can be used to empower the participation of those already left behind and to hold States and the private sector to account for their human rights duties. This is especially worrying in a neoliberal era. PMID:27285518

  17. International conference entitled Zdeněk Kopal’s Binary Star Legacy

    CERN Document Server

    Drechsel, Horst; ZDENEK KOPAL’S BINARY STAR LEGACY

    2005-01-01

    An international conference entitled "Zdenek Kopal's Binary Star Legacy" was held on the occasion of the late Professor Kopal's 90th birthday in his home town of Litomyšl/Czech Republic and dedicated to the memory of one of the leading astronomers of the 20th century. Professor Kopal, who devoted 60 years of his scientific life to the exploration of close binary systems, initiated a breakthrough in this field with his description of binary components as non-spherical stars deformed by gravity, with surfaces following Roche equipotentials. Such knowledge triggered the development of new branches of astrophysics dealing with the structure and evolution of close binaries and the interaction effects displayed by exciting objects such as cataclysmic variables, symbiotic stars or X-ray binaries. Contributions to this conference included praise of the achievements of a great astronomer and personal reminiscences brought forward by Kopal's former students and colleagues, and reflected the state of the art of the dyn...

  18. Basic package of health entitlements and solidarity in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabac, B; Ljubic, B; Bagaric, I

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the methodology for designing a basic package of health entitlements and solidarity in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina which will, respecting the principles of solidarity and equity, guarantee equal rights to all citizens of the Federation. After the analysis of the situation, we specified the reasons for the reform, listed the objectives, and described the basis of the basic package design, the establishment of federal solidarity, and the plan of realization. We discussed the background ethical theories of our policy choice, explicitly stated the normative and technical criteria for priority setting, and deliberated Federal financing solidarity policy and allocation methodology, as well as criteria for "risk equalization" among cantons.

  19. Cerrando espacios, abriendo brechas. Urbanizaciones cerradas en San Rafael de Escazú, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Alvarado Alcázar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo estudia el fenómeno de las urbanizaciones cerradas en el distrito de San Rafael de Escazú, Costa Rica. La tesis central es que las urbanizaciones cerradas producen cambios en la urbanidad mediante la introducción de transformaciones socio-espaciales manifiestas en la materialidad de las urbanizaciones cerradas, las funciones de estas y el tipo de relaciones sociales que sus residentes mantienen entre sí y con su entorno cercano. El artículo cierra sugiriendo explorar la noción de “urbanidad privada” como una forma de entender la producción de espacio promovida desde los intereses privados expresados en la construcción de conjuntos inmobiliarios cerrados, de los cuales las urbanizaciones cerradas son una de sus manifestaciones más visibles. Los resultados presentados en este ensayo, son producto de la investigación titulada “Urbanizaciones cerradas en Costa Rica: transformaciones socio-espaciales en la urbanidad y segregación socio-residencial en el distrito de San Rafael de Escazú (1990-2012”. This paper examines the phenomenon of gated communities in Costa Rica, specifically in the district of San Rafael, Escazú. The central thesis is that gated communities to changes in urbanity by introducing socio-spatial transformations evident in the materiality of gated communities, the functions of these communities and the type of social relations that its residents have with one another and with their immediate environment. The article suggests exploring the notion of “private urbanity” as a way to understand the production of space promoted by private interests and expressed in the construction of closed real estate developments, most visibly manifested by gated communities.. The results presented are the product of research entitled “Urbanizaciones cerradas en Costa Rica: transformaciones socio-espaciales en la urbanidad y segregación socio- residencial en el distrito de San Rafael de Escazú (1990

  20. América Latina marginada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Drago

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La renovación en los países comunistas atrae la atención, el comercio, las inversiones y la ayuda de Estados Unidos, Japón y Europa Occidental. En una primera etapa, ello incidirá negativamente en las relaciones de ese continente con América Latina, es creciente y está en pleno proceso acelerado, la marginación del comercio exterior de la Comunidad Europea. Las inversiones directas no presentan perspectivas. Asegura que a esto se suma la invasión a Panamá, que fue interpretada como que las potencias llegaron a acuerdos en Malta para el reparto del mundo.Con la perestroika la situación de América Latina desmejoró notablemente.

  1. 78 FR 39284 - Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OA-2013-0320; FRL-9830-1] Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued for public comment a document entitled, ``Technical Guidance for...

  2. Paralisia facial periférica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jarjura Jorge Jr.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Os autores fazem uma revisão sobre o anatomo fisiologia, os diagnósticos clinico e eletrofisiológico da Paralisia Facial Periférica assim como relacionam as afecções envolvidas no processo, discutindo seu tratamento clinico e cirúrgico. Em seguida relatam 5 casos de diversas etiologias tratados no ambulatório de Paralisia Facial da Disciplina de Otorrinolaringologia da FCMB da PUC-SP.

  3. The Internationalization of SMEs in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Leiva Bonilla, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the internationalization process of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Costa Rica. Its ultimate goal is to draw conclusions that might enable the various stakeholders in the process (businesses, government, support agencies, and academia) to make decisions based on better information. To do this we will review the current status of this business sector, compare the patterns of internationalization identified in the theory with those experienced by Costa Rican ...

  4. Iberoamérica de los otros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Segawa

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available La llegada de Cristóbal Colón a nuestro continente representó el primer encuentro entre dos partes del mundo: Eurasia y África y las Américas. Hoy no es fácil que pensemos sobre la idea de Iberoamérica como el resultado de la confluencia de cinco siglos de interacciones mutuas. El concepto de Iberoamérica como región o identidad contrasta hoy con la fragmentación que viene caracterizando el difícil cotidiano de los antiguos bloques políticos como Yugoslavia, Checoslovaquia y la Unión Soviética. De manera simultánea, se constata la vigencia de una economía con tendencias a una nueva división internacional del trabajo, en busca de una rápida integración planetaria por medio de la consolidación de las estructuras empresariales mundiales, cuyo ajuste acelera la universalidad de la producción, distribución, acumulación y consumo de bienes materiales.

  5. macrosociales en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Martínez Pizarro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Luego de una década de intenso crecimiento de las remesas, cuya magnitud relativa es insoslayable en varios países, se evalúan sus posibles impactos macrosociales a nivel nacional en países de América Latina. Se presenta una breve alusión teórica al fenómeno de las remesas y se sintetizan las inquietudes que rodean a este fenómeno en la región: la estimación de su volumen, los costos de transferencia y las posibilidades para generar externalidades productivas en las áreas de recepción de estos recursos. Además, se pone atención en las asociaciones de migrantes que envían remesas colectivamente. Después se examinan sus impactos macrosociales contrastados con información empírica disponible sobre la pobreza, la distribución del ingreso y el gasto social en países seleccionados. Al hablar de “migración”, “remesas” y “desarrollo” conviene examinar científicamente esas relaciones con el bienestar y no únicamente emplear una visión optimista en función de su aumento y la magnitud absoluta y relativa que han alcanzado

  6. The environmental behaviour of polonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaneuf, M.; Twining, J.; )

    2013-01-01

    In view of the importance of 210 Po as a dose contributor, the IAEA is completing a second specific Technical Reports Series document, entitled 'The Environmental Behaviour of Polonium'. This document covers the behaviour of polonium in terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments, and provides up-to-date information on key transfer processes, concepts and models that have been found to be important in radiological assessments for both humans and non-human biota. Additionally, applications of Po isotopes to environmental issues are discussed in order to alert readers to studies that use Po isotopes as tracers of environmental processes

  7. Falla ovárica precoz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pacheco

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La falla ovárica precoz es una amenorrea secundaria que se presenta en una mujer antes de los 40 años, que conlleva a hipoestrogenismo, infertilidad y las consecuencias de la menopausia prematura, como osteoporosis, enfermedad cardiovascular, trastornos neurovegetativos, entre otros. Se presenta agotamiento folicular, por dotación insuficiente de folículos o destrucción acelerada de los ovocitos. Las causas son varias, pero predominan las genéticas, autoinmunes y las iatrogénicas. Entre las causas genéticas, son frecuentes las deleciones Xq y Xp, las translocaciones, aberraciones numéricas (47,XXX, 45,X0, premutaciones de X frágil, entre otros. Entre las enfermedades autoinmunes son de importancia la insuficiencia poliglandular tipo I y II. Las iatrogenias pueden ser quirúrgicas en ovarios o trompas y, con la presencia del cáncer de mama en mujeres jóvenes, el tratamiento oncológico puede destruir las células germinales, por lo que hoy se sugiere utilizar técnicas de preservación de la función ovárica y de la fertilidad. En el manejo de la falla ovárica precoz, una vez determinada la causa, se sugiere el uso de terapia estrogénica, aunque no se ha hecho investigación en el tipo de hormona a utilizar, dosis y consecuencias a largo plazo. Tener presente la prevención y manejo de la osteoporosis y la enfermedad cardiovascular. Con relación a la infertilidad, se está realizando criopreservación de embriones y ovocitos para autodonación, así como criopreservación de tejido ovárico cortical para autotrasplante posterior, con éxitos y limitaciones. Los agonistas de GnRH podrían actuar en proteger los ovarios en casos de quimioterapia. Se observa con atención la terapia génica experimental en casos de falla ovárica precoz.

  8. Outlines of environmental Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzwedel, J.

    1982-01-01

    In this omnibus, ten members of the working group for environmental law attempt to present the respective fields of environmental law in a consistent context, and to show the autonomy of each subject-matter as well as their interdependence and interrelationships. In the long run, the complexity of basic facts of natural science, technology and that of practical execution will require subject-specific penetration and application. Relationships between systems have to be realized to an increasing extent. Structures of law and administration have to be harmonized, and statements on the environmental impact of projects have to be made possible on the whole. Fundamental issues of environmental law are dealt with in the chapters entitled 'Concept and levels of applications of environmental law' and 'Environmental law in general'. The international, supranational and constitutional conditions given in advance of any environmental legislation increasingly gaining in importance are presented in the chapter on 'International environmental law', 'Basics of European Law' and on 'Constitutional Fundamentals'. The necessity of interdisciplinary cooperation becomes evident in those contributions concerning individual fields of environmental law. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Environmental and Medical Sciences Division progress report January - December 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, J.E.

    1976-07-01

    The activities of the AERE Environmental and Medical Sciences Division for January to December 1975 are reported under sections entitled: introduction; inhalation toxicology and radionuclide analysis; whole body counting; radiation physics; environmental analysis, atmospheric pollution; medical; chemical analysis group; publications. (U.K.)

  10. Overworked and underpaid: on the nature of gender differences in personal entitlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, B; McFarlin, D B; Gagnon, D

    1984-12-01

    This research investigated gender differences in feelings of personal entitlement with respect to monetary payment for work performed. Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that women's internal standards of fair pay for their work are lower than men's and to examine possible causes of this difference. In Experiment 1, men and women were asked to pay themselves in a private situation what they thought was fair pay for a fixed amount of work. Social comparison information was varied. As predicted, women paid themselves less money than men in the absence, but not the presence, of social comparison information. In Experiment 2, men and women were asked to do as much work as they thought was fair for a fixed, prepaid, amount of money. Subjects believed that their work was either monitored or unmonitored. Women worked significantly longer, did more work, and did more correct work than men in both public and private work settings. Furthermore, women, but not men, worked longer when they believed their work was monitored than when they believed it was unmonitored. Possible explanations for these gender differences are discussed.

  11. Possible administrative structures and procedures (for implementing a tradeable entitlement approach to controlling global warming)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietenberg, T.; Victor, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was opened for signature at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held at Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. By August 1994, it had been signed by representatives of some 166 countries; with 93 ratifications. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000 was specified as a voluntary target within the Convention. Making this target mandatory was originally supported by the European Union, Japan and most other countries, but opposed by the United States. Following the change of administrations, however, the new United States President announced his support for both the concept of holding emissions at their 1990 levels and the deadline for achieving that target. Limiting greenhouse gas emissions to specific levels now appears to be an internationally recognized objective. In this paper we examine how to implement a tradeable entitlements system for greenhouse-gas emissions, using the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as our point of departure. Using this particular point of departure establishes certain parameters of our inquiry. Currently no mandatory targets for emission reductions have been accepted by the participating States. Furthermore, even the stabilization goal, to the extent it is a factor at all, will be a factor only for the industrialized countries

  12. POLITENESS PRINCIPLE ANALYSIS IN CARTOON MOVIE ENTITLED STAND BY ME DORAEMON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Mulyono

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the use of politeness principle in cartoon movie entitled “Stand By Me Doraemon”. It aims at giving a description on the use of politeness principle in this movie so that this is the source of data as well. The data are collected by note taking technique and then analyzed descriptively. After analyzing the data, the researcher finds the use of politeness principle in the movie script. They are utterances of the use of politeness principle covering the kinds of maxim in politeness principle. The utterances covey the use of tact maxim, generosity maxim, approbation maxim, modesty maxim, agreement maxim, and sympathy maxim. Then, it focused also in politeness scale such as formality scale, hesitancy scale, and equality scale. The finding result showed that there are 25 politeness principle found in cartoon movie “Stand By Me Doraemon”. 1 tact maxim, 3 generosity maxim, 6 approbation maxim, 1 modesty maxim, 2 agreement maxim, 3 sympathy maxim, 2 formality scale, 4 hesitancy scale, and 3 equality scale. Approbation maxim is the maxim of the most numerous in the movie. This is because the characters in this film seek to avoid conflict and create an environment that is comfortable in communication.   Key words: politeness principle, cartoon movie, utterance, maxim, scale.

  13. 45 CFR 506.18 - Entitlement of survivors to award in case of death of prisoner of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of prisoner of war. 506.18 Section 506.18 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare..., ADMINISTRATION, AND PAYMENT OF CLAIMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WAR CLAIMS ACT OF 1948, AS AMENDED ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPENSATION Prisoners of War § 506.18 Entitlement of survivors to award in case of death of...

  14. 20 CFR 222.53 - When a legally adopted child is dependent-child adopted after entitlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When a legally adopted child is dependent-child adopted after entitlement. 222.53 Section 222.53 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Child Support and Dependency § 222.53 When...

  15. 20 CFR 222.54 - When a legally adopted child is dependent-grandchild or stepgrandchild adopted after entitlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When a legally adopted child is dependent-grandchild or stepgrandchild adopted after entitlement. 222.54 Section 222.54 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Child Support and...

  16. 20 CFR 404.340 - How do I become entitled to mother's or father's benefits as a surviving divorced spouse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... described in § 404.345 or you were deemed to be validly married as described in § 404.346 but the marriage... not entitled to widow's or widower's benefits, or to an old-age benefit that is equal to or larger...

  17. 12 CFR 617.7100 - Who must make and who is entitled to receive an effective interest rate disclosure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... effective interest rate disclosure? 617.7100 Section 617.7100 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM BORROWER RIGHTS Disclosure of Effective Interest Rates § 617.7100 Who must make and who is entitled to receive an effective interest rate disclosure? (a) A qualified lender must make the...

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Sexual Entitlement and Self-Efficacy among Young Women and Men: Gender Differences and Associations with Age and Sexual Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Hewitt-Stubbs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many scholars have called for an increased focus on positive aspects of sexual health and sexuality. Using a longitudinal design with two assessments, we investigated patterns of entitlement to sexual partner pleasure and self-efficacy to achieve sexual pleasure among 295 young men and women aged 17–25 years attending one Australian university. We also tested whether entitlement and efficacy differed by gender, and hypothesized that entitlement and efficacy would be higher in older participants and those with more sexual experience. A sense of entitlement to sexual partner pleasure increased significantly over the year of the study, whereas, on average, there was no change in self-efficacy over time. At Time 1 (T1, young women reported more entitlement than young men. Age was positively associated with T1 entitlement, and experience with a wider range of partnered sexual behaviors was concurrently associated with more entitlement and efficacy and was also associated with increased entitlement to partner pleasure and increased self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure at T2 relative to T1. A group with the least amount of sexual experience was particularly low in entitlement and efficacy when compared to groups with a history of coital experience. There was no evidence that any association differed between young men and young women. Limitations of the study include a sample of predominantly middle class, Caucasian students at one university and the possibility that students more interested in sex and relationships, and with more sexual experience, chose to participate.

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Sexual Entitlement and Self-Efficacy among Young Women and Men: Gender Differences and Associations with Age and Sexual Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt-Stubbs, Gillian; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Mastro, Shawna; Boislard, Marie-Aude

    2016-01-01

    Many scholars have called for an increased focus on positive aspects of sexual health and sexuality. Using a longitudinal design with two assessments, we investigated patterns of entitlement to sexual partner pleasure and self-efficacy to achieve sexual pleasure among 295 young men and women aged 17–25 years attending one Australian university. We also tested whether entitlement and efficacy differed by gender, and hypothesized that entitlement and efficacy would be higher in older participants and those with more sexual experience. A sense of entitlement to sexual partner pleasure increased significantly over the year of the study, whereas, on average, there was no change in self-efficacy over time. At Time 1 (T1), young women reported more entitlement than young men. Age was positively associated with T1 entitlement, and experience with a wider range of partnered sexual behaviors was concurrently associated with more entitlement and efficacy and was also associated with increased entitlement to partner pleasure and increased self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure at T2 relative to T1. A group with the least amount of sexual experience was particularly low in entitlement and efficacy when compared to groups with a history of coital experience. There was no evidence that any association differed between young men and young women. Limitations of the study include a sample of predominantly middle class, Caucasian students at one university and the possibility that students more interested in sex and relationships, and with more sexual experience, chose to participate. PMID:26797642

  20. CONSIDERACIONES TEÓRICAS Y EMPÍRICAS ACERCA DE LA FECUNDIDAD ADOLESCENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA CAROLINA SILVA ÁRIAS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo realiza una revisión teórica y empírica acerca de los factores que inciden en la fecundidad adolescente. Entre las variables analizadas se encuentran, el estrato socioeconómico, la jefatura femenina, el nivel educativo, el empleo femenino, el uso de la planificación familiar, el aborto, entre otros. Dentro de la evidencia empírica se encuentra, que para Colombia la tasa de fecundidad adolescente se ha incrementando durante los últimos diez años, alcanzando niveles semejantes a los de los años setenta. Además de este incremento, durante los últimos años se ha producido un aumento en la actividad sexual entre los jóvenes y en el número de madres solteras, mientras que se mantiene constante el uso relativamente bajo de métodos anticonceptivos modernos. Adicionalmente para América Latina y el Caribe se observa un comportamiento heterogéneo entre los niveles y tendencias de la fecundidad adolescente, y en países con un mayor nivel de desarrollo el número de embarazos adolescentes, nacimientos, abortos y enfermedades de transmisión sexual han sido bajas con excepción de Estados Unidos.

  1. Bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal en Costa Rica.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime García

    2016-01-01

    El presente artículo cita los nombres, ordenados por su principal acción plaguicida, de poco más de un centenar de plantas con algún tipo de potencial bioplaguicida en Costa Rica. Posteriormente se presenta la situación de la oferta y la demanda actual de estos productos, destacando las principales limitaciones que experimenta su desarrollo comercial, así como el potencial que posee el país en esta materia, basado en su extraordinaria biodiversidad. Además, se hace mención de las entidades in...

  2. Costa Rica: movimiento de mujeres y liderazgo

    OpenAIRE

    Torres García, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    En el estudio Costa Rica: movimiento de mujeres y liderazgo se evidencia cómo el movimiento feminista y amplio de mujeres utiliza formas singulares y creativas de liderazgo, en uno de los contextos sociales más igualitarios de la región y en una de las democracias más afianzadas, como lo es la costarricense. Se pone en evidencia el crecimiento de este movimiento y la relación que existe entre los logros legales y la visibilidad de la dimensión y de la persistencia de las diversas formas de vi...

  3. Reconquistando nuestras ciudades históricas

    OpenAIRE

    Bordas Eddy, Marta; Usandizaga Calparsoro, Miguel M.

    2010-01-01

    Se propone una reflexión general sobre la necesidad de recuperar nuestras emblemáticas ciudades históricas y su arquitectura, para que sean devueltas a sus ciudadanos y usuarios. Se detecta una “museización” de dichas ciudades, en las que su carácter histórico y patrimonial parece primar sobre el derecho de libre movilidad y disfrute de las personas, minimizando la vida cotidiana urbana y transformando el entorno en puras imágenes para admirar en la distancia, en una especie de símil de patri...

  4. Falla ovárica precoz

    OpenAIRE

    José Pacheco

    2010-01-01

    La falla ovárica precoz es una amenorrea secundaria que se presenta en una mujer antes de los 40 años, que conlleva a hipoestrogenismo, infertilidad y las consecuencias de la menopausia prematura, como osteoporosis, enfermedad cardiovascular, trastornos neurovegetativos, entre otros. Se presenta agotamiento folicular, por dotación insuficiente de folículos o destrucción acelerada de los ovocitos. Las causas son varias, pero predominan las genéticas, autoinmunes y las iatrogénicas. Entre las c...

  5. Promoting universal financial protection: a policy analysis of universal health coverage in Costa Rica (1940-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Juan Rafael; Muiser, Jorine

    2013-08-21

    's national development strategy which reinforced its political importance and contributed to its longer-term sustainability and that of UHC. UHC has been achieved in Costa Rica because it was supported at the highest political level within a favourable socio-economic and political context. Once achieved, UHC became an entitlement for the population and now enjoys broad public support.

  6. AN ANALYSIS OF FIGURATIVE LANGUAGES USED IN COELHOS’S NOVEL ENTITLED “ALCHEMIST”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisna Dinillah Harya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The title of this study is, “An Analysis of Figurative Languages Used in Paulo Coelho’s novel Entitled “The Alchemist”. The objectives of the study are to describe the types of the figurative language found in the book and to identify the contextual meaning of the figurative language. The method used in collecting the data related to the subject of this research is documentation method because the researcher collected the data from novel. This study was conducted by collecting any relevant data and information about the topic or problem of the study from novels and internet that are available for the analysis. The data collection used the following steps: reading the novel, and then selecting the data that used the types of figurative language. While the steps to analyze the data are identifying the types of figurative language according to Leech, identifying the contextual meaning of the figurative language, and the last is interpreting the data.The result shows that there are 70 sentences that have figurative language. From all the sentences, there are 30 items or 42.9% of simile, 27 items or 38.6% of personification, 12 items or 17.1% of metaphor, and 1 item or 1.4% of hyperbole. It can be indicated that the dominant type of figurative language in the novel is simile. The author uses simile to explain circumstances, to describe the characters, to express emotion of the characters, and to make his writing more vivid and entertaining. It can be concluded that figurative language has important roles in this novel. That‘s why the author used so many sentences that have figurative language in this novel. Using figurative language makes the novel more interesting to read, and helps the readers to imagine the story, the character based on the illustration that the author has already given in the story.

  7. Exclusive purpose: abstinence-only proponents create federal entitlement in welfare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, D

    1997-01-01

    Since 1981, the US government has funded a program promoting sexual abstinence among young people through its Office of Population's Adolescent Family Life Demonstration Grants program (AFLA). A 1983 court challenge which held that AFLA violated the separation of church and state by endorsing a particular religious viewpoint was settled out of court in 1993 with stipulations that AFLA-funded sexuality education must not include religious references, must be medically accurate, must respect the principle of self-determination of teenagers regarding contraceptive referrals, and must not be implemented on church property. Critics continue to charge that AFLA's abstinence-only programs have failed to receive proper evaluation. While AFLA has no broad-based support, it is backed by the same small group of Congressional proponents who are attempting to promote broad-scale, federally-funded abstinence-only programs. Thus, the August 1996 welfare reform legislation represents the broadest attack on the provision of comprehensive sexuality education in the US. While opponents of sexuality education could not restrict the content of education programs, they could restrict programs through health policy and funding mechanisms. Congress, thus, mandated $50 million a year for 1998-2002 to a matching grant with entitlement status, which was tagged on to final versions of the larger welfare reform bill. The intent of this action was to use federal law to change the social norm of premarital sexual activity. Funds will not go to programs which discuss contraception. Additional problems with the statute include misinformation, ambiguity, and a lack of evaluation requirements. It remains for states to decide whether to accept the restricted funds and for parties on both sides of the issue to continue to lobby for their positions.

  8. (ananas comosus l. en costa rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Brenes-Prendas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconocimiento taxonómico de arvenses y descripción de su manejo, en cuatro fincas productoras de piña (Ananas comosus L. en Costa Rica. El estudio se realizó en el mes de marzo del 2006, en cuatro fincas productoras de piña ubicadas en tres provincias de Costa Rica. Se realizaron levantamientos de arvenses presentes en cada finca; se describen también las prácticas de manejo que se usan para el control de estas arvenses. Se encontraron 58 especies de arvenses distribuidas en 19 familias botánicas. Se analizó el uso de herbicidas y ciclos de aplicación utilizados para el control de malezas y desecación de residuos de cosecha. Se consideró urgente el desarrollo de alternativas para el control de arvenses y el manejo de los residuos de cosecha en piña.

  9. Radiological dosimetry measurements in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, M.; Santos, F.

    2016-07-01

    The main cause of human exposure to artificial radiation corresponds to medical applications, so it is essential to reduce the dose to patients, workers and consequently the entire population [1]. Although there is no dose limit for patients, is necessary to reduce it to a minimum possible while still getting all the necessary diagnostic information, taking economic and social factors into account [2]. Based on this proposal, agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency has been dedicated to providing guidelines levels, whose function is to serve as standards for the optimization of the medical exposure [3]. This research was created as a preliminary survey with the claim of eventually determine the guidance levels in Costa Rica for three different studies of general radiology: Lumbar Spine-AP, Chest - PA and Thoracic Spine - AP (for screens with speeds of 400 and 800), and cranio-caudal study in mammography, applied to Costa Rica's adult population, perform properly in the institutions of Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS).

  10. Gobernanza ambiental en América Latina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro, F.; Hogenboom, B.; Baud, M.

    2015-01-01

    En términos de recursos naturales América Latina es la región más rica del mundo. Las múltiples finalidades de la naturaleza -subsistencia para las comunidades, ingresos para los Estados, commodities para las compañías, y biodiversidad para los conservacionistas- han convertido la gobernanza

  11. Data Set for the manuscript entitled, "Sample Processing Approach for Detection of Ricin in Surface Samples."

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Figure. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Shah, S., S. Kane, A.M. Erler, and T. Alfaro. Sample Processing Approach for Detection of Ricin in...

  12. Support for Conference Entitled "The Role of Neural Plasticity in Chemical Intolerance"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaikh, Rashid

    2000-01-01

    .... Other disorders that overlap with CI, such as Gulf War Syndrome, chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia, were also be discussed. The conference was attended by toxicologists, basic neuroscientists, environmental health professionals and clinicians, including general practitioners and psychiatrists.

  13. 20 CFR 416.986 - Why and when we will find that you are no longer entitled to benefits based on statutory blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... longer entitled to benefits based on statutory blindness. 416.986 Section 416.986 Employees' Benefits... Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.986 Why and when we will find that you are no longer entitled to benefits based on statutory blindness. (a) If your vision does not meet the definition of blindness. If you...

  14. College instruction is not so stress free after all: A qualitative and quantitative study of academic entitlement, uncivil behaviors, and instructor strain and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lixin; Tripp, Thomas M; Hong, Phan Y

    2017-12-01

    The vast majority of today's college students are millennials, who have traits of confidence, tolerance, but also of entitlement and narcissism (Twenge, 2006). Therefore, college instructors face a unique challenge: dealing with the requests from academically entitled students, who have unreasonable expectations of receiving academic success, regardless of performance (Chowning & Campbell, 2009). We conducted two studies to examine whether student academic entitlement would increase instructors' strain and burnout via uncivil behaviors. A qualitative inquiry asked 136 instructors with college-teaching experience to describe types of behaviors entitled students display, their responses to entitled students, and the influence of these interactions on instructors' well-being. Next, a quantitative study with data from 857 college students nested in 34 instructors tested a multilevel mediation model where students' academic entitlement was related to instructor-reported uncivil behaviors, which in turn related to instructors' strain and burnout. Both studies largely support our hypothesis that uncivil behaviors fully mediate the relationship between students' academic entitlement and instructors' strain and burnout. We recommend employing behavioral modification strategies to decrease uncivil behaviors (e.g., class rules regarding uncivil behaviors might be specified in the course syllabus and consistently enforced) because academic entitlement attitudes are largely stable beliefs and thus may be less amenable to modification. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. 38 CFR 3.1000 - Entitlement under 38 U.S.C. 5121 to benefits due and unpaid upon death of a beneficiary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entitlement under 38 U.S.C. 5121 to benefits due and unpaid upon death of a beneficiary. 3.1000 Section 3.1000 Pensions... Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Accrued § 3.1000 Entitlement under 38 U.S.C. 5121 to benefits due and...

  16. Project of Carbon Capture in Small and Medium Farms in the Brunca Region, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Navarrete

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM of the Kyoto Protocol, allows the non Annex 1 countries to receive projects that contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and sustainable development in developing countries. The CDM, since its inception, has issued credits equivalent to 1.434.737.562 tons of CO2, distributed across 7.450 projects around the world, from 15 different sectors. Sectors 14 that allow forestry projects (such as reforestation and afforestation have registered 53 projects to date; 19 of which are in Latin America. Nevertheless, the contribution of this sector currently represents less than 1% of CDM Certificates of Emissions Reduction (CERs issued. In September 2013, through their National Forestry Financing Fund (FONAFIFO, Costa Rica registered their first CDM project with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, after having complied with all the project cycle processes. The project, known as "Carbon Sequestration in Small and Medium Farms, Brunca Region, Costa Rica" was a project executed by FONAFIFO under their Environmental Services Payment Program. This project was developed in Pérez Zeledón, San José, Costa Rica in partnership with the Cooperative Corporation CoopeAgri RL. The total goal of the project is to reduce the greenhouse gas emission by 176,050 ton of CO2-e, in a period of 20 years and commercialize the CERs in the regulated carbon market.

  17. A REVIEW OF ENGLISH TEXTBOOK ENTITLED "SKILLFUL: READING AND WRITING, STUDENT'S BOOK 1" BY DAVID BOHLKE AND DOROTHY ZEMACH

    OpenAIRE

    Thunyalak Polsuk; Nutprapha K. Dennis, Ph.D

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the usefulness of a commercial textbook entitle “Skillful: Reading & Writing, Student’s Book 1”, written by David Bohlke with Dorothy E. Zemach as a series consultant, published by Macmillan publisher. The study also explores the appropriateness for considering to teaching university EFL students. The result of this study assists English teachers in choosing textbooks which will be most appropriate to the learners at various level to develop their reading and writi...

  18. The Search for Value and Meaning in the Cocoa Supply Chain in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Sills

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative interviews with participants in the cocoa (Theobroma cacao supply chain in Costa Rica and the United States were conducted and supplemented with an analysis of the marketing literature to examine the prospects of organic and Fairtrade certification for enhancing environmentally and socially responsible trade of cocoa from Costa Rica. Respondents were familiar with both systems, and most had traded at least organic cocoa for some period. However, most individuals said that they were seeking better product differentiation and marketing than has been achieved under the organic and Fairtrade systems. Many suggested that more direct recognition of individual growers and the unique value of their cocoa throughout the production chain would be more helpful than certification for small companies in the cocoa supply chain. These findings suggest new marketing techniques that convey an integration of meaning into the cocoa and chocolate supply chain as a differentiation strategy. This involves integration of the story of producers’ commitment and dedication; shared producer and consumer values of social and environmental responsibility; and personal relationships between producers and consumers. This marketing approach could enhance the ability of smaller companies to successfully vie with their larger competitors and to produce cocoa in a more environmentally and socially acceptable manner.

  19. Transfer of single farm payment entitlements to farm successors: impact on structural change and rental prices in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Mack

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of tradable and non-tradable single farm payment (SFP entitlements for farm successors on structural change and the lease market. Using the example of Swiss agriculture, the effects on rental-price trends and farm-exit rates are investigated. An ex-ante normative impact analysis is performed with the agent-based agricultural-sector model SWISSland, which simulates structural change processes and income trends in Swiss agriculture over a period of up to 15 years. A land market implemented at municipality level simulates the plot-by-plot leasing of land to surrounding neighbouring agents that is common in Switzerland. Allocation of plots to tenants as well as lease pricing is modelled taking into account the farm-specific land rents. The results show that personalised SFP entitlements which could not be transferred to a farm successor not only cause an intensification of structural change, but would also thus lead to a substantial reduction in rental prices. SFP entitlements which were successfully transferred to farm successors have only a slight impact on structural change and the rental prices of arable land. Only for grassland in the mountain region does a stronger shift result in a significant reduction in rental prices.

  20. Entitlement to vote in the Cantons of Geneva and Vaud and eligibility for election in the Canton of Vaud

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN that some international civil servants and members of their families are henceforth entitled to vote on commune matters in the Canton of Geneva and are entitled to vote and are eligible for election at commune level in the Canton of Vaud. For further information, in particular regarding the special procedure to be followed to apply to exercise this entitlement, you are invited to consult the information published, in French only, on the Swiss Mission's website: http://www.dfae.admin.ch/eda/fr/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/manvot/manvt1.html (for the Canton of Geneva), http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/fr/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/manvot/manvt2.html (for the Canton of Vaud), In this regard, you are reminded that: Under Articles I 3.05 and I 3.07 of the Staff Rules, a member of the personnel 'may take part, outside the Organization, in the public and political life of a State in accordance with the relevant legislation' and 'express his own person...

  1. Linking educational tourism and ecotourism: development and implementation of a sustainable eco-language immersion in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Bouverat, Céline; Matos-Wasem, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    Increased environmental and social awareness lead to a growing demand for sustainable tourism products. At the same time, intellectual activities with a high learning effect have greatly gained in importance. Costa Rica has been playing an important role in the implementation of sustainable tourism infrastructure and practices. Thanks to its high biodiversity it has been successful in attracting eco-tourists from all over the globe. Offering a point of difference with its clear Spanish a...

  2. Retos para la agricultura en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Arias M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Retos para la agricultura en Costa Rica es un análisis crítico del desarrollo agrícola de Costa Rica de los últimos 25 años. La diversificación agrícola que promovió Costa Rica en la década de los ochenta, permitió ampliar la oferta exportable y reducir la vulnerabilidad de la dependencia económica de productos tradicionales, como café y banano. Los retos de la economía global y el establecimiento de tratados comerciales con muchos países, hacen necesario que el país promueva en el sector agrícola la exportación con mayor valor agregado, para lo cual es necesario una modernización y reconversión productiva, ya que el modelo actual está agotado. Debemos mejorar sustancialmente los bienes y servicios que ofrecemos; para este propósito, algunos aspectos como la imagen de marca del país con tradición democrática, respeto a los derechos laborales, así como las buenas prácticas de manejo ambiental, deben publicitarse. Como una herramienta clave para la incorporación de mayor valor agregado a nuestra producción agrícola, debemos promover la inversión en investigación y desarrollo, que históricamente ha sido escasa (0,4% del PIB. En vista de que el Estado Costarricense ha demostrado una incapacidad crónica para impulsar la ciencia y la tecnología como una herramienta para nuestro desarrollo, se propone un estímulo a la inversión privada y el fortalecimiento de una alianza con el Estado y las universidades. Se analiza la conveniencia del fortalecimiento de la autosuficiencia alimentaria y de que las empresas pequeñas y medianas jueguen un papel más activo en la agro-exportación. Respecto a los tratados comerciales que se han venido negociando, se considera la conveniencia para el país, ya que son instrumentos para integrar nuestro quehacer económico a nivel mundial, y nuestro deber es el de luchar para que el sector agropecuario tenga oportunidad de subsistir competitivamente según esas nuevas reglas y

  3. Los insectos invasores de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Se presenta una recopilación preliminar de los insectos introducidos en Costa Rica. Se estima que existen al menos 300 especies exóticas. Los medios más comunes de introducción son: suelo y hojarasca, desechos, madera, granos almacenados, plantas, vertebrados y otros insectos. Se nota la escasez de especies exóticas entre los insectos acuáticos y ciertos grupos de insectos fitófagos (Auchenorrhyncha, Heteroptera, Chrysomelidae). Los insectos introducidos pueden tener un impacto negativo o pos...

  4. Study of solar potential in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    A evaluation on the research of solar radiation in Costa Rica is performed to determine the potential as an energy source and learn how it is distributed spatially and temporally. The calculation and mapping of contours of the global solar radiation in the country are focused. Experimental values and predicted global solar radiation has been used in the contouring. The highest values were observed in the northern section of the Pacific slope and west of the Valle Central; the north and along the Caribbean coast have the lowest values. Quantitative data are not limited to the direct use of solar energy for power generation, also for other activities such as meteorological sciences, agriculture, irrigation and forest architecture. This information is important for specialists, teachers and professionals interested in harnessing solar energy. (author) [es

  5. La apertura comercial en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Bustos Alvarado

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan los diferentes modelos contemporáneos implementados en Costa Rica, cuyo objetivo ha sido el de generar un desarrollo hacia fuera, es decir, basado en un fuerte impulso a las exportaciones y a la búsqueda de nuevos mercados. Todas estas medidas tomadas por las distintas administraciones, unas con más convicción que otras, han desembocado en un proceso de apertura comercial que ha quedado plasmado en la negociación y firma de diferentes tratados de libre comercio con países y regiones, como una manera de ampliar el mercado y de esta forma acelerar el desarrollo económico del País.

  6. El viraje de Sudamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Katz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Las rebeliones populares modificaron las relaciones de fuerza en Sudamérica. Hubo mejoras sociales, conquistas democráticas y frenos a la agresión imperial. Pero se acentuó el extractivismo exportador y la balcanización comercial. El progresismo quedó afectado por ensayos neo-desarrollistas que no lograron canalizar las rentas agro-exportadoras hacia actividades productivas. La derecha avanza ahora en la región ocultando los magros resultados de sus gobiernos. La preeminencia de la primarización no uniformó los procesos políticos de la última década. El término “pos-liberal” oscurece las continuidades con la etapa precedente

  7. Uses of solar energy in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandwani, Shyam S. [Laboratorio de Energia Solar, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Heredia, P.O. Box 728, 3000 Heredia (Costa Rica)

    2006-04-15

    Costa Rica, a small country with the population of 4 million, and without military and hence no military expenditure, promotes the use of renewable sources like Hydro, Mini hydro, Wind, Geothermal and Sun, mainly for electricity generation. Almost 90% of the electricity is produced from these renewable sources. Through different policies and some incentives, etc., private generation is also encouraged and there are some decentralized systems like solar water heaters, swimming pool heaters, cookers, dryers and stills and also photo voltaic panels. The last ones are mostly for the population where there is no electric grid. Depending on the province, 91-99.5% of the population is electrified. Government also encourages the use of energy saving devices specially at domestic and industrial sector. In addition to provide these data, some of the solar energy systems are mentioned. [Author].

  8. Spatial and temporal variation in soil CO2 efflux in an old-growth neotropical rain forest, LA Selva, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luitgard Schwendenmann; Edzo Veldkamp; Tania Brenes; Joseph J. O' Brien; Jens Mackensen

    2003-01-01

    Our objectives were to quantify and compare soil CO2, efflux of two doininant soil types in an old-growth neotropical rain forest in the Atlantic zone of Costa Rica, and to evaluate the control of environmental Factors on CO2, release. We measured soil CO2 efflux from eight permanent soil chamhers on...

  9. Modeling environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.E.; McDonald, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The eight book chapters demonstrate the link between the physical models of the environment and the policy analysis in support of policy making. Each chapter addresses an environmental policy issue using a quantitative modeling approach. The volume addresses three general areas of environmental policy - non-point source pollution in the agricultural sector, pollution generated in the extractive industries, and transboundary pollutants from burning fossil fuels. The book concludes by discussing the modeling efforts and the use of mathematical models in general. Chapters are entitled: modeling environmental policy: an introduction; modeling nonpoint source pollution in an integrated system (agri-ecological); modeling environmental and trade policy linkages: the case of EU and US agriculture; modeling ecosystem constraints in the Clean Water Act: a case study in Clearwater National Forest (subject to discharge from metal mining waste); costs and benefits of coke oven emission controls; modeling equilibria and risk under global environmental constraints (discussing energy and environmental interrelations); relative contribution of the enhanced greenhouse effect on the coastal changes in Louisiana; and the use of mathematical models in policy evaluations: comments. The paper on coke area emission controls has been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM

  10. Projects of electrical energy saving in Costa Rica; Proyectos de ahorro de energia electrica en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinchilla, Henry [Compania Nacional de Luz y Fuerza, S.A., San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1999-07-01

    Costa Rica, located in Central America, is a highly electrified country, more of the 93.6% of the population, has access to the electricity, and its load curve presents two important demand peaks, one of them near noon and another one at sundown, additionally, the growth of this service is important, reason why it has been oriented to the establishment of actions focussed to the better use of the energy, in special of the electricity. The following notes are intended to show briefly the origin of the actions oriented to the energy saving, identifying the main projects that marked an important track in the national development in this sense, as well as a sample of some of the projects which have permitted to maintain throughout the last decade of this century a permanent attitude on the promotion and education of the saving and handling of the energy demand, specially of electricity, of such a way as to a suitable contribution is achieved towards the industrial competitiveness, human comfort and environmental protection. [Spanish] Costa Rica, ubicado en la America Central, es un pais altamente electrificado, mas del 93.6% de la poblacion, tiene acceso a la electricidad, y su curva de carga presenta dos importantes picos de demanda uno cercano al medio dia y otro al ocultarse el sol, junto a ello el crecimiento este servicio es importante, por lo que se ha abocado a establecer acciones que se orientan al mejor uso de la energia, en especial de la electricidad. En las siguientes notas se trata de mostrar en forma breve el origen de las acciones orientadas al ahorro de energia, identificando los principales proyectos que marcaron una huella importante en el rumbo nacional en este sentido, asi como una muestra de algunos de los proyectos que han permitido mantener a lo largo de la ultima decada de este siglo una permanente actitud de la promocion y ensenanza del ahorro y manejo de la demanda de energia, en especial de la electricidad, de tal forma que se logre con ello

  11. An Entitlement Approach to Address the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, T. U.; Fishman, R.; Modi, V.; Lall, U.

    2008-12-01

    prices and rainfall patterns due to climate change only enhance these concerns. Given these deficiencies, any corrective strategy should at least target the following long-term policy goals: a) increase the efficiency of rural electricity consumption in terms of grain production and rural income, b) providing the farmers greater flexibility with timely, high quality energy and more efficient means of production, c) enable proper energy accounting on the use side so as to recover costs at sufficient levels for the SEBs and thus enable long-term investments in energy infrastructure and d) secure and eventually increase agricultural production without depleting groundwater resources over the long run. We will present an entitlement approach with which the above issues can be addressed in the future. A case study example from the semi-arid Telangana Region in Andhra Pradesh will be discussed in depth and preliminary results shown.

  12. CRECIMIENTO ECONÓMICO, DESIGUALDAD SOCIAL Y MEDIO AMBIENTE: EVIDENCIA EMPÍRICA PARA AMÉRICA LATINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Correa Restrepo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo realizar un análisis económico de la validez de la hipótesis de la Curva Ambiental de Kuznets para América Latina. Adicionalmente, busca comprobar empíricamente la hipótesis según la cual las desigualdades socioeconómicas son factores determinantes en la explicación de la calidad ambiental. Los resultados encontrados en este trabajo permiten concluir que es necesario revaluar la hipótesis de la curva ambiental de Kuznets no sólo en función de los problemas metodológicos, sino también con respecto a la conceptualización del término medio ambiente. Igualmente, reconociendo que la Curva Ambiental de Kuznets sólo se restringe a la relación entre contaminación y crecimiento económico, se concluye que los países de la región deben esforzarse en implementar políticas públicas que logren hacer más corto el tiempo para alcanzar el punto umbral necesario.This article aims at carrying out an economic analysis over the validity of the hypothesis of Kuznets' Environmental Curve for Latin America. Furthermore, it aims at empirically verifying the hypothesis that social and economical inequalities are determining factors in the explanation of the environmental quality. The outcome of the research allows us to conclude that it is necessary to re-evaluate the hypothesis of Kuznets' Environmental Curve not only based upon the methodological problems, but also in regards to the conceptualization of the Environment. Also, recognizing that Kuznets' Environmental Curve is only restricted to the relation between pollution and economical growth, this work concludes that the countries of the region must make an effort to implement public policies that would save time to reach the necessary threshold point.

  13. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: thomas.rainwater@tiehh.ttu.edu; Wu, Ted H. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Yu Lu [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Reynolds, Kevin D. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Coimbatore, Gopal [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Barr, Brady [National Geographic Channel, 1145 17th St. NW Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States); Cobb, George P. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations.

  14. Metals and organochlorine pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainwater, Thomas R.; Wu, Ted H.; Finger, Adam G.; Canas, Jaclyn E.; Yu Lu; Reynolds, Kevin D.; Coimbatore, Gopal; Barr, Brady; Platt, Steven G.; Cobb, George P.; Anderson, Todd A.; McMurry, Scott T.

    2007-01-01

    Despite high animal diversity in the Neotropics and the largely unregulated use and disposal of pesticides and industrial chemicals in Central America, few data exist regarding accumulation of environmental contaminants in Central American wildlife. In this study we examined accumulation of metals and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in caudal scutes of crocodiles from Belize and Costa Rica. Scutes from Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from two sites in northern Belize were analyzed for metals, and scutes from American crocodiles (C. acutus) from one site in Costa Rica were analyzed for metals and OC pesticides. All scutes (n = 25; one scute from each of 25 individuals) contained multiple contaminants. Mercury was the predominant metal detected, occurring in all scutes examined from both species. Other metals detected include cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. American crocodile scutes from Costa Rica contained multiple OC pesticides, including endrin, methoxychlor, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT, all of which occurred in 100% of scutes analyzed (n = 6). Mean metal and OC concentrations varied in relation to those previously reported in crocodilian scutes from other localities in North, Central, and South America. OC concentrations in American crocodile scutes were generally higher than those previously reported for other Costa Rican wildlife. Currently, caudal scutes may serve as general, non-lethal indicators of contaminant accumulation in crocodilians and their areas of occurrence. However, a better understanding of the relationships between pollutant concentrations in scutes, internal tissues, and environmental matrices at sample collection sites are needed to improve the utility of scutes in future ecotoxicological investigations

  15. EVALUACIÓN DEL DESEMPEÑO DOCENTE DESDE COMPETENCIAS GENÉRICAS EN LA UNIVERSIDAD DE COSTA RICA

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Murillo Sancho

    2009-01-01

    Se expone en este escrito el tema de la evaluación docente con base en un perfil competencias genéricas y la construcción de un instrumento para tal fin. El perfil de competencias genéricas para el profesorado de la Universidad de Costa Rica, es tomado como fundamento para la discusión en el escrito y para la construcción del cuestionario. La conceptualización del proceso de elaboración es expuesta a partir de un mapa conceptual y del desglose de sus puntos fundamentales; se emplean aquí dist...

  16. bajo el bosque en Costa Rica. 1980-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ocampo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La ipecacuana o raicilla, hierba nativa de América, es la única planta medicinal del trópico húmedo de Costa Rica cultivada bajo el bosque. Es cultivada en la región Huetar Norte, limítrofe con Nicaragua; la raíz seca de ipecacuana se ha comercializado en Costa Rica como materia prima para la industria farmacéutica internacional desde principios del siglo XX. De acuerdo con las estadísticas oficiales, las exportaciones de raicilla desde Costa Rica en los últimos 20 años han significado un promedio de 64 t año-1. Este trabajo resume actividades relacionadas con la descripción y cultivo de la planta, así como algunos de los aspectos agroecológicos de su cultivo.

  17. Nomenclatural problems among Thysanoptera (Insecta of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Goldarazena

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We present data to argue that several recent papers on the Thysanoptera of Costa Rica are affected by unsatisfactory technical procedures, including failure to recognize intraspecific structural variation. Fourteen new synonyms are recognized for Costa Rica Thysanoptera, nine generic and five specific. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 961-968. Epub 2008 June 30.Presentamos datos para apoyar nuestro argumento de que varios artículos recientes sobre los Thysanoptera de Costa Rica se han visto afectados por procedimientos técnicos insatisfactorios, incluyendo el no reconocer la variación estructural intraespecífica. Presentamos nueve sinonimias en los tisanópteros de Costa Rica: nueve a nivel de género y cinco a nivel de especie.

  18. Manual of Inorganic Accustomed to Fertilizers of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Cabezas, E.; Murillo Soto, M.

    2001-01-01

    The manual of inorganic solid fertilizers of Costa Rica presents as first the description of some nutritious characteristics of the main ones, such as functions, content, forms, symptoms of deficiency among others. Some of the chemical physical characteristics of the included materials were used as prime materials. There is also in the Manual a listing of the main sources fertilizers used in Costa Rica, as well as the main processes of production of fertilizers, while they are considered several listings with the products that the different commercial houses have to disposition of the publish. Finally a summary of the imports of fertilizers is made in Costa Rica during the years 1998, 1999 and 2000, to finish with the general listing of all the products fertilizers registered in Costa Rica, under the order N-P 2 O 5 -K 2 O. (Author) [es

  19. Ecotourism and Interpretation in Costa Rica: Parallels and Peregrinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wayne E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the ecotourism industry in Costa Rica and some of the problems faced by its national park system, including megaparks, rapid increase in tourism, and interpretive services. Suggests alternatives for the problems. (MKR)

  20. Biodiversidad marina de Costa Rica: Crustacea: Infraorden Anomura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Vargas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El grupo de los cangrejos anomuros es uno de los mejor conocidos de la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica, pero muy poco conocidos de la costa Caribe. En esta recopilación, basada en la literatura y en las colecciones del Museo de Zoología, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica, informamos de la presencia de 114 especies del Infraorden Anomura en Costa Rica, 20 especies del Caribe, 96 especies del Pacífico, y dos especies presentes en ambas costa. Veintinueve especies son informes nuevos para Costa Rica, 15 del Caribe (75% del total de especies informadas para esa costa y 14 del Pacífica (15% del total de esa costa. La distribución de diez especies es ampliada hasta Costa Rica, siete en el Caribe y tres en el Pacífico. Seis especies son informadas por primera vez para la Isla del Coco, donde además hay cuatro especies endémicas.Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica: Crustacea: Infraorder Anomura. The anomuran crabs are among the best known crustacean groups from the Pacific coast. However, this group is poorly known from the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. In this compilation based on the literature and the collection at the Zoology Museum, Biology School, University of Costa Rica, we report the presence of 114 species of the Infraorder Anomura for Costa Rica, 20 species from the Caribbean, 96 species from the Pacific (two are present on both coasts. Twenty-nine species are new reports for Costa Rica, 15 from the Caribbean coast (74% of the total of species from that coast and 14 from the Pacific (15% of the total from the Pacific. The range of ten species is extended to Costa Rica, siete from the Caribbean and three from the Pacific. Six species are reported for the first time from Cocos Island, where there are also four endemic species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 461-488. Epub 2006 Jun 01.

  1. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This perspective view shows the Caribbean coastal plain of Costa Rica, with the Cordillera Central rising in the background and the Pacific Ocean in the distance. The prominent river in the center of the image is the Rio Sucio, which merges with the Rio Sarapiqui at the bottom of the image and eventually joins with Rio San Juan on the Nicaragua border.Like much of Central America, Costa Rica is generally cloud covered so very little satellite imagery is available. The ability of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) instrument to penetrate clouds and make three-dimensional measurements will allow generation of the first complete high-resolution topographic map of the entire region. These data were used to generate the image.This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using elevation data from SRTM and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, S.D.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices

  2. The environmental impact statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. Volume 1, Appendices A-F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This volume contains appendices to the named document. The Appendices are entitled (A) Description of Projects and Activities, (2) Federal Register Notice, (C) Relevant Regulatory Requirements, (D) Distribution Lists, (E) Impact Assessment Methods, and (F) Project-Specific Environmental Analysis

  3. Escuela Normal de Costa Rica: Historia y legado

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal-Jiménez, Vivian; Ruiz-Badilla, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    On the centennial of the Escuela Normal (Normal School) of Costa Rica, this paper discusses its role and its legacy in teacher training. It is structured in three parts. Firstly, it presents a brief historical background of the origin and profile of normal schools in various parts of the world. Secondly, it describes the development of the Escuela Normal (Normal School) in Costa Rica, refers to various personalities and significant elements that have set the course and prestige of the institu...

  4. Factors Influencing Attendance and Success on the Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment Associate Membership Certificate Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Fiona; Oltean-Dumbrava, Crina; Tizaoui, Chedly; Newbury, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment (IEMA) Associate Certificate in Environmental Management course is designed to raise the professional competence of aspiring and existing environmental practitioners. Successful completion entitles the individual to become an associate IEMA member. A dedicated evaluation model was developed…

  5. 78 FR 48156 - Update to An Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in the United States for the Years... document entitled, Update to An Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in... the report: An Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in the United...

  6. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  7. Bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal en Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime García

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo cita los nombres, ordenados por su principal acción plaguicida, de poco más de un centenar de plantas con algún tipo de potencial bioplaguicida en Costa Rica. Posteriormente se presenta la situación de la oferta y la demanda actual de estos productos, destacando las principales limitaciones que experimenta su desarrollo comercial, así como el potencial que posee el país en esta materia, basado en su extraordinaria biodiversidad. Además, se hace mención de las entidades involucradas en esta temática. Finalmente se hacen algunas consideraciones adicionales relacionadas con la toxicidad de estos productos y sobre la importancia de los conocimientos etnobotánicos en esta materia. Entre las especies de plantas que más se mencionan en la bibliografía consultada están Allium sativum, Annona reticulata, Azadirachta indica, Capsicum frutescens, Chenopodium Ambrosiodes, Gliricidia sepium, Quassia amara y Ryania speciosa. Se resalta el hecho de que hasta la fecha, tanto su uso artesanal como su desarrollo comercial son mínimos, en relación con el potencial existente en el país. Con excepción de dos productos, los pocos bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal que se comercializan son importados.

  8. Glaucoma in Costa Rica: Initial approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Chavarría-Soley

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is the second most frequent cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Genetic factors have been implicated in the development of the disease. So far six loci (GLC1A-GLC1F and two genes (TIGR/MYOC and OPTN are involved in the development of juvenile (JOAG and adult onset or chronic primary open angle glaucoma (COAG, while two loci (GLC3A,GLC3B and one gene (CYP1B1 are known for primary congenital glaucoma (PCG. Here we summarize the results of the first genetic studies of glaucoma in Costa Rica. Nine families: 1 with JOAG, 1 with PCG and 7 with COAG were screened for mutations at the known genes. A10 bp duplication, 1546-1555dupTCATGCCACC, at the CYP1B1 gene, causes, in homozygous state, glaucoma in the consanguineous PCG family. This mutation has been found in different countries and generates an early stop codon that termitates protein synthesis 140 amino acids earlier than the normal allele. In exon 1 of the TIGR/MYOC the innocuous Arg76Lys variant was found in two of the COAG families. In the OPTN gene two variants in the coding region (Thr34Thr, Met 98Lys and 7 intronic changes were found in other Costa Rican glaucoma patients. One of the COAG families was chosen for a genome scan with 379 microsatellite markers and linkage analysis. LOD scores "suggestive" of linkage were obtained for several chromosomal regions. Evidence indicates that hereditary glaucoma in Costa Rica is highly heterogeneous and that further studies in the country will probably disclose some up to now unknown genes responsible for the disease. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 507-520. Epub 2004 Dic 15.El glaucoma es la segunda causa de ceguera irreversible en el mundo. El componente genético de algunos de los distintos tipos ha sido demostrado: seis loci (GLC1A-GLC1F y dos genes (TIGR/MYOC y OPTN se conocen, hasta ahora, como responsables de la aparición de glaucomas primarios de ángulo abierto tanto del tipo juvenil (JOAG como de l tipo de adultos (COAG. Además, dos

  9. Radiological dosimetry measurements in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    León, M., E-mail: mauisoiso@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica (Costa Rica); Santos, F., E-mail: fsantosg@gmail.com [Departamento de Control de Calidad y Protección Radiológica, Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS) (Costa Rica)

    2016-07-07

    The main cause of human exposure to artificial radiation corresponds to medical applications, so it is essential to reduce the dose to patients, workers and consequently the entire population [1]. Although there is no dose limit for patients, is necessary to reduce it to a minimum possible while still getting all the necessary diagnostic information, taking economic and social factors into account [2]. Based on this proposal, agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency has been dedicated to providing guidelines levels, whose function is to serve as standards for the optimization of the medical exposure [3]. This research was created as a preliminary survey with the claim of eventually determine the guidance levels in Costa Rica for three different studies of general radiology: Lumbar Spine-AP, Chest - PA and Thoracic Spine - AP (for screens with speeds of 400 and 800), and cranio-caudal study in mammography, applied to Costa Rica’s adult population, perform properly in the institutions of Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS).

  10. [Education, modernity, and fertility in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stycos, J M

    1980-01-01

    In an effort to identify the causal mechanisms involved in the relationship between education and fertility in Costa Rica, all married women who were interviewed in the National Fertility Survey were reinterviewed in 1977-78. Questions on modernity and attitudes toward family size were designed to measure the extent of their influence on fertility. Questions on modernity were grouped into 4 measures of mass communications/information, sex roles, husband's power, and "instrumental activism." The intercorrelation of the 4 measures was enough to justify their use as separate subscales but high enough to permit their combined use as a single measure of modernity. The correlation between the combined total and education was strong and positive at .68, while the correlation between education and the number of live births controlled for age was -.35. Results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that high levels of general information and exposure to mass media are responsible for the positive correlation between education and fertility. A variety of scales were developed to measure the extent to which predispositions toward family size, numerical preference, and desire for additional children were responsible for the relationship between general information and fertility. Modernity and education showed strong negative relationships to predisposition toward family size, moderate negative relationships to size preference, and almost no relationship to the desire for more children.

  11. Radiological dosimetry measurements in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    León, M.; Santos, F.

    2016-01-01

    The main cause of human exposure to artificial radiation corresponds to medical applications, so it is essential to reduce the dose to patients, workers and consequently the entire population [1]. Although there is no dose limit for patients, is necessary to reduce it to a minimum possible while still getting all the necessary diagnostic information, taking economic and social factors into account [2]. Based on this proposal, agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency has been dedicated to providing guidelines levels, whose function is to serve as standards for the optimization of the medical exposure [3]. This research was created as a preliminary survey with the claim of eventually determine the guidance levels in Costa Rica for three different studies of general radiology: Lumbar Spine-AP, Chest - PA and Thoracic Spine - AP (for screens with speeds of 400 and 800), and cranio-caudal study in mammography, applied to Costa Rica’s adult population, perform properly in the institutions of Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS).

  12. Corrugated megathrust revealed offshore from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joel H.; Kluesner, Jared; Silver, Eli A.; Brodsky, Emily E.; Brothers, Daniel; Bangs, Nathan L.; Kirkpatrick, James D.; Wood, Ruby; Okamato, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    Exhumed faults are rough, often exhibiting topographic corrugations oriented in the direction of slip; such features are fundamental to mechanical processes that drive earthquakes and fault evolution. However, our understanding of corrugation genesis remains limited due to a lack of in situ observations at depth, especially at subducting plate boundaries. Here we present three-dimensional seismic reflection data of the Costa Rica subduction zone that image a shallow megathrust fault characterized by corrugated, and chaotic and weakly corrugated topographies. The corrugated surfaces extend from near the trench to several kilometres down-dip, exhibit high reflection amplitudes (consistent with high fluid content/pressure) and trend 11–18° oblique to subduction, suggesting 15 to 25 mm yr−1 of trench-parallel slip partitioning across the plate boundary. The corrugations form along portions of the megathrust with greater cumulative slip and may act as fluid conduits. In contrast, weakly corrugated areas occur adjacent to active plate bending faults where the megathrust has migrated up-section, forming a nascent fault surface. The variations in megathrust roughness imaged here suggest that abandonment and then reestablishment of the megathrust up-section transiently increases fault roughness. Analogous corrugations may exist along significant portions of subduction megathrusts globally.

  13. WEEE Resource Management System in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilliana Abarca-Guerrero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica followed different steps in order to organise and implement a waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE management system. This paper summarises the challenges, successes, and limitations of its implementation. Two phases were needed to set up the system. The first phase created a baseline followed by the designing of a strategy. The second phase promoted a Decree for WEEE management that prohibits discarding WEEE together with household waste, as well as the creation of a National Executive Committee with representatives of importers, consumers, and government, which will establish the quotes and treatment fees, and so on. Another outcome was the development of a strategy for the implementation of WEEE management for the country, the promotion of population awareness about their responsibility for WEEE management, and an example set up for other Latin American countries. This paper draws conclusions from the regulation and notes the required consistency with the existing national waste legislation in order to reduce approval times. Additionally, the importance of the participation of stakeholders representing different electric and electronic equipment (EEE sectors with the purpose of obtaining consensus on agreements is highlighted.

  14. Sustaining life in frontier land. Country report 2: Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott-allen, R

    1993-01-01

    The Community Development Association of the fishing village of Barra del Colorado populated by Blacks embraced the Conservation Strategy for the Sustainable Development of the Plains Tortuguero covering 419,000 hectares of lowland rain forest and wetlands along the Caribbean cost of northern Costa Rica. In 1985 the government established the Barra del Colorado Wildlife Refuge. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) team visited families and identified community problems. This resulted in the establishment of a communal bank; a community fisherman's association to help obtain a boat and fishing gear; assistance to help villagers obtain title to their land; a feasibility study of a public transport link to the rest of the country; new chairs for the school; and weekly instead of monthly visits by a doctor. The Tortuguero Strategy endeavors to establish 147,000 hectares of conservation area including the Tortuguero National Park. 5000 people live in the buffer zone and 132,000 live in the neighboring western area. The strategy strives to reverse deforestation in the buffer zone by restoring forest cover to 80% of the area by 2000. The Strategy has funded the Union of Small Agricultural Producers of the Atlantic to train people in ecotourism, forestry management, and growing and selling medicinal plants. The IUCN evaluated the environmental impact of expanding banana plantations and recommended ameliorative steps which have not been implemented. The preparation of the Tortuguero Strategy started in 1990 in concert with the Natural Resources Ministry, IUCN, and the European Community. A 1992 draft document based on biophysical, socioeconomic, and legal studies is waiting for official approval. Community strategies have been launched in 2 communities, self-sustaining financing is delayed, and a draft law setting up the conservation area awaits Costa Rican legislative authorization. The strategy is for the long term, but the experience of Barra del

  15. Governing atmospheric sinks: the architecture of entitlements in the global commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni Paavola

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article revisits key works on the management of common-pool resources under common property arrangements, in order to elicit a broader notion of collective ownership for analysing institutional arrangements that govern the use of large-scale environmental resources such as biodiversity and atmospheric sinks. The article proposes a model for analysing the institutional design of governance solutions which draws attention to 1 tiers and levels, 2 organisation of generic governance functions, and 3 formulation of specific institutional rules. The article exemplifies these analytical solutions by examining the emerging governance framework for global atmospheric sinks. The article indicates how crucial parts of the institutional framework for governing atmospheric sinks are still missing, a shortcoming which maintains the ‘‘tragedy of the commons’’ in their use. The article suggests that a workable governance solution for global atmospheric sinks has to 1 cap the use of atmospheric sinks; 2 provide for a more equitable benefit sharing; 3 provide for compensation of climate change impacts and assistance for adaptation to climate change impacts; and 4 create institutional solutions for enhancing participation in environmental decisions in order to guarantee progress in and legitimacy of the governance framework.

  16. Informing resource-poor populations and the delivery of entitled health and social services in rural India: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Priyanka; Sehgal, Ashwini R; Riboud, Michelle; Levine, David; Goyal, Madhav

    2007-10-24

    A lack of awareness about entitled health and social services may contribute to poor delivery of such services in developing countries, especially among individuals of low socioeconomic status. To determine the impact of informing resource-poor rural populations about entitled services. Community-based, cluster randomized controlled trial conducted from May 2004 to May 2005 in 105 randomly selected village clusters in Uttar Pradesh state in India. Households (548 intervention and 497 control) were selected by a systematic sampling design, including both low-caste and mid- to high-caste households. Four to 6 public meetings were held in each intervention village cluster to disseminate information on entitled health services, entitled education services, and village governance requirements. No intervention took place in control village clusters. Visits by nurse midwife; prenatal examinations, tetanus vaccinations, and prenatal supplements received by pregnant women; vaccinations received by infants; excess school fees charged; occurrence of village council meetings; and development work in villages. At baseline, there were no significant differences in self-reported delivery of health and social services. After 1 year, intervention villagers reported better delivery of several services compared with control villagers: in a multivariate analysis, 30% more prenatal examinations (95% confidence interval [CI], 17%-43%; P India about entitled services enhanced the delivery of health and social services among both low- and mid- to high-caste households. Interventions that emphasize educating resource-poor populations about entitled services may improve the delivery of such services. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00421291.

  17. Cellular responses to environmental DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the conference entitled Cellular Responses to Environmental DNA Damage held in Banff,Alberta December 1--6, 1991. The conference addresses various aspects of DNA repair in sessions titled DNA repair; Basic Mechanisms; Lesions; Systems; Inducible Responses; Mutagenesis; Human Population Response Heterogeneity; Intragenomic DNA Repair Heterogeneity; DNA Repair Gene Cloning; Aging; Human Genetic Disease; and Carcinogenesis. Individual papers are represented as abstracts of about one page in length.

  18. Matrix of occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents and pesticides in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Jorge; Partanen, Timo; Wesseling, Catharina; Chaverri, Fabio; Monge, Patricia; Ruepert, Clemens; Guardado, Jorge; Aragon, Aurora; Kauppinen, Timo

    2004-01-01

    The European data system CAREX converts national numbers of workers in 55 sectors and estimated proportions of workers exposed to carcinogenic agents into numbers of workers exposed to each agent. CAREX is applied and modified in Costa Rica (TICAREX) for the first time outside Europe. 27 carcinogenic agents and 7 groups of pesticides were included. Numbers of exposed were estimated separately for men and women. The most frequent agents in the 1.3 million labor force of Costa Rica were solar radiation (333,000 workers); diesel engine emissions (278,000); paraquat and diquat (175,000); environmental tobacco smoke (71,000); chromium (VI) compounds (55,000); benzene (52,000); mancozeb, maneb and zineb (49,000); chlorothalonil (38,000); wood dust (32,000); silica dust (27,000); benomyl (19,000); lead and its inorganic compounds (19,000); tetrachloroethylene (18,000); and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (17,000). Owing to the different occupational distribution between the genders, formaldehyde, radon and methylene chloride were more frequent than pesticides, chromium (VI), wood dust, and silica dust in women. Agriculture, construction, personal and domestic services, land and water transport and allied services, pottery and similar industries, manufacture of wood products, mining, forestry, fishing, manufacture of electric products, and bars and restaurants were sectors with frequent exposures. Substantial reduction of occupational and environmental exposures to these agents would improve considerably public and occupational health. Reduction of occupational exposures is usually also followed by improvement of environmental quality. Monitoring of exposures and health of workers and the general public is essential in the control of environmental contamination and human exposures. This report presents details of the exposures matrix, which is the basis of TICAREX. (author) [es

  19. Pura Vida: Teacher Experiences in a Science Education Study Abroad Course in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Stephanie Rae

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of classroom teachers who participated in a science-focused study abroad during their time as a preservice teacher and to explore how they are using their study abroad experiences in science curriculum planning and in classroom instruction. This study is guided by two research questions: 1) what are the study abroad experiences that have influenced classroom teachers; and, 2) how do classroom teachers incorporate study abroad experiences into science curriculum planning and instruction in the classroom? Participants were two in-service science teachers from schools located in the Southwestern United States. The participants were enrolled in the course, Environmental Science and Multicultural Experience for K-8 Teachers offered through the Department of Educational Leadership, Curriculum and Instruction during their time as preservice teachers. The course included a two-week study abroad component in Costa Rica. Participants spent their mornings observing a monolingual, Spanish-speaking elementary classroom followed by a faculty-led multicultural seminar. Afternoons during the study abroad experience were dedicated to field science activities such as quantifying plant and animal biodiversity, constructing elevation profiles, determining nutrient storage in soil, and calculating river velocity. Throughout the course students participated in science-focused excursions. A cross case study design was used to answer the two research questions guiding this dissertation study. Data collection included participant-created concept maps of the science experiences during the study abroad experience, in-depth interviews detailing the study abroad experience and classroom instruction, and participant reflective journal entries. Cross-caseanalysis was employed to explore the uniqueness of each participant's experience and commonalities between the cases. Trustworthiness was established by utilizing multiple sources of data

  20. Claves teóricas para leer la literatura de la vanguardia histórica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mª Martínez-Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se exponen las claves teóricas que estimamos necesarias para leer comprensivamente las obras literarias de la vanguardia histórica. Se parte de la novedosa concepción de la imagen como fenómeno de doble vía, perceptiva e inteligible, por ser el procedimiento principal y común de todas las creaciones. Para conseguir una lectura plena, se plantea analizar los textos desde la unión de fenomenología y gestalt , sugerida por Dalí, su conexión con la estética de la recepción, relacionada a su vez con los principios de Gombrich y Arnheim, y la dimensión cogniti - va de todas ellas. Se cuestiona la validez de la estilística y la semiótica para esta pretensión. Además, se concluye que la nueva imagen exige un receptor activo -llamado sensolec - tor por la doble vía- que puede construir la significación de las obras experimentando la lectura como una vivencia creadora equiva - lente a la del autor, lo que se ejemplifica en la lectura del poema “Sinopsis” de Guillermo de Torre.

  1. América y Apocalipsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Prosperi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo estudia las razones que han vinculado la exploración y conquista de América o 'Nuevo Mundo' con las profecías cristianas de naturaleza apocalíptica y/o milenarista en torno a un 'Fin del Mundo'. En el siglo XVI el horizonte de la Europa cristiana estaba dominado por el requerimiento de un profundo cambio y por el anhelo de volver a la forma eclesial apostólica de los inicios. El descubrimiento de tierras y nuevos pueblos replanteó la cuestión del sentido de la historia y fortaleció la espera del fin que había sido la característica fundamental del cristianismo en sus orígenes. La acción misionera de los primeros franciscanos enviados a México unía la expectativa del fin con la necesidad de completar la predicación del Evangelio para así abreviar el tiempo final señalado por el Apocalipsis. En el mismo período, convicciones similares motivaban a los protagonistas de los movimientos de Reforma de la Iglesia. Las noticias sobre la difusión del cristianismo en América y los conflictos religiosos en Europa estimularon en muchos ambientes las especulaciones milenaristas vinculadas a la esperanza de una sociedad justa y de un mundo unido por intervención divina. Sueño político y religioso al mismo tiempo. Analizando diversos casos y testimonios, el artículo muestra que en esto residiría la originalidad de la experiencia italiana y también española del siglo de la ReformaThe article reviews the reasons which have linked the explorations and conquest of America, 'the New World', and the apocalyptic or millenarian Christian prophesises concerning the end of the world. In the XVI c. the Christian Europe was eager of deep changes, and a longing to return to the original apostolic ecclesiastical form. The discovery of new lands and peoples set questions on the sense of history and strengthened the expectations for the coming of the Last Days, which had been a fundamental feature of Christianity from its origins. The

  2. Histoplasmosis en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Negroni

    2011-03-01

    Es un hongo genéticamente heterogéneo; se han determinado 13 cariotipos y, según algunos autores, las disparidades genéticas observadas entre las cepas de los Estados Unidos y las de América Latina, podrían ser responsables de las diferencias detectadas en las manifestaciones clínicas de esta micosis en ambas regiones endémicas. La fuente de infección es la tierra rica en desechos orgánicos, y los seres humanos y otros animales se infectan por inhalación de las microconidias en la forma de micelios. La mayoría de las infecciones son asintomáticas o presentan manifestaciones respiratorias leves que curan espontáneamente. Las formas clínicas graves se producen por inhalación masiva de esporas en la infección primaria o por fallas en los mecanismos locales o generales de la inmunidad. La histoplasmosis es una infección fúngica de distribución geográfica amplia, que afecta a más de 60 países; sin embargo, su incidencia es más alta en América. Las áreas endémicas son las zonas de clima templado, subtropical o tropical húmedo, próximas a cursos de agua dulce. Los suelos suelen contener deyecciones de pájaros negros, como los estorninos, de aves de corral y de murciélagos. Estos lugares facilitan el desarrollo masivo de micelios de H. capsulatum y dan origen a los llamados "focos epidémicos". En ellos se producen infecciones masivas y brotes cuando varias personas o animales se exponen simultáneamente a esta fuente de infección. Estos brotes se producen por el ingreso a grutas, la limpieza de gallineros, la utilización de heces de aves como fertilizantes o por la remoción de tierra durante la ejecución de obras públicas, en lugares contaminados, etc. Las áreas donde se ha registrado el mayor número de casos clínicos se sitúan a lo largo de los valles de los ríos Ohio, Mississippi y Missouri en Norteamérica, en diversas zonas de México y del istmo centroamericano y en las cuencas de los ríos Orinoco, Magdalena, Amazonas, San

  3. Alimentos balanceados para perros en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Vargas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnóstico de la comercialización de alimentos balanceados para perros en Costa Rica. Para ampliar los reportes oficiales de la comercialización de alimentos para perros se creó una base de datos que incluyó cantidad, costo, empaque y formulación durante el período 1998 a agosto del 2000. De 1995 a 1998 y de 1996 a 1999 la producción nacional incrementó un 90,4% y la importación un 42,56% respectivamente, ocupando los alimentos nacionales un 72% del tonelaje y un 70% del valor en dólares americanos. No fue posible determinar cuál es el empaque más comercializado, pero si que los alimentos extrusados son los que ocupan el primer lugar y que los alimentos recomendados para cachorros y adultos son los que más se comercializan. La ausencia de datos en las declaraciones sugiere la necesidad de incrementar el control en las mismas en caso de requerirse un estudio de mercado, ya que contrariamente a esta situación el mayor número de garantías inscritas corresponden separadamente para las fases de cachorros y adultos. Merece también atención que las garantías indican mayores porcentajes de proteína cruda que los recomendados por la AAFCO y que al menos 36 fórmulas son recomendadas para estados sanitarios específicos (p.e. para perros con problemas de alergias, cálculos renales, pérdidas de pelo, etc. sin que oficialmente se encuentre registrada ninguna fórmula medicada

  4. Maps of ultraviolet radiation in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) has contributed relatively little energy to the solar spectrum; but is important, because it is biologically active. The software Surfer 8 has created maps designed of the territory of Costa Rica to assess the maximum levels of solar UV radiation on a horizontal plane. The data were used in creating the maps, were predicted at local noon in eighty-three locations scattered across the country, with a spectral atmospheric model which is physically established. The model has used as input data: the date and time, the location identified by latitude, longitude and height of land above sea level, the value of the vertical column ozone, surface albedo and atmospheric turbidity parameters. The estimate differs by 3% of the measurements made in situ, which agrees with the experimental data. The model has used the data estimation of UV radiation, clear sky conditions, which is the condition where you get the maximum energy possible in each locality. This is of fundamental importance when assessing the adverse effects on human health, leads the maximum intensity in this important solar spectrum band. A larger increase of 23% has presented in the UV radiation with altitude obtaining the hills and mountains the highest rates and places located at sea level and the lowest cost, the indices. The annual variation analysis has revealed an increase greater than 27% from the month of lowest UV radiation (December) and the month of greatest UV radiation (April). The issue is of particular interest because of the increasing number of people moving at different times of the year, altitudes over 2000 m altitude, in activities relating to tourism and employment. These individuals are significant increases in levels of UV solar radiation under conditions of clear skies. (author) [es

  5. Bases históricas da Epidemiologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomar de Almeida Filho

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente ensaio tenta sistematizar uma série de informações esquemáticas sobre a história da Epidemiologia, a fim de compreender a sua evolução enquanto disciplina articulada ao desenvolvimento histórico dos principais movimentos sociais na área da saúde. Discute-se as raízes da Epidemiologia a partir do tripé Clínica-Estatística-Medicina Social, o seu desenvolvimento inicial subsidiário à Saúde Pública, a sua constituição ideológica e o seu avanço técnico no bojo do projeto preventivista. Finalmente, a Epidemiologia moderna é vista como uma disciplina que retorna às suas raízes históricas e políticas no movimento da Saúde Coletiva, opondo-se, a nível teórico, às pressões para torná-la um mero instrumento "método-lógico " da pesquisa clínica.The present article is an attempt to organize some information about the history of Epidemiology, in order to understand its evolution as a scientific discipline connected with the historical development of major social movements in the health fields. The roots of Epidemiology from the triad Clinics-Statistics-Social Medicine, its initial development depending on the Public Health, its Technical advancement and ideological constitution within the preventive project, are all discussed. Finnally, modem Epidemiology is seen as a discipline that recovers its historical and roots through the movement of Collective Health, in opposition, at a theoretical level, to pressures to make it a mere "methodological" tool for clinical research.

  6. Environmental analysis support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Activities in environmental analysis support included assistance to the Morgantown and Pittsburgh Energy Technology Centers (METC and PETC) in reviewing and preparing documents required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for several projects selected for the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. A key milestone was the completion for PETC of the final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP) in Healy, Alaska. This work is notable because it is the first site-specific EIS completed for the CCT Program. Another important activity was the preparation for METC of a draft Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Externally Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) Project in Warren, Pennsylvania. Also, the final EA was completed for the Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF), a proposed project near Morgantown, West Virginia, which is part of METC's R ampersand D Program. In addition, ORNL staff members published a Technical Memorandum entitled open-quotes Potential Effects of Clean Coal Technologies on Acid Precipitation, Greenhouse Gases, and Solid Waste Disposalclose quotes which documents the findings of three open-quotes white papersclose quotes prepared for DOE/FE

  7. Inequidades en enfermedades cardiovasculares en Latinoamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L Fleischer

    Full Text Available En países de altos ingresos el efecto de las inequidades sociales en los riesgos de enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV se encuentra bien documentado. En Latinoamérica se ha realizado amplias discusiones teóricas y conceptuales sobre el efecto de las inequidades sociales en salud, sin embargo, la investigación empírica ha sido limitada. En el presente artículo, se resumen los trabajos empíricos recientes sobre las inequidades sociales y el riesgo de ECV en Latinoamérica y se resalta las principales necesidades en materia de investigación, al igual que las implicaciones para su prevención. Aunque mucho se desconoce acerca de los patrones sociales de las ECV en Latinoamérica, los pocos estudios disponibles hasta la fecha indican que las inequidades sociales en los riesgos de ECV varían de acuerdo a la población, a los indicadores de nivel socioeconómico, al igual que a los indicadores de riesgo de enfermedad. Las mayores inequidades sociales se observan entre mujeres en áreas urbanas y se relacionan con obesidad, diabetes y dieta. Pocos estudios se han realizado en algunas partes de Latinoamérica y en países de Centroamérica y del norte de Suramérica. Los sistemas de registro civil, estadísticas vitales y las encuestas representativas a nivel nacional sobre factores de riesgo pueden constituirse en fuentes importantes de datos, mientras se recoge información sobre los indicadores socioeconómicos. Los estudios longitudinales también son importantes para investigar los factores que conducen a las inequidades sociales. En la medida en que se implementen políticas y estrategias de prevención para reducir las ECV en Latinoamérica, también se deben investigar los factores que generan inequidades sociales en el riesgo de ECV.

  8. The genera of Chrysomelinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wills Flowers

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Keys in Spanish and English are given for the genera of Chrysomelinae known from Costa Rica. For each genus, a list of species compiled from collections in the University of Costa Rica, the National Biodiversity Institute, and the entomological literature is presented. The genus Planagetes Chevrolat 1843 is recorded for the first time from Central America, and the genus Leptinotarsa Stål 1858 is synonymized with Stilodes Chevrolat 1843Se presenta claves en español y inglés para los géneros de Chrysomelinae conocidas de Costa Rica. Para cada género, se presenta una lista de especies compiladas de las colecciones de la Universidad de Costa Rica, el Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, y la literatura entomológica. El género Planagetes Chevrolat 1843 está registrado por primera vez de América Central, y el género Leptinotarsa Stål 1858 está sinonomizado con Stilodes Chevrolat 1843

  9. Tephritids in fruit plantations in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho V, H [Universidad de Costa Rica Escuela de Biologia, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    2005-07-01

    Full text: The diversity of tephritids captured in fruit orchards in Costa Rica during four years (2001- 2004) with Multilure{sup RM} Traps is presented. These were baited with different attractants (Torula, Nu-Lure and several synthetic mixtures) in a project to determine their capacity of attraction, in mixed plantations of coffee and citrus in the Grecia Canton (year 2001) and in the Corralar District (2002 and 2004); in a mango plantation in the Esparza Canton (2001 and 2003), in a guava orchard in Pocora District (2002 and 2004) and in a citrus plantation in the San Carlos Canton, (2003). In the Grecia Canton 4,545 fruit flies were captured: 3837 (84.42%) medflies, 634 (13,94%) Anastrepha ludens, 49 (1,07%) A. striata, 29 (0.06%) A. fraterculus. In Esparza Canton (2001) 2239 tephritids were captured: 1107 (49,44%) Medflies, 875 (39,07%) A. obliqua, 156 (6,96%) A. striata, 73 (3,26%) A. serpentina and 1 (0.04%) A. ludens. In Esparza (2003) 792 tephritids were captured: 518 (65.40%) medflies, 216 (27,27%) A. obliqua, 15 (1.89%) A. striata, 18 (2.27%) A. serpentina and 24 (3.03%) Hexachaeta obscura. In Corralar District (2002) 3873 tephritids were captured: 2323 (59.99%) medflies, 1416 (36.56%) A. ludens, 20 (0.51%) A. obliqua and 114 (2.94%) A. striata. In the same place (Corralar - 2004) 533 tephritids were captured: 270 (50.65%) medflies, 118 (22.13%) A. ludens, 19 (3.56%) A. obliqua, 5 (0.93%) A. striata, 105 (19.69%) of the genus Molynocoelya spp., 14 (2.62%) Paroxyna spp. and 2 (0.37%) Tetreuareta spp. In Pocora District (2002) 1542 tephritids were captured: 1526 (98.96%) A. striata, 3 (0.19%) A. obliqua, 6 (0.38%) A. fraterculus, 1 (0.064%) A. zuelianiae, 2 (0.12%) Pesudocrotaenia spp. and 1 (0.064%) Pyrgotoides spp. In the same place (2004) 9250 tephritidis was captured: 8071 (87.25%) A. striata, 935(10.10%) A. obliqua, 235 (2.54%) medflies, 6 (0.06%) A. serpentina, 2 (0.02%) A. cyclayae and 1 (0.01%) Hexachaeta obscura. In a citrus plantation in the San

  10. Voces desde Iberoamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Mercado

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación cualitativa se difunde en el área de la salud en Iberoamérica en las últimas décadas. Numerosos programas de enseñanza y capacitación se han organizado en la región; pero son inexistentes los trabajos cuyo objetivo sea evaluar los avances y dificultades en su enseñanza. Este artículo presenta el diálogo de cinco académicos iberoamericanos sobre la enseñanza de la investigación cualitativa en salud. La reflexión gira en torno a cuatro temas: su acercamiento al campo y a su enseñanza; las fortalezas, logros de las iniciativas educativas en que han participado; las dificultades y obstáculos enfrentados, y los retos y prioridades de su enseñanza en el futuro. Los académicos participantes fueron elegidos por su experiencia en el tema y por su procedencia geográfica. El diálogo se estableció vía Internet, empleando una variante del método FODA y la técnica Delphi. Los participantes, separados geográficamente, con diferentes trayectorias profesionales y antecedentes académicos, exponen los motivos por los cuales esta forma de investigación ha tenido éxito: el entusiasmo de la gente joven y las mujeres, el interés creciente, el rigor académico, la interdisciplinariedad y la legitimación que ha ganado como forma válida de hacer ciencia. Entre los problemas y dificultades destacan la poca consolidación y madurez de las propuestas educativas, y un medio que poco le favorece. Los mismos plantean impulsar su enseñanza en diálogo con la orientación cuantitativa, formulan propuestas al interior de los programas educativos y haciendo uso de tecnologías. Sugieren tomar en cuenta las particularidades sociales para la enseñanza de este campo.

  11. in National Parks, Costa Rica, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Aguirre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Volcán Poás, ubicado en el valle central de Costa Rica, es el parque más importante y que recibe más visitantes en el país. Entre el 24 de Marzo y el 10 de Abril del 2006, hubo una serie de erupciones que, la administración del parque prohibiera primero y restringiera después el acceso del número de visitantes al PNVP por tres semanas. El estudio examina el impacto de tales restricciones en las comunidades de Poasito y Fraijanes, las comunidades ubicadas en la entrada del parque, las cuales dependen económicamente de los gastos de los turistas que visitan el parque para sobrevivir. El estudio examina además el impacto social, de la falta información durante este tiempo en la opinión de las comunidades y los negocios sobre la gestión del desastre por parte de la administración del parque. Se encontró que para mejorar los planes para el manejo de esta clase de desastres, el parque y la comunidad deben mejorar la comunicación entre ambos, y la participación y coordinación de actividades. Para disminuir los riesgos de desastres físicos y económicos, la comunidad tiene que organizarse para pedir y obtener más información sobre las crisis generada por futuras erupciones y diversificar el tipo de turismo de que depende. La administración del Parque Nacional Volcán Poás debería iniciar actividades que ayuden el mejoramiento de la capacidad de participar de las comunidades en las actividades que el parque realiza en épocas de crisis, también debería incluir las necesidades informativas de la comunidad y de los negocios en su plan de gestión de desastres.

  12. Pesticides in surface waters in areas influenced by banana production in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, L.E.; Ruepert, C.; Solis, E.

    1999-01-01

    Banana production in Costa Rica is highly dependent on pesticide use. However, only a few studies have been undertaken regarding the presence and environmental impact of the agrochemical substances used in the banana culture on the aquatic ecosystem of the Atlantic Region of Costa Rica. This study was, therefore, undertaken in Rio Suerte Basin that drains into the 'Nature Conservation Area' of Tortuguero in the Atlantic lowlands of the country from June 1993 to December 1994. In order to investigate further the occurrence of pesticides in the water bodies located near the possible sources especially during worst-case situations, water samples were analysed following pesticide applications during 1995-1997. Pesticide residues were determined by GC equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD) and a nitrogen phosphorous detector (NPD). The study targeted 11 of the 21 pesticides used in banana production, the others were not analyzed. The most frequently found compounds during the 1993-94 survey were the fungicide propiconazole and the nematocide cadusafos. Maximum concentrations measured after the pesticide applications were found in the main drainage canal and these were 2.1 ug/L carbofuran, 1.2 ug/L terbufos and 0.48 ug/L cadusafos. The peak concentration found shortly after the aerial application of the fungicide propiconazole was 13 ug/L in the creek leaving the banana plantation. (author)

  13. Cross-cultural invariance of NPI-13: Entitlement as culturally specific, leadership and grandiosity as culturally universal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żemojtel-Piotrowska, Magdalena; Piotrowski, Jarosław; Rogoza, Radosław; Baran, Tomasz; Hitokoto, Hidefumi; Maltby, John

    2018-04-15

    The current study explores the problem with the lack of measurement invariance for the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) by addressing two issues: conceptual heterogeneity of narcissism and methodological issues related to the binary character of data. We examine the measurement invariance of the 13-item version of the NPI in three populations in Japan, Poland and the UK. Analyses revealed that leadership/authority and grandiose exhibitionism dimensions of the NPI were cross-culturally invariant, while entitlement/exploitativeness was culturally specific. Therefore, we proposed NPI-9 as indicating scalar invariance, and we examined the pattern of correlations between NPI-9 and other variables across three countries. The results suggest that NPI-9 is valid brief scale measuring general levels of narcissism in cross-cultural studies, while the NPI-13 remains suitable for research within specific countries. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. Fourth meeting entitled “Visualization and Processing of Tensors and Higher Order Descriptors for Multi-Valued Data”

    CERN Document Server

    Vilanova, Anna; Burgeth, Bernhard; Visualization and Processing of Tensors and Higher Order Descriptors for Multi-Valued Data

    2014-01-01

    Arising from the fourth Dagstuhl conference entitled Visualization and Processing of Tensors and Higher Order Descriptors for Multi-Valued Data (2011), this book offers a broad and vivid view of current work in this emerging field. Topics covered range from applications of the analysis of tensor fields to research on their mathematical and analytical properties. Part I, Tensor Data Visualization, surveys techniques for visualization of tensors and tensor fields in engineering, discusses the current state of the art and challenges, and examines tensor invariants and glyph design, including an overview of common glyphs. The second Part, Representation and Processing of Higher-order Descriptors, describes a matrix representation of local phase, outlines mathematical morphological operations techniques, extended for use in vector images, and generalizes erosion to the space of diffusion weighted MRI. Part III, Higher Order Tensors and Riemannian-Finsler Geometry, offers powerful mathematical language to model and...

  15. An Analysis of Figurative Language Elements upon an American Short Story Entitled “The Monkey’s Paw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Muhammad Ardiansyah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the study of semantic in a specified domain of figurative language upon a selected work of American English literature, in form of short story written by the renowned writer and author, William Wymark Jacobs, entitled as ‘The Monkey’s Paw’. Several objectives are deduced by the researcher in quest of finding the forms of this figurative language within the passage. Briefly, figurative language itself is a feature of every languages, which emphasized the use of expression to symbolize a different meaning from the usual literal interpretation. In our analysis of ‘The Monkey’s Paw’, the varieties of figurative language: Metaphor, Personification, Hyperbole, Symbolism, also another terms used to represent unusual words construction or combination such as Onomatopoeia, Idiom, and even Imagery, are discussed in order in relation with true meaning discovery behind each figurative language properties.

  16. Accrual of ROCs LECs and REGOs. Phase 3a: pre-determined entitlements to ROCs for small microgenerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report describes a proposed scheme to enable microgenerators in the UK to claim Renewable Obligation Certificates (ROCs) on the basis of predetermined estimates of output rather than data from meters. The aim of the scheme, which has been developed following discussions with representatives of the microgeneration community in the UK, is to make it easier for small generators to access to ROCs and thus encourage householders and smaller commercial/business users to install renewable microgeneration technologies. The work was commissioned as part of the review of the Renewables Obligation. The report considers: background information; the Australian scheme for small generating units; eligibility and entitlements; the operation of the scheme; new procedural and legislative requirements; measures to protect and improve the Renewables Obligation; alterative approaches; scheme benefits; and recommendations. An overview of the scheme's key features is given in the report's executive summary.

  17. Development of An Analytic Approach to Determine How Environmental Protection Agency’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Is Used by Non-EPA Decision Makers (Final Contractor Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final contractor report entitled, Development of an Analytic Approach to Determine How Environmental Protection Agency’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Is Used By Non EPA Decision Makers. This contractor report analyzed how ...

  18. El estudio de la Fauna Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Sánchez, María Ángeles

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning in 1989, Fauna Ibérica has promoted coordinated research in Taxonomy bringing together more than 100 Spanish and non-Spanish experts. The programme supported by CSIC Presidency is lead by Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. As a result, 30 Fauna Ibérica monographs has been published in addition to a year average of 50-60 scientific papers describing more than 50 new species per year. IBERFAUNA, the Data Bank of the Spanish Fauna, has been created including 38.000 out of the 61.000 species estimated to live in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. This area is confirmed as one of the most biodiverse of the European Union with more than 50 % of the European species and more than 50 % of its endemics. Among future plans, a more stable organization is proposed in order to: maintaining dichotomy paper/digital publications, increasing interactivity among taxonomists and training, developing cyber-tools to facilitate public access to the information and increasing the strength of Fauna Ibérica through collaboration with other international initiatives and other areas of knowledge.Desde su inicio en 1989, Fauna Ibérica ha impulsado la investigación coordinada de más de 100 taxónomos españoles y extranjeros. El programa, apoyado por la Presidencia del CSIC, está dirigido por el Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. Como resultado, se han publicado 30 monografías de la serie Fauna Ibérica, y un promedio anual de 50-60 artículos científicos que describen más de 50 nuevas especies por año. Se ha creado el Banco de Datos, IBERFAUNA, que cuenta ya con 38.000 de las aproximadamente 61.000 especies que habitan en la Península Ibérica y Baleares. Se confirma como una de las regiones más ricas en biodiversidad de la Unión Europea, con más del 50 % de las especies y más de un 50 % de sus endemismos. Entre los planes de futuro, se propone una estructura estable para Fauna Ibérica, que mantenga la dicotomía soporte

  19. Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae, una nueva especie para Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, J. Francisco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae, a new species from Costa Rica is described and illustrated and its relationships with B. crotonoides A. Gray are discussed. Buddleja filibracteolata is distinguished by its sessile leaves, amplexicaul leaf blades, and spiciform inflorescence with numerous and conspicuous threadlike bracteoles.Se describe e ilustra Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae, una nueva especie de Costa Rica, y se compara con la especie más cercana, B. crotonoides A. Gray. Buddleja filibracteolata se diferencia por sus hojas sesiles, láminas foliares amplexicaules y por sus inflorescencias espiciformes con numerosas y conspicuas brácteas filiformes.

  20. Agrotourism and Agro-Ecotourism in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Zumbado Morales, Félix

    2010-01-01

    artículo -- Universidad de Costa Rica, Programa de Investigación en Desarrollo Urbano Sostenible. 2010 Agrotourism is a form of tourism that encourages visitors to experience rural culture as a tourist attraction. The term “agro-ecotourism” was used for the first time in Costa Rica in 1994, and it is generally used as synonym of agrotourism. Nonetheless, not all cases of agrotourism display sufficient concern for the environment to be considered agro-ecotourism. The aim of the ...

  1. Virus Zika en Centroamérica y sus complicaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez, Eduardo; Vásquez, Marilin; Beltrán-Luque, Briana; Padgett, Denis

    2016-01-01

    El virus Zika (ZIKV) es un arbovirus, aislado por primera vez en Zika Uganda, reportándose el primer caso en humanos en 1954, desde entonces se han descrito casos en África, Asia, Oceanía y en América. Centroamérica ha sido afectada, por cambios climáticos, pobreza y mal saneamiento ambiental. Su transmisión es vectorial y puede tener transmisión perinatal, transfusiones sanguíneas o por semen infectado. Clínicamente se diferencian poco de Dengue y Chikungunya. Sus complicaciones son principa...

  2. Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B. E.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the results of an NRA funded program entitled Space Environmental Effects Knowledgebase that received funding through a NASA NRA (NRA8-31) and was monitored by personnel in the NASA Space Environmental Effects (SEE) Program. The NASA Project number was 02029. The Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledgebase (SCMOK) was created as a part of the earlier NRA8-20. One of the previous tasks and part of the previously developed Knowledgebase was to accumulate data from facilities using QCMs to measure the outgassing data for satellite materials. The main object of this current program was to increase the number of material outgassing datasets from 250 up to approximately 500. As a part of this effort, a round-robin series of materials outgassing measurements program was also executed that allowed comparison of the results for the same materials tested in 10 different test facilities. Other programs tasks included obtaining datasets or information packages for 1) optical effects of contaminants on optical surfaces, thermal radiators, and sensor systems and 2) space environmental effects data and incorporating these data into the already existing NASA/SEE Knowledgebase.

  3. The environmental imperative for renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serchuk, Adam

    2000-01-01

    This article assesses the report by the Renewable Energy Policy Project entitled 'The Environmental Imperative: A Driving Force in the Development and Deployment of Renewable Energy Technologies', and focuses on the environmental impacts of the generation of electricity including air pollution, climate change, land and water pollution, the threat to wildlife, and the risk of radiation from commercial nuclear power plants. A table is presented illustrating the air pollution, climate change, land use and degradation, water use and quality, wildlife and radiation effects from the use of coal, oil, natural gas, biomass, wind, photovoltaic, geothermal, hydroelectric and nuclear power

  4. Uranium mining: Environmental and health impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Producing uranium in a safe and environmentally responsible manner is important not only to the producers and consumers of the product, but also to society at large. Given expectations of growth in nuclear generating capacity in the coming decades - particularly in the developing world - enhancing awareness of leading practice in uranium mining is important. This was the objective of a recent NEA report entitled Managing Environmental and Health Impacts of Uranium Mining, providing a non-technical overview of the significant evolution of uranium mining practices from the time that it was first mined for military purposes until today. (author)

  5. Pacientes com astigmatismo submetidos à cirurgia de catarata: LIO tórica x LIO asférica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio de Almeida Torres Netto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Comparar a acuidade visual dos pacientes que foram submetidos à facoemulsificação com implante de LIO AcrySof® tórica versus LIO AcrySof® IQ e avaliar a redução da dioptria cilíndrica (DC pós-operatória. MÉTODOS: Estudo analítico retrospectivo de 149 olhos submetidos à cirurgia de catarata por facoemulsificação, com astigmatismo ceratométrico regular, simétrico, com 1 dioptria ou mais. Foram divididos em dois grupos. O grupo tórica com 85 olhos e o grupo não tórica com 64 olhos. No pré-operatório foram avaliados dados topográficos do olho a ser operado e refração. No período pós-operatório foram revisados dados da refração e acuidades visuais com e sem correção. RESULTADOS: O astigmatismo corneano pré-operatório variou de 1,00 a 5,6 DC em ambos os grupos, sendo que no grupo tórica houve redução média de 1,37 DC (p<0,001, quando comparado ao refracional. O grupo não tórica apresentou redução média de 0,16 DC (p=0,057. Com relação a acuidade visual sem correção (AVSC, o grupo tórica apresentou 44 olhos (51,7% com AVSC de 0 logMAR (20/20 ou 0,1 logMAR (20/25, e o grupo não tórica apenas 7 olhos (10,93% com estas mesmas AVSC. DISCUSSÃO: Ficou bem evidenciado que os pacientes com astigmatismo ceratométrico significativo apresentam benefício visual com o implante de LIO tórica. A diminuição do uso de auxílios ópticos para distância pode ser possível a partir do momento que conseguimos corrigir com melhor precisão as aberrações do olho humano. Na atualidade, a facoemulsificação passou a ser além de uma cirurgia para restabelecimento funcional, um procedimento refracional.

  6. 75 FR 3179 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements-Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ...-AG31 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Trade Agreements--Costa Rica and Peru (DFARS... respect to Costa Rica, and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. The trade agreements waive... States Free Trade Agreement with respect to Costa Rica and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion...

  7. Environmental consequences of energy production: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    The Seventeenth Annual Illinois Energy conference entitled Environmental consequences of Energy Production was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 19-20, 1989. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on the technical, economic and institutional issues surrounding energy production and related environmental problems. The conference program was developed by a planning committee which included Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. The conference included presentations on four major topic areas. The issue areas were: urban pollution: where are we now and what needs to be done in the future; the acid rain problem: implications of proposed federal legislation on the Midwest; global warming: an update on the scientific debate; and strategies to minimize environmental damage. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual presentations. (FL)

  8. Sistema de salud de Costa Rica The health system of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Sáenz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Costa Rica, que presta servicios de salud, agua y saneamiento. El componente de servicios de salud incluye un sector público y uno privado. El sector público está dominado por la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS, institución autónoma encargada del financiamiento, compra y prestación de la mayoría de los servicios personales. La CCSS se financia con contribuciones de los afiliados, los empleadores y el Estado, y administra tres regímenes: el seguro de enfermedad y maternidad, el seguro de invalidez, vejez y muerte, y el régimen no contributivo. La CCSS presta servicios en sus propias instalaciones o contrata prestadores del sector privado con los que establece contratos denominados "compromisos de gestión". El sector privado comprende una amplia red de prestadores que ofrecen servicios ambulatorios y de especialidad con fines lucrativos. Estos servicios se financian sobre todo con pagos de bolsillo, pero también con primas de seguros privados. El Ministerio de Salud es el rector del sistema y como tal cumple con funciones de dirección política, regulación sanitaria, direccionamiento de la investigación y desarrollo tecnológico. Dentro de las innovaciones relativamente recientes que se han implantado en Costa Rica destacan la implantación de los equipos básicos de atención integral de salud (EBAIS, la desconcentración de los hospitales y clínicas públicos, la introducción de los acuerdos de gestión y la creación de las Juntas de Salud.This paper describes the Costa Rican health system which provides health, water and sanitation services. The health component of the system includes a public and a private sector. The public sector is dominated by the Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social (CCSS, an autonomous institution in charge of financing, purchasing and delivering most of the personal health services in Costa Rica. CCSS is financed with contributions of the

  9. RETÓRICA Y CONTABILIDAD: DE LA CRÍTICA RETÓRICA A LA RETÓRICA CRÍTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO ALBERTO RUIZ ROJAS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios críticos del discurso contable, reiteran que la retórica es un instrumento al servicio de la dominación y desconocen los potenciales emancipadores que subyacen en su ejercicio deli- berativo. Esto porque la consideran un dominio exclusivo de los grupos hegemónicos, y reducen el concepto a su aspecto discursivo, eliminando sus implicaciones éticas. Este artículo hace una revisión del tema, apelando a una metodología de tipo cualitativo, a partir de artículos de inves- tigación publicados en revistas de contabilidad anglosajonas, que aparecen registradas en la base de datos Scopus. Se identifican algunas experiencias que reconocen en la retórica, un dominio necesario para emprender deliberaciones públicas desde lo contable. Se concluye que una retórica al servicio de la transformación de los lugares comunes y guiada por lo preferible, puede contribuir a la deliberación pública.

  10. Arsenic determination in water supplies for human consumption of the province of Cartago, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero-Campos, Virginia; Quesada-Kimsey, Jaime; Ledezma-Espinoza, Aura; Sandoval-Mora, Jose A.

    2010-01-01

    Scientific knowledge about hydroarsenicism must be disclosed in Latin America. The presence of arsenic has been detected in waters of Costa Rica that have been used for human consumption, in areas of risk; specifically in the province of Cartago, in the cantons of Oreamuno, Central, Paraiso and Alvarado. A quantification of reduced form trivalent arsenic was performed with the methodology of the 7062 Environmental Protection Agency of the United States, through volatile metal hydride generation by flame atomic absorption. The analyzed samples have determined that maintaining the maximum extent permitted by current legislation Costa Rican, 10μg/L. Research areas have corresponded to areas of high risk for its volcanic nature. The vast water supply of the cantons under study, with areas of relative protection circling recharge areas of springs, has caused the population to consume water source underground, but surface direct influence, less influence of volcanic rocks that are found at greater depths. (author) [es

  11. Regulations implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: determining coal miners' and survivors' entitlement to benefits. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    This final rule revises the Black Lung Benefits Act (BLBA or Act) regulations to implement amendments made by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). The ACA amended the BLBA in two ways. First, it revived a rebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis for certain claims. Second, it reinstituted automatic entitlement to benefits for certain eligible survivors of coal miners whose lifetime benefit claims were awarded because they were totally disabled due to pneumoconiosis. These regulations clarify how the statutory presumption may be invoked and rebutted and the application and scope of the survivor-entitlement provision. The rule also eliminates several unnecessary or obsolete provisions.

  12. [USJ Herbarium of Costa Rica: history and contributions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Carlos O

    2012-12-01

    In 2011 the Herbarium USJ of the University of Costa Rica became 80 years old and came up with 100 000 specimens of all the taxa that traditional botany studies. Data and figures on the history, the founders, and contributions of USJ to the knowledge of Costa Rican flora are summarized.

  13. La prensa satírica de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paúl Alonso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Refiere el autor sobre la revista más vendida de Chile y convertida en el referente obligado de la prensa alternativa en Latinoamérica. De humor descarnado, irreverente, de marcado rechazo a la Dictadura militar de Pinochet y en la búsqueda constante por revelar las contradicciones de la sociedad chilena.

  14. Centroamérica: el estado de las ciencias sociales.

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Rivas, Edelberto

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo trata sobre los estados de las ciencias sociales en Centroamérica; por el cual el autor aborda temas como: El posmodernismo, crisis de la pérdida del sentido ortodoxo , El Marxismo, estudios sobre la democracia, revoluciones, estados fallidos y paralelos todos estos relacionados a países centroamericanos.

  15. Case Study: Transgenic Crop Controversy in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, Steve S.

    2009-01-01

    Costa Rica has rich ecological resources and has been a steady political force in turbulent Central America. Most recently, it has become a battleground between pro- and anti-genetically modified organism (GMO) political forces. This case study examines the roles of U.S.-based cotton ("Gossypium hirsutum" L.) seed companies, anti-GMO…

  16. Wilhem Marr en Centroamérica (1852-1853

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodríguez Sancho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente ensayo, se analiza, una de las visitas que realizó el hamburgués Wilhelm Marr a Nicaragua y Costa Rica. Con base en su diario de viaje, intitulado en español como: Viaje a Centroamérica (2004 del original: Reise nach Central-Amerika (1863, resultado de su travesía por una sección del Istmo entre los años 1852 y 1853. Se intenta rastrear en sus apuntes personales, parte de la perspectiva ideológica e interiorización del espacio humano y natural que encontró a su paso. Así determinar las relaciones posibles del otrora discurso: norte-sur; en la definición y aprehensión del entorno y sus gentes desde su propia cosmovisión eurocéntrica. En este mismo sentido, se ofrece un recuento histórico sobre el fenómeno del colonialismo en América desde el siglo XVI hasta el XX con particular énfasis en Centroamérica

  17. Education in Costa Rica. Reviews of National Policies for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    As Costa Rica's economy has developed in recent decades, the education system that helped propel the country to upper middle-income status now needs reform to respond to rising expectations and changing demands for skills. New challenges are emerging: economic growth has recently slowed, inequality is widening and productivity growth is weak. How…

  18. Costa Rica's SINEM: A Perspective from Postcolonial Institutional Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In this article I suggest that SINEM--the Costa Rican version of Venezuela's El Sistema--articulates a development discourse which legitimates neoliberal policies that govern the twenty-first-century international market, in which Costa Rica figures only as a subaltern. I contend that such articulation contributes to perpetuating notions and…

  19. Economic incentives for improving mango quality in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuniga Arias, G.; Ruben, R.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose

    – The purpose of the paper is to present an integrated methodology for identifying effective economic incentives to enhance quality performance by mango producers in Costa Rica.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The study analyses the relationship between intrinsic

  20. Monitoreo del manglar de Gandoca, Costa Rica (sitio CARICOMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Fonseca E

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El manglar de Gandoca, Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo, Caribe de Costa Rica, se ha monitoreado desde 1999. La especie dominante es el mangle rojo Rhizophora mangle. El pico de productividad y producción de flores a lo largo de los años se dio en julio. La productividad del manglar disminuyó desde el 2001 y la temperatura del agua aparentemente aumentó. La biomasa (14 kg/m² y densidad (9 árboles por 100 m² en Gandoca son relativamente bajas comparados con otras manglares dentro del Programa CARICOMP, mientras que la productividad encontrada para julio en Costa Rica (4 g/m²/día es intermedia, similar a lo que se encontró en la mayoría de los sitios CARICOMP.Monitoring of the mangrove forest at Gandoca, Costa Rica (CARICOMP site. The mangrove forest at Gandoca, Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, has been monitored since 1999, following the CARICOMP protocol. The dominant species was the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle. The peak of productivity and flowering was in July. The mangrove productivity decline from 2001 to 2004 while the temperature rised. Biomass (14 kg/m² and density (9 trees/10 m² in Gandoca were relatively low compared to other CARICOMP sites, while productivity in July in Costa Rica (4 g/m²/day was intermediate, similar to most CARICOMP sites. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 23-31. Epub 2007 March. 31.

  1. Burkholderia glumae EN EL CULTIVO DE ARROZ EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Quesada-Gonz\\u00E1lez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia glumae en el cultivo de arroz en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia de Burkholderia glumae en arroz en Costa Rica. La bacteria Burkholderia glumae está asociada al cultivo del arroz en el que provoca la enfermedad llamada añublo bacterial. Bajo condiciones ambientales favorables, la densidad bacteriana aumenta, lo que provoca que, bajo un sistema de regulación denominado quorum sensing, se expresen sus mecanismos de virulencia mediante la activación de genes responsables para la síntesis de la toxoflavina, que bloquea el flujo de nutrientes, para la biogénesis de flagelos y la respuesta quimiotáctica, y la producción de la enzima catalasa. Las plantas desarrollan la sintomatología que finalmente conlleva a un vaneamiento del grano provocando pérdidas económicas importantes. Se investigó la situación referente a la contaminación del grano de arroz causado por esta bacteria en Costa Rica durante los años 2009 y 2010, mediante un convenio entre la Corporación Nacional Arrocera y el Laboratorio de Fitopatología del Centro de Investigación en Protección de Cultivos de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Se usó la metodología de PCR de punto final recomendada por investigadores del Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical en Colombia y se reforzó la identificación, por medio de técnicas de microbiología convencional. Se obtuvieron resultados que indican la presencia de la bacteria en Costa Rica, la primera información sobre la prevalencia de un fitopatógeno bacteriano de gran importancia para el sector arrocero.

  2. Environmental biotechnology for waste treatment, environmental science research, Volume 41

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saylor, G.S.; Fox, R.; Blackburn, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the symposium entitled [open quotes]Environmental Biotechnology: Moving from the Flask to the Field[close quotes] held in October 17th through 19th, 1990, in Knoxville, Tennessee. Environmental biotechnology involves the use of microorganisms and their processes for the clean-up of environmental contamination, specific examples of which include ground-water treatment, treatment of leachates, and clean-up of contaminated soils, sludges, and sediments. In comparison with other technologies, environmental biotechnology (or bioremediation) has the advantages of affecting mineralization of toxic compounds to innocuous end-products, being energy-effective with processes able to take place at a moderate temperature and pressure, safety, and economy and is, therefore, perceived to hold great potential for environmental clean-up. Bioremediation treatment technologies for contaminated soils and groundwater can take the form of: (1) solid-phase biotreatment; (2) slurry-phase treatment; (3) in situ treatment; and (4) combination biological and physical/chemical treatment. The goal of the symposium was to pressure technical accomplishments at the laboratory and field-scale levels, future technical directions and economic, public and regulatory concerns in environmental biotechnology. The book is divided into five major sections on Current Perceptions, Field-Scale Studies, Technical Issues and Concerns in Implementation, Nontechnical Issues and Concerns in Implementation, International Activities, and ends with a critical review of the symposium.

  3. La fertilidad teórica del debate democrático en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Uharte Pozas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En América Latina, en las tres últimas décadas, han surgido diversas corrientes teóricas que han abordado el tema de la democracia desde diferentes visiones, algunas de ellas francamente antagónicas. El objeto de este trabajo es -asumiendo la “trascendencia conceptual” de la democracia- realizar un recorrido desde los años ochenta hasta la actualidad, mostrando las distintas tendencias de la teoría política latinoamericana. Pretendemos, por tanto, un acercamiento a las distintas corrientes teóricas que en los últimos tiempos han abordado el tema de la democracia en América Latina.___________ABSTRACT:During the last three decades, many theoric currents analyzing the theme of democracy from different perspectives, have raised in Latin America; some of them clearly antagonistic. The object of this work is –assuming the conceptual transcendence of democracy- to realize a panorama from 1980 to today, showing the different tendencies of the south-american political theory. We tried to find a common factor in all the many theoric currents that in the latest years have focused on the theme of Latin America.

  4. Older people. Courtesy entitles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calnan, Michael; Woolhead, Gillian; Dieppe, Paul

    2003-02-20

    A study of 72 people, with an average age of 72, showed that dignity--and lack of it--were key issues in their estimation of care. Concerns about lack of dignity centred on lack of privacy, mixed sex wards, forms of address and loss of independence. The study suggested that older people do not complain about care for fear of retaliation.

  5. Annexure to Commentary entitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhsudhan

    (14) Comparing the inputs required for optimal growth of the GMO relative to the parent organism and comparison ... of published data on the progressive increase in the population of pests that were initially known to be resistant ... technology.

  6. Proposal for Remodeling the Sedimentation System of the CONCREPAL Material Breaker at Barranca, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazareth Arguedas-Zumbado

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to a change in environmental paradigm and the production increase, this document is a proposal for remodeling the CONCREPAL’s settler located in Barranca, Costa Rica. It is presented as an eco-efficient alternative that simultaneously enables compliance with current legislation on landfill and wastewater reuse. Initially, an environmental diagnosis of the characteristics and performance of the current sedimentation tank was made. Subsequently, the design of the proposed remodeling of the treatment system, incorporating the recirculation of treated water in the breaker material production process, was developed. Finally, a life-size settler model was created in a test environment in order to start measurements tests and determine the functionality; successfully, after all tests, positive results within the range allowed by national legislation on total suspended-solids concentration (40 ± 0.01 mg/l were obtained. Thanks to the cost-benefit and environmental management analysis, a new settler system can be implemented with positive short and long term results for the company.

  7. 20 CFR 411.552 - What effect will the subsequent entitlement to title II benefits have on EN payments for title...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What effect will the subsequent entitlement to title II benefits have on EN payments for title XVI beneficiaries after they assign their ticket? 411.552 Section 411.552 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF...

  8. Between Soft Legality and Strong Legitimacy : A Political Economy Approach to the Struggle for Basic Entitlements to Safe Water and Sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gaay Fortman, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068346581; Marcatelli, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that the internationally declared “human right to safe water and sanitation,” although characterized by soft legality, may yet support universal access to such basic entitlements by virtue of its strong legitimacy. From a strategic perspective, human rights do indeed provide

  9. Micro and Macro Content Analysis of English Textbook Entitled "Mosaic One Listening and Speaking (Student's Book)" in the Light of Communicative Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mashaqba, Nisreen Juma'a Hamed

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which the listening and speaking lessons which are presented in textbook entitled "Mosaic One Listening and speaking (Student's Book)" are characterized with appropriateness and meaningfulness in light of communicative competence and meet the Principles and features of…

  10. La Medicina en Latinoamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cardenas Escovar

    1994-12-01

    mencionaremos, con referencia a las actividades iníciales, al maestro de la Psiquiatría peruana y latinoamericana, Honorio Delgado, bajo cuya sabia orientación se efectuó la Primera Reunión de Trabajo en Lima; Marcial Quiroga, destacado dermatólogo, escritor e historiador argentino; los chilenos Amador Neghme y Hernán Romero, quienes dedicaron sus vidas meritorias a la investigación ya la docencia de la salud pública; y en tiempos recientes Rodolfo V. Tálice, hasta hace muy poco Presidente de la Academia del Uruguay, cuyos profundos estudios antropológicos son universalmente conocidos.

    La Academia Uruguaya será sede este año de la XII Reunión Directiva, destinada a formular las conclusiones y recomendaciones del estudio sobre “Problemas Médicos y Sociales en la Gerontología”.

    El autor de la presente información ha tenido el honor de servir como secretario de ALANAM durante los pasados cinco lustros, en los que ha gozado la fortuna de recibir enseñanzas de los más destacados exponentes de la Medicina en América Latina, así como el estímulo de la amistad que ha caracterizado los intercambios profesionales y académicos de nuestra Asociación. Por ello quiero mencionar una circunstancia de alto significado para mí en la labor de estos años, como es el haber compartido las tareas de la Secretaría con el Académico peruano Jorge Voto Bernales, de merecido prestigio en el campo de la Neurología, tanto en su país como en el ámbito internacional.

    En julio del año pasado se efectuó en Buenos Aires un seminario organizado por la Academia Argentina, el Ministerio de Salud y la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS/OMS, con la participación de los Presidentes y Expertos de las once Academias. El tema tratado fue “Calidad y costo de la Atención Médica” y las deliberaciones se caracterizaron por el énfasis sobre el concepto integral humanístico y ético de la Medicina.

    Son afortunados estos pronunciamientos de las m

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN AND ENVIRONMENTALLY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    critique of theoretical approaches towards understanding the formation of environmental attitudes, a model has been developed ... instances, people must have the motivation and know- ... feelings and emotion, and behaviour to behavioural.

  12. Estudo da associação entre fatores socioambientais e prevalência de parasitose intestinal em área periférica da cidade de Manaus (AM, Brasil Study of the association between socio-environmental factors and the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in the suburbs of the city of Manaus in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Visser

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a associação entre fatores socioambientais e condições de saneamento urbano com a prevalência de parasitoses intestinais, em uma comunidade na periferia da cidade de Manaus. O estudo consistiu de um levantamento socioambiental e de um inquérito parasitológico. Foi encontrada uma comunidade heterogênea, apresentando diferenças em relação aos níveis socioeconômicos e ambientais entre as micro-áreas avaliadas, embora as condições de saneamento básico da comunidade tenham-se mostrado precárias de uma forma geral. A prevalência de parasitose intestinal foi de 44,2%. Não foi identificada diferença significativa entre as micro-áreas com respeito à ocorrência de parasitoses intestinais. Houve associação entre parasitoses intestinais e tipo de construção residencial, faixa etária e procedência da água de higiene pessoal e do lar. O despejo do esgoto a céu aberto foi fator de risco associado a parasitoses intestinais (OR=6,72; p=0,034 e a protozoários intestinais (OR=21,87; p=0,004. Foram fatores de risco, apenas para a presença de protozoários, o despejo de esgoto em igarapé (OR=12,98; p=0,011 e o uso de fossa rudimentar (OR=9,54; p=0,019.This study assesses the association between socio-environmental factors and urban sanitation conditions with the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in a community on the periphery of the city of Manaus. The study comprised a socio-environmental survey and a parasitological inquiry. A heterogeneous community was revealed with some socio-economic and environmental differences between the micro-areas evaluated, even though the urban sanitation conditions were found to be predominantly precarious. The prevalance of intestinal parasitosis was 44.2%. There was no significant difference between the micro-areas that could explain the occurrence of intestinal parasitosis. An association was found between intestinal parasitosis and residential building

  13. Benefit-cost assessment programs: Costa Rica case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.L.; Trocki, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of mineral potential, in terms of types and numbers of deposits, approximate location and associated tonnage and grades, is a valuable input to a nation's economic planning and mineral policy development. This study provides a methodology for applying benefit-cost analysis to mineral resource assessment programs, both to determine the cost effectiveness of resource assessments and to ascertain future benefits to the nation. In a case study of Costa Rica, the benefit-cost ratio of a resource assessment program was computed to be a minimum of 4:1 ($10.6 million to $2.5 million), not including the economic benefits accuring from the creation of 800 mining sector and 1,200 support services jobs. The benefit-cost ratio would be considerably higher if presently proposed revisions of mineral policy were implemented and benefits could be defined for Costa Rica

  14. Capacidade de Carga em Cidades Históricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vicente de Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são apresentados os conceitos de capacidade de carga e capacidade ambiental vinculando-os ao manejo de cidades históricas dentro dos pressupostos do turismo sustentável. A avaliação da capacidade ambiental é uma valiosa ferramenta para planejamento turístico. O principal é determinar até que ponto um meio ambiente pode suportar uma intervenção, sem que a mesma danifique ou prejudique a característica principal deste local. As cidades históricas e turísticas com desejo de fomentar o turismo devem, necessariamente, delimitar suas capacidades de crescimento, para geração de riquezas através de sua economia diversificada e, sobretudo, bem estar de sua população, principal objetivo do estudo de capacidade ambiental.

  15. Cáncer de piel en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Antillón, Orlando; de la Cruz Martínez, Rafael; Sierra Ramos, Rafaela

    1986-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 1986 Se describe la incidencia del cáncer de la piel por sexo, edad y localización de todos los casos notificados en el Registro Nacional de Tumores de Costa Rica, en el periodo 1979-1980. El cáncer de piel presentó el 7,6 % del total de cánceres reportados en 1979 y el 14,5% en 1980. Después del cáncer gástrico, el cáncer de piel fue el más frecuente en 1980. Las provincias de San José, Alajuela y Her...

  16. LA TUTELA SUPRACONSTITUCIONAL DE LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Armijo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la posición de los derechos fundamentales y la recepción de los derechos humanos en el ordenamiento jurídico de Costa Rica, considerando la eficacia de los instrumentos internacionales sobre la materia y la jurisprudencia de la Comisión y la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos. El artículo analiza especialmente la jurisprudencia de la Sala Constitucional de la Corte Suprema de Costa Rica.This article analyzes the place of human rights and their reception in the Costa Rican legal system, considering the effectiveness of international treaties on the subject and the decisions of the Inter-American Commission and Court on Human Rights. The decisions of the Constitutional Chamber of the Costa Rican Supreme Court are also commented.

  17. Molecular Characterization of Two Major Dengue Outbreaks in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Garita, Claudio; Somogyi, Teresita; Vicente-Santos, Amanda; Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia

    2016-07-06

    Dengue virus (DENV) (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) is a reemerging arthropod-borne virus with a worldwide circulation, transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Since the first detection of its main transmitting vector in 1992 and the invasion of DENV-1 in 1993, Costa Rica has faced dengue outbreaks yearly. In 2007 and 2013, Costa Rica experienced two of the largest outbreaks in terms of total and severe cases. To provide genetic information about the etiologic agents producing these outbreaks, we conducted phylogenetic analysis of viruses isolated from human samples. A total of 23 DENV-1 and DENV-2 sequences were characterized. These analyses signaled that DENV-1 genotype V and DENV-2 American/Asian genotype were circulating in those outbreaks. Our results suggest that the 2007 and 2013 outbreak viral strains of DENV-1 and DENV-2 originated from nearby countries and underwent in situ microevolution. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Bioplaguicidas de origen vegetal en Costa Rica (ING)

    OpenAIRE

    García, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    More than hundred plant species reported to have some kind of pesticide effect in Costa Rica are cited. The current situation of supply and demand of these products is presented, emphasizing the principal limitations for the development at commercial level, as well as the potential that the country possesses based on its extraordinary biodiversity. A listing of the institutions related to this matter is given. Finally, additional considerations are made about the toxicity of theses products a...

  19. Brasil, Argentina e América do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Nogueira Batista Jr.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available ESTE trabalho discute alguns aspectos da evolução econômica recente do Brasil, da Argentina e de outros países da América do Sul. Tendências econômicas e intelectuais perigosas, tais como a "globalização", o chamado Consenso de Washington, a dolarização e as negociações da Alca (Área de Livre Comércio das Américas, perderam ímpeto e a América do Sul está se movendo gradualmente na direção de um posicionamento mais independente na condução das suas política econômicas e internacionais. As mudanças foram muito mais significativas na Argentina do que no Brasil e isso se tornou fonte de alguma tensão entre os dois principais países sul-americanos. Não obstante, uma aliança estratégica entre Argentina e Brasil continua sendo a pedra angular da integração da América do Sul.THIS PAPER discusses some aspects of the recent economic evolution of Brazil, Argentina and other South American countries. Dangerous economic and intellectual trends, such as "globalization", the so-called Washington Consensus, dollarization, and FTAA (Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations, have lost momentum and South America is moving gradually towards a more independent stance in the conduct of its economic and foreign policies. Changes have been much more significant in Argentina than in Brazil and this has become a source of some tension between the two major South American countries. Nevertheless, a strategic alliance between Argentina and Brazil remains the corner stone of South American integration.

  20. The problem of digital heritage: the case of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bernal Rivas Fernández

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the problem you are facing the production of documents in digital form, as a result of the latest trends in the e-government that poses new challenges for archives and access to information contained in this type of support. This is a brief review the case of Costa Rica, where there have already been some effects in terms of the protection of digital heritage especially by the impact of information technologies and communication.

  1. Report on the Application of Ionizing Radiations in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Araya, J.

    1992-07-01

    This report presents an analysis of the different public and private institutions, that in any form applies ionizing radiations. In total a sample of 387 was considered; it offers a great reliability, considering the size of Costa Rican market. Fundamentally the information was taken from the archives of the Atomic Energy Commision of Costa Rica; also from reports of labors and surveys carried out during 1991, tending to justify the Project ARCAL XVI: Industrial Applications of the Nuclear Technology. (author)

  2. Situation in the radiation protection field in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco Jimenez, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    The report describes the radiation protection infrastructure in Costa Rica and makes reference to the existing legal framework. The national inventory of significant radiation sources and structure of the Ministry of Health as the national regulatory authority for radiation safety is illustrated; information is also provided on the radiation monitoring equipment available, on programme activities related to the control of radiation sources by authorization and inspection, and on technical support services. (author)

  3. Balance de la Historia Cultural en Centroamérica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vega Jiménez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El artículo introduce una serie de reflexiones sobre el desarrollo y perspectivas de la historia cultural desarrolladas en el VII Congreso Centroamericano de Historia celebrado en Tegucigalpa, en julio del 2004, destacando los avances y retos que tiene esta área de la historiografía en cinco de los países centroamericanos: Panamá, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador y Guatemala.

  4. Plants and butterflies of a small urban preserve in the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Nishida

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica’s most populated area, the Central valley, has lost much of its natural habitat, and the little that remains has been altered to varying degrees. Yet few studies have been conducted to assess the need for conservation in this area. We present preliminary inventories of plants, butterflies, and day-flying moths of the Reserva Ecológica Leonelo Oviedo (RELO, a small Premontane Moist Forest preserve within the University of Costa Rica campus, located in the urbanized part of the valley. Butterflies are one of the best bio-indicators of a habitat’s health, because they are highly sensitive to environmental changes and are tightly linked to the local flora. A description of the RELO’s physical features and its history is also presented with illustrations. Approximately 432 species of ca. 334 genera in 113 families of plants were identified. However, only 57 % of them represent species native to the Premontane Moist Forest of the region; the rest are either exotic or species introduced mostly from lowland. More than 200 species of butterflies in six families, including Hesperiidae, have been recorded. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 31-67. Epub 2009 November 30.Por ser el área más poblada del país, el valle Central de Costa Rica perdió su hábitat natural; lo poco que queda ha sido alterado en grados variados. Sin embargo, se han realizado algunos estudios para evaluar la necesidad de conservación en esta área. Se presentan inventarios preliminares de plantas, mariposas y polillas diurnas de la Reserva Ecológica Leonelo Oviedo (RELO; una pequeña reserva de bosque húmedo premontano en del campus de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ubicado en la parte urbanizada del valle. Las mariposas diurnas son uno de los mejores bio-indicadores de la salud del hábitat, porque son muy sensibles a los cambios del ambiente y están estrechamente ligadas a la flora local. Se presenta también una descripción de los caracteres físicos y la

  5. Co-designing communication and hazard preparedness strategies at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Saskia; Avard, Geoffroy; Martinez, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Globally volcanic activity results in huge human, social, environmental and economic losses. Disaster risk reduction (DRR) is the concept and systematic practice of reducing disaster risks and associated losses through a wide range of strategies, including efforts to increase knowledge through education and outreach. However, recent studies have shown a substantial gap between risk reduction actions taken at national and local levels, with national policies showing little change at the community level. Yet it is at local levels are where DRR efforts can have the biggest impact. This research focuses on communicating hazard preparedness strategies at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica. Located in the Central Cordillera just 35 km northeast of Costa Rica's capital city San Jose this 3,340 m high active stratovolcano looms over Costa Rica's Central Valley, the social and economic hub of the country. Following progressive increases in degassing and seismic activity Turrialba resumed activity in 1996 after more than 100 years of quiescence. Since 2007 it has continuously emitted gas and since 2010 intermittent phreatic explosions accompanied by ash emissions have occurred. Despite high levels of hazard salience individuals and communities are not or under-prepared to deal with a volcanic eruption. In light of Turrialba's continued activity engaging local communities with disaster risk management is key. At the local levels culture (collective behaviours, interactions, cognitive constructs, and affective understanding) is an important factor in shaping peoples' views, understanding and response to natural phenomena. As such an increasing number of academic studies and intergovernmental organisations advocate for the incorporation of cultural context into disaster risk reduction strategies, which firstly requires documenting people's perception. Therefore approaching community disaster preparedness from a user-centred perspective, through an iterative and collaborative

  6. Why do adults entitled to free or highly subsidized dental services select fully out-of-pocket-paid care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Fariborz; Vehkalahti, Miira M; Murtomaa, Heikki; Tala, Heikki

    2010-02-01

    To investigate patients' reasons for selecting a dental clinic given their choice of free or highly-subsidized dental services. The study was based on cross-sectional data obtained through phone interviews with adults in Tehran, Iran. The present study included those entitled to free or highly-subsidized dental services (n = 726). The data covered the patients' awareness of subsidized dental services and type of dental clinic for their most recent visit and their reasons for selecting that clinic. Awareness of subsidized dental services was dichotomized as being either aware or unaware of such subsidy. The type of clinic was dichotomized as providing either free or highly-subsidized (FHS) or fully out-of-pocket paid (FOP) services. Free format answers about the subjects' reasons for selecting a particular clinic were later sub-grouped as: convenient access, good technical aspects, good interpersonal aspects, low or reasonable fees, recommendation by a friend, and no reason. Socio-demographic status was based on background. Data analysis included the chi-square test and logistic regression model. Of the subjects (n = 726), 60% were women and 58% were under 35 years of age. The subjects' mean age was 33.5 years with no difference by gender (P = 0.24) and the majority had public insurance (91%). Of all the subjects, 60% selected FOP. Good interpersonal aspects were the strongest reason for selecting FOP (OR = 4.6), follow by good technical aspects (OR = 2.3). Those subjects who were unaware of their benefit had 4.6 times the odds of selecting FOP. Despite the opportunity to use highly-subsidized dental services, good interpersonal and good technical aspects lead patients to select private dentists and to pay fully out of pocket.

  7. Gender Inequitable Masculinity and Sexual Entitlement in Rape Perpetration South Africa: Findings of a Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Morrell, Robert; Dunkle, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence and patterns of rape perpetration in a randomly selected sample of men from the general adult population, to explore factors associated with rape and to describe how men explained their acts of rape. Design Cross-sectional household study with a two- stage randomly selected sample of men. Methods 1737 South African men aged 18–49 completed a questionnaire administered using an Audio-enhanced Personal Digital Assistant. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to identify factors associated with rape perpetration. Results In all 27.6% (466/1686) of men had raped a woman, whether an intimate partner, stranger or acquaintance, and whether perpetrated alone or with accomplices, and 4.7% had raped in the last 12 months. First rapes for 75% were perpetrated before age 20, and 53.9% (251) of those raping, did so on multiple occasions. The logistic regression model showed that having raped was associated with greater adversity in childhood, having been raped by a man and higher maternal education. It was associated with less equitable views on gender relations, having had more partners, and many more gender inequitable practices including transactional sex and physical partner violence. Also drug use, gang membership and a higher score on the dimensions of psychopathic personality, namely blame externalisation and Machiavellian egocentricity. Asked about why they did it, the most common motivations stemmed from ideas of sexual entitlement. Conclusions Perpetration of rape is so prevalent that population-based measures of prevention are essential to complement criminal justice system responses. Our findings show the importance of measures to build gender equity and change dominant ideas of masculinity and gender relations as part of rape prevention. Reducing men's exposure to trauma in childhood is also critically important. PMID:22216324

  8. QA Programme of the TLD laboratory of the University of Costa Rica: IEC 61066 testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Patricia; Porras Chaverria, Mariela

    2008-01-01

    The Thermoluminescence Personal Dosimetry Laboratory of the University of Costa Rica provides dose measurements for around 90% of occupational radiation workers in the country. The assessment of doses to workers routinely exposed to external sources of radiation constitutes an integral part of any radiation protection programme and helps national authorities to ensure acceptably safe and satisfactory radiological conditions in workplaces. Harshaw Readers Model 4000 and 4500, dosimeter holders Type 8814 with TLD-100 in 0110 cards and loose TLD-100 chips are used to monitor personal dose equivalent, Hp(10) and Hp(0.07). In order to provide a reliable measurement of the operational quantities, a study was undertaken to verify the fulfillment of international requirements in our system (Model 4500 with cards) against the Thermoluminescence dosimetry systems for personal and environmental monitoring CEI IEC 61066 (1991 -2012). The type tests performed were nine in total: batch homogeneity, reproducibility, linearity, detection threshold, effect of climate conditions on reader, effect of light exposure on dosimeters, isotropy, transient voltage and dropping on dosimeters. A Cesium-137 source was used to irradiate the dosimeters and all procedures follow the indications given on the standard. Results showed that all IEC criteria were met by our Laboratory. Acceptable uncertainties were also studied under the ICRP recommendations; the analysis of the Trumpet Curve was done with satisfactory results (for doses above 0.5 mSv; quotient of measure to real dose less than 3%). For purposes of accreditation (ISO/IEC 17025:2005) and performance testing this work is very relevant since the University of Costa Rica wants to establish a solid individual monitoring programme for external radiation exposure that will provide users, registrants, licensees and regulatory bodies with information that can be used for the optimization of protection and dose limitation of Costa Rican workers

  9. ¿QUIEN CREA MIPYMES EN COSTA RICA? (¿Who are the SME creators in Costa Rica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Leiva Bonilla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta las características más relevantes de los emprendedores que crearos sus propias empresas en Costa Rica, así como el entorno en el cual lo hicieron. Esto a partir de los datos emanados del segundo estudio nacional de micros, pequeñas y medianas empresas (mipymes costarricenses efectuado por el Observatorio de Mipymes durante el año 2011. ABSTRACT This paper presents the most relevant characteristics of the entrepreneurs that created companies in Costa Rica and the country’s entrepreneurial environment. This analysis was done using data from the Second National Survey of micro, small and medium sized Costa Rican companies made by the SME Observatory during 2011.

  10. Etnomatemática en Costa Rica: Un acercamiento a su perspectiva socio-histórica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Patricia Vásquez-Hernández

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of socio-historical research on the development of ethnomathematics in Costa Rica, with an emphasis on the description of events over time, which tries to order the information along a temporal referent. This research is part of the results of the FUNDER Ethnomathematical project of the Regional Section Huetar North and Caribbean (Campus Sarapiqui of the National University of Costa Rica. The methodology is mainly qualitative in its approach and the narrative is subdivided into theme-based topics. The results demonstrate the work that has been developed in this country to delve into ethnomathematics as a line of research from the various areas of human knowledge and work developed around it.

  11. 77 FR 75659 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Defendants, consisting of Johnson & Johnson, Permacel, Inc., 3M Company, Lionetti Oil Recovery, Inc., and Fry... for the District of New Jersey in the lawsuit entitled United States v. Johnson & Johnson, et al... Management Company, Union Carbide Corporation, Advanced Environmental Technology Corporation, AT&T Corp., The...

  12. Grand challenge problems in environmental modeling and remediation: groundwater contaminant transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Arbogast; Steve Bryant; Clint N. Dawson; Mary F. Wheeler

    1998-08-31

    This report describes briefly the work of the Center for Subsurface Modeling (CSM) of the University of Texas at Austin (and Rice University prior to September 1995) on the Partnership in Computational Sciences Consortium (PICS) project entitled Grand Challenge Problems in Environmental Modeling and Remediation: Groundwater Contaminant Transport.

  13. 77 FR 2292 - Request for Nominations for Peer Reviewers for the Draft Research Report Entitled, “Investigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... (Chemical fate and transport, oxidation/reduction reactions, hydraulic fracturing chemistry and/or gas... of the following areas: --Petroleum Engineering (Natural gas, oil). --Petroleum Geology (Particularly... drilling areas). --Geophysics, Environmental Engineering (As related to drilling and its effects). --Water...

  14. Nivel de complejidad de las competencias genéricas en carreras agroalimentarias Nivel de complejidad de las competencias genéricas en carreras agroalimentarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Córdova Duarte

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To determine the generic competencies and their complexity level in the agriculture, food production and animal husbandry programs at the University of Guanajuato, the institutional standards and curriculum documents of the Environmental Engineering, Food and Agriculture, and Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnology graduate degree programs were revised. Learning units, transverse axes, activities and learning products, and the program evaluation form were reviewed. A scale was established for the level of complexity and was then transformed into a percentage. The order of complexity of competence was: learning process, axiological, autonomy, personal development, interpersonal relationships and group work. In the first place numerical skills, analysis, synthesis and evaluation stand out; in the second, compromise and respect for the environment; in the third, criticism and participation; and in the last place communication in a second language. This paper concludes that most of curriculum must be updated with an eye towards balancing the various competencies. Buscando determinar las competencias genéricas y su nivel de complejidad en los currícula de carreras agroalimentarias de la Universidad de Guanajuato, se revisó la normatividad universitaria y documentos de Ingeniero Ambiental, Alimentos, Agrónomo y la licenciatura de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia. Se examinaron unidades de aprendizaje, ejes transversales, actividades y productos de aprendizaje y, forma de evaluación de los programas; se estableció una escala para el nivel de complejidad y se transformó en porcentaje. El orden de complejidad de las competencias fue: proceso de aprendizaje, axiológica, autonomía, desarrollo personal, relaciones interpersonales y trabajo grupal. En la primera, destacan habilidad numérica, análisis, síntesis y evaluación; en la segunda, compromiso y respeto por el medio; en la tercera, crítico y participativo; en la última, comunicación en un

  15. Pakistan's national legislation entitled: 'Export Control on Goods, Technologies, Material and Equipment related to Nuclear and Biological Weapons and their Delivery Systems Act, 2004'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Director General has received a letter from the Permanent Mission of Pakistan, dated 4 November 2004, concerning Pakistan's national legislation entitled 'Export Control on Goods, Technologies, Material and Equipment related to Nuclear and Biological Weapons and their Delivery Systems Act, 2004'. As requested by the Permanent Mission of Pakistan, the letter and the Export Control Act of 2004, are reproduced herein for the information of the Member States

  16. [Luís Gomes Ferreira reports on the health of slaves in his work entitled Erário mineral (1735)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugênio, Alisson

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the reports of Luís Gomes Ferreira published in his manual on practical medicine entitled Erário mineral, of 1735, on the most common illnesses in captivity. It is shown that such reports can be interpreted as a criticism of the social relations of the slave era by issuing some warnings to the landowners who failed to look after the health of their slaves.

  17. Capital social y su vínculo con la pobreza en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Collado, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Este artículo explora algunas de las relaciones teóricas y empíricas entre el capital social y la pobreza en Costa Rica. Se define "capital social" como el valor de las relaciones sociales mediadas por "normas de reciprocidad". Se usan datos de la encuesta de Opinión Pública de América Latina (2004) y del Censo de Población y Vivienda (2000). Se comprobó que la pobreza disminuye, conforme aumenta el capital social. Los estratos bajos y altos participan más en organizaciones formales e informa...

  18. Environmental guidance for public participation in environmental restoration activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is issuing this document, entitled Guidance on Public Participation for US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Activities, to summarize policy and provide guidance for public participation in environmental restoration activities at DOE Headquarters, Field Offices, facilities, and laboratories. While the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) has environmental restoration responsibility for the majority of DOE sites and facilities, other DOE Project Offices have similar responsibilities at their sites and facilities. This guidance is applicable to all environment restoration activities conducted by or for DOE under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA); the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA) (corrective actions only); and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). This guidance also is applicable to CERCLA remedial action programs under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 and the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, where DOE is the designated lead. The primary objectives of this guidance document are as follows: acclimate DOE staff to a changing culture that emphasizes the importance of public participation activities; provide direction on implementing these public participation activities; and, provide consistent guidance for all DOE Field Offices and facilities. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on conducting effective public participation activities for environmental restoration activities under CERCLA; RCRA corrective actions under sections 3004(u), 3004(v), and 3008(h); and NEPA public participation activities.

  19. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    from the perspective of time and liveness as experienced in art on environmental performance discussing how environmental performances frame the temporality of the world. The paper engages with contemporary examples of environmental performances from various disciplines (sound, video, television...

  20. Environmental Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Ekelund, Kathrine

    2015-01-01

    The philosophical subfield environmental aesthetics can contribute to the design of sustainable futures. Environmental aesthetics provides a conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between nature and culture. Current positions in environmental aesthetics are lined out and used...

  1. Prisiones e internados: una comparación de los establecimientos penales en América del Norte y América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Howard Birkbeck

    Full Text Available El empleo reciente de términos como "warehouse prison" en Estados Unidos y "campo de concentración" en América Latina parecería indicar que las condiciones de privación de la libertad son distintas en ambas regiones. El análisis presentado aquí explora esas diferencias. Se comparan los establecimientos penales en América del Norte y América Latina a través de seis dimensiones relacionadas entre sí: la organización interna de los espacios, la vigilancia, el aislamiento, la supervisión, el control administrativo y la formalización de los procedimientos. En América del Norte, el control es asiduo (persistente, intrusivo y casi permanente; en América Latina, el control es somero (esporádico, indiferente y superficial. Si en América del Norte se habla de prisiones y encarcelamiento, en América Latina parece mejor hablar de internados judiciales e internación.

  2. Environmental Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    Contains information on the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the Endangered Species Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability...

  3. Contrasting patterns of leaf trait variation among and within species during tropical dry forest succession in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derroire, Géraldine; Powers, Jennifer S; Hulshof, Catherine M; Cárdenas Varela, Luis E; Healey, John R

    2018-01-10

    A coordinated response to environmental drivers amongst individual functional traits is central to the plant strategy concept. However, whether the trait co-ordination observed at the global scale occurs at other ecological scales (especially within species) remains an open question. Here, for sapling communities of two tropical dry forest types in Costa Rica, we show large differences amongst traits in the relative contribution of species turnover and intraspecific variation to their directional changes in response to environmental changes along a successional gradient. We studied the response of functional traits associated with the leaf economics spectrum and drought tolerance using intensive sampling to analyse inter- and intra-specific responses to environmental changes and ontogeny. Although the overall functional composition of the sapling communities changed during succession more through species turnover than through intraspecific trait variation, their relative contributions differed greatly amongst traits. For instance, community mean specific leaf area changed mostly due to intraspecific variation. Traits of the leaf economics spectrum showed decoupled responses to environmental drivers and ontogeny. These findings emphasise how divergent ecological mechanisms combine to cause great differences in changes of individual functional traits over environmental gradients and ecological scales.

  4. EXPERIENCIAS EN POLÍTICA MONETARIA: LECCIONES PARA COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Villanueva Sánchez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La conducción de la política monetaria ha evolucionado junto con el desarrollo de los diferentes enfoques teóricos macroeconómicos y las enseñanzas que se han derivado de la evidencia empírica. A partir de la quiebra del Sistema de Bretton Woods todos los países tuvieron que buscar la forma de implementar y conducir su política cambiaria y monetaria en forma consistente. En ese momento, empezó un proceso de prueba y error que ha sido fundamental en la conceptualización de la política monetaria.Por mucho tiempo Estados Unidos fue quien llevó la pauta en esta materia, su máxima contribución fue deducir a la luz de la evidencia empírica que la función primordial de la política monetaria es garantizar una inflación baja y estable con el fin de crear las condiciones necesarias para lograr el máximo crecimiento económico. A pesar de esa conclusión, su estrategia muestra una discrepancia con la concepción teórica, lo cual podría estar justificada en el mandato legal que obliga a la política de la Reserva Federal a alcanzar varios objetivos macroeconómicos simultáneos, es decir, máximo crecimiento, mínima inflación y tasa de interés moderada de largo plazo.

  5. La Universidad de Costa Rica en tránsito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badilla Saxe, Eleonora

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La Universidad de Costa Rica en Tránsito es un artículo que pretende dar cuenta del tránsito que ha iniciado la institución en su camino hacia la transdisciplinariedad. Se presenta, en primera instancia, un contexto histórico y referentes teóricos que apuntan a que la Universidad en el Siglo XXI debe iniciar un tránsito, por una parte, de regreso a reflejar el significado de su origen: UNIVERSUS-A-UM (“todo”, “entero”, “universal” superando fragmentaciones y departamentalizaciones y, por otro, hacia una visión transdisciplinar, un pensamiento complejo en sintonía con las realidades biológicas, sociales y culturales del mundo en el siglo XXI. Y, ya que la transdisciplinariedad no se puede llevar a cabo más que en la acción y en la interacción con otros, se reporta sobre una serie de estrategias interconectadas que se están promoviendo Universidad de Costa Rica para ayudar a la institución a iniciar ese tránsito.Abstract. University of Costa Rica in Transit is an article that reports on the journey the institution has started on its path towards transdisciplinarity. On one way, back to the origen: universus (all, whole, universal, overcoming fragmentation and departamentalization. On the other towards a transdisciplinary vision and complex thinking in accordance with the new biological, social and cultural realities of our world. Interactive and interrelated strategies that are currently beeing promoted to stimulate the institution towards transdisciplinarity are reported here. It is important to remember that transdisciplinarity can only be reflected in action, and in the interaction with others.

  6. La violencia homicida en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto BRICEÑO-LEÓN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El artículo analiza la situación de la violencia homicida en América Latina, cuál es su ubicación en la situación mundial de violencia y cuáles serían las posibles explicaciones para el lugar que ocupa. Utilizando la base de datos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud se clasifican las regiones por su tasa de homicidios y se ubica a América Latina como la región más violenta. Los países de América Latina son clasificados en cuatro grupos de acuerdo a la relación de su tasa de homicidios con la tasa media mundial y se caracterizan socialmente las víctimas.Para interpretar esa situación se relacionan con los niveles de urbanización y pobreza y se presentan los factores que pueden originar, fomentar y facilitar el incremento o disminución de los homicidios y su potencial utilidad en las políticas públicas.ABSTRACT: This article explores the situation of homicide violence in Latin America, its position within the worlds violence situation and the possible explanations for that position. Using the data bases of the World Health Organization, regions are classified by their homicide rates, which puts Latin America as the most violent region. Latin American countries are set in four groups according to the relation of their homicide rates with the world’s rate, and a social classification of victims is built. For interpreting this situation, those factors are put in relation with the levels of urbanization and poverty, and the possible causes of the increase or decrease of homicides are presented, as well as their potential utility for public policy making.

  7. Pilas de combustible de Membrana polimérica

    OpenAIRE

    Asensio, Juan; Peña, Juan; Pérez-Coll, Domingo; Ruiz-Morales, Juan; Marrero -López, David; Núñez, Pedro; Ballesteros, Belèn; Canales-Vázquez, Jesús; Borrós, Salvador; Gómez-Romero, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo revisamos brevemente las pilas de combustible poliméricas (PEM) basadas en membranas de intercambio protónico y que constituyen la tecnología idónea de pilas de combustible de baja temperatura, y por tanto las más adecuadas para aplicación en transporte. Revisaremos los materiales que las componen pero tambíen los desarrollos necesarios para su implantación definitiva en un mercado inclemente con las tecnologías caras, por límpias que sean.

  8. Las Escuelas Jónica y Pitagórica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Sánchez Muñoz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende dar una visión general de las que hoy día sonconsideradas las dos primeras escuelas matemáticas griegas modernas. Sehace un repaso de ambas escuelas, la Escuela Jónica personificada en Ta-les de Mileto y la Escuela Pitagórica personificada en Pitágoras de Samos. Ambos personajes fueron un referente para otros filósofos y matemáticos posteriores.

  9. Los estudios culturales en Centroamérica.

    OpenAIRE

    Fumero, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    En el presente artículo se considerará el inicio de los estudios culturales en Centroamérica y las diversas corrientes que influyeron en este cambio. Posteriormente, se analizará la problemática que supone el estudio del istmo, en términos de su diversidad y del desarrollo de adecuadas perspectivas comparativas. Por último, se revisarán los avances logrados por los estudios literarios y los desafíos planteados en el futuro inmediato.

  10. América latina: la ciudad negada

    OpenAIRE

    Livingston Crawford; Pamela Flores

    2006-01-01

    Este ensayo hace un recorrido histórico sobre los significados que visibiliza la estructura urbana en América Latina desde la Colonia hasta el presente. Partiendo de la separación entre lo rural y lo urbano heredada del mundo colonial, el ensayo muestra las alteraciones que en la gramática urbana y en el imaginario simbólico, produce la explosión urbana de los años sesenta del siglo pasado, lo que constituye una noción deteriorada de espacio público como signo de la ciuda...

  11. Costo social y desigualdad en América Latina.

    OpenAIRE

    Villavicencio Rodríguez, Tatiana Jackeline

    2016-01-01

    La presente tesis busca realizar un acercamiento a la relación entre desigualdad y gasto social en América Latina para el periodo 1990-2013. Primeramente nos proponemos verificar si existe simultaneidad o doble causalidad entre las variables del gasto social y la desigualdad medida a través del índice de Gini. En caso afirmativo se analizará el efecto que las variables de gasto social (educación, salud, seguridad social, vivienda y otros) tienen sobre la desigualdad y el efecto que la desigua...

  12. Pyroclastic sulphur eruption at Poas Volcano, Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, P.W.; Thorpe, R.S.; Brown, G.C.; Glasscock, J.

    1980-01-01

    The recent Voyager missions to Jupiter have highlighted the role of sulphur in volcanic processes on io. Although fumarolic sulphur and SO/sub 2/ gas are almost universal in terrestrial active volcanoes, and rare instances of sulphur lava flows have been reported, sulphur in a pyroclastic form has only been described from Poas Volcano, Costa Rica. Here we amplify the original descriptions by Bennett and Raccichini and describe a recent eruption of pyroclastic sulphur scoria and ejected blocks that are characterised by miniature sulphur stalactites and stalagmites.

  13. A estrutura retórica do verbete Spinoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Chaui

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Propomos uma análise do verbete "Spinoza" do Dictionnaire Historique et Critique salientando a estrutura retórica do texto, em cujo centro se encontra a nova figura do ateu, construída por Bayle, o ateu especulativo ou "o ateu de sistema".The paper presents a study of the rhetorical framework of the article "Spinoza" in Bayle's Dictionnaire Historique et Critique and the new image of the atheist as athée de système.

  14. La iniciativa legislativa popular en América Latina

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Hevia de la Jara

    2010-01-01

    Una de las características del proceso de democratización en América Latina es la incorporación de mecanismos de democracia directa como el plebiscito, la iniciativa legislativa y la revocación del mandato. Este artículo analiza específicamente uno de ellos: la Iniciativa Legislativa Popular (ILP), definida como el derecho de los ciudadanos a presentar proyectos de ley al Parlamento y/o exigir una consulta popular para aprobar o rechazar leyes o reformas legales. El artículo incluye una discu...

  15. Idolos populares y literatura en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Monsiváis

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo del siglo se produce en América Latina una importante operación literaria, ideológica y social de resultas de la cual muchos de los límites y de las barreras impuestas por la así llamada "alta cultura" -la representación de lo mejor de Occidente- se derrumban, y una serie de factores considerados "vulgares, de mal gusto, indignos del mínimo a precio", ocupan un sitio fundamental en las determinaciones culturales.

  16. Garantías Ambientales en la Constitución: Un nuevo modelo ecológico-político para Costa Rica y el resto del mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Quesada A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La Constitución Política de Costa Rica incluye un párrafo sobre el derecho a un ambiente sano, la responsabilidad del Estado a garantizar, defender y preservar ese derecho, así como la acción popular (Artículo 50. Sin embargo, es fundamental incluir en la Constitución un título de Derechos y Garantías Ambientales donde el Estado garantice, defienda y preserve el derecho a un ambiente biofísico y humano ecológicamente sostenible, donde se mantenga el dominio público sobre los elementos del ambiente, y se regule su uso y aprovechamiento de conformidad con las reglas de la ciencia y la técnica. Costa Rica sería el primer país en el mundo con un título constitucional de Derechos y Garantías Ambientales y daría el ejemplo a otras naciones en materia ambiental. Las Garantías Ambientales serán un instrumento ágil y eficiente para proteger el ambiente.Environmental Guarantees in the Constitution: a new ecological-political model for Costa Rica and the rest of the world. In the last thirty years significant changes to protect the environment have been introduced in the judicial, administrative and social systems. Costa Rica is a well known international model in the field of sustainable development, and here I present a proposal for adding environmental gaurantees to the Costa Rican Constitution. One of the most important changes in the Costa Rican judicial system has been the introduction of an environmental amendment in the Constitution (Article 50. However, it is still fundamental to introduce a Title of Environmental Guarantees in the Constitution of Costa Rica, with these components: first, the State, the public and the private sector have the duty of defending the right to a safe environment; second, public domain over environmental issues, and third, the use of the environment should be regulated by scientific and technical knowledge. If current efforts succeed, Costa Rica will be the first country in the world to include

  17. Costa Rica – “Bogate Wybrzeże” = Costa Rica – „Rich Coast”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Napierala

    2016-02-01

    Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy   Słowa kluczowe: turystyka, Kostaryka, parki narodowe. Key words: tourism, Costa Rica, national parks.   Streszczenie Materiał stanowi dokument z obserwacji autora z pobytu w Kostaryce. Pobyt miał miejsce na przełomie 2015 i 2016 roku i był okazją do zwiedzenia miejsc ciekawych w klimacie podrównikowym. Podróżowanie to odwieczne ludzkie marzenie. Treścią wielu wyjazdów staje się odkrywanie nieznanego, szukanie odmienności w klimacie, florze i faunie, kulturze i zwyczajach ludzi. Można tu spotkać wiele gatunków zwierząt jak: małpy, krokodyle, liczne odmiany barwnych papug, kolibrów, tukany, ciekawe gatunki jaszczurek, węży, bogato ubarwione żaby, żółwie czy legwany. Ciekawe są także chrząszcze i wiele gatunków motyli. Kostaryka zostanie w pamięci miejscem fantastycznych krajobrazów, wakacyjny fenomenem.   Abstract The material is a document from the observation of the author's stay in Costa Rica. Visit took place at the turn of 2015 and 2016 years and was an opportunity to visit interesting places in equatorial climates. Travelling to the eternal human dream. The content of many trips becomes discovering the unknown, looking for differences in climate, flora and fauna, culture and customs of people. You can meet many animal species as .: monkeys, crocodiles, numerous varieties of colorful parrots, hummingbirds, toucans, interesting species of lizards, snakes, richly colored frogs, turtles and iguanas. Interesting are also many species of beetles and butterflies. Costa Rica is in the memory of the place fantastic landscapes, house phenomenon.

  18. Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao, Psittaciformes: Psittacidae Nest Characteristics in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Guittar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao is an endangered species. In Costa Rica, the Scarlet Macaw population of the Central Pacific Conservation Area (ACOPAC, n =432 individuals has undergone considerable study and has been used effectively as a flagship species for regional conservation. Costa Rica’s only other viable Scarlet Macaw population, located in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA, n=800-1200 individuals, remains virtually unstudied. We studied ACOSA Scarlet Macaw nest cavities from February 19th to March 22nd 2006. Through informal interviews with park guards and residents, we found a total of 57 potential nests in 52 trees. Eleven nests were reported as frequently poached. Scarlet Macaws used 14 identified tree species, ten of which are unrecorded in Costa Rica. The most common nesting trees were Caryocar costaricense (n=12, 24%, Schizolobium parahyba (n=9, 18.0%, Ceiba pentandra (n=7, 14.0% and Ficus sp. (n=5, 10.0%. We compare nesting characteristics to those recorded in ACOPAC. A combination of bottom-up and top-down strategies are necessary to ensure the Scarlet Macaw’s long-term success, including environmental education in local schools, community stewardship of active nests, and the advertisement of stricter penalties for poaching. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 387-393. Epub 2009 June 30.

  19. Environmental strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabkar, Vesna; Cater, Tomaz; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    perspective, appropriate environmental strategies in compliance with environmental requirements aim at building competitive advantages through sustainable development. There is no universal “green” strategy that would be appropriate for each company, regardless of its market requirements and competitive......Environmental issues and the inclusion of environmental strategies in strategic thinking is an interesting subject of investigation. In general, managerial practices organized along ecologically sound principles contribute to a more environmentally sustainable global economy. From the managerial...

  20. Status and conservation of coral reefs in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Jorge; Jiménez, Carlos E; Fonseca, Ana C; Alvarado, Juan José

    2010-05-01

    Costa Rica has coral communities and reefs on the Caribbean coast and on the Pacific along the coast and off-shore islands. The Southern section of the Caribbean coast has fringing and patch reefs, carbonate banks, and an incipient algal ridge. The Pacific coast has coral communities, reefs and isolated coral colonies. Coral reefs have been seriously impacted in the last 30 years, mainly by sediments (Caribbean coast and some Pacific reefs) and by El Niño warming events (both coasts). Monitoring is being carried out at three sites on each coast. Both coasts suffered significant reductions in live coral cover in the 1980's, but coral cover is now increasing in most sites. The government of Costa Rica is aware of the importance of coral reefs and marine environments in general, and in recent years decrees have been implemented (or are in the process of approval) to protect them, but limited resources endanger their proper management and conservation, including proper outreach to reef users and the general public.

  1. Costa Rica Rainfall in Future Climate Change Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Rodriguez, R. A., Sr.; Amador, J. A.; Duran-Quesada, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of intraseasonal and annual cycles of meteorological variables, using projections of climate change, are nowadays extremely important to improve regional socio-economic planning for countries. This is particularly true in Costa Rica, as Central America has been identified as a climate change hot spot. Today many of the economic activities in the region, especially those related to agriculture, tourism and hydroelectric power generation are linked to the seasonal cycle of precipitation. Changes in rainfall (mm/day) and in the diurnal temperature range (°C) for the periods 1950-2005 and 2006-2100 were investigated using the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) constructed using the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 5) data. Differences between the multi-model ensembles of the two prospective scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) and the retrospective baseline scenario were computed. This study highlights Costa Rica as an inflexion point of the climate change in the region and also suggests future drying conditions.

  2. Dating Violence: Study with Adolescents from Heredia (Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Avelino Fernández-Fuertes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of human aggressive behavior occurs in the context of a romantic relationship. Adolescents are not an exception: research show a significant prevalence of dating violence, revealing the need for further study, especially in Latin America, given the lack of research on this topic. This study aims at strengthening knowledge about aggressive behavior in adolescent dating relationships in Costa Rica, taking into account different aggressive behaviors, not only physical or sexual abuse; differences by gender are also analyzed. Based on an ex post facto design, a standardized instrument was used to measure five types of aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal-emotional, physical, sexual, relational and threats in a sample of 468 adolescents from Heredia (Costa Rica. Results show that most participants had committed or suffered aggressions in dating relationships, especially verbal-emotional or both verbal-emotional and sexual abuse, but the mean frequency of reported aggression was low; some significant intersex differences were also found. Results obtained indicate that adolescents have difficulties to deal with conflicts in their romantic relationship; thus this problem needs to be addressed holistically in order to increase the impact of prevention programs for youth.

  3. Canine Distemper Virus in Wild Felids of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño, Roberto; Barrueta, Flor; Soto-Fournier, Sofía; Chavarría, Max; Monge, Otto; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Chaves, Andrea

    2016-04-28

    Several highly infectious diseases can be transmitted through feces and cause elevated mortality among carnivore species. One such infectious agent, canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae: Morbillivirus), has been reported to affect wild carnivores, among them several felid species. We screened free-ranging and captive wild carnivores in Costa Rica for CDV. Between 2006 and 2012, we collected 306 fecal samples from 70 jaguars (Panther onca), 71 ocelots ( Leopardus pardalis ), five jaguarundis (Puma yaguaroundi), 105 pumas ( Puma concolor ), five margays ( Leopardus wiedii ), 23 coyotes ( Canis latrans ), and 27 undetermined Leopardus spp. We found CDV in six individuals: one captive jaguarundi (rescued in 2009), three free-ranging ocelots (samples collected in 2012), and two free-ranging pumas (samples collected in 2007). Phylogenetic analyses were performed using sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) gene. We provide evidence of CDV in wild carnivores in Costa Rica and sequence data from a Costa Rican CDV isolate, adding to the very few sequence data available for CDV isolates from wild Central American carnivores.

  4. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos. Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326

  5. Phytomedicinal potential of tropical cloudforest plants from Monteverde, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Setzer

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A pharmacological survey of plants from Monteverde, Costa Rica, including 165 species representing 61 families has been carried out. Crude plant extracts have been tested for in-vitro bactericidal and fungicidal activity as well as cytotoxic and anti-herpes activity. Of these, 123 extracts exhibited notable cytotoxicity, 62 showed antibacterial activity, 4 showed antifungal activity, and 8 showed promising antiviral activity. Thus, 101 of the plant species examined in this work, or 62%, showed marked bioactivity in one or more bioassays. These results underscore the phytomedicinal potential of Neotropical cloud forestsSe realizó un análisis farmacológico de plantas de Monteverde, Costa Rica, que incluye 165 especies representantes de 61 familias. Se probó in-vitro la actividad bactericida y fungicida, así como la actividad citotóxica y anti-herpes de extractos crudos de plantas. De estos, 123 extractos exhibieron una notable citotoxicidad, 62 mostraron actividad antibacterial, 4 presentaron actividad antihongos, y 8 mostraron una promisoria actividad antiviral. Así, de las 101 especies de plantas examinadas en este trabajo, 62% presentaron una marcada actividad biológica en uno o más de los bioensayos. Estos resultados subrayan el potencial fitomédico de los bosques nubosos Neotropicales

  6. Radioactivity levels in three regions of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, P.; Salazar, A.

    1995-01-01

    The establishment of the first radioactivity levels of natural radiation was carried out during the period 1991 to 1994 in three different regions of Costa Rica. The radionuclides studied belong to different soil types related to each selected region. Utilizing low level counting techniques the specific activity of the natural radioactive chains 238 U daughters, 232 Th and the element 40 K were measured for a total of 120 samples during this period. The amount of 137 Cs, a fall out radionuclide, was also studied. The average national values in Bq.kg -1 measured for 238 U were 11.66 for 214 Bi, 34.42 for 226 Ra and 10.73 for 232 Pb, for 232 Th daughters were 4.08 for 208 Tl, 9.65 for 212 Bi and 7.62 for 228 Ac. The specific activity value for 40 K was 95.14 Bq.kg -1 and for 137 Cs was 2.38 Bq.kg -1 . It is found that Costa Rica is not highly natural radioactive country and that the values for 137 Cs are well below international reported values [es

  7. TELEMEDICINA: UN DESAFÍO PARA AMÉRICA LATINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litewka, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos.Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems.

  8. [Unnecessary premature and avoidable mortality in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca Castro, Fernando; Ortún Rubio, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    With the intention of establishing economic inequities, the article analyzes the variations of the Unnecessarily Premature and Sanitarily Avoidable Mortality (MIPSE) of each of the 81 cantons of Costa Rica during 2000-2005. It is important to identify those inequities, to establish policies and strategies trying to mitigate them. It applies the MIPSE classification proposed by members of the Information and Studies Service, of the Catalunya's Sanitary Resources Headquarter, Spain. By an Indicator of Socioeconomic Development (IDSE) of a University of Costa Rica economist's team, it organised each canton in groups of quintiles (I for the richest, V for the poorest), previous people standardization. We found as a major causes of mortality MIPSE in the country: Heart Isquemic Disease (19,55% MIPSE causes), Traffic Accidents with Motor Vehicles (11,60%), Brain Vascular Disease (6,95%), Perinatal (6,92%) and Suicide (5,14%). The VIH infection - AIDS mortality, the Best Cancer in Women, Uterus Cancer, Skin Cancer and Hepatic Disease Secondary to Alcohol Consumption, affects more the cantons with better financial conditions and the Prostate Benign Hyperplasia mortality, Mothers mortality related with Pregnancy, Childbirth or Puerperal Stage and the Abdominal Hernia mortality, affects more to those with worst economic level. Two MIPSE groups were identified with similar inequality: Leukaemia and Congenital Cardiovascular Disease.

  9. América latina: la ciudad negada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livingston Crawford

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo hace un recorrido histórico sobre los significados que visibiliza la estructura urbana en América Latina desde la Colonia hasta el presente. Partiendo de la separación entre lo rural y lo urbano heredada del mundo colonial, el ensayo muestra las alteraciones que en la gramática urbana y en el imaginario simbólico, produce la explosión urbana de los años sesenta del siglo pasado, lo que constituye una noción deteriorada de espacio público como signo de la ciudad negada, y la posterior conceptualización del espacio público, durante los noventa, como espacio de la diversidad. Al establecer un vínculo entre las perspectivas políticas y económicas de los diferentes momentos históricos de América Latina y la gramática espacial de la ciudad, los autores afirman que esta relación produce un texto que posibilita la comunicación (o incomunicación entre los ciudadanos y el Estado.

  10. Referéndum en Costa Rica: la primera experiencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Alberto Esquivel Faerron

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda los distintos mecanismos de democracia directa regulados en el ordenamiento jurídico costarricense, profundizando en el instituto del referéndum. Se centra en analizar, con apoyo en datos estadísticos, la primera experiencia de la aplicación del referéndum en Costa Rica, relativo a la aprobación del Tratado de Libre Comercio entre República Dominicana, Centroamérica y Estados Unidos. Como parte de este estudio, el autor desarrolla, desde el punto de vista doctrinario y de derecho comparado, temas medulares del referéndum que fueron motivo de amplia discusión, tales como: el carácter excepcional de este instituto -contra poniéndolo con el listado de las solicitudes de recolección de firmas presentadas ante el Tribunal-, la fiscalización del proceso, la posición del Poder Ejecutivo a favor de una de las tesis en contienda, el financiamiento de las campañas propagandísticas, la información ciudadana sobre el tema de la consulta y la participación de los medios de comunicación.

  11. Brucellosis in mammals of Costa Rica: An epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; Bonilla-Montoya, Roberto; Barrantes-Granados, Osvaldo; Esquivel-Suárez, Andrea; Montero-Caballero, Danilo; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Fallas-Monge, Zeanne; Palacios-Alfaro, José David; Baldi, Mario; Campos, Elena; Chanto, Grettel; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán Verri, Caterina; Romero-Zúñiga, Juan-José; Moreno, Edgardo

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis has been an endemic disease of cattle and humans in Costa Rica since the beginning of XX century. However, brucellosis in sheep, goats, pigs, water buffaloes, horses and cetaceans, has not been reported in the country. We have performed a brucellosis survey in these host mammal species, from 1999-2016. In addition, we have documented the number of human brucellosis reported cases, from 2003-2016. The brucellosis seroprevalence in goat and sheep herds was 0.98% and 0.7% respectively, with no Brucella isolation. Antibodies against Brucella were not detected in feral or domestic pigs. Likewise, brucellosis seroprevalence in horse and water buffalo farms was estimated in 6.5% and 21.7%, respectively, with no Brucella isolation. Six cetacean species showed positive reactions against Brucella antigens, and B. ceti was isolated in 70% (n = 29) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). A steady increase in the diagnosis of human brucellosis cases was observed. Taking into account the prevalence of brucellosis in the various host mammals of Costa Rica, different measures are recommended.

  12. La iniciativa legislativa popular en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Hevia de la Jara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las características del proceso de democratización en América Latina es la incorporación de mecanismos de democracia directa como el plebiscito, la iniciativa legislativa y la revocación del mandato. Este artículo analiza específicamente uno de ellos: la Iniciativa Legislativa Popular (ILP, definida como el derecho de los ciudadanos a presentar proyectos de ley al Parlamento y/o exigir una consulta popular para aprobar o rechazar leyes o reformas legales. El artículo incluye una discusión sobre los mecanismos de democracia directa en América Latina, una comparación de las leyes y reglamentos que regulan la ILP a nivel internacional, nacional y subnacional, un análisis sobre el uso de estos instrumentos en cuatro países (Uruguay, Colombia, Argentina y México, y una serie de conclusiones orientadas a identificar algunos factores críticos para su implementación y utilización.

  13. La nueva Doctrina Bush y la seguridad en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Maihold

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reflexiona en torno a los cambios producidos en las políticas internacionales y estatales de seguridad nacional de los Estados Unidos de América, y analiza esta circunstancia con la situación de la seguridad en los países de América Latina.

  14. Inventario de las macroalgas dulceacuícolas y marinas de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Bernecker Lucking, Andrea; Morales Zurcher, María

    2011-01-01

    Contiene un listado sobre los diferentes grupos de algas, sobre todo las macro algas de agua dulce y marinas para aumentar la lista de especies de algas de Costa Rica. Universidad de Costa Rica UCR::Docencia::Ciencias Básicas::Facultad de Ciencias::Escuela de Biología

  15. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres González, Daniel A.; Schulte, Katharina; Schmidt, Marco; Zizka, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica). 124 species (62.6%) grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8%) are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora), followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2%) and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%). PMID:24399894

  16. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Caceres Gonzalez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica. 124 species (62.6% grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8% are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora, followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2% and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%.

  17. El proceso hacia la paridad en América Latina. Argentina y Costa Rica, experiencias comparadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélida Archenti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available : Las dificultades que encontró la implementación de las cuotas dieron lugar al debate sobre la paridad política de género en América Latina. El principio de paridad es expresado en una norma que obliga a los partidos políticos a confeccionar las listas de candidatos con 50% de integrantes de cada sexo, ordenados en forma secuencial y alternada. A pesar del alto potencial de igualdad y equidad de género que conlleva este principio, al integrarse las normas paritarias a un sistema electoral determinado, los elementos de este marco normativo condicionan su efectividad, tal como ocurre con el sistema de cuotas. De tal modo que una legislación electoral paritaria altamente favorable a la participación política de las mujeres no resulta suficiente cuando el diseño del sistema electoral y la forma como los partidos y alianzas confeccionan sus listas, dando prioridad a las candidaturas masculinas, actúan como obstáculos para su acceso. El artículo presenta datos de los resultados de las elecciones paritarias a nivel subnacional en Costa Rica y Argentina que dan sustento a esta hipótesis

  18. Las grandes causas de muerte en la América precolombina. Una perspectiva hemisférica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Austin Alchon

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos 20 años, diversos especialistas han puesto en duda la imagen idílica que sobre América transmitieron los cronistas nativos respecto a que en este continente no se conocían enfermedades graves ni epidemias. Mediante los avances en paleopalotogía y paleodemografía se ha demostrado que antes del contacto con los europeos, en la América precolombina ocurrían con frecuencia epidemias, hambrunas y guerras, lo que disminuía las espectativas de vida y aumentaba la tasa de mortalidad. En este ensayo se examina la literatura reciente sobre la enfermedad y la salud en el continente, para saber cuáles eran las mayores causas de muerte en varias regiones del hemisferio en la época prehispánica, con lo que se intenta ofrecer una interpretación más exacta de los patrones de salud y mortalidad en el Nuevo Mundo, antes de 1492.

  19. La geografía como disciplina integral: notas teóricas y empíricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Herrera Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo responde al llamado a trascender las divisiones tradicionales entre Ciencias Sociales, Naturales y Humanidades y subraya cómo la Geografía ha internalizado muchos de los más recientes aportes teóricos y empíricos elaborados desde estas áreas, en un esfuerzo transdisciplinario por entender mejor la realidad socioambiental. Para darle coherencia teórica y relevancia práctica a este sincretismo intelectual, se propone un marco conceptual no reduccionista, elaborado por el geógrafo humanista Robert D. Sack (1997, 2003, 2010. Con el objetivo de ilustrar su pertinencia empírica, se discuten algunos paralelismos entre sus postulados y los propuestos por la "Evaluación de los ecosistemas del milenio" (2003 y por varios intelectuales destacados. Finalmente, se señala su potencial para responder constructivamente tanto al avasallador triunfalismo del mercado, como al relativismo desorientador y paralizante que con frecuencia domina nuestras discusiones públicas e intelectuales.

  20. LOS REGÍMENES CAMBIARIOS EN COSTA RICA: EVOLUCIÓN HISTÓRICA Y EVALUACIÓN DE ALGUNAS ALTERNATIVAS TEÓRICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Saborio Muñoz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la década de los cincuenta, la economía costarricense comenzó a orientarse hacia un modelo de sustitución de importaciones, modelo impulsado por la CEPAL en América Latina, y el cual se puso muy de moda entre los países subdesarrollados. Este sistema consistía en otorgarle incentivos a la industria local, con el propósito de que orientara su producción hacia el mercado interno, sobre todo de los bienes que normalmente se importaban. Sin embargo, este modelo tenía como principal problema, la dependencia que generaba de las materias primas traídas del exterior, razón por la cual el sistema lo que varió fue el tipo de importaciones.En sus inicios, este modelo fue sostenible debido a la incorporación del país al Mercado Común Centroamericano y a la gran disposición de recursos, que permitieron la importación de bienes de capital, y la construcción de obras de infraestructura. Con el paso de los años, sin embargo, el mercado centroamericano dejó de funcionar como tal a causa principalmente de los problemas políticos que vivían los países del istmo. A pesar de este deterioro en el comercio regional, durante la década de los setenta, Costa Rica tuvo acceso a una gran cantidad de recursos financieros, producto de los excedentes generados por la producción de petróleo a los países productores , y al aumento vertiginoso en los precios internacionales del café, el cual era su principal producto de exportación; esta afluencia de recursos externos permitió ignorar durante unos años los problemas que existían en el sistema productivo costarricense. Cabe recalcar que durante todo el período el tipo de cambio permaneció prácticamente constante, excepto por algunas pequeñas devaluaciones; lo cual iba muy en línea con lo estipulado por el acuerdo de Bretton Woods.

  1. Do Payments Pay Off? Evidence from Participation in Costa Rica's PES Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R A Arriagada

    Full Text Available Payments for environmental services (PES are often viewed as a way to simultaneously improve conservation outcomes and the wellbeing of rural households who receive the payments. However, evidence for such win-win outcomes has been elusive. We add to the growing literature on conservation program impacts by using primary household survey data to evaluate the socioeconomic impacts of participation in Costa Rica's PES program. Despite the substantial cash transfers to voluntary participants in this program, we do not detect any evidence of impacts on their wealth or self-reported well-being using a quasi-experimental design. These results are consistent with the common claim that voluntary PES do not harm participants, but they beg the question of why landowners participate if they do not benefit. Landowners in our sample voluntarily renewed their contracts after five years in the program and thus are unlikely to have underestimated their costs of participation. They apparently did not invest additional income from the program in farm inputs such as cattle or hired labor, since both decreased as a result of participation. Nor do we find evidence that participation encouraged moves off-farm. Instead, semi-structured interviews suggest that participants joined the program to secure their property rights and contribute to the public good of forest conservation. Thus, in order to understand the social impacts of PES, we need to look beyond simple economic rationales and material outcomes.

  2. Deforestation and the structure of frog communities in the Humedale Terraba-Sierpe, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlani, Dario; Francesco Ficetola, Gentile; Colombo, Giorgio; Ugurlucan, Murat; De Bernardi, Fiorenza

    2009-03-01

    Loss of tropical forests is a major cause of biodiversity loss worldwide. Although drastic modification of the habitat has been shown to negatively affect amphibians, we are far from a complete understanding of the response of amphibian communities to deforestation. We studied frog assemblages in a gradient of forest modification in a humid area of Costa Rica, where the primary forest has been partially converted into pasture. The study area is a mosaic of primary palm forest, abandoned pasture covered by secondary forest, and pasture. Species richness was assessed by randomized walk surveys and audio strip transects. We also measured ecological features to evaluate the relationship between landscape alteration and amphibian distribution. The study area hosted a large number of amphibian species. We focused our monitoring on six anurans: Leptodactylus labialis, Eleutherodactylus fitzingeri, E. diastema, Hyla rosenbergi, H. microcephale, and Cochranella granulosa. Three species (L. labialis, H. rosenbergi, and H. microcephala) were most abundant in pasture areas with livestock presence, while E. fitzingeri, E. diastema, and C. granulosa were associated with primary forest. Most of the variation in community structure was explained by the joint effect of forest alteration and presence of livestock. Whereas forest specialists suffer direct negative effect from deforestation, generalist species can take advantage of forest alteration and the presence of farm animals. Species that are able to take advantage of the new environmental characteristics associated with human modifications of landscapes will come to prevail in the new communities.

  3. Cetáceos de las aguas costeras del Pacífico norte y sur de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Martínez-Fernández

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available De las 29 especies de cetáceos presentes en Costa Rica, se han realizado investigaciones exhaustivas solamente para tres especies. Lo anterior evidencia la poca información general existente sobre cetáceos, a pesar de que Costa Rica posee un notable crecimiento de actividades de avistamiento. Debido al uso que se está generando en las zonas costeras, cada vez se hace más necesario determinar la ocurrencia de cetáceos en zonas de alta actividad turística, con el fin de proponer medidas de conservación. En el presente estudio, se determinaron variables ambientales que estaban relacionadas con la presencia de especies registradas, a partir de 166 avistamientos entre el 2005 y 2006. Las especies con mayor proporción de avistamientos fueron Stenella attenuata (68%, seguida por Megaptera novaeangliae (13% y Tursiops truncatus (10%. La presencia del delfín manchado se relaciona con cambios de salinidad y trasparencia del agua, mientras que la de la ballena jorobada estuvo relacionada con el oleaje y la temperatura superficial del agua. Se confirma la presencia de 7 especies de cetáceos en dos zonas costeras del Pacífico de Costa Rica, de las cuales tres están presentes a lo largo del año. Se encontraron variables ambientales relacionadas con la presencia de al menos dos especies.Inshore cetaceans from the North and South Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Twenty nine cetacean species occur in Costa Rican waters but extensive research has been conducted only for three species. The latter shows there is a lack of general and local information about these mammals, even when the country, has shown a remarkable growth in whale watching activities. The increasing use of marine resources in coastal areas has also developed the need to determine the occurrence of cetaceans in areas showing high tourist presence, in order to propose sound conservation measures. In this study, environmental variables were determined and subsequently related to the

  4. America and the Caribbean: The case of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Seidl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento ilustra un enfoque económico a la comprensión de la industria de turismo de cruceros como impulsora del desarrollo económico en Costa Rica. El objetivo es describir el papel y las actividades de la industria de cruceros e identificar fuentes de costo y beneficio económico, a fin de que se puedan tomar decisiones locales de política con más información sobre el turismo de cruceros. Por ejemplo, nuestro análisis indica que la industria de turismo de cruceros compite con la industria de despacho de carga por espacio portuario a un significativo costo para los puertos de Costa Rica: la cantidad de dinero inyectada a la economía local por turista de crucero es sustancialmente más baja que para otros tipos de turismo. Los cruceros de turismo compran relativamente pocos suministros en Costa Rica y generan una gran cantidad de desechos producidos por las personas así como contaminación de agua y aire, lo que puede crear un serio peligro para la salud y costos de limpieza que no son proporcionales con otros tipos de desarrollo turístico de los que dispone el país. Quizás los encargados de tomar decisiones quieran considerar que la inversión en puertos amistosos con el turismo de crucero podría ser menos eficiente desde una perspectiva nacional que la inversión en infraestructura (por ejemplo, aeropuertos para aumentar tipos más rentables de turismo. Asimismo, quizás los líderes quieran pensar en estimular cruceros más pequeños “de bolsillo” más bien que la actual versión de turismo masivo. Este método debería ser aplicable a comunidades donde el turismo de crucero existe actualmente o se está considerando para incluirlo en la cartera de actividades económicas comunitarias.

  5. Environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Tadza Abd Rahman

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear Technology offers unique method, yet effective for environmental research. Nuclear techniques are invented to carry out research activities on environmental pollutions, erosion and slope stability, landslide ground water studies and water pollution

  6. Environmental management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guicherit, R.

    1996-01-01

    Elements of a national environmental management system include: • monitoring networks to establish the prevailing environmental quality; • emission inventories, and projected emission inventories based on population growth, increase of traffic density, and economie growth; taking into account

  7. Centro de Investigacion en Ciencias Atomicas, Universidad de Costa Rica: with over 30 years experience in the peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    The Centro de Investigacion en Ciencias Atomicas, Nucleares y Moleculares, CICANUM, is a research unit of the Universidad de Costa Rica; which is dedicated to research over the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. The research areas covered are: health, biosciences, science agrifood, environmental pollution, earth sciences and the sea and national heritage. The different laboratories are thirteen, among them: the mass spectrometry, gas sensors, x-ray fluorescence, thermoluminescence, gamma spectrometry, physics and chemistry of the earth, and microwave plasma, reference, alpha spectrometry, radiochemical and chemical preparations, nuclear electronics and instrumentation; plus, whatever with neutron sources and radioactive waste winery [es

  8. The avian community of the Karen Mogensen Reserve, a wealth of biodiversity within the poorly investigated and threatened environments of northwestern Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotto, Matteo Dal; Romeo, Giuseppe; Aguilar, Luis A Mena; Sonetti, Dario; Pederzoli, Aurora

    2017-01-01

    Despite being characterized by some of the most threatened forest ecosystems of Mesoamerica, the Nicoya Peninsula is among the least known regions of neotropical Costa Rica in terms of its birdlife. Within this region, in the framework of an ongoing international cooperation program between Italy and Costa Rica, we had the opportunity to investigate the Karen Mogensen Reserve, a protected area distinguished by the presence of a variety of habitats, including tropical dry forest and moist forest. Species richness in the Reserve was relatively high compared with similar areas in northwestern Costa Rica. A series of surveys carried out over a 20-year period documented an avian community consisting of 207 species, of which 115 were breeding in the zone and another 14 were potentially breeding. We recorded five IUCN globally Vulnerable or Near-Threatened species, along with six species reported for the first time from the Nicoya Peninsula, each representing range extension of more than 100 km. Twenty-six species, mostly breeding in the area, are at their southernmost range borders, and are likely susceptible to global environmental alterations, such as the effects of climate change. Furthermore, our study revealed the presence of two species endemic to a restricted area of Central America and four subspecies endemic to Costa Rica, along with breeding populations of two species that are geographically isolated from the main ones. The present analysis led to the ecological characterization of the resident avian community, showing that 65% of the species are strictly associated with forested environments, and especially with the understory or middle tree level, hence more vulnerable to environmental change (climatic, anthropogenic, etc.) and susceptible to local extinction. These results underscore the importance of the Karen Mogensen Reserve for bird conservation within a vulnerable environmental context, and warrant the continuation of periodic bird surveys, taxonomic

  9. Simulación de descargas atmosféricas y su efecto en redes eléctricas de potencia

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Roberto; Rosales, Luis

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se halla una solución numérica a la Ecuación de Heaviside para simular las Descargas Parciales de origen Atmosférico, con parámetros ambientales presentes al norte del Estado Bolívar, Venezuela, que inciden en los Sistemas Eléctricos de Potencia. This paper finds a numerical solution to the Heaviside equation to simulate partial discharges of origin Atmospheric, with environmental parameters present in the north of Bolivar State, affecting the Electric Power Systems.

  10. Environmental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell Engineering's environmental control study is assisted by NASA's Computer Software Management and Information Center's programs in environmental analyses. Company is engaged primarily in design of such facilities as electrical utilities, industrial plants, wastewater treatment systems, dams and reservoirs and aviation installations. Company also conducts environmental engineering analyses and advises clients as to the environmental considerations of a particular construction project. Company makes use of many COSMIC computer programs which have allowed substantial savings.

  11. How Can Humanities Interventions Promote Progress in the Environmental Sciences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally L. Kitch

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental humanists make compelling arguments about the importance of the environmental humanities (EH for discovering new ways to conceptualize and address the urgent challenges of the environmental crisis now confronting the planet. Many environmental scientists in a variety of fields are also committed to incorporating socio-cultural analyses in their work. Despite such intentions and rhetoric, however, and some humanists’ eagerness to incorporate science into their own work, “radical interdisciplinarity [across the humanities and sciences] is ... rare ... and does not have the impact one would hope for” (Holm et al. 2013, p. 32. This article discusses reasons for the gap between transdisciplinary intentions and the work being done in the environmental sciences. The article also describes a project designed to address that gap. Entitled “From Innovation to Progress: Addressing Hazards of the Sustainability Sciences”, the project encourages humanities interventions in problem definition, before any solution or action is chosen. Progress offers strategies for promoting expanded stakeholder engagement, enhancing understanding of power struggles and inequities that underlie problems and over-determine solutions, and designing multiple future scenarios based on alternative values, cultural practices and beliefs, and perspectives on power distribution and entitlement.

  12. Environmental procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The European Bank has pledged in its Agreement to place environmental management at the forefront of its operations to promote sustainable economic development in central and eastern Europe. The Bank's environmental policy is set out in the document titled, Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach. This document, Environmental Procedures, presents the procedures which the European Bank has adopted to implement this policy approach with respect to its operations. The environmental procedures aim to: ensure that throughout the project approval process, those in positions of responsibility for approving projects are aware of the environmental implications of the project, and can take these into account when making decisions; avoid potential liabilities that could undermine the success of a project for its sponsors and the Bank; ensure that environmental costs are estimated along with other costs and liabilities; and identify opportunities for environmental enhancement associated with projects. The review of environmental aspects of projects is conducted by many Bank staff members throughout the project's life. This document defines the responsibilities of the people and groups involved in implementing the environmental procedures. Annexes contain Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach, examples of environmental documentation for the project file and other ancillary information

  13. Environmental biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschumi, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Environmental biology illustrates the functioning of ecosystems and the dynamics of populations with many examples from limnology and terrestrial ecology. On this basis, present environmental problems are analyzed. The present environmental crisis is seen as a result of the failure to observe ecological laws. (orig.) [de

  14. Environmental challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.

    1991-09-01

    The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's Environmental Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; Environmental Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the Environmental Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global Warming and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility

  15. Exploring What Determines the Use of Forecasts of Varying Time Periods in Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, M.; Wong-Parodi, G.; Grossmann, I.; Small, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Weather and climate forecasts are promoted as ways to improve water management, especially in the face of changing environmental conditions. However, studies indicate many stakeholders who may benefit from such information do not use it. This study sought to better understand which personal factors (e.g., trust in forecast sources, perceptions of accuracy) were important determinants of the use of 4-day, 3-month, and 12-month rainfall forecasts by stakeholders in water management-related sectors in the seasonally dry province of Guanacaste, Costa Rica. From August to October 2015, we surveyed 87 stakeholders from a mix of government agencies, local water committees, large farms, tourist businesses, environmental NGO's, and the public. The result of an exploratory factor analysis suggests that trust in "informal" forecast sources (traditional methods, family advice) and in "formal" sources (government, university and private company science) are independent of each other. The result of logistic regression analyses suggest that 1) greater understanding of forecasts is associated with a greater probability of 4-day and 3-month forecast use, but not 12-month forecast use, 2) a greater probability of 3-month forecast use is associated with a lower level of trust in "informal" sources, and 3), feeling less secure about water resources, and regularly using many sources of information (and specifically formal meetings and reports) are each associated with a greater probability of using 12-month forecasts. While limited by the sample size, and affected by the factoring method and regression model assumptions, these results do appear to suggest that while forecasts of all times scales are used to some extent, local decision makers' decisions to use 4-day and 3-month forecasts appear to be more intrinsically motivated (based on their level of understanding and trust) and the use of 12-month forecasts seems to be more motivated by a sense of requirement or mandate.

  16. Human-induced geomorphology: Modeling slope failure in Dominical, Costa Rica using Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew J.

    Unchecked human development has ravaged the region between Dominical and Uvita, Costa Rica. Much of the development transition has been driven by tourism and further foreign direct investment in residential, service and commercial enterprises. The resulting land-use/land-cover change has removed traditional forest cover in exchange for impervious surfaces, physical structures, and bare ground which is no longer mechanically supported by woody vegetation. Combined with a tropical climate, deeply weathered soils and lithography which are prone to erosion, land cover change has led to an increase in slope failure occurrences. Given the remoteness of the Dominical-Uvita region, its rate of growth and the lack of monitoring, new techniques for monitoring land use and slope failure susceptibility are needed. Two new indices are presented here that employ a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and widely available Landsat imagery to assist in this endeavor. The first index, or Vegetation Influenced Landslide Index (VILI), incorporates slope derived from a DEM and Lu et al.'s (2007) Surface Cover Index to quantify vegetative cover as a means of mechanical stabilization in landslide prone areas. The second index, or Slope Multiplier Index (SMI), uses individual Landsat data bands and basic Landsat band ratios as environmental proxies to replicate soil, vegetative and hydrologic properties. Both models achieve accuracy over 70% and rival results from more complicated published literature. The accuracy of the indices was assessed with the creation of a landslide inventory developed from field observations occurring in December 2007 and November 2008. The creation of these indices represents an efficient and accurate way of determining landslide susceptibility zonation in data poor areas where environmental protection practitioners may be overextended, under-trained or both.

  17. Enseñanza del Derecho Electoral en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Sobrado González

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available La ponencia pretende revisar cuál ha sido el tratamiento académico que los estudios electorales (en general y el derecho electoral (en particular han recibido en Costa Rica, así como profundizar en la importancia de la enseñanza del derecho electoral en nuestro país. Mediante un repaso a la reconocida autonomía del derecho electoral, así como los abordajes que su estudio ha tenido en los contextos universitario y profesional, la ponencia concluye que el plan de estudios de la carrera de licenciatura en Derecho debe contemplar al menos un curso de Derecho Electoral, sea mediante uno específico en la materia (preferiblemente, o bien, mediante el reconocimiento expreso de la enseñanza del derecho electoral como parte medular e integral del curso de Derecho Constitucional (en su defecto.

  18. Paralisia facial periférica congênita familiar

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    Ehrenfried O. Wittig

    1968-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores referem 6 casos de paralisia facial periférica congênita que se sucederam em três gerações. O estudo genético sugere a atuação de um gen autosômico dominante. Na mesma família foram assinalados outras alterações congênitas (estrabismo, nistagmo. Um dos pacientes com paralisia facial (caso II-7 também apresentava micrognatia. Os pacientes com outras alterações congênitas não foram examinados adequadamente, não sendo possível, por isso, estbelecer relação etiológica entre esses achados e a paralisia facial.

  19. Debe América Latina temerle a la China?

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Lora

    2005-01-01

    Este artículo compara las condiciones de crecimiento económico de China y de América Latina con el fin de evaluar los temores de que la economía china desplace a la latinoamericana en las próximas décadas. Las fortalezas de China se basan en el tamaño de su economía, su estabilidad macroeconómica, la abundante mano de obra barata, la rápida expansión de la infraestructura física y la capacidad para innovar. Las debilidades de China tienen su origen en la poca separación que existe entre el me...

  20. Agrochemical residues in rivers sediments, Poas, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masis, Federico; Valdez, Juan; Leon, Sandra; Coto, Tatiana

    2008-01-01

    The organophosphorus and organochlorine agrochemical residues distribution in sediments of 3 rivers located in an ornamental plant production area were analyzed in Poas canton, Alajuela, Costa Rica. The study comprised 8 months in order to assure 3 seasonal episodes: dry, transitional, and rainy seasons. Sediments were taken in 10 sampling stations along the rivers and characterized by a determination of their organic matter and texture. In 7 out of 10 sampling stations pesticide residues were detected in at least 1 of 4 samplings, but quantified only in 4 stations. Agrochemical residues evaluated included 21 organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides; however, we found residues of only 3 organochlorine pesticides, due their high persistence in the sediment. Residues corresponded to PCNB (80-800 μg.kg -1 ), Endosulfan-β (40-50 μg.kg -1 ), and Endosulfan-α (90 μg.kg -1 ). Chlorothalonil was detected in only one sample. (author) [es

  1. Algunas consideraciones teóricas sobre el liderazgo transformacional

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    Otilia Bracho Parra

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El artículo tuvo como objetivo, realizar algunas consideraciones teóricas sobre el liderazgo transformacional, tomando como referencia los planteamientos de Bass y Avolio (2006, Velásquez (2006, Lerma (2007, Leithwood, Mascall y Strauss (2009, entre otros. El proceso metodológico implico revisión bibliográfica, a través de la hermenéutica. Concluyendo que el liderazgo transformacional implica convertir a los colaboradores en personas creativas, motivadas al logro, comprometidas e identificadas con la organización, además de inspirar en sus seguidores la participación, pensar en colectivo, esforzándose en alcanzar metas significativas, en pro de la misión y visión de la empresa.

  2. Transformación productiva y desigualdad en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Arias Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica termina la primera década del siglo XXI sin haber sido capaz de superar las limitaciones estructurales e institucionales que le impiden transitar con paso firme hacia mayores y crecientes niveles de desarrollo económico y bienestar social. Las últimas tres décadas se han caracterizado por un proceso en el cual el modelo de desarrollo ha puesto particular énfasis en la estabilización macroeconómica y en una estrategia de crecimiento económico basada en el sector externo de la economía. Los resultados de la reforma económica y la estrategia de desarrollo, impulsadas desde la década de los 1980s, han sido insuficientes para retomar el camino de la transformación productiva con equidad.

  3. LA MUERTE EN LA LÍRICA INFANTIL COLONIAL MEXICANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Malvido

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo presentaremos la importancia que la lírica infantil tuvo en la implantación de la cultura occidental en la Nueva España, rastrearemos sus orígenes, intenciones y permanencia en México, destacando uno de sus elementos más constantes: la muerte, así como el papel que desempeñó en las mentes infantiles que la cantaron y representaron. Podrán preguntarse ¿por qué la muerte? y responderemos que después de la conquista castellana de estastierras, la muerte fue constante, masiva, cotidiana y permanente, todo lo cual se reflejó en las coplas populares; por ejemplo, en el material que hemos consultado compuesto de 193 canciones infantiles, en más de la mitad de ellas se hace referencia, se le menciona, nombra o es el título delas mismas

  4. MEDIDAS DE NÚCLEO INFLACIONARIO PARA COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Saborío Muñoz

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se elaboran y evalúan medidas alternativas de núcleo inflacionario para Costa Rica. La idea fundamental contempla al núcleo inflacionario como un indicador de la tendencia subyacente de la inflación capaz de capturar el componente del cambio total de precios común a todos los bienes y servicios, cuya persistencia se mantendría en el mediano y largo plazo y que excluye los cambios en los precios relativos de estos. La medida de núcleo inflacionario seleccionada se contrasta con el Índice de Núcleo Inflacionario (INI, indicador de inflación subyacente actualmente utilizado por el Banco Central de Costa Rica (BCCR.El Índice Subyacente de Inflación (ISI, definido como una medida de núcleo inflacionario que excluye un 30,7% del peso total del Índice de Precios al Consumidor (IPC, refleja más fielmente la tendencia subyacente de la inflación y logra capturar el movimiento más permanente del nivel general de precios, aislando las variaciones en precios relativos. Además, el ISI es fácil de calcular e interpretar lo cual ayuda a incrementar la transparencia y credibilidad de la política monetaria. También es un indicador oportuno, aumentando su valor para los que formulan la política monetaria. Por último, el ISI supera algunas de las limitaciones del INI, como son la falta de un criterio estadístico para definir el punto de corte de los bienes y servicios a excluir y el alto porcentaje del peso total del IPC eliminado. AbstractThis paper builds and evaluates several alternative measures of core inflation for Costa Rica. The chosen measure of core inflation is contrasted with the core inflation index (INI, which is the indicator of underlying inflation used today by the Central Bank of Costa Rica (BCCR. The main idea is that core inflation is a good indicator of the underlying inflation and catches the part of overall price change common to all the goods and services that is expected to persist in the

  5. Azúcar en América

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamaría García, Antonio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This is an introductory essay to the «Revista de Indias» monographic issue on the sugar industry in America. It briefly explores the main characteristics of this research field as well as the reasons for the historiographical significance it has achieved. It also presents the authors and their contributions to the scientific debate.

    Este artículo, un ensayo introductorio del número monográfico de la «Revista de Indias» sobre la industria azucarera en América, revisa brevemente los rasgos fundamentales de las investigaciones acerca de ella y la razón por la que se ha convertido con el tiempo en un tema historiográfico de primer orden. Además, presenta a los autores y sus contribuciones al conocimiento y al debate científico en los estudios incluidos en el citado volumen.

  6. Aportaciones coloniales a las creencias funerarias ibéricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín García Raya

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available La «mediterraneidad» de la península ibérica ha producido una serie de contactos con otros pueblos de esta cuenca, atraídos por su riqueza minera o como recurso a la colmatación de sus territorios de origen, lo cual produjo una traslación de ritos funerarios, cuya lectura arqueológica ha significado interpretaciones erróneas básicas.The "Mediterranean style» of the Iberian Península has given way to a series of contacts wth otherpeoples fron this valley, attracted by its mining richness and as an option tgo the overcrowding of their native territories. This brought about the implantation of funeral ceremonies, who archaelogical reading has meant false interpretations.

  7. Salud y enfermedad en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Malo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La prolongada crisis económica de los países de la región y las políticas de ajuste macro económico han generado una situación económica y social que produce inequidades profundas. La década de los 90 mostró niveles de deterioro de las condiciones de salud de la mayoría de la población y en su acceso desventajoso a servicios de salud. Al momento son 200 millones de personas, en América Latina, que viven en la pobreza; e decir, 50 millones más que en 1980.

  8. Comparison Of Development: Ireland, South Korea, Finland And Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Gómez, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The article compares the development followed by Finland, South Korea and Ireland and compares in some ways with which Costa Rica has had. The initial situation starts in the 1960s, the policies pursued by each country in the context of their models and then, sets the current situation of these countries. Finally, define some lessons learned by the nations, the result of the achievements and challenges of development. El artículo compara, en ciertos aspectos, el desarrollo que ha tenido Fi...

  9. Rescue for sexually abused girls in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treguear, T; Peters, L

    1995-01-01

    In San Jose, Costa Rica, the nongovernmental organization PROCAL has established two rescue homes for sexually abused girls 10-15 years of age. One of these homes is devoted to the care of pregnant girls. In almost all cases, the perpetrator was a male relative. Since girls are taught they must obey older male relatives, they are powerless to stop the abuse. When girls become pregnant as a result of sexual abuse, they face social ostracism and are blamed for their participation in sexual activity. PROCAL counsels the girls that they are victims of their own lack of power and provides them with skills and education they need to return to society and start a new life. The stories of two young girls who became pregnant as a result of sexual abuse and were helped by PROCAL are presented.

  10. La enseñanza del Inglés en Costa Rica y la destreza en el aula desde una perspectiva histórica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coto Keith, Rossina

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es parte de una serie de escritos producto de un proyecto de investigación sobre la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de la destreza auditiva en la clase de inglés en colegios públicos de Costa Rica. El mismo pretende proveer una reseña histórica sobre la enseñanza del inglés en Costa Rica y la destreza auditiva en una segunda lengua en general. El artículo está dividido en dos grandes secciones. La primera sección se concentra en la enseñanza del inglés en Costa Rica, desde alrededor de 1850 hasta nuestros días. La segunda parte trata sobre la enseñanza de la destreza auditiva en el aula, a la luz de los diferentes métodos que se han utilizado para la enseñanza de una segunda lengua o lengua extranjera. This article is the first in a series of pieces that are the result of a research project about the teaching and learning of the listening skill in the English class in public high schools in Costa Rica. It intends to give a historical overview of the teaching of English in Costa Rica and the teaching of the listening skill in general. The article is divided in two sections. The first part centers on the teaching of English in Costa Rica from around 1850 up to the present. The second part deals with the teaching of the skill through history in light of the different methods that have been used to instruct in a second or foreign language.

  11. MORTALIDAD INNECESARIAMENTE PREMATURA Y SANITARIAMENTE EVITABLE EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Llorca Castro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: Para desarrollar políticas y estrategias orientadas a mitigarlas es fundamental identificar las desigualdades. El objetivo del trabajo es analizar las variaciones de la Mortalidad Innecesariamente Prematura y Sanitariamente Evitable (MIPSE para cada uno de los 81 cantones de Costa Rica durante el período 2000-2005. Métodos: Se aplicó la clasificación MIPSE propuesta por miembros del Servicio de Información y Estudios de la Dirección General de Recursos Sanitarios de Catalunya. Mediante el empleo de el Indicador de Desarrollo Socioeconómico (IDSE establecido por economistas de la Universidad de Costa Rica, previa estandarización de la población, se ordenaron los cantones en grupos por quintiles (I el más rico, Vel más pobre. Resultados: Se encontraron como causas principales de mortalidad MIPSE la enfermedad isquémica del corazón (19,55% causas MIPSE, accidentes de tránsito con vehículos a motor (11,60%, enfermedades cerebrovasculares (6,95%, perinatal (6,92% y suicidios (5,14%. Conclusión: La mortalidad por HIVy el Sida, el cáncer de mamá en mujeres, cáncer de cuerpo de útero, cáncer de piel y por hepatitis secundaria al consumo de alcohol, afectan más a los cantones con mayores ingresos. La mortalidad por hiperplasia benigna de próstata, la materna asociada al embarazo, parto o puerperio y la hernia abdominal afectan más a los de menor nivel económico. Se identificaron dos grupos de MIPSE con desigualdad equidistribuida: leucemia y enfermedades cardiovasculares congénitas.

  12. COMERCIO ELECTRÓNICO EN AMÉRICA LATINA. PERSPECTIVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Fernández Peña

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Internet constituye una plataforma adecuada para la comunicación de información con alcance global. Las condiciones de la economía actual exigen la internacionalización de la economía de un país, a través, fundamentalmente, de las exportaciones / importaciones de sus empresas. Por su parte, el uso de la red de redes en el desarrollo empresarial ha estado caracterizado por el éxito rotundo de ideas creadoras y también por la bancarrota, de la noche a la mañana, de negocios aparentemente muy prósperos. Si bien el movimiento financiero a través de la red no es para nada despreciable, su dinámica es actualmente muy inestable. Las perspectivas del comercio electrónico para América Latina se ven muchas veces disipadas por la falta de infraestructura tecnológica, pero fundamentalmente por las dificultades para lograr la competitividad frente a las grandes empresas ya establecidas. Las posibilidades reales del fortalecimiento empresarial electrónico en Latinoamérica, para soportar los embates empresariales de una economía globalizada, radican en la gestión ágil y efectiva de las empresas, sus recursos, y su mercado, en una palabra, que logren adaptarse a la era de la información. Para lograrlo, al menos en una primera etapa será decisiva la unión de esfuerzos y recursos y el apoyo gubernamental.

  13. Polio Crisis in Costa Rica: Lessons Learned and Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioconda Vargas-Morúa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This presentation shows some of the consequences of the polio crisis in Costa Rica during the 1950’s, in order to preserve certain attitudes of Costa Ricans back then that are worth remembering: simplicity, solidarity and gratefulness. Hand in hand with highly service-oriented men and women, the country overcame the crisis and built one of the most iconic hospitals in Costa Rica: the National Children’s Hospital. It is worth rescuing the lessons learned and applying them to current times. This historical text was created based on the stories told by people who lived during the times of the crisis, on a 1956 notebook, on documents from the National Archive and the National Health and Social Security Library (BINASSS, for its name in Spanish, the Costa Rican Social Security System (CCSS, for its name in Spanish, Dr. Rodolfo Álvaro Murillo, and San Juan de Dios Hospital.  National and international newspapers were also reviewed. The consulted material confirms how the work of Costa Ricans, led by committed and service-oriented individuals, allowed for the construction of the National Children’s Hospital to take place -an institution that has served the Costa Rican people for fifty years. Costa Ricans also succeeded in eradicating polio long before several other countries around the world. The reactions of people in the 1950’s are lessons of solidarity and humanity that should not be forgotten; they should be remembered in order to value team work over individual work and make sure, no matter what our role in society is, to always stand by common well-being, as mid-century Costa Ricans did by overcoming their personal limitations and acting for the benefit of society.

  14. Medios y modernidad en Latinoamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albano, Sebastião Guilherme

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available [es] La modernidad como sistema de civilización y de cultura supone consensos cognitivos para su manutención. En este ejercicio se trata de describir cómo los medios de comunicación promovieron la formación de esos consensos y se volvieron ellos mismos importantes vínculos para la interpretación y la producción de sentido. El tema del estudio está relacionado con la manera en que parte de Latinoamérica desarrolló algunos de los principales argumentos de la modernidad y la tendencia a reunir enunciados de proveniencia diversa en unos pocos soportes discursivos institucionalizados, por lo que se desarrolla aquí una especie de narrativa de convergencia. De esa manera, a pesar de la creciente división del trabajo físico e intelectual fomentado por el avance del capitalismo, en Latinoamérica la legitimación del formato social moderno y los discursos de conformación de las identidades regionales se dieron con el advenimiento de los medios de comunicación, redundando en una alternativa a los esquemas cognitivos logocéntricos. [en] Modernity as civilization and culture systems involves cognitive consensus. This study describes how media underpinned the construction of consensus and became a very important nexus between interpretation and meaning production. The main issue of the article is related to the ways which Latin America developed some of the modern arguments and their tendency to gather different propositions into a few discursive models, provoking a sort of convergence narrative. Despite the increasing of specialization in intellectual and physical work, in Latin America the legitimacy of social shape and even the discursive construction of regional identities were deeply conditioned by the spreading of media activities. This idiosyncrasy turned out to be an alternative to the logocentriccognitive schemes

  15. International Coordination of and Contributions to Environmental Satellite Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    the international coordination of, and contributions to, environmental satellite programs. It re- views the background and history of international...Earth’s atmos- phere, surface temperature, cloud cover, water-ice boundaries, * and proton and electron flux near the Earth. They have the capability of...Islands Madagascar Sweden Chile Malaysia Switzerland China, People’s Rep. of Mali Syria Colombia Malta Tahiti Costa Rica Martinique Taiwan Curacao

  16. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on....

  17. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketteler, G.; Kippels, K.

    1988-01-01

    In section I 'Basic principles' the following topics are considered: Constitutional-legal aspects of environmental protection, e.g. nuclear hazards and the remaining risk; European environmental law; international environmental law; administrative law, private law and criminal law relating to the environment; basic principles of environmental law, the instruments of public environmental law. Section II 'Special areas of law' is concerned with the law on water and waste, prevention of air pollution, nature conservation and care of the countryside. Legal decisions and literature up to June 1988 have been taken into consideration. (orig./RST) [de

  18. Parásitos intestinales en monos congo Alouatta palliata (Primates: Cebidae de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Chinchilla Carmona

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las heces de 102 monos de la especie Alouatta palliata (monos aulladores o congos de las siguientes regiones de Costa Rica. Valle Central: San Ramón (Alajuela; Pacífico Central: Isla Chira y Parque Manuel Antonio (Puntarenas; Pacífico Norte: Palo Verde, Playa Potrero, Nicoya (Guanacaste y Caribe: Cahuita (Limón. Los animales capturados fueron anestesiados con dardos conteniendo Telazol®. La mayoría defecaron espontáneamente o se les estimulaba a defecar. Las muestras se estudiaron en el laboratorio en forma directa en solución salina (0.85% y una solución de yodo o teñidas con hematoxilina para identificar los parásitos correspondientes. El material fue cultivado en el medio de Dobell para determinar la presencia de amebas y flagelados. Se encontraron helmintos de los géneros Trypanoxyuris, Strongyloides y Controrchis y protozoarios de los géneros Endolimax, Entamoeba, Trichomonas y Giardia. Los porcentajes de infección por protozoarios oscilaron entre 16.7% y 80% y se encontraron helmintos en un 3.4% a un 80% de los animales de acuerdo con la zona estudiada. No se encontraron diferencias importantes de parasitosis relacionadas con el sexo pero si existió mayor infección en los animales más jóvenes. Se establece la relación entre los índices de infección y algunos parámetros tales como las áreas estudiadas, el peso de los animales y el contacto con el ser humano.Intestinal parasites in howler monkeys Alouatta palliata (Primates: Cebidae of Costa Rica. Fecal samples of 102 howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata from several sites of Costa Rica were studied for intestinal parasites. The zones studied were: Central Valley (San Ramón, Alajuela, Central Pacific (Chomes and Manuel Antonio National Park, Puntarenas, North Pacific (Palo Verde Park and Playa Potrero, Guanacaste, Chira Island in the Nicoya Gulf and Caribean area (Cahuita, Limón. Animals were anesthetized with dards containing Telazol in order to collect

  19. Environmental research and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    At the request of the Ministry for Research and Technology, the 'Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Grossforschungseinrichtungen' (AGF) presented in 1972 an information brochure called 'Activities in the field of environmental research and environmental protection', closely associated with the environmental programme of the Federal government (1971). The information brochure reports on those activities of the working group's members which are closely, or less closely, connected with questions concerning environmental research and protection, however, investments for the protection of the individual facilities in internal operation are excluded. The AGF programme 'Environmental research and environmental protection' comprises contributions, brought up to date, of member companies. From the 'AGF programme survey 1974' it contains 'Environmental research' as well as aspects of nuclear development with environmental relevance. Technologies not harmful to the environment developed by the research facilities are only mentioned very briefly. (orig.) [de

  20. Environmental radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The types of ionizing radiations from the atomic nucleus are explained, such as the beams alpha, beta and gamma. The definitions of spectrometry and nuclear traces have been included.The study presents two researches realized in Costa Rica on the radioactive nuclear and artificial elements in the environment. The first shown is the analysis of coastal sediments where explains which are radioactive artificial isotopes and the pollution that occurs in food, coastal sediments, fertilizers, the soil, the water and the air. Within the analysis techniques are the gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry and nuclear strokes. Among the conclusions of this initial investigation is shown that at Punta Leona descendants of Uranium and Thorium present lower concentrations in relation to the gulf and its variations are not important. In the following study the radon gas is analyzed in the human environment where is determined that it is the second generator that causes cancer in lungs after the tobacco. This work indicates that the doses come from natural and artificial sources of radiation for the public are a whole of 2.7 mSv/year, information provided by the UNSCEAR, 2000. The radon gas is inert and radioactive of atomic number 86, includes 23 isotopes and 3 natural isotopes. The radon is everywhere, as are houses and buildings, in Costa Rica it is located in old homes with little ventilation. It describes the equipment used for the detection of radon gas in the environment. Within the conclusions radon gas is concentrated in confined spaces which can be harmful to health. It is determined that enough ventilation in places of high concentrations of radon is important. Finally it is recommended to monitor the sites where can be detected high concentrations of radon and that they have important influx of people [es

  1. (Environmental technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  2. Environmental spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects....... 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension between geographies of political separateness and environmental wholeness is the implicit or explicit basis...... for a large and varied literature. But in both its critical and problemsolving manifestations, this literature tends to naturalise the spatiality of environmental concerns: environmental spaces are generally taken for granted. On the suggestion that there is a subtle politics to the specification...

  3. La relación entre creatividad y expertise: contribuciones teóricas y empíricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso C. T. Galvao

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La creatividad y el expertise son temas que están recibiendo mayor atención de los inves­tigadores en distintos campos del conocimiento. Atributos personales asociados a la alta producción creativa, factores que favorecen el desarrollo, la expresión de la creatividad y el expertise, así como los procesos implicados en el desarrollo de la alta competencia y la creatividad, son temas que han sido objeto de numerosos estudios. El presente estudio pre­senta contribuciones teóricas y estudios empíricos acerca de la creatividad y el expertise. Se describen los elementos comunes para el desarrollo de la creatividad y el expertise, así como las características de los ambientes educativos que los promueven, los modelos teóricos y estudios empíricos.

  4. Tipo/retórica. Una aproximación a la retórica tipográfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gamonal Arroyo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple vista la Retórica y la Tipografía parecen dos disciplinas con poco en común, pero en este artículo veremos cómo estas dos materias, con muchos siglos de existencia, tienen nexos inquebrantables que abren nuevas vías de investigación. La letra es la representación verbal y visual de nuestro lenguaje y nuestro pensamiento. Su agrupación en palabras y oraciones conforman textos cuyo objetivo principal es persuadir al lector para ser leídas. Y esta persuasión la ejerce no sólo a través de su contenido, sino también de su forma.

  5. Fitoprotección y Comercio Agrícola en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent Valladares, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Dos iniciativas futuras imponen a Costa Rica la necesidad de una revisión y redireccionamiento de su estrategia de inserción en los mercados internacionales: la manifestación de las intenciones de los Estados Unidos de establecer un tratado de libre comercio con Centroamérica y de la Comunidad Económica Europea de habilitar un acuerdo de asociación comercial con Centroamérica. Ambas iniciativas implicarán el establecimiento de mayores posibilidades comerciales y plantean importantes oportunid...

  6. Mujeres esclavas en la Costa Rica del siglo XVIII: Estrategias frente a la esclavitud.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Angeles Acuña León

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La esclavitud formaba parte de la vida cotidiana en la Costa Rica del siglo XVIII. De ahí nuestro interés en visibilizar a la mujer esclava en dicha sociedad. Por tanto en este trabajo se indicará porqué razones y por cuales rutas llegaron estas mujeres a la provincia de Costa Rica y se analizaran los mecanismos de acción y negociación utilizados por estas mujeres esclavas para enfrentar y sobrevivir la maquinaria esclavista. Esto significa el examinar y analizar sus experiencias, sus respuestas y actitudes ante la esclavitud, en la Costa Rica del siglo XVIII.

  7. L’ensenyament-aprenentatge de la recerca a Llatinoamèrica. Acostament des d’ALAS Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Torres Frías

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El present text inclou l’anàlisi de treballs presentats en el XXX Congreso Latinoamericano de Sociología ALAS Costa Rica, celebrat el 2015, coordinat per l’Asociación Latinoamericana de Sociología (ALAS. Es prenen en consideració vuit treballs relacionats amb el procés d’ensenyament-aprenentatge de la recerca i es recuperen les principals aportacions que han fet sobre el tema. Es discuteix sobre com s’aborda el procés d’ensenyament-aprenentatge de la recerca en el context llatinoamericà. S’evidencia que, malgrat les diferències contextuals i institucionals, a Llatinoamèrica prevalen problemàtiques compartides sobre formació per a la recerca. Alguns dels principals aspectes que es posen de manifest estan relacionats amb la dificultat que tenen els formadors per desenvolupar el procés d’ensenyament-aprenentatge en el marc de les ciències socials i humanitats. Altres aspectes es vinculen amb l’experiència en recerca del formador mateix, amb l’estil que té per dur a terme la seva pròpia recerca i guiar tesis, i amb l’estil de docència que utilitza. També són un factor de rellevància els estils dels estudiants, així com les creences que tots dos actors tenen sobre la formació per a la recerca. Finalment, l’existència o no d'una cultura de recerca s’aprecia com una problemàtica que cal tenir en compte.

  8. LA ALEATORIEDAD EN LAS SERIES HISTÓRICAS DE LAS FINANZAS MUNICIPALES DE COSTA RICA EN EL PERIODO 2005-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosendo Pujol M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Las finanzas municipales en Costa Rica exhiben grandes variaciones temporales y espaciales. En algunos municipios, la serie de tiempo de ingresos tributarios per cápita se comporta como un proceso de caminata aleatoria. Otros municipios presentan series históricas estables. Las series históricas de ingresos tributarios municipales per cápita de todo Costa Rica (1998-2010 y por cantón (2005-2011 fueron clasificadas de acuerdo con el proceso que exhiben como estables en sus niveles o procesos de caminata aleatoria. Se encontró que, para el conjunto del país, los ingresos tributarios de los gobiernos locales han crecido; sin embargo, las series históricas de los distintos cantones no permiten determinar en forma significativa el parámetro de deriva, que describe el nivel de crecimiento, de cantones específicos. Análisis comparativos de las series nacionales con las series cantonales sugieren fuertemente que las grandes variaciones interanuales que se encuentran en cada cantón se compensan entre sí, de lo cual resulta una tendencia agregada hacia mayores ingresos.

  9. La contingencia de la independencia y de la revolución: perspectivas teóricas y comparadas sobre América latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang KNÖBL

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo compara las revoluciones francesa y estadounidense del último tercio del siglo XVIII con la independencia y la revolución en la América Latina de inicios del siglo XIX, bajo una perspectiva teórica particular. Centrándose principalmente en las etapas iniciales de estos eventos revolucionarios, se demostrará que a en los tres casos, el camino hacia un quiebre revolucionario con el viejo régimen no fue predeterminado y b particularmente en las Américas, el tema de la Nación no fue del todo resuelto por los revolucionarios. Ésta es una de las explicaciones más importantes de por qué, en adelante, la construcción de la Nación –y del Estado– en América Latina y Norteamérica no fue un proceso cómodo ni linear.

  10. Environmental stress and assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriano, D.C.; Brisbin, I.L.; Gibbons, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Research progress is reported in sections entitled: Savannah River Plant (SRP) studies provide general models for thermal research; in vivo studies of thermal stabilities of cattail isozymes reveal interspecific differences; thermal regimes in Par Pond have little effect on micronutrient uptake by cattails; continued tree kill in the SRP swamp may have an adverse impact on the swamp's cooling capabilities; Par Pond provides understanding of complexity of lake ecosystems affected by thermal effluents; temperature affects size, species distribution, and emergence date of dragonfly larvae; the midge subcommunity in Par Pond maintains relative integrity across a multi-faceted environmental gradient; temperature does not alter contribution of predators to community stability; habitat affects enzyme activity levels in natural populations of Gambusia affinis; studies of large-mouth bass in Par Pond system reveal lipid cycles; long-term turtle research provides information on survivorship and longevity; data on SRP watersnakes contribute to understanding of sexual dimorphism in animals; terrestrial drift fences and pitfall traps prove to be an effective technique for quantitative sampling of animal populations; and, Steel Creek targeted for environmental assessment

  11. Payments for environmental services in Latin America as a tool for restoration and rural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnini, Florencia; Finney, Christopher

    2011-05-01

    Payments for Environmental Services (PES) can encourage projects that enhance restoration, production, and rural development. When projects promote differentiated systems by paying farmers for the provision of services, the application of PES requires evaluation of the environmental services provided by each system. We present evaluations of carbon stocks and biodiversity in pure and mixed native tree plantations in Costa Rica. To illustrate how monetary values can be assigned, we discuss a project that awarded PES to silvopastoral systems in Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Colombia based on carbon stocks and biodiversity. PES can promote positive environmental attitudes in farmers. Currently this project is being scaled up in Colombia based on their positive experiences with PES as a tool to promote adoption. Compared to PES systems that include only one environmental service, systems that incorporate bundling or layering of multiple services can make sustainable land uses more attractive to farmers and reduce perverse incentives.

  12. Familial Breast Cancer in Costa Rica: An Initial Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ramírez Monge

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a worldwide problem because of its high rates of incidence and associated mortality. By 2000, more than 6.2 million people died from this illness worldwide. Among all types of cancer, breast cancer is one of the most studied. Each year, one million new cases are diagnosed around the world. We can classify breast cancer into two main kinds: sporadic cases and those which are a product of inherited genetic alterations. Approximately 5-10% of breast cancer cases are the result of inherited mutations, or alterations in breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Like other countries, Costa Rica possesses high rates of incidence and mortality for breast cancer. According to the "Registro Nacional de Tumores" (National Office of Tumor Records, in 2000 breast cancer had the highest rate of incidence and in 2002 it had the highest rate of mortality in comparison to other types of cancer. For this reason and the generalized lack of knowledge in the field we conducted an epidemiological research on breast cancer patients from Hospital San Juan de Dios, San José, Costa Rica, to find families with a history of breast cancer, and to determine the occurrence of familial cases within the population studied. So far, we have found 23 families, within which we discovered very informative cases that have rendered the identification of a pattern of inheritance. These findings allow us to announce that in Costa Rica there are several cases of inherited breast cancer and that we need more research is needed to improve the prevention, control, and treatment of this disease. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 531-536. Epub 2004 Dic 15.El cáncer es un problema a nivel mundial porque posee altas tasas de incidencia y mortalidad. Para el año 2000 más de 6.2 millones de personas murieron a causa de esta enfermedad. El cáncer de mama es uno de los tipos de cáncer más estudiados en el mundo por las mismas razones. Cada año, se diagnostican más de un mill

  13. Environmental taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekins, P.; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Vos, H.

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY1.Although the 5th Environmental Action Programme of the EU in 1992 recommended the greater use of economic instruments such as environmental taxes, there has been little progress in their use since then at the EU level. At Member State level, however, there has been a continuing...... increase in the use of environmental taxes over the last decade, which has accelerated in the last 5-6 years. This is primarily apparent in Scandinavia, but it is also noticeable in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom.2.Evaluation studies of 16 environmental taxes have...... been identified and reviewed in this report. Within the limitations of the studies, it appears that these taxes have been environmentally effective (achieving their environmental objectives) and they seem to have achieved such objectives at reasonable cost. Examples of particularly successful taxes...

  14. Environmental Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-15

    This book gives descriptions of environmental pollution such as water and soil pollution, harmful chemicals substances and radiation, nature protection on wild animals, wild plants, and nature park, environmental assessment, and environmental management. It deals with the earth environment on change and the cause of the earth environment, ozone layer, global warming and acid fallout, plan for the earth control and environment information and information system.

  15. Nanotechnology development in Denmark - Environmental opportunities and risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M.M.; Rasmussen, B.

    2006-01-01

    The present report represents the nanostudy part of a larger study entitled “Green Technology Foresight about Environmentally Friendly Products and Materials – Challenges from Nanotechnology, Biotechnology and ICT” (Jørgensen et al. 2006). The study wasmade for the Danish Environmental Protection...... (forthcoming in summer 2006). The analysis focuses not only on the environmental impact but even more on the dynamics involved in nanotechnology development ofwhich we currently know very little. Applying an innovation economic perspective focus is placed on analysing the direction of the nano search...... and technology development processes and how environmental issues enter into these. Hereby, the futuretrajectories of nanotechnology development is sought captured, indicating likely long-term perspectives of the Danish nanotechnology development. The content of the report is as follows: What is nanotechnology...

  16. Environmental justice: Grass roots reach the White House lawn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratch, K.

    1995-05-01

    When 500 demonstrators gathered in 1982 to protest the siting of a polychlorinated-biphenyl landfill in predominantly black Warren County, N.C., cries of environmental racism filled the air. In response, District of Columbia Congressional Delegate Walter Fauntroy requested that the General Accounting Office investigate a possible link between hazardous waste landfill siting and the racial and socio-economic mix of surrounding communities. The environmental justice movement, as it is known today, had been born. Environmental justice is conceived as the right of all people--regardless of race, ethnicity, culture or income--to live in a healthy environment, breathe clean air, drink clean water and eat uncontaminated foods. The concept assumes that everyone is entitled to fair environmental protection without any population segment bearing a disproportionate pollution burden.

  17. Origens históricas e considerações acerca do conceito de pressão atmosférica

    OpenAIRE

    Nardi, Roberto; UNESP - São Paulo

    2002-01-01

    Este artigo procura descrever aspectos históricos e traçar algumas considerações a respeito da evolução do conceito de pressão atmosférica, a partir de pesquisa em fontes secundárias. Destaca-se aqui alguns pontos desta evolução histórica, desde as discussões de filósofos antigos, como por exemplo, aquelas sobre a existência ou não do vácuo, até a consolidação do conceito de pressão atmosférica, atribuída a Torricelli, em função das medidas efetuadas em seu famoso experim...

  18. 35 years of electron microscopy in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Chavarria, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Electron microscopy has celebrated in 2009 the XXXV anniversary in Costa Rica. The history of the electron microscopy was initiated with the donation of a microscope by Japan and the establishment of the Unidad de Microscopia Electronica (UME), which later, has been consolidated as the Centro de Investigacion en Estructuras Microscopicas (CIEMic) of the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR). This center has realized its own research and has gave support to different units of the UCR, state universities and the private sector. Currently, the CIEMic has had two transmission electron microscopes (TEM) and two scanning electron microscopes (SEM), besides of optical microscopy equipment, including a laser confocal microscope. The two fundamental types of electron microscopes (TEM and SEM) have generated different images. While the first has had a resolution that has allowed to analyze virus, usually their images have been flat; however, with some special techniques can obtain three-dimensional images. The image in the TEM is generated by electrons that have passed through the sample, and to interact with its atoms have changed its energy and trajectory. This, at the end, has impacted on a photosensitive screen that has become in flashes, whose intensity has depended on its energy and form the image. Meanwhile, in the MER, the image has been normal type, although with less resolution. The electrons in the MER are focused on a small area of the sample in which have interacted with the atoms of this, and has generated a a series of signals, including the most used were the secondary electrons and characteristic X-rays. In both cases, an electron from beam has generated in the filament a collision against an electron of the sample and has given part of its energy to the degree of release of its atom and issued out of the sample; this has been called secondary electrons. X-rays have been generated when an electron of the same atom that has lost the secondary electron, but in an

  19. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Costa Rica Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the northern coastal plain of Costa Rica with the Cordillera Central, composed of a number of active and dormant volcanoes, rising in the background. This view looks toward the south over the Rio San Juan, which marks the boundary between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The smaller river joining Rio San Juan in the center of the image is Rio Sarapiqui, which is navigable upstream as far inland as Puerto Viejo (Old Port) de Sarapiqui at the mountain's base. This river was an important transportation route for those few hardy settlers who first moved into this region, although as recently as 1953 a mere three thatched-roof houses were all that comprised the village of Puerto Viejo.This coastal plain is a sedimentary basin formed about 50 million years ago composed of river alluvium and lahar (mud and ash flow) deposits from the volcanoes of the Cordillera Central. It comprises the province of Heredia (the smallest of Costa Rica's seven) and demonstrates a wide range of climatic conditions, from warm and humid lowlands to cool and damp highlands, and including the mild but seasonally wet and dry Central Valley.This image was generated in support of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development through an agreement with NASA. The Commission involves eight nations working to develop the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, an effort to study and preserve some of the most biologically diverse regions of the planet.This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 2X.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat

  20. Food niche overlap among neotropical frugivorous bats in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Lopez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Food habits of 15 species of frugivorous bats were studied at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Eight hundred and fifty-four (854 fecal samples and 169 samples from fruit parts and seeds discarded by bats beneath feeding roosts were analyzed. During eight months of study, 47 fruit species consumed by bats were identified. Five plant genera (Cecropia, Ficus, Piper, Solanum, and Vismia constituted 85% of all plants found in fecal samples. Feeding niche breadth differed significantly among the six most common species of frugivorous bats (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia sowelli, C. castanea, C. perspicillata, Dermanura sp., and Glossophaga commissarisi. All species, except for Dermanura sp., showed a diet dominated by one or two plant species. This suggests a pattern of resource partitioning at a generic level, in which Carollia consumed mainly Piper, Artibeus consumed Ficus and Cecropia, and Glossophaga consumed Vismia. Cluster analysis revealed higher values of food niche overlap in congeneric species than among species of different genera. Results show that if food is a limiting factor, mechanisms other than trophic selection must reduce interspecific interference or competition for food in this frugivorous bat guild. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 301-313. Epub 2007 March. 31.Estudiamos los hábitos alimentarios de 15 especies de murciélagos frugívoros en la Estación Biológica La Selva. Se analizó 854 muestras de heces y 169 muestras de restos de frutos y semillas en comederos. Durante ocho meses de estudio, se identificó 47 especies de frutos, que fueron consumidos por los murciélagos. Cinco géneros de plantas (Cecropia, Ficus, Piper, Solanum y Vismia constituyeron el 85% de los hallazgos en las muestras de heces y los comederos. La amplitud de nicho trófico difirió significativamente entre las seis especies de murciélagos frugívoros más frecuentemente capturados (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia sowelli, C. castanea, C. perspicillata

  1. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental Studies and Internal Dosimetry projects include: Environmental Protection; 1977 Environmental Monitoring Report; Sewage Sludge Disposal on the Sanitary Landfill; Radiological Analyses of Marshall Islands Environmental Samples, 1974 to 1976; External Radiation Survey and Dose Predictions for Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik, Ailuk, and Wotje Atolls; Marshall Islands - Diet and Life Style Study; Dose Reassessment for Populations on Rongelap and Utirik Following Exposure to Fallout from BRAVO Incident (March 1, 1954); Whole Body Counting Results from 1974 to 1979 for Bikini Island Residents; Dietary Radioactivity Intake from Bioassay Data, a Model Applied to 137 Cs Intake by Bikini Island Residents; and External Exposure Measurements at Bikini Atoll

  2. Environmental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Clare

    2001-01-01

    Environmental Physics is a comprehensive introduction to the physical concepts underlying environmental science. The importance and relevance of physics is emphasised by its application to real environmental problems with a wide range of case studies. Applications included cover energy use and production, global climate, the physics of living things, radioactivity, environmental remote sensing, noise pollution and the physics of the Earth. The book makes the subject accessible to those with little physics background, keeping mathematical treatment straightforward. The text is lively and informative, and is supplemented by numerous illustrations, photos, tables of useful data, and a glossary of key terms.

  3. Environmental radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.K.; Schmalz, R.F.; Miller, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers many aspects of environmental radon, including: historical perspectives; occurrence and properties; detection, measurement, and mitigation, radon and health; and political, economic, and legislative impacts

  4. Environmental Risk

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Identified Sites coverage, used to support the environmental quality program, references types and concentrations of contaminants, contaminated media and...

  5. New serovars of Leptospira isolated from patients in Costa Rica: implications for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de los Angeles Valverde, Maria; Goris, M. G. A.; González, V.; Anchia, M. E.; Díaz, P.; Ahmed, A.; Hartskeerl, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Leptospira strains JICH 05 and INCIENSA 04 were isolated from hospitalized leptospirosis patients in the province of Puntarenas, Costa Rica. The isolates produced agglutination titres notably against members of serogroups Pyrogenes and Tarassovi, respectively, but appeared serologically unique in

  6. NEW SPECIES OF AGRILUS FROM NICARAGUA AND COSTA RICA (COLEOPTERA, BUPRESTIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Curletti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new species of the genus Agrilus Curtis, 1825 from Costa Rica and Nicaragua are described: A. barriesi n. sp., A. maesi n. sp., A. ursus n. sp., A. tyrannus n. sp. and A. pumilio n. sp.

  7. Development of domestic hot water systems in Costa Rica from solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizana-Moreno, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    A software tool is developed to implement the solar domestic hot water systems (DHW) in Costa Rica and to replace the electric water heating equipment. A database with information from the solar radiation is elaborated for different locations in Costa Rica. A manual of design DHW solar systems is realized for the country. An DHW solar system is designed for the type of average building the of country. A software is implemented to calculate the parameters and dimensions necessary for the solar installation of DHW, using the F-Chart method; in addition, the information of the mentioned database is included. A financial analysis is elaborated of the DHW solar systems in Costa Rica. The strategies are proposed for the implementation of DHW solar systems in Costa Rica [es

  8. ORCID en el mundo, en Latinoamérica y en México

    OpenAIRE

    Heredia, Ana

    2017-01-01

    "ORCID en el mundo, en Latinoamérica y en México" was presented at the ORCID Mexico Workshop at COLMEX in Mexico City on October 19, 2017 by Ana Heredia (Regional Director for Latin America, ORCID).

  9. CASE STUDY: Costa Rica — Consumer Choice at the Corner Store ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-17

    Dec 17, 2010 ... But people in Costa Rica noticed when a competition authority ruling forced ... on such issues as the defendants' price, marketing, and sales policies. ... the CPC lumped non-alcoholic carbonated beverages with canned and ...

  10. Ecotourism, sustainable development, and conservation education: Development of a tour guide training program in Tortuguero, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Susan K.; Robles, Rafael

    1992-11-01

    A tour guide training program was developed for rural communities near Costa Rica's Tortuguero National Park to respond to the impacts of the 24-fold increase in park visitation in the past decade, to involve local communities in resource management, and to provide regional environmental education. The development of the training course involved a survey of scientists and park managers to ascertain resource management needs, priorities for information to be disseminated, and impacts of tourism on the resource base. Current and potential tour guides were surveyed to identify their information needs, solicit their input in the training program, and to determine their knowledge and skills. Written questionnaires were developed and given to 400 tourists to determine their activities and environmental information needs, and hotel owners were censused to examine the economic feasibility of a local guide program. A pilot training course and guide program involving 12 Tortuguero residents demonstrated that a tour guide program: (1) helped mitigate negative tourism impacts on Tortuguero National Park's natural resources, particularly by regulating tourists on the park's 35-km beach used for nesting by endangered sea turtles; (2) provided environmental education to an important segment of the local community not traditionally reached through school or government development projects; (3) provided environmental information to tourists, thus enhancing their visit; and (4) provided local economic benefits through lucrative part-time employment, thereby allowing local people to participate more fully in the tourism system. An extended training course is being planned to provide further environmental education programming and to increase year-round employment opportunities for the tour guides.

  11. VIABILIDAD DEL SEGURO DE DEPÓSITOS EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Durán V.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este artículo es estimar si el establecimiento del seguro de depósitos explícito en Costa Rica es viable o no, así como, exponer las principales características de dicho sistema de protección.Adicionalmente, se considera oportuno iniciar el debate sobre un tema que ha sido postergado y que debería ser de interés en el ámbito financiero nacional. Por tanto, es necesario animar la discusión de este tema en foros bancarios para ir generando ideas alternativas y conclusiones que contribuyan con el fortalecimiento y desarrollo del sistema financiero y no esperar hasta que la crisis sistémica (peligro latente de contagio sobre el resto del sistema se muestre a la vuelta de la esquina.El riesgo de las crisis sistémicas ha llevado a muchos países a estudiar e implementar sistemas de seguro de depósitos (SSD, con el interés de minimizar el efecto dominó o contagio que podría generar una corrida de fondos bancarios, dada una situación de desconfianza en los depositantes por la pérdida de sus recursos, producto de la quiebra de un banco.En Costa Rica, el establecimiento del seguro de depósitos explícito debe formar parte de la agenda de estudio de las Reformas del Sistema Financiero, puesto que el SSD junto con la función de prestamista de última instancia y la supervisión prudencial conforman los cimientos de seguridad básica de un sistema financiero moderno e inmerso en la globalización.Por su parte, los resultados de la estimación del seguro de depósitos para nuestro país, mostraron que la implementación es viable desde el punto de vista financiero, según criterio de expertos. Además, el impacto estimado sobre el margen financiero se considera insignificante para los participantes en el sistema bancario. Por tanto, se estaría rompiendo con el mito de que el seguro de los depósitos vendría a ser un impuesto adicional importante, sino más bien un beneficio, en el sentido de la mayor confianza y

  12. CADENA DEL CAFÉ DE LOS SANTOS, COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Francisco Carranza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La operación de las actividades económicas y su competitividad, analizadas desde una perspectiva de cadenas globales de mercancías, dependen del funcionamiento de los mercados de crédito, tanto nacionales como internacionales. La operación normal de los negocios requiere crédito para fortalecer sus recursos propios y hacer las compras de materia prima, insumos, pago de salarios e inversión. En todos los casos, el crédito puede ser utilizado para mejorar el diseño de productos, impulsar el acceso a nuevos mercados y aumentar la competitividad. A los productores de la región de Los Santos en Costa Rica se les reconoce por innovadores, y al café de la zona por ser un café de altura y de gran calidad. El artículo explora las necesidades de financiamiento de productores, beneficiadores y exportadores de café de Los Santos, sus fuentes de financiamiento y el uso dado a los recursos obtenidos. Entre las necesidades orientadas al mejoramiento de la competitividad se encontraron la renovación de cafetales entre los productores, el mantenimiento de proyectos y tecnología entre los beneficios y la generación de microbeneficios y búsqueda de nichos de mercado entre los exportadores. Abstract From a global commodity chains perspective, economic activities and their competitiveness depend upon the functioning of credit markets, both international and domestic. Current businesses operations require credit to enhance their own resources in order to buy raw material and inputs, pay wages and make investment. Credit may also be used to improve product design, enter new markets and boost competitiveness as a result. High altitude grown coffee from Los Santos, Costa Rica is widely known for its quality, and their growers as innovative. This paper addresses credit needs of coffee growers, processors and exporters in Los Santos, the credit sources they have access to, and the kind of uses the credit is given. Improving competitiveness uses

  13. Geology of Tapanti quadrangle (1:50 000), Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojo, Dennis; Denyer, Percy; Gazel, Esteban; Alvarado, Guillermo E.

    2017-01-01

    A geologic map scale 1:50 000, stratigraphic and structural of the 509 km 2 of the Tapanti quadrangle is presented. The Tapanti quadrant is located in the central region of Costa Rica and belongs to the Central Costa Rica Deformed Belt (CCRDB). The CCRDB was a consequence of the interaction of the Cocos Ridge and the Western edge of the Panama microplate. Petrographic, geochemistry and paleontological analyzes were performed by selecting samples collected in the more than 100 field visits, with more than 300 outcrops raised. The geological information was compiled in a Geographical Information System. Lambert North coordinate system was employed. Aerial and topographic photographs from the TERRA Project 1997 and Digital Elevation Model were used. 18 rock samples were analyzed petrographically to discard altered samples. Rock samples were screened. The gravels or grains obtained were washed with deionized water in an ultrasonic stack. Gravel with signs of alteration were discarded by stereoscopic microscope. The powder obtained from the spraying of 25 mg of gravel each sample was melted and combined with Lithium tetraborate (Li2B4O7) and poured into glass discs. The discs were analyzed to determine concentrations of major elements and traced through of X-Ray Fluorescence in a Bruker S4 Pioner, and by a mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) in a Micromass Platform ICP-MS, respectively. The oldest rocks mapped in this work are Miocene in age and they belongs to Pacacua, Pena Negra and Coris formations, than form the western edge of the Candelaria basin. Three igneous events were distinguished. First, the Miocene volcanic arc, which is represented by the rocks of La Cruz Formation and the clasts of Pacacua Formation. Another period of igneous activity was recorded in Grifo Alto and Doan formations and the Tapanti Intrusive, with an age range of 0.6-0.03 Ma. From a geochemical point of view a change in the composition of magmatism was remarkable between 10 to 6 Ma, expressed

  14. Protección social en salud en América latina y el Caribe ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 déc. 2010 ... Protección social en salud en América latina y el Caribe : Investigación y políticas. Couverture du livre Protección social en salud en América latina y el Caribe : Investigación y. Directeur(s) : Amparo Hernández Bello et Carmen Rico de Sotelo. Maison(s) d'édition : Editorial Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, ...

  15. Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae), una nueva especie para Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, J. Francisco; González, José

    2007-01-01

    Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae), a new species from Costa Rica is described and illustrated and its relationships with B. crotonoides A. Gray are discussed. Buddleja filibracteolata is distinguished by its sessile leaves, amplexicaul leaf blades, and spiciform inflorescence with numerous and conspicuous threadlike bracteoles.Se describe e ilustra Buddleja filibracteolata (Buddlejaceae), una nueva especie de Costa Rica, y se compara con la especie más cercana, B. crotonoides A. Gray. B...

  16. Activities of technical cooperation in the countries of Latin America: the case of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis Diaz, L.

    1998-01-01

    The activities of technical cooperation in the region of Latin America, have been promoted by the own countries, and by the International Atomic Energy Agency, since 1957. In Costa Rica from 1969, the Commission of Atomic Energy of Costa Rica, has developed an intense work in the promotion of the pacific uses of nuclear energy, as well as, the coordination and canalization of the international technical cooperation, toward the national executing institutions. (author) [es

  17. Presence and distribution of two sub-species of Eurema agave (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Cordoba-Alfaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Austin (1992 reported Eurema a. agave (Cramer 1775 to the Caribbean of Costa Rica. However, he actually had found E. a. millerorum, described by Bousquets & Luis-Martinez (1987 for the Caribbean of Mexico. The presence of Eurema a. agave is confirmed on this paper with information of specimens collected in the Pacific and Atlantic slopes of Costa Rica. Aspects on distribution of both subspecies are included.

  18. First report of acariasis by Caparinia tripilis in African hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris), in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Andrés; Troyo, Adriana; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger

    2013-01-01

    The African hedgehog is one of the newly imported exotic pets which have been observed with increasing regularity in veterinary clinics in Costa Rica. Despite their popularity, information about their diseases is scarce. Within skin diseases of hedgehogs, mange caused by Capariniaspp. is a common diagnosis in other countries. Two adult African hedgehogs, one male and one female, were brought to a private clinic in Heredia, Costa Rica, with chronic pruritic dermatitis, scabs, nearly complete l...

  19. First report of acariasis by Caparinia tripilis in African hedgehogs, (Atelerix albiventris), in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira,Andrés; Troyo,Adriana; Calderón-Arguedas,Olger

    2013-01-01

    The African hedgehog is one of the newly imported exotic pets which have been observed with increasing regularity in veterinary clinics in Costa Rica. Despite their popularity, information about their diseases is scarce. Within skin diseases of hedgehogs, mange caused by Caparinia spp. is a common diagnosis in other countries. Two adult African hedgehogs, one male and one female, were brought to a private clinic in Heredia, Costa Rica, with chronic pruritic dermatitis, scabs, nearly complete ...

  20. THE DETERMINATION OF THE COSTA RICA COLON/USD EXCHANGE RATE

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Hsing

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare four major exchange rate models for the Costa Rica Colon. We examine exchange rate data for the Costa Rica/U.S. dollar relationship from 1981-2007 and find that monetary models have a higher explanatory ability whereas the Mundell-Fleming model performs better in forecasting exchange rates than other models. The coefficient of the interest rate differential in the uncovered interest parity model has a wrong sign.

  1. Perú y Costa Rica. Geopolítica del desarrollo turístico en América Latina

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Perú y Costa Rica son dos referencias del turismo internacional en América latina.El primero gracias a su patrimonio cultural, especialmente Machu Picchu; el segundo gracias a su patrimonio natural, que le permitió desarrollar el ecoturismo. Pero una observación más precisa del desarrollo turístico de esos dos países muestra la importancia de factores exteriores, especialmente políticos, y obliga a matizar el papel de su supuesto potencial turístico. En cuanto a la configuración a...

  2. Nexos estratégicos entre la retórica y la publicidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gallardo Vera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo contribuye a establecer nexos estratégicos entre la retórica y la publicidad. La adopción del prisma estratégico en los estudios retóricos de la publicidad no es común, sin embargo, la relación entre retórica y publicidad a un nivel estratégico es evidente, teniendo presente los estudios que han investigado la simbiosis entre las dos actividades.Del universo compuesto por las investigaciones sobre retórica y publicidad se seleccionó una muestra de las obras susceptibles de responder a la pregunta de cuáles son los nexos estratégicos entre la retórica y la publicidad. Con este criterio se conformó una muestra teóricamente conducida del universo. La hipótesis de partida ha sido que, si existen documentos que indaguen en la relación entre la retórica y la publicidad, es posible construir un documento que muestre de un modo amplio cuáles son los nexos estratégicos entre ambas actividades. Finalmente, se contrastó que, efectivamente, este documento es único al mostrar ampliamente cuáles son los nexos estratégicos existentes entre la retórica y la publicidad.

  3. Advancing methods for research on household water insecurity: Studying entitlements and capabilities, socio-cultural dynamics, and political processes, institutions and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutich, Amber; Budds, Jessica; Eichelberger, Laura; Geere, Jo; Harris, Leila; Horney, Jennifer; Jepson, Wendy; Norman, Emma; O'Reilly, Kathleen; Pearson, Amber; Shah, Sameer; Shinn, Jamie; Simpson, Karen; Staddon, Chad; Stoler, Justin; Teodoro, Manuel P; Young, Sera

    2017-11-01

    Household water insecurity has serious implications for the health, livelihoods and wellbeing of people around the world. Existing methods to assess the state of household water insecurity focus largely on water quality, quantity or adequacy, source or reliability, and affordability. These methods have significant advantages in terms of their simplicity and comparability, but are widely recognized to oversimplify and underestimate the global burden of household water insecurity. In contrast, a broader definition of household water insecurity should include entitlements and human capabilities, sociocultural dynamics, and political institutions and processes. This paper proposes a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods that can be widely adopted across cultural, geographic, and demographic contexts to assess hard-to-measure dimensions of household water insecurity. In doing so, it critically evaluates existing methods for assessing household water insecurity and suggests ways in which methodological innovations advance a broader definition of household water insecurity.

  4. PERFORMANCE OF CULTURED White-leg Shrimp IN RICA Probiotic Application METHOD in PONDS AERATED WITH SUPERCHARGE BLOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Susianingsih

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Several ways have been done to encounter shrimp disease affecting cultured shrimp in Indonesian ponds in the last two decades. This research was aimed to find out the effect of different application of probiotic RICA4, RICA5, and RICA3 method on survival rate and production of white-leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in ponds aerated with supercharge blower. RICA probiotics are bacteria probiotics produced by the Research and Development Institute for Coastal Aquaculture, originally isolated from seaweed and sea sediment. This experiment was carried out in completely randomized design using nine 250-m2 experimental ponds stocked with 15 shrimp fries/m2. There were three treatments namely: A=alternate use of three probiotics RICA4, RICA5, and RICA3; B=combination use of three probiotics RICA4, RICA5, and RICA3; and C=control (without probiotic, each treatment with three replications and cultured with supercharge blower. Variables observed in this study were survival rate and production of the shrimp calculated at the end of experiment, total vibrio count (TBV and total plate count of common bacteria (TPC of the pond waters and sediments monitored every two weeks. The results showed that application of probiotic RICA4, RICA5, and RICA3 applied either in alteration or in combination significantly increased survival rate (P0.05 of the white-leg shrimp. TBV/TPC ratio in the control pond waters after 10-weeks culture (over than 10% was relatively dangerous for the cultured white-leg shrimp. This shows that application of probiotic could prevent the growth of Vibrio spp in the cultured shrimp pond water.

  5. Environmental aspects based on operation performance of nuclear fuel fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This publication was prepared within the framework of the IAEA Project entitled Development and Upgrading of Guidelines, Databases and Tools for Integrating Comparative Assessment into Energy System Analysis and Policy Making, which included the collection, review and input of data into a database on health and environmental impacts related to operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The objectives of the report included assembling environmental data on operational performance of nuclear fabrication facilities in each country; compiling and arranging the data in a database, which will be easily available to experts and the public; and presenting data that may be of value for future environmental assessment of nuclear fabrication facilities

  6. Environmental occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the onsite and offsite releases of radioactive and regulated materials. The specific agencies notified of the releases depended on the type, amount, and location of the individual occurrences. The more significant of these off-normal environmental occurrences are summarized in this section

  7. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, B.; Sparwasser, R.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental law is discussed exhaustively in this book. Legal and scientific fundamentals are taken into account, a systematic orientation is given, and hints for further information are presented. The book covers general environmental law, plan approval procedures, protection against nuisances, atomic law and radiation protection law, water protection law, waste management law, laws on chemical substances, conservation law. (HSCH) [de

  8. Environmental occurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the onsite and offsite releases of radioactive and regulated materials. The specific agencies notified of the releases depended on the type, amount, and location of the individual occurrences. The more significant of these off-normal environmental occurrences are summarized in this section.

  9. Environmental Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre

    2016-01-01

    This chapter intends to clarify and argue for the approach to re- search taken within the PhD thesis ‘Environmental Tectonics’ by elaborating on an architectural research methodology that is based on the objective of the thesis as described in the associated abstra- ct. Environmental sustainable...

  10. Environmental Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.; Vanmarcke, H

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's programme on environmental restoration are (1) to optimize and validate models for the impact assessment from environmental, radioactive contaminations, including waste disposal or discharge; (2) to support the policy of national authorities for public health and radioactive waste management. Progress and achievements in 1997 are reported.

  11. National Health Service Principles as Experienced by Vulnerable London Migrants in "Austerity Britain": A Qualitative Study of Rights, Entitlements, and Civil-Society Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafighi, Elham; Poduval, Shoba; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Howard, Natasha

    2016-05-08

    Recent British National Health Service (NHS) reforms, in response to austerity and alleged 'health tourism,' could impose additional barriers to healthcare access for non-European Economic Area (EEA) migrants. This study explores policy reform challenges and implications, using excerpts from the perspectives of non-EEA migrants and health advocates in London. A qualitative study design was selected. Data were collected through document review and 22 in-depth interviews with non-EEA migrants and civil-society organisation representatives. Data were analysed thematically using the NHS principles. The experiences of those 'vulnerable migrants' (ie, defined as adult non-EEA asylum-seekers, refugees, undocumented, low-skilled, and trafficked migrants susceptible to marginalised healthcare access) able to access health services were positive, with healthcare professionals generally demonstrating caring attitudes. However, general confusion existed about entitlements due to recent NHS changes, controversy over 'health tourism,' and challenges registering for health services or accessing secondary facilities. Factors requiring greater clarity or improvement included accessibility, communication, and clarity on general practitioner (GP) responsibilities and migrant entitlements. Legislation to restrict access to healthcare based on immigration status could further compromise the health of vulnerable individuals in Britain. This study highlights current challenges in health services policy and practice and the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in healthcare advocacy (eg, helping the voices of the most vulnerable reach policy-makers). Thus, it contributes to broadening national discussions and enabling more nuanced interpretation of ongoing global debates on immigration and health. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences

  12. National Health Service Principles as Experienced by Vulnerable London Migrants in “Austerity Britain”: A Qualitative Study of Rights, Entitlements, and Civil-Society Advocacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Rafighi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent British National Health Service (NHS reforms, in response to austerity and alleged ‘health tourism,’ could impose additional barriers to healthcare access for non-European Economic Area (EEA migrants. This study explores policy reform challenges and implications, using excerpts from the perspectives of non-EEA migrants and health advocates in London. Methods: A qualitative study design was selected. Data were collected through document review and 22 indepth interviews with non-EEA migrants and civil-society organisation representatives. Data were analysed thematically using the NHS principles. Results: The experiences of those ‘vulnerable migrants’ (ie, defined as adult non-EEA asylum-seekers, refugees, undocumented, low-skilled, and trafficked migrants susceptible to marginalised healthcare access able to access health services were positive, with healthcare professionals generally demonstrating caring attitudes. However, general confusion existed about entitlements due to recent NHS changes, controversy over ‘health tourism,’ and challenges registering for health services or accessing secondary facilities. Factors requiring greater clarity or improvement included accessibility, communication, and clarity on general practitioner (GP responsibilities and migrant entitlements. Conclusion: Legislation to restrict access to healthcare based on immigration status could further compromise the health of vulnerable individuals in Britain. This study highlights current challenges in health services policy and practice and the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs in healthcare advocacy (eg, helping the voices of the most vulnerable reach policy-makers. Thus, it contributes to broadening national discussions and enabling more nuanced interpretation of ongoing global debates on immigration and health.

  13. Environmental medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steneberg, A.

    1996-01-01

    'Environmental medicine' deals with the manifold health problems from environmental factors of chemical, physical and psychosocial origin that are possible or have been observed. The book gives insight into the current state of knowledge of environmental medicine institutions, possibilities of diagnosis and therapeutic methods. It offers a systematic overview of pollutant sources and pollutant effects and points out, inter alia, syndromes that are discussed in connection with environmental factors: not only allergies and carcinogenous diseases but also symptom complexes that are hard to diagnose by ordinary methods such as the sick-building syndrome, multiple sensitivity to chemicals, electrosensitivity, amalgam intoxications, disorders due to wood preservatives and fungal diseases. The lingering course of a disease and a set of symptoms varying from one patient to another are the rule, not the exception, because environmental diseases are due above all to the chronic uptake of low pollutant doses (orig./MG) [de

  14. La Muerte en la Lírica Infantil Colonial Mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Malvido

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo presentaremos la importancia que la lírica infantil tuvo en la implantación de la cultura occidental en la Nueva España, rastrearemos sus orígenes, intenciones y permanencia en México, destacando uno de sus elementos más constantes: la muerte, así como el papel que desempeñó en las mentes infantiles que la cantaron y representaron. Podrán preguntarse ¿por qué la muerte? y responderemos que después de la conquista castellana de estas tierras, la muerte fue constante, masiva, cotidiana y permanente, todo lo cual se reflejó en las coplas populares; por ejemplo, en el material que hemos consultado compuesto de 193 canciones infantiles, en más de la mitad de ellas se hace referencia, se le menciona, nombra o es el título de las mismas.

  15. Chagas Disease in Dogs from Endemic Areas of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montenegro Victor M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs with the presumptive diagnosis of Chagas disease are commonly sent to our School of Veterinary Medicine by independent veterinarians. This prompted us to evaluate the prevalence of canine trypanosomiasis in some villages of the Central Valley of Costa Rica. A total of 54 dogs (21 males and 33 females from five rural villages, with ages between 3 months and 10 years old, were bled and submitted to three serological tests: indirect immunofluorescence, indirect hemagglutination and ELISA. Among all animals, 15 (27.7% revealed antibodies (6 pure bred and 9 mongrels and in 3 of them the parasite was also demonstrated by xenodiagnosis. All positive animals except 1, and 9 negative animals (control group were examined by X-rays and electrocardiography, revealing different degrees of cardiomegaly and ECG alteration, consistent with Chagas disease pathology in one dog (SA-11 of the infected ones. Examination of 50 inhabitants living in the houses where dogs and Triatoma dimidiata were found, yielded negative serological reactions. This was assumed to support the hypothesis that dogs are commonly infected by the oral route, a more effective means of infection compared with the vector transmission mechanism that occurs in humans.

  16. Comunidades de palmas en América

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Con base en la bibliografía disponible analizamos la flora de palmas americanas respecto a la prevalencia de diferentes características morfológicas y ecológicas de las comunidades en las que están ensambladas las especies. Las comunidades estudiadas de palmas de América tropical tuvieron 19.......3 ± 11.3 DE especies. Los principales factores que determinan la riqueza de especies en las comunidades son el clima, los suelos, la hidrología y la topografía. Los bosques tropicales lluviosos de tierras bajas no-inundados son los más ricos en especies, en tanto que los bosques que se inundan o que...... spp), (vi) Palmas Acaulescentes Grandes (28 spp), (vii) Palmas Acaulescentes Pequeñas (56 sp), (viii) Palmas Lianoides (12 spp). Las ocho formas biológicas están representadas de manera diferente en las comunidades de palmas. Las categorías de Palmas Pequeñas y las Palmas de Gran Tamaño dominan...

  17. Perspectivas climáticas Costa Rica 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallas Sojo, Juan Carlos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Para el año 2003 se predijo que existiría un pequeño incremento en la cantidad de lluvia que caería en Costa Rica. El presente estudio analiza el comportamiento meteorológico durante el primer semestre del año, sobre las causas del aumento en patrón lluvioso y el pronóstico para el resto de los meses. Se muestra un mapa centroamericano sobre la probabilidad de que ocurran lluvias por debajo de lo normal, normales o arriba de lo normal, generado en el Foro Climático Centroamericano, así como una tabla comparativa entre la cantidad de tormentas tropicales, huracanes y ciclones del año 2002, el primer semestre 2003 y un promedio histórico (1950-2000. Como último punto se analiza la probabilidad del desarrollo del fenómeno de La Niña y la evolución del fenómeno El Niño/Oscilación del Sur (ENOS, según las proyecciones de doce modelos climáticos de distintos centros climáticos especializados

  18. Light Diffusion in the Tropical Dry Forest of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Rodriguez, S.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. A.

    2016-06-01

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) has been defined as the total leaf area (one-sided) in relation to the ground. LAI has an impact on tree growth and recruitment through the interception of light, which in turn affects primary productivity. Even though many instruments exist for estimating LAI from ground, they are often laborious and costly to run continuously. Measurements of LAI from the field using traditional sensors (e.g., LAI-2000) require multiple visits to the field under very specific sky conditions, making them unsuitable to operate in inaccessible areas and forests with dense vegetation, as well as areas where persistent sunny conditions are the norm like tropical dry forests. With this context, we proposed a methodology to characterize light diffusion based on NDVI and LAI measurements taken from the field in two successional stages in the tropical dry forest of Santa Rosa National Park in Costa Rica. We estimate a "K" coefficient to characterize light diffusion by the canopy, based on field NDVI measurements derived from optical phenology instruments and MODIS NDVI. From the coefficients determined, we estimated LAI values and compared them with ground measurements of LAI. In both successional stages ground measurements of LAI had no significant difference to the tower-derived LAI and the estimated LAI from MODIS NDVI.

  19. Assessment of medical occupational radiation doses in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, P.; Acuna, M.

    2011-01-01

    Participation of the Univ. of Costa Rica (UCR) in activities in an IAEA Regional Project RLA/9/066 through training, equipment and expert missions, has enabled to setting up of a national personal monitoring laboratory. Since 2007, the UCR has been in charge of monitoring around 1800 medical radiation workers of the Social Security System. Individual external doses are measured with thermoluminescent dosemeter using a Harshaw 6600 Plus reader. The service has accreditation with ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Distribution of monitored medical personnel is as follows: 83 % in diagnostic radiology, 6 % in nuclear medicine and 6 % in radiotherapy. Preliminary values for the 75 percentile of annual H p (10) in mSv are: radiology 0.37; interventional radiology 0.41; radiotherapy 0.53 and nuclear medicine 1.55. The service provided by the UCR in a steady and reliable way can help to implement actions to limit the doses received by the medical workers and optimise their radiation protection programs. (authors)

  20. El terrorismo global y América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco ROJAS ARAVENA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Los atentados del 11-S subrayan que las respuestas a las nuevas amenazas requieren de la integración de políticas de Estado en cursos de acción efectivos. Por ello, este trabajo analiza, por un lado, los factores que dificultan el que América Latina participe en el diseño y formulación de las nuevas reglas del sistema internacional. Y, por otro lado, propone un nuevo concepto de seguridad basado en una perspectiva holística que relacione de manera efectiva los componentes de «seguridad internacional, seguridad estatal y seguridad humana».ABSTRACT: The September 11 attacks showed that the importance of the responses to new threats requires integration of the policies of the State for effective action. Therefore, this paper analyzes, on one side, the factors that complicate Latin America’s participation in the design and formulation of the new international system rules. And, on the other side, it proposes a new concept of security based on a holistic perspective that effectively relates the components of international security, state security, and human security.

  1. Trace metals in coastal sediments of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Cespedes, J.; Acuna Gonzalez, J.; Vargas Zamora, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Marine sediment samples from four coastal ecosystems in Costa Rica were taken between the years 2000-2002 and their iron, lead, copper and zinc concentrations were determined by the atomic absorption technique with flame or graphite furnace. In the Pacific coast, Culebra Bay (Papagayo Gulf), Gulf of Nicoya, and Golfito Bay (Dulce Gulf), were selected as representative sites, and Moin Bay, at the Caribbean coast. Mean metal concentrations for all ecosystems followed the same pattern: Fe> Zn> Cu> Pb. No temporal pattern was found for any metal. Iron and copper mean concentrations were higher in Golfito Bay (5.8% and 87 μg / g, respectively) and lower in Moin Bay (3.4% and 52 μg / g, respectively). Zinc mean concentration was also higher in Golfito Bay (96 μg / g), but lower in Culebra Bay (66 μg / g). Lead mean concentration was higher in Moin Bay (6.4 μg / g) and lower in Culebra Bay (3.0 μg / g). Lead highest concentrations occurred in the Caribbean and in Golfito Bay, and for the rest of the elements the maximum values were found in Golfito Bay. On the basis of data obtained in this work, Culebra Bay was considered a relatively unpolluted location; Golfito Bay was more contaminated, and Moin Bay and the Gulf of Nicoya showed an intermediate condition. (Author) [es

  2. Essential oil of Lepechinia schiedeana (Lamiaceae from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Cicció

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil isolated by steam distillation from aerial parts of the Costa Rican herb Lepechinia schiedeana (Schlecht Vatke (Lamiaceae collected in El Empalme, Costa Rica, was determined by capillary gas chromatography (GC and coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analyses. Fifty-one components were identified corresponding ca. 93% of the oil. The major components were -pinene (26.6%, cis -pinocamphone (25.1%, -3-carene (6.1%, trans -pinocamphone (4.0%, camphor (3.8% and -caryophyllene (3.7%.Se estudiaron los constituyentes del aceite esencial de las partes aéreas de Lepechinia schiedeana (Lamiaceae mediante el uso de cromatografía de gases (GC y cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. Se caracterizaron 51 compuestos (que representan ca. del 93% del aceite. El aceite se caracteriza por la presencia de gran cantidad de hidrocarburos monoterpénicos (45.9% y de monoterpenos oxigenados (39.7%. Los componentes mayoritarios fueron -pineno (26.6%, cis -pinocanfona (25.1%, -3-careno (6.1%, trans -pinocanfona (4.0%, alcanfor (3.8% y -cariofileno (3.7%.

  3. Assessment of medical occupational radiation doses in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, P; Acuña, M

    2011-09-01

    Participation of the University of Costa Rica (UCR) in activities in an IAEA Regional Project RLA/9/066 through training, equipment and expert missions, has enabled to setting up of a national personal monitoring laboratory. Since 2007, the UCR has been in charge of monitoring around 1800 medical radiation workers of the Social Security System. Individual external doses are measured with thermoluminescent dosemeter using a Harshaw 6600 Plus reader. The service has accreditation with ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Distribution of monitored medical personnel is as follows: 83 % in diagnostic radiology, 6 % in nuclear medicine and 6 % in radiotherapy. Preliminary values for the 75 percentile of annual H(p)(10) in mSv are: radiology 0.37; interventional radiology 0.41; radiotherapy 0.53 and nuclear medicine 1.55. The service provided by the UCR in a steady and reliable way can help to implement actions to limit the doses received by the medical workers and optimise their radiation protection programs.

  4. AYUDA AL DESARROLLO Y RESPUESTA FISCAL EN CENTROAMÉRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Gozalo-Delgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En la actual etapa de crisis financiera global la mejora de la eficacia de la ayuda seha convertido en una prioridad tanto para los donantes como para los países recep-tores. En este contexto, comprender la manera en la que los gobiernos receptoresutilizan la ayuda es una cuestión decisiva para valorar su eficacia. Este artículo de-sarrolla y estima un modelo de respuesta fiscal con ayuda anticipada. Costa Rica yNicaragua son los países seleccionados como estudios de caso. El supuesto princi-pal del modelo teórico es que parte de la ayuda puede ser anticipada por los gobier-nos y, por tanto, puede influir en su programación presupuestaria. La estimación deeste modelo revela una respuesta fiscal diferente en cada país, pero con un resultadocomún en ambos: la ayuda se destina fundamentalmente a apoyar la función deestabilización de la política fiscal, aliviando las necesidades de financiación pública.

  5. Clavijero y la literalidad histórica del futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Vargas de Luna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A la luz de la teoría de Marc Bloch sobre la "plasticidad de la historia", el presente estudio propone que la Historia antigua de México, de Francisco Javier Clavijero, pretende ejercitar al lector en los cambios de guardia temporales y heredarle, junto a los avatares del mundo mexica, el hábito intelectual para sospechar formas distintas de construir cronologías. Clavijero anima la experiencia de la relatividad de la historia, lo cual es diagnosis posible de un mundo que premedita la lectura de su pasado y, por lo tanto, que mina el ingreso a todos sus periodos históricos, incluido el presente. En el establecimiento de todo ello radica la convicción de que, en efecto, el libro es anuncio nítido de los reclamos de autonomía que pronto habrán de conducir a las guerras de independencia en Hispanoamérica.

  6. ARIEL NA AMÉRICA: FRAGMENTO, PERFORMANCE, DEVIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILZA MATIAS DE SOUSA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio propõe uma leitura da presença do fragmento e da performatividade na experiência estética dos Estados Unidos através do filme The Chelsea Girls, de Andy Warhol, e do poema Ariel, de Sylvia Plath. Considerando alguns escritos de Gilles Deleuze, vimos que o fragmentário e a convulsividade sáo características náo apenas do escritor americano mas da própria naçáo, cujo espírito, formado por agenciamentos de diversos outros povos, ainda traz em si a herança errante dos anglo-saxões. Essa “espontaneidade” do fragmentário, como afirma Deleuze, é própria dos estados Unidos da América e de sua escritura nômade, feita de imagens que se constroem por cacos, pedaços de um todo cênico sempre em vias de se reconfigurar.

  7. Chlamydia abortus in Dairy Farms in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fonseca Salazar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of antibodies against Chlamydia abortus in specialized dairy farms. A total of 608 blood samples were collected during 2012 from 24 dairy farms located in the Northern regions of the provinces of Alajuela (15 and Heredia (9, and surveys were carried out to determine management practices in these farms. Serum samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect antibodies against C. abortus (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 99.7%. Only one serum yielded positive results (S/P 62 %, two sera weak positive results (S/P 51% and 52%, respectively, while the remaining sera (n=605 were negative in ELISA. Six months later, 22 animals that showed S/P values >22% in ELISA were analyzed again, yielding all negative results. Blood, milk, conjunctival and vulvar swabs from these animals were analyzed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, and only one vulvar swab tested positive for Chlamydia spp. The analysis of the management practices and results obtained with ELISA and PCR lead us to conclude that C. abortus is not significantly present (<0.5% in dairy farms in the Northern regions of the provinces of Heredia and Alajuela in Costa Rica.

  8. Costa Rica regroups for sales kick-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Cost Rica's contraceptive social marketing project is scheduled to be launched in March 1985. The project is run through a for-profit corporation, Asdecosta, which is owned by the Costa Rican International Planned Parenthood affiliate. Asdecosta was formed as a for-profit entity because Costa Rican law prohibits product sales by nonprofit groups. The US Agency for International Development (AID) will allocate US$1.2 million over a 5-year period, 1983-88. The project manager, Jorge Lopez, is an economist with considerable experience in marketing. The project has lined up a top national distributor, a packaging company, and an advertising agency for its 1st product, a condom manufactured in the US by Ansell. Asdecost's target market is projected to include 50,000-75,000 couples at its peak operating capacity. An estimated 65% of Costa Rican women have used a contraceptive method at some time. The condom, pill, and IUD are the most popular methods. Eventually, Asdecosta expects to expand its product line to include oral contraceptives. Another goal is to counter the high drop out rate among users of government and other family planning services.

  9. Translocalidades menonitas na América Latina e Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicilian Luiza Löwen Sahr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde o início da globalização na modernidade, na virada entre o século XV e XVI, os menonitas participam na produção de espaços translocais e globais. Surgidos nas controvérsias teológicas da Grande Reforma religiosa, eles defendiam o batizado adulto e um pacifismo extremo, que os submetiam a fortes rejeições e perseguições. Consequentemente, sua formação social tem por base uma intensa coerência interna que os leva, muitas vezes, a constituição de comunidades conservadoras. Assim, os menonitas desenvolveram ao longo de sua história uma dispersão mundial que se estende até hoje, funcionando através de um sistema de “translocalidade”. A análise dessas redes complexas de translocalidade se estabelece a partir da observação dos fluxos migratório, sobretudo aqueles que convergem para a América Latina e Caribe. Um foco específico é dado à organização interna dessa pluralidade a partir de exemplos do Paraguai.

  10. Volcanic gas impacts on vegetation at Turrialba Volcano, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, R.; Jenkins, M.; Pushnik, J.; Houpis, J. L.; Brown, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    Turrialba volcano is an active composite stratovolcano that is located approximately 40 km east of San Jose, Costa Rica. Seismic activity and degassing have increased since 2005, and gas compositions reflect further increased activity since 2007 peaking in January 2010 with a phreatic eruption. Gas fumes dispersed by trade winds toward the west, northwest, and southwest flanks of Turrialba volcano have caused significant vegetation kill zones, in areas important to local agriculture, including dairy pastures and potato fields, wildlife and human populations. In addition to extensive vegetative degradation is the potential for soil and water contamination and soil erosion. Summit fumarole temperatures have been measured over 200 degrees C and gas emissions are dominated by SO2; gas and vapor plumes reach up to 2 km (fumaroles and gases are measured regularly by OVSICORI-UNA). A recent network of passive air sampling, monitoring of water temperatures of hydrothermal systems, and soil pH measurements coupled with measurement of the physiological status of surrounding plants using gas exchange and fluorescence measurements to: (1) identify physiological correlations between leaf-level gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements of plants under long term stress induced by the volcanic gas emissions, and (2) use measurements in tandem with remotely sensed reflectance-derived fluorescence ratio indices to track natural photo inhibition caused by volcanic gas emissions, for use in monitoring plant stress and photosynthetic function. Results may prove helpful in developing potential land management strategies to maintain the biological health of the area.

  11. Seroprevalence of viral infections in domestic cats in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Kinndle; Prendas, Jorge; Cortes, Rocío; Jimenez, Carlos; Dolz, Gaby

    2009-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey of a convenient sample of domestic cats from Costa Rica's greater metropolitan area was carried out to determine the prevalence of antibodies against feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1), feline parvovirus (FPV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and antigens of feline leukemia virus (FeLV). Blood samples were collected from at least 96 cats from June 1998 to December 2001; data related to the individual cats and household variables were obtained using a questionnaire. Antibodies against FHV-1 were found in 71.9% of the cats sampled, but only 25.0% of them had a history of previous vaccination. The prevalence of FPV was 92.8%, and all positive cats showed protective antibodies titres; however, only 16.5% of them were previously vaccinated. Antigens of FeLV were detected in 16.7% of the sampled cats; 11 (64.7%) of the 17 positive cats were older than 1 year at the time of testing. No differences were found between the percentage of seropositive males and females. Antibodies against FIV were detected in 8.8% of the samples tested; 8 (88.8%) of the seropositive cats were older than 1 year of age, and a greater proportion of seropositive males (66.6%) was found.

  12. Suramérica y los refugiados colombianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ortiz

    Full Text Available A treinta años de la Declaración de Cartagena en una región que es considerada en el mundo región de paz, el acontecer cotidiano muestra otra realidad. En Colombia un país democrático, ubicado en el noroccidente de Sur América, la guerra interna ha traspasado las fronteras nacionales y la violencia estatal se asemeja a la aplicada por los gobiernos militares en el Cono Sur. Dan cuenta de ello, entre otros registros de violación masiva y sistemática de los derechos humanos, más de cinco millones de desplazados forzados internos y cerca de medio millón de refugiados. El destierro utilizado como mecanismo de exclusión política, se empieza a visibilizar por la magnitud del éxodo. La reconstrucción del discurso que los niega da cuenta de que no sólo esconden u obliteran relaciones de dominación, sino que también las construyen, las reproducen y las materializan. ¿Quiénes son esos refugiados? ¿A dónde se dirigen en busca de protección? ¿Cuál es el lugar que les confiere los países que los protegen? Son algunas de las preguntas que se abordan en el presente artículo.

  13. Population assessment of the American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus (Crocodilia: Crocodylidae on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie A. Mauger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus, is widely distributed in the American neotropics. It is endangered throughout most of its range and is listed as vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Natural Fauna and Flora (IUCN and on Appendix I of the Convention for the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES. Despite this listing, there are few published reports on population status throughout most of its range. We investigated the status of the C. acutus, at several locations along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. We carried out spotlight and nesting surveys from 2007-2009 along the Costa Rican Pacific coast in four distinct areas, coastal areas of Las Baulas (N=40 and Santa Rosa (N=9 National Parks and the Osa Conservation Area (N=13, and upriver in Palo Verde National Park (N=11. We recorded crocodile locations and standard environmental data at each observation. Encounter rates, population structure, distribution within each area and data on successful nesting (presence of hatchlings, nests, etc were determined. We attempted to capture all crocodiles to record standard morphometrics. A total of 586 crocodiles were observed along 185.8km of survey route. The majority of animals encountered (54.9% were either hatchlings (<0.5m or juveniles (0.5-1.25m. The average non-hatchling encounter rate per survey for the Pacific coast was 3.1 crocodiles/km, with individual encounter rates ranging from 1.2 crocodiles/km to 4.3 crocodiles/ km in Las Baulas National Park and the Osa Conservation Area respectively. Distribution of size classes within the individual locations did not differ with the exception of Santa Rosa and Las Baulas National Parks, where hatchlings were found in water with lower salinities. These were the first systematic surveys in several of the areas studied and additional work is needed to further characterize the American crocodile population in Costa Rica.

  14. Biology and trapping of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in pineapple residues (Ananas comosus) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano, José-Arturo; Gilles, Jeremie; Bravo, Oscar; Vargas, Cristina; Gomez-Bonilla, Yannery; Bingham, Georgina V; Taylor, David B

    2015-01-01

    Pineapple production in Costa Rica increased nearly 300-fold during the last 30 yr, and >40,000 hectares of land are currently dedicated to this crop. At the end of the pineapple cropping cycle, plants are chopped and residues incorporated into the soil in preparation for replanting. Associated with increased pineapple production has been a large increase in stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), populations. Stable flies are attracted to, and oviposit in, the decomposing, chopped pineapple residues. In conjunction with chemical control of developing larvae, adult trapping is an important control strategy. In this study, four blue-black fabric traps, Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu, were compared with a white sticky trap currently used for stable fly control in Costa Rica. Overall, the white sticky trap caught the highest number of stable flies, followed by the Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu. Collections on the white sticky trap increased 16 d after residues were chopped; coinciding with the expected emergence of flies developing in the pineapple residues. During this same time period, collections in the blue-black fabric traps decreased. Sex ratio decreased from >7:1 (females:males) 3-7 d after chopping to 1:1 at 24-28 d. White sticky, Nzi and Vavoua traps collected similar numbers of colonizing flies 3-7 d after residues were chopped. However, white sticky traps collected more flies once emergence from the pineapple residues began. Although white sticky traps collected more flies than fabric traps, they remain labor intensive and environmentally unsound because of their disposable and nonbiodegradable nature. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Stakeholder perceptions of water systems and hydro-climate information in Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Babcock

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the face of changing environmental and socio-economic drivers, access to, understanding of, and the use of probabilistic climate forecasts and other sources of scientific hydro-climate information are important for informed decision making in the water sector. This paper characterizes and compares local perceptions of the water system and hydro-climate information in the seasonally dry province of Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a total of 40 participants from 7 water-related groups. Interview results were used to compare mental models of the drivers of water systems and water scarcity mitigation/adaptation options, and relate them to stakeholder information needs, accuracy ratings, and use. Our results suggest that: 1 while there appear to be similar perceptions of the drivers of rainfall and groundwater, there is a gap between groups in the use of forecasts, the awareness of management options, and the level of detailed understanding of how the water system works; 2 there are potential mismatches between the information presented in rainfall forecasts and the stated and/or salient information needs of some stakeholders, specifically in the case of groundwater resources; 3 there appear to be different perceptions of forecasts even among groups that rate the accuracy of such forecasts the same; and 4 there appears to be a relationship between the use of forecasts and certain types of management actions such as long-term planning. Our findings warrant further investigation and confirmation and may contribute to the development of communications that help stakeholders make informed decisions about freshwater management in semi-arid regions.

  16. Health and wealth in Mesoamerica: findings from Salud Mesomérica 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokdad, Ali H; Gagnier, Marielle C; Colson, K Ellicott; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Haakenstad, Annie; Palmisano, Erin B; Anderson, Brent W; Desai, Sima S; Gillespie, Catherine W; Murphy, Tasha; Naghavi, Paria; Nelson, Jennifer; Ranganathan, Dharani; Schaefer, Alexandra; Usmanova, Gulnoza; Wilson, Shelley; Hernandez, Bernardo; Lozano, Rafael; Iriarte, Emma

    2015-07-14

    Individual income and poverty are associated with poor health outcomes. The poor face unique challenges related to access, education, financial capacity, environmental effects, and other factors that threaten their health outcomes. We examined the variation in the health outcomes and health behaviors among the poorest quintile in eight countries of Mesoamerica using data from the Salud Mesomérica 2015 baseline household surveys. We used multivariable logistic regression to measure the association between delivering a child in a health facility and select household and maternal characteristics, including education and measures of wealth. Health indicators varied greatly between geographic segments. Controlling for other demographic characteristics, women with at least secondary education were more likely to have an in-facility delivery compared to women who had not attended school (OR: 3.20, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 2.56-3.99, respectively). Similarly, women from households with the highest expenditure were more likely to deliver in a health facility compared to those from the lowest expenditure households (OR 3.06, 95 % CI: 2.43-3.85). Household assets did not impact these associations. Moreover, we found that commonly-used definitions of poverty do not align with the disparities in health outcomes observed in these communities. Although poverty measured by expenditure or wealth is associated with health disparities or health outcomes, a composite indicator of health poverty based on coverage is more likely to focus attention on health problems and solutions. Our findings call for the public health community to define poverty by health coverage measures rather than income or wealth. Such a health-poverty metric is more likely to generate attention and mobilize targeted action by the health communities than our current definition of poverty.

  17. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepfer, M.

    1989-01-01

    This comprehensive reference book on environmental law and practice also is a valuable textbook for students specializing in the field. The entire law on pollution control and environmental protection is presented in an intelligent system, covering the latest developments in the Federal and Land legislation, public environmental law, and the related provisions in the fields of civil law and criminal law. The national survey is rounded up by information concerning the international environmental law, environmental law of the European Communities, and of other foreign countries as e.g. Austria and Switzerland. The author also reviews conditions in neighbouring fields such as technology and labour law, environmental economy, environmental policy. Special attention is given to current topics, as e.g. relating to genetic engineering, disused landfills or industrial sites, soil protection, transport of hazardous goods, liability for damage to forests, atomic energy law, and radiation protection law. The latest publishing dates of literature and court decisions considered in the book are in the first months of 1989. (RST) [de

  18. A Research on Functional Status, Environmental Conditions, and Risk of Falls in Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Eshkoor, Sima Ataollahi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Nudin, Siti Sa'adiah Hassan; Mun, Chan Yoke

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of disability, physical activity, and functional status as well as environmental conditions on the risk of falls among the elderly with dementia after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Data were derived from a group including 1210 Malaysian elderly who were demented and noninstitutionalized. The study was a national cross-sectional survey that was entitled “Determinants of Health Status among Older Malaysians.” Approximately 17% of subjects expe...

  19. Environmental Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin

    The doctoral research project is co-financed by DUCED-I&UA and is part of a joint effort of Thai, Malay, South African and Danish universities to conduct collaborative research on the overarching theme "Environmental Management: Globalisation and Industrial Governance in Developing Countries......". The PhD project is expected to conclude ultimo 2005. Environmental management and cleaner production (CP) are both internationally recognised as tools for minimising environmental impacts of production or services. However, several studies have shown that especially SMEs, which probably amount to more...

  20. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelof, Anja Mølle; Schmidt, Ulrik; Svabo, Connie

    2017-01-01

    Do ants and grasshoppers perform? Do clouds, plants and melting ice? Do skyscrapers, traffic jams and computer vira? And what happens to our understanding of liveness if that is the case? This chapter takes ongoing theoretical disputes about the nature of live performance in performance studies...... as its starting point to investigate liveness within a specific kind of contemporary performance: ‘environmental performances’. Environmental performances are arts practices that take environmental processes as their focus by framing activities of non-human performers such as clouds, wind and weeds - key...