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Sample records for rica cuba dominica

  1. African Journals Online: Costa Rica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  2. Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Cuba's population characteristics, geography, history, government, political conditions, and foreign relations were briefly described. Cuba, the largest island in the East Indies, has a tropical climate and is made up of a large area of rolling plains and a smaller mountainous region. Cuba's current population of 9.946 million (1983) is 70% urban and 30% rural. The annual population growth rate is 1.1%. The literacy rate among those aged 10-49 years is 96%, and school is compulsory for 6 years. The infant mortality rate is 21/1000 live births, and life expectancy is 74.7 years. 47% of the work force is engaged in industry and commerce, 28% in services and government, and 25% in agriculture. Since the revolution, Cuba has had a centrally planned, nonmarket economy. Large state enterprises run all segments of the economy, and economic policy is formulated by a central planning board. Farmers are allowed to privately market some of their produce. The government provide a wide range of social services. Most of the services are free, but some entail a minimal fee. Cuba's economy is depressed and overly dependent on the production of sugar. Since the revolution, Cuba's sugar production has increased by only 1.1% annually. In addition to sugar production, the country is engaged in some food processing and other light forms of industry. Cuba has a large reserve of nickle. Cuba's economic indicators are calculated differently than those used in market countries and are not comparable to those used in market countries. In 1983, disposable national income was US$15.8 billion, and per capita income was US$2,590. Cuba's imports exceed her exports. In 1983 exports totalled US$6.5 billion and imports amounted to US$7.2 billion. Cuba's foreign debt is increasing annually, and Cuba is highly dependent on economic assistance from Russia. Between 1961-83, the USSR provided Cuba with US$30 billion in economic aid and US$10 billion in military aid. The country's serious economic

  3. El paleomargen pasivo mesozoico de la América del Norte en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Cobiella-Reguera

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Cuatro dominios paleogeográficos y paleotectónicos se distinguen en los cortes mesozoicos cubansos. De norte a sur, ellos son: 1. Secuencias de un paleomargen pasivo septentrional (PPS; 2. El cinturón ofiolítico septentrional (COS; 3. El terreno de arcos volcánicos cretácicos (TAVK, y 4. Secuencias metamorfizadas de un paleomargen pasivo meridional (PPM. Tres tipos de cortes de secuencias de margen pasivo, geográficamente bien diferenciados, afloran en el norte de Cuba: A-Cortes de Guaniguanico, divisibles a su vez en tres subtipos: Sierra del Rosario, Sierra de los Órganos y Cinturón Cangre; B-Cortes del norte de Cuba Central, caracterizados por una manifiesta zonalidad estratigráfica y estructural, y C-Cortes de Maisí, caracterizados poe el metamorfismo de bajo grado de sus rocas. En estas tres regiones los cortes más jóvenes, comenzando en el Jurásico Superior, son casi exclusivamente carbonatados, mientras que su parte inferior (Oxfordiano y más antiguo es terrígena, exceptuando los más septentrionales, en Cuba central, donde están presentes evaporitas. Los cortes A y B presentan una discordancia qie se correlaciona estrechamente con el Mid-Cretaceous Sequence Boundary, detectado en el sur del golfo de México y el estrecho de La Florida. Las similitudes, en particular entre las regiones A y B, indican una misma identidad geológica. Su posición actual, yuxtapuestos a las plataformas de Bahamas y Yucatán de la placa norteamericana, y su bien confirmado tránsito a los cortes de Bahamas en el norte de Cuba central, indican que los cortes del PPS deben formar parte del margen pasivo mesozoico de la América del Norte. La continuación al este de los cortes de Guaniguanico es visible en varios afloramientos y registrada por numerosos pozos de prospección desde el oeste de La Habana hasta Matanzas. Por tanto, no hay razón para considerar los cortes de Guaniguanico como parte de los "terrenos sudoccidentales". Siguiendo esta

  4. District nursing in Dominica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, PME; Luteijn, AJ; Nasiiro, RS; Bruney, [No Value; Smith, RJA; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1998-01-01

    District nurses constitute the basis of the primary health care services in Dominica. All encounters of three district nurses were registered using the international classification of primary care. Information on other aspects of district nursing was collected by participating observation and the

  5. Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Cuba is a country of 110,860 sq.km with 10.8 million inhabitants, of whom 99% are literate. Independence was gained on May 20, 1902. The terrain consists of flat or gently rolling plains, hills, and mountains up to 2000 meters in the Southeast, with a climate which is tropical, yet moderated by trade winds. Spanish is spoken by the Spanish-African mixed population. Life expectancy ranges over 74-77 years. Gross social product is $21 billion, declining at a rate of -20%. Per capita income is $1500. The country's natural resources include nickel, cobalt, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, and timber. Sugar, fruits, tobacco, coffee, rice, beans, meat, vegetables, food processing, oil refining, cement, electric power, light consumer, and industrial products are areas of economic production. Capital goods, industrial raw materials, food, petroleum, and consumer goods are imported, and sugar and its by-products, petroleum, nickel, seafood, citrus, tobacco products and rum are exported. Indepth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country.

  6. Colombia, España, Uruguay, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador: Seguridad Social para el adulto mayor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar José Dueñas Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio de tres bloques de derechos necesarios para el adulto mayor: salud, pensiones y servicios sociales. Se analizan dentro de un marco conceptual jurídico e histórico, acudiéndose a un lenguaje sencillo y entendible. Este artículo es corolario de un proyecto investigativo ya terminado elaborado por la Universidad del Rosario y la Organización Iberoamericana de la Seguridad Social (OISS. Se estudiaron esos tres derechos en el escenario colombiano, con base en la normatividad, la jurisprudencia y la praxis. Para tener una visión del ámbito iberoamericano se investigó el tratamiento que se les da en otros países: España, Ecuador, Cuba, Costa Rica, Uruguay, destacándose los rasgos más importantes. Varios capítulos fueron desarrollados con base en el método holístico dialéctico configuracional. Las conclusiones se ubican preferencialmente en un espacio jurídico. La principal consiste en que sea cual fuere el modelo de seguridad social, es indispensable una visión humanista.

  7. Comparación de la corrosividad atmosférica del acero al carbono en Colombia y Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado Lastra, Juan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples of structural carbon steel were exposed to the atmosphere in a number of sites in Colombia and Cuba for periods of 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Corrosion rate was determined by mass loss measurements, and cause-effect relationship to exposure time and pollutants (deposited chloride and sulfur oxides were calculated. Analysis let to adjust models by the multiple regression method. Also, comparison of atmospheric corrosion rates between Colombia and Cuba were done using covariance analysis.

    Se expusieron a la atmósfera probetas de aceros estructurales de bajo contenido de carbono, en varios sitios de Colombia y Cuba, que se retiraron a intervalos de 2, 3, 6, 12, 18 y 24 meses. Se determinó la corrosión por pérdida de masa y se buscaron relaciones de causalidad con el tiempo de exposición y las cantidades de cloruro y óxidos de azufre depositados. El análisis permitió ajustar modelos de regresión múltiple y también, a través de variables dicótomas, realizar la comparación de la corrosión atmosférica entre Colombia y Cuba, mediante análisis de covarianza.

  8. Advenimiento del Comunismo en América Latina. Los casos de México, Brasil y Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Massón Sena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El advenimiento de Comunismo en América Latina ha sido un tema tratado por los historiadores, de modo generalizado, atendiendo a puntos de vista esencialmente políticos. Prejuicios y apologías han coexistido durante muchos años para explicar el fenómeno. El presente artículo trata de ubicarse en un punto intermedio y, al mismo tiempo, más objetivo. Partiendo de un estudio minucioso de la bibliografía existente y de los recientes hallazgo de conocimiento surgidos con la apertura de los archivos de la Comintern en Moscú, la autora pretende valorar tanto los factores internos como los internacionales que hicieron posible el nacimiento de los Partidos Comunistas en este continente y realizar estudio de los casos específicos de México, Brasil y Cuba en el período comprendido entre 1919 y 1925. Palabras Claves Comunismo, Anarco-sindicalismo, proletariado, revolución mundial.

  9. OAS :: Coordinating Office for the Offices of the General Secretariat in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rights Actions against Corruption C Children Civil Registry Civil Society Contact Us Culture Cyber Barbuda Argentina Barbados Belize Bolivia Brasil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominica * Belize * Bolivia * Brasil * Canada * Chile * Colombia * Costa Rica * Cuba * Dominica (Commonwealth of

  10. Comparación de la corrosividad atmosférica del acero al carbono en Colombia y Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Lastra, Juan; Minotas Ruiz, Julio César; Arroyave Posada, Carlos Enrique; Mendoza Gómez, Antonio; Corvo Pérez, Francisco

    2001-01-01

    Samples of structural carbon steel were exposed to the atmosphere in a number of sites in Colombia and Cuba for periods of 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Corrosion rate was determined by mass loss measurements, and cause-effect relationship to exposure time and pollutants (deposited chloride and sulfur oxides) were calculated. Analysis let to adjust models by the multiple regression method. Also, comparison of atmospheric corrosion rates between Colombia and Cuba were done using covariance analys...

  11. La política exterior de Cuba hacia América Latina, reflexiones en torno a la "exportación del comunismo"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés FABBRI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El propósito del artículo es reflexionar, dentro del vasto tema de la política exterior del régimen castrista hacia América Latina, sobre la cuestión del propósito cubano de "exportar la revolución comunista" hacia el resto del continente. Los objetivos de la política exterior cubana hacia Latinoamérica se han inspirado en una determinada concepción del "latinoamericanismo", ideas muy anteriores a la Revolución Cubana y por lo tanto no exclusivas de ella. Por otro lado creemos que la mentada intención de "exportar la revolución" fue un mito inventado por los EEUU que por cierto encontró un extendido eco en la mayoría de los países latinoamericanos, fundamentalmente en la década de los sesentas. El artículo termina con unas breves reflexiones en torno al futuro de Cuba en su relación con América Latina. Dada la desaparición del bloque comunista, Latinoamérica se presentaría como la región de mayor importancia para la política exterior de la isla. Se diversificarán las relaciones internacionales ocupando ya no sólo temas políticos, sino relaciones comerciales y económicas en general.ABSTRACT: The purpose of this article is to reflect on the vast subject of the castroist regimes foreing policy towards Latin America, about the question of the cuban purpose to "export the communist revolution" to the rest of the continent. The objectives of cuban foreing policy towards Latin America have been inspired by the determinated concepts of "latinamericanism" and by "anti-imperialism", ideas which existed before to the Cuban Revolution and therefore not exclusive to it. On the other hand we believe that the ulterior motive of "exporting the revolution" was a myth invented by the United States which certainly found and extended vibration in the majority of Latin American countries, essentially in the sixties. The article finished with some brief reflexions surrounding the future of Cuba and its relationship with Latin

  12. Primary care performance in Dominica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Macinko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To document the structure and functions of primary care (PC in the country of Dominica using the Primary Care Assessment Tools (PCAT, a set of questionnaires that evaluate PC functions. Methods. This cross-sectional study combined data from two surveys. The systems PCAT (S-PCAT survey gathered national-level data from key informants about health system characteristics and PC performance. The provider version (P-PCAT survey collected data on PC performance from health providers (nurses and physicians at all PC facilities in the country. Provider-level data were aggregated to obtain national and district-level results for PC domains scored from 0.00 (worst to 1.00 (best. Results. From the systems perspective, results showed several knowledge gaps in PC policy, financing, and structure. Key informants gave “Good” (adequate ratings for “first-contact” care (0.74, continuity of care (0.77, comprehensive care (0.70, and coordinated care (0.78; middling scores for family-centered care and community-oriented care (0.65; and low scores for access to care (0.57. PC providers assessed access to care (which included “first-contact” care, in the P-PCAT surveys (0.84, continuity of care (0.86, information systems (0.84, family-centered care (0.92, and community-oriented care (0.85 as “Very Good”; comprehensive care as “Good” (0.79; and coordinated care as “Reasonable” (0.68. Overall, the scores for the country's health districts were good, although the ratings varied by specific PC domain. Conclusions. The assessments described here were carried out with relatively little expense and have provided important inputs into strategic planning, strategies for improving PC, and identification of priority areas for further investigation. This two-staged approach could be adapted and used in other countries.

  13. Phosphine resistance in Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the level of phosphine resistance in 16 Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) populations that were collected from ten provinces and one municipality in China following the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) standard method. Results showed that the 50% lethal concentration ...

  14. Germán Rodas Chaves. Eloy Alfaro y Cuba en el Siglo XIX. La Habana: Fondo Editorial Casa de las Américas, 2013. 218 páginas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Villaboy Zaldivar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A propósito de que la República del Ecuador fuera el país invitado de honor a la XXIII Feria Internacional del Libro de la Habana, numerosas ediciones relacionadas con la literatura, el arte, la historia, la política y, en general, sobre la rica cultura del país andino vieron la luz en febrero de 2014. A una de ellas dedico este comentario. Se trata de Eloy Alfaro y Cuba en el siglo XIX, del historiador ecuatoriano Germán Rodas Chaves, publicada con excelente factura dentro de la colección investigaciones del Fondo Editorial de la Casa de las Américas.

  15. Giambattista Bodoni’s Oratio Dominica

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    Valentino Romani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Giambattista Bodoni is certainly one of the most influential character of the late eighteenth century. His skill as a printer played a crucial role in his reputation among some of the most important and influential European politicians, diplomats, and scholars. He also granted glory and fame to the city of Parma thanks to his ducal printing house. His skill as a printer was particularly improved during his stay in Rome, between 1758 and 1766, under the supervision of Costantino Ruggeri in the printing house of Propaganda Fide. In 1805, on the spur of Pius VII, Bodoni undertook one of his most famous enterprise, the Oratio Dominica CL linguis versa, et propriis cuiusque linguae characteribus plerumque expressa. The work was conceived as a reaction to Pater Poliglotto, published in the French Imperial typography directed by Jean-Joseph Marcel and offered to the Pope in January of the same year. This French version was made in large part thanks to punches and matrix confiscated precisely at the Typography of Propaganda Fide, and carried to Paris in 1798. The result of Bodoni’s work was extraordinary; the Oratio Dominica, dedicated to Eugene de Beauharnais and Augusta Amelia, was even acknowledged at the Paris Industrial Exposition in 1806.

  16. Envejecimiento demográfico y migración interna de personas con 60 años y más de edad en Cuba y países de América Latina

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    Cristina López-Calleja Hiort-Lorenzen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo busca determinar comparativamente diferencias y semejanzas de características específicas de la población migrante interna con 60 años y más de edad entre las divisiones administrativas mayores (DAM en Cuba y 14 países de América Latina. Se procesó información sobre migración interna de censos latinoamericanos de la década del 2000, proveniente de la página WEB del Centro Latinoamericano y Caribeño de Demografía (CELADE. Asimismo se presenta información relativa al envejecimiento de Cuba y los restantes países y se han calculado otros indicadores como porcentaje de migrantes y no migrantes, y también se estima un conjunto de indicadores expresivos de cierta propensión a migrar entre las DAM en los últimos 5 años previos al censo para la población de 60 y más años de edad. Se han empleado técnicas propias de la estadística, como tablas de contingencias, así como métodos de análisis estadístico de correspondencias simples y múltiples para explorar las relaciones existentes entre las categorías de las diferentes características demográficas de los migrantes en países seleccionados. Uno de los resultados muestra que en Cuba y el resto de la región aún no se observan signos de migración interna asociada a la salida de la actividad laboral, lo cual sucede a partir de los 60 años de edad en países desarrollados. Los análisis de correspondencia múltiple, permitieron conocer grupos afines de categorías de las variables estudiadas cuando estas se analizan simultáneamente. Así se encontró similitud entre Cuba y Chile por el valor de las variables de población con 60 años y más, esperanza de vida al nacer, tasa global de fecundidad e índice de envejecimiento. Las proporciones más elevadas de migrantes de “toda la vida” se observen en aquellos países que registran un mayor nivel relativo de desarrollo económico y social; Cuba, Argentina y en menor medida Chile, muestran los más altos

  17. Los sistemas de salud de Cuba y Uruguay en el contexto de América Latina: una reflexión Uruguayan and Cuban public health systems in the Latin American context: a consideration

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    Mónica Sans

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se parte del análisis de diferentes factores socioeconómicos que han incidido en los sistemas de salud de América Latina, como la aplicación del modelo económico neoliberal y el proceso de globalización, que hacen que la salud sea vista como una mercancía. Posteriormente, se discute en qué medida estos factores inciden en diversos sectores de la población, y cómo afectan a la salud como bien colectivo; asimismo, se examinan los problemas que emanan de la privatización de la salud, y qué sucede cuando el Estado pierde su rol de garante de la seguridad social. Se analizan indicadores de salud de América Latina, realizándose estudios de correlación para visualizar sus asociaciones. De estos datos se concluye que los indicadores de salud están determinados en gran medida por los factores socioeconómicos; y que la práctica sanitaria debe centrarse en la atención primaria y de la educación en salud. Por último, se consideran en particular los casos de Uruguay y Cuba, dos ejemplos de buen desempeño en salud aunque con grandes diferencias históricas y de políticas de salud.At first, we analyze different socio-economic factors involved in the Latin American health systems, as the application of the neoliberal economic model and the globalization process; these factors make health to be seen as a merchandise. We discuss to what extent the diverse population groups are affected by the socio-economic factors, and how the latter can harm health as a collective good. Also, we consider the problems caused by the privatization of health, and what happens when the State looses its role as responsible for social security. In a second part, we analize health indicators in Latin America, and make correlation studies to determine associations among them. From the results it is possible to conclude that the health indicators are determined to a great extent by socio-economic factors, and that the health practice should be focused in primary

  18. Diccionario del español de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Reinhold

    2000-01-01

    Diccionario del español de Cuba : español de Cuba - español de España / Günther Haensch ; Reinhold Werner. - Madrid : Gredos, 2000. - LVIII, 606 S. - (Diccionarios contrastivos del español de América)

  19. Concurrent Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, T.

    2016-10-01

    The parallel version of the multidimensional numerical integration package Cuba is presented and achievable speed-ups discussed. The parallelization is based on the fork/wait POSIX functions, needs no extra software installed, imposes almost no constraints on the integrand function, and works largely automatically.

  20. Evolución histórica de las farmacias en Santiago de Cuba en la primera mitad del siglo XX

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    Clara Aurora Zúñiga Moro

    Full Text Available Se expone la evolución de las farmacias en Santiago de Cuba durante la primera mitad del siglo XX, con sus características, auge y desarrollo; la organización del Colegio de Farmacéuticos de la ciudad; así como la participación en la vida social y política de los farmacéuticos en el territorio. Se mencionan las farmacias que prestaban servicio de guardia en caso de urgencias y se ofrece información sobre algunas dirigidas por graduadas de la especialidad en ese período, durante el cual la actividad farmacéutica en Santiago evolucionó, desde las farmacias iniciales al estilo colonial, hasta alcanzar un desarrollo superior vinculado con servicios de dispensario, patentes de medicamentos, atención a domicilio y horario de guardias nocturnas.

  1. A data símbolo de 1898: o impacto da independência de Cuba na Espanha e Hispanoamérica The 1898’s symbol date: the Cuban Independence impact in Spain and Spanish America

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    Maria Helena Rolim Capelato

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem como objetivo analisar o impacto da Independência de Cuba nos intelectuais espanhóis e hispanoamericanos e as razões da aproximação entre eles após o evento. 1898 tornou-se uma data-símbolo pelas mudanças significativas que produziu nas concepções de escritores hispânicos sobre o papel dos Estados Unidos na América Latina e sobre o destino da Espanha após a perda de sua última colônia.The article aims to analyze the Cuban Independence impact in Spanish and Spanish American intellectuals and the approximation reasons between them after the event. 1898 became a symbol date through the significatives changes that produced in Spanish American writers about the United State’s role in Latin America and about the Spain’s destiny after the loss of the last Spanish colony in America.

  2. Registro sanitario de bioplaguicidas microbianos en América Latina y Cuba. Caso de estudio: bionematicida cubano KlamiC®

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos Vázquez, Margarita; Montes de Oca Martínez, Nivian

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo realiza una revisión del proceso del Registro Sanitario de los productos bioplaguicidas microbianos. Brinda una panorámica de las legislaciones, documentos, etapas, autoridades que participan y los requisitos técnicos que se exigen en 16 países de América Latina. Se exponen las similitudes, diferencias y los desafíos por los que están obligados a transitar los centros de investigación, fabricantes y productores de alimentos que aplican estos productos. A través del KlamiC®, prod...

  3. Walking stability of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792 (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae

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    E. M. Pires

    Full Text Available Abstract Results obtained in studies can contribute to the advancement of science and innovative methods and techniques for developing practical activities. Reporting conditions that may restrict the implementation of research is critical to ensure the optimal development of further technical studies. The objective of this study was to assess the walking stability of R. dominica on a flat and smooth surface. The study was based on the determination of mortality, morphology and walking stability of the insect outside the grain mass, on a flat and smooth surface. Mortality of adults of this Coleoptera in conditions with and without food was similar, which explains the difficulty that this insect had for accessing the food source on the flat and smooth surface. The measurements of body length (BOL, width (BOW and height (BOH of R. dominica were compared with those of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, which showed good ability to walk in these conditions. This study indicated that the former presents lower BOL and BOW, and greater BOH than the second, and all these variables showed differences when analyzed simultaneously by means of the construction of multivariate morphometric indices (Width × Height, Length × Height and Height × Length × Width. These morphometric variables, together with the definition of the geometry most similar to the body shape, resulted in determination of the center of gravity (CG and static rollover threshold (SRTgeom for both species. Rhyzopertha dominica and T. castaneum presented CGs considered high and low, respectively, and together with the values obtained for SRTgeom, may justify that R. dominica can be considered a less stable species during movement, and presents greater risk of rollover on flat and smooth surfaces.

  4. Dominica; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper: Joint Staff Advisory Note

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2006-01-01

    The Growth and Social Protection Strategy (GSPS) attaches great importance to the promotion of economic growth and job creation, given the nature of poverty in Dominica. The GSPS also stresses that existing health and education programs are essential to foster growth in the medium and long terms, but further efforts are needed. The GSPS contains a macroeconomic framework that is consistent with the proposed objectives of poverty reduction. The growth and fiscal targets envisaged in the macroe...

  5. Actitudes hacia la salud mental en la Mancomunidad de Dominica Attitudes towards mental illness in the Commonwealth of Dominica

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    Robert Kohn

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Poco se sabe acerca de la percepción que tienen los habitantes del Caribe de habla inglesa en torno a las enfermedades mentales. El presente estudio se llevó a cabo en 1995 con el fin de determinar las actitudes, los conocimientos y los comportamientos relacionados con la búsqueda de atención por trastornos mentales en la Mancomunidad de Dominica. Se encuestaron dos grupos en la isla: 67 líderes comunitarios, entre los cuales se encontraban personal de enfermería, maestros y policías; y 135 miembros de la comunidad divididos en cinco estratos socioeconómicos que se colapsaron a tres para el análisis. Todos los encuestados tuvieron que identificar y sugerir maneras de tratar a las personas con psicosis, alcoholismo, depresión e hiperactividad infantil, tal como se describe en los relatos de casos ilustrativos. Al protagonista del relato sobre la psicosis le diagnosticaron enfermedad mental 84,0% de los líderes y 72% de los miembros de la comunidad. No obstante, en cada uno de los otros tres relatos, menos de 30% de los encuestados identificaron un trastorno mental. Solamente poco más de la mitad de los encuestados eran de la creencia de que la persona alcohólica estuviera afectada por un problema serio. Menos de la mitad opinaban que las personas con depresión o hiperactividad tuvieran un problema grave. Los líderes de la comunidad mostraron menor capacidad para reconocer un trastorno mental que los otros miembros de la comunidad. La tendencia más acentuada entre los encuestados fue la de remitir a un médico a miembros de la familia con trastornos mentales. En resumen, en Dominica hacen falta programas de educación sobre la enfermedad mental. La falta de conocimientos sobre las enfermedades de la mente por parte del personal de enfermería, los maestros y los policías produjo especial desconcierto, ya que estos profesionales tienen participación directa en las vías de acceso a la atención.Little is known about the perception

  6. Actitudes hacia la salud mental en la Mancomunidad de Dominica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kohn

    Full Text Available Poco se sabe acerca de la percepción que tienen los habitantes del Caribe de habla inglesa en torno a las enfermedades mentales. El presente estudio se llevó a cabo en 1995 con el fin de determinar las actitudes, los conocimientos y los comportamientos relacionados con la búsqueda de atención por trastornos mentales en la Mancomunidad de Dominica. Se encuestaron dos grupos en la isla: 67 líderes comunitarios, entre los cuales se encontraban personal de enfermería, maestros y policías; y 135 miembros de la comunidad divididos en cinco estratos socioeconómicos que se colapsaron a tres para el análisis. Todos los encuestados tuvieron que identificar y sugerir maneras de tratar a las personas con psicosis, alcoholismo, depresión e hiperactividad infantil, tal como se describe en los relatos de casos ilustrativos. Al protagonista del relato sobre la psicosis le diagnosticaron enfermedad mental 84,0% de los líderes y 72% de los miembros de la comunidad. No obstante, en cada uno de los otros tres relatos, menos de 30% de los encuestados identificaron un trastorno mental. Solamente poco más de la mitad de los encuestados eran de la creencia de que la persona alcohólica estuviera afectada por un problema serio. Menos de la mitad opinaban que las personas con depresión o hiperactividad tuvieran un problema grave. Los líderes de la comunidad mostraron menor capacidad para reconocer un trastorno mental que los otros miembros de la comunidad. La tendencia más acentuada entre los encuestados fue la de remitir a un médico a miembros de la familia con trastornos mentales. En resumen, en Dominica hacen falta programas de educación sobre la enfermedad mental. La falta de conocimientos sobre las enfermedades de la mente por parte del personal de enfermería, los maestros y los policías produjo especial desconcierto, ya que estos profesionales tienen participación directa en las vías de acceso a la atención.

  7. Cruise Tourism in Dominica: Benefits and Beneficiaries Bruno Marques, Romain Cruse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Marques

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The impressive growth of cruise tourism in Dominica, inside highly competitive area of the Caribbean basin, gives the island an astonishing flavor of success. By adopting a systemic approach the article demonstrates that three agents concentrate more than 70% of the financial impact of the cruise activity in Dominica: the local travel agencies, souvenir shops and the cruise lines. The low dispersion of the beneficiaries is concomitant with a spatial concentration and a minimal macroeconomic benefit. This case study, devoted to Dominica, suggests a highly concentrated model of cruise tourism in the Caribbean underpinned by organized tours as the main mode of experiencing the stopovers and a source of revenue for cruise lines, whose subcontractor: the local travel agencies are the primary distribution channel of cruise tourism revenue, high level of economic and spatial concentration generating low trickle down macroeconomic effect.

  8. Las Haloragaceae de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betancourt Gandul, Martha

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the Haloragaceae in Cuba is presented. The presence of Proserpinaca palustris, P. pectinata. Myriophyllum laxum and M. pinnatum is confirmed, and the possible extinction of M. sparsiflorum is suggestedEstudio de la familia Haloragaceae en Cuba. Se confirma la existencia de Proserpinaca palustris, P. pectinata. Myriophyllum laxum y M, pinnatum, y se plantea la posible extinción de M. sparsiflorum.

  9. Stratigraphy of the Grande Savane Ignimbrite Sequence, Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S.; Smith, A. L.; Deuerling, K.; Killingsworth, N.; Daly, G.

    2007-12-01

    The island of Dominica, located in the central part of the Lesser Antilles island arc has eight potentially active volcanoes. One of these, Morne Diablotins, is a composite stratovolcano with several superimposed stratigraphic sequences ranging in age from Pliocene (4-2 Ma) to "Younger" Pleistocene (22,000 and >40,000 years B.P. The ignimbrite sequences form four flow fans that reached both the east and west coasts of the island. One of these flow fans, the Grande Savane, on the west coast of the island, also extends off-shore for a distance of at least 14 km as a distinctive submarine fan. Stratigraphical studies of the on- shore deposits that make up this fan indicate an older sequence of block and ash flow deposits, within which occurs a distinctive vulcanian fall deposit. These are overlain, with no evidence of an intervening paleosol, by a sequence of ignimbrites containing welded horizons (ranging in thickness from around 4 m to 16m). The lack of fall deposits beneath the ignimbrites suggest they may have been formed by instantaneous continuous collapse of the eruption column. This whole succession is overlain by a series of planar and dune bedded pumiceous surge deposits with interbedded pumiceous lapilli fall and ash fall deposits, that extend laterally outside of the main area of ignimbrite deposition. Beds within this upper sequence often contain accretionary lapilli and gas cavities suggesting magma-water interaction. The youngest deposits from Morne Diablotins appear to be valley- fill deposits of both ignimbrite and block and ash flow. A comparison of the of the Grande Savane pyroclastic sequence with the Pointe Ronde (west coast) and Londonderry (east coast) pyroclastic flow fans will provide information on the eruptive history of this major Plinian episode.

  10. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  11. The distribution of seagrasses in Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C.C Steiner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass beds are the largest organism-built marine habitat in Dominica, yet have only been surveyed since 2007. Standardized examinations along a depth gradient between 0 and 24m, focusing on magnoliophyte species composition and benthic cover of shoots at 17 seagrass bed sites, were carried out between September 10 and December 7, 2008. The Cymodoceaceae Syringodium filiforme (Kuetzing 1860 and Halodule wrightii (Ascherson 1868, as well as the Hydrocharitaceae Halophila decipiens (Ostenfeld 1902, H. stipulacea (Fosskal & Ascherson 1867 and Thalassia testudinum (Banks ex König 1805 displayed distinct regional and horizontal distribution patterns. Syringodium filiforme is the island’s dominant seagrass along the western and northern coasts, occurring at depths between 2 and 18m and with a mean benthic cover ranging from 0.9-10% along the West coast. Along the North coast it grew between 0.2 and 1m depth with a mean maximum benthic cover of 48.9%. Halodule wrightii grew along the North and West coasts, in depths between 1 and 14m in areas of recent and chronic disturbances. Its delicate morphology and sparse benthic cover (Pastos marinos son los ambientes más grandes constituidos por organismos en Dominica. Sin embargo, sólo se han examinado desde 2007. Entre el 10 de septiembre y 9 de diciembre 2008, se examinaron la composicion de especies y la densidad de magnoliofitas en profundidades de 0 a 24m. Los Cymodoceaceae: Syringodium filiforme y Halodule wrightii, tal como los Hydrocharitaceae: Halophila decipiens, H. stipulacea y Thalassia testudinum, mostraron una distribución regional y horizontal muy distinta. Syringodium filiforme fue la especie dominante en las costas del oeste y del norte de la isla. Se encontró en profundidades de 2 a 18m y con un promedio de cobertura béntica de 0.9-10% en la costa del oeste. En las costas del norte creció entre 0.2 y 1m de profundidad con un pormedio de cobertura béntica de 48.9%. Halodule

  12. Haromyia, a new genus of long-legged flies from Dominica (Diptera: Dolichopodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin B. Runyon

    2015-01-01

    The new micro-dolichopodid genus Haromyia gen. nov. and the type species H. iviei sp. nov. are described from the island of Dominica in the Lesser Antilles. Males and females of Haromyia are distinguished by the large setae on a bulging clypeus, minute size, and wing veins that are nearly straight and evenly diverging from wing base. Haromyia does not fit readily into...

  13. Magma Mixing: Magmatic Enclaves in Morne Micotrin, Dominica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickernell, S.; Frey, H. M.; Manon, M. R. F.; Waters, L. E.

    2017-12-01

    Magmatic enclaves in volcanic rocks provide direct evidence of magma mingling/mixing within a magma reservoir and may reinvigorate the system and trigger eruption, as documented at the Soufriere Hills in Montserrat. Lava domes on the neighboring island of Dominica also contain multiple enclave populations and may be evidence for similar magma chamber processes. The central dome of Micotrin is at the head of the Roseau Valley, which was filled with 3 km3 of pyroclastic deposits from eruptions spanning 65 - 25 ka. There appear to be two distinct types of enclaves in the crystal-rich Micotrin andesites (60 wt% SiO2), fine-grained and coarse-grained. Fine-grained mafic enclaves (52 wt% SiO2) vary in size from 1 to 15 cm in diameter, whereas the coarse-grained enclaves are generally larger and range from 3-20 cm. Fine-grained enclaves are saturated in plag (35%) + opx (35%) + cpx (20%) + oxides (10%). Average pyroxenes are 0.01 to 0.02 cm in size, whereas plagioclase averages 0.05 cm and up to 0.1 cm. The texture of the fine-grained enclaves is cumulate-like, devoid of microlites and matrix glass. Coarse-grained enclaves lack cpx and have different modal abundances and textures: plag (75%) + opx (10%) + oxides (5%) + plag microlites (10%). Plagioclase are 0.1 cm in size and orthopyroxenes average 0.05 cm. The coarse-grained enclaves are highly vesicular, a notable difference from the host as well as the fine-grained enclaves. The boundaries of both the fine- and coarse-grained enclaves are quite sharp and distinct and there do not appear to be enclave minerals disaggregated in the host rock. Temperatures were determined by two oxides. The fine-grained enclaves had two populations of magnetite, yielding 847 + 21° and 920 + 17°C. The coarse-grained enclave was 890 + 42 °C, but the oxides were extensively exsolved. Plagioclase composition in both coarse and fine-grained samples was comparable, ranging from An50 to An80. Despite compositional similarity the textures of

  14. Where Does Cuba Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-14

    number of foreign tourists visiting the island, which has resulted in the virtual exclusion of the criollos from the choice spots in the littoral, and has...Anallsis Infurmativo de la Realidad ," paper delivered at the Annual Congress of the Partido Democrat. Cristlano de Cuba, Miami, June 4, 1993, pp. 19-23. 25

  15. Genotoxic studies of selected plant oil extracts on Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer H. Qari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the genotoxic effects of various concentrations of plant oils from Eruca sativa (Brassicaceae, Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae and Origanum majorana (Lamiaceae to the conventional organophosphate insecticide (Chlorpyrifos against Rhyzopertha dominica Fabricius. The R. dominica population was reared for several generations without exposure to any insecticide. Wheat grains were sterilized at 55 °C for 6 h in order to eliminate any hidden infestation, treated with serial dilutions of Chlorpyrifos and plant oil extracts, and subsequently fed to R. dominica for 1, 2, 3, 6 and 8 days. The results indicated that the LC50 values of oils from E. sativa, Z. officinale and O. Majorana were 0.14, 0.23 and 0.32%, respectively, after 2 days. Genetic variations in DNA fragments after treatment with LC50 and LC25 concentrations of E. sativa, Z. officinale and O. majorana were detected by RAPD-PCR analysis using five primers. The results exhibited distinct DNA polymorphisms or alterations in DNA bands. These alterations varied depending on the substance being examined. Chlorpyrifos causes the highest level of DNA alterations (based on the appearance and disappearance DNA bands followed by E. sativa, Z. officinale and O. majorana. These results were in direct correlation with the differences in mortality rates between extracts. It could be concluded that the plant oil extracts can be used as one of the integrated pest management tools to control R. dominica in stored products, as they are safer than chemical insecticides.

  16. Reptile-associated ticks from Dominica and the Bahamas with notes on hyperparasitic erythraeid mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, Lance A; Knapp, Charles R; Beati, Lorenza; Dold, Stephanie

    2015-02-01

    Ticks were collected or recorded from 522 individual reptiles on Dominica and from 658 reptiles from the Bahamas. Two species of ticks were collected on Dominica: Amblyomma antillorum and Amblyomma rotundatum. Similarly, 2 species were collected in the Bahamas: Amblyomma albopictum and Amblyomma torrei. On Dominica, A. antillorum was recorded from 517 Lesser Antillean iguanas (Iguana delicatissima), 2 boa constrictors (Boa nebulosa), 1 Antilles snake (Alsophis sibonius), and 1 Dominican ground lizard (Ameiva fuscata), whereas A. rotundatum was recorded from 1 Lesser Antillean skink (Mabuya mabouya). In the Bahamas, A. albopictum was recorded from 131 Andros iguanas (Cyclura cychlura cychlura), 271 Exuma Island iguanas (Cyclura cychlura figginsi), and 1 Andros curlytail lizard (Leiocephalus carinatus coryi), whereas A. torrei was recorded from 255 Exuma Island iguanas. In the Bahamas, A. albopictum parasitized iguanas on Andros Island and the central Exuma Islands, and A. torrei parasitized iguanas in the southern Exumas. An exception to this trend was that A. torrei was collected from iguanas on Pasture Cay in the central Exumas, an anomaly that is explained by the fact that iguanas (with attached ticks) on Pasture Cay were introduced by humans in the past from islands further south. External hyperparasitic larval erythraeid mites ( Leptus sp.) were recorded from A. torrei in the Bahamas.

  17. Insecticidal efficacy of silica nanoparticles against Rhyzopertha dominica F. and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziaee Masumeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioassays were conducted to assess the effects of two silicon dioxide nanoparticles of Aerosil® and Nanosav against adults of Rhyzopertha dominica F. and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val. Silica nanoparticles were applied at the rates of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg · kg−1 on wheat and peeled barley. The mortality was counted after 1, 2, 3, and 7 days of exposure. Another experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of food source on the survival of beetles after exposure to silica nanoparticles. Adults were exposed to silica nanoparticles at the rate of 0.2 mg · cm−2 for 1 and 2 days on filter paper inside plastic Petri dishes, respectively. After exposure, the initial mortality was counted and live individuals of both species were held for a week in empty glass vials or vials containing wheat and wheat flour, respectively. Silica nanoparticles have high toxicity on R. dominica and T. confusum adults. Rhyzopertha dominica was more susceptible than T. confusum. However, the mortality of both species increased with increasing concentrations and time exposed to each concentration. At low concentrations, Aerosil® was more effective than Nanosav. Silica nanoparticles were more effective in wheat grains than barley. Results indicated that the initial mortality was so high that the impact of food source on delay mortality was unclear in most cases. Silica nanoparticles were efficient against tested species and can be used effectively in a stored grain integrated pest management program.

  18. CASE STUDY: Cuba — Farmers and Researchers Reshape Cuba's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-05

    Jan 5, 2011 ... But working together with groups of farmers, a team of young plant breeders is turning things around. ... English · Français ... CASE STUDY: Cuba — Farmers and Researchers Reshape Cuba's Agriculture ... One method the researchers used to introduce farmers to new or unknown varieties or lines was the ...

  19. A democracia em Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Guanche Zaldívar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O triunfo revolucionário de 1959 consagrou em Cuba um novo conceito de democracia, com o intuito de garantir o acesso à vida política ativa de grandes setores da população, antes excluídos. Para isso, foi desenvolvida uma política de inclusão social com caráter universal. A prática política popular deixou as riquezas do país em mãos da população carente e gerou uma grande mobilidade social, fato que foi central para o aumento da participação popular. O contexto de agressão imperialista e o próprio desenvolvimento do processo produziram a consolidação de noções que limitaram a participação popular: o apogeu da burocracia, a compreensão da unidade como unanimidade e o seguimento, em certa medida, de correntes do marxismo soviético. Os desafios atuais para aprofundar a democracia em Cuba se apresentam em três planos: socializar o poder, promover a sociodiversidade e desenvolver a ideologia revolucionária.El triunfo revolucionario de 1959 consagró en Cuba un nuevo concepto de democracia, basado en garantizar acceso a la vida política activa a grandes sectores poblacionales, antes excluidos de ella. Para ello desarrolló una política de inclusión social con carácter universal. La práctica política popular puso las riquezas del país en manos de los desposeídos y generó gran movilidad social, hecho que resultó clave para el aumento de la participación popular. El contexto de agresión imperialista y el propio desarrollo del proceso produjo el afianzamiento de nociones que limitaron la participación popular: el auge de la burocracia, la comprensión de la unidad como unanimidad y el seguimiento, en parte, de corrientes del marxismo soviético. Los desafíos actuales se presentan en tres planos para profundizar la democracia en Cuba: socializar el poder, promover la sociodiversidad y desarrollar la ideología revolucionaria.The revolutionary triumph of 1959 established in Cuba a new concept of democracy, one that

  20. Associação de deltametrina com Acarophenax lacunatus e seu impacto sobre o desenvolvimento de Rhyzopertha dominica Association of deltamethrin with Acarophenax lacunatus on development of Rhyzopertha dominica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Gonçalves

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a associação do inseticida deltametrina, aplicado em grãos de trigo, com o ácaro parasita Acarophenax lacunatus e seu impacto sobre o desenvolvimento de Rhyzopertha dominica. Grãos de trigo (13% de teor de água foram tratados com diferentes doses de deltametrina (0,00, 0,125, 0,25, 0,375, 0,50, 0,625, 0,75, 0,875 e 1,00 mg i.a. kg-1. As unidades experimentais consistiram de placas de Petri contendo 30 g de grãos tratados, ou não, com o inseticida, infestados com 30 adultos de R. dominica. Cinco dias depois da infestação, foram inoculados cinco ácaros parasitas por unidade experimental, em sete repetições. As unidades experimentais foram armazenadas por 60 dias depois da infestação em câmara climatizada ajustada a 30±1°C, 60±5% UR e escotofase de 24 horas. A taxa instantânea de crescimento de R. dominica apresentou índices negativos para as doses de deltametrina maiores que 0,25 mg i.a. kg-1. A. lacunatus associado a doses de deltametrina menores que 0,5 mg i.a. kg-1 reduz as fases imaturas de R. dominica.The objective of this work was to evaluate the development of Rhyzopertha dominica on wheat grain treated with the insecticide deltamethrin and infested with the mite Acarophenax lacunatus. The experimental units were Petri dishes containing 30 g of wheat grain (13% moisture content sprayed with different doses of deltamethrin (0.00, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, 0.50, 0.625, 0.75, 0.875 and 1.00 mg a.i. kg-1 infested with 30 adults of R. dominica. Five days after the infestation, five mites were inoculated on each experimental unit, in seven replicates. All treatments were maintained under controlled conditions (30±1°C, 60±5% r.h. and 24 hours scotophase for 60 days after the infestation. The instantaneous rate of increase of R. dominica was negative under doses higher than 0.25 mg a.i. kg-1. The lowest number of immature R. dominica was observed with the interaction between deltamethrin doses

  1. Storm Warnings for Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Services: Telephone: (310) 451-7002; Fax: (310) 451-6915; Internet : order@rand.org. al Accesion For "Ni %&’ Storm WarningsDTI’ TAB E03 --- - - -for...reaction leading to an uncontrol- lable burgeoning of private entrepreneurial activity. As one observer 14See Acuerdo del Buro Politico , "Para llevar a...34 10Comisi6n de Relaciones Internacionales, Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular, Datos, Reflexiones y Argumentos Sobre la Actual Situaci6n de Cuba, n.p

  2. Distribution and size of benthic marine habitats in Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Claus Christoff Steiner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los ambientes béntico-marinos de Dominica, Antillas Menores, incluyen 1 814.7ha y cerca del 90% de la costa. Este es el primer trabajo sobre el tamaño y distribución de los ambientes costeros sublitorales y sus comunidades epibénticas. Los pastos marinos constituyeron el ambiente más extenso, con 265ha. Los arrecifes coralinos presentaron una cobertura de 72.2ha. Ambos tipos de ambientes se encontraron principalmente en la costa oeste y norte, regiones con la mayor diversidad de ambientes marinos. Las áreas rocosas (911.5ha dominaron las costas este y sur de la isla, y junto con las áreas arenosas (566ha constituyeron el 81% de los ambientes bénticos. La distribución de pastos marinos, que incluyeron cuatro especies nativas y una invasiva, no se pudo corroborar con los pocos informes previos. La cobertura béntica de los arrecifes coralinos de Dominica fue mucho menor que las 7 000ha que se habían reportado previamente. Estas discrepancias ilustran la ventaja de los estudios ambientales basados en trabajo de campo y la compilación sistemática de datos ambientales, especialmente en casos como Dominica donde por lo angosto de la plataforma insular, los ambientes marinos sublitorales quedan muy cerca de los centros urbanos. Se demuestra que técnicas simples pueden ser utilizadas a gran escala alrededor de una isla para realizar inventarios de los recursos marino-costeros, mediante mapas y repositorios públicos de datos para usos futuros, que permiten el desarrollo de medidas de conservación efectivas.

  3. Gamma radiation effects on adults of rhyzopertha dominica (FABR., 1792) (COLEOPTERA, BOSTRICHIDAE), a stored wheat pest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, N.

    1985-01-01

    The results of irradiation by a 60 Co gamma source on adults of rhyzopertha dominica (Fabr., 1792) are reported. The experiment is set in the Departament of Radioentomology Laboratory, CENA/SP, in Piracicaba, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The use of o (control), 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110 and 120 Gy showed that 60 and 70 Gy increased the longevity of the insects in 7% and 21% respectively. Highest doses reduced the adults longevity on 47% maximum, and the sterilizing dose was 100Gy. (Author) [pt

  4. International Civic Engagement: From Development Studies and Service-Learning, to Miami University-Dominica Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Klak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past four years, faculty, students, and staff from Miami University have been cultivating civic engagement relationships with citizens of the Commonwealth of Dominica, in the Eastern Caribbean. For members of the Miami University community, this has been an effort to create opportunities for learning and scholarship through partnerships with people in the Global South who are working for community empowerment, progressive change, and sustainable development. For our Dominican counterparts, benefits include financial inputs, manual labor, relevant research projects, and an outside interest in contributing positively to ameliorating their community challenges. We work to base the Miami University-Dominica relationships on trust, long-term commitment, and mutuality, so that the benefits go back and forth in myriad ways. The result has been a set of relationships across international borders and cultural differences that is more fulfilling for both sides than typical study abroad, research, or ecotourism encounters in the Global South. This paper describes the conceptual underpinnings of this international civic engagement, and recounts three examples of the kinds of community groups and activities that the partnerships involve. We also note where the project has encountered constraints and limitations, and our next steps in the effort. We hope this example can serve as a template and motivation for other university groups to commit to cultivating civic engagement relationships with people and communities in the Global South. KEYWORDScivic engagement; community engagement; community partnerships; sustainability

  5. A democracia em Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Zaldívar, Julio César Guanche

    2011-01-01

    O triunfo revolucionário de 1959 consagrou em Cuba um novo conceito de democracia, com o intuito de garantir o acesso à vida política ativa de grandes setores da população, antes excluídos. Para isso, foi desenvolvida uma política de inclusão social com caráter universal. A prática política popular deixou as riquezas do país em mãos da população carente e gerou uma grande mobilidade social, fato que foi central para o aumento da participação popular. O contexto de agressão imperialista e o pr...

  6. Children, Learning and Chronic Natural Disasters: How Does the Government of Dominica Address Education during Low-Intensity Hurricanes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrant, Ted Donaldson

    2013-01-01

    By the time today's Grade K students graduate high school in the Commonwealth of Dominica, they will have experienced five major and many low-intensity hurricanes (LIH). Between August and November each year, each hurricane, major or low-intensity, represents a major threat to their safety and schooling. This mixed-method case study investigated…

  7. A Method for Measuring Fishing Effort by Small-Scale Fish Aggregating Device (FAD) Fishers from the Commonwealth of Dominica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvard, Michael; McGaffey, Ethan; Carlson, David

    2015-01-01

    We used global positioning system (GPS) technology and tracking analysis to measure fishing effort by marine, small-scale, fish aggregating device (FAD) fishers of the Commonwealth of Dominica. FADs are human-made structures designed to float on the surface of the water and attract fish. They are also prone to common pool resource problems. To…

  8. Cuba: The Next Unanticipated Anticipated Strategic Crisis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorrell, Tim

    2005-01-01

    ...; and the current Bush administration with the global war on terrorism (GWOT). Cuba, specifically post-Castro Cuba, could very well trigger the next unanticipated crisis even though the writing is on the...

  9. Controle de Rhyzopertha dominica pela atmosfera controlada com CO2, em trigo Control of Rhyzopertha dominica using a controlled atmosphere with CO2, in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Amaro Gonçalves

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de gases inertes como fumigantes no controle de pragas é uma alternativa ao uso de fosfina. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de uma atmosfera com CO2 no controle de Rhyzoperta dominica (Fabr. (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae em grãos de trigo armazenado. O trabalho constou de cinco concentrações de CO2 (0, 30 , 40, 50 e 60%, completadas com N2, três períodos de exposição (5, 10, 15 dias, três populações de R. dominica (Fabr. (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae (Campo Mourão, PR, Sete Lagoas, MG e Santa Rosa, RS e sete fases de desenvolvimento do inseto (ovo, larva de 1º, 2º, 3º e 4º ínstar, pupa e adulto com três repetições. As diferentes fases da R. dominica foram acondicionadas em tecido organza e levadas para câmaras de expurgo de 200 litros com 75% deste volume repletos de grãos. As câmaras foram vedadas com borracha de silicone para garantir a hermeticidade. Após a vedação das câmaras injetavam-se os gases contendo diferentes teores de CO2. Os resultados mostraram que todos os teores de CO2 causaram 100% de mortalidade de adultos das três populações nos três períodos de exposição utilizados. Em pupas a mortalidade atingiu 100% no teor de 60% de CO2 para as três populações no período de 15 dias de exposição; porém, todos os teores de CO2 utilizados no período de 15 dias de exposição causaram 100% de mortalidade das pupas da população de Santa Rosa. Para o adequado controle de larvas de diferentes ínstares são necessários teores de CO2 iguais ou acima de 50%. Nos períodos de 10 e 15 dias de exposição, todos os teores de CO2 causaram 100% de mortalidade dos ovos das três populações avaliadas.Controlled atmosphere with inert gases offers an alternative to phosphine use to control stored grain pests. The objective of this research was to test a controlled atmosphere with CO2 to control Rhyzoperta dominica, (Fabr. (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae, an important pest of stored wheat

  10. Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-19

    from Cuban nationals outside of the United States. CRS-4 On January 23, 2006, OFAC suspended a South Florida travel agency, La Estrella de Cuba...one of the largest licensed travel service providers in Florida, La Estrella de Cuba, from booking travel to Cuba. Another three agencies had their

  11. Peat resources in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova Casanova, E.

    1996-01-01

    During the last few years the drastic cut in oil supply provoked a critical situation in Cuba. The shortage of domestic oil production and the absence of alternative energy sources, such as wide rivers and coal deposits, drove us to decide that the most promising option was to develop our huge peat deposits. However, there are problems concerning skills and finance. This report reviews the potential for peat development to date in the Cuban territory. The figures and characteristics are partly taken from the surveys done by the Russian and Cuban specialists during the 60's. There is some new data compiled from the work done more recently in some of the Cuban peat deposits. The conditions for draining and harvesting are very challenging and difficult if the peat deposits are to be developed without doing any unnecessary damage to the fragile environment of Cuban wetlands. However, if the required financing and skills are available, the work can be carried out and significant risks avoided

  12. Río, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. García-Quintana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se realizó como estudio de caso en el ambiente de Viñales, Pinar del Río, Cuba con el objetivo de seleccionar material genético de especial valor para la conservación y mejoramiento de la especie; a partir de nueve procedencias, encontrando diferencias significativas entre procedencias para las variables altura, diámetro y ramificación. Se clasificaron las procedencias en grupos de calidad A, B, C y D, recomendando los grupos A y B para el desarrollo de la especie en estos sitios de baja fertilidad. El coeficiente de variación cambió 29.5 y 44.8 %, siendo los parámetros altura y diámetro los de mayor variabilidad, así la selección debe tener estas características, seleccionando como procedencias superiores Marbajita, Cajálbana, El Burén, Los Palacios, La Jagua, La Güira y Juan Manuel.

  13. Insecticidal and insect-repellent activities of essential oils from Verbenaceae and Anacardiaceae against Rhizopertha dominica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzi, Verónica S; Murrayb, Ana P; Ferrero, Adriana A

    2009-09-01

    Essential oils extracted from leaves of Aloysia polystachya and A. citriodora (Verbenaceae) and from leaves and fruits of Schinus molle var. areira (Anacardiaceae) were tested for their repellent and toxic activities against adults of Rhizopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Topical application and filter paper assays were employed for contact toxicity studies; filter paper impregnation was also used for fumigant and repellent assays. In topical tests A. polystachya was as effective as S. molle leaves. In the case of repellent assays, A. citriodora was the most effective oil based on the class scale. A. polystachya was the most toxic plant on contact toxicity by filter paper assay (LC50 26.6 mg/cm2). Fumigant toxicity was only evaluated with fruits and leaves of S. molle, and no significant differences were found between them. Published data are included to compare the fumigant toxicity of S. molle with that of A. citridora and A. polystachya.

  14. EL LARGO COMPROMISO DE CANADÁ CON CUBA: PARADOJAS Y POSIBILIDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas LEGLER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la Unión Europea como América Latina, e incluso Estados Unidos, han iniciado distintos procesos de diálogo con Cuba. ¿Cuáles lecciones relevantes se pueden extraer de la larga historia canadiense de compromiso con la Revolución Cubana? Este artículo documenta la evolución de las relaciones entre Canadá y Cuba desde la década de 1940, centrándose en sus altibajos desde que se lanzó, a mediados de la década de 1990, una política de «compromiso constructivo ». Se argumenta que este acercamiento (en sus diversas formas no ha tenido mayor influencia en la liberalización de la política cubana. Además, la poca influencia que Canadá pudo haber tenido durante el «Periodo Especial» ha disminuido con la recuperación económica y diversificación de las relaciones exteriores de Cuba en la última década. En ese sentido, los autores concluyen que la estrategia más apropiada para Canadá y otros actores es llevar a cabo un acercamiento coordinado y de largo plazo que brinde apoyo a una variedad de procesos endógenos de cambio en Cuba. Una estrategia realista debería incluir diálogo de bajo perfil con el régimen actual, cooperación con un amplio espectro de posibles reformadores dentro y fuera del Estado y apoyo para la realización de cambios sociales más extensos a través del comercio, la inversión extranjera, el turismo así como los intercambios académicos y culturales.

  15. Combining Geological and Geophysical Data in Volcanic Hazard Estimation for Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, O.; Latchman, J. L.; Connor, C.; Malservisi, R.; Connor, L.

    2014-12-01

    Risk posed by volcanic eruptions are generally quantified in a few ways; in the short term geophysical data such as seismic activity or ground deformation are used to assess the state of volcanic unrest while statistical approaches such as spatial density estimates are used for long term hazard assessment. Spatial density estimates have been used in a number of monogenetic volcanic fields for hazard map generation and utilize the age, location and volumes of previous eruptions to calculate the probability of a new event occurring at a given location within this field. In a previously unpublished study, spatial density estimates of the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc showed the island of Dominica to have the highest likelihood of future vent formation. In this current study, this technique was used in combination with relocated seismic events occurring beneath Dominica within the last ~ 20 years as well as InSAR images of ground deformation to generate a hazard map which not only takes into consideration the past events but also the current state of unrest. Here, geophysical data serve as a weighting factor in the estimates with those centers showing more vigorous activity receiving stronger favorability in the assessment for future activity. In addition to this weighting, the bandwidth utilized in the 2D-radially symmetric kernel density function was optimized using the SAMSE method so as to find the value which best minimizes the error in the estimate. The end results of this study are dynamic volcanic hazards maps which will be readily updatable as changes in volcanic unrest occurs within the system.

  16. Volcanic Surface Deformation in Dominica From GPS Geodesy: Results From the 2007 NSF- REU Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, R.; James, S.; Styron, R. H.; Turner, H. L.; Ashlock, A.; Cavness, C.; Collier, X.; Fauria, K.; Feinstein, R.; Staisch, L.; Williams, B.; Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.; Cothren, J.

    2007-12-01

    GPS measurements have been collected on the island of Dominica in the Lesser Antilles between 2001 and 2007, with five month-long campaigns completed in June of each year supported in part by a NSF REU Site award for the past two years. All GPS data were collected using dual-frequency, code-phase receivers and geodetic-quality antenna, primarily choke rings. Three consecutive 24 hr observation days were normally obtained for each site. Precise station positions were estimated with GIPSY-OASISII using an absolute point positioning strategy and final, precise orbits, clocks, earth orientation parameters, and x-files. All position estimates were updated to ITRF05 and a revised Caribbean Euler pole was used to place our observations in a CAR-fixed frame. Time series were created to determine the velocity of each station. Forward and inverse elastic half-space models with planar (i.e. dike) and Mogi (i.e. point) sources were investigated. Inverse modeling was completed using a downhill simplex method of function minimization. Selected site velocities were used to create appropriate models for specific regions of Dominica, which correspond to known centers of pre-historic volcanic or recent shallow, seismic activity. Because of the current distribution of GPS sites with robust velocity estimates, we limit our models to possible magmatic activity in the northern, proximal to the volcanic centers of Morne Diablotins and Morne aux Diables, and southern, proximal to volcanic centers of Soufriere and Morne Plat Pays, regions of the island. Surface deformation data from the northernmost sites may be fit with the development of a several km-long dike trending approximately northeast- southwest. Activity in the southern volcanic centers is best modeled by an expanding point source at approximately 1 km depth.

  17. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  18. CASE STUDY: Cuba — Farmers and Researchers Reshape Cuba's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Faced with a unique economic crisis, Cuba's national agriculture system was near ... But working together with groups of farmers, a team of young plant breeders is turning ... "Sometimes when we plant and we expect good results, we actually get poor results. .... "For me, when I think about varieties, they are like people.

  19. Agreement of 3 May 1996 between the government of the commonwealth of Dominica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty of the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Exchange of Letters with the Commonwealth of Dominica in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and Caribbean, which constitutes an agreement confirming that the Safeguards Agreement of 3 May 1996 (IAEA-INFCIRC-513) concluded between the Government of the Commonwealth of Dominica (Dominica) and the IAEA pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) satisfies the obligation of Dominica under Article 13 of the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and Caribbean (the Tlatelolco Treaty) to conclude a safeguards agreement with the IAEA

  20. The Impact of Hurricane Maria on the Vegetation of Dominica and Puerto Rico Using Multispectral Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangao Hu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As the worst natural disaster on record in Dominica and Puerto Rico, Hurricane Maria in September 2017 had a large impact on the vegetation of these islands. In this paper, multitemporal Landsat 8 OLI and Sentinel-2 data are used to investigate vegetation damage on Dominica and Puerto Rico by Hurricane Maria, and related influencing factors are analyzed. Moreover, the changes in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI in the year 2017 are compared to reference years (2015 and 2016. The results show that (1 there is a sudden drop in NDVI values after Hurricane Maria’s landfall (decreased about 0.2 which returns to near normal vegetation after 1.5 months; (2 different land cover types have different sensitivities to Hurricane Maria, whereby forest is the most sensitive type, then followed by wetland, built-up, and natural grassland; and (3 for Puerto Rico, the vegetation damage is highly correlated with distance from the storm center and elevation. For Dominica, where the whole island is within Hurricane Maria’s radius of maximum wind, the vegetation damage has no obvious relationship to elevation or distance. The study provides insight into the sensitivity and recovery of vegetation after a major land-falling hurricane, and may lead to improved vegetation protection strategies.

  1. The geothermal resource in Dominica : from the class room to the fieldwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivia, Urity

    2014-05-01

    In Martinique and more generally in the Caribbean area, the Global warming is not only a topic you can read about in a scientific article but a true issue in the everyday life of the inhabitants. Many effects of the increase of the sea level or the erosion can be observed in the environment. For example, beaches are being destroyed, frightening buildings built on the seafront. This is not only an environmental issue but a touristic and economical one. By the way it is a problem to give a new home to these inhabitants who are now losing their houses. So, with their limited territory and their economy depending on tourism, the islands of the Lesser Antilles have a big challenge which is to find some solutions to minimize the effects of the Global warming on their populations. Anyway, anthropic activities and particularly the using of fossil fuels are named to be responsible for a big part of the climate changes. Knowing this allows us to understand that the Caribbean countries have to develop renewable energies. Guadeloupe and Dominica are two good examples of these islands, where the politicians have already decided to use sustainable energies. They use geothermal energy and hydroelectricity to provide to the families' needs. In this way, the Dominican government, with finances from The European Union, Guadeloupe and Martinique decided to explore the geothermal resource in the island and to build a plant in the area of Roseau Valley. Therefore the students and I, we have decided to study the geology of Dominica in order to find the origin of the geothermal resource and to get more information about the geothermal power plant project. Furthermore, we wanted to understand how this resource is used by the locals and to determine the impact of the presence of the future plant in the chosen sites. In the poster to come, I have chosen to introduce the "journey in Dominica" and the fieldwork that I have realized with my students of upper sixth form. The poster will focus

  2. MÚSICA CAMPESINA Y CULTURA POPULAR EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radisbel Galán Rizo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La música campesina en Cuba constituye la base fundamental para el estudio de la cultura del país. En ella confluye junto a escasos elementos de la población aborigen las culturas de diferentes etnias que conformaron el amplio mosaico cultural de la Isla siendo la música campesina síntesis inequívoca de este proceso. A través de un análisis crítico, se tomaron en consideración ideas planteadas por varios autores, lo que permite enriquecer los términos y la comprensión del tema. El estudio de la realidad posibilitó analizar la presencia de la música campesina en el contexto nacional a través de sus componentes étnicos, motivaciones, características, rasgos originales, evolución histórica y social como parte indisoluble en la conformación de la nación y su salvaguarda como reafirmación de identidad. De esta forma, el presente texto responde a la insuficiencia de información acerca de los esfuerzos para la salvaguarda y rescate de la tradición musical campesina en Cuba. PALABRAS CLAVE: Música campesina; cultura popular; identidad. THE CONTRY MUSIC AND POPULAR CULTURE IN CUBA ABSTRACT The country music in Cuba is the fundamental for the study of the country's culture base. It converges with few elements of Aboriginal people from different ethnic cultures that shaped the broad cultural mosaic of the island country music being unequivocal synthesis of this process. Through critical analysis, were taken into consideration ideas raised by several authors, allowing enrich the terms and understanding of the subject. The study of reality allowed analyze the presence of country music in the national context through its ethnic components, motivations, characteristics, original features, historical and social evolution as an indissoluble part in shaping the nation and its protection as a reaffirmation of identity. Thus, this text responds to insufficient information on efforts to safeguard and rescue of peasant musical

  3. Area Handbook Series: Cuba; a Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    xix Chapter 1. Historical Setting. ...................................... Elizabeth de Lima ...Guane Rio Santo L F AntonClarao -22 % Fei ienfuegos Moron kNulvo Gerona Playa Sancti 11-,Giron Spirntu Jhoi ~~ ~Trinidad Cg a Tunas de Zaza * National...schol- arly literature. xi Country Profile 0 0l Country _ Formal Name: Cuba (Rep6blica de Cuba). Short Form: Cuba. Term for Citizens: Cubans. Capital

  4. 48 Human Rights in and around Cuba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The article takes point of department in the current reform process in Cuba and its perspectives regarding human rights. To understand the background of the fundamental human rights' problems in Cuba, an analysis of the 'constituting dichotomy' is included and discussed in relation to its represe...... representation in the film, 'Strawberry and Chocolate'. The further perspectives for human rights in Cuba in relation to other Developments in Latin America constitutes the last part....

  5. Implications of coral harvest and transplantation on reefs in northwestern Dominica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Bruckner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In June, 2002, the government of Dominica requested assistance in evaluating the coral culture and transplantation activities being undertaken by Oceanographic Institute of Dominica (OID, a coral farm culturing both western Atlantic and Indo-Pacific corals for restoration and commercial sales. We assessed the culture facilities of OID, the condition of reefs, potential impacts of coral collection and benefits of coral transplantation. Coral reefs (9 reefs, 3-20m depth were characterized by 35 species of scleractinian corals and a live coral cover of 8-35%. Early colonizing, brooders such as Porites astreoides (14.8% of all corals, P. porites (14.8%, Meandrina meandrites (14.7% and Agaricia agaricites (9.1% were the most abundant corals, but colonies were mostly small (mean=25cm diameter. Montastraea annularis (complex was the other dominant taxa (20.8% of all corals and colonies were larger (mean=70cm. Corals (pooled species were missing an average of 20% of their tissue, with a mean of 1.4% recent mortality. Coral diseases affected 6.4% of all colonies, with the highest prevalence at Cabrits West (11.0%, Douglas Bay (12.2% and Coconut Outer reef (20.7%. White plague and yellow band disease were causing the greatest loss of tissue, especially among M. annularis (complex, with localized impacts from corallivores, overgrowth by macroalgae, storm damage and sedimentation. While the reefs appeared to be undergoing substantial decline, restoration efforts by OID were unlikely to promote recovery. No Pacific species were identified at OID restoration sites, yet species chosen for transplantation with highest survival included short-lived brooders (Agaricia and Porites that were abundant in restoration sites, as well as non-reef builders (Palythoa and Erythropodium that monopolize substrates and overgrow corals. The species of highest value for restoration (massive broadcast spawners showed low survivorship and unrestored populations of these species

  6. Cuba: Multidimensional numerical integration library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The Cuba library offers four independent routines for multidimensional numerical integration: Vegas, Suave, Divonne, and Cuhre. The four algorithms work by very different methods, and can integrate vector integrands and have very similar Fortran, C/C++, and Mathematica interfaces. Their invocation is very similar, making it easy to cross-check by substituting one method by another. For further safeguarding, the output is supplemented by a chi-square probability which quantifies the reliability of the error estimate.

  7. El envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Bernal Sánchez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available En todo el mundo las poblaciones de los distintos países están envejeciendo, por tanto, la gente vive más tiempo y el número de personas adultas es cada vez mayor. Esto requiere de la toma de medidas con el fin de lograr mantener a estas personas vinculadas a la sociedad. Cuba teniendo en cuenta esta realidad se ha enfrascado en una serie de programas al respecto en lo cual Sancti Spíritus no se ha quedado detrás, llegando a cada rincón del país. Este trabajo presenta la investigación llevada a cabo de un estudio referativo sobre el envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba, cuyos objetivos son, profundizar en las diferentes aristas del tema así como valorar las dimensiones del mismo, para lo cual se emplearon métodos del nivel teórico y empírico. Entre los resultados obtenidos se encuentra diseño de un trabajo referativo que abarca doce dimensiones del envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba. La realización de este documento facilita el estudio del tema ya que permite profundizar en el contenido sobre Adulto Mayor visto como un sistema desde múltiples aristas.

  8. Costa Rica

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    politiques de la concurrence en Amérique centrale, financé par le CRDI (et qui englobait l'étude sur le Costa Rica susmentionnée), a permis de cerner ces manques et de déterminer quel genre de lois et d'autorités en matière de concurrence conviennent le mieux aux réalités politique, juridique et culturelle de chacun des ...

  9. Cuba, Canarias y la prensa, en el contexto del 98

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Ileana Medina Hernández

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available 1898 es para España el año del Desastre, con mayúscula; 1898 es para Cuba el año de la independencia, quizá con minúscula. Canarias es la puerta de salida de Europa; Cuba es puerta la entrada de América. La migración canario - cubana ha sido un factor histórico decisivo en la formación de ambas nacionalidades. La prensa de masas naciente a fines del siglo XIX jugó un papel determinante en la guerra hispano-norteamericana y su desenlace. Conjugando esas cuatro sentencias aplastantes y archiconocidas, la investigación del reflejo del proceso independentista cubano en la prensa de canaria aporta sustanciosos elementos al conocimiento del papel de los procesos de comunicación en la historia y en la cultura de ambos archipiélagos, en el importante contexto del fin de siglo XIX.

  10. La vacuna en Cuba durante el gobierno de Someruelos

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Cienfuegos, Sigfrido

    2004-01-01

    La Real Expedición Filantrópica de la Vacuna (1803-1806), dirigida por Francisco Javier de Balmis, se dirigió al Nuevo Mundo para paliar las epidemias de viruelas que habían venido asolando América desde casi el mismo momento del Descubrimiento. Para entonces en la isla de Cuba ya se había iniciado una labor con el mismo objetivo por el médico cubano Tomás Romay, apoyado en el fomento de la introducción y aplicación de la vacuna por el marqués de Someruelos gobernador y capitán general de la ...

  11. Cuba y el Socialismo del siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Porfirio Santos Víctores

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo trata acerca de cómo, después de la desaparición  del socialismo en la URSS y en Europa del Este, el llamado Socialismo del siglo XXI representa el desafío actual de reinventar o renovar el socialismo; tomando en cuenta las experiencias de los socialismos que se vivieron, aunque partiendo siempre de las condiciones y la realidad concreta y particular de cada país. Cuando se habla de Socialismo del Siglo XXI no se trata sobre algo definitivamente acabado, conceptualizado, sino precisamente sobre un constructo en desarrollo, el cual es la expresión actual de un abordaje renovado de la construcción del socialismo. Cuba, que inició su proceso revolucionario a mediados del siglo pasado, constituye, con su proyecto de actualización del socialismo, un ejemplo paradigmático donde, con sus características y particularidades históricas, encontramos lo que podríamos llamar una transición del socialismo clásico alternativo sui generis del siglo XX al  socialismo del siglo XXI, con la adopción de políticas públicas que estimulen la sostenibilidad del desarrollo económico y social del país mediante la consolidación de un socialismo próspero y sostenible, comprometido con los valores fundacionales  históricos del proyecto social cubano.

  12. African Journals Online: Portugal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  13. Targeting U. S. Technologies: A Trend Analysis of Cleared Industry Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    conducted a scientic analysis that traced a particular disease outbreak to one specic London well, and demonstrated that cholera befell only those...Islands Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Curacao Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico

  14. African Journals Online: Tuvalu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  15. African Journals Online: Syrian Arab Republic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  16. African Journals Online: El Salvador

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  17. African Journals Online: Romania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  18. African Journals Online: Curaçao

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  19. African Journals Online: Austria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  20. African Journals Online: Palau

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  1. African Journals Online: Comoros

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  2. African Journals Online: Saint Bartelemey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  3. African Journals Online: Myanmar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  4. African Journals Online: Lesotho

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  5. African Journals Online: Latvia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  6. African Journals Online: Bhutan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  7. OAS :: Member States : Permanent Representatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rights Actions against Corruption C Children Civil Registry Civil Society Contact Us Culture Cyber Barbados Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba 1 Dominica (Commonwealth of) Dominican Gutierez Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Belize Diego Pary Rodríguez Bolivia Diego Pary Rodríguez

  8. The DISAM Journal of International Security Assistance Management. Volume 26, Number 1, Fall 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    contribution to international peace and stability. Current Members of the Hall of Fame General Lojas Fodor, Commander, Hungarian Defense Forces and Chief of...Belize Bermuda Bolivia Brazil British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador El

  9. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-31

    office. In January 2006, OFAC suspended a South Florida travel agency, La Estrella de Cuba, from booking travel to Cuba. The agency reportedly was one...plans to conduct 25 on-site audits in 2006 at agencies that do business with Cuba.22 In addition to La Estrella de Cuba, OFAC suspended the service

  10. Movement and Orientation Decision Modeling of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in the Grain Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Erick M G; Campbell, James F; Phillips, Thomas W

    2016-04-01

    Grain stored in bins is initially a relatively homogenous resource patch for stored-product insects, but over time, spatial pattern in insect distribution can form, due in part to insect movement patterns. However, the factors that influence stored-product insect movement patterns in grain are not well-understood. This research focused on the movement of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), within a simulated wheat grain mass (vertical monolayer of wheat) and the identification of factors that contribute to overall and upward movement (age since adult emergence from an infested kernel [1, 7, and 14 d], sex, strain, and different levels of environment quality). We also used the model selection approach to select the most relevant factors and determine the relationships among them. Three-week-old adults tended to stay closer to the surface compared with 1- or 2-wk-old insects. Also, females tended to be more active and to explore a larger area compared with males. Explored area and daily displacement were also significantly strain-dependent, and increasing grain infestation level decreased daily displacement and explored area. Variation in movement pattern is likely to influence the formation of spatial pattern and affect probability to disperse. Understanding movement behavior within a grain bin is crucial to designing better strategies to implement and interpret monitoring programs and to target control tactics. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Cuba's oil crisis spells trouble for Castro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on Cuba's oil crisis which presents long term woes for the government of Fidel Castro but new opportunities for foreign petroleum investment. That's the main thesis of a study by East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu. Since the cutoff of subsidized oil supplies from the former Soviet Union at the first of the year, Cuba has endured a crippling loss of export revenues and draconian energy rationing measures at home. The Soviets had reduced oil supplies to Cuba since 1989 after decades of providing the Castro government with subsidized oil supplies. Former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev exempted Cuba from paying market prices for Soviet oil in 1991 while requiring that of Soviet trading partners in eastern Europe. With the collapse of Communism in the former U.S.S.R., however, oil supplies from that region are available to Cuba only at market prices and for hard currency. That has triggered a crisis in the Western Hemisphere's sole Communist regime as Cuba's gross special product - equivalent to GNP - fell by 5% in 1990 and a further 20% in 1991. The foreign exchange loss of $1.6 billion stemming from the loss of Soviet subsidized oil supplies exceeds that of total foreign exchange earnings from all other sources. If Cuba imports oil in 1989 volumes at current prices, its oil import tab alone will be $1.3 billion, EWC projects

  12. Through the looking glass on Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] State Resistance to Globalisation in Cuba. Antonio Carmona Báez. Sterling VA: Pluto Press, 2004. vii + 264 pp. (Paper US$ 29.95 La Lucha for Cuba: Religion and Politics on the Streets of Miami. Miguel A. de la Torre. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. xi + 181 pp. (Paper US$ 21.95 By Heart/De Memoria: Cuban Women’s Journeys in and out of Exile. María de los Angeles Torres (ed.. Philadelphia PA: Temple University Press, 2003. vii + 192 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Looking at Cuba: Essays on Culture and Civil Society. Rafael Hernández. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003. vii + 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.95 In the politically charged world of scholarship on Cuba, it is salutary to comment in one review essay on four quite different volumes, each complementing the others. Three are single-authored, two on island Cuba (by Antonio Carmona Báez and Rafael Hernández and one on Miami (by Miguel A. de la Torre. All three draw on theory and concepts and are male-authored and place-centric (Cuba/Miami. The fourth (by María de los Angeles Torres is an edited collection of the personal testimonies of women seeking a place in between the hardened politics of Cuba and Miami.

  13. Arqueofauna del Nororiente de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Pérez Iglesias

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La región nororiental de Cuba, que abarca el norte de los territorios de las provincias Las Tunas, Holguín y Guantánamo, posee un potencial arqueológico de alrededor de 220 sitios, de ellos se posee información zooarqueológica de 35 localidades. Esta información se ha reunido en un sistema de información geográfica(SIG denominado Arqueofauna del Nororiente de Cuba, que permite el manejo de los datos a través de entradas como: nombre del sitio, coordenadas, provincia, municipio, categoría, filiación, lista de taxones presentes (Moluscos, Crustáceos, Peces, Reptiles, Aves, Mamíferos, número de especies respectiva a cada taxón, fechado del sitio, persona y fecha en que fue trabajado. Este levantamiento zooarqueológico ofrece además, una aproximación del uso de los recursos faunísticos por parte de las comunidades aborígenes, en esta área geográfica, así como datos sobre el uso de especies extintas, variaciones en la distribución de especies en el pasado, cuestión tratada en el presente trabajo.

  14. Vergel de perfectísimas flores. Las dominicas valencianas de Carcaixent según fray José Agramunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Callado Estela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende rescatar del olvido una de los conventos dominicanos más desconocidos del ámbito valenciano. En concreto, el de Corpus Christi de la localidad de Carcaixent, en la ribera del rio Xúquer. Fundación tardobarroca ésta, erigida en 1654, objeto ya en el siglo XVIII del interés histórico de uno de sus primeros confesores. Hablamos de fray José Agramunt, autor del inédito Parayso de Dios. Idea del religiosíssimo monasterio de señoras dominicas de la real villa de Carcaxente, analizado en las siguientes páginas en el marco de la vida y producción literaria del citado religioso. In this present work, we aim to recover one of the forgotten dominican convents from Valencia. More specifically, the convent of the Corpus Christi located in Carcaixent, on the banks of the River Xúquer. This late Baroque convent was built in 1654. By the eighteenth century, one of his confessors had already made clear its historical interest. We are referring to fray José Agramunt, the author of the unpublished work, Parayso de Dios: Idea del Religiosíssimo Monasterio de Señoras Dominicas de la Real Villa de Carcaxente, analysis in the following pages the life and literal works of the aforementioned religious.

  15. Cuba y la transición política: tan cerca y... tan lejos. Reflexiones 2009 sobre el futuro político en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel RODRÍGUEZ ARECHAVALETA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de una revisión teórica de autores fundamentales sobre democratizaciones en la tercera ola, el artículo intenta analizar los escenarios del poder actual en Cuba, tanto formales como informales, la singularidad institucional y los posibles reacomodos en la nueva élite política cubana. Asumimos la premisa de que la sociedad civil y la presión exterior no han logrado impactos relevantes en estos años; por tanto, nuestra unidad de observación será la composición de la élite política a partir de la estructura del régimen, las reglas electorales y el diseño institucional, y la definición de actores cuyas decisiones e interacciones puedan afectar los resultados políticos futuros; por tanto, intentamos formalizar las interacciones estratégicas de Raúl y la oposición moderada para valorar el potencial de negociación de una transición política en Cuba. Entonces, ¿es posible una alianza entre reformistas moderados en el gobierno y una oposición moderada en Cuba que permita una transición política?

  16. CUBA Y LA TRANSICIÓN POLÍTICA: TAN CERCA Y... TAN LEJOS. REFLEXIONES 2009 SOBRE EL FUTURO POLÍTICO EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel RODRÍGUEZ ARECHAVALETA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de una revisión teórica de autores fundamentales sobre democratizaciones en la tercera ola, el artículo intenta analizar los escenarios del poder actual en Cuba, tanto formales como informales, la singularidad institucional y los posibles reacomodos en la nueva élite política cubana. Asumimos la premisa de que la sociedad civil y la presión exterior no han logrado impactos relevantes en estos años; por tanto, nuestra unidad de observación será la composición de la élite política a partir de la estructura del régimen, las reglas electorales y el diseño institucional, y la definición de actores cuyas decisiones e interacciones puedan afectar los resultados políticos futuros; por tanto, intentamos formalizar las interacciones estratégicas de Raúl y la oposición moderada para valorar el potencial de negociación de una transición política en Cuba. Entonces, ¿es posible una alianza entre reformistas moderados en el gobierno y una oposición moderada en Cuba que permita una transición política?

  17. Sistema de salud de Cuba The health system of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Domínguez-Alonso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen las condiciones de salud de Cuba y el sistema cubano de salud, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, su gasto en salud, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone, y las actividades de rectoría e investigación que desarrolla. También se discute la importancia de sus instituciones de investigación y se describe el papel de los usuarios de los servicios en la operación y evaluación del sistema, así como las actividades que en este sentido desarrollan la Federación de Mujeres Cubanas y los Comités de Defensa de la Revolución. La parte final de este trabajo se dedica a discutir las innovaciones más recientes dentro de las que destacan las redes de cardiología, la Misión Milagro y la Batalla de Ideas.This paper describes the health conditions in Cuba and the general characteristics of the Cuban health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, its health expenditure, its physical, material and human resources, and its stewardship functions. It also discusses the increasing importance of its research institutions and the role played by its users in the operation and evaluation of the system. Salient among the social actors involved in the health sector are the Cuban Women Federation and the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution. The paper concludes with the discussion of the most recent innovations implemented in the Cuban health system, including the cardiology networks, the Miracle Mission (Misión Milagro and the Battle of Ideas (Batalla de Ideas.

  18. Stratigraphic, Granulometric and Geochemical Studies of a Major Plinian Eruption on Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. L.; Daly, G.; Killingsworth, N.; Deuerling, K.; Schneider, S.; Fryxell, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    The island of Dominica, located in the center of the Lesser Antilles island arc has witnessed, probably within the last 100,000 years, three large volume Plinian eruptions. One of these, associated with the Morne Diablotins center, forms the Grande Savane pyroclastic flow fan, that extends off shore as a distinctive submarine feature for a distance of at least 14 km. Stratigraphical studies of road cuts and well-exposed sea cliffs indicate the fan is composed of an older unit composed of reworked deposits at the base followed by at least four sequences, based on the presence of paleosols, of block and ash flow deposits. The upper unit of block and ash flows is overlain, with no evidence of an intervening paleosol, by a sequence of ignimbrites and pumiceous surges (representing the Plinian eruption). There is no evidence of an initial Plinian fall deposit, so the lowest bed in the succession is an ignimbrite with a highly irregular base that cuts into the underlying block and ash flow deposits, the upper parts of which are colored red due to thermal effects. This lowest ignimbrite is welded (minimum porosity of 15%) throughout its thickness (maximum thickness of greater than 21 m), although a few outcrops near the margins show a thin (20-30 cm) non-welded but lithified zone beneath the welded zone. The remainder of the sequence is composed of lithified ignimbrite that can be subdivided into three units separated by pumiceous surge layers. The ignimbrite succession is overlain, with no obvious break, by a thin fall deposit containing accretionary lapilli and gas cavities, followed by three pumiceous surge deposits (lower and upper show planar stratification and the middle surge shows massive bedding); towards the north the upper two surge deposits are separated by thin pumiceous lapilli fall and ash fall deposits. This surge sequence extends laterally outside of the main area of ignimbrite deposition. The pumice clasts from the ignimbrites are andesitic in

  19. Stratigraphy and Petrology of the Grande Soufriere Hills Volcano, Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, G.; Smith, A. L.; Garcia, R.; Killingsworth, N.

    2007-12-01

    The Grande Soufriere Hills volcanic center is located on the south east coast of the island of Dominica in the Lesser Antilles. Although the volcano is deeply dissected, a distinct circular crater that opens to the east can be observed. Within the crater is a lava dome and unconsolidated pyroclastic deposits mantle the southeast flanks of the volcano. These pyroclastic deposits are almost entirely matrix-supported block and ash flows and surges suggesting that Pelean-style eruptions have dominated its most recent activity. Within this sequence is a relatively thin (30-50 cm) clast-supported deposit that has been interpreted as a possible blast deposit. Two age dates from these younger deposits suggest that much of this activity occurred between l0,000 and 12,000 years ago. On the southeastern coast at Pointe Mulâtre and extending approximately 4 km north and at a maximum 2 km west, is a megabreccia of large (up to 3 m) flow-banded andesite clasts set in a semi-lithified medium grained ash matrix. At Pointe Mulâtre this megabreccia is overlain by unconsolidated block and ash flow deposits. To the north of the megabreccia, exposures in the sea cliffs reveal a consolidated sequence of well-bedded alternating coarse and fine deposits suggesting deltaic foreset beds; which in turn appears to be overlain by a yellow- colored relatively coarse flow deposit with an irregular upper surface. The uppermost deposits in the sea cliffs are a sequence of unconsolidated block and ash flow deposits and interbedded fluviatile conglomerates equivalent to the younger flow deposits logged inland. Volcanic rocks from the Grande Soufriere Hills are all porphyritic andesites often containing hypabyssal inclusions. Dominant phenocrysts are plagioclase often with inclusion-rich cores and well developed zoning. Mafic phenocrysts include hornblende, augite and hypersthene. Geochemically these andesites range from 58- 63% SiO2 and show trends of decreasing values for Al2O3, FeO, MgO, CaO, Ti

  20. Explosive to Effusive Transition in Intermediate Volcanism: An Analysis of Changing Magma System Conditions in Dominica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersson, J.; Waters, L. E.; Frey, H. M.; Nicolaysen, K. P.; Manon, M. R. F.

    2017-12-01

    The oscillation between explosive and effusive intermediate (59-62 wt% SiO2) volcanism in the Roseau Valley on Dominica, an island in the Lesser Antilles Arc, provides an opportunity to investigate temporal changes in the magmatic system. Here, we test the relationship between the Roseau ignimbrites (1-65 ka) and the Micotrin dome ( 1.1 ka) which are proposed to originate from the same magmatic system, with a detailed petrologic analysis of phenocrysts to determine commonalities or changes in pre-eruptive conditions (i.e., intensive variables). The ignimbrites are saturated in five phenocrysts (plagioclase + orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + ilmenite + magnetite ± amphibole ± quartz), and the lava dome contains the same assemblage, but with notable differences: amphiboles are entirely reacted, and quartz occurs in greater abundance. Plagioclase in the ignimbrites ranges in composition from An46-93, and those in the dome range from An46-85. Two Fe-Ti oxide geo-thermometry reveal pre-eruptive temperatures from 730-820°C for three different ignimbrite units, whereas the pre-eruptive temperature for the dome is slightly hotter (850±23°C). Values of fO2 (relative to NNO) derived from Fe-Ti oxide oxygen-barometry range from +0.3 to +1.32 ΔNNO for the ignimbrites, which overlap with those from the dome (+0.5 to +0.9 ΔNNO). Pre-eruptive temperatures, plagioclase compositions, whole rock and glass compositions are incorporated into a plagioclase-liquid hygrometer to determine pre-eruptive melt H2O contents for each sample. H2O contents for ignimbrites range from 7.1-9.3 wt%, and those from the lava dome range from 6.7-7.1 wt%. Application of a H2O solubility model shows that water contents for the Roseau magmas correspond to pressures of 3-5 kbar. The most notable difference between the explosive and effusive magmas is that the lava dome has a higher pre-eruptive temperature than the ignimbrites. However, the results collectively suggest that more recent volcanism in

  1. Cuba After Castro: Implications of Change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bullington, Johnny R

    2005-01-01

    .... In addition, the biological aging of Fidel Castro, as well as the downward spiral of the Cuban economy and well-being of Cuban citizens point to what may be a ripening chance for democracy in Cuba...

  2. Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2006-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, U.S. policy toward Cuba under Fidel Castro has consisted largely of isolating the communist nation through comprehensive economic sanctions, which have been significantly tightened by the Bush Administration...

  3. PULPA CUBA MILL ENERGY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pedro Hernández Touset

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An energy study was performed at Pulpa Cuba Paper Mill, located in Sancti Spiritus, where an energy management system was applied according to NC: ISO 50001, in order to assess the energy system by applying energy management systems for energy and water reduction in the paper mill, in which the current steam generation, distribution and consumption system is diagnosed. The proposal of a modified energy scheme with 1 MW Backpressure Steam Turbine Generator and rehabilitation of the original boiler or installing a lower capacity boiler contributes to save financial resources by the concept of water, fuel and electricity. The implementation of four projects will save 3,095,574 CUC / y and an average payback period of about 1 year is expected.

  4. The Curious Case of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    As health professionals in the United States consider how to focus health care and coverage to ensure better, more equitable patient and population health outcomes, the experience of Cuba’s National Health System over the last 5 decades may provide useful insights. Although mutual awareness has been limited by long-term political hostilities between the United States and Cuban governments, the history and details of the Cuban health system indicate that their health system merits attention as an example of a national integrated approach resulting in improved health status. More extensive analysis of the principles, practices, and outcomes in Cuba is warranted to inform health system transformation in the United States, despite differences in political-social systems and available resources. PMID:22698011

  5. A recent increase in the abundance of the echinoid Diadema antillarum in Dominica (Lesser Antilles: 2001-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. C Steiner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Diadema antillarum populations at many Caribbean locations have failed to recover from the pathogen-induced mortality events of the 1980s. It has become clear that the massive decline of this herbivorous urchin and the wide-spread absence of a population recovery lead to numerous long-term ecological consequences and reef degradation. While few quantitative studies on pre-mortality exist, great effort has been put forth to monitor remaining populations and their recovery. However, the patchy distribution of D. antillarum coupled with paucity of long-term studies based on the same methods applied at the same locations undermines the value of local as well as regional comparisons. In Dominica, ongoing quantitative assessments of D. antillarum began in 2001. Surveys of D. antillarum abundance are being carried out in 4-month intervals at six 100 m² sites; spread over 38 km along the west coast. The density of D. antillarum has differed significantly between sites, ranging from 0.81(SD= 0.04 to 3.13 m-2 (SD= 2.10, and increased by 61.11% during the first five years of this study. Seasonal fluctuations, possibly related to spawning aggregations, are also evident. The current abundance of D. antillarum on Dominican reefs contrasts that of Caribbean locations with recorded incidents of mass mortality events, and in some cases resembles pre-mortality densities from the early 1970s. Prior to this study, no systematic quantitative assessments of D. antillarum were carried out in Dominica. It is thus unclear in what way Dominica’s D. antillarum were affected by the mass mortality events observed elsewhere in the 1980s. The increase in D. antillarum density so far observed may thus be the recovery from a pathogen-induced disturbance or from Hurricane Lenny in November 1999. Locally, D. antillarum is important grazer on Dominican’s reefs, where over-fishing has drastically reduced the number of herbivorous fishes. On a regional scale, the island’s D

  6. Cuba: Issues for the 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    Comisión Cubana de Derechos Humanos y Reconciliacion Nacional, “Cuba a Inicios del 2010: Continúa empeorando la situación de derechos humanos,” January 19...market-based economy. The report also outlined a series of preparatory steps in the areas of government organization, electoral preparation, and...Policy During the electoral campaign, President Obama had pledged to lift restrictions on family travel to Cuba as well as restrictions on Cuban

  7. Insights on the Origin of Volatiles from the Geochemical Investigation of Hydrothermal Gas Discharges from Dominica, Lesser Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskop, J.; Joseph, E. P.; Inguaggiato, S.; Varekamp, J. C.; Ku, T.

    2017-12-01

    The major goals of volcano hydrothermal monitoring are to obtain information on temperature, origin, and changes in chemical composition of volcanic fluids. This data contributes to the baseline geochemical monitoring of volcanic activity and informs on potential volcanic hazards to which the public may be exposed. The origins of hydrothermal fluids are diverse and can be magmatic, crustal and atmospheric. Studies of isotopes, inert gases, and thermodynamic calculations help elucidate the origin in each case and determine provenance of volatiles and a re-evaluation of reservoir temperatures. Sulphur isotope ratio (δ34S) for H2S leached from rock is 0 ‰. Low δ15N (-7.3 ‰) is indicative of low sediment addition to source magmas, while high δ15N (+2.1 ‰) indicates greater sediment contribution in magma formation. Baseline monitoring of hydrothermal gases of Dominica for the period 2000 - 2006 show compositions typical of those found in arc-type settings, with N2 excess and low amounts of He and Ar. The dry gas is dominated by CO2 (ranging from 492 to 993 mmol/mol), and has a hydrothermal signature with hydrogen sulphide as the main sulphurous gas. Over the past decade, Dominica has experienced volcanic and tectonic seismicity and a sudden draining episode at the Boiling Lake in November 2016. This study evaluates data obtained in 2017 on gas composition from five (5) hydrothermal areas across the island (Valley of Desolation, Sulphur Spring, Watten Waven, Galion and Penville cold Soufriere) to determine temporal and spatial deviations from baseline geochemical conditions. This study also presents new data, obtained in 2017, on sulphur and nitrogen isotopes to evaluate contributions from various source components. Preliminary results show high CH4/CO2 ratios for gases from Sulphur Springs and Galion, indicative of a significant hydrothermal contribution to these fluids. However, high helium isotope compositions of 7.02 R/Ra signify a clear magmatic origin

  8. Pediatric Gastroenterology in Cuba: Evolution and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Guillot, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    INTRODUCTION The professional practice of pediatric gastroenterology arose in Cuba as an expression of the specialty's development internationally and Cuba's new strategies in public health, and in response to national needs for health care expertise in digestive diseases of infants, older children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES Describe the history of pediatric gastroenterology's development in Cuba since its inception at the National Gastroenterology Institute in the early 1970s, its contributions, and efforts to extend it to pediatric hospitals throughout Cuba. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION This is a historical review based on document analysis. Institutional sources from the National Gastroenterology Institute and Ministry of Public Health were reviewed, as well as international and national literature on the history of pediatric gastroenterology and unpublished texts since its emergence in 1972. DEVELOPMENT Although pediatric gastroenterology has not been formally recognized as a medical specialty in Cuba, there have been important achievements in establishing a network of specialized health care services for digestive diseases of children and adolescents. Gastrointestinal endoscopy and other auxiliary diagnostic modalities have been introduced for children and play a major role in clinical trials and research. This article describes the international context that promoted the specialty's development in Cuba. Reference is made to specialized training from its initial stages in 1972, its consolidation as an emerging discipline in Cuban medicine, and its diffusion in Latin American and Caribbean countries. Professional development and specialized training to meet health human resource needs in pediatric hospitals are described, as well as Cuban participation in the Latin American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. National and international milestones, publications, awards and recognitions that indicate advances despite difficulties are also

  9. An investigation of the stable isotopes, geochemistry and morphology of major streams in Dominica, Lesser Antilles: 2014 - 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopas, D. C.; Joseph, E. P.; Frey, H. M.

    2017-12-01

    The island of Dominica is a recently active (pH and temperature, were recorded and water samples taken and analyzed for alkalinity, major elements (cations and anions), trace elements and stable isotopes (carbon, deuterium, and oxygen). Variations in water chemistry and river morphology were compared to various parameters, including precipitation, landslide locations, and lithology for each of the catchments. Within the study period, on August 27th, 2015, a significant tropical storm, Erika, made landfall in Dominica, depositing more than 500 mm of rainfall in 10 hours. There was little infiltration of the rainwater (over 50-60% run-off), which resulted in significant landslides, flash floods and damage to infrastructure and loss of life. Despite the obvious morphologic changes to the streams and high discharge during the storm event, preliminary analysis has shown little change in major stream geochemistry following the passage of Tropical Storm Erika. The 10-month time gap between the storm and the post-storm field sampling in June 2016 may be a factor of why geochemical changes were not observed. One of the most significant variations of stream composition during the study period was annual shifts in δD between -1.3 to -5.8 ‰ and δ18O between -1.98 to -2.61 ‰. A possible factor influencing the δ18O of surface waters is seasonal variation in rainfall. The dominant control on precipitation δ18O values is the amount effect, whereby rainfall amount and δ18O are inversely correlated. This relationship is a proxy for changes in δ18O values of surface waters. The data also suggest that hydrothermal fluids are not a prominent contributor to Dominican rivers, despite the presence of active volcanism and numerous hydrothermal systems on the island. The exceptions are the White River, which drains the Valley of Desolation and Boiling Lake and the Lamothe River, which drains the Cold Soufrierre.

  10. National Program of Quality Assurance in Radiotherapy in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Samper, J. L.; Dominguez Hung, L.; Morales Lopez, J. L.; Alfonso Laguardia, R.; Garcia Yip, F.

    2001-01-01

    It tries on the establishment of a Quality Assurance Nacional System, a Quality Assurance Committee implemented in Cuba, and a Quality Auditory National Program implemented in Cuba to control and assure radiotherapy quality

  11. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an interest set forth in § 515.201(b)(1) includes a prohibition on the receipt of goods or services in Cuba...

  12. Waterfowl in Cuba: Current status and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Rodríquez, Pedro; Vilella, Francisco; Sánchez Oria, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    Cuba and its satellite islands represent the largest landmass in the Caribbean archipelago and a major repository of the region’s biodiversity. Approximately 13.4% of the Cuban territory is covered by wetlands, encompassing approximately 1.48 million ha which includes mangroves, flooded savannas, peatlands, freshwater swamp forests and various types of managed wetlands. Here, we synthesise information on the distribution and abundance of waterfowl on the main island of Cuba, excluding the numerous surrounding cays and the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth), and report on band recoveries from wintering waterfowl harvested in Cuba by species and location. Twenty-nine species of waterfowl occur in Cuba, 24 of which are North American migrants. Of the five resident Anatid species, three are of conservation concern: the West Indian Whistling-duck Dendrocygna arborea (globally vulnerable), White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis (regional concern) and Masked Duck Nomonyx dominicus(regional concern). The most abundant species of waterfowl wintering in Cuba include Blue-winged Teal A. discors, Northern Pintail A. acuta, and Northern Shoveler A. clypeata. Waterfowl banded in Canada and the United States and recovered in Cuba included predominantly Blue-winged Teal, American Wigeon and Northern Pintail. Banding sites of recovered birds suggest that most of the waterfowl moving through and wintering in Cuba are from the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways. Threats to wetlands and waterfowl in Cuba include: 1) egg poaching of resident species, 2) illegal hunting of migratory and protected resident species, 3) mangrove deforestation, 4) reservoirs for irrigation, 5) periods of pronounced droughts, and 6) hurricanes. Wetland and waterfowl conservation efforts continue across Cuba’s extensive system of protected areas. Expanding collaborations with international conservation organisations, researchers and governments in North America will enhance protection

  13. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.

    2004-01-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  14. Joint Ventures in Cuba: Opportunities for Direct Foreign Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancer, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a brief history of direct foreign investment in Cuba since 1982. This investment currently plays an important role in Cuba as a replacement to Soviet aid and as a means to earn foreign exchange. Tourism and mining are the preferred area for foreign investment because both of these sectors offer hard currency returns for Cuba. (20…

  15. 31 CFR 515.570 - Remittances to Nationals of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remittances to Nationals of Cuba. 515..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.570 Remittances to Nationals of Cuba. (a) Family... older are authorized to make remittances to nationals of Cuba who are close relatives, as defined in...

  16. 31 CFR 515.566 - Religious activities in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Religious activities in Cuba. 515.566..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.566 Religious activities in Cuba. (a) Specific license... involving transactions (including travel-related transactions) in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...

  17. 14 CFR 91.709 - Operations to Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations to Cuba. 91.709 Section 91.709... Board Such Aircraft § 91.709 Operations to Cuba. No person may operate a civil aircraft from the United States to Cuba unless— (a) Departure is from an international airport of entry designated in § 6.13 of...

  18. Science and Technology Diplomacy with Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Frances

    President Obama's announcement of U. S. policy change toward Cuba and increased freedom of interaction with the Cuban people opens unprecedented and long-awaited opportunities for the scientific and engineering communities in the U. S. and in Cuba to establish and expand collaborative efforts that will greatly advance U.S. and Cuba science and technology agendas. New rules for export of donated-only items for scientific use will bring researchers closer to the level of their professional peers around the world. Increasing Cubans' access to information will result in greater interactions between scientific communities and enable the sharing of ideas and discoveries that can fuel entrepreneurship on the island. The scientific community has expressed an extraordinary level of interest in the wide range of scientific opportunities that the new policy presents, in collaborating with their Cuban counterparts, and in supporting the development of scientific capacity in Cuba. In response to numerous expressions of interest and inquiries from the scientific community, the Office of the Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary of State (STAS) has engaged in public outreach to inform the U.S. science and technology community of the implications of the new policy for collaborative research, emerging scientific opportunities, and the standing limitations for engagement with the people of Cuba.

  19. HBV genotypic variability in Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L Loureiro

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%, mainly A2 (149, 60% but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%, with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7. Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions.

  20. Astronomy TV outreach, CUBA experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Oscar

    2015-08-01

    As professional astronomer and science communicator, I want to share my personal experience communicating Astronomy and general science principles in maybe, the most popular science outreach devoted TV program in Cuba. It is broadcasted nationwide in a prime time schedule every Sunday. The Science Popularization on TV, is in a Third World Country hard to do if you want to produce attractive materials for a broad audience. Budgets constraints in most of the cases and lack of the technical equipment required to produce first class visual materials conspire, against motivation and creativity of local scientists and media professionals. A way to show the advance of the national scientific community in Science fields and connecting them in a friendly relation with a broad majority of the people, is to combine the wisdom and knowledge of the local scientists together with the most spectacular TV production of the first world countries. Commenting, analyzing and conveying the hard science into the public debate of the common citizens. Here is shown a way to convey cutting edge science to the general public, using limited resources to produce imaginative television productions, highlighting the development, knowledge and wisdom of the local scientists.

  1. HBV Genotypic Variability in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Carmen L.; Aguilar, Julio C.; Aguiar, Jorge; Muzio, Verena; Pentón, Eduardo; Garcia, Daymir; Guillen, Gerardo; Pujol, Flor H.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%), mainly A2 (149, 60%) but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%), with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7). Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions. PMID:25742179

  2. El largo compromiso de Canadá con Cuba: paradojas y posibilidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas LEGLER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la Unión Europea como América Latina, e incluso Estados Unidos, han iniciado distintos procesos de diálogo con Cuba. ¿Cuáles lecciones relevantes se pueden extraer de la larga historia canadiense de compromiso con la Revolución Cubana? Este artículo documenta la evolución de las relaciones entre Canadá y Cuba desde la década de 1940, centrándose en sus altibajos desde que se lanzó, a mediados de la década de 1990, una política de «compromiso constructivo ». Se argumenta que este acercamiento (en sus diversas formas no ha tenido mayor influencia en la liberalización de la política cubana. Además, la poca influencia que Canadá pudo haber tenido durante el «Periodo Especial» ha disminuido con la recuperación económica y diversificación de las relaciones exteriores de Cuba en la última década. En ese sentido, los autores concluyen que la estrategia más apropiada para Canadá y otros «actores» es llevar a cabo un acercamiento coordinado y de largo plazo que brinde apoyo a una variedad de procesos endógenos de cambio en Cuba. Una estrategia realista debería incluir diálogo de bajo perfil con el régimen actual, cooperación con un amplio espectro de posibles reformadores dentro y fuera del Estado y apoyo para la realización de cambios sociales más extensos a través del comercio, la inversión extranjera, el turismo así como los intercambios académicos y culturales

  3. Soil and Terrain Database for Cuba, primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Cuba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Huting, J.R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Cuba primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Cuba), was compiled of enhanced soil informtion within the framework of the FAO's program Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). Primary soil and terrain data for Cuba were obtained from the

  4. Fascioliasis: can Cuba conquer this emerging parasitosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Lázara; Vazquez, Antonio; Domenech, Ingrid; Robertson, Lucy J

    2010-01-01

    Fascioliasis, an emerging parasitic infection, impacts significantly on both veterinary and human health worldwide. Endemic foci are not limited only to areas of extensive livestock farming, but owing to the parasite's abilities to colonise new intermediate hosts and adapt to new environments, also occur in other places, including Cuba. In Cuba, despite a high prevalence of fascioliasis in livestock, and the widespread occurrence of two potential intermediate hosts, human infection has decreased steadily over the past 10 years. In other parts of the world, human fascioliasis is apparently becoming more frequent. Problems in counteracting the spread of fascioliasis, and approaches used in Cuba to limit zoonotic transmission are discussed, with emphasis on diagnostic and treatment problems, malacological initiatives, and the importance of an integrated control programme. Such programmes may be of benefit in other countries where the prevalence of human fascioliasis is increasing, and lessons may perhaps be learned from the Cuban approach. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cuba's 100-year plan for climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Richard

    2018-01-01

    On its deadly run through the Caribbean last September, Hurricane Irma lashed northern Cuba, inundating coastal settlements and scouring away vegetation. Irma lent new urgency to a Cuban national plan, called Tarea Vida, or Project Life, that bans construction of new homes in threatened coastal areas, mandates relocating people from communities doomed by rising sea levels, calls for an overhaul of the country's agricultural system to shift crop production away from saltwater-contaminated areas, and spells out the need to shore up coastal defenses, including by restoring degraded habitat. Project Life stands out for taking a long view: It intends to prepare Cuba for climatological impacts over the next century. Much of the initial funding could come from a $100 million proposal that Cuba plans to submit soon to the Global Climate Fund.

  6. International petroleum agreements : Republic of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Foreign investment in the oil and gas sector has had a profound impact on the development of crude oil production in Cuba. In 1982, in order to encourage economic development, the Cuban government adopted a form of Production Sharing Contract (PSC) for international petroleum agreements. In 1990, the first PSC was negotiated with a consortium of European companies. This was followed in 1992 through 1994 with companies from Canada, Europe and Latin America. Then in 1995, a more comprehensive foreign investment law was enacted to further encourage foreign investment in Cuba. Onshore and shallow water regions of Cuba were divided into 45 blocks, 19 of which were under licence in 2001. In addition, in 1999 the government of Cuba offered 53 blocks in the deep water zones of the Cuban sector of the Gulf of Mexico to foreign investment, of which 6 are already under licence. Most exploration for oil and gas since 1991 has been carried out by foreign companies. Crude oil production in 1991 totalled 11,000 bopd of heavy oil production from the north coast of Cuba. By 2001, domestic crude oil production increased to more than 50,000 bopd, mostly due to foreign investment in exploration and development. This paper described the model form for Cuban Production Sharing Contracts with reference to parties, rights granted, terms, relinquishments, minimum exploration commitments, discovery of hydrocarbons and recovery of petroleum operation expenses. The paper also discussed gross production, cost recovery for contractors, and sharing of profits with contractors and the state oil company, CubaPetroleo. 1 fig

  7. CASE STUDY: Cuba — Housing and human capital in Cuba | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-10

    Jan 10, 2011 ... Less than half the population had access to safe drinking water. ... talking about Cuba's recent efforts to restore its collapsing urban environment. ... by a team of international researchers, working directly with neighbourhood ...

  8. Cuba in Transition: Communism vs Charisma "Who Will Emerge as Cuba's Next Leader"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colmenares, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    .... The beliefs of communism has shaped the hearts and minds of thousands of cubans. This paper provides a future perspective on Cuba's transition as well as identifies potential actors who will emerge as potential leaders once Fidel Castro is gone...

  9. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Cuba : Le logement et le capital humain à Cuba ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 janv. 2011 ... ÉTUDE DE CAS — Cuba : Le logement et le capital humain à Cuba ... Centre de recherches pour le développement international (CRDI) du Canada révèle ... Les ressources déjà limitées sont devenues encore plus rares. ... de l'Institut national pour l'hygiène, l'épidémiologie et la microbiologie (INHEM), ...

  10. Investigation of Mineral Alteration in Andesite and Dacite from Three Different Volcano Hydrothermal Systems on Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. I. V.; Frey, H. M.; Joseph, E. P.; Manon, M. R. F.

    2017-12-01

    The thermal discharges of Dominica are classified as steam-heated acidic-sulphate waters, produced by the mixing of shallow ground waters heated by sulphur bearing gases coming from magmatic sources. This study investigates the mineral alteration associated with three hydrothermal areas in Dominica that exhibit different temperature, pH, water composition and surface water abundance. Hydrothermal features (fumaroles, pools, springs) from Sulphur Springs ranged in temperature from 41 - 97 °C and pH from 1-3 in a predominantly gaseous environment, whereas the Valley of Desolation (69-98 °C and pH 1- 4) and the Cold Soufriere (18-32 °C and pH 1-4) have significant inputs of surface water. At each location, the host andesite-dacite rock was enveloped by a thin rind (up 2 cm) of precipitates, but the degree of alteration and rind thickness/composition varied with location. Cobbles from Sulphur Springs (SS) are grayish white in color with a thin outer rind (3-13 mm), and seemingly unaltered cores. Valley of Desolation (VoD) samples have a variety of patterns of alteration, with some clasts a uniform white-orange color, whereas others have variable thicknesses of an altered rind (1-20 mm), with relatively unaltered cores. Multiple hydrothermal minerals precipitated in the outer rinds display distinctive colors, suggestive of sulphides (dark gray), sulphates (orange and yellow), and iron oxides(?) (pink and purple). Cold Soufriere (CS) samples appear to be the most altered, often crumbling at touch. Others had rinds (2-10 mm) and pinkish gray cores that suggest more alteration compared to VoD and SS samples. Preliminary mineral identification of rind compositions was determined by XRD. Scans indicate the presence of silica polymorphs cristobalite and tridymite, as well as pyrite and sulphur. Elemental maps created using a SEM to identify any gradation caused by the elemental leaching and/or precipitation show that the boundaries between the weathering rind and the host

  11. Protecting the Marine Environment in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorisek, Alexandra Sasa

    2013-01-01

    The Cienfuegos Environmental Studies Centre (CEAC) in Cuba is a marine environmental research centre with expertise in nuclear and isotopic technologies. Cuba’s food security, transportation and tourism depend upon a healthy marine environment. CEAC scientists master resource challenges to produce the validated data needed for better environmental management

  12. Forest nursery pest management in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene Alberto Lopez Castilla; Angela Duarte Casanova; Celia Guerra Rivero; Haylett Cruz Escoto; Natividad Triguero Issasi

    2002-01-01

    A systematic survey of methods to detect pests in forest nurseries before they damage plants was done. These surveys recorded the most important forest nursery pests during 18 years (from 1980 to 1998) and their geographical and temporal distribution in the principal enterprises in Cuba. Approximately a dozen insect species and three fungi species responsible for the...

  13. Cuba: Issues for 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-14

    Humanos y Reconciliacion Nacional, “Cuba en el año 2009: la situacíon de derechos civiles, políticos y económicos,” February 2, 2009. 13 Anita Snow...park. On April 21, 2008, ten members of the Ladies in White were 12 Comision Cubana de Derechos

  14. The history of physics in Cuba

    CERN Document Server

    Renn, Jürgen; Wendt, Helge

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together a broad spectrum of authors, both from inside and from outside Cuba, who describe the development of Cuba's scientific system from the colonial period to the present. It is a unique documentation of the self-organizing power of a local scientific community engaged in scientific research on an international level. The first part includes several contributions that reconstruct the different stages of the history of physics in Cuba, from its beginnings in the late colonial era to the present. The second part comprises testimonies of Cuban physicists, who offer lively insights from the perspective of the actors themselves. The third part presents a series of testimonies by foreign physicists, some of whom were directly involved in developing Cuban physics, in particular in the development of teaching and research activities in the early years of the Escuela de Física. The fourth part of the volume deals with some of the issues surrounding the publishing of scientific research in Cuba. C...

  15. Historical Overview of Leprosy Control in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldarraín-Chaple, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Leprosy, an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, affects the nervous system, skin, internal organs, extremities and mucous membranes. Biological, social and environmental factors influence its occurrence and transmission. The first effective treatments appeared in 1930 with the development of dapsone, a sulfone. The main components of a control and elimination strategy are early case detection and timely administration of multidrug therapy. OBJECTIVES Review the history of leprosy control in Cuba, emphasizing particularly results of the National Leprosy Control Program, its modifications and influence on leprosy control. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION The historiological method was applied using document review, complemented by interviews with experts on leprosy and its control. Archived documents, medical records, disease prevalence censuses conducted since 1942, and incidence and prevalence statistics for 1960-2015 from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division were reviewed. Reports and scientific literature published on the Program and the history of leprosy in Cuba were also reviewed. DEVELOPMENT Leprosy has been documented in Cuba since 1613. In 1938, the Leprosy Foundation was created with ten dispensaries nationwide for diagnosis and treatment. The first National Leprosy Control Program was established in 1962, implemented in 1963 and revised five times. In 1972, leper colonies were closed and treatment became ambulatory. In 1977, rifampicin was introduced. In 1988, the Program instituted controlled, decentralized, community-based multidrug treatment and established the criteria for considering a patient cured. In 2003, it included actions aimed at early diagnosis and prophylactic treatment of contacts. Since 2008, it prioritizes actions directed toward the population at risk, maintaining five-year followup with dermatological and neurological examination. Primary health care carries out diagnostic and treatment

  16. Avaliação de inseticidas no controle de Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae e Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae em trigo armazenado Efficacy of insecticides to control Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae and Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae in stored wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui S. Furiatti

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of insecticides against Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus, 1763 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae and Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792 (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae was determined exposing them to treated wheat in laboratory. Each plot, which was composed by 1.2 kg of wheat grain, was treated with 5 ml of the concentration/kg of wheat using a propelling air atomizer. Fifteen days after treatment 50 g samples of the grain were taken, from each plot, placed in plastic jars into which 10 adult insects of each species were released. This was repeated every 30 days until 165 days after treatment. The number of dead insects was counted 15 days after each infestation thus the evaluations were made at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after the insecticide application. Esfenvalerate+fenitrothion+pyperonil butoxide (0,375+7,5+3,0 and 0,5+10,0+4,0 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+esfen-valerate (7,5+0,375 and 10,0+0,375 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+synergised deltamethrin (7,5+0,375 g a.i./t and fenitrothion (7,5 g a.i./t were effective against Sitophilus oryzae until 180 days after treatment. Esfenvalerate+fenitrothion+pyperonil butoxide (0,5+10,0+4,0 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+esfenvalerate (7,5+0,375 and 10,0+0,375 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+synergised deltamethrin (7,5+0,375 g a.i./t were effective against R. dominica until 180 days after treatment. Synergised deltamethrin (0,375 g a.i./t was effective against S. oryzae until 150 days and against R. dominica until 120 days after treatment. Esfenvalerate (0,5 g a.i./t was ineffective against S. oryzae and effective until 60 days after treatment against R. dominica. Fenitrothion (7,5 g a.i./t was ineffective against R. dominica. The use of mixtures of organophosphorus plus pyrethroids were more effective against S. oryzae and R. dominica when compared with these insecticides used alone.

  17. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum generation in the North Cuba Basin is primarily the result of thrust loading of Jurassic and Cretaceous source rocks during formation of the North Cuba fold and thrust belt in the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene. The fold and thrust belt formed as Cuban arc-forearc rocks along the leading edge of the Caribbean plate translated northward during the opening of the Yucatan Basin and collided with the passive margin of southern North America in the Paleogene. Petroleum fluids generated during thrust loading migrated vertically into complex structures in the fold and thrust belt, into structures in the foreland basin, and possibly into carbonate reservoirs along the margins of the Yucatan and Bahama carbonate platforms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) and three assessment units (AU)-North Cuba Fold and Thrust Belt AU, North Cuba Foreland Basin AU, and the North Cuba Platform Margin Carbonate AU-within this TPS based mainly on structure and reservoir type (fig. 1). There is considerable geologic uncertainty as to the extent of petroleum migration that might have occurred within this TPS to form potential petroleum accumulations. Taking this geologic uncertainty into account, especially in the offshore area, the mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the composite TPS of the North Cuba Basin are estimated at (1) 4.6 billion barrels of oil (BBO), with means ranging from an F95 probability of 1 BBO to an F5 probability of 9 BBO; and (2) 8.6 trillion cubic feet of of gas (TCFG), of which 8.6 TCFG is associated with oil fields, and about 1.2 TCFG is in nonassociated gas fields in the North Cuba Foreland Basin AU.

  18. An educator's perspective on the emerging Cuba and multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Carla D

    2006-01-01

    Plagued by many years of frequent leadership changes, and influences from power brokers whose policies and politics were oftentimes detrimental to Cuba's emerging as an industrialized and diverse economy nation, Cuba is now attempting to move beyond the survival mode. After the symbiotic relationship between the Soviet Union was dismantled in the 90s, Cuba is now undergoing metamorphoses of growth and change, socially, politically and culturally, while still remaining a mixture of worlds both rural and urban. This narrative article describes the multicultural experiences that an American university professor recently experienced while visiting Cuba.

  19. Four decades of kidney transplantation in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Jorge P

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the background, beginnings, development, evolution and outcomes of kidney transplantation in Cuba. Nephrology as a medical specialty in Cuba began in 1962 and was formalized in 1966. Conditions were created to implement renal replacement therapy (including transplants), bring nephrology care to the entire country and train human resources who would assume this responsibility, making Cuba one of the first countries with a comprehensive program for renal patient care. After three unsuccessful cadaveric-donor kidney transplantations in 1968-69, the ensuing history of kidney transplantation can be summarized in the following three stages. 1970-1975: In January 1970, cadaveric-donor kidney transplantation began at the Nephrology Institute. That year, 17 kidney transplantations were performed; four of these patients lived with functional kidneys for 15-25 years; 10-year graft survival was 23.5% (Kaplan-Meier survival curve); HLA typing began in 1974. By December 1975, 170 grafts had been done in three hospitals. 1976-1985: Seven transplantation centers performed 893 grafts during this period. HLA-DR typing was introduced in 1976 and the National Histocompatibility Laboratory Network was founded in 1978. The first related living-donor kidney transplantation was done in 1979. 1986-2011: The National Kidney Transplantation Coordinating Center and the National Kidney Transplantation Program were created in 1986; the first combined kidney-pancreas transplantation was performed the same year. In 1990, cyclosporine and the Cuban monoclonal antibody IOR-T3 were introduced for immunosuppression to prevent rejection, as were other Cuban products (hepatitis B vaccine and recombinant human erythropoietin) for transplant patients. By December 2011, the cumulative number of transplants was 4636 (384 from related living donors). With over 40 years of experience, kidney transplantation is now well established in Cuba; it is free and universally accessible, on the

  20. Agreement of 3 May 1996 between the government of the commonwealth of Dominica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereof) between the Government of the Commonwealth of Dominica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 12 September 1994 and signed in Vienna on 10 July 1995 and in Roseau, Dominica on 3 May 1996. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 3 May 1996. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article II

  1. Agreement of 3 May 1996 between the government of the commonwealth of Dominica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The text of the Agreement (and the Protocol thereof) between the Government of the Commonwealth of Dominica and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency`s Board of Governors on 12 September 1994 and signed in Vienna on 10 July 1995 and in Roseau, Dominica on 3 May 1996. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 3 May 1996. The Protocol entered into force on the same day, pursuant to Article II.

  2. Nuclear cardiology in Cuba present and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peix González, Amalia

    2016-01-01

    Heart Diseases represent the first cause of death worldwide (WHO, 2011); 80% of these deaths in developing countries (WHO, 2011); Coronary Heart Disease is responsible of 69% of all cardiovascular deaths. In Cuba, National programs have been developed to control the most important associated coronary risk factors; Research projects have been also carried out as part of the Ministry of Public Health’s program on non-transmissible chronic diseases; Strengthening of Nuclear Cardiology in Cuba, as well as its adequate integration in a diagnosis algorithm, focusing on improving the quality of medical care, in accordance with the principles of evidence-based medicine. Recommendations: Extend Nuclear Cardiology throughout the country; Conduct cost-effectiveness studies comparing different imaging techniques in cardiology; Develop coronary flow and metabolic studies with PET; Introducing studying adrenergic innervation; Develop hybrid imaging in cardiology; Set up committees of experts to analyze the value of different imaging techniques in cardiology in accordance with the possibilities and resources of Cuba, aimed at the implementation of a medicine individualized for patients. (author)

  3. Drinking water in Cuba and seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses-Ruiz, E.; Turtos-Carbonell, L.M.; Oviedo-Rivero, I.

    2004-01-01

    The lack of drinking water has become a problem at world level because, in many places, supplies are very limited and, in other places, their reserves have been drained. At the present time there are estimated to be around two thousand million people that don't have drinking water for several reasons, such as drought, contamination and the presence of saline waters not suitable for human consumption. Because of the human need for water, they have always taken residence in areas where the supply was guaranteed, sometimes impeding the exploitation of other areas that can be economically very interesting. However, this resource is usually very close and in abundance in the form of seawater but its salinity makes it unusable for many basic requirements. Humanity has been forced, therefore, to take into consideration the possibilities of the economic treatment of seawater. Cuba has regions where the supplies of drinking water are scarce and others where the lack of this resource limits economic exploitation. The present work is approached with regard to the situation of hydro resources in Cuba, it includes: a description of the main hydrographic basins of the country; the contamination levels of the waters and the measures for mitigation; analysis of the supplies and demand for drinking water and its quality; regulatory aspects. The state of seawater desalination in Cuba is also included and the possibility of its realisation using nuclear energy and the advantages that this would bring is evaluated. (author)

  4. Invasive Meningococcal Disease. Cuba, 1983- 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio E. Pérez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD is a worldwide health problem. In Cuba, vaccination against meningococcal B-C has been carried out since 1989. The study aimed at describing the epidemiology of IMD in Cuba from 1983 to 2006 and at contributing to the immunization strategy. A descriptive and analytical study was carried out. Epidemiological data was obtained from the National Surveillance System at the Institute "Pedro Kourí". More than 1 000 cases were reported in 1986 and the overall incidence was above 10/100 000 inhabitants. Since 1989 a remarkable and continuous decline in the incidence was observed. In the last nine years a strong association of IMD to boarding school students (OR=9.4; confidence interval 95%: 5.1-17.4, recluses (OR=5.9; CI 95%: 1.5 -24.3 and day students (OR=3.9; CI 95%: 2.8-5.6 was observed. Housewife (OR=4.9; CI 95%: 1.9-12.4 and pensioned (OR=4.5; CI 95%: 1.2-16.8 showed association with mortality. Previous vaccination was a protective factor against morbidity (OR=0.6; CI 95%: 0.4-1.0 and mortality (OR=0.4; CI 95%: 0.2-0.9 by IMD. Neisseria meningitidis B4:P1.15 was the main circulating strain. Incidence of IMD declined markedly in Cuba by using group BC strain-specific meningococcal vaccine.

  5. Toxocariasis in Cuba: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariego, Idalia; Kanobana, Kirezi; Rojas, Lázara; Speybroeck, Niko; Polman, Katja; Núñez, Fidel A.

    2012-01-01

    Human toxocariasis (HT) is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies. PMID:22389726

  6. El Poder Judicial Electrónico en Iberoamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Busquets

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, presentamos el índice del Poder Judicial Electrónico para 8 países de Iberoamérica, a saber: Argentina, Brasil, Costa Rica, Cuba, Chile, España, Portugal y Uruguay. El índice del Poder Judicial Electrónico tiene como objetivo medir el grado de incorporación de las tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TICs en los Poderes Judiciales. El mismo es el resultado de un relevamiento realizado entre abril y agosto de 2013 a informantes calificados, muchos de ellos integrantes de Universidades que pertenecen a la Red LEFIS (Legal Framework for the Information Society. Entre los resultados significativos de esta investigación encontramos: 1 Mientras que las dimensiones de información y gestión del índice son los más desarrollados, las dimensiones de relación y decisión del mismo índice están mucho menos desarrolladas en el conjunto de los 8 países de Iberoamérica estudiados. 2 Con más de un 50% del índice de Poder Judicial Electrónico desarrollado se encuentran Brasil, España, Costa Rica, Portugal, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay y Cuba

  7. ACTIVIDAD INSECTICIDA DE ACEITES ESENCIALES DE DOS ESPECIES DE Eucalyptus SOBRE Rhyzopertha dominica Y SU EFECTO EN ENZIMAS DIGESTIVAS DE PROGENIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Reyes-Guzmán

    2012-01-01

    proteolítica de las progenies; sin embargo, solamente E. globulus ocasionó la muerte de éstas (P < 0.05. Al incrementar el volumen de aceite de E. camadulensis, la actividad proteolítica del insecto aumentó, incluso al mayor tiempo de exposición. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que la fracción volátil de los aceites esenciales de eucalipto, especialmente la de E. globulus, es un agente insecticida efectivo para el control de R. dominica en trigo almacenado.

  8. MEMÓRIAS PÓSTUMAS DE BRÁS CUBAS: TRILHAS DE LEITURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbena Maria Rocha Cordeiro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a recepção de Memórias póstumas de Brás Cubas, de Machado de Assis, perfazendo os vários significados históricos e estéticos que as muitas gerações de leitores lhe atribuem. Como orientação para essa travessia, recorremos à Estética da Recepção, de Jauss e Iser, destacando o lugar do leitor histórico e os efeitos estéticos de uma obra literária sobre o leitor real. Embora a fortuna crítica de Memórias póstumas de Brás Cubas aponte leitores circunscritos em horizontes de expectativas diferentes, o diálogo que se estabeleceu entre vozes tão variantes reafirma o quanto o lugar e o tempo de cada leitura movem os múltiplos sentidos que essa obra suscita. Nossa intenção foi compreender que a vinculação de uma obra literária à moldura histórica de sua produção e recepção explicita o que esse romance, a partir de seu sentido original, pôde significar através dos tempos ou o que significa hoje para nós, leitores do século XXI.

  9. Surgimiento y desarrollo de cosechadoras de cereales. Caso de estudio Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalberto Macías Socarrás

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se hace una reseña histórica acerca del surgimiento y desarrollo de las cosechadoras de cereales en el mundo, su introducción en Cuba, así como el papel que se ha jugado en el desarrollo de estas máquinas, en este artículo se tratan los equipos empleados para la recolección de cultivos aprovechados por sus granos, fundamentalmente los cereales (trigo, cebada, avena, centeno, maíz, sorgo, arroz, Adicionalmente, se explicarán aspectos de las cosechadoras: la evolución histórica de la recolección de cereales y, finalmente, los elementos básicos que forman parte de estas máquinas, modo de funcionamiento, regulación y pérdidas. Además, de exponer los elementos y componentes más habituales de las cosechadoras, se incluye especialmente las novedades y avances técnicos que se empiezan a implantar en las cosechadoras, como pueden ser los sistemas de trilla forzada, la separación rotativa, los sensores electrónicos de rendimiento.   Abstract In this paper, a historical review is made of the emergence and development of cereal harvesters in the world, their introduction in Cuba, as well as the role played in the development of these machines, this article deals with the equipment (Cereals, wheat, barley, oats, rye, maize, sorghum, rice, aspects of harvesters will also be explained: the historical evolution of cereal harvesting and, finally, The basic elements that are part of these machines, mode of operation, regulation and losses. In addition, to exposing the most common elements and components of combine harvesters, special mention is made of the novelties and technical advances that are beginning to be introduced in harvesters, such as forced threshing systems, rotary separation, and electronic performance sensors.

  10. Perspectivas para la lexicografía especializada en Cuba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    1995-01-01

    En diskussion af muligheder for at udvikle et fagleksikografisk arbejde på Cuba og i det øvrige Latinamerika......En diskussion af muligheder for at udvikle et fagleksikografisk arbejde på Cuba og i det øvrige Latinamerika...

  11. Irazu, Costa Rica Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Located 25 km from San Jose, Irazu is the highest volcano in Costa Rica and also has the country's earliest historic eruption (1772).

  12. El desarrollo de la psicología en Cuba en la obra del Dr. Alfonso Bernal del Riesgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Louro Bernal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los hitos relevantes en el desarrollo de la Psicología en Cuba se vinculan a la obra del psicólogo cubano Dr. Alfonso Bernal del Riesgo. Método. Construcción de una cronología basada en la investigación histórica, la revisión documental y las entrevistas. Resultados. Se establecieron tres períodos: 1 Bases teóricas de la Psicología General y la Cívica, donde aborda el concepto de cubanosofìa, la comprensión psicológica y socio cultural de la identidad cubana; 2 El desarrollo de la Psicología como asignatura en la Universidad de la Habana y como carrera universitaria independiente de la Filosofía, así como la fundación de la Sociedad Cubana de Psicología y la Revista Cubana de Psicología como su órgano científico; 3 La Psicología como ciencia vinculada a diferentes ámbitos de actuación profesional. El estudio de la obra de Bernal del Riesgo permite comprender procesos en el desarrollo histórico de la Psicología en Cuba.

  13. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Cuba : L'innovation agricole à Cuba | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 janv. 2011 ... La recherche de solutions de rechange viables. ... Ces observations résument bien une nouvelle approche et une nouvelle attitude à l'égard de la recherche agricole à Cuba, .... principal au CRDI, et Bob Stanley, rédacteur scientifique. ... voir le site de l'Institut international des ressources phytogénétiques ...

  14. El emprendimiento en Cuba: un análisis de la participación de la mujer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Díaz-Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El tema de emprendimiento no ha sido de los más estudiados en Cuba hasta que en el 2010 el gobierno promueve su ampliación, a partir del trabajo por cuenta propia. Sin embargo, los emprendimientos en su inmensa mayoría no se han enfocado con una mirada de género. El trabajo expone de forma breve ciertas consideraciones generales sobre el concepto de emprendimiento y las particularidades estudiadas por diversas autoras en América Latina. Posteriormente se realiza un análisis de la participación de las mujeres en el trabajo por cuenta propia en Cuba, actividades donde más se emplean, dificultades que se presentan con mayor frecuencia, etc. En el último epígrafe se mues - tran los resultados de la aplicación de la encuesta, adaptada para Cuba, de la Global Enterpreneurship Monitor (GEM a dueñas y dueños de negocio, así como un análisis de algunos casos de estudio, donde se muestran aspiraciones, resultados y frustraciones en el desempeño del trabajo por cuenta propia. La metodología utilizada ha sido la combinación de estudio teórico, análisis de estadísticas y los resultados de trabajo de campo. El aporte más significativo reside en mostrar, desde la voz de las propias mujeres emprendedoras, sus consideraciones al respecto, así como desmitificar y reafirmar particularidades de las mujeres en este tipo de trabajo en Cuba.

  15. Radurization of spices by irradiation in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Gil, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Prieto, E.; Pino, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the research results that prove the technical feasibility according to the hygiene conditions existing in Cuba for irradiating different spices. The results show both the possibility and and the benefit of using a one irradiation application to these products. One global average doses of 5 KGy was enough for decontaminating black pepper, paprika, cumin, must meg and oregano without affecting either their chemical components or the quality of their taste. Sausages manufactured with irradiated spices did not irradiating spices is much higher that of fumigation, et has many important social and economic advantages

  16. Implementation of QUANUM in Cuba. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Barreto, M.; Varela Corona, C.; Lopez Bejerano, G. M.; Lopez Diaz, A.; Torres Arocha, L.; Coca Perez, M. A.; Fernandez Herrera, A. O.

    2011-01-01

    Setting up quality management systems in nuclear medicine in Cuba has been an aim for medical physicists. In the last decade, we have walked with steady steps towards that direction, by setting up national standards and regulations, and carrying out research projects in order to ensure the improvement of quality assurance and management programs. In 2010 the IAEA's QUANUM document has been applied, as a methodology for quality management audits in nuclear medicine. Five audits have shown that most of class A regulatory items are guaranteed at nuclear medicine services. However, quality management system performing is still inappropriate. (Author) 13 refs.

  17. Nuclear law in Cuba. Utopia or reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Gonzalez, Ivonne

    2009-01-01

    The present article is a summary review of the legal basis for the use of nuclear energy in Cuba. Background, historical evolution and the current concept of the Cuban legislation are approached by illustrating the reader on a topic that is practically unknown, in spite of its daily presence in places such as hospitals, factories or airports. The awareness, perception and acceptance of nuclear energy applications consequently should have an impact on the ignorance of their legal edges, the issue we approached presenting a group of weighing elements, in pursue of the answer. Utopia or Reality

  18. Sector profile: Petroleum sector in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    The Cuban oil industry started in 1860 when an oil well was drilled in Matanzas province. About 200 wells were drilled up until 1959. In the past 30 years, the oil industry has become a priority sector; in 1985-1990, about US$500 million were invested in the industry, with increases in exploration and well drilling activity. Recently completed works include pipelines and a supertanker terminal. About 10 million tons of oil are imported annually and local production averages about 800,000 metric tons per year. Most of the oil found in Cuba so far is of the heavy type, as found in western Canada. There are about 10 small and medium-sized oil deposits, mainly located in the north. The most promising oil field is at Varadero, whose characteristics are similar to the Cold Lake field in Alberta. Cuban oil refining capacity is over 7.6 million metric tons per year, and additional capacity is being constructed. All imports of oil industry equipment are conducted via state trading agencies. Export opportunities of interest to Canadian companies are outlined, along with monetary constraints affecting imports to Cuba, financing and export insurance programs available to Canadian companies, and recommendations to Canadian exporters. A list of industry/government contacts is included

  19. Biodiversidad en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Wenker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentación (en español Con una naturaleza rica y diversificada, Costa Rica se presenta hoy en día como un país modelo a nivel mundial por lo que a preservación del medio ambiente y de la biodiversidad se refiere. Tatiana Wenker elaboró una documentación audiovisuel variada que aborda la problemática mundial de preservación del medio ambiente, poniendo de relieve las iniciativas costarricenses sobre el particular. Nos lleva a uno de los parques naturales más grandes de América Central y a l...

  20. Biothechnology conferences held in Cuba. Cuba no biotechnology gakkai ni sankashite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, M. (Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo, (Japan))

    1990-04-25

    Three biotechnology conferences including Cuba International Interferon Conference were held at Havana in April 1989, and the author participated in them. The number of participants was about 3,000. Most of them were from the Middle and the Central America, but there were also those from Europe, the USSR and the USA. The three conferences were composed of 16 symposiums and they covered a wide range of field such as medical science, agriculture and industry. High leveled reports were read in the conferences: on the application of interferons to medical treatments, curing effects of infections caused by herpes virus and B type hepatitis virus, anti-tumor effects, and anti-virus effects against AIDS virus; on the production of protein and vaccini by gene engineering, large quantity production of interleukin and epithelium cell multiplication genes. Especially impressing were the efforts the whole nation of Cuba makes to promote biotechnology and its modern facilities. 3 figs.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL TAX IN CUBA, CONTROL YOUR FUND IN SANTIAGO DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Vázquez-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By issuing the Law 73 of the Tax System in 1994, the taxation on the usage and exploitation of natural resources began to be applied to promote a rational usage of these resources on the protection of the environment. This article refers to the application of this tax in Cuba based on records of imprinted and digital bibliography containing considerations of environmental economists about the subject on a legal approach. It also offers the reader a general view of the application of this tax in the province of Santiago de Cuba as well as information for the specialists incharge of collecting its income which is used to encourage the protection of the environment. 

  2. Cuba in Transition: Communism vs Charisma Who Will Emerge as Cuba’s Next Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-04

    38 Olivo Verde, Defense of the Socialist Homeland, 6 March 1986. 26 MajGen Frias LtGen Espinosa MajGen Sola Cuban forces.39 The FAR is...comprised of three separate branches: the Army (Ejercito 150,000 troops strong), the Navy [Marina de Guerra Revolucionaria (MG) 5,000 troops strong] and...Cintro Frias , and is headquartered in Havana. The Eastern Army Corps, is led by General Ramon Espinosa Martin, and is headquartered in Santiago de Cuba

  3. Powering Cuba: A Possible Action Plan For Creating Cuba's Sustainable Energy Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Brandon; Hess, Matt; Sloane, Taylor; Harris, Zach

    2017-01-01

    While Cuba enjoys a high rate of electrification, 82% of its electricity today is generated from oil with an overall estimated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of $0.27 per kWh. Moreover, Cuba is experiencing increased electricity demand driven by a burgeoning tourism industry and an emerging small-medium size business sector. If the current power mix persists until 2040, power generation costs and carbon emissions would nearly double to US$9.8B and 24M MT CO2 per year respectively. This paper presents an overall strategy for Cuba to ensure its energy security and provide the Cuban people with clean, affordable and reliable access to electricity. With a total estimated cost of $14.1B, our proposal aims to reduce the overall cost of electricity generation to $0.14 per kWh by 2040. We recommend: Implementing a comprehensive renewable energy strategy that includes an energy mix of: (1) community-solar for small cooperative business (8.5%); (2) long-term investments for utility-scale solar IPPs (8.5%); (3) development of wind farms by IPPs (17.5%); and (4) maintaining supplementary biomass generation (6%); Installing complementary reliable sources of grid power from natural gas combined cycle plants (NGCC) via domestic production and LNG imports from a floating storage regasification unit (FSRU), accounting for 35% of Cuba’s energy; Attracting $700 million in infrastructure investment necessary to decrease transmission and distribution (T&D) losses; and Enacting reforms that increase regulatory certainty, investor protection, and the ease of doing business in Cuba for foreign investors. (author)

  4. El Programa de Medicina Transfusional de Cuba The Transfusion Medicine Program in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Ballester Santovenia

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Cuba's Transfusion Medicine Program (TMP is a subsystem of the country's National Health System. The TMP's objective is to ensure hemotherapy with blood that is safe and sufficient for all the individuals who need it. The TMP subsystem is made up of the National Commission on Transfusion Medicine, the Institute of Hematology and Immunology, 37 clinical services, 44 blood banks, 120 collection centers, 19 mobile units, and 37 blood certification laboratories. Additional facilities include a laboratory for plasma separation, a laboratory that produces leukocyte interferon and transfer factor, and two laboratories that produce reagents for blood classification and blood diagnosis systems. In Cuba, blood donation is voluntary. Since 1997 approximately 5% of the population per year has donated blood, thus meeting the goal recommended by the Pan American Health Organization of one voluntary blood donation annually for every 20 persons. During 2002, 563 204 blood donations were received, and there were 445 898 transfusions of blood or blood components. All donations are individually screened for HIV 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis, thus meeting the country's current regulations. In 2002 these screening measures led to discarding, respectively, 0.12%, 0.60%, 0.71%, and 1.8% of the blood donations. Although the prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus I and II in Cuba is very low, this test will soon be added to the screening process.

  5. Epidemic optic neuropathy in Cuba. Eye findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadun, A A; Martone, J F; Muci-Mendoza, R; Reyes, L; DuBois, L; Silva, J C; Roman, G; Caballero, B

    1994-05-01

    To characterize and establish a clinical definition of the optic neuropathy that appeared in epidemic form in Cuba in 1992 and 1993. At the invitation of the Cuban Ministry of Health, Havana, members of ORBIS International and the Pan American Health Organization, assembled teams that traveled to Cuba in May 1993. We were initially briefed by Cuban national experts in the areas of virology, nutrition, toxicology, ophthalmology, neurology, and public health. We then examined 20 patients on our own. Thirteen of these patients underwent a comprehensive neuro-ophthalmologic examination, including neurologic examination, ophthalmologic examination, visual fields, optic nerve function studies, contrast sensitivity studies, and funduscopy. We returned 4 months later to perform an additional 12 comprehensive neuro-ophthalmologic and follow-up examinations. Only seven of the 13 patients who were alleged to have the optic form of the epidemic and who were rigorously and systematically examined on the first visit demonstrated a bilateral optic neuropathy. These seven patients had several features that included decreased visual acuity, poor color vision, central scotomas, decreased contrast sensitivity, saccadic eye movements, and most prominent and distinctive of all, nerve fiber layer wedge defects of the papillomacular bundle. Our clinical definition was then implemented by the Cuban ophthalmologists and epidemiologists. On returning 4 months later, we found that all newly presented patients were correctly diagnosed to have the epidemic disease. With the new case definition and the application of a few simple psychophysical tests, the false-positive rate of diagnosis became much lower. After vitamin therapy, we reexamined the patients seen on our initial visit, and all showed marked improvement. The Cuban epidemic was characterized by an optic neuropathy with features that were similar to those of tobacco/alcohol amblyopia and Leber's optic atrophy. Recent political

  6. THE CUBA COMPANY AND EASTERN CUBA’S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, 1900-1959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Santamarina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This artide evaluates the Cuba Company’s impact on eastern Cuban economic development. It argues that the Cuba Company’s railroads, together with its development plans and strategies, helped stimulate the extraordinary economic growth of eastern Cuba between 1900 and 1959, especially in the production of sugar. Sugar was king in Cuba before 1900 but only inwestern Cuba; eastern Cuba produced only a minuscule fraction of total Cuban sugar production. Moreover, the Cuban Independence War of 1895-1898 had destroyed the industry. Due to the Cuba Company’s strategy, however, by the 1920s Cuba was once again the largest producer of sugar in the world and eastern Cuba represented over 50% of total Cuban sugarproduction.

  7. PERVIVENCIAS E INFLUENCIAS DE LA REVOLUCIÓN CUBANA EN LA CULTURA POLÍTICA DE LA AMÉRICA LATINA ACTUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan del Alcàzar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El régimen surgido de la victoria de los guerrilleros comandados por Fidel Castro en plena Guerra Fría todavía resiste como una fortaleza asediada. Además, contra lo previsible, sigue manteniendo una influencia política importante en América Latina. El precio que paga su población es muy alto, tanto en materia de derechos y libertades como en inseguridad alimentaria y calidad de vida. No es fácil expli-car esa paradoja: un régimen fracasado en el ámbito interno, sigue siendo reconocido y respetado en el externo. Cuba vive una coyuntura importante: el comienzo de negociaciones con los Estados Unidos para reanudar las relaciones interrumpidas hace medio siglo.Palabras clave: Cuba, América Latina, Revolu-ción cubana, salarios y precios, relaciones Cuba-EUA._________________________The emerged regime after the guerrilla’s victory led by Fidel Castro during the Cold War regime still resists as a besieged fortress. Moreover, against predictions, it retains significant political influence in Latin America. The price paid by its population is very high, both in terms of rights and freedoms as food insecurity and quality of life. It isn’t easy to explain this paradox: a failed regime in the domestic sphere is still recognized and respected externally. Cuba is an important juncture: the beginning of negotiations with the United States to restart interrupted relations half a century ago.Keywords: Cuba, Latin America, Cuban Revolu-tion, Wages and prices, Cuba-US relations.

  8. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2003-01-01

    .... In March 2003, the Administration eased restrictions on those visiting close family members in Cuba, while at the same time it eliminated travel for people-to-people educational exchanges unrelated...

  9. Visiting the Republic of Cuba: An Experience to Remember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    A few years ago, I was privileged to visit the Republic of Cuba as a summer vacation. Officially, this Spanish island is the largest island in the Caribbean, with more than 12 million people. It is only second as being most populous after Hispaniola with its people, culture and customs. Havana is the capital and Cuba's largest city. The United States lies to the immediate north only about 95 miles away, and the Bahamas and Mexico to the west, the Cayman Islands and Jamaica are on the southern end, and Haiti and the Dominion Republic are in the southeastern area. The history of this island is truly amazing. I was able to vist a hospital, and ride public transportation (bus). The trip was made at the time when Cuba was not open to travelers coming direct from the United States. I traveled to Montreal, Canada to board Cabana Arlines to Havana, Cuba.

  10. Gamma irradiation effects on the adult stage, mating competitiveness and sperm activity of the lesser grain borer beetle, Rhizopertha Dominica F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.Y.Y.; Salem, Y.S.; El-Kady, E.A.; Gharib, O.H.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of gamma radiation dosages between 4 and 22 Krad on the adult stage of the lesser grain borer beetle, Rhizopertha Dominica F. were studied. Adult females were more sensitive to the sterilizing effects of gamma radiation than were males. Males of R. Dominica irradiated (I) as full grown pupae with 20 Krad were sterile. Males treated similarly and confined with unirradiated (U) males and females at a ratio of 1:1:1 caused 42.2% of the eggs produced to be infertile; increasing the ratio 20:1:1 caused 97.1% infertile eggs. Males and females both treated with a sterilizing dose (20 Krad) as pupae and confined with U adults at a ratio of 1:1:1 caused 43.3% infertility in the resulting eggs. When the ratio of sterile males and females was increased to 5:5:1:1, 10:10:1:1 or 15:15:1 (I:U:U), the percentage infertility reached 83.8, 93.9 and 100.0% respectively. The percentage of actual infertility was less than the expected infertility for the ratios 1:1:1:1, 5:5:1:1 and 10:10:1:1 but was exceeded with the highest ratio used (15:15:1:1). The competitiveness value for this flooding ratio was 1.00. Replacing U male by I male decreased the egg hatchability, which indicates that I male were able to negate previous insemination by U male. Insemination by U female could nullify insemination by I males

  11. ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrayan Bravo Hidalgo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Employment and enhancing the use of renewable energy sources could be considered as the beginning of a third ¨Industrial Revolution¨. The transition to a low carbon dioxide emission permits to a momentous turning point in the fight against climate change, improve energy security, and last but not least, significantly reduce the geopolitical intentions of this. The increase in renewable sources constitutes a guideline for energy policy in Cuba. Thus, programs for the construction of small hydropower plants, plant cells and photovoltaic panels, solar thermal energy systems for various services are developed; and the use of other primary sources such as wind and biomass. This work shows the implementation of these practices in the nation, the present results and future aspirations facing the demands of sustainable and steady development of generation and power consumption.

  12. Radiological monitoring of food in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerez V, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    The appearing of the problem for protecting the environment from radioactive contamination is not an accidental matter. The introduction into the earth crust of radioactive material coming from nuclear weapons, accidents, wastes, etc, has caused, as a consequence, the contamination of the biosphere. The extensive trade of food in our country has made necessary the establishment of radiological monitoring in food, which was organized by the Department of Public Health. The structure, functions, characteristics and aspects related to radiological monitoring of food in Cuba are shown in the present paper. The organization and resources for performing the monitoring program, both for normal conditions and for nuclear and/or radiological emergency cases, are detailed. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs

  13. El final del Trotskismo organizado en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Arriba, Rafael Acosta de

    2018-01-01

    I El tema del trotskismo en Cuba es una de las asignaturas pendientes en nuestra historiografía. Cada día que transcurre se presenta como una injustificable omisión para las ciencias sociales del país. El carácter de tabú que cubrió al tema de Trotski y el trotskismo a partir de los setenta del pasado siglo, con la adscripción indócil pero definitiva de la Revolución Cubana al sistema del socialismo real, tuvo una muy larga duración. Por casi cinco décadas no se habló de este en las publicaci...

  14. Conditioning of Radium-226 sources in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez Navarro, Juan Carlos; Salgado Mojena, Mercedes; Gonzalez Rodriguez, Niurka; Castillo Gomez, Rafael; Berdellans Escobar, Ania; Otero Cabrera, Lazaro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The production and use of Ra-226 sealed sources was internationally recommended to be halted for health and safety reasons. Consequently, all Ra-226 sources in Cuba were collected, characterized and conditioned. The paper describes the safety and operational aspects related to the Ra-226 conditioning. For this, a Special Permission was granted by the Regulatory Body, as required. A radiological assessment, a safety report as well as an emergency plan were prepared and approved before the operations. The work was accomplished with due reliability following an established comprehensive Quality Management System. As a result of these operations, 188.5 GBq of Ra-226, contained in different types of radiation sources (brachytherapy needles and tubes, standard sources for calibration, etc.) were encapsulated and conditioned. The capsules with the sources were conditioned in a retrievable form within fi ve waste packages intended for long term storage.(author)

  15. Energy and sustainable development in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo Hidalgo, Debrayan

    2015-01-01

    Employment and enhancing the use of renewable energy sources could be considered as the beginning of a third ¨Industrial Revolution¨. The transition to a low carbon dioxide emission permits to a momentous turning point in the fight against climate change, improve energy security, and last but not least, significantly reduce the geopolitical intentions of this.The increase in renewable sources constitutes a guideline for energy policy in Cuba. Thus, programs for the construction of small hydropower plants, plant cells and photovoltaic panels, solar thermal energy systems for various services are developed; and the use of other primary sources such as wind and biomass.This work shows the implementation of these practices in the nation, the present results and future aspirations facing the demands of sustainable and steady development of generation and power consumption. (author)

  16. Communicating astronomy with the public in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, O.

    2008-06-01

    Communicating astronomy with the public to produce attractive materials for a broad audience on TV is a difficult job in a third world country. One way of developing effective communication in fields like astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology whilst connecting the professional astronomer with a majority of the people is to combine the knowledge of the scientist with the most spectacular TV production methods of first world countries: integrating, through commentary and analysis, astronomy and science into the public debate of lay citizens. Here I present my ten years of experience of presenting a TV programme devoted to general science outreach. I also comment on the progress of the construction of the new planetarium, a cultural centre for science and technology, to be opened as part of the commemoration activities for the 2009 International Year of Astronomy. It is hoped to guide the interest of the people of Cuba towards basic science and astronomy in the most populated and frequented area of the country.

  17. International Medical Collaboration: Lessons from Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló González, Mauro; Pons Vásquez, Reinaldo; Rodriguez Bencomo, David; Choonara, Imti

    2016-01-01

    Over 50,000 Cuban health professionals are currently working overseas in 67 different countries. They work in conjunction with local health professionals. The majority work in primary care in deprived areas. The aim is to reduce morbidity and mortality but also improve health in the long term by training local health professionals, and building both institutions and a structure to deliver health care alongside educating the local population. Cuba is a small, middle-income country. It has, however, made a significant international contribution in relation to medical collaboration. Cuba’s international collaboration is based on the principles of social justice and equity for all. It has set an example for other countries to emulate. PMID:27763571

  18. International Medical Collaboration: Lessons from Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Castelló González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over 50,000 Cuban health professionals are currently working overseas in 67 different countries. They work in conjunction with local health professionals. The majority work in primary care in deprived areas. The aim is to reduce morbidity and mortality but also improve health in the long term by training local health professionals, and building both institutions and a structure to deliver health care alongside educating the local population. Cuba is a small, middle-income country. It has, however, made a significant international contribution in relation to medical collaboration. Cuba’s international collaboration is based on the principles of social justice and equity for all. It has set an example for other countries to emulate.

  19. Oncology nursing in Cuba: report of the delegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Lisa Kennedy; Leonard, Kathleen; Gross, Anne; Hartnett, Erin; Poage, Ellen; Squires, Jennifer; Ullemeyer, Vicki; Schueller, Mary; Stary, Susan; Miller, Mary Alice

    2012-08-01

    In December 2011, the first delegation of oncology nurses from the United States visited Havana, Cuba. The delegation included oncology nurses, educators, and leaders from across America and provided opportunities to learn about the healthcare system, cancer, and oncology nursing in Cuba. Delegation members attended lectures, toured facilities, and enjoyed Cuban culture. This exchange highlighted the similarities in cancer care and oncology nursing between countries and opened doors for future collaborations.

  20. The United States and Cuba: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Cooperativas Independenties: Medio Ambiente , Ecologia, y Su Impacto al Campesino Cubano, CubaNet, [article on- line accessed 4 May 2000], available from http...Independientes: Medio Ambiente , Ecologia y Su Impacto al Campesino Cubano.” CubaNet News. Available at http://www.cubanet.org/cooperativa...after his release. While in Mexico , Castro met Che Guevara with whom he collaborated in organizing the July 26 Movement named in commemoration of

  1. Birth planning in Cuba: a basic human right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J M

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of birth planning in Cuba and strategies that are relevant to nurses in the communities of Cuba. Cuba reduced its crude birth rate by 40% from 1964-75 without formal family planning programs and resources. By 1975, Cuba had achieved the lowest birth rate in Latin America (21/1000) except Barbados (19/1000). By 1978, Cuba's crude birth rate declined to a low of 15.3/1000. The demographic transition in Cuba has been a process of equalization by: 1) community participation to ensure basic human rights for everyone, 2) increasing the status of women while providing child care centers, 3) providing equal availability of health care services including contraceptive services, sterilization, and abortion, and 4) focusing on individual birth choice, not on limiting population growth. Emphasis in Cuba for reducing fertility has been put on literacy, education, and infant mortality. The illiteracy rate in 1961 decreased from 20% to 4%. Infant mortality decreased from 38.8/1000 live births in 1970 to 22.3/1000 in 1978. 1/3 of Cuban women were participating fully in the labor force in 1978. Polyclinics have been established as preventive care medical centers throughout Cuba and health care is free. Family planning options are integrated into routine primary health care at polyclinics and assure equal access to the total Cuban population. Abortion is freely available and increased to 61/1000 in 1976. The implications for nursing are that: 1) the traditional work of nurses places them in a key position to help extend basic human rights beyond current levels, 2) nurses can initiate discussions of birth planning with women and men in a variety of settings, and 3) nurses can increase case-finding related to birth planning needs both in health care classes or within established groups in the community.

  2. Physics and Women: A Challenge Being Successfully Met in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias de Fuentes, Olimpia

    The history of physics in Cuba, like all the country's educational and scientific development, cannot be understood without taking into account its close relationship with the social changes that took place in Cuba during the five decades elapsed since 1959. This should include due consideration to the role played by women in this process, all the more since the link between science and gender is now generally regarded as a subject of growing special interest

  3. Lonely planet: affect and authenticity in guidebooks of Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Ogden, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Record numbers of international visitors to Cuba in recent years amidst dramatic political and economic shifts have reinforced the island's reputation as a destination to visit urgently, ‘before it changes’. In foregrounding a normalised framework of affect and authenticity and directing tourists towards intimate experiences and encounters, bestselling English-language guidebooks contribute towards a selective interpretation of Cuba and of Cubans. However, their recommendations obscure the wo...

  4. Cuba y las fronteras de la utopía

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder nogle generelle overvejelser om den sociale utopi som fænomen samt en række empiriske observationer og del analyser af dette fænomen i ft det revolutionære Cuba.......Artiklen indeholder nogle generelle overvejelser om den sociale utopi som fænomen samt en række empiriske observationer og del analyser af dette fænomen i ft det revolutionære Cuba....

  5. «Ala y Raíz». Identidad y nacionalismo en Cuba durante la República a través de Revista de Avance (1927-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Chicharro, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The following study deals with how the cultural elites defined the paradigm of identity in Cuba during the first third of the twentieth century by one of the most important publications by the time in Cuba, but also in Latin America: Revista de Avance (1927-1930. Firstly, it is exposed the historiography about the identity in Cuba. Then, It is explained the historical context in which it was Cuba, when the editorial team was formed. Finally, taking into account the social origins and ideological affinities of the editorial team and the other essayist, it is tried to be drawn what characterizes and constitutes, according to them, the “cuban nature”.El estudio aborda los modos a través de los cuales parte de la elite cultural esbozó y definió la identidad en Cuba durante el primer tercio del siglo XX. Para ello se ha analizado una de las publicaciones más relevantes del momento en Cuba, cuyo impacto también se extendió a otros países de Hispanoamérica: Revista de Avance (1927-1930. En primer lugar se expone la historiografía sobre la identidad cubana. A continuación, se esboza el contexto histórico en el cual se conformó el equipo editorial. Por último, teniendo siempre en cuenta los orígenes sociales y las afinidades ideológicas tanto de la dirección como de los demás autores, se establecen las líneas maestras de lo que para estos intelectuales caracterizaba y constituía «el ser cubano».

  6. Estudo dos aspectos éticos dos transplantes na América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Maria Coelho de Holanda

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Respeitando recomendações da OMS, foi feito estudo retrospectivo comparativo das Legislações de 16 Países da América Latina, a saber Argentina, Bolívia, Brasil, Colômbia, Costa Rica, Chile, Cuba, Equador, Guatemala, Honduras, México, Panamá, Paraguai, Peru, República Dominicana e Venezuela, do período de 1963 a 1992, enfatizando-se os aspectos éticos referentes a doação, determinação da morte, conflito de interesses, seleção do receptor, comercialização e intercâmbio internacional de órgãos.

  7. Estudo dos aspectos éticos dos transplantes na América Latina

    OpenAIRE

    Virgínia Maria Coelho de Holanda; Francélia Loureiro Nery; Marta Barrozo Azevedo; Tânia Cristina Botelho Mendes

    1994-01-01

    Respeitando recomendações da OMS, foi feito estudo retrospectivo comparativo das Legislações de 16 Países da América Latina, a saber Argentina, Bolívia, Brasil, Colômbia, Costa Rica, Chile, Cuba, Equador, Guatemala, Honduras, México, Panamá, Paraguai, Peru, República Dominicana e Venezuela, do período de 1963 a 1992, enfatizando-se os aspectos éticos referentes a doação, determinação da morte, conflito de interesses, seleção do receptor, comercialização e intercâmbio internacional de órgãos. ...

  8. Baculovirus potential for agricultural pests management in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Ayala Sifontes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cuba has an international reputation for implementing widespread biological control of pests, and microbial biocontrol is an integral component of most pest management programs. One class of microbial pesticides however, has not been developed in Cuba, bio-insecticides based on the Baculoviridae. This class of safe and environmentally protective microbial pesticides is used ever more commonly worldwide as an alternative to chemical pesticides. The characteristics of the viruses of this family, particularly their high host specificity, safety to non-target organisms, capacity to persist in nature and create epizootics, and the economy with which they can be produced "in vivo", all make them attractive for incorporation into pest management programs along with other pesticides developed in Cuba. The mass production technology is well understood in Cuba and biofactories already exist for a number of microbial biocontrol products. In the province of Sancti Spíritus, the Plant Protection Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, with the cooperation of the Institute for Sustainable Horticulture, Kwantlen Polytechnic University, are resuming the work which began in the 90´s to develop baculovirus products in support of sustainable agriculture in Cuba. This work is being carried out with the participation of young Canadian and Cuban students and professionals. The program includes research with the multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis viruses of Spodoptera frugiperda (SfMNPV and S. exigua (SeMNPV and the search for native isolates of Baculovirus in Plutella xylostella, three priority pests in Cuba. In other jurisdictions they are well controlled by baculoviruses, and the expectation is that this same result is possible in Cuba.

  9. Implementation of QUANUM in Cuba. Preliminary results; Resultados preliminares de la implementacion del QUANUM en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Barreto, M.; Varela Corona, C.; Lopez Bejerano, G. M.; Lopez Diaz, A.; Torres Arocha, L.; Coca Perez, M. A.; Fernandez Herrera, A. O.

    2011-07-01

    Setting up quality management systems in nuclear medicine in Cuba has been an aim for medical physicists. In the last decade, we have walked with steady steps towards that direction, by setting up national standards and regulations, and carrying out research projects in order to ensure the improvement of quality assurance and management programs. In 2010 the IAEA's QUANUM document has been applied, as a methodology for quality management audits in nuclear medicine. Five audits have shown that most of class A regulatory items are guaranteed at nuclear medicine services. However, quality management system performing is still inappropriate. (Author) 13 refs.

  10. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Cuba : Le logement et le capital humain à Cuba ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 janv. 2011 ... Colin Campbell. Des projets communautaires améliorent la santé du cœur de La Havane. La vie en plein centre-ville peut mettre à rude épreuve la résistance des gens. Lorsque les quartiers périclitent, le dépérissement de la santé humaine suit de près. Un projet mené à Cuba avec l'appui du Centre de ...

  11. Nuclear safety. Concerns about the nuclear power reactors in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, Jim; Aloise, Gene; Flaherty, Thomas J.; Fitzgerald, Duane; Zavala, Mario; Hayward, Mary Alice

    1992-09-01

    In 1976, the Soviet Union and Cuba concluded an agreement to construct two 440-megawatt nuclear power reactors near Cienfuegos on the south central coast of Cuba, about 180 miles south of Key West, Florida. The construction of these reactors, which began around 1983, was a high priority for Cuba because of its heavy dependence on imported oil. Cuba is estimated to need an electrical generation capacity of 3,000 megawatts by the end of the decade. When completed, the first reactor unit would provide a significant percentage (estimated at over 15 percent) of Cuba's need for electricity. It is uncertain when Cuba's nuclear power reactors will become operational. On September 5, 1992, Fidel Castro announced the suspension of construction at both of Cuba's reactors because Cuba could not meet the financial terms set by the Russian government to complete the reactors. Cuban officials had initially planned to start up the first of the two nuclear reactors by the end of 1993. However, before the September 5 announcement, it was estimated that this reactor would not be operational until late 1995 or early 1996. The civil construction (such as floors and walls) of the first reactor is currently estimated to be about 90 percent to 97 percent complete, but only about 37 percent of the reactor equipment (such as pipes, pumps, and motors) has been installed. The civil construction of the second reactor is about 20 percent to 30 percent complete. No information was available about the status of equipment for the second reactor. According to former Cuban nuclear power and electrical engineers and a technician, all of whom worked at the reactor site and have recently emigrated from Cuba, Cuba's nuclear power program suffers from poor construction practices and inadequate training for future reactor operators. One former official has alleged, for example, that the first reactor containment structure, which is designed to prevent the accidental release of radioactive material into

  12. Historia de la Puericultura en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Román Lafont

    Full Text Available En la Edad Media los niños eran tratados como adultos pequeños. A partir del Renacimiento surge mayor interés en la infancia. En 1722 aparece el término Pediatría en la Europa Central, y en 1865, por primera vez, es acuñado el término Puericultura por Alfred Pierre Caron, profesor en la Universidad de París. Realizar consultas de Puericultura en la primera mitad del siglo XX en Cuba era prácticamente un lujo. Con el sistema único de salud y cobertura total de la atención primaria a partir de 1959, se lograron establecer consultas de Pediatría (1960 y Puericultura (1963 en los policlínicos. El nuevo enfoque de la práctica médica preventivo-curativa influyó en el desarrollo de la Puericultura, con programas como: Atención integral al niño y la mujer, la normación de las especialidades, la reducción de la mortalidad infantil, la medición de indicadores de salud en la población cubana de 0 a 19 años, la dispensarización de niños y adolescentes, Puericultura prenatal, así como la evaluación de "Hospitales y policlínicos Amigos de la madre y el niño". En 2004 fue creado un grupo multidisciplinario para el rescate de la calidad de las consultas de Puericultura, y se inauguró el Centro de Referencia Nacional de Puericultura en el año 2007, con funciones docentes, de investigación, asistenciales-metodológicas y administrativas. Sorprende la búsqueda de cómo se introdujo en Cuba la Puericultura, a través de Infomed e Internet, visitas a bibliotecas especializadas y la Oficina del Historiador del Ministerio de Salud Pública.

  13. Preparing for Post-Embargo Cuba: Effects on Businesses and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Nina M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a brief history of U.S. trade with Cuba, the current status of Cuba's role in world trade, and the effects the U.S. embargo has on American businesses and U.S. and Cuban citizens. The article presents suggestions on how U.S. businesses can prepare for an open Cuba and argues for the lifting of the U.S. embargo against Cuba. (84…

  14. Potential Transportation Impacts of Expanded U.S.-Cuba Trade, Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Before 1960, the United States and Cuba were major trading partners. At that time, Cuba was the seventh largest export market for U.S. products. In the years since then, U.S. trade with Cuba has been highly regulated. Exports have been mostly prohibi...

  15. 31 CFR 515.553 - Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. 515.553 Section 515.553 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments for transactions...

  16. 31 CFR 515.207 - Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with Cuba. 515.207 Section 515.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 515.207 Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba. Except as specifically... place in Cuba to engage in the trade of goods or the purchase or provision of services, may enter a U.S...

  17. 31 CFR 515.548 - Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Services rendered by Cuba to United... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.548 Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft. Specific licenses are issued for payment to Cuba of charges for services...

  18. 31 CFR 515.337 - Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Government of Cuba. 515.337 Section 515.337 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.337 Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba. For purposes of this part, the term prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba means Ministers and Vice-ministers...

  19. 77 FR 55183 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ...] Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and... Administration Regulations for the export of agricultural commodities to Cuba. BIS will include a description of...), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated with such authorization are set forth in Sec. 740.18...

  20. 75 FR 54594 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...] Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and... Administration Regulations for the export of agricultural commodities to Cuba. BIS will include a description of...), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated with such authorization are set forth in section 740...

  1. 76 FR 5058 - Airports of Entry or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... [CBP Dec 11-05] RIN 1651-AA86 Airports of Entry or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba AGENCY: U.S... (DHS) regulations, direct flights between the United States and Cuba must arrive at or depart from one... Border Protection (CBP) to process authorized flights between the United States and Cuba. These...

  2. 31 CFR 515.561 - Persons visiting close relatives in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cuba. 515.561 Section 515.561 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Cuba. (a) General license. (1) Persons subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and persons... close relative, as defined in § 515.339 of this part, who is a national of Cuba, as defined in § 515.302...

  3. 31 CFR 515.415 - Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba; transportation of... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.415 Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals... or a returning resident of the United States, from Cuba to the United States, unless otherwise...

  4. Desarrollo social y mortalidad infantil, 1977-1986, Cuba: un análisis regional Desenvolvimento social e mortalidade infantil, 1977-1986, Cuba: análise regional Social development and infant mortality, 1977-1986, Cuba: a regional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Gonzalez Perez

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba, la tasa de mortalidad infantil (TMI se redujo entre 1970 y 1986 en un 65%. La TMI alcanzada en 1986 -13,6%o - ubica al país a la vanguardia de Latinoamérica en cuanto a salud materno-infantil. Sin embargo, subsisten diferencias interprovinciales en la mortalidad durante el primer año de vida. Mediante el empleo de técnicas de regresión múltiples, se intenta identificar los factores sociodemográficos o relacionados con los servicios de salud que más han incidido en el descenso de la TMI en Cuba y provincias en el decenio estudiado, así como las variables que mejor explican las diferencias interprovinciales en cada año. Son factores sociodemográficos los que mayoritariamente explican la evolución de la TMI; por otra parte, si bien la proporción de nacidos vivos con bajo peso y la tasa bruta de natalidad explican en primera instancia las diferencias interprovinciales en el nivel de la mortalidad infantil en cada año, un análisis más cuidadoso permite establecer que son variables eminentemente socieconómicas las que están detrás de tales diferencias.Em Cuba, entre os anos de 1970 a 1986 a taxa de mortalidade infantil (TMI reduziu em 65%. A TMI obtida em 1986 -13,6%o - foi a mais baixa no contexto lationamericano, embora a nível regional o comportamento da taxa não tem sido homogêneo. Com o emprego da técnica de regressão múltipla, pretendeu-se identificar aqueles fatores socio-demográficos e dos serviços de saúde que mais têm incidido no declínio da mortalidade infantil em Cuba, no período acima descrito, bem como as variáveis que melhor explicam as diferenças inter-regionais do referido indicador. Os fatores socio-demográficos explicam a evolução da TMI em Cuba. Embora a queda da natalidade e a redução da proporção de recém-nascidos com baixo peso ao nascer expliquem - em princípios - as diferenças inter-regionais quanto a TMI, outros fatores socio-econômicos podem explicar tais diferen

  5. Mortalidad infantil en Cuba 1959-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Riverón Corteguera

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available De 1959 a 1999, con los datos estadísticos disponibles, la mortalidad infantil en Cuba disminuyó en 81,3 %, la mortalidad neonatal precoz se redujo el 73,4 %, la mortalidad neonatal tardía el 83,6 % y la posneonatal en 86,0 %. Las reducciones obtenidas en el período se distribuyeron uniformemente entre todas las provincias, aunque la mayor disminución se produjo en las provincias centrales y occidentales. Los rubros que más disminuyeron sus tasas fueron: enteritis y otras enfermedades diarreicas, infecciones respiratorias agudas, afecciones perinatales en general y las meningitis, aunque todas las causas reducen la mortalidad en el período. La natalidad descendió el 51,3 %, la fecundidad lo hizo en 30 %, el crecimiento demográfico bruto de la población disminuyó el 59,8 %, el parto institucional aumentó en 65,9 %, el bajo peso al nacer descendió el 36,9 %, la mortalidad perinatal se redujo el 67,2 %, los nacidos vivos disminuyeron el 21,1 % y la supervivencia infantil a los 5 años aumentó el 3,8 %. Esto ha sido posible debido principalmente a la decisión política de priorizar el sector de la salud y muy especialmente la salud maternoinfantil adoptada por nuestro Estado a principios de la década de los 60, lo que permitió alcanzar avances en la organización, calidad de la atención y una amplia cobertura de los servicios de salud. También fueron elementos importantes, el mejoramiento del nivel de vida y de la educación alcanzados por la población, las mejoras logradas en la situación sanitaria y epidemiológica, la distribución equitativa de los alimentos que prioriza a la madre y al niño. Un elemento fundamental en la última década ha sido el desarrollo del "médico de la familia" en la atención primaria y el mejoramiento de la atención hospitalaria. Por otra parte han contribuido de manera notable el establecimiento del Programa Nacional de Atención Maternoinfantil, que abarca las inmunizaciones, el control de las

  6. Las actuales transformaciones en Cuba y sus efectos en las relaciones Cuba-CARICOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Laguardia Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En 2011 Cuba aprobó una nueva política económica con el objetivo de relanzar su economía sin comprometer los principales logros sociales asociados a su modelo socialista. La apuesta es lo suficientemente ambiciosa como para generar dudas sobre la posibilidad real de instrumentar con éxito una transformación socioeconómica de tales dimensiones. Lo cierto es que, a pesar de los temores y resistencias a la “actualización” del modelo económico cubano, los cambios internos son obligatorios con el fin de construir un socialismo “próspero y sostenible”, idea que el presidente Raúl Castro ha promovido como objetivo central de los cambios. El artículo analiza las relaciones de Cuba y los países del CARICOM en el contexto de la cambiante realidad cubana actual y examina las posibles modificaciones que esta relación podría experimentar en un futuro próximo como consecuencia de la actualización económica cubana.

  7. O Brasil no jogo de espionagem da Guerra Fria: as relações Cuba-URSS vistas pela diplomacia brasileira (1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Sidarta Machado Domingos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda como a Revolução Cubana alterou significativamente as relações entre os países no continente americano. Para o governo Kennedy, Fidel Castro representava a maior ameaça ao seu domínio hegemônico nas Américas. Em um período inferior a dois anos, muitas foram as desavenças entre os Estados Unidos da América e a República de Cuba. Em razão de sua Política Externa Independente, o governo Goulart se via bastante envolvido na questão de Cuba. Mesmo em meio à emergência de um novo Conselho de Ministros e preocupado com as eleições que se realizariam, o governo brasileiro não deixava de prestar atenção naquela pequena ilha do Caribe e nas ações do governo dos EUA. Uma delas, em especial, era alvo de grande interesse do presidente João Goulart e do primeiro-ministro Hermes Lima: o encontro do secretário de Estado, Dean Rusk, com os representantes dos países latino-americanos na Organização dos Estados Americanos.

  8. Cuba, ¿democracia a la vista?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bautista Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available : Inicia con una reseña histórica del proceso de independencia y de la Revolución cubana, para indicar que a pesar del triunfo de la Revolución hoy en día continúa el éxodo de ciudadanos cubanos debido, según el autor, a los errores que a nombre de esa revolución se han cometido desde hace 50 años en el país.

  9. Seroprevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in various populations in Cuba Seroprevalencia del herpesvirus asociado con el sarcoma de Kaposi en diversas poblaciones en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Kourí

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the prevalence and distribution of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV infection in the Caribbean. The aim of this study was to determine rates of KSHV seropositivity in various populations in Cuba. METHODS: During the years 1998 to 2002 we screened serum samples from 410 subjects in Cuba. Serologic screening for KSHV antibodies was a two-step process using (1 indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA specifically reactive to the KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA encoded by open reading frame 73 (ORF73, and (2 confirmatory immunoblot using recombinant KSHV ORF65.2, a lytically expressed, 20-kilodalton protein as the target antigen. Five different populations were studied: (1 45 AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS, (2 154 HIV-1-infected patients without clinical evidence of KS, (3 171 HIV-negative blood donors, (4 27 consecutive kidney transplant recipients, who were HIV-negative, and (5 13 contacts (sexual contacts or relatives of the AIDS-KS-affected patients. RESULTS: Among the 45 AIDS-KS subjects, 35 of them (77.8% were KSHV-seropositive. Thirty-two of the 154 HIV-positive patients without KS (20.8% of them were KSHV-seropositive, and 6 of the 13 contacts of KS-affected patients (46.2% of them were infected with KSHV. In contrast to other researchers, we did not find in the populations that we studied in Cuba that KSHV seropositivity was associated with male homosexual or bisexual activity. We found high KSHV seropositivity rates among women reporting sexual contact with bisexual men and among men who had acquired an HIV infection in Africa. There were low rates of KSHV infection among the blood donors (1.2% and the renal transplant recipients (0.0%. The low rates of KSHV infection that we found among the non-HIV-infected populations in Cuba are similar to patterns found in populations in Europe and in the United States. CONCLUSIONS: Together with similar results from Brazil

  10. Intelectualidad criolla y nación en Cuba

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    Luis Miguel GARCÍA MORA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se analizan las interacciones entre las posiciones intelectuales de los autonomistas cubanos y su idea de la nacionalidad, y la utilización que de la "raza" hicieron los científicos criollos. En una primera parte, se estudian los debates en torno a los pobladores "ideales" con los que constituir una nación moderna y "civilizada", que alejara de Cuba el fantasma de la "africanización". La segunda parte del trabajo se centra en el análisis de la publicación cultural más importante del momento, como fue la Revista de Cuba (1877-1884. Una publicación al servicio de una ciencia criolla, en la que se expuso el concepto de nacionalidad y el proyecto político de los autonomistas, compartido por la mayoría de los científicos cubanos. Palabras Clave: Cuba, ciencia criolla, autonomismo, intelectuales, nacionalidad. ABSTRACT: This article analyzes the interactions between the Cuban Autonomists, their intellectual positions and their ideas about "nationality", and the use of the concept of "race" made by the Criollo scientists. The first part studies debates on the "ideal" settlers for the forming of a modern and "civilized" nation, which would remove the spectre of "Africanization" from Cuba. The second part of this work is focused on the analysis of the most important cultural review of the time, the Revista de Cuba (1877-1884. It was in this publi- cation —which acted as the voice of Criollo science— that the concept of nationality and the political project of the Autonomists, which was shared by most of the Cuban scientists, was expressed. Key words: Cuba, Criollo Science, Autonomism, Intellectuals, Nationality.

  11. A New Approach to Health Services and Pharmacy in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Alina M

    2015-12-01

    In December 17, 2014, U.S. President Barack Obama surprised the world by announcing his intention to enter into negotiations aimed at reestablishing diplomatic relations with Cuba. Since then, expectations and interest regarding the health system of that country have increased. This report focuses on the Cuban health and pharmacy systems from a practical and educational standpoint. Pharmaceutical services, strengths, opportunities, and challenges are described. Cuba's new trends toward patient-centered care are analyzed to provide insights for developing pharmaceutical care practice and implementing policies suitable for practice in all health care settings. © 2015 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  12. [Eugenic abortion could explain the lower infant mortality in Cuba compared to that in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso S, Enrique; Carvajal C, Jorge A

    2012-08-01

    Cuba and Chile have the lower infant mortality rates of Latin America. Infant mortality rate in Cuba is similar to that of developed countries. Chilean infant mortality rate is slightly higher than that of Cuba. To investigate if the lower infant mortality rate in Cuba, compared to Chile, could be explained by eugenic abortion, considering that abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile. We compared total and congenital abnormalities related infant mortality in Cuba and Chile during 2008, based on vital statistics of both countries. In 2008, infant mortality rates in Chile were significantly higher than those of Cuba (7.8 vs. 4.7 per 1,000 live born respectively, odds ratio (OR) 1.67; 95% confidence intervals (Cl) 1.52-1.83). Congenital abnormalities accounted for 33.8 and 19.2% of infant deaths in Chile and Cuba, respectively. Discarding infant deaths related to congenital abnormalities, infant mortality rate continued to be higher in Chile than in Cuba (5.19 vs. 3.82 per 1000 live born respectively, OR 1.36; 95%CI 1.221.52). Considering that antenatal diagnosis is widely available in both countries, but abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile, we conclude that eugenic abortion may partially explain the lower infant mortality rate observed in Cuba compared to that observed in Chile.

  13. Leucemias agudas en ancianos de la provincia de Santiago de Cuba

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    Lidia Clara Suárez Beyríes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de 64 pacientes mayores de 60 años con leucemia aguda, atendidos en el Servicio de Hematología del Hospital General Docente "Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso" de Santiago de Cuba, durante el quinquenio 2006-2011, para determinar las principales características clínicas y hematológicas en el momento del diagnóstico, así como la supervivencia global de los afectados, aunque los tratamientos administrados no tenían criterio curativo. La edad promedio de los ancianos fue de 70 años, en un rango etario de 60 a 90; en tanto, la variedad no linfoblástica representó 98,4 %, y todos los pacientes presentaron anemia y trombocitopenia como alteraciones hematológicas, con incremento en los requerimientos transfusionales. De igual forma, la presencia de blastos en la sangre periférica se demostró en 50 % y la hiperleucocitosis en 59,4 %, mientras las principales causas de muerte estuvieron relacionadas con la hemorragia cerebral y la progresión de la enfermedad con la infiltración multiorgánica, lo cual condujo a una supervivencia muy corta de los integrantes de la serie

  14. LA GOBERNABILIDAD SOCIALISTA DE LOS ESPACIOS LITORALES: EL CASO DE CIUDAD DE LA HABANA, CUBA

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    José Manuel Mateo Rodriguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La irrupción, a partir de comienzos de la década de los años 1960 de un proyecto socialista en Cuba, constituyó un cambio radical en la forma de gobernar las sociedades en el hemisferio occidental. Por primera vez en América Latina, un país se proponía cambiar de manera estructural los fundamentos de organización de la sociedad capitalista, y construir un proyecto de sociedad basada en el socialismo. El presente artículo, pretende exponer como se han llevado a cabo los cambios en la organización de los espacios litorales de Ciudad de La Habana, en la construcción del estilo socialista de desarrollo. Pretende en particular reflexionar sobre los desafíos, que en los inicios del siglo XXI enfrenta la sociedad cubana, para pasar a la conquista de la sostenibilidad, como fundamento para hacer más eficiente y duradera la gobernabilidad. Al final se ha realizado una síntesis de los problemas ambientales y las posibles soluciones, vinculada a un abordaje integrado con la dinámica litoral y las distintas formas de utilización. Las sugerencias acciones a medio y largo plazo, incluso con ejemplos de acciones ya desarrolladas en otros tramos del litoral cubano.

  15. Using a partial sum method and GPS tracking data to identify area restricted search by artisanal fishers at moored fish aggregating devices in the Commonwealth of Dominica.

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    Michael Alvard

    Full Text Available Foragers must often travel from a central place to exploit aggregations of prey. These patches can be identified behaviorally when a forager shifts from travel to area restricted search, identified by a decrease in speed and an increase in sinuosity of movement. Faster, more directed movement is associated with travel. Differentiating foraging behavior at patches from travel to patches is important for a variety of research questions and has now been made easier by the advent of small, GPS devices that can track forager movement with high resolution. In the summer and fall of 2012, movement data were collected from GPS devices placed on foraging trips originating in the artisanal fishing village of Desa Ikan (pseudonym, on the east coast of the Caribbean island nation of the Commonwealth Dominica. Moored FADs are human-made structures anchored to the ocean floor with fish attraction material on or near the surface designed to effectively create a resource patch. The ultimate goal of the research is to understand how property rights are emerging after the introduction of fish aggregating device (FAD technology at the site in 1999. This paper reports on research to identify area-restricted search foraging behavior at FAD patches. For 22 foraging trips simultaneous behavioral observations were made to ground-truth the GPS movement data. Using a cumulative sum method, area restricted search was identified as negative deviations from the mean travel speed and the method was able to correctly identify FAD patches in every case.

  16. A PROPÓSITO DE UNA FUENTE DE LOS PENSADORES DE LA ESCUELA DOMINICA DE COLONIA: EL ANÓNIMO LIBER VIGINTI QUATTUOR PHILOSOPHORUM

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    José González Ríos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de las fuentes de los filósofos de la Escuela dominica de Colonia, y entre ellos especialmente Eckhart, ha adquirido gran relevancia en la investigación más reciente, como se desprende, entre otros, de los aportes de Loris Sturlese, Alessandra Beccarisi y su equipo de trabajo. Si bien son muchas y diversas las fuentes que concurren de modo productivo en la elaboración de su pensamiento, ocupa un lugar destacado aquel pequeño y singular escrito que irrumpe, junto con otros, en el occidente latino durante la segunda mitad del siglo XII. Llamado por Eckhart mismo Liber vigenti quattuor philosophorum este texto ofrece un compendio de veinticuatro definiciones acerca de qué sea lo divino. El esfuerzo de esa presentación es ofrecer una aproximación a esta fuente, repetidamente citada pero poco estudiada. Intentaremos mostrar los problemas que irrumpen con su estudio, a la vez que algunos elementos de su presencia en diversos nudos temáticos de la teología especulativa del Maestro Eckhart.

  17. Crimen sin castigo. Impunidad en América Latina

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    Esteban BELTRÁN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El hecho de que la situación política de los países se dirija hacia la consolidación democrática no implica necesariamente que cesen las violaciones a los derechos humanos, situación que sí puede ser superada cuando los índices de impunidad se reduzcan al mímino a través del fortalecimiento de un sistema internacional de justicia. El panorama de derechos humanos en América Latina es crítico especialmente en Colombia, Brasil, Perú, México, Chile y Cuba. La implementación de estrategias como investigaciones exhaustivas e independientes, sanción a las violaciones de los derechos humanos, apoyo a los defensores de derechos humanos y respeto de los Estados a determinadas responsabilidades fundamentales es prioritario para la superación de la impunidad.ABSTRACT: The fact that the political situation in Latin American countries is moving towards democratic consolidation, does not imply the end of human rights violations. The impunity indexes should be minímized through the strengthening of an international system of justice. The human rights situation in Latin America is critical, especially in Colombia, Brazil, Peru, Mexico, Chile and Cuba. To address impunity, the priority is the implementation of strategies such as exhaustive and unconstrained investigations, sanctions to human rights violations, support to the defendants of human rights and state respect to specific fundamental responsibilities.

  18. Medicinal plants sold at the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinez-Caraballo, D.; Volpato, G.

    2008-01-01

    Information regarding medicinal plants sold in the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba, revealed 184 species belonging to 69 vascular plant families. The most important family was Fabaceae s.l. with 13 species, followed by Lamiaceae with 12, and Asteraceae with 8. More than 90 general medicinal

  19. Cuba's Strategy for Alzheimer Disease and Dementia Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Bayard, Rodolfo I; Llibre-Rodríguez, Juan J; Fernández-Seco, Alberto; Borrego-Calzadilla, Carmen; Carrasco-García, Mayra R; Zayas-Llerena, Tania; Moreno-Carbonell, Carmen R; Reymond-Vasconcelos, Ana G

    2016-10-01

    Dementia is a great challenge to public health in Cuba due to its impact on society and families. Cuba's National Intervention Strategy for Alzheimer Disease and Dementia Syndromes is designed to address this challenge. The Strategy includes working guidelines for primary and secondary care, education about rights of people with cognitive impairment, professional development, research, and health promotion and dementia prevention. An associated action plan, focused on primary care, includes proposals for creation of memory clinics, day centers and comprehensive rehabilitation services for cognitive stimulation. Short-term measures proposed include increasing early detection; creating a dementia morbidity and mortality registry; promoting professional training; providing support for families; and promoting basic and clinical research on dementia. Medium-term proposals aim to reduce dementia incidence and mortality by controlling risk factors and promoting healthy lifestyles, offering new treatment options and optimizing early detection. A set of indicators has been developed to evaluate strategy implementation. With this strategy, Cuba joins the small number of developing countries that have responded to WHO's call to improve care for patients with dementia and alleviate its impact on society and families. KEYWORDS Dementia, Alzheimer disease, aging, national health programs, social stigma, primary prevention, health promotion, civil rights, Cuba.

  20. The formation of means of agricultural family in Cuba

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    Vicente Eugenio León Hernández

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presen ts a historical outline about the formation of technical means in the Specialty Agriculture in Cuba , and shows how these characteristics are present in Pinar del Río province. It also make s an analysis of the current strategies of the formation of this personnel at international level.

  1. Fifty years of Cuba's medical diplomacy: from idealism to pragmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinsilver, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Medical diplomacy, the collaboration between countries to simultaneously produce health benefits and improve relations, has been a cornerstone of Cuban foreign policy since the outset of the revolution fifty years ago. It has helped Cuba garner symbolic capital (goodwill, influence, and prestige) well beyond what would have been possible for a small, developing country, and it has contributed to making Cuba a player on the world stage. In recent years, medical diplomacy has been instrumental in providing considerable material capital (aid, credit, and trade), as the oil-for-doctors deals with Venezuela demonstrates. This has helped keep the revolution afloat in trying economic times. What began as the implementation of the one of the core values of the revolution, namely health as a basic human right for all peoples, has continued as both an idealistic and a pragmatic pursuit. This article examines the factors that enabled Cuba to conduct medical diplomacy over the past fifty years, the rationale behind the conduct of this type of soft power politics, the results of that effort, and the mix of idealism and pragmatism that has characterized the experience. Moreover, it presents a typology of medical diplomacy that Cuba has used over the past fifty years.

  2. 31 CFR 515.563 - Journalistic activities in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Journalistic activities in Cuba. 515.563 Section 515.563 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... the research constitutes a full work schedule that could not be accomplished in a shorter period of...

  3. Multi-scale landslide risk assessment in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Landslides cause a considerable amount of damage in the mountainous regions of Cuba, which cover about 25% of the territory. Until now, only a limited amount of research has been carried out in the field of landslide risk assessment in the country. This research presents a methodology and its

  4. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  5. Courting the future: cancer and genetics in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Describing this double issue of MEDICC Review could be an exercise for a first-year philosophy course in logic. It's not about "cancer and genetics" in Cuba. It's about cancer in Cuba and about genetics in Cuba, not about exploring relationships between them. Nevertheless, while the marriage of the two themes was fortuitous, in that the two had long been scheduled for the journal in 2014, there is a certain felicity to their sharing an issue. To date, the outstanding accomplishments of genetics have been most helpful for conditions occurring at the beginning of life and cancer is largely (though not exclusively) a disease related to aging. But the two are intrinsically connected: Although only a few of the more than 100 different diseases grouped under the term cancer are known to be hereditary, every cancer begins with a mutation in one or more genes, whether the mutation is inherited, due to an exposure, or is simply a random error in the millions of cell divisions that are part and parcel of cellular reproduction. Our cover image, a stained-glass window by Cuban artist Rosa María de la Terga at Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center, illustrates the elegance of the DNA molecule, the intricate key to life.

  6. Disaster management and multihazard risk assessment in Cuba

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    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The success, statistically proved, of the civil defense system in Cuba have been justified differently worldwide. While some experts relate this fact to the social welfare others debate about the forced evacuation. Beside, the long term development of disaster reduction in the country is commonly

  7. ¿Eran ciudadanos los afrodescendientes libres en las sociedades esclavistas? Cuba, Brasil y Estados Unidos en el siglo XIX

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    Jochen Kemner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el tema del estatus de los afrodescendientes libres en las sociedades esclavistas más pobladas de América, desde el punto de vista de los derechos políticos y sociales de súbditos y ciudadanos. Con la carta de libertad, los antiguos esclavos y sus descendientes libres adquirieron teóricamente los mismos derechos y obligaciones que la población blanca eurodescendiente. Sin embargo, por razones de “seguridad pública” y de “mantención del orden establecido”, en la práctica, se establecieron restricciones y privilegios para mantener la distancia social entre blancos y afrodescendientes. Desde una perspectiva comparada se estudian Brasil, Cuba y los Estados Unidos, las tres sociedades esclavistas más notorias en América durante el siglo XIX, y se examina este proceso tomando como objetos de análisis los derechos de libre movimiento, el acceso a la enseñanza superior, el sufragio y la propiedad.

  8. Poliomyelitis and its elimination in Cuba: an historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldarraín, Enrique

    2013-04-01

    Polio was first detected in Cuba in the late 19th century among residents of the US community on the Isla de Pinos (Isle of Pines, now Isle of Youth), apparently introduced through migration from the USA. The first outbreak was reported in 1906 on the Isle, with the first epidemic reported in the former province of Las Villas in 1909. The epidemics subsequently intensified, by 1934 becoming periodic every four to five years, and accompanied by high morbidity, mortality and crippling sequelae, primarily among children. To review and analyze the history of polio and its control in Cuba, from the disease's first appearance in 1898 until WHO/PAHO certification of elimination in 1994. The historiological method was used; archival documents, medical records, and available polio morbidity and mortality statistics from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division before 1959 and from 1959 through 2000 were reviewed. Crude morbidity and mortality rates were calculated using population estimates at mid-period. Reports and scientific publications describing polio vaccination campaigns and their results were also reviewed, and key informants were interviewed. After initial introduction of polio in Cuba, five major epidemics occurred between 1932 and 1958: in 1934 (434 cases, 82 deaths); 1942 (494 cases, 58 deaths); 1946 (239 cases, 33 deaths), 1952 (492 cases, 15 deaths) and 1955 (267 cases, 8 deaths). Between 1957 and 1961 the disease's endemicity reached epidemic levels, with the last outbreak occurring in 1961, with 342 cases, 30% of them in children aged >4 years. In 1962, Cuba launched a nationwide polio vaccination campaign, the first of annual campaigns thereafter carried out in the framework of a coherent national program aimed at polio elimination. Using the Sabin oral vaccine and targeting the entire pediatric population in a single time period, five million doses were administered in the first campaign, reaching 87.5% of the target population aged 1

  9. THE TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS OF THE CUBAN HISTORY IN THE MEDICAL SCIENCES CARREERS / LA ENSEÑANZA-APRENDIZAJE DE LA HISTORIA DE CUBA EN LAS CIENCIAS MÉDICAS

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    Francisco Felino Riverón Morales

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se realiza un análisis de la evolución que ha The article makes an analysis of the evolution experienced by the various interpretations which can be steeped in history teaching. Stands as the subject History of Cuba is an array of historical science teaching and highlights the role of science content which include the development of knowledge, skills, habits and values in the teaching-learning process. Underlying the formative importance of the discipline of History of Cuba to the Cuban school, from the role the teacher in this process. Is particularized for Medical Sciences to assess the inclusion of the History of Cuba in the teaching-learning process in medical science responds to the need to contribute to the formation of a historical culture in the industry professionals as part of the humanistic education should possess.ResumenEn el artículo se realiza un análisis de la evolución que ha experimentado las diversas interpretaciones por cuales puede ser sumida la enseñanza de la historia. Se sostiene como la asignatura Historia de Cuba es un arreglo didáctico de la ciencia histórica y se destaca el papel del contenido de la ciencia en el que se incluyen el desarrollo de los conocimientos, habilidades, hábitos y valores en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Se fundamenta la importancia formativa de la disciplina la Historia de Cuba para la escuela cubana, a partir del rol que tiene el profesor en este proceso. Se particulariza para las ciencias médicas al valorar como la inclusión de la Historia de Cuba dentro del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en las ciencias médicas responde a la necesidad de contribuir a la formación de una cultura histórica en los profesionales de este sector como parte de la formación humanística que deben poseer.

  10. El hispanismo en México, América Central y Las Antillas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barriga, Rebeca

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Nuestro propósito en este trabajo es ofrecer un panorama representativo del desarrollo del hispanismo en México, Cuba, Puerto Rico, República Dominicana, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica y Panamá en la última década. A partir del estudio de este presente, esperamos poder marcar el sentido de las líneas de interés futuras. El desarrollo de la investigación hispanística en estos países no es el mismo. Claramente, el número de trabajos es mayor en México, Cuba, Puerto Rico y Costa Rica —lo que no significa la ausencia de figuras o estudios destacados en otros lugares—. El caso cubano parece quedar aparte. Su aislamiento ideológico y económico ha venido repercutiendo en los alcances de la investigación. Salvo quizá en México y Puerto Rico, la lejanía con los modelos teóricos y los avances técnicos más recientes es evidente en la mayor parte de los trabajos lingüísticos realizados en la América Media. Los estudios de dialectología, lexicología y sintaxis, en general, se apoyan en referencias bibliográficas hispánicas tradicionales o estructuralistas, clásicas pero muchas de ellas ya superadas.

  11. América Latina

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    Marcos Olalla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza el sentido intelectualista de la producción literaria modernista de Latinoamérica. Dicho enfoque es revisado en la obra del escritor argentino Manuel Ugarte (1875-1951 El porvenir de América Latina (1910. Nuestra lectura ofrece algunas líneas para la discriminación de las diversas fuentes ideológicas del intelectualismo en el “americanismo literario”. Consideramos en tal sentido la perspectiva historicista con la que Ugarte describe la composición social de América Latina.

  12. La salud pública en Cuba y su experiencia internacional (1959-2005 Public health in Cuba and its international experience (1959-2005

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    Enrique Beldarraín Chaple

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos 42 años de existencia, el sistema de salud cubano se ha caracterizado también por una amplia experiencia y labor internacional que se inició en 1962 con el envío de la primera misión médica cubana a Argelia y desde ese momento se ha colaborado con más de 101 países de Asia, África y América Latina, desde misiones de ayuda por desastres naturales hasta la colaboración con personal médico en regiones donde antes no existían, en la elaboración de planes de desarrollo médico con algunos países según sus necesidades. También se ha desarrollado una colaboración en el terreno de la formación de los recursos humanos, con el inicio de los estudios de medicina de cientos de miles de jóvenes de todos los países de América, e incluso de algunos de Asia y África.The past 42 years of Cuba's healthcare system have been characterized, among other things, by broad-based international experience and projects, which began in 1962 with the deployment of the first Cuban medical mission to Algeria. Since then, it has collaborated with more than 101 countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America, providing aid missions to areas suffering from natural disasters and sending medical staff to regions where they did not exist before. It has also helped some countries draw up medical development plans according to their specific needs. Cooperation with human resource training and development has also been carried out, with the result that hundreds of thousands of youths have been able to start their medical studies in countries all over the Americas and in some nations from Asia and Africa.

  13. La tuberculosis pulmonar, enfermedad reemergente en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita González Tapia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sr. Editor: La tuberculosis es una de las enfermedades remergentes en Cuba; por ello en todas las provincias cubanas se trabaja con mucha fuerza, dedicación y profesionalidad con respecto a esta problemática. En este contexto, resulta muy acertada la publicación del artículo “Algunas variables clínico-epidemiológicas de la tuberculosis pulmonar. Puerto Padre, 2008-2012”, que salió en el Vol.38 No.6.01 del mes de junio de 2013 de la Revista Electrónica Dr. Zoilo E. Marinello Vidaurreta; tanto por el significado social que reviste la divulgación de este tema, como por el propio resultado de la investigación realizada. La historia de la tuberculosis es un tema apasionante. En pocas enfermedades es posible documentar su estrecha relación con la historia de la propia humanidad como en la que nos ocupa. Existen evidencias paleológicas de tuberculosis vertebral en momias egipcias que datan aproximadamente del año 2400 a.C. La tuberculosis se ha conocido a través de la historia, con los nombres de: tisis, consunción, escrófula, mal de Pott, plaga blanca y mal del rey.1 En el artículo se plantea como conclusión que la tendencia de la tuberculosis en el quinquenio de estudio es estacionaria, pero en los últimos cuatro años tiende al ascenso. En los casos diagnosticados de tuberculosis en este quinquenio más de dos tercios correspondieron al sexo masculino y mayores de 45 años, las ocupaciones que más prevalecieron fueron recluso, desocupado, ama de casa y jubilado. Los factores de riesgo que más se relacionaron fueron el albergamiento prolongado en instituciones cerradas, el alcoholismo, y la edad mayor de 65 años; la forma clínica de mayor incidencia en casi la totalidad de los pacientes fue la pulmonar y, dentro de ella, los casos con baciloscopia positiva. Hubo fallas en el diagnóstico, ya que alrededor de la mitad de los casos se diagnosticaron en la atención secundaria y con un tiempo de demora de más de dos meses de

  14. Educacion Fisica in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Donna

    1980-01-01

    The goal of Costa Rica's Department of Physical Education and Sports is the "utilization of sport, physical education, and recreation as instruments of socialization and contribution to the improved health of Costa Ricans." (JN)

  15. La inteligencia emocional y el clima social familiar en las estudiantes del VII ciclo del C.E.P. “Santa Rosa Misioneras Dominicas del Rosario” Huacho; Lima, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Acha, María del Rosario; Palma Villanueva, Norma Angélica

    2017-01-01

    La presente investigación se enmarca dentro de las investigaciones descriptivas, correlacionales y transversales. Por medio de la observación, análisis, comparación y descripción de las variables, la Inteligencia Emocional y el Clima Social Familiar tiene como finalidad establecer la relación entre La Inteligencia Emocional y el Clima Social Familiar, en las estudiantes del VII ciclo del C.E.P. “Santa Rosa Misioneras Dominicas del Rosario” Huacho; Lima. La muestra estuvo confor...

  16. de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Arellano Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es una contribución al estudio simultáneo de elementos ontológicos y metodológicos comprometidos con el conocimiento de la organización sociotécnica de la investigación científica universitaria. Se trata de la presentación de un análisis asistido informáticamente de bases de datos que genera mapas, de los que se pueden intelegir organización de relaciones heterogéneas de propiedades científico-técnicas y sociales contenidas en las fuentes de información, que son simultáneamente cuantitativas y cualitativas. Para ilustrar lo anterior, realizamos un estudio de caso analizando informáticamente las bases de datos de los proyectos de investigación en ciencias básicas de la Universidad de Costa Rica entre 1977 y 2005.

  17. Radium-226 on drinking water of Camaguey, Cuba; Radio-226 en agua potable de Camaguey, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalvan Estrada, Adelmo; Brigido Flores, Osvaldo; Barrera Caballero, Aldo [Centro de Atencion a la Actividad Nuclear, Camaguey (Cuba)]. E-mail: sean@caonao.cmw.inf.cu; Escalante, Alexander [Centro Provincial de Higiene y Epidemiologia, Camaguey (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water of Camaguey city, Cuba, was measured using the emanometric method. The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water ranged from 15 {+-} 5 mBq.l{sup -1} to 39 {+-}12 mBq.l{sup -1}. The mean specific activity of Ra-226 was found to be 27 {+-} 8 mBq.l{sup -1}. No seasonal variation was found. Water samples were collected from the two main sources of drinking water: private wells and governmental water supply system, being the mean specific activities of Ra-226: 25 {+-} 7 mBq.l{sup -1} and 31 {+-} 9 mBq.l{sup -1} , respectively. Based upon measured concentrations the age-dependent associated effective doses due to the ingestion of Ra-226, as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water, have been calculated. For the age interval 1 year to 5 years, the average effective dose was 6,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, and for adults the average effective dose was 5,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  18. Desarrollo de Monitores de Paciente en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario J. García Valdés

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} En este trabajo se presenta una comparación entre los diferentes modelos de Monitores de Paciente desarrollados en el ICID. Se describen las características técnicas y de aplicación para entender sus diferencias y semejanzas. La monitorización de Signos Vitales es muy importante en Cuidados Intensivos, en operaciones quirúrgicas y en todos los pacientes bajo observación continua. Los monitores poseen todas las facilidades de operación, almacenamiento, visualización y comunicación requeridas por el personal médico y paramédico. La información que se muestra en la pantalla puede ser gráfica y alfanumérica y se producen alarmas cuando los valores medidos caen fuera del rango seleccionado. Todos los monitores se han diseñado teniendo en cuenta las facilidades para la reparación y el mantenimiento.  

  19. Universidad de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Blanco Solís

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La formación inicial del grupo de profesionales en educación, exige hoy más que nunca de servicios efectivos de Orientación en la comunidad universitaria, puesto que los cambios económicos, las transformaciones sociales, las demandas del mercado de trabajo y los requerimientos de las profesiones, plantean un futuro difícil para la población estudiantil universitaria. Ante esta realidad, se realizó una investigación para dar respuesta al siguiente problema. De acuerdo con las percepciones de un grupo de estudiantes de la Escuela de Formación Docente de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ¿qué necesidades de orientación se encuentran asociadas a su formación inicial para enfrentar constructivamente los cambios, demandas y desafíos del Sistema Educativo Costarricense? El paradigma de investigación utilizado comprende la investigación social cualitativa. Para aplicar esta metodología se utilizó como técnica de recolección de la información, los grupos de discusión y el análisis de contingencias como técnica de análisis de la información. El logro de los objetivos de la investigación permitió identificar las siguientes necesidades de orientación en la población estudiada: autoafirmación profesional, habilidades de vida y madurez vocacional.

  20. Cuba's transition to market-based energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Lopez, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1960 the Soviet Union has been, for all practical purposes, Cuba's exclusive supplier of energy products. For certain time periods, Soviet sales of oil and oil products to Cuba were made at concessional prices; prior to 1991, they were priced using transferable rubles and were essentially bartered for Cuban goods, especially sugar. Effective January 1, 1991, the Soviet Union shifted to world market prices and convertible currency payments for all traded commodities, including energy products. The shift to market prices and convertible currencies in Cuban-Soviet energy trade has already brought - or is likely to bring - a number of adjustments in four areas: (1) the trade balance; (2) the ability to reexport oil and oil products; (3) energy consumption patterns; (4) and the structure of energy supplies. 33 refs., 8 tabs

  1. China, Global Governance and the Future of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian H. Hearn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s deepening engagement with Latin America has been accompanied by concerns about the Chinese government’s regard for international conventions of economic governance. Critics claim that across Latin America and the Caribbean, Chinese aid and trade are characterised by excessive state intervention. This article argues that, for two reasons, the rationale for these misgivings is dissipating. First, since the onset of the global financial crisis, China has gained influence in multilateral institutions, prompting them toward greater acceptance of public spending in developing countries. Second, recent developments in Cuba show that China is actively encouraging the Western hemisphere’s only communist country to liberalise its economy. China sits at the crossroads of these local and global developments, prompting Cuba toward rapprochement with international norms even as it works to reform them.

  2. Development and current state of dosimetry in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Miranda, E.F.; Cuesta Fuente, G.; Chavez Ardanza, A.

    1999-01-01

    In Cuba, the application of the radiation technologies has been growing in the last years, and at present there are several dosimetry systems with different ranges of absorbed dose. Diverse researches were carried out on high dose dosimetry with the following dosimetry systems: Fricke, ceric-cerous sulfate, ethanol-chlorobenzene, cupric sulfate and Perspex (Red 4034 AE and Clear HX). In this paper the development achieved during the last 15 years in the high dose dosimetry for radiation processing in Cuba is presented, as well as, the current state of different dosimetry systems employed for standardization and for process control. The paper also reports the results of dosimetry intercomparison studies that were performed with the Ezeiza Atomic Center of Argentine and the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) of IAEA. (author)

  3. Anglicism in the press of Santiago de Cuba city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusnel Tabares-Tabares

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary findings from an unfinished investigation having a synchronic approach are presented. The objective of this study is to analyze the English loanwords that appear in the press of Santiago de Cuba city at the beginning of the XX century. This analysis will allow to draw significant conclusions concerning the presence of anglicisms in the Spanish spoken in Cuba. The methodology is based on a random revision of “El Cubano Libre” newspaper, at the time it is counted some aspects, namely: how many anglicisms were found, their typology, grammatical category, their frequency of appearance, and the year they were published in the dictionary of the Spanish Royal Academy.  Among the outstanding results is remarkable that few English loanwords were registered in the dictionary of the Spanish Royal Academy, the topics more profitable to search were those of politics and sport, and the sort of anglicisms more frequent belong to the category of patent loanword.

  4. Calibration of F-18 activity for PET applications in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    León, Yecenia Moreno; Verdecia, Pilar Oropesa; Rodríguez, Lourdes García; Águila, Rolando A. Serra; Magaña, Yoel Jénez; Hechavarría, Ailec Bell; Pérez, Nayla; Cacero, Maray Dubalón; Ruiz, Javier Mas

    2016-01-01

    In the paper we present the results of the calibration of the concentration of F-18 dissolution activity in Cuba. Methods of measurement in a calibrated well ionization chamber, traceable to the UK national standard and gamma spectrometry yielded equivalent results within the limit of the associated uncertainties, respectively. The measurement uncertainties of the F-18 activity of the secondary standard activity activator, CAPINTEC CRCTM 15R, obtained from calibration of the instrument with the calibrated solutions of radionuclide, are also shown for the measurement of samples in the geometries of interest in Nuclear Medicine: glass jars and plastic syringes. The results presented in this paper constitute the necessary metrological support for the use of F-18 radiopharmaceuticals and the new PET and PET / CT technologies in medical practice in Cuba.

  5. Historical an insight into the teaching of philosophy in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lidia Beltrán-Marín

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of philosophy in Cuba has been related to events in economic and political life, which leads to the boundaries between the various stages of its teaching are linked to the transformations of its general historical evolution. This work aims to contribute to the training of educational professional’s specialties of history and marxism, and to expand cuban philosophical historiography. Among other methods, analysis and synthesis and logical history were used, complemented by an in-depth document analysis. We present the results of a project of the University of Sancti Spiritus which has led to the present approach to the history of the teaching of philosophy in Cuba which runs through the synthesis stages of colonial, republic and revolution; As well as the predominant philosophical currents at each stage: scholasticism, reformism, modernity, positivism, electivism, existentialism, marxism.

  6. La postemancipación y trabajo en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zeuske

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los procesos de transculturación y fecundación mutua entre los espacios de trabajo en la postemancipación. El caso de Cuba es complejo, pues se dio en una época de desestructuración progresiva de la esclavitud, jalonada por guerras anticoloniales y una modernización tecnológica ininterrumpida. Se argumenta que aunque las condiciones de trabajo no mejoraron en lo sustancial, sí lo hizo la división sexual del trabajo, los patrones de movilidad, y el acceso a la propiedad informal de la tierra. La modernización de Cuba como productor azucarero introdujo fuerzas de inmenso calado en las luchas sociales del período.

  7. Origin of invasive Florida frogs traced to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Matthew P.; Diaz, Luis M.; Hedges, S. Blair

    2011-01-01

    Two of the earliest examples of successful invasive amphibians are the greenhouse frog (Eleutherodactylus planirostris) and the Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) in Florida. Although both are generally assumed to be recent introductions, they are widespread on Caribbean islands and also have been proposed as natural colonizers. We obtained nucleotide sequence data for both species and their closest relatives in their native and introduced ranges. Phylogenetic analyses trace the origin of E. planirostris to a small area in western Cuba, while O. septentrionalis is derived from at least two Cuban sources, one probably a remote peninsula in western Cuba. The tropical-to-temperate invasion began with colonization of the Florida Keys followed by human-mediated dispersal within peninsular Florida. The subtropical Keys may have served as an adaptive stepping stone for the successful invasion of the North American continent. PMID:21270024

  8. Comparison of family planning in Cuba and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Suzie; Stronge, Shirley

    2015-08-26

    Family planning gives individuals and couples control and choice over the number of children they have and the timing of their births. Developments in reproductive health have resulted in major changes in the options for family planning, providing more choice and control over fertility. This article explores reproductive health in the Republic of Cuba and the Republic of Ireland, with a focus on contraceptive use and termination of pregnancy as methods of family planning. The predominant religion in both countries is Catholicism, which promotes the right to life of the unborn child. The two countries have adopted different approaches to the availability of both contraception and termination of pregnancy. Cuba has offered free access to contraception and termination of pregnancy since the 1960s to reduce maternal mortality. In Ireland, contraception was not widely available until 1995 and termination of pregnancy is available only in extremely limited circumstances.

  9. [A battle won: the elimination of poliomyelitis in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaple, Enrique Beldarraín

    2015-01-01

    Poliomyelitis was introduced in Cuba in the late nineteenth century by American residents in Isla de Pinos. The first epidemics occurred in 1906 and 1909 and increased in intensity between 1930 and 1958. The scope of the paper is to reconstruct the history of the disease and its epidemics in Cuba prior to 1961, the first National Polio Vaccination Campaign (1962) and its results, as well as analyze the ongoing annual vaccination campaigns through to certified elimination of the disease (1994). The logical historical method was used and archival documents and statistics from the Ministry of Health on morbidity and mortality through 2000 were reviewed. Gross morbidity and mortality rates were calculated and interviews with key figures were conducted.

  10. Europa y Estados Unidos ante los Derechos Humanos en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Gratius

    2008-01-01

    de la UE no han sido estrategias eficaces para promover los derechos humanos en la isla. Al ser diferentes, las políticas de la UE y EEUU incluso han contribuido a mantener el régimen castrista en el poder: la UE por su reconocimiento diplomático y la cooperación económica; EEUU, al proporcionar una imagen de enemigo externo. Por ello, y ante el nuevo panorama que ofrece el cambio de gobierno en Cuba, la próxima revisión de la Posición Común de la UE y las elecciones presidenciales en EEUU, es necesario replantearse los objetivos y estrategias políticas para incentivar los derechos humanos en Cuba.

  11. Historical an insight into the teaching of philosophy in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Lidia Beltrán-Marín; Greten Lauren Blanco-Montesino; Lesly León-Montesino

    2018-01-01

    The teaching of philosophy in Cuba has been related to events in economic and political life, which leads to the boundaries between the various stages of its teaching are linked to the transformations of its general historical evolution. This work aims to contribute to the training of educational professional’s specialties of history and marxism, and to expand cuban philosophical historiography. Among other methods, analysis and synthesis and logical history were used, complemented by an in-d...

  12. An overview of sugarcane brown rust in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María La O

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Multiple pathogens affect sugarcane, among them Puccinia melanocephala, the causal agent of brown rust. This disease was first reported in Cuba in 1979 when it was responsible for a severe attack on the main sugarcane variety B4362. The aims of the present study were to give an overview of sugarcane brown rust in Cuba and show the current disease situation in the country. A retrospective analysis regard to sugarcane cultivar composition resistant to brown rust in Cuba was carried out. In addition 154 genotypes, including the most used progenitors in the breeding program and commercial varieties were evaluated under natural infection conditions. The identity of P. melanocephala was verified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and by sequencing the ITS1 region. After the introduction of P. melanocephala into Cuba, the susceptible variety, B4362, was replaced by Ja60-5 which remained resistant until 1998. Since 2002, a varietal policy supported by a governmental resolution establishing that any single cultivar cannot occupy more than 20 % of the production area for each production company, local area and province, has been applied. Out of the genotypes evaluated, 49 showed resistance to the disease and 35 intermediate behavior, while 39 were susceptible and 31, highly susceptible. P. melanocephala was detected by PCR in all symptomatic samples and its identify confirmed by sequencing the ITS1 region. The adopted measurement together with permanent phytosanitary monitoring and commercial release of resistant or intermediate cultivars succeeded in avoiding any new epidemic. Inoculum pressure was reduced, even on susceptible and highly susceptible varieties since, by resolution, they cannot occupy more than 10 % of the planted area.

  13. Phylodynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatorre, Edson; Bello, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba displayed a complex molecular epidemiologic profile with circulation of several subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF); but the evolutionary and population history of those viral variants remains unknown. HIV-1 pol sequences of the most prevalent Cuban lineages (subtypes B, C and G, CRF18_cpx, CRF19_cpx, and CRFs20/23/24_BG) isolated between 1999 and 2011 were analyzed. Maximum-likelihood analyses revealed multiple introductions of subtype B (n≥66), subtype C (n≥10), subtype G (n≥8) and CRF18_cpx (n≥2) viruses in Cuba. The bulk of HIV-1 infections in this country, however, was caused by dissemination of a few founder strains probably introduced from North America/Europe (clades B(CU-I) and B(CU-II)), east Africa (clade C(CU-I)) and central Africa (clades G(CU), CRF18(CU) and CRF19(CU)), or locally generated (clades CRFs20/23/24_BG). Bayesian-coalescent analyses show that the major HIV-1 founder strains were introduced into Cuba during 1985-1995; whereas the CRFs_BG strains emerged in the second half of the 1990s. Most HIV-1 Cuban clades appear to have experienced an initial period of fast exponential spread during the 1990s and early 2000s, followed by a more recent decline in growth rate. The median initial growth rate of HIV-1 Cuban clades ranged from 0.4 year⁻¹ to 1.6 year⁻¹. Thus, the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba has been a result of the successful introduction of a few viral strains that began to circulate at a rather late time of the AIDS pandemic, but then were rapidly disseminated through local transmission networks.

  14. Nuclear instrumentation in Cuba and for osseous densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero, M.; Lopez, B.; Bolanos, L.; Fernandez, J.L.; Cabal, A.; Medina, D.; Laria, J.; Alonso, D.

    1997-01-01

    The present job describes the technical characteristics and operation of two clinical equipment designed in Cuba, for the determination in vivo of the osseous mineral content in forearm, based on the of gamma absorption technique of a single photon. The development of these equipment and the measurements done with one of them are the first intents carried out in the country to diagnose osseous illnesses by means of this method. (author) [es

  15. Nicaraguan Migrants in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquette, Catherine M.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This document is the executive summary of a detailed document entitled, Nicaraguan Migrants and Poverty in Costa Rica, which was prepared for the World Bank in 2006. The more detailed background paper from which this summary is derived was commissioned as a background paper in preparation for an upcoming poverty mission by the World Bank to Costa Rica. This summary and the larger document from which it comes provides: (1 a general overview of the socioeconomic and health situation of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and (2 a review of the poverty characteristics of these migrants. The primary data sources for the larger paper were successive recent rounds of the Annual National Household Survey in Costa Rica and the 2000 Census. The more detailed report on which this summary is based also reviews issues of data quality, comparability, and methodological problems with respect to existing information on Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica. As a summary, the document below, does not include detailed citations, which are of course included in the larger report. Readers are thus, referred to the larger report for citations and more detailed information on the data included in this summary.

  16. Nicaraguan Migrants in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Marquette

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This document is the executive summary of a detailed document entitled, Nicaraguan Migrants and Poverty in Costa Rica, which was prepared for the World Bank in 2006. The more detailed background paper from which this summary is derived was commissioned as a background paper in preparation for an upcoming poverty mission by the World Bank to Costa Rica. This summary and the larger document from which it comes provides: (1 a general overview of the socioeconomic and health situation of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and (2 a review of the poverty characteristics of these migrants. The primary data sources for the larger paper were successive recent rounds of the Annual National Household Survey in Costa Rica and the 2000 Census. The more detailed report on which this summary is based also reviews issues of data quality, comparability, and methodological problems with respect to existing information on Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica. As a summary, the document below, does not include detailed citations, which are of course included in the larger report. Readers are thus, referred to the larger report for citations and more detailed information on the data included in this summary.

  17. CUBA: TRANSICIÓN, SUCESIÓN, ESTABILIDAD, SEGURIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín ROY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este análisis trata de la relación entre la estabilidad del presente gobierno cubano y la necesidad de seguridad en su territorio y en la zona circundante. Este vínculo se produce en un momento político de Cuba, entre un primer paso de la sucesión de Fidel Castro a Raúl, sin que se den señales claras de una transición hacia otro tipo de sistema político. Mientras tanto, el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha declarado que su prioridad estriba en el reestablecimiento de la democracia en Cuba, tanto durante el último periodo de la administración de George W. Bush como con Barack Obama ya asentado en la Casa Blanca. Sin embargo, las delicadas circunstancias de Cuba (precariedad económica, desastres naturales, dependencia alimentaria y energética, etc. señalan que la prioridad de los intereses nacionales de Estados Unidos se centran primero en la estabilidad del escenario. Incluso al precio del retraso de la evolución del régimen, un cierto grado de seguridad es necesario para enfrentarse a los riesgos de una emigración incontrolada y las hipotéticas tensiones internas que provoquen confrontaciones.

  18. Tricontinental Routes of Solidarity: Stokely Carmichael in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Seidman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stokely Carmichael’s visit to Cuba for three weeks in the summer of 1967 illustrates a convergence in the transnational routes of the African American freedom struggle and the Cuban Revolution. African American activists saw Cuba as a model for resisting US power, eradicating racism, and enacting societal change, while the Cuban government considered African Americans allies against US imperialism and advocates of Cuba’s antiracist stance. Amidst racial violence in the United States and Cuba’s efforts to inspire revolution, Carmichael’s presence at the Organization of Latin American Solidarity conference in Havana—and in particular his interactions with Fidel Castro—caused ripples worldwide. A shared “tricontinental” vision that promoted unity in the Global South against imperialism, capitalism, and racism facilitated Carmichael’s solidarity with Castro. Yet divergent views on the role of race in fighting oppression limited their solidarity. Carmichael and Castro’s spectacular alliance demonstrated their personal affinity and ideological commonalities but did not result in an institutional alliance between the black liberation movement and the Cuban state. Instead Carmichael’s connection with the Cuban Revolution left an underexplored legacy. Examining Carmichael’s visit to Cuba illustrates the possibilities and pitfalls of transnational solidarity and furthers our understanding of postwar struggles for change.

  19. Risk factors for wheezing in infants born in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venero-Fernández, S J; Suárez-Medina, R; Mora-Faife, E C; García-García, G; Valle-Infante, I; Gómez-Marrero, L; Abreu-Suárez, G; González-Valdez, J; Fabró-Ortiz, D Dania; Fundora-Hernández, H; Venn, A; Britton, J; Fogarty, A W

    2013-11-01

    Cuba is a unique country, and despite limited economic development, has an excellent health system. However, the prevalence of asthma symptoms in children in Havana, Cuba, is unusually high. As early life exposures are critical to the aetiology of asthma, we have studied environmental influences on the risk of wheezing in Cuban infants. Cross-sectional study. A random sample of 2032 children aged 12-15 months living in Havana was selected for inclusion in the cohort. Data were collected using questionnaires administered by researchers. Of 2032 infants invited to participate, 1956 (96%) infants provided data. The prevalence of any wheeze was 45%, severe wheeze requiring use of emergency services was 30% and recurrent wheeze on three or more occasions was 20%. The largest adjusted risk factors for any wheeze were presence of eczema [odds ratio (OR) 2.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-2.94], family history of asthma (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.60-2.62), poor ventilation in the house (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.48-2.67), attendance at nursery (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.24-2.57), male sex (OR1.52; 95% CI 1.19-1.96) and the number of smokers in the house (P Cuba. As the prevalence of smoking in the house is high (51%), intervention studies are required to determine effective strategies to improve infant health.

  20. In Defense of Clinical Autopsy and Its Practice in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Brito, Alfredo D; de Mendoza-Amat, José Hurtado

    2017-01-01

    There has been a notable decrease in the global practice of clinical autopsy; the rate has fallen to below 10%, even in high-income countries. This is attributed to several causes, including increased costs, overreliance on modern diagnostic techniques, cultural and religious factors, the emergence of new infectious diseases and negative attitudes on the part of doctors, even pathologists. Alternative methods to autopsy in postmortem studies have been developed based on imaging, endoscopy and biopsy (all quite expensive). These methods have been used in developed countries but never as effectively as the classic autopsy for identifying cause of death and potential medical errors. Although Cuba has also seen a decrease in its autopsy rates, they remain comparatively high. Between 1996 and 2015, there were 687,689 hospital deaths in Cuba and 381,193 autopsies, 55.4% of the total. These autopsies have positively affected medical care, training, research, innovation, management and society as a whole. Autopsies are an important tool in the National Health System's quest for safe, quality patient care based on the lessons learned from studying the deceased. KEYWORDS Autopsy, postmortem examination, postmortem diagnosis, quality of care, patient safety, medical error, Cuba.

  1. La drepanocitosis en Cuba. Estudio en niños: Study in children Drepanocytosis in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Svarch

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La drepanocitosis es la anemia hemolítica determinada genéticamente más frecuente en el mundo. En Cuba, la frecuencia del estado de portador es del 3,08 % en la población general. La fisiopatología de la oclusión vascular es muy compleja; involucra la polimerización de la Hb S, las alteraciones de la membrana del hematíe, las moléculas de adhesión, las citocinas inflamatorias, los factores de la coagulación y lesiones del endotelio vascular. Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes son: las crisis vasooclusivas dolorosas, el síndrome torácico agudo, la crisis de secuestro esplénico, la crisis aplástica, la necrosis aséptica de la cabeza del fémur y la úlcera maleolar. El cuadro clínico es muy variable: desde niños que mueren temprano en la vida hasta pacientes que alcanzan la sexta década de la vida. En el Instituto de Hematología e Inmunología existe un Programa de Atención Integral que incluye: seguimiento sistemático desde temprano en la vida en una consulta especializada, la administración de ácido fólico de forma permanente y de penicilina oral profiláctica los primeros 5 años de la vida; así como la educación del niño y de sus padres. Desde 1986 se realiza esplenectomía parcial en la crisis de secuestro esplénico con excelentes resultados. Entre 2004-2008 fallecieron solamente 16 enfermos en todo el país y en 397 adultos la sobrevida fue de 53 años en la anemia drepanocítica y de 58 en la hemoglobinopatía SC. Como resultado de este programa, en los últimos años la sobrevida ha aumentado, la calidad de vida del paciente ha mejorado y han disminuido los costos invertidos en el tratamiento de las complicaciones.Drepanocytosis is the hemolytic anemia more frequent genetically determined in the world. In Cuba, the frequency of carrier status is of 3,08% in general population. The pathophysiology of vascular occlusion is very complex; includes the polymerization of the Hb S, the alterations of red

  2. Acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Nurys B; Ortega, Yanela Y; de la Noval, Reinaldo; Suárez, Ramón; Llerena, Lorenzo; Dueñas, Alfredo F

    2012-10-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death in the world. This is also true in Cuba, where no national-level epidemiologic studies of related mortality have been published in recent years. Describe acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba from 1999 through 2008. A descriptive study was conducted of persons aged ≥25 years with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction from 1999 through 2008. Data were obtained from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database for variables: age; sex; site (out of hospital, in hospital or in hospital emergency room) and location (jurisdiction) of death. Proportions, age- and sex-specific rates and age-standardized overall rates per 100,000 population were calculated and compared over time, using the two five-year time frames within the study period. A total of 145,808 persons who had suffered acute myocardial infarction were recorded, 75,512 of whom died, for a case-fatality rate of 51.8% (55.1% in 1999-2003 and 49.7% in 2004-2008). In the first five-year period, mortality was 98.9 per 100,000 population, falling to 81.8 per 100,000 in the second; most affected were people aged ≥75 years and men. Of Cuba's 14 provinces and special municipality, Havana, Havana City and Camagüey provinces, and the Isle of Youth Special Municipality showed the highest mortality; Holguín, Ciego de Ávila and Granma provinces the lowest. Out-of-hospital deaths accounted for the greatest proportion of deaths in both five-year periods (54.8% and 59.2% in 1999-2003 and 2004-2008, respectively). Although risk of death from acute myocardial infarction decreased through the study period, it remains a major health problem in Cuba. A national acute myocardial infarction case registry is needed. Also required is further research to help elucidate possible causes of Cuba's high acute myocardial infarction mortality: cardiovascular risk studies, studies of out-of-hospital mortality and quality of care

  3. La formación de maestros para la enseñanza primaria en Cuba y los programas literarios en sus planes de estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Rodríguez Menéndez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba la enseñanza primaria o elemental transitó por diferentes etapas donde adquirió rasgos específicos en correspondencia con los intereses gubernamentales y el desarrollo del sistema educativo. En este artículo se muestran las particularidades que va adquiriendo esta enseñanza atendiendo a dos etapas bien diferenciadas, cómo transcurre el proceso de formación de maestros en cada una de ellas y la evolución histórica del proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje de la literatura en la formación de los estudiantes de la carrera Licenciatura en Educación Primaria.

  4. El proceso de selección natural en el campo social del ballet en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamlet Betancourt León

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El campo del ballet es un sistema social conflictivo donde se manifiesta gran competitividad -reflejada en continuas selecciones sociales y naturales- para cumplimentar la fantasía de todos los bailarines: bailar públicamente. El objetivo de esta investigación es demostrar la pertinencia del supuesto teórico darwinista de selección natural en la discriminación de belleza escénica de la figura del bailarín en el sistema piramidal de selección, formación y desempeño profesional del campo cubano del ballet. El campo del ballet se registra fácticamente en instituciones culturales pobladas por individuos que persiguen cotidianamente crear bailarines profesionales aptos -primera condición es ser revolucionario- que representen internacionalmente a la Revolución Cubana. El campo se estructura en un sistema piramidal de selección, formación y desempeño de bailarines profesionales que rige sus prácticas principales de exclusión/inclusión -puntos de corte- por el principio darwinista de selección natural. Los exámenes de capacidades físicas de ingreso y pase de nivel a la enseñanza de nivel medio y la aceptación a la compañía profesional Ballet Nacional de Cuba conforman los puntos de corte del sistema piramidal. Estos contienen prácticas sociales que valoran -empírica, pero sistemáticamente- las características morfo-funcionales de los participantes interesados respecto al deber ser del canon artístico de figura, para seleccionar siempre a los más bellos, los más aptos, bailarines de ballet.

  5. O socialismo, lutas sociais e novo modo de vida na América Latina

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Resumo O objetivo deste texto é refletir sobre a experiência recente do socialismo com o olhar voltado para a América Latina. Se ao longo do século XX, a tese do “socialismo em um só país” sofreu uma derrota profunda, mesmo em seu espaço ampliado de incidência, qual poderá ser o papel (econômico, social e político) de países como o Brasil, México, Argentina, Venezuela, Bolívia e Colômbia, Cuba etc, nas lutas pelo socialismo, tanto no espaço latinoamericano, quanto mundial? Nesta era de mundia...

  6. 75 FR 8791 - Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of... February 23, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority....-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation...

  7. 76 FR 11071 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ...--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the... Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of... north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation 7757, the national emergency was extended and its...

  8. 78 FR 13207 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ...--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the... Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of... north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation 7757, the national emergency was extended and its...

  9. Investigating Volcanic-Hydrothermal Systems in Dominica, Lesser Antilles: Temporal Changes in the Chemical Composition of Hydrothermal Fluids for Volcanic Monitoring Using Geothermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeali, M. M. C.; Joseph, E. P.; Frey, H. M.

    2017-12-01

    Dominica has an abundance of volcanic activity, with nine potentially active volcanoes, many of which have highly active volcanic-hydrothermal systems. The waters are predominantly acid-sulphate in character (SO4=100-4200 mg/L, pH≤4), and likely formed because of dilution of acidic gases in near surface oxygenated groundwater. The waters are of primarily meteoric origin, but are likely affected by evaporation effects at/near the surface, with δ18O ranging from -1.75 to 10.67‰, and δD from -6.1 to 14.5‰. With updated water chemistry and isotopic data from five hydrothermal areas (Boiling Lake, Valley of Desolation, Sulphur Springs, Wotten Waven, Cold Soufriere) for the period 2014 to 2017, we will re-evaluate the characteristics of these systems, which were last reported in 2011. We will present updated reservoir temperatures using a variety of geothermometers and provide insight into water-rock interactions taking place in the reservoirs. Recent changes in chemistry of the waters have indicated that while the origin of the hydrothermal systems are still dominantly meteoric (δ18O = -3 to 8‰ and δD = -5 to 18‰), surface evaporation effects and variable amounts of mixing with shallow ground waters play an important role. Fumaroles appear to reflect a deeper source contribution as compared to thermal waters with differences in acidity, temperature, TDS, δ18O, and δD observed. The general composition of the waters for most of the hydrothermal systems studied indicate no significant changes, with the exception of the Boiling Lake, which experienced a draining event in November 2016 which lasted for 6 weeks. Decreases in temperature, pH, Na, K, and Cl were seen post draining, while SO4 remained relatively low (66 ppm), but showed a small increase. The chemistry of the Boiling Lake appears to show significant changes in response to changes in the groundwater system. Changes in the groundwater system at the lake observed during the 2004/2005 draining, which

  10. Dialogar con Dios: el uso de las imágenes en los conventos femeninos de dominicas en la Teutonia bajomedieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäggi, Carola

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several convent chronicles from within the Dominican Province of Upper Germany dating back to the 14th and 15th centuries provide interesting insight into the manner in which works of art were utilized in late medieval religious life. Amongst other findings, study of the sources reveals that the nuns used images of the Mother of God and of the Crucified Christ not always and not only to meditate upon and commemorate the facts of salvation, but above all to receive support and solace in times of distress. The conception of icons derived from these sources is of the merging of archetype and image and of the indwelling of the person depicted in the image. Examples such as St Katharinental in northeastern Switzerland, where a large supply of images has been preserved in addition to numerous statues, are of particular interest for the study.Procedentes de la antigua provincia dominica alto alemana han llegado hasta nosotros algunos Schwesternbücher o Libros de monjas de los siglos XIV y XV que ofrecen interesantes indicaciones sobre el uso que se hacía en los conventos de mujeres de la Baja edad Media de las obras de arte que en ellos se custodiaban. Entre otras cosas se desprende de estas fuentes que las hermanas utilizaban las imágenes no siempre y no sólo como instrumentos de meditación para conmemorar los acontecimientos de la Historia de Salvación, sino sobre todo acudían en tiempos de necesidad a las imágenes de la Madre de Dios y del crucifijo para obtener de ellas consejo y consuelo. Parece por consiguiente que se trata de una forma de comprensión de la imagen que unía el arquetipo original y su representación, “morando” el representado en su imagen. Casos como el de St. Katharinental en el noreste de Suiza, donde además de las fuentes escritas se ha conservado un buen número de tallas del siglo XIV, son especialmente interesantes para esta cuestión.

  11. Methodology applied in Cuba for siting, designing, and building a radioactive waste repository under safety conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbera, L.; Peralta, J.L.; Franklin, R.; Gil, R.; Chales, G.; Rodriguez, A.

    1993-01-01

    The work presents the methodology used in Cuba for siting, designing, and building a radioactive waste repository safely. This methodology covers both the technical and socio-economic factors, as well as those of design and construction so as to have a safe siting for this kind of repository under Cuba especial condition. Applying this methodology will results in a safe repository

  12. Technical project of a solar water heating system for Hostal FRATERNIDAD, Santiago de Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzuaga Machado, Yusnel; Torres Ten, Alonso; Fonseca Fonseca, Susana; Fuetes lombá, Osmanys; Massipe Hernández, J. Raúl; Gonzalez, Wagner Roberto

    2017-01-01

    It is presented the technical project of a solar water heating system for Hostal FRATERNIDAD, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 20 Cabannas type tourism and a one of 2 square meter flat solar collector will be used, with a storage tank of 200 liters capacity, that is to say one system per cabin. (author)

  13. The dystrophinopathies in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Azofeifa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A five-years long study aiming to describe the basic genetic epidemiology of the dystrophinopathies in Costa Rica recruited 31 patients with clinical symptoms of DMD/BMD at the National Children’s Hospital (HNN. This center is the obligate reference hospital of the national health system for genetic diseases, however, the geographic origin of the patients, a low percentage of deletions and a high proportion of de novo mutations found among them indicate that a significant ascertainment bias impedes a substantial scientific approach to confront and alleviate the problems posed by these severe diseases in Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 485- 490. Epub 2004 Dic 15.Un estudio de cinco años tendiente a describir la epidemiología genética básica de las distrofinopatías en Costa Rica detectó 31 pacientes con sintomatología de DMD o de BMD en el Hospital Nacional de Niños (HNN, el centro de referencia del sistema nacional de salud para enefrmedades hereditarias, sin embargo, la distribución geográfica de los pacientes, un bajo porcentaje de deleciones y una muy elevada proporción de mutaciones de novo indican que un significante sesgo de averiguación impide el estudio científico de riguroso tendiente a disminuir el impacto de estas enfermedades en Costa Rica.

  14. El IDRC en Costa Rica

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    El IDRC también fortaleció al centro de información agrícola del país y sus investigadores ... El trabajo del nodo ayudó a mejorar la posi- ción negociadora de América Central en ... problemas de salud y medio ambiente. ... Seguridad social.

  15. Seismological programs in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, W.; Spall, Henry

    1983-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1970's, a series of programs in seismology were initiated by different Costa Rican institutions, and some of these programs are still in the process of development. The institutions are Insituto Costaricense de Electricidad (ICE)- The Costa Rica Institute of Electricity

  16. Leguminosas naturalizadas en el Valle del Cauto, Cuba Naturalized legumes in the Cauto Valley, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gómez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la dinámica de crecimiento de 24 accesiones del género Brachiaria spp., se desarrolló la presente investigación en la región de Barrancabermeja, Santander, Colombia. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado, en 72 parcelas de 21 m2 cada una y tres réplicas (parcelas para cada tratamiento. Las accesiones fueron agrupadas según los hábitos de crecimiento en: estoloníferas, decumbentes y erectas, y se determinó la tasa de crecimiento en función de la altura del pasto. Las accesiones con mejor crecimiento durante la investigación fueron: de las estoloníferas, B. dictyoneura CIAT-6133; de las de hábito decumbente, B. decumbens CIAT-606; y de las de crecimiento erecto, B. brizantha CIAT-16113, CIAT-26110, CIAT-26318 y CIAT-16322. Algunas accesiones no tuvieron un buen comportamiento, al parecer por las condiciones edafoclimáticas a las que fueron sometidas. Entre ellas se encuentran B. dictyoneura CIAT-16871, B. ruziziensis CIAT-26180 y B. brizantha CIAT-16212, 26124 y 26427.With the objective of prospect and collect the naturalized legumes for livestock production usage in the Cauto Valley, Cuba, two searches were made in representative zones of the region. The first search was conducted in the territory located west of Bayamo city, where there are different soils and rainfall regimes, and the second one on soils affected by salinity. In prospection number 1 the presence of 17 genera was determined and within them a total of 22 species, among which the following prevailed: Galactia spiciformis, Centrosema molle, Desmodium triflorum and Teramnus uncinatum; the existence of an important number of species was also known on vertisol soils with deficient drainage, which edaphic grouping constitutes the most extended in the region, and on the other hand, the associability degree of each legume with other species of the spontaneous vegetation present in the search areas, was characterized. In

  17. Tuberculosis mortality trends in cuba, 1998 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Edilberto; Risco, Grisel E; Borroto, Susana; Perna, Abel; Armas, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of illness and death throughout the world. The World Health Organization's Global Plan to Stop TB 2006-2015 proposes that countries cut TB mortality by half compared to 1990 rates. In Cuba, TB mortality declined steadily throughout the 20th century, particularly after 1960. Objective Describe TB mortality distribution and trends in Cuba from January 1998 to December 2007 by infection site, sex, age and province, and determine progress towards the WHO's 2015 target for TB mortality reduction. Methods A time series ecological study was conducted. Death certificates stating TB as cause of death were obtained from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division, and population data by age group, sex, and province were obtained from the National Statistics Bureau. Crude and specific death rate trends and variation were analyzed. Results TB mortality declined from 0.4 per 100,000 population in 1998 to 0.2 (under half the 1990 rate) in 2007. Clinical forms of the disease, both pulmonary and extrapulmonary, also declined. The highest mortality rates were found in males and in the group aged ≥ 65 years. Rates were also highest in the capital, Havana, with extreme values of 0.73 and 0.39 per 100,000 population at the beginning and end of the period, respectively. Conclusions Deaths from TB declined steadily compared to total deaths and deaths caused by infectious diseases. The Global Plan to Stop TB target was met well ahead of 2015. If this trend continues, TB is likely to become an exceptional cause of death in Cuba.

  18. Uso tradicional de plantas medicinales con acción diurética en el Municipio de Quemado de Güines, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maykel Pérez Machín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La flora de Cuba es muy rica en plantas medicinales, de las cuales se reportan aproximadamente 179 especies que la población utiliza para fines diuréticos, sin embargo, un gran número de ellas carece de validación experimental de su efecto farmacológico. El presente estudio se realizó con el propósito de documentar la importancia relativa de las especies medicinales más empleadas con fines diuréticos en el municipio de Quemado de Güines de la provincia de Villa Clara, Cuba. Se realizó un estudio etnobotánico en dos comunidades pertenecientes a ese municipio, para lo cual se realizó un muestreo a un total de 85 habitantes, y se aplicó aleatoriamente 80 encuestas a conocedores de plantas y 5 entrevistas entre yerberos y médicos practicantes de medicina tradicional, los cuales nos indicaron las plantas más utilizadas con estos fines en las comunidades estudiadas. La información etnofarmacológica fue registrada mediante la metodología TRAMIL y las especies de interés fueron identificadas y depositadas en el Herbario de la Universidad Central "Marta Abreu" de Las Villas. Los datos se analizaron mediante los índices cuantitativos de valor de uso para cada especie (IVU y el nivel de uso significativo (UST. Este indicador expresa que aquellos usos medicinales que son citados con una frecuencia superior o igual al 20%, por las personas encuestadas pueden considerarse significativos desde el punto de vista de su aceptación cultural y, por lo tanto, merecen su validación científica en Cuba. Se identificaron 26 especies medicinales agrupadas en 19 familias botánicas y se encontraron 10 plantas con un mayor nivel de uso significativo y un mayor IVU. El 53.8% de las plantas reportadas como diuréticas no se han validado experimentalmente en Cuba, el resto de las especies identificadas han sido estudiadas a nivel preclínico, pero aún no está autorizado su empleo como fitomedicamento.

  19. Cuba-guatemala cooperation: building viable models for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorry, Conner

    2009-07-01

    The intertwined history of Cuba and Guatemala goes back almost five centuries. In 1536, Friar Bartolom� de las Casas sailed from Cuba to Guatemala with material for his book, A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies, seared upon his conscience. Documenting atrocities against Cuba's indigenous populations, the book persuaded Guatemala's colonial powers to rewrite abusive labor laws that were killing the Maya; the book also earned De las Casas the nickname 'apostle of the Indians.' Over 300 years later, the apostle of Cuban independence, Jos� Mart�, cut his journalistic teeth in Guatemala, while Cuban poet Jos� Joaqu�n Palma authored Guatemala's national anthem. More recently, in the 1950s, Dr Ernesto ('Che') Guevara's time in the country solidified his belief in the need for radical social change a few years before he would join Fidel Castro's Rebel Army. And in 1998, Guatemala, like Cuba so many times before and since, was struck by a fierce, fatal hurricane, opening in its wake a new chapter in the countries' shared history. Hurricane Mitch took over 30,000 lives in Central America and is widely considered the deadliest hurricane to hit the Western Hemisphere in 200 years. The storm made landfall in Guatemala on October 26, 1998 killing 268 people and displacing 106,000. Losses were estimated at US$750 million, with 6,000 homes completely destroyed and another 20,000 damaged. Seven health centers and 48 rural health stations serving 50,000 people were affected.[1] Within days, a team of 19 Cuban doctors landed in Puerto San Jos� in the southern department of Escuintla to provide medical assistance. Working alongside Spanish, US, and Guatemalan relief workers, the Cuban contingent set broken bones, treated some 900 cases of cholera[2] and 14,000 of malaria,[3] evacuated pregnant women, and delivered babies. Implementing vector control, safeguarding food supplies, and providing potable water were other measures taken by the Cuban volunteers, who

  20. The right to health care for transsexual people in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Alberto; Rodríguez, R Mayra

    2012-04-01

    Gender identity is a sociocultural construct based (in nearly every society) on a binary norm: female and male. Transsexual individuals suffer from intense family and social discrimination because they express a dissident sexuality incongruent with this norm. They assert they feel trapped in a body that does not belong to them, so they seek help from health professionals to modify their bodies, to "adapt their bodies to their minds." This essay discusses health care for transsexual persons in Cuba from a human rights perspective that does not pathologize their gender identification.

  1. L’insegnamento della lingua e letteratura italiane a Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayerìn Bello Valdés

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Nel suo articolo l’autrice ricostruisce la storia dell’insegnamento delle lingua e della letteratura italiane a Cuba dal Novecento ai giorni nostri, e fornisce una ricca documentazione sui corsi di italiano, sugli studi e  sulle opere più importanti pubblicate a Cuba sulla nostra letteratura e sulle manifestazioni realizzate per la diffusione della cultura italiana nel paese. In particolare riferisce dell’importante ruolo svolto dalla rivista “Cuadernos de italianística cubana” – e dalle istituzioni accademiche e culturali che ad essa fanno riferimento – nel campo della ricerca linguistica, della glottodidattica, dello studio della cultura italiana nelle sue diverse manifestazioni, tra cui la musica e l’opera lirica, e nella diffusione dell’italiano attraverso specifici programmi televisivi.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} In her article the author reconstructs the history of Italian language and literature teaching in Cuba from the Nineteen Hundreds up to the present and provides a wealth of documentation on the Italian courses, studies and the most important works published in Cuba on our literature, as well as on events organized to spread Italian culture throughout the country.  In particular

  2. Training of professional interpreters in Cuba: Its main historic backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Oliveros-Domínguez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of interpreters in Cuba has as its main goal to train a professional who is able to mediate among Spanish speakers and not-Spanish speakers in our historic situation. This research article aims to analyze the main backgrounds of interpretation teaching at Universidad de Oriente, taking into account its dynamics and the didactic treatment of the cognitive factors involved in the interpretation process. This enables to deepen into the main characteristics of the process, through a study of short-term memory training and the didactic devices used for its improvement; and establish three main stages in the evolution.

  3. Uranium mineralization in the central region of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, M.G.; Olivera, J.; Fernandez, P.

    1995-01-01

    The present work shows different geological and geophysical index for uranium mineralization found at Loma Alta iron ore deposit, located in the central region of Cuba. In this deposit was carried out pull work of iron ore. The tunnels were radiometrically documented in the wall and the floor observing some anomalies of the gamma ray intensity (up to 1700 c.p.s.) associated with the poor iron ore. In those points were collected solid sample. The obtained results were very important (uranium concentrations values up to 3500 ppm)

  4. Flowering of taro germplasm (Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadelys Figueroa Águila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research was done at the Center for Tropical Crop Research (INIVIT, to evaluate inflorescence of taro germplasm (104 accessions in Cuba´s climatic conditions. Sampling was made every 7 days in the 2013-2014 period to evaluate inflorescence; accessions were characterized according to flowering parameters. The results showed that natural flowering by the 26-accession sample (25%, was observed to early blossom from July to October in 18 accessions (69.2%. Increased temperature and relative humidity lasted until November, when inflorescence ends.

  5. General overview and perspectives of risk analysis in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, A.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vilaragut, J.J.; Valhuerdi, C.

    1995-01-01

    This papers shows a general overview of the application of risk analysis techniques in some potentially dangerous industries in Cuba. This paper summarizes the experiences of these sectors in the risk analysis with different specification levels and different approaches. Some experiences in the application of these analyses in the nuclear and aeronautical industries are shown. Some analyses of consequences in cases of accidents in the chemical industries in order to work due and improve emergency plans for responding to accident situations are presented in a more succinct manner. Also the perspectives to develop some of these tendencies and cooperation forms between them are summarized

  6. Gr-50 values for vegetables useful in agriculture in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Talavera, S.; Labrada, A.

    1988-01-01

    For more than 15 years we have tried to use in Cuba ionizing radiations for the genetic improvement of plants without any encouraging results. This is so mainly because the dose values to be used were taken from reports which appeared in specialized literature most of it from countries in cold or temperature zones. Two Cuban researchers proved that cuban varieties are more resistant to radiations than the ones reported in literature, thus the need to make a radiosensitivity table which would allow improvers to use successfully the radio mutational method in cuban agriculture

  7. Isotopic hydrodynamic of the aquifer systems Jaruco and Aguacate, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moleiro Leon, L.F.; Guerra Oliva, M.G.; Maloszewski, P.; Arellano Acosta, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    An isotopic dispersive model is applied to the Jaruco and Aguacate karstic groundwater basins of Western Cuba. The best fit of the model was validated with stable ( 18 O and 2 H ) and radioactive ( 3 H) isotopes. Modeling showed an aquifer stratification in two basic levels with turnover times of three month to upper level and close to 100 years to the lower level. The last one mainly supplies the base flow of the Ojo de agua and Bello springs and therefore, controls the dry season exploitation yields of the aqueducts of El Gato and Bello. Model results introduces an important constraint in the exploitation of groundwater resource of both aquifer systems

  8. EL NÍQUEL EN SUELOS Y PLANTAS DE CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    Olegario Muñiz Ugarte; Mirelys Rodríguez Alfaro; Alfredo Montero Álvarez; Juan Estévez Álvarez; Adriana M. de Aguiar Accioly; Clístenes W. Araujo Do Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    El contenido de Níquel (Ni) en el suelo es muydependiente del material parental que le dio origen. Por otraparte, el Ni existente en su superficie, puede ser tambiénun reflejo de su contaminación. La literatura internacionalseñala valores de Ni total en los suelos del mundo entre0,2 y 450 mg kg-1. Se conoce en la actualidad, que aunqueel Ni es esencial para las plantas superiores, su exceso enforma disponible puede ser tóxico, por lo que se consideraun Metal Pesado. En Cuba las encuestas real...

  9. Homosexualidad y homosexuales en Cuba: la verdad oculta

    OpenAIRE

    Robledo Díaz, Luis

    1998-01-01

    La homofobia en Cuba se ha venido construyendo sobre esta base y ha hecho suponer que el homosexual es inevitablemente un vicioso, inmoral y pervertidor de niños. El homosexual es extirpado del concepto de nación y luego de 1959 ya no solamente se llega a considerar como tal sino que bajo el juego de identidades de nación/patria/revolución/socialismo se le suma el de ser antipatriota, contrarrevolucionario y desviado política e ideológicamente. Al enlazarse la entereza física con una eticidad...

  10. Epidemiology of Suicide in Cuba, 1987-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Miranda, Beatriz; Hernández-Sánchez, Mariela; Lomba-Acevedo, Paula

    2016-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Suicide is a health problem influenced by biological, genetic, psychological, social and economic factors. It is responsible for 50% of violent deaths in the male population, worldwide, and 71% in the female. In the Americas, 65,000 deaths by suicide occur every year. It is the ninth most frequent cause of death in Cuba, and third among people aged 10-19. OBJECTIVE Characterize the epidemiology of suicide in Cuba from 1987 to 2014. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was conducted. The information comprised all records of death by suicide from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 2014, in the Cuban Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database. The variables were sex, age, skin color, employment status/occupation, marital status, and method of suicide. Crude and age-standardized mortality rates and age-sex specific mortality rates were calculated, all per 100,000 population, as well as the sex ratio. Relative change over the series was calculated as a percentage. Distribution of suicides by variable was calculated and proportions expressed as percentages. RESULTS A total of 51,113 deaths by suicide were reported (annual average 1825), of which 34,671 (67.8%) were among men. The sex ratio was 2.1:1 for the entire study period, and 3.9:1 for 2011-2014. Over the course of the period studied, age-standardized suicide rates decreased from 23.9 to 10.8 per 100,000 population (54.8% reduction). The group aged ≥60 years had the highest average age-standardized rate, 44.6 per 100,000 population. The highest suicide burden by age was in the group aged 20-59 years (60.5%). By skin color, the highest burden was in those recorded as white, 68.9%. By marital status, the highest burden was in persons with a stable partner (46.7%), and by employment status/occupation, in retired (25.9%). The most commonly used method was hanging (59.4%). CONCLUSIONS Over the course of about three decades, suicide mortality rates have declined by almost half and

  11. Anatomic pathology in Cuba before 1959: a personal recollection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesa, René J

    2016-04-01

    Reminiscing when reaching life's twilight is a human condition and hopefully leads to an objective self-evaluation of the past years. I have just done that with this recollection and now I can conclude that, in spite of the outcome of my professional life in Cuba, I remain convinced that one should not complete a journey just because it was started, that everything we learn in life will be sued in due time, and that we should always pursue our dreams because we become our best in the process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Spanish Language textbook in Chile and Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marcelo Ayzum Echeverría

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a description and analysis of the content of textbook of Language and Communication (Spanish in Cuba considering the indispensable tasks for fostering a developmental learning. A comparative analysis of fourth year Cuban and Chilean textbook contents was carried following certain criteria that normally promote good learning practices. Once the textbooks were compared, the findings suggest that school textbooks should be selected on the basis of the criteria taken as reference, in the meantime, such criteria may lead teacher to design complementary tasks.

  13. Oil in Costa Rica; El petroleo en Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa de la Portilla, Gloria [Direccion Sectorial de Energia, Ministerio del Ambiente y Energia (Costa Rica)

    1997-07-01

    Costa Rica is a rich country in natural resources that can be taken in advantage for power aims, specially the hydraulic and biomass. Nevertheless its development has been based on the oil derivatives, resource that they do not have. The power resources of this country, the oil supply, the demand of oil derivatives are mentioned, the installed capacity and an evaluation is made of the prices of fuels in this country. [Spanish] Costa Rica es un pais rico en recursos naturales que pueden ser aprovechados con fines energeticos, especialmente los hidraulicos y los biomasicos. Sin embargo su desarrollo se ha basado en los derivados del petroleo, recurso que no poseen. Se mencionan los recursos energeticos de este pais, la oferta petrolera, la demanda de derivados del petroleo, la capacidad instalada y se hace una evaluacion de los precios de combustibles en este pais.

  14. residentes nativos de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Herring

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando datos del Registro Nacional de defunciones de los años 1996-2005 se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas por edad para personas nacidas en Nicaragua versus personas nacidas en Costa Rica. Así mismo, utilizando modelos de regresión binomial se determinaron los riesgos relativos de mortalidad de los inmigrantes nicaragüenses versus personas nativas de Costa Rica con ajustes por edad, urbanización, desempleo, pobreza, educación y segregación residencial. Los hombres y mujeres nacidos en Nicaragua tuvieron un riesgo reducido de mortalidad de 32% y 34% respectivamente con relación a sus contrapartes nacidas en Costa Rica. Se notó que los riesgos de mortalidad por enfermedades infecciosas, cáncer, enfermedades crónicas pulmonares, enfermedades cardiovasculares, y enfermedades crónicas del hígado eran significativamente reducidos entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua. El exceso significativo de mortalidad por homicidios se encontró entre los hombres nacidos en Nicaragua (RT = 1,35, 95% IC: 1,19; 1,53 y en mujeres (RT = 1,41, 95% IC: 1,02; 1,95. El riesgo relativo de causas de mortalidad de origen de tipo exógeno entre los inmigrantes nicaragüenses fue más grande entre los grupos de edad joven en áreas de baja densidad de inmigrantes nicaragüenses. La población nacida en Nicaragua residiendo en Costa Rica tiene un riesgo reducido de mortalidad por causas generales versus las personas nacidas en Costa Rica en los años entre 1996-2005. Esto se debe a una mortalidad por enfermedad reducida, la cual es bastante marcada. El homicidio es un una razón de mayor mortalidad entre los inmigrantes nacidos en Nicaragua versus los nativos costarricenses. Hay una gran necesidad de llevar acabo investigaciones adicionales sobre el rol de la migración, estatus socioeconómico y comportamientos entorno a la salud para poder explicar más a fondo los patrones de mortalidad diferenciales entre los inmigrantes nicarag

  15. Cuba após a Guerra Fria: mudanças econômicas, nova agenda diplomática e o limitado diálogo com os EUA Cuba after the Cold War: economic change, new diplomatic agenda and the limited dialogue with the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Santoro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cuba passou por muitas transformações após a Guerra Fria. A economia está mais diversificada e o país logrou escapar do isolamento internacional, estabelecendo parcerias com China, União Européia e América Latina. Além disso, a transformação na comunidade cubano-americana coloca em posições de influência ativistas mais jovens, com maior disposição para o diálogo com os Estados Unidos, inclusive em temas comerciais. Contudo, é difícil que as negociações avancem em pontos controversos, pela relutância de Havana em liberalizar o regime político.Cuba has undergone several transformations after the Cold War. The economy has become more diversified and the country has been able to overcome international isolation, and in so doing establish partnerships with China, the European Union and Latin America. In addition, the changes in the Cuban-American community have put younger activists who are more willing to enter into dialogue with the United States, on such matters for example as foreign trade. However, it is difficult for the negotiations to solve more controversial points because of the continued reluctance of Havana to liberalize the political regime.

  16. Neoclasicismo, cementerios e Ilustración en Cuba en las primeras décadas del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elizabeth Laguna Enrique

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La historia de la arquitectura funeraria en La Habana, comenzó con laconstrucción del Cementerio General (1806, auspiciado por el obispo vasco Juan José Díaz de Espada, primer campo santo que se construyó en Hispanoamérica, como consecuencia de la Real Cédula de Carlos III, fechada el tres de abril de 1787, que obligó a todos los ayuntamientosa erigir necrópolis municipales en lugares apartados de los núcleos urbanos y que acabó con la costumbre de enterrar en las iglesias y conventos.Ese recinto funerario inicial, ya desaparecido, fue realizado por el arquitecto francés Étienne-Sulpice Hallet, figura poco estudiada en el contexto cubano y que introdujo el neoclasicismo dentro de la arquitectura habanera. La presente comunicación plantea un acercamiento al tema del desarrollo de las ideas ilustradas en Cuba y la difusión del neoclasicismo como estilo dominante en la arquitectura funeraria de la isla, durante las primeras décadasdel siglo XIX.

  17. El ingreso en el hogar y su costo directo en Cuba The direct costs of home care in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel M. Barroso Utra; Anai García Fariñas; Armando Rodríguez Salvá; Pol de Vos; Mariano Bonet Gorbea; Patrick Van Der Stuyft

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Analizar el tiempo de estadía en ingreso en el hogar (IH) y su costo diario y por paciente en Cuba, según el diagnóstico al ingreso y la zona donde se brinda el servicio. MÉTODOS: Se analizó la información de los 837 pacientes en IH entre julio de 2001 y junio de 2002 en un área del municipio Playa, en Ciudad de La Habana (zona urbana metropolitana), una del municipio Cruces, en Cienfuegos (zona urbana no metropolitana), otra del Municipio Unión de Reyes, en Matanzas (zona rural) y...

  18. Corporate Governance in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto E. Arce; Edgar Robles C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines corporate governance practices in Costa Rica. First, it estimates corporate governance charter measures using firm-level data for 87 Costa Rican firms and studies their impact on the firms` performance; here, the mean of the corporate governance charters for the publicly traded firms is equal to 56. 14. Second, new evidence is presented on de jure and de facto corporate governance charter measures at the firm level and on their effect on the performance of the firm. The re...

  19. El IDRC en Costa Rica

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economía Ambiental de América Latina v el Caribe, CATIE también está ayudando a promover el análisis económico de los problemas ambientales en toda la región. El IDRC apoya este programa para ayudar .... impactos del cambio climático sobre el agua. □ Promoción de dietas bajas en sal. Financiamiento: CA ...

  20. The role of popular energy education and diffusion in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesinos Larrosa, A. [Sociedad Cubana para la Promocion de las Energias Renovables (Cuba); Moreno Figueredo, C. [Centro de Estudio de Tecnologias Energeticas Renovables (Cuba)

    2008-07-01

    Cuba's Energy Revolution is a national program for developing renewable energy sources to conserve energy, promote sustainable development and address environmental concerns. It includes the Energy Saving Program by the Ministry of Education (PAEME), the Electricity Saving Program in Cuba (PAEC) by the Ministry of Basic Industry (MINBAS) and the National Program for Energy Sustainable Culture developed by CUBASOLAR. The most important programs related to the use of renewable energy sources have been carried out in the field of biomass, hydropower, wind energy, water supply and solar photovoltaic energy in rural areas. This paper presented the Cuban experiences on education, diffusion and publication of energy themes. Mass communication including television, radio and magazines has been used to explain the rationale of using renewable energy, its efficiency and social impact. The positive results thus far indicate that these measures can be applied in other developing countries such as Latin America and Caribbean, and could also serve as a guide for other areas, including developed countries.

  1. Innovative Tuberculosis Symposium held during Cuba Salud 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Helena J; Armas Pérez, Luisa

    2016-12-01

    The fourth Tuberculosis (TB) Symposium, held during the Cuba Salud 2015 International Convention, highlighted advancements in research on TB and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) by interdisciplinary teams from academic and federal institutions in Cuba, Colombia, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. Delegates focused on the targets presented in the World Health Organization End TB Strategy for 2016-2035 and elaborated on four primary themes: 1) attention to vulnerable populations such as immunocompromised individuals, health care workers, and residents of long-term institutions such as prisons and nursing homes; 2) identification of active and latent TB cases through contact investigations; 3) spread and control of drug-resistant Mtb strains; and 4) advancements in the development of novel vaccines or "booster" immunizations. This international TB forum served as a platform for experts in diverse disciplines in these Latin American countries to discuss challenges faced by TB research and control programs, proposing novel research initiatives and promoting collaborative teamwork strategies for TB elimination. In solidarity, collaborative efforts in TB control require identification of symptomatic individuals, rapid diagnostic testing for TB, drug susceptibility assays on Mtb strains, and management that provide universal and gratuitous access to directly observed short-course therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Virtual Tour Environment of Cuba's National School of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, R. K.; Douglas, I. P.; Garlock, M. E.; Glisic, B.

    2017-08-01

    Innovative technologies have enabled new opportunities for collecting, analyzing, and sharing information about cultural heritage sites. Through a combination of two of these technologies, spherical imaging and virtual tour environment, we preliminarily documented one of Cuba's National Schools of Art, the National Ballet School.The Ballet School is one of the five National Art Schools built in Havana, Cuba after the revolution. Due to changes in the political climate, construction was halted on the schools before completion. The Ballet School in particular was partially completed but never used for the intended purpose. Over the years, the surrounding vegetation and environment have started to overtake the buildings; damages such as missing bricks, corroded rebar, and broken tie bars can be seen. We created a virtual tour through the Ballet School which highlights key satellite classrooms and the main domed performance spaces. Scenes of the virtual tour were captured utilizing the Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera and processed with Kolor Panotour virtual environment software. Different forms of data can be included in this environment in order to provide a user with pertinent information. Image galleries, hyperlinks to websites, videos, PDFs, and links to databases can be embedded within the scene and interacted with by a user. By including this information within the virtual tour, a user can better understand how the site was constructed as well as the existing types of damage. The results of this work are recommendations for how a site can be preliminarily documented and information can be initially organized and shared.

  3. Radiological control of the junk exports in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez L, O.; Capote F, E.; Carrazana G, J.A.; Zerquera, J.T.; Ramos V, O.; Alonso A, D.; Fernandez, I.M.; Caveda R, C.A.; Madrazo M, S.; Barroso P, I.

    2006-01-01

    Even when in Cuba a strict control exists on the radiation sources that enter to the country to be used in the different applications, it can be given the case that sources or contaminated materials that never were under this control due fundamentally to that entered to the country before the same one existed, appear in the junk that is marketed. In our country it is effective the Combined Resolution CITMA-MINCEX dated on April, 2002 that settles down the necessity and obligation that has all that manipulates, imports, exports or process junk of carrying out it a radiological control. From April, 2002 making use of a minimum of resources, an own methodology, a properly qualified personnel and the support of a credited laboratory by the ISO 17025 standard, the radioactivity measurement service in junk belonging to the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR), it has reduced the risks that sources or contaminated materials are found in the junk that is exported in the main exporter companies of this line in Cuba avoiding possible radiological emergency situations that affect the population and the environment. (Author)

  4. CRISIS HOSPITALARIA EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Fernández Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La comunicación interpersonal, muchas veces es dejada de lado por los comunicólogos, sin embargo tiene suma gravitación en las relaciones cotidianas entre las personas y en los procesos comunicacionales, toca el lenguaje de los gestos, la (in comunicación política, ceremonial y protocolo, intermediación en la comunicación, los jóvenes se incomunican. Respecto al Periodismo Investigativo señala que a pesar de los riesgos que implica el periodismo investigativo, muchos profesionales de América Latina no dudan en practicarlo, escudriñando muchas veces en temas que de no ser por ellos permanecerían ocultos. En otro artículo se habla de la importante repercusión que tuvo en América Latina el concurso CHASQUI, el que contó con la participación de profesionales de todo el continente. Incluye la entrega de entrevistas a destacados comunicadores de América Latina. Una sección está dedicada a las nuevas tecnologías: red de noticias y transmisiones vía satélite.

  5. Utilization of Toxic Activities of Some Plant Oils for Increasing The Protection of Induced Tolerance Percentage With Gamma Rays to The Infestation by Sitophilus oryzae (L.)and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) in two Wheat Irradiated Populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, A.A.A.; EI-Lakwah, F.A.M.; Ragab, A.I.; Boshra, S.A.; Mehany, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the grains of PG 400 were treated with different concentrations of essential oils for Clove flowering buds, Dill seeds, Pinus syluestris and Lemon grass. However grains of PS 400 were only treated with different concentrations of Annis seeds. The obtained result showed that adults mortality percentage increased by increasing concentration and exposure time of the tested insects. After 14 days from the initial treatment, mortalities were between 83.3-100, 86.7-100, 82.3-100, 71-100 and 74.3-100 % at all tested concentrations with Clove flowering buds, Dill seeds, Pinus syluestris, Lemon grass and Annis seeds, respectively. However ,reduction in the progeny of S. oryzae was between 57.23-100,57.25-100,59.55-100,56.85-100 and 52.51-100% for Clove flowering buds, Dill seeds, Pinus syluestris, Lemon grass and Annis seeds, respectively However for R. dominica ,the adults mortality after 14 days of initial treatment ranged from 36.7-100, 60-100, 82.3-100, 55.7-100 and 61-100 % the various concentrations of Clove flowering buds, Dill seeds, Pinus syluestris, Lemion grass and Annis, respectively. While their ,reduction in the progeny ranged from 42,24-100,53.16-100,48.38-100,63.89-100 and 55.18-100% at various concentrations of Clove flowering buds, Dill seeds, Pinus syluestris, Lemon grass and Annis, respectively. The obtained results showed that high concentration of different essential oils caused about 100% mortality and progeny reduction ,but the low concentration caused about 70% mortality and progeny reduction .This study suggesting that the low oil concentration could be used to increase the protection for irradiated tolerant populations PG 400 and PS 400 from the infestation with S. oryzae and R. dominica as a complementary tool for pest control .

  6. Corrosión atmosférica del acero en interiores. Sus particularidades en el clima tropical de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corvo, F.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Indoor atmospheric corrosion and deterioration of materials is significantly lower respecting outdoors. After 1960, because of the problems detected in electric and electronic equipment and to the requirements for conservation of valuable heritage objects in museums, attention was dedicated to corrosion problems in indoor atmospheres. A small corrosion may cause a bad performance of electric and electronic equipment due to different factors as: change in electrical resistance of contacts, change in conductivity, loss of magnetic properties and others. In the paper corrosion aggressivity of steel inside storehouses and metallic boxes is classified using the new ISO proposal for indoor conditions. Corrosion aggressivity is reported for steel. The levels of aggressivity are reported. They correspond to the higher levels established in the standard proposal. A model for corrosion of steel in function of time of exposure is proposed taking into consideration some atmospheric pollutants. The model has an acceptable fitness to experimental data. It is observed that deposited dust is an important factor in steel corrosion process indoor.

    En general, la corrosión y el deterioro de materiales en atmósferas interiores es notablemente inferior respecto a la intemperie. Sólo, a partir de 1960, debido a los problemas surgidos en los equipos e instrumentos eléctricos y electrónicos, añadidos, también, a la necesidad de conservar objetos con valor patrimonial en museos, se comienza a prestar atención a los problemas de corrosión y deterioro de materiales en atmósferas interiores. Una pequeña corrosión puede provocar un mal funcionamiento de equipos eléctricos y electrónicos por varias causas: variación de la resistencia de los contactos eléctricos, cambios en la conductividad, pérdida de las propiedades magnéticas, etc. En el trabajo, se clasifica la agresividad corrosiva interior en almacenes y armarios metálicos utilizando la nueva propuesta de Norma ISO para estas condiciones, exponiéndose la clasificación de esta agresividad para el acero, la cual se encuentra en los mayores niveles establecidos. Se propone un modelo del desarrollo de la corrosión con el tiempo de exposición, teniendo en consideración algunos contaminantes atmosféricos. El modelo se ajusta, aceptablemente, a los datos experimentales. Se observa que el polvo depositado es un factor importante en el proceso de corrosión del acero en interiores.

  7. Speciose opportunistic nectar-feeding avifauna in Cuba and its association to hummingbird island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Baquero, Andrea C.; Rahbek, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Island organisms often have wider feeding niches than mainland organisms, and migratory birds breeding on continents often widen their niches when overwintering on islands. Cuba's low hummingbird richness has puzzled ornithologists for decades. Here, we show that the Cuban hummingbird fauna is less...... rich than expected based on Cuba's elevation, when compared to the rest of the West Indian islands. Thereafter, we report nectar-feeding behaviour by 26 non-Trochilidae bird species in Cuba, encompassing pigeons/doves, woodpeckers and passerines, and endemic, resident and migratory species. We discuss...

  8. Data supporting the assessment of biomass based electricity and reduced GHG emissions in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagastume Gutiérrez, Alexis; Cabello Eras, Juan J; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Hens, Luc

    2018-04-01

    Assessing the biomass based electricity potential of developing nations like Cuba can help to reduce the fossil fuels dependency and the greenhouse gas emissions. The data included in this study present the evolution of electricity production and greenhouse gas emissions in Cuba. Additionally, the potentialities to produce biomass based electricity by using the most significant biomass sources in Cuba are estimated. Furthermore, estimations of the potential reductions of greenhouse gas emissions, resulting from implementing the biomass based electricity potential of the different sources discussed in the study, are included. Results point to the most promising biomass sources for electricity generation and their potential to reduce GHG emissions.

  9. Radiological control of the junk exports in Cuba; Control radiologico de las exportaciones de chatarra en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez L, O; Capote F, E; Carrazana G, J A; Zerquera, J T; Ramos V, O; Alonso A, D; Fernandez, I M; Caveda R, C A; Madrazo M, S; Barroso P, I [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, C.P. 11300, A.P. 6195, C.P. 10600 La Habana (Cuba)

    2006-07-01

    Even when in Cuba a strict control exists on the radiation sources that enter to the country to be used in the different applications, it can be given the case that sources or contaminated materials that never were under this control due fundamentally to that entered to the country before the same one existed, appear in the junk that is marketed. In our country it is effective the Combined Resolution CITMA-MINCEX dated on April, 2002 that settles down the necessity and obligation that has all that manipulates, imports, exports or process junk of carrying out it a radiological control. From April, 2002 making use of a minimum of resources, an own methodology, a properly qualified personnel and the support of a credited laboratory by the ISO 17025 standard, the radioactivity measurement service in junk belonging to the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR), it has reduced the risks that sources or contaminated materials are found in the junk that is exported in the main exporter companies of this line in Cuba avoiding possible radiological emergency situations that affect the population and the environment. (Author)

  10. Formación docente en educación secundaria en la Universidad de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnaLupita Chaves-Salas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es presentar una reseña histórica de la formación docente en educación secundaria en la Universidad de Costa Rica, desde su creación en 1941 hasta la actualidad. Se describen los planes de estudio, las áreas de formación, el creditaje y el modelo de gestión curricular y administrativa de las carreras. La formación del profesorado se ha caracterizado por ser integral e interdisciplinaria, hasta el año 2016 cuando la Vicerrectoría de Docencia aprueba una carrera disciplinar con enfoque tecnocrático contrario a las tendencias actuales sobre formación de docentes. El artículo surge de una investigación descriptiva-comparativa sobre modelos de formación de docentes en educación secundaria en cinco países: Alemania, Cuba, Finlandia, Singapur y Costa Rica. Las técnicas utilizadas fueron el análisis de documentos y la entrevista a informantes clave.

  11. El turismo como estrategia de desarrollo en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Risco Yera, Yoel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has become an economic activity which is becoming more and more important, socially, economically and environmentally. This fact is especially relevant in the case of Cuba. The tourist activity is seen as a form of stabilising the balance of payments, a source of income and employment. However, in this times of economic and political uncertainty, the dangers of substituting the basic commodity of sugar for something else (tourism is very big and it may be necessary to revise the use of tourism as a way of future development.

    [es] El turismo se ha convertido en una actividad económica que, cada vez tiene mayor importancia en el desarrollo económico, social y medio ambiental. Este hecho adquiere una especial relevancia en el caso de Cuba. La actividad turística es vista como una forma de equilibrar la balanza de pagos, una fuente de divisas y de empleo. Sin embargo, en momentos de incertidumbre económica y política como son los actuales, los peligros de sustituir un monocultivo (del azúcar por otro (el turismo son muy grandes y se hace necesario revisar su utilización como vía para el desarrollo. [fr] Le tourisme est devenu une activité économique de plus en plus importante du point de vue économique, social et environnemental. Il s'agit là d'un fait tout particulièrement essentiel dans le cas de Cuba. L'activité touristique est abordée comme un moyen permettant d'équilibrer la balance des paiements, ainsi qu'une source de devises et d'emploi. Cependant, considérant la conjoncture actuelle d'incertitude économique et politique qui accroît les risques de remplacer une monoculture (celle du sucre par une autre (le tourisme, il est donc nécessaire de réétudier l'utilisation du tourisme en tant que voie de développement.

  12. Burden of Self-reported Acute Gastrointestinal Illness in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pablo Aguiar; Finley, Rita L.; Guerin, Michele T.; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Marie, Gisele Coutín; Perez, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005–January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a list maintained by the medical offices in each site. One individual per household was selected to complete a questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. The case definition was three or more bouts of loose stools in a 24-hour period within the last 30 days. In total, 97.3% of 6,576 interviews were completed. The overall prevalence of acute gastrointestinal illness was 10.6%. The risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was higher during the rainy season (odds ratio [OR]=3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.18-4.66) in children (OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.24-4.36) and teens (OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.51-3.41) compared to people aged 25-54 years, in males (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47), and in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.61). Of 680 cases, 17.1-38.1% visited a physician, depending on sentinel site. Of the cases who visited a physician, 33.3-53.9% were requested to submit a stool sample, and of those, 72.7-100.0% complied. Of the cases who sought medical care, 16.7- 61.5% and 0-31.6% were treated with antidiarrhoeals and antibiotics respectively. Acute gastrointestinal illness represented a substantial burden of health compared to developed countries. Targeting the identified risk factors when allocating resources for education, food safety, and infrastructure might lower the morbidity associated with acute gastrointestinal illness. PMID:19507750

  13. Informational Element of Power: The Role of Public Diplomacy in United States-Cuba Policy Implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andujar, Roberto C

    2005-01-01

    THESIS: The United States should reassess its Public Diplomacy strategy toward Cuba and the key role that Public Diplomacy plays in preparing the Cuban people to transition to a free and democratic state. RATIONALE...

  14. Economic and Security Reasons Why the U.S. Should Normalize Relations with Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtain, Joseph W

    2008-01-01

    ...) that has occurred as a result. The thesis also shows how China, Venezuela and Iran continue to invest more money in the island and subsequently threaten to wield more influence over Cuba. The U.S...

  15. Baseline research for action: adolescent alcohol consumption in Los Palacios Municipality, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Yolanda; Espinosa, Yairelis

    2013-04-01

    In Cuba, alcohol is an important contributor to morbidity, mortality and social problems. The foundation of Cuba's universal primary health care coverage, family doctor-and-nurse offices play a critical role in prevention, early detection and treatment of alcohol abuse. Los Palacios Municipality of the westernmost province of Pinar del Río, Cuba, is a socially complex, periurban area where alcohol abuse and alcoholism have been identified as important health problems. Adolescents constitute a population at high risk for alcohol abuse because of their receptivity to social influences, but the precise extent of the problem is unknown. This paper reports baseline findings from a survey and direct observation of alcohol consumption in the catchment area of a primary care center, conducted to inform planning for an educational intervention. KEYWORDS Alcohol, alcoholism, alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, adolescence, primary health care, Cuba.

  16. First report of a Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Beck, Cathy A.; Powell, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Florida utilize intake and effluent canals of power plants as resting and thermoregulatory habitat. We report the use of a power plant canal in Cuba by a known Florida manatee, the first documented case of movement by a manatee between Florida and Cuba. In January, February, and April 2007, two manatees (mother and calf) were reported entering a power plant canal in north Havana, Cuba. The larger manatee had several distinctive scars which were photographed. Digital images were matched to a previously known Florida manatee (CR131) with a sighting history dating from December 1979 to July 2006. Exchanges of individuals between Florida and Cuba may have important genetic implications, particularly since there appears to be little genetic exchange between the Florida manatee subspecies with populations of the Antillean manatee subspecies (T. m. manatus) in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic.

  17. Oxigenoterapia hiperbárica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Costa

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A Oxigenoterapia Hiperbárica (OHB é um método terapêutico que consiste na administração por via inalatória de oxigénio a uma pressão superior à pressão atmosférica.O objectivo da OHB é reduzir a hipóxia tecidular (seja ela de causa vascular, traumática, tóxica ou infecciosa através de uma importante elevação da pressão parcial de oxigénio.As suas indicaçõs incluem, entre outras, intoxicações pelo monóxido de carbono, acidentes de mergulho (doença de descompressão, embolias gasosas arterials, gangrena gasosa, osteomielite refractária, isquemia traumática aguda, feridas crónicas e queimaduras.Embora dispendiosa, a sua capacidade de reduzir a morbilidade dependente de lesões tecidulares agudas ou crónicas, pode revelar-se economicamente compensadora. SUMMARY: Hyperbaric oxygen (OHB therapy is the intermittent administration of 100% oxygen at a pressure greater than sea levelThe object of OHB is to reduce peripheral tissue hipoxia (vascular, traumatic, toxic or infectious by increasing the tissue oxygen levels.The indications for OHB include carbon monoxide poisoning, diving accidents (decompression sickness, gas embolism, gas gangrene, refractory osteomyelitis, acute traumatic ischemia, chronic wounds and thermal burns.Although hyperbaric therapy is costly, the ability to reduce morbidity associated with acute and chronic tissue injury can be cost effective. Palavras Chave: Hipóxia tecidular, oxigenoterapia hiperbárica, indicações, Key-Words: Peripheral tissue hypoxia, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, indications

  18. Seven songs from Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Sàenz, Michèle S. de

    1996-01-01

    In July of 1973, through the benificence of Professor Juan de Dios Trejos, music teacher from Cartago, Costa Rica, I had the pleasure of meeting doña Leticia de Céspedes. This tiny woman was in her nineties, with neatly cropped snow white hair and blue eyes. She received me in her humble home in Tres Ríos, a town located between San José and Cartago. Sra. de Céspedes had learned to read and transcribe music. She taught piano and guitar. She too, was interested in music whi...

  19. Cuba: mitigation policies and the Environmental Kuznets curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusimit Betancourt-Alayón

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine whether there is for Cuba a growing non-monotonic relationship, known as the Environmental Kuznets Curve, between emissions of CO2, NOx and SO2 in relation to income levels as a measure of the degree of development a basic model from 1970 to 2010. In addition to exploring an extended model involving product structure and trade on emissions. These gases by the importance of the intensification of global warming and therefore in strengthening the climate change are studied. A positive relationship of emissions of the three gases with GDP, although with evidence of an emerging virtuous development path of emissions is obtained, in any case it is possible without a comprehensive development policy which is prioritized design mitigation options.

  20. [Mortality in traffic accidents in Bayamo, Cuba 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Tornés, Arlines; González-Longoria, Lourdes; González-Pardo, Secundino; Acosta-González, Ariel; Vintimilla-Burgos, Patricio; Paspuel-Yar, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    With the objective of describing mortality from traffic accidents in Bayamo, Cuba, in 2011 a review was performed of injured and deceased patients due to traffic accidents, recorded in the Hospital Carlos M. de Céspedes. Of the 1,365 injured patients treated in the emergency room, the predominant groups were individuals aged 25 to 44 years comprising 372 patients (27.3%) and men comprising 1,071 (78.5%). 46 people died, most from the same age group and male. Multiple traumatisms (52.6%) and craniofacial trauma (34.2%) were the predominant injuries. Motor vehicle-pedestrian accidents stood out with a mortality of 26.3%. In conclusion, mortality from traffic accidents predominately occurs in young male adults, whose fatal consequences are due to multiple traumatisms from road accidents.

  1. Ensuring quality while going local: IAEA helps Cuba produce radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawerth, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Cancer and cardiovascular disease are health conditions Cuba will now be able to more readily diagnose and treat thanks to its newly built facility for producing key radiopharmaceuticals. Nuclear medicine requires a constant and reliable supply of these radioactive drugs, prepared according to what the industry calls good manufacturing practices (GMP), and there have so far been limitations in getting them to the island nation. “Through our work with the IAEA, we now have a dedicated GMP compliant facility and the expertise to meet most of our national needs for diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals for helping patients,” said René Leyva Montaña, Director of Production at the Isotope Centre (CENTIS), Cuba’s centre dedicated to radiopharmaceutical production.

  2. Making Travel to Cuba Work for Health and Sustainable Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorry, Conner

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, a record-breaking 3.5 million visitors-1 million from Canada alone-traveled to Cuba to explore its history, culture, natural splendor, and visit family. That same year, US President Barack Obama relaxed travel restrictions, giving general authorization for a dozen categories of legal travel by US citizens and residents. As a result, US visitors to the island ballooned by 80% between January 2015 and June 2016. And the numbers keep growing: the latest data show that foreign arrivals reached 4 million in 2016.[1] The surge in visitors highlights the potential negative impact of tourism on a developing country's infrastructure, environment, cultural patrimony and local economy-all considered important social determinants of health.

  3. Santiago de Cuba: between july 1955 and november 1956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pevida-Pupo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the historical context of the city of Santiago de Cuba in the months prior to November 30, 1956, when the armed uprising took place in support of the landing of the Granma yacht expedition led by Fidel Castro Ruz; The material and human assurances made by the 26th of July Revolutionary Movement (MR-26-7 to provide all possible assistance to those arriving at the coast of the country; Among this action is the making of uniforms and the location of medical kits. It also emphasizes the role played by young teacher Frank País García at the front of the plan drawn up months before 

  4. Inventory of land snails from Boquerones, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Jonathan Pereira-Miller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A census of mollusks in Boquerones, Ciego de Avila, Cuba was carried out. Biodiversity index were studied by vegetal formation, which are: Evergreen Forest, Semideciduous Forest and Mogote Vegetation Complex. The families best represented were Helicinidae, Annularidae, Urocoptidae and Subulinidae, taking the 97.6% of the species some degree of national endemism and being the 45.24% of these local endemic. The most widely distributed species was Farcimen camaguayanum Torre & Bartsch 1941 and the rarest was Euclastaria euclasta Shuttleworth 1852. The highest biodiversity values were observed in the Mogote Vegetation Complex being of 2,856 according to Shannon-Wiener (H´ index. So far species extinction events are not seen but not discarded for the future due to a decline in local rainfall during the last 15 years as well as human activities such as agriculture and local tourism.

  5. Mycoplasmas hyorhinis in different regions of cuba: diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Lobo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available M. hyorhinis is considered one of the etiological agents of arthritis in sucking pigs, but recently as seen, some strains can produce pneumonia that could not be distinguished from the mycoplasmosis caused by M. hyopneumoniae. The study was conducted to research the presence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis in different regions of the country from exudates of pig lungs with typical EP lesions. Exudates from 280 pig lungs with typical EP lesions were studied using molecular techniques such as PCR, real time PCR and amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA. It was detected that the 66% of the samples studied resulted positive to M. hyorhinis, and the presence of this species was detected in all the provinces. Amplification and studies on the intergenic region 16S-23S of M. hyorhinis rRNA demonstrated the existing variability among strains of a same species. This study is the first report on M. hyorhinis detection in Cuba.

  6. First molecular evidence of Coxiella burnetii infecting ticks in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Angel A; Rodríguez, Islay; Miranda, Jorge; Contreras, Verónica; Mattar, Salim

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. In order to explore the occurrence of C. burnetii in ticks, samples were collected from horses, dogs and humans living in a Cuban occidental community. The species most commonly recovered were Amblyomma mixtum (67%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (27%) and Dermacentor nitens (6%). Specific IS1111 PCR and amplicon sequencing allowed the identification of C. burnetii DNA in A. mixtum collected from a domestic horse. These findings, for first time in Cuba, indicate the need for an in-depth assessment of the C. burnetii occurrence in hosts and humans at risk of infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Algunos relatos sobre santería, magia y etnomedicina en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Carrascosa Palomera, Cruz

    2008-01-01

    Este artículo presenta una colección de relatos sobre santería, magia y etnomedicina en Cuba. Incluye información sobre ritos y prácticas de iniciación, de purificación, de curación. This paper offers a selection of stories about santería, magic and folk medicine in Cuba. Includes reports on iniciation, purification and curation rites and practices

  8. The tourism model in Post-Castro Cuba: Challenges and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Helene; Velázquez, Mario

    2018-01-01

    This chapter explores tourism in Cuba within the framework of alternative economies to tap into the debate about the diversity of modes of exchange. Cuba is at a crossroad in the country’s transition from socialist to capitalist economy. The death of Fidel Castro and the steps taken by Raúl Castr...... increasing tourism, and since 1999 has been UNESCO World Cultural Landscape....

  9. Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species (Teleostei: Rivulidae) from western Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodet Rodriguez

    2015-04-24

    Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species, is described from a small stream in Sierra de Cajalbana, northwestern Cuba. It is readily distinguished from Rivulus cylindraceus Poey by the combination of an exclusive color pattern and meristic characters such as a d-type frontal scalation pattern (versus e-type pattern in Rivulus cylindraceus). The current diagnosis of Rivulus berovidesi based on chromatic, morphological and meristic characters is consistent with a recent molecular analysis of this genus in Cuba.

  10. The Cuba-United States Thaw: Building Bridges Through Science and Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Daniel G; Kouri, Vivian; Resik, Sonia; Acosta, Belsy; Guillen, Gerardo; Goraleski, Karen; Espinal, Marcos; Guzman, Maria G

    2017-06-01

    AbstractBeginning in 2014, there has been significant progress in normalization of relations between Cuba and the United States. Herein, we discuss the history and recent progress in scientific collaboration between the two countries as well as the continued challenges. Science and global health diplomacy can be key tools in reestablishing a trusting and productive relationship of mutual and global benefit, bringing about better and healthier lives for people in both Cuba and the United States.

  11. A New Look at U.S. Foreign Policy toward Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    profit. Stories abound that all the Burger King franchises are sold to Cuban exiles ( Burger King and McDonald Invasion). Many industries have granted...similar franchises in Cuba to those who have put money forth to attain those franchises .’ They also fear Cuban exiles will return ready to control the...the manufacturing of radios (FIGURE 22). 5. In the agricultural products area "sugar was not king ," largely due to Cuba’s failure to meet their 1990

  12. Occupational exposure in the production of radiopharmaceuticals in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, Z. H.; Soria, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the experiences in controlling occupational exposure production of radiopharmaceuticals in the Isotope Center (CENTIS) of the Republic of Cuba. data corresponding period 1996-2014 to 896 records are processed. The percentage distributions of the annual effective dose (E), the equivalent dose in the hands (Hp (0.07)) and the equivalent dose in crystalline (Hp (3)), are presented. The annual performance of the average values ​​of these dose quantities is plotted. The results of the internal dosimetry are processed. Annual activities manipulated radioisotopes greater contribution and its relation to the distribution of the collective dose directly linked S of staff, they are evaluated. The ALARA principle is implemented and maintained, based on qualitative and quantitative analysis, as appropriate. The (63-98)% of workers are monitored to E and the (80-100)% for Hp (0.07) and Hp (3), receives less than 10% of annual exposure limits. Groups of workers Radiopharmacy and Inspection and Testing are the greatest contribution to the collective dose, whose S to E equal to or greater than 2 mSv is the (9-62)% of total annual S. The maximum value of S is 98.3 mSv recorded man-1 and this occurs in 2011, however the highest value of 99Mo activity is handled in 2012 and a later year for 131I. They are identified as the most effective means for optimizing radiation safety the use of electronic dosimeters, internal shields process in hot cells and glove boxes and shields for collection of radioactive waste. a reduction in personnel exposure between (10-27)% is obtained. It is shown that exposure of workers in the production of radiopharmaceuticals in Cuba is acceptably low. (author)

  13. A magnetic survey of mineral resources in northeastern Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista Rodriguez, Jose Alberto [Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa (Cuba)

    2006-01-15

    Interpretation of the aeromagnetic survey of northeastern Cuba at scale 1 50 000 is presented. Mainly ophiolitic rocks are characterized by a high magnetic response. The aeromagnetic data was reduced to the pole and the horizontal and vertical gradients, as well as the upward continuation were calculated. To define areas of serpentinized ultrabasic rocks at surface and depth, the magnetic field transformations were interpreted. We discuss lateral extension of outcrops, thickness variation of the ophiolitic rocks, basement extension and fault zones. Hydrothermal alterations indicate associated precious metal secondary mineralization. Operations are planned to limit damage to mining by siliceous material in Fe+Ni laterites. [Spanish] Cuba, en la cual afloran fundamentalmente rocas ofioliticas caracterizadas por un alto grado de magnetizacion. Los datos aeromagneticos fueron reducidos al polo y luego se realizaron los calculos de gradientes horizontales y verticales y la continuacion analitica ascendente. A partir de los resultados de estas transformaciones se delimitaron zonas donde predominan las rocas ultrabasicas serpentinizadas tanto en superficie como en profundidad, definiendose la extension lateral de estas rocas por debajo de las rocas que afloran en superficie. Tambien se estimaron las variaciones de los espesores de las rocas ofioliticas, el basamento de las rocas que afloran, la presencia de estructuras disyuntivas, y se proponen nuevas estructuras de este tipo. Por ultimo se delimitan las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal, lo cual posee gran importancia, ya que con las mismas se pueden vincular mineralizaciones de metales preciosos. Ademas, su delimitacion en depositos lateriticos permite orientar los trabajos de explotacion minera, teniendo en cuenta el dano que causa al proceso metalurgico la presencia de material silicio en las lateritas Fe+Ni.

  14. US-CUBA RELATIONS: A NEW WAVE OF CONFRONTATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С Перес Бенитес

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to analyze the role of the changes introduced by the administration of the former president Barack Obama in 2014-2016 into the bilateral US-Cuba relations; and the way in which the new presidential team are to reorganize this direction. The question on the attitude of Donald Trump towards currently existing policies aimed at solving the long-lasting problem with Cuban socialism is especially interesting since new US president has multiple times condemned the old ways practiced by the former establishment, but at the same time has shown readiness to act in a straight-forward and confrontational manner. One of contributors of the paper, Santiago Perez Benitez, deputy director of the Center for International Political Studies in Havana, is attempting to provide his professional expertise in granting an insider view from the Cuban side, evaluating the progress made since the 2014 and interpret the notion of the upcoming policy changes in Washington. The importance of the Cuban issue in the framework of US. policy in the Western hemisphere is explained by the fact that a solution in this sphere could help remake a negative image of Pan-American policies that haunts Washington. Cuban issue has also been long considered a possible key for reestablish-ment of trust between the United States and Latin American countries. For president Trump, quite unpopular judging by the polls, Cuban issue also has a potential to earn support of his own constituents, who strongly support lifting the embargo from Cuba. However now after certain decisions of Donald Trump the future of US-Cuban relations seems to get gloomier by the day.

  15. Sistemas nacionales de investigación para la salud en América Latina: una revisión de 14 países National health research systems in Latin America: a 14-country review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackeline Alger

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se discuten las principales características de los sistemas nacionales de investigación para la salud (SNIS de Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, Uruguay y Venezuela a partir de los documentos preparados por expertos de esos países que participaron en la Primera Conferencia Latinoamericana sobre Investigación e Innovación para la Salud, celebrada en abril de 2008 en Río de Janeiro, Brasil. Se revisaron también las fuentes citadas en los informes, artículos científicos publicados y opiniones de expertos, así como fuentes de información secundarias regionales. Seis países informaron poseer estructuras formales de gobernanza y gerencia de la investigación para la salud: en Brasil y Costa Rica, estas estructuras son lideradas por los ministerios de salud, mientras Argentina, Cuba, Ecuador y Venezuela tienen estructuras mixtas de sus ministerios de salud y de ciencia y tecnología. Brasil y Ecuador informaron poseer una política nacional dedicada e inclusiva de ciencia, tecnología e innovación para la salud. Argentina, Brasil, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú y Venezuela informaron haber establecido prioridades de investigación para la salud. Se concluye que a pesar de la heterogeneidad estructural y funcional de los SNIS de los países analizados y su desigual nivel de desarrollo, se han logrado avances alentadores. El establecimiento de una adecuada gobernanza/gerencia de los SNIS es de suma importancia para que los ministerios de salud, otros actores estatales y la sociedad civil puedan encausar eficazmente las investigaciones para la salud.This article discusses the main features of the national health research systems (NHRS of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela, based on documents prepared by their country experts who

  16. Goal Programming for the Optimization of the Harvest´s Structurein the Sugar Factory “Paquito Rosales” from Province Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio David Zaldívar-Linares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The organizational deficiencies impact negatively in the sugar sector in Cuba. The roots of these deficiencies arise from the activity that precedes it: the planning. The objective of this paper is to perfect the planning of the transportation of the cane like part of the process of production of the sugar. For this a model of Goal Programming will be built, in order to optimize the mentioned planning and the same one will be validated in the Managerial Unit of Base (MUB sugar station "Paquito Rosales" of the county Santiago de Cuba. This model will facilitate an improvement of the economic and industrial meters.

  17. Isotopic hydrodynamic of the aquifer systems Jaruco and Aguacate, Cuba; Hidrodinamica isotopica de los sistemas acuiferos Jaruco y Aguacate, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moleiro Leon, L F; Guerra Oliva, M G [Grupo de Aguas Terrestres, Instituto de Geofisica y Astronomia, La Habana (Cuba); Maloszewski, P [GSF, Institut fue Hydrologie, Munich (Germany); Arellano Acosta, D M [Agencia de Medio Ambiente, CITMA, La Habana (Cuba)

    2002-07-01

    An isotopic dispersive model is applied to the Jaruco and Aguacate karstic groundwater basins of Western Cuba. The best fit of the model was validated with stable ({sup 18}O and 2{sup H}) and radioactive ({sup 3}H) isotopes. Modeling showed an aquifer stratification in two basic levels with turnover times of three month to upper level and close to 100 years to the lower level. The last one mainly supplies the base flow of the Ojo de agua and Bello springs and therefore, controls the dry season exploitation yields of the aqueducts of El Gato and Bello. Model results introduces an important constraint in the exploitation of groundwater resource of both aquifer systems.

  18. Diversidad florística del Paisaje Natural Protegido “Estrella-Aguadores”, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Castell-Puchades

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El Paisaje Natural Protegido “Estrella-Aguadores” se considera entre las áreas de mayor riqueza florística de la costa suroriental de Cuba, sin embargo, son insuficientes los estudios florísticos locales que les posibilite a técnicos y decisores locales contar con la información necesaria para emprender acciones adecuadas de conservación y manejo; con el objetivo de resolver este problema, realizamos un estudio de la diversidad florística que caracteriza el área protegida. Se desarrolló un muestreo preferencial, sin rumbo fijo, teniendo en cuenta en cada recorrido las características físico-geográficas del área, así como la ecología de las especies. El trabajo de campo se realizó según la metodología de los inventarios biológicos rápidos. Se identifican 266 especies de angiospermas para el Paisaje Natural Protegido “Estrella-Aguadores”, de las cuales 112 constituyen nuevos registros para el área protegida. Se registran 38 especies endémicas y seis especies amenazadas. El 48% de las angiospermas registradas presentan algún tipo de uso o valor para los comunitarios. Este trabajo muestra al Paisaje Natural Protegido “Estrella-Aguadores” como una de las reservas más importantes en diversidad de angiospermas de las terrazas costeras de Cuba, lo cual resalta su función como área de protección de la flora.

  19. Dengue in Costa Rica: the gap in local scientific research Dengue en Costa Rica: la brecha en la investigación científica local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Troyo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available El dengue es una enfermedad de gran importancia a escala mundial. Los esfuerzos para su control en la mayoría de las regiones del mundo no han logrado detener el aumento en su incidencia, y se fomenta la investigación científica para contribuir a desarrollar nuevos enfoques de control basados en la evidencia científica o a mejorar los existentes. Enfermedad recientemente reemergente en Costa Rica, el dengue se ha convertido en un grave problema de salud en ese país. A pesar de esta crítica situación, se dispone de pocas publicaciones científicas sobre dengue en Costa Rica. En una búsqueda realizada en la base de datos PubMed se encontraron solo 11 artículos, mientras que en varias bases de datos bibliográficas centradas en Costa Rica y otros países de América Latina se hallaron 19 artículos más. Además, se encontraron 10 tesis relacionadas con el dengue realizadas en universidades costarricenses. Por lo tanto, son pocos los artículos científicos originales publicados sobre este tema en revistas científicas arbitradas, especialmente en aspectos vinculados con la epidemiología, la salud pública y la idoneidad y eficacia de las intervenciones en marcha. Esta brecha en las investigaciones puede deberse a diversos factores, como el contexto histórico y político, insuficientes recursos financieros y humanos, deficiencias en la colaboración entre las instituciones y dificultades para disponer de los datos. Costa Rica puede aprender de la experiencia de otros países de la Región de las Américas (como Cuba y Trinidad y Tobago, donde se ha investigado mucho más sobre dengue. Las investigaciones de esos dos países han aportado evidencias cruciales para el desarrollo de estrategias locales y generales dirigidas al control y la prevención del dengue. En dependencia del contexto local, algunos métodos de control pueden ser más eficaces que otros, por lo que las acciones basadas en la evidencia deben adaptarse para las

  20. Political subjectivity and critical social psychologies in Latin American: Ideas to two voices [Subjetividad política y psicologías sociales críticas en Latinoamérica: ideas a dos voces

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Díaz Gómez; Fernando González-Rey

    2012-01-01

    En la presente entrevista, se desarrolla una conversación entre los psicólogos Fernando González Rey (Cuba/Brasil) y Álvaro Díaz Gómez (Colombia) sobre lo que, desde la trayectoria de vida académica de cada uno de ellos, se asume qué es la Psicología Social crítica en Latinoamérica y cómo se ex- presa a través de diversas opciones. Igualmente, se avanzan ideas respecto de la subjetividad en la tensión subjetividad social/subjetividad política.

  1. Increased sex ratio in Russia and Cuba after Chernobyl: a radiological hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The ratio of male to female offspring at birth may be a simple and non-invasive way to monitor the reproductive health of a population. Except in societies where selective abortion skews the sex ratio, approximately 105 boys are born for every 100 girls. Generally, the human sex ratio at birth is remarkably constant in large populations. After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986, a long lasting significant elevation in the sex ratio has been found in Russia, i.e. more boys or fewer girls compared to expectation were born. Recently, also for Cuba an escalated sex ratio from 1987 onward has been documented and discussed in the scientific literature. Presentation of the hypothesis By the end of the eighties of the last century in Cuba as much as about 60% of the food imports were provided by the former Soviet Union. Due to its difficult economic situation, Cuba had neither the necessary insight nor the political strength to circumvent the detrimental genetic effects of imported radioactively contaminated foodstuffs after Chernobyl. We propose that the long term stable sex ratio increase in Cuba is essentially due to ionizing radiation. Testing of the hypothesis A synoptic trend analysis of Russian and Cuban annual sex ratios discloses upward jumps in 1987. The estimated jump height from 1986 to 1987 in Russia measures 0.51% with a 95% confidence interval (0.28, 0.75), p value < 0.0001. In Cuba the estimated jump height measures 2.99% (2.39, 3.60), p value < 0.0001. The hypothesis may be tested by reconstruction of imports from the world markets to Cuba and by radiological analyses of remains in Cuba for Cs-137 and Sr-90. Implications of the hypothesis If the evidence for the hypothesis is strengthened, there is potential to learn about genetic radiation risks and to prevent similar effects in present and future exposure situations. PMID:23947741

  2. Corrupción, burocracia colonial y veteranos separatistas en Cuba, 1868-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroz, Alfonso W.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Administrative corruption in Cuba during the nineteenth century was a serious problem addressed both by Spanish authorities and the critics of the colonial system in Cuba. In the long run the fiscal, financial, institutional, and ideological costs of corruption undermined Spanish colonial control in Cuba. While the state and Cuban taxpayers had to pay for the increased costs of corruption, corrupt public officials and private contractors and financiers benefited. This study uses both archival manuscript administrative sources and published sources to assess the impact of corruption and its institutional bases during the final phase of Spanish colonialism in Cuba and the early period of post-colonial transition.

    La corrupción administrativa en Cuba durante el siglo XIX constituyó un problema reconocido como muy grave tanto por las autoridades españolas como por los críticos del sistema colonial cubano. Los costos fiscales, institucionales, e ideológicos de la corrupción contribuían a la erosión del dominio español en Cuba. A causa de la corrupción el Estado percibía menos ingresos y los contribuyentes cubanos se veían forzados a llevar a cuestas una creciente deuda pública. Los funcionarios corruptos y los contratistas y financistas privilegiados por el rígido sistema colonial, por el contrario, percibían los beneficios informales a que se creían acreedores por defender el dominio territorial español en Cuba. Utilizando fuentes administrativas manuscritas de archivos cubanos y españoles, así como fuentes públicas impresas, este trabajo evalúa el impacto de la corrupción y sus particulares bases institucionales en la fase final del colonialismo español en la isla y la transición post-colonial temprana.

  3. Increased sex ratio in Russia and Cuba after Chernobyl: a radiological hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherb, Hagen; Kusmierz, Ralf; Voigt, Kristina

    2013-08-15

    The ratio of male to female offspring at birth may be a simple and non-invasive way to monitor the reproductive health of a population. Except in societies where selective abortion skews the sex ratio, approximately 105 boys are born for every 100 girls. Generally, the human sex ratio at birth is remarkably constant in large populations. After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986, a long lasting significant elevation in the sex ratio has been found in Russia, i.e. more boys or fewer girls compared to expectation were born. Recently, also for Cuba an escalated sex ratio from 1987 onward has been documented and discussed in the scientific literature. By the end of the eighties of the last century in Cuba as much as about 60% of the food imports were provided by the former Soviet Union. Due to its difficult economic situation, Cuba had neither the necessary insight nor the political strength to circumvent the detrimental genetic effects of imported radioactively contaminated foodstuffs after Chernobyl. We propose that the long term stable sex ratio increase in Cuba is essentially due to ionizing radiation. A synoptic trend analysis of Russian and Cuban annual sex ratios discloses upward jumps in 1987. The estimated jump height from 1986 to 1987 in Russia measures 0.51% with a 95% confidence interval (0.28, 0.75), p value Cuba the estimated jump height measures 2.99% (2.39, 3.60), p value Cuba and by radiological analyses of remains in Cuba for Cs-137 and Sr-90. If the evidence for the hypothesis is strengthened, there is potential to learn about genetic radiation risks and to prevent similar effects in present and future exposure situations.

  4. Case Study in International Cooperation: Cuba's Molecular Immunology Center and Roswell Park Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rachel; Reid, Mary; Segal, Brahm; Abrams, Scott I; Lee, Kelvin

    2018-04-01

    In 1961, the USA severed diplomatic relations with Cuba, and in 1962 an embargo was imposed on trade and financial relations with that country. It was not until five decades later that the USA and Cuba would reestablish relations. This opened the way for the New York State Trade Mission to Cuba in April 2015, during which Cuba's Molecular Immunology Center and Buffalo, New York's Roswell Park Cancer Institute signed a formal agreement that would set in motion biotechnology research collaboration to address one of the most important causes of death in both countries. Significant research from Cuba led to this groundbreaking collaboration. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of this cooperation, from the Molecular Immunology Center's initial investigations, through the opening of a phase I clinical trial at Roswell Park Cancer Institute with therapies developed at the Center. This cooperation was responsible for the first clinical trial for CIMAvax-EGF involving advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients in the USA. A license was also approved by the US Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control authorizing a commercial partnership for development of biotechnology products, combining the cancer research efforts of both institutions. This unusual collaboration between Cuba and the USA-the US economic embargo and travel restrictions not withstanding-opens good prospects for expanded medical research between the two countries. While political and logistical challenges remain, the shared mission and dedication of these Cuban and US scientists points the way towards relationships that can lead to development, testing, approval and use of promising new therapies for cancer patients. KEYWORDS Biotechnology, clinical trials, cancer vaccines, cancer immunotherapy, non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC, Cuba, USA.

  5. Intimate Encounters: Affective Economies in Cuba and the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia L. Cabezas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on research in Cuba and the Dominican Republic this paper explores the uses of intimacy in both the corporate sector and in romantic relationships. I use research with hotel workers and with people involved in sexual-affective exchanges connected to tourism to link intimacy to the political economic structures of transnational tourism. These are new spaces of analysis that present practices of transnational corporategenerated intimacy that combine love – or the exploitation of worker’s emotions − and labour. The central aim is to intertwine the intimate with the global, from the formal customer service policies of transnational hotels with the informal, on-the-ground, intimate encounters between tourists and hospitality workers. The commercialization of intimacy, including sexual-affective relations in the delivery of hospitality services, is linked to political and economic processes that are part of transnational tourism practices. This paper challenges the notion that sex tourism and sex work are individualistic practices that exist outside of the spaces of corporate global profit. It further posits that relationships where money is exchanged are not necessarily devoid of care and intimacy.Resumen: Encuentros íntimos: economías afectivas en Cuba y República Dominicana A partir de investigaciones en Cuba y la República Dominicana, este trabajo explora los usos de la intimidad, tanto en el sector empresarial como en las relaciones románticas. Se hicieron investigaciones entre trabajadores de hostelería y personas involucradas en el intercambio afectivosexual relacionado con el turismo con el fin de vincular la intimidad de las estructuras políticoeconómicas del turismo transnacional. Estos son nuevos espacios de análisis que las prácticas de las empresas transnacionales generan por el uso de la intimidad que combinan el amor – o la explotación de las emociones del trabajador – y la mano de obra. El objetivo central

  6. 15 CFR 748.14 - Import Certificate for firearms destined for Organization of American States member countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint...

  7. Evangelizacion Indigena en Cuba (1512-1550): Estrategia y Razones de su Fracaso (Evangelization of Indigenous People in Cuba (1512-1550): Strategies and Reasons for its Failure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes; Reyes, Francisco Barroso

    2000-01-01

    Presents the different moments and contents of the strategies of the evangelization process practiced by the Spanish during the conquest and colonization of Cuba, as well as possible reasons for its failure. States that the Indians were enslaved and directed through evangelism toward acculturation. (BT)

  8. APROXIMACIONES A LA ACTIVIDAD INTERNACIONAL DE UNA ORGANIZACIÓN INSURGENTE COLOMBIANA. El ejército popular de liberación (epl. De china a cuba vía albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Trejos Rosero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende construir la historia de la actividad interna- cional del Ejército Popular de Liberación (EPL poniendo énfasis en Centroamérica y el Caribe. Esta organización guerrillera colombiana, de orientación maoísta en sus inicios, desarrolló entre 1986 y 1990 una intensa actividad diplomática en varios países de la región, ge- nerando interacciones políticas con agentes estatales y no estatales, especialmente de Cuba y Nicaragua, evidenciando de esta manera la influencia directa que los procesos revolucionarios centroamericanos tuvieron sobre la insurgencia colombiana. Además, con este artículo se busca contribuir en la construcción de la historia de las relaciones internacionales de actores no estatales colombianos.

  9. AL DE UNA ORGANIZACIÓN INSURGENTE COLOMBIANA El ejército popular de liberación (epl. De china a cuba vía albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Trejos Rosero

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende construir la historia de la actividad internacional del Ejército Popular de Liberación (EPL poniendo énfasis en Centroamérica y el Caribe. Esta organización guerrillera colombiana, de orientación maoísta en sus inicios, desarrolló entre 1986 y 1990 una intensa actividad diplomática en varios países de la región, generando interacciones políticas con agentes estatales y no estatales, especialmente de Cuba y Nicaragua, evidenciando de esta manera la influencia directa que los procesos revolucionarios centroamericanos tuvieron sobre la insurgencia colombiana. Además, con este artículo se busca contribuir en la construcción de la historia de las relaciones internacionales de actores no estatales colombianos.

  10. Una mirada a la integración interdisciplinaria de la Oftalmología en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zucell A Veitía Rovirosa

    Full Text Available Desde el triunfo de la Revolución la formación de profesionales en Cuba se acompaña de un importante componente de formación sociohumanista. La voluntad por el desarrollo social y el bienestar humano reclama un sostenido esfuerzo por desarrollar el conocimiento, la ciencia, la tecnología y ponerlos al servicio de las mayorías. La Revolución cubana no solo ha hecho un notable esfuerzo por desarrollar el conocimiento, la educación, la cultura; sino también por compartir generosamente sus avances con otros pueblos que lo necesitan. El campo de la salud es probablemente el mejor ejemplo de esa vocación humanista de proyección universal. Una de las mayores faenas en este campo fue la Misión Milagro, que nació como una iniciativa de Fidel Castro y Hugo Chávez en el marco de la Alternativa Bolivariana para las Américas. Esto conllevó la integración e interacción de varias disciplinas en función de la prestación de servicio científico-técnico donde la Oftalmología jugó un papel fundamental desde las subespecialidades. Dicho proceso tributó -de manera general, en la integración sistemática de una serie de contenidos y métodos disciplinarios- a una mejor comprensión de la realidad, así como a un enriquecimiento de la investigación interdisciplinaria. El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar el impacto y la influencia de la Misión Milagro en el proceso de integración interdisciplinaria de los profesionales de Oftalmología.

  11. Resistência Cultural, Gênero, Raça e Sexualidade em Cuba e no Brasil, entrevista com Tanya Saunders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila dos Santos Nascimento

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Em 2016, por ocasião do Dia Internacional da Mulher Negra Latino Americana e Caribenha, comemorado em 25 de Julho, as ativistas lésbicas Sheila Nascimento (Coletivo LGBTSol e Bárbara Alves (Lesbibahia receberam nas dependências do Grupo de Estudos Feministas em Política e Educação (GIRA da Faculdade de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas (FFCH da Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA a Profa. Tanya Saunders da Universidade da Flórida. Tanya Saunders é PHD em Sociologia pela Universidade de Michigan; e mestre em Política e Desenvolvimento Internacional do Gerald R. Ford, Escola de Políticas Públicas. Dentre seus interesses de pesquisa, vale ressaltar, a sua busca pelo aprofundamento no conhecimento acerca do ativismo no campo das artes, ou Artivismo, na Diáspora Africana nas Américas, inserindo os debates em torno das identidades sociais de raça, gênero e sexualidade.Tanya Saunders, que esteve no Brasil como professora visitante no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Estudos Interdisciplinares sobre Gênero, Mulheres e Feminismos (PPGNEIM na linha de pesquisa Gênero, Arte e Cultura, realizou trabalho de campo sobre os movimentos sociais brasileiros baseados em artes urbanas e nos movimentos de educação alternativa. Nessa entrevista a docente apresenta sua trajetória como pesquisadora nos estudos sobre raça, gênero e sexualidade, culminando com sua proposta de uma Teoria Queer de Base, cuja gênese se deu a partir de seu trabalho de campo com mulheres negras lésbicas em Cuba e no Brasil. Segundo a pesquisadora os estudos interdisciplinares em raça, gênero, sexualidade e arte possibilitam a compreensão de novas formas de resistência ao racismo, sexismo e lesbofobia. Aponta também para seu interesse em pensar a teoria negra brasileira e possíveis redes de pesquisa e ativismo entre o Caribe, a América Latina e os Estados Unidos.

  12. 31 CFR 515.560 - Travel-related transactions to, from, and within Cuba by persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and within Cuba by persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction. 515.560 Section 515.560 Money and Finance... Licensing Policy § 515.560 Travel-related transactions to, from, and within Cuba by persons subject to U.S... guidelines with respect to Cuba or engaged in by U.S.-owned or -controlled foreign firms (general and...

  13. 31 CFR 515.549 - Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963. 515.549 Section 515.549 Money and... Licensing Policy § 515.549 Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or... accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who have left Cuba, provided that they submit evidence...

  14. 8 CFR 245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 245.13 Section 245.13 Aliens and Nationality... PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 245.13 Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public... section 241(a)(5) of the Act, if the alien: (1) Is a national of Nicaragua or Cuba; (2) Except as provided...

  15. 8 CFR 1245.13 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. 1245.13 Section 1245.13 Aliens and Nationality... nationals of Nicaragua and Cuba under Public Law 105-100. (a) Aliens eligible to apply for adjustment. An... Nicaragua or Cuba; (2) Except as provided in paragraph (o) of this section, has been physically present in...

  16. Diversidad haplotípica en el manatí Trichechus manatus en Cuba: resultados preliminares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Martinez, Damir; Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Garcia-Machado, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to obtain information regarding the mtDNA haplotype composition of the manatee (T. manatus) occupying the Cuban archipelago. A fragment of 410 bp of the non-coding region was analyzed for 12 individual manatees from Cuba and one from Florida, USA. Only two haplotypes were identified. Haplotype A1, found exclusively in Florida (including in the sample analyzed here) but also found in Mexico, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, was the most frequent haplotype (11 of the 12 samples from Cuba) and widely distributed. The second haplotype A3, previously referred to as endemic from Belize, was identified from an individual stranded in Isabela de Sagua, north of Cuba. These preliminary results provide information about three major aspects of manatee biology: (1) the mtDNA genetic diversity of T. manatus in Cuba seems low as compared to other regions of the Caribbean; (2) the Cuban population likely belongs to the group comprising Florida and the portions of the Greater Antilles; and (3) the territories of Belize and Cuba have exchanged individuals at present or in a relatively recent past.

  17. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeneida Teixeira Pinto

    Full Text Available Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected from Brazil and Cuba was tested to a chemical characterization and then was tested on the post-embryonic development of Musca domestica. The chemical composition analysis by GC-MS of the oils from Brazil/Cuba allowed the identification of 13 and 12 major constituents respectively; nine of them common to both. In the both oils, the main components were the isomers geranial and neral, which together form the compound citral. This corresponds to a total of 97.92%/Brazil and 97.69%/Cuba of the compounds identified. The monoterpene myrcene, observed only in the sample of Cuba, presented a large relative abundance (6.52%. The essential oil of C. citratus (Brazil/Cuba was dissolved in DMSO and tested at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and citral was prepared by mixing 16.8 mg with 960 µL DMSO. Both essential oils and monoterpene citral were applied topically to newly-hatched larvae (1µL/larva. The results showed a lethal concentration (LC50 of 4.25 and 3.24% for the Brazilian and Cuban essential oils, respectively. Mortalities of larval and newly-hatched larvae to adult periods were dose-dependent for the two both oils as for monoterpene citral, reaching 90%. Both essential oils and citral caused morphological changes in adult specimens.

  18. En el reino de la ambivalencia. La Cuba de Alejandro de Humboldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lubrich

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Article in Spanish, Abstracts in English and German.In the Realm of Ambivalence.The Question of Cuba in Alexander von Humboldt’s American TravelogueCuba has a special role in Alexander von Humboldt’s American travel narrative: Humboldt’s experience of colonial slave economy drives his optimistic philosophy, inspired by European Enlightenment, into a crisis, and brings to surface the inherent contradictions of his discourse. This phenomenon is particularly interesting from the perspective of literary criticism: Alexander von Humboldt conceives Cuba as a poetic space, where contradictions and ambivalences coexist. Already on the boat to the island from Venezuela he creates destablizing effects of sensual perceptions. He stages his landing in Havana as a moment of oppositional impressions. Within the symbolic topography of his geographic fantasy, Cuba functions as an imaginary in-between space. And Humboldt’s philosophical and aesthetic terminology undergoes a semantic recoding in Cuba: what was once used in a philosophical and aesthetic sense, now has become charged with an economic and political meaning.

  19. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Sánchez, Félix Fernández; dos Santos, Arith Ramos; Amaral, Ana Claudia Fernandes; Ferreira, José Luiz Pinto; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected from Brazil and Cuba was tested to a chemical characterization and then was tested on the post-embryonic development of Musca domestica. The chemical composition analysis by GC-MS of the oils from Brazil/Cuba allowed the identification of 13 and 12 major constituents respectively; nine of them common to both. In the both oils, the main components were the isomers geranial and neral, which together form the compound citral. This corresponds to a total of 97.92%/Brazil and 97.69%/Cuba of the compounds identified. The monoterpene myrcene, observed only in the sample of Cuba, presented a large relative abundance (6.52%). The essential oil of C. citratus (Brazil/Cuba) was dissolved in DMSO and tested at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and citral was prepared by mixing 16.8 mg with 960 µL DMSO. Both essential oils and monoterpene citral were applied topically to newly-hatched larvae (1µL/larva). The results showed a lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.25 and 3.24% for the Brazilian and Cuban essential oils, respectively. Mortalities of larval and newly-hatched larvae to adult periods were dose-dependent for the two both oils as for monoterpene citral, reaching 90%. Both essential oils and citral caused morphological changes in adult specimens.

  20. Communicative intercultural competence in Medical Postgraduate Education in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Hernández Díaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of the investigation “Developing Communicative Intercultural Competence in Medical Postgraduate Education in Cuba through English”, a master´s degree thesis whose aim was to design a postgraduate course of English for Specific Purposes which would focus on the development of the communicative competence of doctors going to health missions in English-speaking countries or where English is spoken as a lingua franca.This course is based on Developmental Pedagogy, the Communicative Approach and Task-Based Learning. It emphasizes cultural and important intercultural issues to be kept in mind during doctor-patient interviews, doctor-doctor relationships and doctor-family exchanges in a professional context so as to make it possible to establish cultural differences and similarities between the students´ culture and the foreign country´s culture.This is an exploratory investigation with a fundamentally quantitative focus using resources of the qualitative one. This design is a curricular document with all its didactic components, aimed at the development of intercultural communicative competence that responds to the current needs of the participants. 

  1. Dangerous wastes management in Cuba. Current situation and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Rossell, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    The appropriate handling of the dangerous waste has become a topic of high priority for all the countries and especially for those developing one that in general, they lack solid technical infrastructure, suitable technologies and human resources properly qualified to carry out this work without causing negative impacts on the environment. For these countries, this matter represents a true challenge, requiring you to have financial resources to create capacities and to acquire technologies, that which reality should be made with the support of the developed countries, but that up to now it doesn't stop to be a commitments without in the practice it is materialized in an effective way. The collaboration and the cooperation among the countries in development are also an useful road that should be increased. This work seeks to expose as Cuba it has faced this challenge, presenting the carried out actions, the confronted difficulties and the future actions that will be attacked so that the handling of dangerous waste doesn't constitute an environmental problem to solve

  2. Radium-226 on drinking water of Camaguey, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalvan Estrada, Adelmo; Brigido Flores, Osvaldo; Barrera Caballero, Aldo; Escalante, Alexander

    2001-01-01

    The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water of Camaguey city, Cuba, was measured using the emanometric method. The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water ranged from 15 ± 5 mBq.l -1 to 39 ±12 mBq.l -1 . The mean specific activity of Ra-226 was found to be 27 ± 8 mBq.l -1 . No seasonal variation was found. Water samples were collected from the two main sources of drinking water: private wells and governmental water supply system, being the mean specific activities of Ra-226: 25 ± 7 mBq.l -1 and 31 ± 9 mBq.l -1 , respectively. Based upon measured concentrations the age-dependent associated effective doses due to the ingestion of Ra-226, as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water, have been calculated. For the age interval 1 year to 5 years, the average effective dose was 6,2 μSv.y -1 , and for adults the average effective dose was 5,2 μSv.y -1 . (author)

  3. [Alagille's syndrome in Cuba. A report of 9 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, C; Fragoso, T; Gra, B; Guerra, L; Castellanos, O; Trujillo, M E

    1992-01-01

    Alagille's syndrome or arteriohepatic dysplasia has been described in Cuba in nine patients between nine months and 12 years of age (8 males and one female). Among the clinical features we found five major abnormalities: chronic cholestasis with neonatal jaundice (9/9), peculiar facies (9/9), peripheral pulmonary artery hypoplasia associated with cardiac murmur (6/9), butter-fly-like arch defects (4/9), and posterior embryotoxon (6/7). Two children had a severe xanthomatosis. Laparoscopy showed green hepatomegaly depending on the degree of cholestasis, and only one patient had incipient signs of micronodular cirrhosis. Liver histology showed a paucity of interlobular bile ducts. Survival was of 60%. One patient survived more than 30 years. Four patients died of liver carcinoma (unique report in infants), broncho-pneumonia, acute renal failure, and sudden death respectively. Among the minor features were mental retardation (5/9), a peculiar voice (3/9), growth retardation observed in some of our patients. This is the first report on Alagille's syndrome in Latin America, because so far reports have come only from Europe and North America.

  4. Promoting health in response to global tourism expansion in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, J M; Gonzalez, M; Cabrera, G J; Catasus, S; Vidal, C; Yassi, A

    2008-03-01

    The ability of communities to respond to the pressures of globalization is an important determinant of community health. Tourism is a rapidly growing industry and there is an increasing concern about its health impact on local communities. Nonetheless, little research has been conducted to identify potential mitigating measures. We therefore took advantage of the 'natural experiment' provided by the expansion of tourism in Cuba, and conducted four focus groups and key informants interviews in each of two coastal communities. Participants expressed concerns about psycho-social impacts as well as occupational and environmental concerns, and both infectious and chronic diseases. A wide array of programs that had been developed to mitigate potential negative were described. Some of the programs were national in scope and others were locally developed. The programs particularly targeted youth as the most vulnerable population at risk of addictions and sexually transmitted infections. Occupational health concerns for workers in the tourism sector were also addressed, with many of the measures implemented protecting tourists as well. The health promotion and various other participatory action initiatives implemented showed a strong commitment to address the impacts of tourism and also contributed to building capacity in the two communities. Although longitudinal studies are needed to assess the sustainability of these programs and to evaluate their long-term impact in protecting health, other communities can learn from the initiatives taken.

  5. Seven years of individual monitoring service in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Suarez, R.; Diaz Bernal, E.D.; Lopez Bejerano, G.M.; Jova Sed, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) has been carrying out from 1987 the individual monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to the ionizing radiations in the Republic of Cuba, excepting those that employ X-rays in diagnostic radiology. In this paper the results of the individual monitoring services during the period 1987-1993 are discussed. For all occupational practices the current system of dose limitation established in the country with 50 mSv as limit of annual dose is satisfied. The distribution in all occupational practices other than nuclear medicine and gamma-therapy is characterized by having more than 95% of the controlled personnel with an effective dose lower than 5 mSv. In the case of nuclear medicine and gamma-therapy more than 80% of the workers were below that dose value. For the practices evaluated in this paper the possibility of assuming the system of dose limitation recommended by ICRP is evident. The evaluations carried out for the introduction of operational quantities H p (0.07) and H p (10) in dose assessment procedure are presented. The expressions obtained during the characterization of the film badge dosemeter, in terms of operational quantities guarantees a deviation of response of the dosemeter with depending upon energies, lower than 20 %. (author)

  6. Introduction of Molecular Diagnosis of Hemochromatosis Type 1 in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Aramís Cervera García

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: hemochromatosis type 1 is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder, which should be diagnosed during its preclinical phase in order to prevent severe organ damage. Objective: to establish the diagnosis of hemochromatosis type 1 in Cuba, and calculate its frequencies in patients with hepatopathies. Methods: an analytic cross-sectional study was conducted including 65 patients with liver disease, who were referred to the laboratory of Molecular Biology of the National Medical Genetics Center by clinical geneticists. A PCR-RFLP analysis was used for detecting the C282Y and H63D mutations in the HFE gene. Results: PCR-RFLP analysis was standardized for the detection of C282Y and H63D mutations. Frequencies of C282Y and H63D mutations in the HFE gene in patients with hepatopathies were 6.3% and 18.2% respectively. Conclusions: molecular diagnosis of C282Y and H63D mutations in the HFE gene causing hemochromatosis type 1 contributed to the identification of 28 carriers in the 65 patients who were studied, as well as a homozygous individual for the H63D mutation, which shows the high prevalence of these mutations in Cuban patients with liver disease.

  7. Proceedings of II Molecular Imaging Symposium Cuba - Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In the Central Theater, University Hospital 'General Calixto Garcia' took place the II Symposium on Molecular Imaging Cuba Japan in the framework of the Scientific Convention for the 120th anniversary of the hospital. The event was organized by the hospital itself with the support of the Society of Medical Physics (medical physics section), CEADEN, the Embassy of Japan and the Theragnostic Compounds R&D Center Neuroscience Research Institute Gachon University, Incheon Korea. It was attended by 80 national scientific leaders and with the invaluable presence of Dr. Tatsuo IDO, Emeritus professor of Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan) who presented the results of the scientific papers presented this year in national and international events , referring to the new technologies of molecular imaging and the importance of medical physics in its development. During the meeting the importance of the new technologies of molecular imaging, its undisputed diagnosis intake and medical treatment and the value of human capital struggled to deal with the new technologies, the view that these are only used best when it is understood that they are multidisciplinary systems where each specialist and technical personnel plays an indispensable role. The challenge has medical physics to address these new technologies and the need for changes in the theoretical and practical training in the specialty. These analyzes will be given continuity in the next symposia molecular imaging. (author)

  8. Notes on Mesocapromys sanfelipensis (Rodentia: Capromyidae) from Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LÓpez, Lazaro W viÑola; Garrido, Orlando H; BermÚdez, Alberto

    2018-04-16

    The San Felipe Hutia, Mesocapromys sanfelipensis, is one of the most endangered species of rodents in the world, and little is known about its ecology, evolution, and ancient distribution. At present, this hutia has been found only in its type locality, Cayo Juan Garcia, a cay in the southwest Cuban insular platform. Here we report for the first time a well preserved fossil skull referred to this species, collected in Cueva del Indio, Mayabeque province, western Cuba. This specimen shows that the modern population of M. sanfelipensis is a marginal relic of its former distribution, a consequence of climatic, eustatic, and neotectonic changes in the last 8 ka years. Also, we reevaluate the cranial characters and measurements that correspond to M. sanfelipensis and found that two of the eight specimens referred to this species and deposited at the Instituto de Ecologia y Sistematica belong to Mesocapromys auritus. Finally, we include six unpublished photos of specimens of M. sanfelipensis captured in 1970 during two expeditions to Cayo Juan Garcia.

  9. Ecotourism and Sustainable Development in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Buchsbaum, Bernardo Duha

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a synopsis of the current issues facing ecotourism in Costa Rica; critically examine the impacts and challenges of ecotourism; analyze the potential of ecotourism as a strategy for sustainable development; look at ways in which ecotourism and sustainable development can be evaluated; and suggest ways to improve current ecotourism practices and policies for Costa Rica. What are the impacts and challenges of ecotourism? What are the possible benefits that...

  10. Critical discourse analysis of the arguments about Cuba present on the New York Times Editorial (2008-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyden Figueredo-Portuondo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen months after the proclamation of Fidel Castro in which the president of Cuba for almost half a century left her post due to an illness that placed him between life and death, the New York Times, published on its opinion page on February 20, 2008 editorial "Twilight of the Dictators: And a Chance for Cuba -and the US". This article is an argumentative discourse study of Cuba in New York Times editorials (2008-2015, whose main objective is to analyze the construction of journalistic discourse in this American newspaper about Cuba regarding diplomatic relations between the two countries. This work aims to take steps in order to articulate the historical-cultural approach in psychology to Discourse Analysis (AD, and from an integrated and holistic perspective plan a discourse analysis as a fulcrum to a better understanding of journalistic discourse about Cuba in Internet.

  11. Quality control to the service of diagnostic radiology in policlinics and hospitals of Santiago de Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinnan Torres, Reinaldo; Parra Caboberde, Hector; Semanat Sanchez, Lino A.

    2002-01-01

    The work presents the results obtained in the Quality Control in diagnostic X-ray equipment accomplished in 33 clinics of Santiago de Cuba city. The performed test were, to the X-ray generator, X-ray tube, devices collimation and alignment, as well as to the light boxes, dark rooms, and radiographic screen-film combinations. Moreover the work presents the results of the Entrance Doses for a reference patient in radiographic projections of frequent use in clinics of Santiago de Cuba city (chest, lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis). For the evaluation of the verified technical parameters were used the tolerance criterions recommended by the Technical Guide elaborated by the State Control Centre of Medical of Cuba. In the case of the Entrance Dose were used the dose levels that recommended by the International Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for safety of radiation sources

  12. The Telephony in the City of Santiago of Cuba (1893 - 1959

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    Maithe Sánchez-Garrido

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the substantial advantages which it specifically contributed the restoration of the telephone in Cuba and in the oriental locality, like an element of modernity that contributed to improve the form of life of the population, as well as the quality of mass media, the subject from its arrival to Santiago of Cuba is very little disclosed and/or not known, to grief that with the triumph of the Cuban Revolution considerably spread the use of the same one and some writings were published on the matter. The present research shows an analysis of the historical evolution of the telephony in the Island, but having like attention center the city of Santiago of Cuba. For it the antecedents of this phenomenon consider, the political, economic-social and cultural circumstances that influenced in their evolution and development, as well as their within the framework local incidence.

  13. Immigration, Galician and Santiago de Cuba: a Vision from the Notarial Protocols (1850-1898

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    Mónica García-Salgado

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present research intends to approach the topic of the Galician presence in the jurisdiction of Santiago de Cuba, declared as such from the year 1847. It includes a balance on the factors of attraction and repulsion that facilitate the Galician immigrant's establishment in Cuba and Santiago de Cuba in the period 1850-1898, as well as characteristic some of their main ones. The study has been carried out starting from the information that offers the Notarial Protocols among those that Manuel Caminero´s Clerkships, Heraclio García, José Knot, the Real one Public of Government and of Guerra, and those of Caney and Copper.

  14. A review of the genus Berosus Leach of Cuba (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deler-Hernández, Albert; Fikáček, Martin; Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Cuban fauna of the genus Berosus Leach, 1817 is reviewed based on newly collected material as well as historical and type specimens. Nine species are recognized, including three recorded from Cuba for the first time: Berosus infuscatus LeConte, 1855, Berosus interstitialis Knisch, 1924 (= Berosus stribalus Orchymont, 1946 syn. n.) and Berosus metalliceps Sharp, 1882. Only one of the nine Cuban species, Berosus chevrolati, remains endemic to Cuba, as two other species previously considered as endemic to Cuba are recorded from elsewhere: Berosus quadridens from Mexico and Central America and Berosus trilobus from the Dominican Republic. Notes on biology and Cuban distribution are provided for all nine species. Berosus quadridens Chevrolat, 1863, stat. restit. is removed from synonym with Berosus truncatipennis and considered a valid species. PMID:23794806

  15. The structuring of health systems and the control of infectious disease: looking at Mexico and Cuba La estructuración de los sistemas de salud y el control de las enfermedades infecciosas: un vistazo a México y a Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Anderson

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se examinan las consecuencias que tienen para el control de las enfermedades infecciosas diferentes maneras de concebir la organización de los sistemas de salud. En particular se examinan las bases teóricas de la organización de los sistemas de salud de México y de Cuba, junto con sus programas y resultados, en conexión con cinco de las principales y más peligrosas enfermedades infecciosas: la tuberculosis, la infección por VIH y el sida, la diarrea, el sarampión y el paludismo. México ha tenido un sistema federal y neoliberal basado en un programa de seguridad social tripartito (el Estado, el empleador, y aportaciones del empleado, en consorcios del sector privado (inversiones en servicios públicos por parte de entidades privadas con fines de lucro y en la provisión competitiva de servicios (servicios competitivos en lugar de coordinados. En cambio, Cuba ha tenido un sistema público con acceso libre garantizado para toda la población, una coordinación pública centralizada, y la inscripción de todos los pacientes sin excepción (todo miembro de la población tiene un registro médico y un médico asignado. ¿Cómo se han lidiado con las enfermedades infecciosas más peligrosas de la humanidad dos sistemas de salud con estas características? La superioridad casi invariable que ha mostrado Cuba en el control de las enfermedades parece depender del acceso garantizado que tiene todo habitante a los servicios de salud, a la coordinación centralizada del sistema sanitario y a una abundancia de trabajadores de salud bien capacitados. Por otro lado, en México la provisión desigual de servicios asistenciales no ha logrado satisfacer las necesidades de todos los mexicanos y la expansión de los servicios privados difícilmente podrá compensar las carencias observadas en las zonas más pobres del país. Las deficiencias de infraestructura y de otros recursos imponen límites sobre lo que Cuba puede alcanzar, pero son

  16. América Latina

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    José de Jesús Ibarra Cárdenas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La existencia de ciertos rasgos autoritarios que afectan a los derechos de participación política y al cumplimiento de los acuerdos democráticos, ha sido motivo de crisis y colapso de varios gobiernos en América Latina. La importancia de la función judicial radica en que siempre y cuando mantenga la "independencia" y la "imparcialidad" como principios que le caracterizan, puede reforzar la cooperación entre agentes políticos y sociales por medio de: a el desarrollo de una cultura jurídica de respeto y promoción de los derechos, y b un poder judicial que establezca una relación estable entre comportamiento humano y prescripción normativa, es decir, que en la justificación de sus decisiones articule de manera satisfactoria el código de valores socialmente construido, y el marco normativo establecido por la regla de reconocimiento del sistema jurídico.

  17. de papa en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeidy Montero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Especies del género Meloidogyne causan importantes daños al cultivo de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L alrededor del mundo. Su efecto puede ser directo al disminuir el rendimiento o indirecto al infectar los tubérculos y causar agallas o protuberancias, que les confiere una apariencia verrugosa, que afecta su calidad y reduce su valor comercial. En Capellades y Llano Grande de Cartago, Costa Rica, fueron encontrados tubérculos de papa, de la variedad Floresta y del clon Bananito, con numerosas protuberancias en su superficie. De las protuberancias se extrajo hembras ovígeras de Meloidogyne spp. Estudios morfológicos (diseño perineal de las hembras y moleculares (PCR y PCRRFLP mostraron que las hembras extraídas de las protuberancias pertenecen a la especie M. incognita. Se recomienda estudiar las causas que promueven la infección de los tubérculos en ambas localidades, ya que cerca del 90% del área cultivada de papa en el país corresponde a la variedad Floresta. En adición, se debe prestar especial atención a las zonas semilleristas, ya que los tubérculos-semilla podrían servir como fuente de inóculo y contribuir a la diseminación del patógeno a otras áreas.

  18. Dinámica de la fuerza de trabajo en Cuba 1846-1931 (II

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    Orestes Gárciga Gárciga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En «Dinámica de la fuerza de trabajo en Cuba 1846-1931» se estudia el procesamiento de los datos estadísticos que, acerca de la actividad laboral de la población, presentaron los censos de 1846, 1862, 1899, 1907, 1919 y 1931. Debido a su extensión, la obra ha sido dividida en tres partes para ser publicada en Novedades en Población. El presente artículo examina la evolución de la fuerza de trabajo en Cuba de 1846 a 1931, a través de diversas clasificaciones internacionales empleadas en estos estudios, y da continuidad a «Dinámica de la fuerza de trabajo en Cuba 1846-1931 (I», incluido en el número anterior de la revista (Año 9, Número 17, 2013. Abstract In «Dynamic of the workforce in Cuba 1846-1931» is studied the processing of statistical data showed by the 1846, 1862, 1899, 1907, 1919 and 1931 censuses about labor activity of the population. Due to its extension, this work has been divided in three parts so it can be published in Novedades en Población (News on Population. The current paper reviews the evolution of the work force in Cuba from 1846 to 1931, taking to account diverse international classifications used in this studies. It is the continuation of «Dynamic of the workforce in Cuba 1846-1931 (I», included in the previous number of this magazine.

  19. Especies nuevas de abejas de Cuba y La Española (Hymenoptera: Colletidae, Megachilidae, Apidae

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    Julio A. Genaro

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran cinco especies nuevas de abejas antillanas: Collectes granpiedrensis n. sp. (Cuba (Colletidae; Osmia (Diceratosmia stangei n. sp. (República Dominicana; Coelioxys (Cyrtocoelioxys alayoi n. sp. (Cuba; C. (Boreocoelioxys sannicolarensis n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae y Triepeolus nisibonensis n. sp. (República Dominicana (ApidaeFive new species of Antillean bees are described and illustrated: Colletes granpiedrensis n. sp. (Cuba (Colletidae is charaterized as follows: Head and mesosoma black, legs and metasoma brown. Dense brown hairs on head and mesosoma; white on frons and metasomal terga. Clypeus, frons and mesosoma with large punctures, lesser on vertex and metasoma. Malar space more wide than long. Male and female slightly similar, except in the apical margin of clypeus, supraclipeal area, and color of the pubescence on legs and sterna; Osmia (Diceratosmia stangei n. sp. (Dominican Republic (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Dark metallic green, metasoma black with metallic green reflections. Pubescence light; body with large, closed punctures. Female with violet reflections in tergum III and mandible tridentate; Coelioxys (Cyrtocoelioxys alayoi n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Female black, except basal area of mandibles, tegula, legs, lateral area of tergum I and sterna, reddish brown. Posterior margin of scutellum rounded. Apex of tergum VI with spine curved up. Sternum VI fringed with short, closed setae, and the apex with short spine; Coelioxys (Boreocoelioxys sannicolarensis n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Black, except antenna and tegula brown; legs and sterna reddish brown. Clypeal margin straight in profile. Gradular grooves on metasomal terga II and III distinct medially. Fovea on metasomal tergum II of male deep and short, and Triepeolus nisibonensis n. sp. (Dominican Republic (Apidae is charaterized as follows: Dorsal pubescence (short and dense on mesosoma

  20. Masculinities studies in eastern Cuba: imaginaries significations. Estudios de masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba: develando imaginarios. Estudios de masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba: develando imaginarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Regina Quaresma da Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we approached a study about masculinities imaginaries significations in eastern Cuba. Firstly, we rescued relevant moments of the masculinities studies in the country and some theoretical contributions to understand the social production of the masculinities. Besides, we show the qualitative results from the groups with men.En este artículo abordamos un estudio sobre significaciones imaginarias en torno a las masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba. Primeramente, rescatamos momentos relevantes del desarrollo de los estudios de masculinidades en el país y algunas contribuciones teóricos que consideramos necesarias para comprender la producción de las masculinidades. Presentamos, además, los resultados cualitativos que emergieron de grupos de discusión realizados con hombres.En este artículo abordamos un estudio sobre significaciones imaginarias en torno a las masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba. Primeramente, rescatamos momentos relevantes del desarrollo de los estudios de masculinidades en el país y algunas contribuciones teóricos que consideramos necesarias para comprender la producción de las masculinidades. Presentamos, además, los resultados cualitativos que emergieron de grupos de discusión realizados con hombres.

  1. Especies nuevas del género Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae de Cuba y Venezuela New species of the genus Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae from Cuba and Venezuela

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    José Espinosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 3 especies nuevas de moluscos marinos: Gibberula palmasola sp. n., recolectada en la vegetación asociada a rocas rodeadas de sedimentos blandos en una laguna costera cercada por mangle en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba, y caracterizada por presentar, el animal vivo, la cabeza negra y una distribución típica de bandas negras y pardas con lunares anaranjados en el manto bajo la concha; Gibberula dosmosquises sp. n., recolectada en fondos rocosos del Caribe insular de Venezuela, se caracteriza por una discreta coloración del manto y un patrón de manchas en el pie, y Gibberula thetisae sp. n, proveniente de los pastos marinos del golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, con 3 pliegues en la columela, el último muy débil, y un labio externo casi cortante, caracteres que permiten separarla de todas las demás especies conocidas en el área antillana, aunque se desconozca la anatomía del animal. Se discute la lista de especies válidas del género para Cuba y Venezuela, y se hacen adiciones y consideraciones al complejo de especies en torno a Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000.Three new species of marine molluscs are described. Gibberula palmasola new species, collected in vegetation associated with rocks surrounded by soft sediments in a coastal lagoon surrounded by mangroves in Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba, and characterized by a black head and typical distribution of black and brown bands and orange spots in the mantle. Gibberula dosmosquises new species, collected in rocky bottoms of a Caribbean island from Venezuela, characterized by a simple staining in the mantle and a pattern of spots on the foot, and Gibberula thetisae new species, from sea grass in the gulf of Batabano, Cuba, with shell having 3 columellar folds, the last very weak, and a sharp outer lip; although, its anatomy is not known, these conchological characters separate it from all other known species in the Antilles. Aditionally, the list of valid species

  2. Validation and use of an ELISA kit for the diagnosis of Babesia bovis in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandino, T.; Alonso, M.; Barrera, M.; Mendoza, E.

    1998-01-01

    Babesia bovis, the most important etiological agent causing bovine babesiosis, is widely distributed in Cuba and affects mainly adult cattle. A survey of the prevalence of the disease in cattle using an ELISA kit (FAO/IAEA) revealed that 34.2% of the animals between 6 and 18 months of age were positive to Babesia bovis, whereas 69.9% on the cattle older than 18 months were positive. Antibodies to Babesia bovis were detected in 96.9% of calves vaccinated with an attenuated Babesia bovis vaccine. A good correlation was found between the results of ELISA kit with those from indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase tests developed in Cuba. (author)

  3. La imagen del turismo cultural en Cuba percibida por el mercado español

    OpenAIRE

    Yamilé Pérez Guilarte

    2015-01-01

    El turismo cultural, percibido no solo como las visitas a sitios y monumentos históricos, sino ampliado al conocimiento de la forma de vida y tradiciones de las poblaciones locales, podría constituir una importante alternativa para Cuba. La presente investigación tiene como objetivos determinar si Cuba es apreciada como un destino cultural desde la perspectiva del mercado español e identificar cuáles son sus elementos distintivos. Por medio de un cuestionario realizado a 400 españoles, se eva...

  4. [Estimation of infant and child mortality in the eastern provinces of Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, G; Herrera, L

    1986-01-01

    An estimate of infant and child mortality in the eastern provinces of Cuba is presented using the Brass method as adapted by Trussell. "Estimations by urban and rural zones are also performed within the provinces studied, and results are compared with those possible to obtain by continuous statistics. Results obtained show that in the eastern [part] of the country Holguin and Guantanamo are the provinces with highest infantile mortality rates, and the lowest rates correspond to Granma, followed by Santiago de Cuba." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  5. Reading the Revolution: Where Has the Literature Taken Us in Understanding Cuba?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Kapcia

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available – Cuba. A New History, by Richard Gott. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2004. – The Cuban Revolution. Past, Present and Future Perspectives, by Geraldine  Lievesley. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. – People’s Power. Cuba’s Experience with Representative Government, by Peter  Roman. (Updated edition Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford:  Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc.  – Cuba. A Revolution in Motion, by Isaac Saney. Black Point, Nova Scotia: Fernwood Books; London: Zed Books, 2003.

  6. Metrology positronic issuers for nuclear medicine in Cuba: current state and development prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oropesa Verdecia, Pilar; Serra Águila, Rolando A.; García Rodríguez, Lourdes; Moreno León, Yecenia; Bell Hechavarría, Ailec; Jénez Magaña, Yoel

    2016-01-01

    At work the current state of metrology positronic issuers for nuclear medicine in Cuba is presented. the main achievements in the implementation of measurement standards and issues affecting the uncertainty of measurements at different levels of hierarchy of the existing chain of traceability for determinations of the activity of F-18 and Ga-68 is described, the main radionuclides expected to be used in the short term in PET and PET / CT applications in the country. Immediate prospects development of measurement standards positronic emitters for use in nuclear medicine in Cuba, in particular the possibilities of establishing equivalence between Cuban standards and national and international standards are also set. (author)

  7. Bichordites from the early Eocene of Cuba: significance in the evolutionary history of the spatangoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Martín, Jorge; Netto, Renata Guimarães

    2017-12-01

    The trace fossil Bichordites monastiriensis is found in early Eocene turbiditic sandstones of the upper-slope deposits from the Capdevila Formation in Los Palacios Basin, Pinar del Río region, western Cuba. The potential tracemakers of B. monastiriensis include fossil spatangoids from the family Eupatagidae. The record of Bichordites in the deposits from Cuba allows to suppose that Eupatagidae echinoids were the oldest potential tracemakers of Bichordites isp. and reinforce the hypothesis that the ichnological record are relevant in envisaging the evolutionary history of the spatangoids.

  8. Curvas de lactancia individuales en vacas Siboney de Cuba

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    Alejandro Palacios Espinosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue estudiar y modelar las curvas de lactancia individuales en vacas Siboney, comparando cuatro modelos matemáticos. En total, 31,631 registros de producción de leche del día de control (PDC de 3,697 lactancias (1 a 5 provenientes de 2,632 vacas Siboney de Cuba (5/8 Holstein 3/8 Cebú Cubano registrados mensualmente entre 1994 y 2003 se ajustaron mediante las funciones de Wood, Wilmink, Ali-Schaeffer y Polinomios de Legendre. Los parámetros se estimaron usando regresiones no lineales y la bondad de ajuste se midió mediante el coeficiente de determinación ajustado (R2A. Se obtuvieron valores de R2A > 0.75 en 23, 24, 28 y 36 % de las lactancias para los modelos de Wood, Wilmink, Ali-Schaeffer y Polinomios de Legendre, respectivamente. Los modelos de Wood y Wilmink describieron cuatro tipos de curvas; y los modelos de Ali-Schaeffer y los Polinomios de Legendre 17 y 20, de los 32 grupos teóricos posibles. Las correlaciones entre los parámetros para la función de Ali-Schaeffer fueron superiores a las estimadas para los polinomios de Legendre. Las funciones propuestas representaron las diferentes formas entre curvas de lactancia y en especial, los modelos de cinco parámetros detectaron mayor diversidad que el resto de las funciones. Esto apunta que, aunque formas adicionales pueden considerarse como derivaciones de los dos grupos clásicos de curvas típicas o atípicas, esta práctica podría comprometer la variabilidad entre curvas de lactancia en un hato, por lo que serán necesarios más estudios.

  9. Calibration of Ga-68 activity for PET applications in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Rodríguez, Lourdes; Oropesa Verdecia, Pilar; Serra Águila, Rolando A.; Moreno León, Yecenia; Jénez Magaña, Yoel; Pérez LoretdeMola, Nayla; Bell Hechavarría, Ailec; Mas Ruiz, Javier; Cassette, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    A Ga-68 solution was used to calibrate the activity concentration using the double-triple coincidence ratio (TDCR) method of liquid scintillation for the first time in the country. The expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of the concentration of Ga-68 activity in the calibrated solution was equal to 2%. For measurements, the commercial liquid scintillation counter HIDEXTM was used. Samples were prepared by adding between 40 and 50 mg of the radioactive solution to 15 mL of ULTIMAGOLD ™ scintillating cocktail. For the estimation of Ga-68 counting efficiencies in the samples used for the calibration, a FORTRAN program developed by the National Institute of Metrology of France for the magnitudes of ionizing radiation, LNHB, was used. The validation of the method was carried out by the calibration of a standard solution of Na-22, also positronic emitter with similar disintegration scheme to Ga-68. The difference between the concentration of Na-22 activity measured using the TDCR method and the certified reference value traceable to the National Institute of Metrology of the United States (NIST) was 0.15%. With the solution of Ga-68 standardized by the TDCR method the calibration of the secondary standard activity meter, model CAPINTEC CRCTM 15R, was carried out for a geometry of 2R flask with 1mL of radioactive solution. Afterwards, this standard activity meter was calibrated for the measurement of Ga-68 in the geometries of interest in nuclear medicine: Flask 15R with 6 mL of radioactive solution, 2.5 mL syringe with 2 mL of radioactive solution and 5 mL syringe with 2 mL of radioactive solution. The results presented in this paper constitute the necessary metrological support for the introduction of new PET and PET / CT technologies into medical practice in Cuba.

  10. Graham Greene and Cuba: Our man in Havana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hulme

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Graham Greene’s novel Our Man in Havana was published on October 6, 1958. Seven days later Greene arrived in Havana with Carol Reed to arrange for the filming of the script of the novel, on which they had both been working. Meanwhile, after his defeat of the summer offensive mounted by the Cuban dictator, Fulgencio Batista, in the mountains of eastern Cuba, just south of Bayamo, Fidel Castro had recently taken the military initiative: the day after Greene and Reed’s arrival on the island, Che Guevara reached Las Villas, moving westwards towards Havana. Six weeks later, on January 1, 1959, after Batista had fled the island, Castro and his Cuban Revolution took power. In April 1959 Greene and Reed were back in Havana with a film crew to film Our Man in Havana. The film was released in January 1960. A note at the beginning of the film says that it is “set before the recent revolution.” In terms of timing, Our Man in Havana could therefore hardly be more closely associated with the triumph of the Cuban Revolution. But is that association merely accidental, or does it involve any deeper implications? On the fiftieth anniversary of novel, film, and Revolution, that seems a question worth investigating, not with a view to turning Our Man in Havana into a serious political novel, but rather to exploring the complexities of the genre of comedy thriller and to bringing back into view some of the local contexts which might be less visible now than they were when the novel was published and the film released.

  11. Emergency response during the radiological control of scraps in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Viltre, Enma O.; Cardenas Herrera, Juan; Dominguez Ley, Orlando; Capote Ferrera, Eduardo; Fernandez Gomez, Isis M.; Caveda Ramos, Celia; Carrazana, Jorge; Barroso Perez, Idelisa

    2008-01-01

    In the last few years, in the international scene, incidents have been reported due to the presence of radioactive materials in the scrap. This reality has motivated the adoption of measures of radiological security, due to the implications that these incidents have for the public and the environment, as well as for the international trade. Among theses actions is the implementation of the radiological control of scrap, with the additional requirement that this control has to be implemented in the framework of a Quality Management Program.Taking into account the international experience, our institution designed and organized in 2002 a national service for the radiological monitoring of scrap, being the clients the main exporting and trading enterprises of this material in the country. During these years, several contaminated materials have been detected, causing incidents that activated the radiological emergency response system. In this sense, since some years ago, our country has been working in the implementation of a national and ministerial system for facing and mitigating the consequences of accidental radiological situations, conjugating efforts and wills from different national institutions with the leadership of the Center of Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) and the Center of Nuclear Security (CNSN) in correspondence with the social responsibility assigned to the them. These incidents propitiate to have not only a system of capacity and quick response oriented to limit the exposure of people, to control the sources, to mitigate the consequences of the accident and to reestablish the conditions of normality, but also a previous adequate planning that guarantees the speed and effectiveness of it. In these work the experiences reached by the specialists of the CPHR from Cuba during the occurrence of an incident in the execution of the service of radiological monitoring of scraps are exposed. (author)

  12. Biogas potential in the meat installation of Santiago de Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recio Recio, Angel Amado; Martinez Rotger, Jose Luis; Palacios Barrera, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The Meat Processing Center of Santiago is located 13 kilometers from the city of the same name in the National Freeway. There, 61 heads of bovine livestock are sacrificed daily approximately around 325 Kg. of weight average and 197 pigs of 80 kg. of weight average, which has a demurrage average between 2 and 3 days in the corrals of the Meat Processing Center which generates a significant amount of excretes, rumen (food not digested by the bowels), bleed fluff, slops, meat residuals and fatty, as well as tripes, all that which constitutes a waste of a discharge at the present time loads pollutant that besides not taking advantage, for the maintenance of some appropriate norms of hygiene, the Meat Processing Center of meat by products is under the obligation of using big quantities of water, which constitutes an important factor of the elaboration cost. After that, the treatment in the plant and its final discharge in acceptable drains increase the general expenses. The big slaughterhouses can produce waste waters with a biochemical demand of oxygen of five days of 1300 ppm. The treatment of the waste and elimination of the waste waters coming from slaughterhouses and meat processing plants are an economic necessity and of public health. The main objectives of this work were: 1) To calculate the energy potentialities of the residuals of the productions pig, bovine and other residuals to transform them into energy and their effluents like organic fertilizer cleans of pathogen elements, by means of the process of anaerobic fermentation. 2) To Transform the Biomass into energy given by the different economic activities of the entity, taking advantage of the same one in the process. To achieve these results we have used the literature in this respect and the experience that exists in the province of Santiago from Cuba in this direction, as for the use of the residuals for the biogas production and to dedicate it to the cooking of food and the production of electric

  13. Radiological Surveillance in the Central Region of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartas Aguila, H. A.; Alonso Hernandez, C. M.; Martin Perez, J. A.; Sibello Hernandez, R. Y.; Guillen Arruebarrena, A.; Morera Gomez, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This work shows the results of the radiological surveillance of the environment, carried out by the Center of Environmental Studies from Cienfuegos province, in the central region of Cuba during 1994-2014. the environmental equivalent gamma dose rate was daily measured with a Gamma Tracer GF1588 probe. The activity concentrations of 40 K, 137 Cs and 226 Ra were determined in sugar, milk and bananas, and the activity concentrations and the activity fluxes of 7 Be, 40 K, 137 Cs and 210 Pb were determined in aerosols by means of high resolution gamma spectrometry. The environmental equivalent gamma dose rate showed a constant tendency with 89 nSvh -1 standard deviation; the activity concentrations of 40 K, 137 Cs and 226 Ra in sugar, milk and bananas were very below the action level for radionuclides in general consumption foods, dedicated to the international trade; the activity concentrations of 137 Cs and 226 Ra were below the detection limits. The existence of a fundamental pattern in the annual behavior of the radionuclides in aerosols was demonstrated by means of the multivariate statistical analysis. It was mainly determined by the rains, and it was characterized by a maximum of activity concentration and a minimum of activity flux in January-May; a minimum of activity concentration and a maximum of activity flux in June-October and by a transit period in November-December, with low values in both variables. The general decreasing tendency of the atmospheric 137 Cs and the quick decreasing behavior of the 131 I, coming from the Fukushima accident in Japan were demonstrated. (Author)

  14. Banco Central de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter, Franz

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available This new building is intended to house the various services of the Central Bank of Costa Rica. It has a prestressed concrete structure, and consists of a basement parking space for 105 vehicles, and nine storeys, providing altogether a floor surface of 12,000 ms2. The building rests on a ground area of 40 by 60 ms, and the main structure occupies 22 by 45 ms. This Bank is located in a district of narrow streets, but its main side overlooks a green open space, which will improve its visibility and appearance. The building structure is made up of a framework of prestressed beams and columns. The beams have been concreted at the site, and the joists, which are also prestressed, are factory made. This framework, at each floor level, constitutes the basis of a continuous slab, which renders the total structure exceedingly stiff. The main continuous girders span 11.22 ms spaces, and vary in cross section. The prestressing reinforcements consist of 6 Loeba type cables. This is an original design by Dr. Leonhardt, in which the cables are placed on three horizontal layers, of parabolic outline. Each cable is made up of 12 x 5.4 mm wires, with a breaking stress of 180 kg/mm2 The tensioning stress was 108 kg/mm2, and the total prestress load is 29,700 kgs. The cables run in corrugated metal tubes, and these were kept in precise position with the aid of distance pieces.El nuevo edificio, destinado a agrupar los servicios del Banco Central de Costa Rica, está constituido por una estructura de hormigón pretensado. El inmueble dispone de un sótano, estacionamiento propio para 105 vehículos y nueve plantas, con una superficie total de 12.000 metros cuadrados. Se asienta sobre una base de 40x60 m, donde se levanta un núcleo central de 22x45 metros. Está situado en un barrio de calles estrechas, pero tiene su fachada, principal frente a una zona verde que le proporcionará mayor categoría y visibilidad. La estructura se compone de una retícula de vigas

  15. Los sistemas de evaluación de la calidad del posgrado en América Latina: Similitudes y diferencias con el sistema ecuatoriano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Hinojosa Dazza de Aguilar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluar la calidad de la educación de posgrado en América Latina es –actualmente– un proceso ineludible e improrrogable. La certificación pública, que los organismos estatales de control entregan a las universidades, que superan los estándares exigidos por los procesos de acreditación de la educación de posgrado, es tema de debate dentro y fuera del quehacer universitario, por cuanto, los sistemas de acreditación se encuentran alineados, en mayor o menor grado, a las políticas educacionales –y de desarrollo socioeconómico– de cada país, que se orientan no solo a elevar el nivel académico de los profesionales de cuarto nivel, sino a revelarse ante el mundo académico, como hacedores de conocimiento, sustentados en sólidas bases universitarias y de investigación. Esta, una breve mirada a los sistemas de evaluación de Brasil, Argentina, Chile, Cuba, México, Colombia, Perú, Costa Rica y Ecuador, propone develar el misterio que subyace tras los sistemas de evaluación nacionales, buscando –quizá– un consenso general que permita comprender el rumbo que la ciencia y la tecnología marcarán para Latinoamérica en los próximos años.

  16. Pleural mesothelioma in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maineri-Hidalgo, Jose Alberto; Putvinsky, Vladimir; Mainieri-Breedy, Giovanna

    2006-01-01

    The mesothelioma is a neoplasia originated in the serous membranes that drape the cellomic cavities and there cover the visceras that they contain, whose development has related to the exhibition to the asbestos. The present study describes the characteristics of the cases of mesothelioma pleural diagnosed in 3 adults hospitals in Costa Rica. 29 cases of pleural mesothelioma were found between 1972 and 2002 after reviewing the pathology service archives of the 3 national general hospitals of the Costa Rican social security health system. The incidence rate in 2002 was 1 case per 2 million; there were 15 females and 14 males, with a mean age of 54 years. Twenty cases presented with pleural effusion being dyspnea, chest pain, cough, fever and weight loss the most frequent symptoms. The disease was detected in all the cases because of an abnormal chest X-ray. The method used to obtain tissue for histological diagnosis was thoracotomy for 15 cases, pleural biopsy in 8, thoracoscopy in 4 and autopsy in 2. The histological diagnosis in 16 cases was fibrous mesothelioma, 10 malignant and 6 benign, 11 were epithelial (all malignant) and 2 were malignant mixed mesothelioma. The treatment in all the benign cases was surgical resection and none recurred. Two of the malignant lesions were resected, 1 had an extrapleural pneumonectomy along with pericardial and diaphragmatic resection, but the survival was not better than the rest of the malignant cases, with an average survival rate for all of them of only 6 months. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy showed no additional benefit. (author) [es

  17. Intolerancia, militarismo y confianza del Estado en las políticas represivas: Cuba y Argentina en la primera mitad del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic M. Beggan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la relación entre prácticas intolerantes, insurgencia violentay políticas represivas del Estado. Utilizamos dos casos del siglo XX en AméricaLatina: Argentina entre 1890 y 1930 y Cuba entre 1933 y 1959. La hipótesis generales que existe una relación entre violencia social y a la tendencia creciente hacia elmilitarismo y la confianza del Estado en las acciones represivas, b la presencia deuna fuerte desigualdad social, económica y política, y c el nivel de desarrollo de lasinstituciones democráticas. El estudio de los dos casos nos muestra la existencia deuna relación directa entre la escalada de la violencia y la disminución de la legitimidaddel Estado. El análisis comparativo evidencia como la represión violenta por parte delEstado puede producir efectos muy diferentes, debido a los antecedentes históricos, lacultura política y la estructura institucional.

  18. La Unión Europea ante Cuba y Colombia: de buenas intenciones y altas esperanzas a notables contradicciones y grandes frustraciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín ROY

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El autor generaliza, a partir del caso colombiano y cubano, las dificultades y contradicciones de la política exterior común europea, salvo cuando sus acciones políticas se dirigen hacia América Latina, y cuando el eje de una decisión está orientada hacia una postura errónea de Estados Unidos, especialmente si es perjudicial para los intereses colectivos de la Unión Europea y/o de alguno de los Estados miembros. A su vez, bajo el marco de las relaciones internacionales, describe los retos políticos a los que se enfrentan estos países: transición y consolidación de la democracia, respectivamente.ABSTRACT: The author generalizes, from the cases of Colombia and Cuba, the difficulties and contradictions of Europe’s common foreign policy, except when its political actions are directed toward Latin America and when the axis of a decision is oriented towards an erroneous posture of the United States, especially if it is prejudicial for the collective interests of the European Union and/or some of its member States. At the same time, within a framework of international relations, the paper describes the political challenges that these countries face: democratic transition and consolidation, respectively.

  19. Análisis histórico de la orientación a la familia en niños de la infancia preescolar, en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. C. Bárbara María Carvajal Hernández

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se realiza un análisis histórico tendencial a partir del Triunfo de la Revolución en Cuba. Para el estudio se precisaron los siguientes indicadores: factores implicados en la orientación a la familia; temáticas abordadas en la orientación a la familia y el rol de la institución educativa en la orientación a la familia para la lectura. Precisados a partir de la sistematización teórica efectuada y la entrevista realizada a maestras que ejercieron la profesión antes de 1959. El análisis es determinado en tres etapas e hitos que marcaron los cambios en cada una las que condujeron al aporte de las principales tendencias. Es por ello un propósito revelar la evolución de la orientación a la familia, los factores que en ello estuvieron involucrados hasta la actualidad y el papel que han desempeñado en lo particular los agentes educativos, de manera que, se identifiquen las falencias que limitan el desarrollo del gusto por la lectura en la infancia preescolar en el contexto cubano

  20. Uso tradicional de plantas medicinales con acción diurética en el Municipio de Quemado de Güines, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maykel Pérez Machín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La flora de Cuba es muy rica en plantas medicinales, de las cuales se reportan aproximadamente 179 especies que la población utiliza para fines diuréticos, sin embargo, un gran número de ellas carece de validación experimental de su efecto farmacológico. El presente estudio se realizó con el propósito de documentar la importancia relativa de las especies medicinales más empleadas con fines diuréticos en el municipio de Quemado de Güines de la provincia de Villa Clara, Cuba. Se realizó un estudio etnobotánico en dos comunidades pertenecientes a ese municipio, para lo cual se realizó un muestreo a un total de 85 habitantes, y se aplicó aleatoriamente 80 encuestas a conocedores de plantas y 5 entrevistas entre yerberos y médicos practicantes de medicina tradicional, los cuales nos indicaron las plantas más utilizadas con estos fines en las comunidades estudiadas. La información etnofarmacológica fue registrada mediante la metodología TRAMIL y las especies de interés fueron identificadas y depositadas en el Herbario de la Universidad Central "Marta Abreu" de Las Villas. Los datos se analizaron mediante los índices cuantitativos de valor de uso para cada especie (IVU y el nivel de uso significativo (UST. Este indicador expresa que aquellos usos medicinales que son citados con una frecuencia superior o igual al 20%, por las personas encuestadas pueden considerarse significativos desde el punto de vista de su aceptación cultural y, por lo tanto, merecen su validación científica en Cuba. Se identificaron 26 especies medicinales agrupadas en 19 familias botánicas y se encontraron 10 plantas con un mayor nivel de uso significativo y un mayor IVU. El 53.8% de las plantas reportadas como diuréticas no se han validado experimentalmente en Cuba, el resto de las especies identificadas han sido estudiadas a nivel preclínico, pero aún no está autorizado su empleo como fitomedicamento.Tradicional use of medicinal plants with diuretic

  1. Los giros del comercio exterior y la inversión extranjera directa en Cuba. The turns of foreign trade and direct foreign investment in cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero Santos, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Cuban economy has a high dependence on foreign trade. In this way, Cuban economy is very vulnerable to changes occurring in the international economy. The changes in domestic economic policy and in the international economic have a great influence in the structure of the trade balance and the positioning of the various products and services in the composition of exports and imports that Cuba needs for economic development. Hence, external financing and the foreign direct invest...

  2. Una rareza bibliográfica escrita en Cuba sobre fiebre amarilla A bibliography rarity on yelow fever written in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio López Espinosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se brinda una síntesis biográfica del cirujano de origen escosés John Holliday Heragod (Juan Tomás José Agustín Domínguez, quien fue el autor de una de las primeras obras escritas en Cuba sobre la fiebre amarilla, y se ofrecen algunas observaciones en relación con el proceso de convalidación de su título ante el Real Tribunal del Protomedicato de La Habana. Se emiten varias consideraciones referentes a las circunstancias que rodearon la redacción en español del citado documento en 1794, su presentación en la Real Sociedad Patriótica de Amigos del País en 1796 y su publicación en inglés fuera de Cuba el mismo año, como elementos para ubicarlo en el lugar adecuado en el contexto de la historia de la bibliografía médica cubanaA brief bibliography on the Scoth surgeon John Holliday Heragod (Juan Tomás José Agustín Domínguez is given. Dr. Heragod was one of the first authors who wrote about the yellow fever in Cuba. Some observations are made concerning the process for validating his diploma at the Real Tribunal del Protomedicato de la Habana. Some considerations are made referring the Spanish equivalent of the document in 1794, its presentation at the Real Sociedad Patriótica Amigos del País in 1794, and its publication in the English languaje outside Cuba in the same year, as well as its palce in the history of the Cuban bibliography on Medicine

  3. El socialismo y el hombre en Cuba, tratado axiológico para el profesional de la salud El socialismo y el hombre en Cuba, an axiological treatise for health professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Yunexis Teresa Nobalbo Aguilera; Maritza Yuliet Téllez Cabrera; Yohaysa Pérez Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    El estudio del El socialismo y el hombre en Cuba, de Ernesto Guevara de la Serna, tiene una gran importancia para el análisis de la concepción del hombre nuevo. En este trabajo se brinda una nueva visión desde un enfoque axiológico. Asimismo, se divulga el sistema de valores presentes en la obra que contribuyen a la formación del profesional de la salud, a partir de la figura del Che.The study of El socialismo y el hombre en Cuba (Socialism and man in Cuba) of Ernesto Guevara de la Serna is o...

  4. Estado actual de las empresas productoras de microalgas destinadas a alimentos y suplementos alimenticios en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Daniel Martínez Angulo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Las microalgas resultan de interés en la producción de alimentos y suplementos debido a su riqueza de nutrientes. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo recopilar información actual sobre el estado de empresas de mediana y gran escala, productoras de biomasa y bioproductos microalgales comercializados como alimento y suplemento alimenticio en América Latina, con el fin de conocer el nivel de desarrollo en la región. El país con mayor cantidad de empresas productoras de alimentos a base de microalgas es Brasil (6, seguido de México, Perú, Chile (2, Ecuador y Cuba (1. El sistema de cultivo más común empleado por empresas latinoamericanas en el comercio de microalgas es el abierto. El organismo más utilizado en productos alimenticios a base de microalgas en Latinoamérica corresponde al género Spirulina. Se ha investigado sobre la composición bioquímica de más de 10 especies de microalgas, a escala de laboratorio. Las microalgas son fuente importante de proteínas y de ácidos grasos del tipo omega-3, así como de vitaminas y minerales. Se evidencia el potencial que tiene Latinoamérica para el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías de sistemas de cultivo y productos alimenticios a base de microalgas, como alimento para la población como para la exportación. Sin embargo, se requiere de un gran esfuerzo tanto del sector privado como del público para alcanzar los fines.

  5. Tendencias históricas del proceso de formación de habilidades profesionales en Oftalmología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahely Sixto Fuentes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el desarrollo del proceso de formación de habilidades profesionales en Oftalmología constituye un reto debido a los elementos psicopedagógicos que intervienen en el mismo, y al desarrollo alcanzado por la especialidad. Objetivo: caracterizar tendencias históricas del proceso de formación de habilidades profesionales en Oftalmología. Material y método: se utilizó como método empírico la revisión documental; además de emplear los procedimientos lógicos del pensamiento, inducción-deducción y análisis-síntesis. Resultados: como tendencias internacionales se encontraron en esta investigación: la separación de las facultades de medicina del resto de las universidades, la gestión de los programas de posgrado por el Ministerio de Salud Pública, la implementación de currículos basados en competencias para los programas de residencia de todas las especialidades médicas y el empleo de la simulación para la formación de habilidades profesionales. En Cuba, además de esta última, se hallaron: la formación empírica y fuera de marcos curriculares de las habilidades de la profesión antes del surgimiento de las residencias; y el perfeccionamiento de planes de estudio y programas de la especialidad. Conclusiones: el proceso de formación de habilidades profesionales en Oftalmología ha estado influenciado por las transformaciones sociales y de la propia ciencia oftalmológica; existiendo tendencias que caracterizan su evolución histórica.

  6. 31 CFR 515.564 - Professional research and professional meetings in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.564 Professional.... Example 1 to paragraph (d): A musicologist travels to Cuba to do research on Cuban music pursuant to the... simply interested in music but who do not research music as part of their careers may not engage in...

  7. Cuban Sugar Industry: Transnational Networks and Engineering Migrants in Mid-Nineteenth Century Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curry Machado, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Technological innovation was central to nineteenth-century Cuba’s lead in world sugar manufacture. Along with steam-powered machinery came migrant engineers, indispensable aliens who were well rewarded for their efforts. These migrant engineers remained perennial outsiders, symbolic of Cuba's

  8. Slavery and Cinema in Cuba: The Case of Gutierrez Alea's The Last Supper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Dennis

    1979-01-01

    "The Last Supper" deals with slavery and social stratification in late eighteenth century Cuba. In this article, the film is described in artistic and historical terms, and is discussed in relation to the larger body of theory on Latin American slavery. (EB)

  9. Land and building valuation in Cuba: from land without value to land as financial asset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.N. Femández (Ricardo)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn Cuba, the government authorities define the priorities for land and property distribution. One might expect that those official development programs would take account of the value of land and buildings. But that is not so, although there is a growing awareness of its importance. When

  10. Notes on the Herpetology of the U.S. Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lando, R.V.; Williams, Ernest E.

    1969-01-01

    The present relative inaccessibility of Cuba to citizens of the United States has been particularly disappointing since very much still remains for the herpetologist to do in that country. In particular, the province of Oriente is very inadequately known; we know just enough to be aware how much

  11. Contribution to the study of the genus Helicopsyche (Trichoptera) from Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botosaneanu, L.; Flint, O.S.

    1991-01-01

    Seven new species and one new subspecies of Helicopsyche von Sieboid are described from Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico based on adults; additionally four species and one subspecies belonging to the fauna of these islands are redescribed. Both sexes are described when correct association of

  12. Turning Javanese: The Domination of Cuba's Sugar Industry by Java Cane Varieties (1880-1950)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, U.; Curry Machado, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    By the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth, two islands had come to dominate global cane-sugar production. For most of the sixty-year period between 1870 and 1930, around half of the world's internationally traded crop came from Cuba and Java. The two islands had many

  13. ER-E3 regulation. Minimal instrumentation that must operate nuclear medicine in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this regulation is to define the instrumentation that must exist in any institution conducting the practice of nuclear medicine in Cuba. This regulation emphasizes two aspects: The minimum equipment necessary to operate a nuclear medicine laboratory for use 'in vitro' and the minimum equipment required to operate a Nuclear Medicine use 'in vivo'

  14. Critical metals (REE, Sc, PGE) in Ni laterites from Cuba and the Dominican Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aiglsperger, T.; Proenza, J. A.; Lewis, J. F.; Labrador, M.; Svojtka, Martin; Rojas-Purón, A.; Longo, F.; Ďurišová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 73, March 01 (2016), s. 127-147 ISSN 0169-1368 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Caribbean * Cuba * Dominican Republic * Falcondo mining area * Moa Bay mining area * Ni laterite * Platinum Group Elements * Rare Earth Elements * Scandium Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.095, year: 2016

  15. Cuba and Economic Sanctions: A Cold War Strategy in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelley, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    .... These sanctions and U.S. attitudes and perceptions were based on objectives driven by the Cold War and as such are outdated and overtaken by events. The sanctions should be lifted and diplomatic ties once again established both to support United States goals in the region and for quality of life improvements for Cuba.

  16. Generation of a landslide risk index map for Cuba using spatial multi-criteria evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    his paper explains the procedure for the generation of a landslide risk index map at national level in Cuba, using a semiquantitative model with ten indicator maps and a cell size of 90× 90 m. The model was designed and implemented using spatial multi-criteria evaluation techniques in a GIS system.

  17. High proportion of mannosidosis and fucosidosis among lysosomal storage diseases in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Sainz, C; González-Quevedo, A; González-García, S; Peña-Sánchez, M; Giugliani, R

    2012-08-13

    Although lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are considered individually rare, as a group they present a non-negligible frequency. Few studies have been made of populational occurrence of LSDs; they have been conducted predominantly on Caucasian populations. We studied the occurrence of LSDs in Cuba. Data from individuals who had been referred to the Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery in Havana from hospitals all over the country between January 1990 and December 2005 were analyzed. This institute was the only laboratory to provide enzyme-based diagnostic testing for 19 LSDs in Cuba during this period. Occurrence rates were calculated by dividing the number of postnatal diagnoses by the number of births during the study period. The combined occurrence of LSDs in Cuba was 5.6 per 100,000, lower than that reported in other studies conducted on Caucasian populations. The most frequent individual LSDs were: mucopolysaccharidosis type I (1.01 per 100,000) and, surprisingly, alpha-mannosidosis (0.72 per 100,000) and fucosidosis (0.62 per 100,000). These findings may be related to specific genetic characteristics and admixture of the Cuban population. This is the first comprehensive study of the occurrence of LSDs in Cuba. We conclude that the epidemiology of these diseases can vary regionally, and we stress the need for similar surveys in other Latin American countries.

  18. Lessons from Cuba: Using Sense of Place as a Tool to Connect Internationally and at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear, Samantha; Sayle, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 2010, 16 Recreation and Leisure Studies students from Brock University in St. Catharines, Ontario, travelled to Cuba to complete a fourth-year field class titled International Field Experiences in Recreation and Leisure. After a week spent in Havana, Brock University students engaged in a unique outdoor education experience. With…

  19. Four new species of Phyllophaga Harris (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) from western Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Annery; Morón, Miguel Ángel

    2017-12-07

    Four new species in the genus Phyllophaga Harris 1827, subgenus Cnemarachis Saylor 1942 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) from Cuba are described: Phyllophaga barroi new species, Phyllophaga guanahacabibensis new species, Phyllophaga pauli new species, and Phyllophaga sabanalamarensis new species. Each species is illustrated using photographs of the habitus, diagnostic features, and male aedeagi. A map is provided showing the geographical distributions of the new species.

  20. The malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum in the endemic avifauna of eastern Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Letícia; Marra, Peter; Gray, Lindsey; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2017-12-01

    Island populations are vulnerable to introduced pathogens, as evidenced by extinction or population decline of several endemic Hawaiian birds caused by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium relictum (order Haemosporida). We analyzed blood samples from 363 birds caught near Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, for the presence of haemosporidian infections. We characterized parasite lineages by determining nucleotide variation of the parasite's mitochondrial cyt b gene. Fifty-nine individuals were infected, and we identified 7 lineages of haemosporidian parasites. Fifty individuals were infected by 6 Haemoproteus sp. lineages, including a newly characterized lineage of Haem. (Parahaemoproteus) sp. CUH01. Nine individuals carried the P. relictum lineage GRW4, including 5 endemic Cuban Grassquits (Tiaris canorus) and 1 migratory Cape May Warbler (Setophaga tigrina). A sequence of the merozoite surface protein gene from one Cuban Grassquit infected with GRW4 matched that of the Hawaiian haplotype Pr9. Our results indicate that resident and migratory Cuban birds are infected with a malaria lineage that has severely affected populations of several endemic Hawaiian birds. We suggest GRW4 may be associated with the lack of several bird species on Cuba that are ubiquitous elsewhere in the West Indies. From the standpoint of avian conservation in the Caribbean Basin, it will be important to determine the distribution of haemosporidian parasites, especially P. relictum GRW4, in Cuba as well as the pathogenicity of this lineage in species that occur and are absent from Cuba. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Developing Strategies for Waste Reduction by Means of Tailored Interventions in Santiago De Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Robert; Brugger, Adrian; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces an approach to tailoring behavior-change campaigns to target populations using the example of solid waste reduction in Santiago de Cuba. Tailoring is performed in the following steps: (1) Psychological constructs are selected to detect problems in performing the target behavior, and data are gathered on these constructs.…

  2. Cuba: The New Frontier of Study Abroad Programs for U.S. Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henthorne, Tony L.; Panko, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    The growing reconciliation between the United States and Cuba has created a unique opportunity for U.S. business and hospitality students to observe and experience first-hand an economy in marked transition. Attempting to balance the tenets of socialism with a rapidly growing reliance on capitalism creates a rare learning environment for students.…

  3. Cognitive Functioning and the Probability of Falls among Seniors in Havana, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Antonio J.; Hyder, Adnan A.; Steinhardt, Laura C.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the connection between cognitive functioning and falls among seniors (greater than or equal to 60 years of age) in Havana, Cuba, after controlling for observable characteristics. Using the SABE (Salud, Bienestar, and Envejecimiento) cross-sectional database, we used an econometric strategy that takes advantage of available…

  4. Use of a Novel Visual Metaphor Measure (PRISM) to Evaluate School Children's Perceptions of Natural Hazards, Sources of Hazard Information, Hazard Mitigation Organizations, and the Effectiveness of Future Hazard Education Programs in Dominica, Eastern Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Martin; Day, Simon; Teeuw, Richard; Solana, Carmen; Sensky, Tom

    2015-04-01

    This project aims to study the development of understanding of natural hazards (and of hazard mitigation) from the age of 11 to the age of 15 in secondary school children from 5 geographically and socially different schools on Dominica, through repeated interviews with the students and their teachers. These interviews will be coupled with a structured course of hazard education in the Geography syllabus; the students not taking Geography will form a control group. To avoid distortion of our results arising from the developing verbalization and literacy skills of the students over the 5 years of the project, we have adapted the PRISM tool used in clinical practice to assess patient perceptions of illness and treatment (Buchi & Sensky, 1999). This novel measure is essentially non-verbal, and uses spatial positions of moveable markers ("object" markers) on a board, relative to a fixed marker that represents the subject's "self", as a visual metaphor for the importance of the object to the subject. The subjects also explain their reasons for placing the markers as they have, to provide additional qualitative information. The PRISM method thus produces data on the perceptions measured on the board that can be subjected to statistical analysis, and also succinct qualitative data about each subject. Our study will gather data on participants' perceptions of different natural hazards, different sources of information about these, and organizations or individuals to whom they would go for help in a disaster, and investigate how these vary with geographical and social factors. To illustrate the method, which is generalisable, we present results from our initial interviews of the cohort of 11 year olds whom we will follow through their secondary school education. Büchi, S., & Sensky, T. (1999). PRISM: Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure: a brief nonverbal measure of illness impact and therapeutic aid in psychosomatic medicine. Psychosomatics, 40(4), 314-320.

  5. A brief, standardized tool for measuring HIV-related stigma among health facility staff: results of field testing in China, Dominica, Egypt, Kenya, Puerto Rico and St. Christopher & Nevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyblade, Laura; Jain, Aparna; Benkirane, Manal; Li, Li; Lohiniva, Anna-Leena; McLean, Roger; Turan, Janet M; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Cintrón-Bou, Francheska; Guan, Jihui; Kwena, Zachary; Thomas, Wendell

    2013-11-13

    Within healthcare settings, HIV-related stigma is a recognized barrier to access of HIV prevention and treatment services and yet, few efforts have been made to scale-up stigma reduction programs in service delivery. This is in part due to the lack of a brief, simple, standardized tool for measuring stigma among all levels of health facility staff that works across diverse HIV prevalence, language and healthcare settings. In response, an international consortium led by the Health Policy Project, has developed and field tested a stigma measurement tool for use with health facility staff. Experts participated in a content-development workshop to review an item pool of existing measures, identify gaps and prioritize questions. The resulting questionnaire was field tested in six diverse sites (China, Dominica, Egypt, Kenya, Puerto Rico and St. Christopher & Nevis). Respondents included clinical and non-clinical staff. Questionnaires were self- or interviewer-administered. Analysis of item performance across sites examined both psychometric properties and contextual issues. The key outcome of the process was a substantially reduced questionnaire. Eighteen core questions measure three programmatically actionable drivers of stigma within health facilities (worry about HIV transmission, attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV), and health facility environment, including policies), and enacted stigma. The questionnaire also includes one short scale for attitudes towards PLHIV (5-item scale, α=0.78). Stigma-reduction programmes in healthcare facilities are urgently needed to improve the quality of care provided, uphold the human right to healthcare, increase access to health services, and maximize investments in HIV prevention and treatment. This brief, standardized tool will facilitate inclusion of stigma measurement in research studies and in routine facility data collection, allowing for the monitoring of stigma within healthcare facilities and evaluation of

  6. HIV-1 Genetic Variability in Cuba and Implications for Transmission and Clinical Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Madeline; Machado, Liuber Y; Díaz, Héctor; Ruiz, Nancy; Romay, Dania; Silva, Eladio

    2015-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Serological and molecular HIV-1 studies in Cuba have shown very low prevalence of seropositivity, but an increasing genetic diversity attributable to introduction of many HIV-1 variants from different areas, exchange of such variants among HIV-positive people with several coinciding routes of infection and other epidemiologic risk factors in the seropositive population. The high HIV-1 genetic variability observed in Cuba has possible implications for transmission and clinical progression. OBJECTIVE Study genetic variability for the HIV-1 env, gag and pol structural genes in Cuba; determine the prevalence of B and non-B subtypes according to epidemiologic and behavioral variables and determine whether a relationship exists between genetic variability and transmissibility, and between genetic variability and clinical disease progression in people living with HIV/AIDS. METHODS Using two molecular assays (heteroduplex mobility assay and nucleic acid sequencing), structural genes were characterized in 590 people with HIV-1 (480 men and 110 women), accounting for 3.4% of seropositive individuals in Cuba as of December 31, 2013. Nonrandom sampling, proportional to HIV prevalence by province, was conducted. Relationships between molecular results and viral factors, host characteristics, and patients' clinical, epidemiologic and behavioral variables were studied for molecular epidemiology, transmission, and progression analyses. RESULTS Molecular analysis of the three HIV-1 structural genes classified 297 samples as subtype B (50.3%), 269 as non-B subtypes (45.6%) and 24 were not typeable. Subtype B prevailed overall and in men, mainly in those who have sex with men. Non-B subtypes were prevalent in women and heterosexual men, showing multiple circulating variants and recombinant forms. Sexual transmission was the predominant form of infection for all. B and non-B subtypes were encountered throughout Cuba. No association was found between subtypes and

  7. Review of the longipalpus-Group of Chrysotus Meigen (Diptera: Dolichopodidae), with Description of Four New Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capellari, R S

    2015-02-01

    The longipalpus-group of Chrysotus Meigen is reviewed and comprises eight species: Chrysotus coquitos n. sp. (Mexico), Chrysotus crosbyi Van Duzee (Eastern US, Bermuda, Cuba, Puerto Rico and Brazil; introduced in Australasian Region), Chrysotus longipalpus Aldrich (=Chrysotus sagittarius Van Duzee, n. syn.; Eastern US, Saint Vincent, Grenadas and Brazil; introduced in the Afrotropical, Australasian, Oriental and Palaearctic regions), Chrysotus miripalpus Parent (Costa Rica and Brazil), Chrysotus neopedionomus n. sp. (Brazil), Chrysotus pachystoma n. sp. (Belize), Chrysotus xiphostoma Robinson (Dominica and Saint Lucia), and Chrysotus zumbadoi n. sp. (Costa Rica). Lectotype and paralectotypes are designated for Chrysotus pallidipalpus Van Duzee, and a neotype for C. miripalpus. Illustrations of the hypopygium and ovipositor, photos of the male palpus and a key to species of the group are provided.

  8. La retórica en Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gamonal Arroyo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La Retórica, una disciplina antigua que data del siglo V a.C., está muy presente enInternet, un medio de comunicación social que nació en el siglo XX. La AntigüedadClásica renace para esclarecer este fenómeno de las nuevas tecnologías de lainformación. La Retórica ayuda a explicar el intrincado concepto de Internet, afacilitar su práctica cotidiana y a su construcción de una forma ordenada y sistemática.

  9. CONSIDERACIONES TEÓRICAS Y EMPÍRICAS ACERCA DE LA FECUNDIDAD ADOLESCENTE

    OpenAIRE

    ADRIANA CAROLINA SILVA ÁRIAS; PATRICIA GONZÁLEZ ROMÁN; MARISOL TORRES RODRÍGUEZ

    2008-01-01

    Este artículo realiza una revisión teórica y empírica acerca de los factores que inciden en la fecundidad adolescente. Entre las variables analizadas se encuentran, el estrato socioeconómico, la jefatura femenina, el nivel educativo, el empleo femenino, el uso de la planificación familiar, el aborto, entre otros. Dentro de la evidencia empírica se encuentra, que para Colombia la tasa de fecundidad adolescente se ha incrementando durante los últimos diez años, alcanzando niveles semejantes a l...

  10. Influence of Diadema antillarum populations (Echinodermata: Diadematidae on algal community structure in Jardines de la Reina, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Martín Blanco

    2011-09-01

    urchin were predominantly low. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1149-1163. Epub 2011 September 01.A pesar de la importancia del forrageo de Diadema en la estructuración de los arrecifes de coral, la información disponible sobre la actual abundancia de algas y de las interacciones de erizos en Cuba es escasa. Por lo tanto, se analizan las variaciones espaciales en la abundancia de Diadema antillarum y su influencia sobre las algas en 22 arrecifes en Jardines de la Reina, en junio/2004 y abril/2005. Los erizos se muestrearon en recorridos de 30x2m (5/sitio y las algas en cuadrículas de 0.25m de lado (15/sitio. Las densidades de Diadema fueron mayores en las crestas arrecifales (0.013-1.553ind/m² mientras que las pendientes mostraron valores hasta tres ordenes de magnitud menor y presentaron un cubrimiento excesivo de macroalgas (hasta 87%, siendo las más abundantes Dictyota, Lobophora y Halimeda. Las densidades de erizos estuvieron correlacionadas negativa y positivamente con el cubrimiento de macroalgas y algas costrosas, respectivamente, en el análisis global, pero no en hábitats separados (especialmente en crestas, sugiriendo, conjuntamente con la biomasa histórica de peces, que la estructura de las comunidades en las crestas está determinada por la acción sinérgica de otros factores (herbivoría de peces más que por la influencia de Diadema solo. No obstante, se observaron indicios del forrajeo de Diadema, y el cubrimiento de macroalgas disminuyó desde 2001, lo cual sugiere que la intensidad de la herbivoría aumentó al mismo tiempo que el reclutamiento de Diadema.

  11. In vitro antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity of some selected cuban medicinal plants Actividad antimalárica in vitro y citotoxicidad de algunas plantas medicinales Cubanas seleccionadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymé Fernández-Calienes Valdés

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial plants have been demonstrated to be sources of antimalarial compounds. In Cuba, little is known about antimalarial potentials of plant species used as medicinals. For that reason, we evaluated the antimalarial activity of 14 plant species used in Cuba as antimalarial, antipyretic and/or antiparasitic. Hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared and tested in vitro for the antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum Ghana strain and over human cell line MRC-5 to determine cytotoxicity. Parasite multiplication was determined microscopically by the direct count of Giemsa stained parasites. A colorimetric assay was used to quantify cytotoxicity. Nine extracts showed IC50 values lower than 100 µg/mL against P. falciparum, four extracts were classified as marginally active (SI 10. B. vulgaris showed the most potent and specific antiplasmodial action (IC50 = 4.7 µg/mL, SI = 28.9. Phytochemical characterization of active extracts confirmed the presence of triterpenoids in B. vulgaris and polar compounds with phenol free groups and fluorescent metabolites in both extracts as major phytocompounds, by thin layer chromatography. In conclusion, antimalarial use of B. vulgaris and P. hysterophorus was validated. B. vulgaris and P. granatum extracts were selected for follow-up because of their strong antimalarial activity.Las plantas terrestres han demostrado ser fuentes de compuestos antimaláricos. En Cuba, el conocimiento sobre el potencial antimalárico de las plantas medicinales es escaso. Por esta razón, evaluamos la actividad antimalárica de 14 especies de plantas usadas en Cuba como antimaláricas, antipiréticas y/o antiparasitarias. Se prepararon extractos hidroalcohólicos y se probaron in vitro frente a la cepa Ghana de Plasmodium falciparum para la actividad antimalárica y frente a la línea celular humana MRC-5 para determinar citotoxicidad. La multiplicación de los parásitos se determinó microscópicamente mediante el

  12. Estrategias para reducir la mortalidad infantil, Cuba 1959-1999

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    Raúl L. Riverón Corteguera

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las estrategias utilizadas por el Ministerio de Salud Pública en las diferentes etapas del Programa de Atención Maternoinfantil, para reducir la mortalidad infantil en Cuba de 1959 a 1999. Este período se dividió para su comprensión en 4 decenios. Se hace referencia a las diferentes medidas utilizadas, desde la creación del Sistema Nacional de Salud, la formación de recursos humanos; el desarrollo de la Educación Médica, la edificación de Facultades de Ciencias Médicas y la capacitación del posgraduado, el incremento de hospitales y el aumento de las camas hasta los programas de inmunización, de lucha contra la gastroenteritis y para disminuir el bajo peso al nacer, el uso racional de los antimicrobianos; la presencia de la madre acompañante; la implantación del uso de las sales de rehidratación oral (SRO para prevenir y tratar la deshidratación por enfermedades diarreicas; el desarrollo de la Atención Primaria de Salud; los programas de tecnología avanzada para la detección de anomalías congénitas; la promoción de la lactancia materna exclusiva (LME; la categorización, por UNICEF, de los hospitales "Amigos de la Madres y el Niño", el desarrollo de investigaciones que sirvieron de base al Programa de Atención Maternoinfantil; la edificación de hospitales; la construcción de las unidades de terapia intensiva con equipamiento moderno tanto en pediatría como en neonatología y otros muchos elementos puestos en prácticas durante estos 40 años. Esto ha contribuido a que la mortalidad infantil, a pesar de haberse incrementado en el primer decenio (1959-1969 en el 25,5 %, a partir del 2do. decenio (1970-1979 iniciara un descenso mantenido en el 50 %; en el 3er. decenio (1980-1989 del 43,4 % y en el 4to. decenio (1990-1999 del 40,2 %. Se concluye exponiendo las principales estrategias que contribuyeron a reducir la mortalidad infantil en los últimos años de este siglo.The strategies used by the Ministry of

  13. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  14. Conferences on electronic waste in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa Gutierrez, Floria

    2006-01-01

    The management system of electronic waste is a project organized and financed by the bilateral agreement Costa Rica - Holanda, it is integrated by governmental and non-governmental enterprises. It was divided in two phases, first performed in 2003 which provided a diagnosis on the management of electronic resources, based on the diagnosis a propose of strategy for recycling was made. The second phase is given in 2005 with the implementation and realization of the project including two pilots plans located one at the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica and another in the community of Escazu, at the end some recommendations were given to strengthen the system. The electronic waste were divided in white line, gray and brown line; those with pollutants such as phosphorus, chromium, cadmium, barium, lead, beryllium, mercury are toxic and have different effects on human health. The project in Costa Rica has taken as examples several recycling plants in different countries, among them one installed in Belgica. As an outstanding figure of the diagnosis made it was determined that Costa Rica has no legal support regarding the handling of such materials. It has been accumulated in 2007 more than 24 260 tonnes and is growing rapidly year after year. Within the achieved progress in the implementation of the project are: the creation of a legal support, the organization of the compliance unit of the project, the valuation of environmental costs and the increase of enterprises offering the service of primary treatment [es

  15. Lo público y lo privado en los escritos de Alexander Von Humboldt sobre Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebok, Sandra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to collect the comments and judgements that Humboldt makes about Cuba and evaluate their character. The resulting analysis and interpretation will be undertaken on two different levels: One refers to the information that can be found in his unofficial works, which means the letters Humboldt sent during or shortly after of his visits to Cuba, as well as the diaries he used during his expedition. The other is based on the official works, which include his travel description, his famous Essay on Cuba and his autobiographical text written in 1804. Constrasting these descriptions, we will compare the evaluations of this Prussian traveller elaborated in the moment he visited the island, with the works he wrote 22 years after his return to Europe.

    Este trabajo tiene el objeto de recopilar los comentarios y juicios que hace Humboldt sobre Cuba y valorar su carácter. El análisis e interpretación que resultará de ello se realiza en dos niveles distintos: uno se refiere a las informaciones que se encuentran en escritos no oficiales, es decir, en las cartas que Humboldt envió durante o poco tiempo después de sus visitas a Cuba, y en los diarios que utilizó a lo largo de su expedición. El otro se fundamenta en los escritos oficiales, que comprenden su narración del viaje, el famoso Ensayo sobre Cuba y la memoria autobiográfica escrita en 1804. Mediante el contraste de estas descripciones se pretende comparar las apreciaciones de este viajero prusiano elaboradas en el preciso momento que visita la isla, cotejándolas con las obras que redactó 22 años después de su vuelta a Europa. Este trabajo tiene el objeto de recopilar los comentarios y juicios que hace Humboldt sobre Cuba y valorar su carácter. El análisis e interpretación que resultará de ello se realiza en dos niveles distintos: uno se refiere a las informaciones que se encuentran en escritos no oficiales, es decir, en las cartas que Humboldt envi

  16. Slave resistance and the politics of slavery: Brazil and Cuba, 1791-1825

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parron, Tâmis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the political impact of slave activism in Brazil and Cuba from 1790 to 1825, covering the period from the beginning of the Revolution of Saint-Domingue to the establishment of the Constitution of Brazil (1824 and the granting of absolute power to the captains general of Cuba (1825, in the immediate context of the end of the wars of independence on the continent. Instead of discussing and classifying the specific character of the different expressions of collective slave resistance in a typological order, this article tries to understand the effect of those actions on the macro-political dynamic of these two aspects by verifying to what extent they made up the political and institutional framework of slavery in Brazil and Cuba.

    El artículo examina el impacto político del activismo esclavo, en Brasil y Cuba, de 1790 a 1825, esto es, desde el inicio de la Revolución de Saint-Domingue al otorgamiento de la Constitución del Brasil (1824 y al decreto de facultades omnímodas para los capitanes generales de Cuba (1825, en el contexto inmediato del término de las guerras de independencia en el continente. En lugar de discutir y clasificar en un orden tipológico el carácter específico de las diversas expresiones de resistencia esclava colectiva, el artículo intenta comprender el efecto de esas acciones en la dinámica macropolítica de los dos espacios, verificando en qué medida aquéllas conformaron el cuadro político e institucional de la esclavitud en Brasil y en Cuba. [pt] O artigo examina o impacto político do ativismo escravo, no Brasil e Cuba, de 1790 a 1825, isto é, do início da Revolução de Saint-Domingue à outorga da Constituição do Brasil (1824 e à decretação das faculdades onímodas para os capitães generais de Cuba (1825, no contexto imediato do término das guerras de independência no continente. Ao invés de discutir e classificar em uma ordem tipológica o caráter específico das

  17. El ingreso en el hogar y su costo directo en Cuba The direct costs of home care in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Barroso Utra

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analizar el tiempo de estadía en ingreso en el hogar (IH y su costo diario y por paciente en Cuba, según el diagnóstico al ingreso y la zona donde se brinda el servicio. MÉTODOS: Se analizó la información de los 837 pacientes en IH entre julio de 2001 y junio de 2002 en un área del municipio Playa, en Ciudad de La Habana (zona urbana metropolitana, una del municipio Cruces, en Cienfuegos (zona urbana no metropolitana, otra del Municipio Unión de Reyes, en Matanzas (zona rural y una de Fomento, en Sancti Spiritus (zona rural montañosa. Se analizó la mediana del tiempo del IH mediante curvas de supervivencia Kaplan Meier y se evaluó el efecto del diagnóstico al ingreso (afecciones respiratorias, gastrointestinales, ginecobstétricas, egreso hospitalario precoz y otras causas, la zona del IH, el sexo y la edad, sobre la posibilidad de egresar del IH. Para cada municipio se calculó el costo directo del servicio, el costo por paciente y el costo por día de estadía. Se ajustaron modelos de regresión lineal múltiple para identificar el efecto que sobre el costo por paciente tienen el tiempo de estadía, el diagnóstico al ingreso y el área donde se presta el servicio de IH. RESULTADOS: La causa más frecuente de IH en los municipios estudiados fueron las afecciones respiratorias (31,4%, seguidas del egreso hospitalario precoz (15,5%, las afecciones ginecobstétricas (10,8% y los trastornos gastrointestinales (8,1%. La mediana del tiempo de estadía fue de 6 días (IC95%: 5,75 a 6,25. En Fomento los pacientes tuvieron 66% menos probabilidad de egresar que en Cruces y 30% menos que en Playa y Unión de Reyes. El costo directo del IH en los municipios estudiados medido en pesos cubanos ($ varió entre $3 983,54 y $9 624,87. El costo por día de estadía fue de $2,57 a $6,88, mientras el costo por paciente fue de $23,04 a $42,78. El tiempo de estadía tuvo un efecto intrínseco sobre el costo por paciente (P OBJECTIVE: To

  18. OS FRUTOS DE MAIO: RESENHA HISTÓRICA DO MOVIMENTO ESTUDANTIL NA AMÉRICA LATINA NO INICIO DO SÉCULO XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rubens Lima Jardilino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo me propongo examinar las cuestiones de la historia social de los movimientos estudiantiles en el continente, tomando como caso de Argentina, Perú, Cuba y México, por supuesto lo hago en plena colaboración con los especialistas con los cuales mantengo diálogo intenso y los tengo como referencia de mi narrativa sobre el tema. Los movimientos estudiantiles reciben diferentes interpretaciones de su protagonismo juvenil. En Francia, incluso con los socialistas en el poder, hubo un trabajo de la desfiguración del movimiento poco después de su término. Mayo del 68 fue establecido definitivamente como una revuelta de la juventud, o como la juventud es considerada el tiempo del amor y pasiones, el movimiento de 1968, se asimila como una aspiración de los jóvenes en la búsqueda de suprimir el yugo de los padres y de los tabúes sexuales. Por otra parte, hay que reconocer en el movimiento francés sus fuertes contenidos culturales y su firme deseo de cambiar las estructuras institucionales de la modernidad - la Universidad, la Familia, señalando como un movimiento social que se solidarizan a asociaciones como de los agricultores y de los trabajadores en general en la lucha por un cambio cultura. También hay quienes afirman que su legado ha dejado sólo el peso de la droga a un mundo postmoderno y esotérico. En frente de esta diversidad de visiones, nosotros tomamos la libertad de entender el movimiento de los 68 en una perspectiva histórica del papel de los jóvenes en búsqueda de los cambios en las estructuras sociales, desde principios de siglo.

  19. Evolution and classification of Elaphoglossum and Asplenium ferns on Cuba, and discovery of a Miocene Elaphoglossum in Dominican amber

    OpenAIRE

    Lóriga Piñero, Josmaily

    2018-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the systematics and evolution of Neotropical ferns of the genera Elaphoglossum and Asplenium, with particular focus on the species of Cuba and the West Indies. It also includes an analysis and description of an Elaphoglossum frond fragment preserved in Miocene Dominican amber. The worldwide genera Elaphoglossum with 600 species and Asplenium with 685 species are the most species-rich groups of leptosporangiate ferns. On Cuba, Elaphoglossum has 34 species and Asple...

  20. The plant biotechnology: An alternative for the confrontation to the impacts of the climatic change in Cuba?

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaldo F. Álvarez Brito

    2012-01-01

    The expected impacts of the climatic change on the agricultural and forest sectors in Cuba, derived from the evaluations carried out under the First and the Second National Communication of Cuba to the United Nations Frame Convention on Climatic Change, allowed to value how plant biotechnology can be inserted appropriately in the implementation of the Agrarian Program for Confrontation to the Climatic Change, in order to propitiate the protection of the security and alimentary sovereignty of ...

  1. Macrosísmica de Cuba: su aplicación en los estimados de peligrosidad sísmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás J. Chuy-Rodríguez

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una síntesis del catálogo de sismos perceptibles (1528 - 1990, obtenido y preparado al mismo tiempo como base de datos para PC. Este catálogo está suficientemente documentado y permite extender los períodos de tiempo que se analizan, limitados normalmente por la información instrumental. Complementan este resultado ejemplos del Atlas de Isosistas de Terremotos perceptibles con epicentro en el archipiélago cubano y cuya utilización para caracterizar la atenuación sísmica en el territorio nacional, en cuanto a intensidad, es prácticamente imprescindible para la realización de estimados de Peligrosidad Sísmica. En este sentido, la interpretación espacio - temporal de los sismos perceptibles considerados, contribuye a precisar las evaluaciones sismotectónicas de las Zonas Sismogénicas relacionadas con ellos. Se muestra también, el análisis teórico - experimental de la Ley de Atenuación de la Intensidad Sísmica de las Antillas Mayores y sus principales parámetros asociados a las Zonas Sismogénicas del país, los cuales se modelaron a partir de los mapas de isosistas de terremotos perceptibles y fuertes. Todos estos resultados se utilizan en los estimados de Peligrosidad Sísmica determinísticos y probabilísticos, realizados para diferentes regiones del país y que en este trabajo se unifican. Esto permitió que, a partir del Mapa de Peligrosidad Sísmica obtenido, en términos de la aceleración horizontal máxima, pudiera proponerse el Mapa de Zonación Sísmica con fines de Ingeniería utilizado actualmente en la Nueva Norma Sísmica Cubana. Como contribución a la caracterización de nuestra sismicidad, se presenta el análisis espacio - temporal - energético de las réplicas perceptibles de los terremotos más documentados ocurridos en Cuba, y se relacionan con las Zonas Sismogénicas que les dieron origen. En consecuencia, se obtuvo una relación empírica entre la Longitud de Ruptura y el valor de Magnitud

  2. Doctor Octavio Montoro y los primeros casos de diabetes tratados con insulina en Cuba Doctor Octavio Montoro and the first cases of diabetes treated with insulin in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagoberto Álvarez Aldana

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available El uso clínico de la insulina por Banting y Best representa un hito en la historia de las ciencias médicas. Los avances en este campo han sido espectaculares y nuestro país no está ajeno a ellos. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre los primeros trabajos realizados por los médicos cubanos en relación con la insulinoterapia, hecho trascendental en la historia de la endocrinología cubana, pero desconocido principalmente para las nuevas generaciones de endocrinólogos. Esta revisión tiene como objetivos destacar la introducción en la clínica moderna de la insulina como un importante suceso en la historiografía médica cubana y divulgar la evolución clínica y el esquema terapéutico aplicado a los primeros casos de diabetes mellitus tratados con insulina en Cuba, así como resaltar el empeño y la capacidad de los profesionales de la salud pioneros en el uso clínico de la insulina en aquellos años, entre los que se destaca el Doctor Octavio Montoro. Para realizar este trabajo fue consultada la bibliografía médica de la época, archivos y otras fuentes. Como resultado se obtuvo que en Cuba se introdujo la insulina en el tratamiento de los pacientes diabéticos en febrero de 1923, por el Doctor Montoro, quien fue reconocido por sus conocimientos médicos y por su vasta cultura. Desempeñó múltiples cargos y recibió numerosas condecoraciones. Se concluyó que Cuba fue uno de los primeros países en el mundo que contó con la insulina como arma terapéutica contra la diabetes. El Doctor Octavio Montoro hizo importantes aportes en la investigación sobre la diabetes, por lo que merece ser considerado, a nuestro juicio, como el padre de la diabetología en nuestro país.The clinical use of insulin by Banting and Best represents a hallmark in the history of medical sciences. The advances in this field have been amazing and our country was also involved in this development. However, little is known about the first works carried out by Cuban

  3. Cambio climático, afectaciones y oportunidades para la ganadería en Cuba Climate change, affectations and opportunities for livestock production in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Milagros de la C Milera

    2011-01-01

    Los fenómenos de la desertificación y la degradación de las tierras, la contaminación de las aguas, los suelos y la atmósfera, la pérdida de la diversidad biológica, el agotamiento de la capa de ozono, la deforestación, el recalentamiento del planeta y otros, han conducido a una encrucijada de la existencia humana. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la adecuación de los principales sistemas de producción ante las afectaciones del cambio climático en Cuba y los resultados de fincas d...

  4. Algoritmo de manejo del trauma craneoencefálico leve: Una necesidad social en Cuba Algorism for mild craneo - encephalic trauma management social necessity in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Varela Hernández

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available El tema del traumatismo craneoencefálico leve ha sido poco estudiado es Cuba por lo que se presenta este artículo con el objetivo de demostrar la necesidad social de la aplicación de un algoritmo de manejo de estos pacientes que se adapte al contexto social cubano. Se ofrecen conceptos actualizados sobre la importancia de la ciencia y la tecnología en la sociedad moderna y se aborda la significación de la innovación tecnológica para el desarrollo de la tecnociencia en Cuba. Se trata, basado en una epistemología compleja, las relaciones que se establecen entre el desarrollo social y los servicios de salud, así como entre la evolución de la tecnociencia y el trauma craneoencefálico. Se argumenta la relevancia social del traumatismo craneoencefálico leve tanto a nivel mundial como local, así como el impacto favorable de la aplicación de un algoritmo de manejo de estos enfermos, realizado sobre una base científica, el cual permite un empleo óptimo y racional de las tecnologías imagenológicas de avanzada con que se cuenta.The topic about mild cranium-encephalic traumatism has been little studied in Cuba, that is why this article is presented with the objective to demonstrate the social necessity to apply an algorism for these patient's handling adapted to the Cuban social context. The article offers present-day concepts about the importance of science and technology in modern society and the significance of the technological innovation in the development of the techno-science in Cuba. The relationships between the social development and health services, as well as between the evolution of the techno-science and the cranium-encephalic trauma is treated, based on a complex apistemiology. The article argues the social relevance of the mild cranium-encephalic traumatism in the world and in the country, and the favourable impact of the application of an algorism of these sick persons' handling, carried out upon a scientific base which

  5. Vigilancia de la resistencia a los fármacos antituberculosos en Cuba, 2000-2009 Surveillance of resistance to antitubercular drugs in Cuba, 2000-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Montoro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de la resistencia a los fármacos antituberculosos en Cuba en el decenio 2000-2009. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo longitudinal. El universo de trabajo estuvo constituido por un total de 2 285 aislamientos de Mycobacterium tuberculosis obtenidos de todo el país en el período comprendido entre el 1 de enero de 2000 y el 31 de diciembre de 2009. Se empleó el método de las proporciones en medio Löwenstein-Jensen con los fármacos de primera línea: isoniazida, estreptomicina, etambutol y rifampicina. RESULTADOS: La resistencia entre los casos nuevos y los pacientes con antecedente de tratamiento previo fue de 8,5% y 37,0%, respectivamente; para estas mismas categorías de caso, la multirresistencia fue de 0,4% y 8,8%, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: El presente estudio muestra baja prevalencia de cepas multirresistentes en Cuba. Estos resultados reflejan los avances logrados por el programa nacional de control, que trabaja en la actualidad hacia la eliminación de la tuberculosis como problema de salud pública en el país.OBJECTIVE: Determine the prevalence of resistance to antitubercular drugs in Cuba in the 2000-2009 decade. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal study was conducted. The sample group consisted of 2  285 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates obtained from throughout the country in the period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2009. The proportion method was used in Löwenstein-Jensen media with the first-line drugs: isoniazid, streptomycin, ethambutol, and rifampicin. RESULTS: In the new cases and patients with a history of previous treatment, resistance was 8.5% and 37.0%, respectively. In these case categories, multidrug resistance was 0.4% and 8.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows low prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains in Cuba. The results reflect the progress made by the national control program, which is currently working on the elimination of

  6. Prediction of electric energy consumption in Cuba for the period 2000-2015; Pronostico del consumo de electricidad en Cuba durante el periodo 2000-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Rodirguez, B [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    1999-06-01

    This paper consists on a prediction of the growth in electric energy consumption in Cuba, for the period 2000-2015 and with respect to 1990, it also considers the specific features of the National Electroenergetic System. Validated Guidelines in accordance with the Delphi method, which incorporates the basis characteristics considered by international programs for these predictions, were used for this purpose. From the analysis of the behaviour in power consumption of the different consumers and of the expected changes in them according to the expected scenarios, a prediction on the growth in the demand of electric energy is made.

  7. Presencia y perspectivas de los búfalos en Cuba Presence and perspective of buffaloes in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Simón

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los búfalos fueron introducidos en el país a principios de la década de los 80, con el objetivo de producir alimentos para el consumo humano. Los criterios para su introducción fueron: su rusticidad y el aprovechamiento de alimentos de baja calidad nutritiva, sus posibilidades para la cría extensiva en lugares donde los bovinos y otras especies no podían producir, además de las cualidades nutritivas e industriales de sus productos. Las razas que se encuentran en el país son el Buffalypso y el de pantano o Carabao, este último utilizado para la producción de carne por su pobre rendimiento lechero, por lo que se realiza un programa genético de cruzamiento entre ellos para mejorar sus características lecheras. Se ha demostrado que pueden disipar el calor a la sombra de los árboles de los potreros y mantener una elevada tasa de natalidad (más del 80% que supera la de los bovinos; no obstante, su producción de leche resulta extensiva por las bajas cargas (0,6-0,8 UGM/ha que hay que emplear en pastoreo, debido a su hábito alimentario y a la capacidad productiva de los Buffalypsos (700 y 1 000 kg de leche por lactancia. Por ello el mejoramiento lechero mediante cruzamientos con razas de mayor potencial y la transformación de la base alimentaria en los lugares que se encuentren, podrían aportar positivamente en la intensificación de su producción y hacerlos más competitivos con los bovinos en producción de leche.Buffaloes were introduced in the country in the early 80's, in order to produce food for human consumption. The criteria followed for their introduction were their rusticity and utilization of feedstuffs with low nutritional quality, their possibilities for extensive rearing in places where cattle and other species could not produce, in addition to the nutritional and industrial qualities of their products. The breeds present in Cuba are Buffalypso and the swamp buffalo or Carabao, the latter used for meat production due to

  8. Identité et développement dans le petit Etat de la Dominique : le rôle de la diaspora Identity and development in the Commonwealth of Dominica: the role of the diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Jno-Baptiste

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Explorer les questions portant sur la relation entre identitaire et développement dans le contexte post-colonial, c’est aussi mettre en relief les stratégies identitaires des petits Etats dans la zone américano-caraïbe. Dans l’île de la Dominique, les personnalités des secteurs politique, économique, culturel et éducatif interrogées en 2004 sur cette problématique, font émerger, à travers leurs discours, une conception du progrès fondée sur la cohérence entre identitaire et développement. Eclaircir le rôle de la diaspora dans le projet culturel et économique de la jeune nation dominiquaise (1978, c’est se demander en quoi les returnees peuvent contribuer à l’évolution des représentations idéologiques du progrès dans les anciennes colonies en quête légitime d’un bien-être. L’article souligne cette préoccupation du troisième millénaire à laquelle est confrontée l’humanité : comment mettre au service de l’épanouissement des hommes et des femmes les avancées de la science et de la technologie afin d’assurer avant tout leur mieux-être.To explore the relations between identity and development in a post-colonial context, also means to put into perspective small states identity strategies in the Caribbean region. In the Commonwealth of Dominica, personalities from the political, economical, cultural and educational sectors interviewed in 2004 on this issue, proposed through their views, an idea of progress based on the coherence between identity and development. To shed light on the role of the diaspora in the cultural and economic project of the young Dominican nation (1978, is to ask how returnees can contribute to the evolution of ideological representations of progress in former colonies which are legitimately seeking welfare. The article focuses on that concern of the third millennium which humankind has to face: how can science and technological advancement be used for the development of men

  9. Vodú Chic: Haitian Religion and the Folkloric Imaginary in Socialist Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grete Viddal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the first three decades of the twentieth century, hundreds of thousands of Haitian agricultural laborers arrived in Cuba seeking employment in the expanding sugar industry. Historically, Haitian cane cutters were marginal and occupied the lowest socio-economic status in Cuban society. Until relatively recently, the maintenance of Haitian spiritual beliefs, music, dance, and language in Cuba were associated with rural isolation and poverty. Today however, the continuation of Haitian customs is no longer linked with isolation, but exactly the opposite: performance troupes, heritage festivals, art exhibitions, the circulation of religious specialists, collaborations with research centers and academia, endorsement by music promoters, and the tourism industry. Cubans of Haitian heritage have found innovative ways to transform the abject into the exotic, and are currently gaining a public voice in cultural production, particularly through folkloric performance.

  10. GEOLOGY OF THE FLORENCIA GOLD – TELLURIDE DEPOSIT (CAMAGÜEY, CUBA AND SOME METALLURGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López K Jesús M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results from a study of the Florencia gold-telluride deposit in Central Cuba, including mineralogical, petrographical, microprobe and chemical analysis. Valuable information is provided for the exploration, mining and processing of gold ores from other nearby deposits with similar characteristics. Results highlight changes in the mineralogical composition of the ores between the north and south sectors of the deposit, as reflected in metallurgical concentrates after beneficiation and flotation of samples from these sectors.
    It is shown that gold deposits of the Cretaceous Volcanic Arc of Cuba largely consist of native gold, telluride and pyrite, where arsenopyrite is almost absent. Traces of lead, zinc and cadmium are present in the periphery of the main ore zones.

  11. [Trophic webs of reef fishes in northwestern Cuba. I. Stomach contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ivet; Aguilar, Consuelo; González Sanón, Gaspar

    2008-06-01

    Trophic webs of reef fishes in northwestern Cuba. I. Stomach contents. Studies on the reef fishes of Cuba are not rare, but most have two basic limitations: small sample sizes and exclusion of small species. Our study sampled more species and larger samples in the sublitoral region of Havana city (23 degrees 7.587' N, 82 degrees 25.793' W), 2-18 m deep. We collected fish weekly from October 2004 through February 2006 with traps and harpoon. Overfishing has modified the fish communities. We used the relative importance index to describe the diets of carnivore and omnivore species, and a modification of the relative abundance method for the herbivores and sponge-eating species. The main food items are benthonic crustaceans (crabs, shrimp, copepods) and bony fish (mainly demersal species). Most species are eurifagous and thus, less affected by anthropic disturbance than specialist feeders.

  12. CAMBIOS TEMPORALES DE LA LLUVIA EN EL OCCIDENTE DE LA ISLA DE CUBA

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    Teresa López Deulofeu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo surge de la necesidad de conocer en el tiempo, el comportamiento de la lluvia, asi como también en su distribución espacial en el occidente de Cuba. Se analiza la estacionalidad, tendencia, variabilidad y ciclícidad. Se comprobó que por lo menos en el período 1961-1993, no existe diferencia de las estaciones lluviosa y poco lluviosa. Se encontró que la ruptura de la tendencia ocurrió fuertemente en 1975, y una menor en 1973. Se han manifestado 4 ciclos aperíodicos. Se manifiesta el mismo comportamiento de la lluvia en todo el occidente de Cuba.

  13. Radioactive waste disposal system for Cuba. Safety assessment for the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta Vital, J.L.; Gil Castillo, R.; Mirta Torrez, B.

    1998-01-01

    The present work is performed within the frame of evaluating the radiological impact of the post-closure stage of the facility for disposal of the radioactive wastes generated in Cuba, including a description of the waste disposal systems defined in the country, and taking account of significant elements of their long term safety. The Methodology for Safety Assessment includes: the definition of possible scenarios for evaluation, the identification of principal present uncertainties, the model simulating the release of the radionuclides of the facility, their transport through the geosphere, and their final access to man, evaluating ultimately the radiological impact of the disposal system considering the dose for a critical group. The results obtained allow to demonstrate the radiological safety of the nominative barrier in the design of the system for the particular conditions of Cuba. (author)

  14. Una batalla ganada: la eliminación de la poliomielitis en Cuba

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    Enrique Beldarraín Chaple

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La poliomielitis fue introducida en Cuba a finales del siglo XIX por norteamericanos residentes en Isla de Pinos. Las primeras epidemias ocurrieron en 1906 y 1909, aumentaron en intensidad entre 1930-1958. El objetivo del artículo es reconstruir la historia de la enfermedad y sus epidemias en Cuba hasta 1961, de la primera Campaña Nacional de Vacunación Antipolio (1962 y de sus resultados, bien como analizar la continuidad de las campañas anuales de vacunación hasta la certificación de su eliminación (1994. Se siguió el método histórico lógico; se revisaron documentos de archivos, las estadísticas del Ministerio de Salud Pública sobre morbilidad y mortalidad hasta el 2000. Se calcularon tasas brutas de morbilidad y mortalidad. Se realizaron entrevistas a personajes claves.

  15. Automation of the Distillation of Alcohol from the RUM Distillery UEB Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Mónica Mulet-Hing

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of the current situation and prospects for solutions to the lack of automation in the plant belonging to the rum distillery UEB Santiago de Cuba, Cuba Ron, that leads to limited productivity of your process; also do a survey of its operational status, and seeks to transform the instrumentation and control form. It defines the structure and control system variables, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed solution. The key result of the work consists in presenting a proposal for automation of the structure consists of a control algorithm to the distillation process, taking into account the requirements, technical means for their execution, the variables that must be observed and processed and final action items proposed to the respective field instrumentation and purchase of the PLC to perform satisfactorily the control with the minimum possible investment.

  16. Una llamada de “urgencia” para tutela cautelar en la justicia administrativa en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El régimen jurídico de la tutela cautelar que rige hoy por hoy para la justicia administrativa en Cuba, se basa en el principio de ejecutabilidad de los actos administrativos, y por tanto, en la regla de la no suspensión de las decisiones de la administración pública. El modelo construido tomó como referencia el sistema de justicia cautelar administrativa del derecho franco-español de finales del siglo xix. En el siguiente trabajo se parte del presupuesto de la necesidad de un cambio de paradigma en torno a la ordenación jurídica de la tutela cautelar administrativa en Cuba; para la cual se aportan argumentos teóricos que justifican una modificación en pos de ampliar y reforzar el rol de la tutela cautelar en la jurisdicción contencioso-administrativa.

  17. The discipline of ergonomics in Cuba within the occupational health framework: background and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Yaniel; Rodríguez, Yordán; Viña, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    The concept of ergonomics was introduced in Cuba at the beginning of the 1970s. More than 40 years later, the prevailing approach to workers' health is still generally reactive rather than proactive, despite the commitment of the government to the subject. A factor influencing this issue is, generally, lack of recognition of the benefits of establishing ergonomic principles within most occupational activities. Recent progress to move occupational health practice toward a more preventive approach has been conducted, frequently with international support. The introduction of a set of Cuban standards proposing the necessity of ergonomic evaluations is an example of this progress. The main challenge for Cuban ergonomists is to transfer knowledge to occupational health practitioners in order to be in concordance with basic standards and regulations regarding ergonomics. The article offers a short description of the history of ergonomics and an overview of ergonomics practice in Cuba.

  18. Enhancement of the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock in a ferralsol from Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, R.; Herrera, J.A.; Garcia, A.; Nuviola, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Ferralsols from Ciego de Avila, Cuba, have a pH near neutrality and very low exchangeable acidity, thus, they are not suitable for direct application of phosphate rock. In laboratory and greenhouse experiments, different P fertilizers were tested in order to assess their agronomic effectiveness through the use of nuclear and conventional methods. The phosphate rocks (PRs) came from different deposits (Higuanojo, La Pimienta and Trinidad de Guedes from Cuba; Riecito, Baja California and North Carolina from other countries). Partial acidulation (PA) of some of these rocks was also evaluated. Trinidad de Guedes PAPRs were found to be highly effective compared to their natural PR when evaluated through dry matter production, P uptake and isotopic parameters. Further field experiments are needed to validate the greenhouse results to enhance the agronomic effectiveness of the local Trinidad de Guedes PR through partial acidulation. (author)

  19. National viewpoints: Views on strengthened safeguards from Australia, Cuba and South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, I.; Saburido, E.F.; Mxakato-Diseko, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents views of Australia, Cuba and South Africa concerned with strengthened safeguards regime. Australia has been involved with the IAEA safeguards system since the first plenary meeting of the Conference on the IAEA Statute in 1956, joined the NPT in 1973 and began concluding bilateral safeguards agreements in 1977. Australia has the greatest respect for the IAEA coordinated efforts started in 1998 to strengthen and integrate the safeguards system. Cuba has always attached special importance to nuclear safeguards activities, recognizing their high priority as well as the important role they have in respect to international disarmament and security. South Africa supports the efforts in strengthening the safeguards activities and remains hopeful that the international community will address the challenges posed by the Trilateral Initiative between Russian federation, USA and IAEA in a mature and cooperative way

  20. Safeguarding musical heritage. Memories of the rescue of the Hymn of Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daylenis Blanco-Lobaina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The musicality that highlights Santiago de Cuba as one of its fundamental attractions motivated one of the lines of work of the Escalinata project, focused on communication and promotion of Santiago's heritage. The city treasures several hymns composed in different periods and historical contexts, among them some dedicated to the Virgin of the Charity of the Copper and Santiago Apostle, patron of the city. However, dedicated to the city, Santiago's musical history has revealed the existence of a single anthem, which is why a process of restoration and digitization of its scores began in function of the rescue of this musical composition of the early nineteenth century. This work reveals the process of safeguarding and enhancing the value of this piece of music, considered to be the city's cultural heritage, just 88 years after it was premiered in the Municipal Government of Santiago de Cuba.

  1. Useful trees in reforestation planning at the Biosphere Reserve «Buenavista», Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Herrera Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Cuba, Biosphere Reserves protect and keep natural areas of variable size including one or several forest, scrub or grassland vegetation units, either primary or secondary, also taking into account the various kinds of complex vegetation and communities. The Biosphere Reserve Buenavista, located in Central Cuba, includes several primary vegetation units such as the mangrove forest, sandy coast and rocky coast vegetation, littoral scrub and the dry semi-deciduous, semi-deciduous and gallery forests. Ferns and their allies, gimnosperms and angiosperms were determined and listed in the Reserve and dominant or dominated tree taxa were selected, also listing their standard heights with the ultimate purpose of using them in future reforestation planning if deforestation in some zones occurs.

  2. Racial Geographies, Imperial Transitions: Property Ownership and Race Relations in Cienfuegos, Cuba, 1894–1899

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Lucero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores race relations in the provincial city of Cienfuegos, Cuba, during a time of immense political change from 1894 to 1899. In those five years, Cuba was transformed from a Spanish colony struggling for independence to an occupied territory of the United States. This political transformation brought into direct confrontation two models of race relations: one Spanish, characterized by racial integration, and the other American, renowned for Jim Crow segregation. This essay examines the lived significance of this political transformation through interracial property transactions recorded in the notarial protocols of Cienfuegos. The findings suggest that the final war of independence provided opportunities for Afro-descendants to purchase prime properties within the official city bounds. Yet, with US intervention in 1898, a subtle but increasing marginalization of men and women of color from the market in urban property is evident. Lucero contends that this marginalization reflects a shift in race relations due to the American imperial presence.

  3. First record of natural vertical transmission of dengue virus in Aedes aegypti from Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Bugallo, Gladys; Rodriguez-Roche, Rosmari; Díaz, Gisell; Vázquez, Antonio A; Alvarez, Mayling; Rodríguez, Magdalena; Bisset, Juan A; Guzman, Maria G

    2017-10-01

    While horizontal transmission (human-mosquito-human) of dengue viruses largely determines the epidemiology of the disease, vertical transmission (infected female mosquito- infected offspring) has been suggested as a mechanism that ensures maintenance of the virus during adverse conditions for horizontal transmission to occur. The purpose of this study was to analyze the natural infection of larval stages of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) with the dengue virus (DENV) in Cuba. Here, we report vertical transmission of DENV-3 genotype III in natural populations of Ae. aegypti through RT-PCR detection and serotyping plus sequencing. Our report constitutes the first record of vertical transmission of DENV in Ae. aegypti from Cuba with details of its serotype and genotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Chemical Diversity of Lantana camara: Analyses of Essential Oil Samples from Cuba, Nepal, and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Crouch, Rebecca A; Monzote, Lianet; Cos, Paul; Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Alhaj, Mehdi A; Setzer, William N

    2016-03-01

    The aerial parts of Lantana camara L. were collected from three different geographical locations: Artemisa (Cuba), Biratnagar (Nepal), and Sana'a (Yemen). The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A cluster analysis of 39 L. camara essential oil compositions revealed eight major chemotypes: β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, ar-curcumene/zingiberene, γ-curcumen-15-al/epi-β-bisabolol, (E)-nerolidol, davanone, eugenol/alloaromadendrene, and carvone. The sample from Cuba falls into the group dominated by (E)-nerolidol, the sample from Nepal is a davanone chemotype, and the sample from Yemen belongs to the β-caryophyllene chemotype. The chemical composition of L. camara oil plays a role in the biological activity; the β-caryophyllene and (E)-nerolidol chemotypes showed antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  5. Economic analysis for the electricity production in isolated areas in Cuba using different renewable sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Salas, Joel; Moreno Figueredo, Conrado; Briesemeister, Ludwig; Arzola, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Despite the effort and commitment of the Cuban government in more of 50 year, there are houses without electricity in remote areas of the Electricity Network. These houses or communities have the promise and commitment of the local and national authorities to help them in improve his life quality. How the houses and communities are remote of the electricity network, the cost to extend the network is considerably high. For that reason, the use of renewable sources in these areas is an acceptable proposal. This article does an analysis to obtain different configurations depending to the number of houses. It do a proposal with the use of the Hydrothermal Carbonization process in the cases where is not feasible introduce different renewable source; a technology new in Cuba, and advantageous taking into consideration the kind of biomass that exist in Cuba. The study of the chemical process of the Hydrothermal Carbonization with the Cuban biomass should be further researched. (full text)

  6. Multielemental analysis by neutron activation of sediments in the Ana Maria Gulf, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Gandarias, D.; Calzavilla, R.; Garcia, G.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper general samples of marine sediments taken from six control stations of the Ana Maria Gulf (Cuba) were analyzed. For this purpose the thermal neutron activation analysis method was used. 18 elements were determinated. They are: Al, Ce, Co, Cs, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Mo, Mn, Rb, Sc, Ta, Th, Yb and Zn. The accuracy varied between 5 and 30% for all elements. 10 refs

  7. Applicability assessment of concrete with recycled coarse aggregates in Havana, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Pavón, E.; Etxeberria, M.; Díaz, N. E.

    2012-01-01

    The recent viability studies carried out in Havana, Cuba, according to natural or recycled aggregates, exhibited high volume production of construction and demolition waste (CDW). The last well-known data of concrete waste generation reached to 1800 m3/month. This situation, together with the depletion of the quarry aggregates closed to the capital, requires the use of such debris as aggregate for concrete production. In this work, four origin recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) were produced ...

  8. Comparing environmental issues in Cuba before and after the Special Period: balancing sustainable development and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maal-Bared, Rasha

    2006-04-01

    Following the Earth Summit in 1992, Cuba designed and implemented a variety of programs, administrative structures, and public awareness activities to promote sound environmental management and sustainable development. This came shortly after the fall of the Soviet Union and the strengthening of the US blockade in 1990, which resulted in a 35% drop in Cuban GDP. This period, referred to as the Special Period, witnessed a decrease in many environmentally damaging activities both by choice and by necessity, but also resulted in many decisions to resuscitate the Cuban economy. The purpose of this work was to compare and rank the environmental risks Cuba faced before and during the Special Period (1990-2000) using two Comparative environmental risk assessments (CERAs). To do so, an ecosystem integrity risk assessment matrix was constructed with 42 risk end points. The matrix assessed the risk posed by 17 problem areas including air pollution, water contamination, solid waste sites, pesticides and ecosystem degradation. The risks were calculated using five criteria: area affected, vulnerability of affected population, severity of impact, irreversibility of effect and uncertainty. To construct this matrix, both literature reviews and expert interviews in Cuba were conducted in 2000. The results showed a general decrease in risk scores during the Special Period. Before the Special Period, high risks were posed by: terrestrial degradation and industrial wastewater and sludge, followed by freshwater degradation, surface water stressors, and pesticides. After the Special Period, industrial wastewater and sludge and pesticides were no longer high-risk areas, but municipal wastewater and marine coastal degradation ranked higher than previously. Also, the risk endpoints most stressed after 1990 were affected by activities controlled by the government, such as mining and tourism, and lack of infrastructure. Therefore, the claims that public environmental education is the main

  9. Cuba "updates" its economic model: perspectives for cooperation with the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Schmieg, Evita

    2017-01-01

    Following the thawing of relations with the United States under Obama, Cuba is now seeking closer integration into the global economy through a programme of "guidelines" for updating the country’s economic model adopted in 2011. The central goals are increasing exports, substituting imports and encouraging foreign direct investment in order to improve the country’s hard currency situation, increase domestic value creation and reduce dependency on Venezuela. The guidelines also expand the spac...

  10. Cuba | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le développement ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nous finançons des recherches à Cuba depuis 1974 et travaillons avec des chercheurs cubains depuis cette époque, principalement dans les secteurs de la santé et de l'agriculture, et plus récemment dans les secteurs des changements climatiques et de la gestion durable de l'eau. Amélioration de la sécurité alimentaire ...

  11. Technical economical study for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes disposal in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, G. Chales; Peralta Vital, J.L.; Castillo, R. Gil; Franklin Saburido, R.; Rodriguez Reyes, A.; Castillo Gomez, R. [Centro de Tecnologia Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    1997-12-31

    The wastes characteristics, the design of the repository, package of the radioactive wastes, as well as, the studies for sitting, conditioning and performance assessment in a preliminary stage are presented considering the perspectives to conclude and operate the Juragua Nuclear Power Station and development of nuclear application in Cuba. The practice and international experience, as well as, the recommendation from the IAEA[1-4] to perform these studies have been analysed 8 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. An eighteenth-century community in exile : the 'floridanos' in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Landers

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available History of the evacuation of 1763, when Floridians had to move away after the English seized the colony from Spain. Most of the migrants settled in Cuba. Several hundred families of Spanish descent and their slaves made new lives in Havana. Author focuses on the Florida Africans and Indians and the history of a new multi-ethnic settlement named San Agustín de la Nueve Florida.

  13. Une solution aux problèmes hydriques de Cuba | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    À Santiago de Cuba, dans la partie orientale du pays, les pénuries d'eau ont fait les .... d'eau non traitée, la désagrégation des infrastructures de traitement et ... tels que les rejets d'eaux usées en raison de la détérioration des conduites, ont ...

  14. IAEA Director General welcomes Cuba's intention to join the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Full text: IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei welcomed Cuba's announcement to accede to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and to ratify the Treaty of Tlatelolco establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone in Latin America and the Caribbean. He expressed the hope that Cuba will conclude soon a comprehensive safeguards agreement with the Agency, as required under Article III of the NPT. 'With Cuba's intention to become party to the NPT, we have come a step closer to a universal nuclear non-proliferation regime,' Mr. ElBaradei said. Only three countries worldwide with significant nuclear activities now remain outside the NPT. With 188 countries party to the Treaty, the NPT is the most adhered to international agreement after the United Nations Charter and the most widely adhered to multilateral arms control treaty. The NPT makes it mandatory that all non-nuclear-weapon States conclude comprehensive safeguards agreements with the IAEA, and thus put all of their nuclear material under IAEA safeguards. The Director General also welcomed Cuba's ratification of the Tlatelolco Treaty, which completes the process of having all countries in the region of Latin America and the Caribbean as members of the nuclear-weapon-free zone in that region. Mr. ElBaradei said that, 'the Tlatelolco Treaty provides a good model for other regional nuclear-weapon-free zones to follow'. He added that 'universal adherence of all countries in regions having nuclear-weapon-free zone arrangements is important to further strengthen the non-proliferation regime'. (IAEA)

  15. Public Information on the Nuclear Energy and Advanced Technology Agency of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras Izquierdo, Marta Alicia

    2007-01-01

    The mission of the Nuclear Energy and Advanced Technology Agency of Cuba is the promoting and controlling of the peaceful use of nuclear energy and radiation application; additionally, they have to inform the general public about those technologies. The main of this work is to expose the methodology and results of the studies of the attitudes toward the nuclear applications of the users of the nuclear techniques

  16. The January 2014 Northern Cuba Earthquake Sequence - Unusual Location and Unexpected Source Mechanism Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunmiller, J.; Thompson, G.; McNutt, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    On 9 January 2014, a magnitude Mw=5.1 earthquake occurred along the Bahamas-Cuba suture at the northern coast of Cuba revealing a surprising seismic hazard source for both Cuba and southern Florida where it was widely felt. Due to its location, the event and its aftershocks (M>3.5) were recorded only at far distances (300+ km) resulting in high-detection thresholds, low location accuracy, and limited source parameter resolution. We use three-component regional seismic data to study the sequence. High-pass filtered seismograms at the closest site in southern Florida are similar in character suggesting a relatively tight event cluster and revealing additional, smaller aftershocks not included in the ANSS or ISC catalogs. Aligning on the P arrival and low-pass filtering (T>10 s) uncovers a surprise polarity flip of the large amplitude surface waves on vertical seismograms for some aftershocks relative to the main shock. We performed regional moment tensor inversions of the main shock and its largest aftershocks using complete three-component seismograms from stations distributed throughout the region to confirm the mechanism changes. Consistent with the GCMT solution, we find an E-W trending normal faulting mechanism for the main event and for one immediate aftershock. Two aftershocks indicate E-W trending reverse faulting with essentially flipped P- and T-axes relative to the normal faulting events (and the same B-axes). Within uncertainties, depths of the two event families are indistinguishable and indicate shallow faulting (<10 km). One intriguing possible interpretation is that both families ruptured the same fault with reverse mechanisms compensating for overshooting. However, activity could also be spatially separated either vertically (with reverse mechanisms possibly below extension) or laterally. The shallow source depth and the 200-km long uplifted chain of islands indicate that larger, shallow and thus potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes could occur just

  17. España y Cuba. Cien años de relaciones financieras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés ROLDÁN DE MONTAUD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Desde la pérdida del imperio continental americano, Cuba se convierte en el territorio colonial de mayor importancia para la metrópoli. Mercado preferencial para la producción española y fuente de capitales que ayudó a paliar el déficit del Tesoro peninsular, las páginas siguientes se dedican a estudiar las diferentes etapas por las que atravesaron las relaciones financieras entre metrópoli y colonia a lo largo del siglo XIX. Estudio centrado en el aspecto institucional, es decir, en las relaciones entre los Tesoros y por tanto en la especial configuración de la Hacienda colonial y la concepción y estructura del sistema presupuestario. Palabras Clave: España, Cuba, Siglo XIX, Relaciones financieras, Hacienda colonial, Presupuestos. ABSTRACT: After metropolis lost its empire on the American continent, Cuba became its most important colonial territory and a preferential market for Spanish production as well as a source of capital which helped to mitigate the deficit in the Spanish Treasury. The pages that follow study the different stages through which the financial relations between the metropolis and the colony passed during the 19th century. This study focuses on the institutional aspect, i.e., on the relations between the treasuries and therefore on the special configuration of the colonial Treasuty and the conception and structure of the budgetary system. Key words: Spain, Cuba 19th Century, Financial Relation, Colonial Treasury, Budgets.

  18. Impact assessment of foreign hotels chains technology through hotel management contract in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    D’Meza Pérez, Gustavo; Zaldívar Puig, Martha María; Martín Fernández, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    El sector hotelero en Cuba se clasifica en cadenas hoteleras nacionales, entidades mixtas y alojamientos en casas particulares. Dentro de ellas, las cadenas hoteleras nacionales son de propiedad pública y gestionan sus hoteles directamente (llamados de marcas propias) o mediante contratos de administración con otras cadenas extranjeras. Las empresas mixtas siempre contratan a una entidad extranjera para administrar sus hoteles, mientras que los alojamientos privados son administrados por sus ...

  19. HIV/AIDS among women in Havana, Cuba: 1986-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Dinorah C; Viñas, Arturo L; Saavedra, Clarivel; Oliva, Maritza; González, Ciro; de la Torre, Caridad

    2013-10-01

    Women are being diagnosed with HIV infection in increasing numbers, and now account for 50% of cases worldwide. In Cuba, HIV is more frequent in men, but in recent years, a growing number of women have been diagnosed. Describe patterns of HIV among women in Havana, Cuba, 1986-2011. Descriptive study of women with HIV aged >14 years, residents of Havana, Cuba, who were diagnosed with HIV from 1 January 1986 through 31 December 2011. Information was obtained from the limited-access HIV/AIDS database of Cuba's Ministry of Public Health. Data were studied from all reported cases, a total of 1274 women. Variables selected were age at diagnosis, education, municipality of residence, screening group, year of HIV diagnosis, late presentation, AIDS-defining condition, year of diagnosis as AIDS case, vital status at the end of 2011, and year of death (if applicable). Incidence of HIV and AIDS, cumulative incidence by municipality of residence, and case fatality rates were calculated. Those aged 20-29 years were most affected by HIV. Almost half (46.7%) the women had completed middle school, and a further 35.4% had completed high school or middle-level technical studies. HIV incidence began to increase more steeply starting in 1998, as did AIDS incidence by year of diagnosis, though to a lesser extent. Central Havana and Old Havana municipalities had the highest cumulative incidence. Late presentation was seen in 7.4% of cases; mean age of those diagnosed late was 38.9 years. Wasting syndrome and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia were the most frequent AIDS-defining conditions. Case fatality rates started to decline in 1998. HIV infection in women is occurring in a predominantly young, relatively well-educated population. Increasing rates of HIV and AIDS in the past decade are a warning sign of the possible expansion of HIV infection in women, even though mortality is declining.

  20. Ecology of the Scorpion, Microtityus jaumei in Sierra de Canasta, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn; Colombo, Marco

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of the population dynamics of Microtityus jaumei Armas (Scorpiones: Buthidae) on the slopes south of Sierra de Canasta, Guantánamo Province, Cuba show an increase in activity over the year (≤ 0.05). The activity peak is related to the reproductive period from June to November. The abundance of scorpions was significantly related to density of the canopy and thickness of the substrate. PMID:21870972

  1. The U.S. Embargo on Cuba: A time for Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-06

    to protect intellectual property rights. This is tantamount to Cuba producing an American product like Coke or Pepsi and selling it as a Cuban product...intended audience . Primarily because the Cuban Government jams the signal and secondly because it is transmitted between the hours of 0330 and 0800...Cuban broadcast transmissions during prime time hours. Radio Marti’s listening audience has declined to an estimated five percent of the

  2. Evolución y perspectivas del registro de medicamentos en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste A Sánchez González

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una evaluación de las autoridades sanitarias a cargo de la autorización para la comercialización de medicamentos en Cuba desde 1959 hasta el 2001 y de su nivel de subordinación. Se describió la evolución de los documentos normativos y legales que dan la base al Registro de Medicamentos en Cuba y a su evaluación, con lo que se caracterizó el enfoque nacional de los requerimientos y procedimientos exigidos para registrar un medicamento. Se identificaron etapas en la evolución de las autoridades y se enumeraron los aspectos que han marcado saltos de calidad en la espiral de desarrollo de la actividad. Se identificó la situación actual y perspectivas para garantizar la elevación del nivel normativo y legal del Sistema Regulador de Medicamentos.The health authorities in charge of authorizing the commercialization of drugs in Cuba from 1959 to 2001, as well as their subordination level were evaluated. The evolution of the normative and legal documents, which are the basis of the Drug Registry in Cuba and of its evaluation, was described in order to characterize the national approach of the requirements and procedures demanded to register a drug. Some stages in the evolution of the authorities were identified and those aspects considered as quality leaps in the development spiral of this activity were approached. Emphasis was made on the present situation and on the outlooks to guarantee the improvement of the normative and legal level of the Drug Control System.

  3. América Latina marginada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Drago

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La renovación en los países comunistas atrae la atención, el comercio, las inversiones y la ayuda de Estados Unidos, Japón y Europa Occidental. En una primera etapa, ello incidirá negativamente en las relaciones de ese continente con América Latina, es creciente y está en pleno proceso acelerado, la marginación del comercio exterior de la Comunidad Europea. Las inversiones directas no presentan perspectivas. Asegura que a esto se suma la invasión a Panamá, que fue interpretada como que las potencias llegaron a acuerdos en Malta para el reparto del mundo.Con la perestroika la situación de América Latina desmejoró notablemente.

  4. Legal verification of the dosimetric instrumentation using for radiation protection in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walwyn, A.; Morales, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    By April of 1998 the Decree law 183 of Metrology was published at the Gaceta Oficial de la Republica de Cuba. It establishes the principles and general regulations for the organisation and juridical system of the metrological activity in Cuba. In the radiation protection field this legislation promote the establishment of a verification service of radiation measuring instruments used in the practices with radiation sources in the country. The limitations of old Cuban standards of verification related to dosimetric quantities and to the types of instruments for those which these standards are applicable; and in addition, the publication of new international standards that includes the operational quantities used for the measurement of instruments, led to the elaboration of the X and Gamma Radiation Meters Used in Radiation Protection standard. The requirements of metrological aptitude are taken from some test procedures described in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards on photon monitoring equipment. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of the Centre for Radiation Protection and Higiene will start the verification service of Radiation Protection instruments. The beginning of the service is an essential element in the improvement of the accuracy of ionisation radiation metrology in Cuba, and have an evident impact in the protection of the occupationally exposed workers, because having the instruments in good technical condition became a legal exigency to the users of ionisation radiation

  5. Factors That Condition the Attitude Toward Living Related Kidney Donation Among Santiago of Cuba's Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; López-Navas, A I; Sánchez, Á; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ayala, M A; Garrido, G; Sebastián, M J; Ramis, G; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    Living kidney donation is currently the most important kidney donor source in Latin America, and it is necessary to further increase its rates. To analyze the attitude toward living kidney donation among the Santiago de Cuba's population and to determine the sociopersonal factors with which it is associated. The population over 15 years old residing in Santiago de Cuba, stratified by sex and age, was screened. The "PCID-LKD Ríos" attitude questionnaire toward living kidney donation was administered to a random selection of the people surveyed according to the stratification and the census data. The completion was anonymized and self-administered. Verbal consent was obtained. The study was completed by 445 people, of whom the 86% (n = 389) were in favor of living related kidney donation. This attitude is associated with the level of education (P donation (P = .006); attitude toward cadaveric organ donation (P donation (P = .001); religious beliefs (P = .001); and assessment of the risk of living kidney donation (P donation; (3) carrying out of prosocial activities; and (4) risk assessment of living donation. Living related donation is very well accepted among the Santiago de Cuba's population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Selective dissemination of health information: Bulletins of the National Medical Library of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Santana Arroyo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Medical Library of Cuba (BMN has the mission to ensure the provision of scientific and technology information to the community of professionals that make up the healthcare sector in the country, primarily the Ministry of Public Health, identified as prioritized user of BMN, in order to elevate the quality of care, research, management and teaching, as well as to encourage the finding of new solutions that enable to face health problems in Cuba and in the world. This article aims to describe the making process of the bulletins: Bibliomed, Bibliomed Supplemento, BiblioDir and Factográfico de Salud, which are offered by specialists from Selective Dissemination of Information Service that resides in the BMN area of Customer Service, in order to support the decision making of health managers of Cuba Ministry of Public Health. For this purpose, the paper details scope, content, sections, team responsibility, procedures for preparing and processing the bulletins. Most used sources of information and skills of staff are also presented. Such Informative scientific work strengthen BMN as a paradigm of the cuban medical libraries network, transforming the pattern of a traditional library into a modern library, characterized by an effective knowledge management and development processes in virtual environments.

  7. Salud pública y propiedad intelectual en Cuba: mapa conceptual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz García Delgado

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:El objetivo de este estudio es el análisis del marco legal de salud y propiedad intelectual en Cuba y su incidencia en las condiciones de acceso de la población a los recursos de salud y el papel de los diferentes actores sociales. METODOLOGÍA: Se utilizó la metodología desarrollada por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud para la ejecución del Proyecto Mapa Conceptual sobre Salud Pública y Propiedad Intelectual. RESULTADOS: La información recobrada en específico sobre el marco legal y su evolución en el tiempo en Cuba relacionado con el Sistema Nacional de Salud, el Sistema de Propiedad Intelectual y el fortalecimiento de la industria biofarmacéutica del país, fue procesada y analizada generando el Mapa Conceptual sobre Salud Pública y Propiedad Intelectual de Cuba. CONCLUSIONES: El análisis de la experiencia cubana en la adecuación de su marco legal y la evaluación de la interrelación de los actores sociales permite observar cómo la voluntad política existente a lo largo de varias décadas ha impactado de manera positiva en el acceso a la salud de la población.

  8. Adolescent fertility in Cuba: some reflections on its behavior by provinces and areas of residence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daylin Rodríguez Javiqué

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the adolescent fertility in Cuba during the period 2010-2014 and analyze its proximate determinants both nationally and by territory. Based on the data published in Demographic Yearbook, Studies and Data of the Population and birth databases of the National Bureau of Statistics and Information (ONEI, adolescent fertility rates in Cuba are calculated according to the groups 10-14 and 15-19, by province and area of residence. In addition, data on family formation, contraception and abortion of Cuban adolescents are shown. These elements could allow hypothesizing about the behavior of adolescent fertility in Cuba. The first important result is that fertility among 15-19 years group had a slight decrease in the period; however, the 10-14 years group has increased its level. On the other hand, the analysis by area of residence shows that urban fertility has gained prominence in the Cuban provinces, with an increase between 2010 and 2012 in more than half of them. Similarly, about a third of the provinces analyzed show higher levels of adolescent fertility in urban areas than in rural areas. High rates of abortion in adolescence, which exceeds fertility rates in ten provinces of the country; early onset of sexual intercourse and first marriage, and improper use of contraceptive methods, are elements worth looking into in order to find explanations to the reproductive behavior of Cuban adolescents.

  9. La imagen del turismo cultural en Cuba percibida por el mercado español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamilé Pérez Guilarte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El turismo cultural, percibido no solo como las visitas a sitios y monumentos históricos, sino ampliado al conocimiento de la forma de vida y tradiciones de las poblaciones locales, podría constituir una importante alternativa para Cuba. La presente investigación tiene como objetivos determinar si Cuba es apreciada como un destino cultural desde la perspectiva del mercado español e identificar cuáles son sus elementos distintivos. Por medio de un cuestionario realizado a 400 españoles, se evalúan los dos componentes de la imagen de un destino: el cognitivo y el afectivo. El estudio revela una preferencia por el turismo cultural y señala a la gente, la música, al Centro Histórico de La Habana y el estilo de vida como los elementos distintivos de Cuba. Estos resultados contribuyen a un diseño más efectivo de la promoción turística en el mercado español, aunque se recomienda ampliar el estudio a otros mercados potenciales.

  10. CUBA: socialismo de mercado ou planificação socialista?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Dias Carcanholo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuba, a small caribbean island, located a few kilometers from United States coast, insist on preserving socialism. During a catastrophic crisis that they had gone through between 1989-1993, the cubans have deepened the development of a long series of economic reforms as to answer to the new international scenery. Despite of crises depth, north american pressions, globalization advances and neoliberal policies, which have taken almost ali Latin American couritries to submit to american imperialism, Cuba has searched its replace in world system, protecting its sovereignty and going ahead with the struggle to socialism. The question is: up to which moment Cuba wili manage? In this article it is mainly discussed the market and the money roles and also the socialism planned role in the relorms developed in 1990 decade. We had evaluated which are the money and market functions that have helped in the planning and which are incompatible with socialists ideas. In doing so we will be abie to acquire a brief notion of which are the Iimits and difticulties of this transition period.

  11. Genomics as public health? Community genetics and the challenge of personalised medicine in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Sahra

    2009-08-01

    Making use of a comparative perspective on the emergence of 'breast cancer genetics' in the different cultural context of the UK and Cuba, this article examines the tensions between the modern promise of genomics as personalised medicine and a commitment to public health. Focusing primarily on the Cuba context and drawing on ethnographic research as part of a collaborative project working with genetic professionals and publics, the article examines the particular technologies, identities and socialities at stake in an emerging and evolving field of genetic medicine. It highlights how long-standing continuities in the commitment to the equitable provision of public health, particularly as this relates to 'family medicine', are central to understanding the scope and expansion of 'community genetics' interventions, even when at the level of local practice, public health is also now subject to the unequal dynamics of economic necessity through the working out of 'lo informal'. Illuminating the different ways agency, risk, responsibility, citizenship and activism get configured by and between publics and health professionals in Cuba, the article reveals the challenges and opportunities posed by predictive genomic medicine in relation to the dynamic and shifting terrain of public health.

  12. Cuba: transición, sucesión, estabilidad, seguridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín ROY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este análisis trata de la relación entre la estabilidad del presente gobierno cubano y la necesidad de seguridad en su territorio y en la zona circundante. Este vínculo se produce en un momento político de Cuba, entre un primer paso de la sucesión de Fidel Castro a Raúl, sin que se den señales claras de una transición hacia otro tipo de sistema político. Mientras tanto, el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha declarado que su prioridad estriba en el reestablecimiento de la democracia en Cuba, tanto durante el último periodo de la administración de George W. Bush como con Barack Obama ya asentado en la Casa Blanca. Sin embargo, las delicadas circunstancias de Cuba (precariedad económica, desastres naturales, dependencia alimentaria y energética, etc. señalan que la prioridad de los intereses nacionales de Estados Unidos se centran primero en la estabilidad del escenario. Incluso al precio del retraso de la evolución del régimen, un cierto grado de seguridad es necesario para enfrentarse a los riesgos de una emigración incontrolada y las hipotéticas tensiones internas que provoquen confrontaciones

  13. Current status of prenatal diagnosis in Cuba: causes of low prevalence of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Rosado, L A; Hechavarría-Estenoz, D; de la Torre, M E; Pimentel-Benitez, H; Hernández-Gil, J; Perez, B; Barrios-Martínez, A; Morales-Rodriguez, E; Soriano-Torres, M; Garcia, M; Suarez-Mayedo, U; Cedeño-Aparicio, N; Blanco, I; Díaz-Véliz, P; Vidal-Hernández, B; Mitjans-Torres, M; Miñoso, S; Alvarez-Espinosa, D; Reyes-Hernández, E; Angulo-Cebada, E; Torres-Palacios, M; Lozano-Lezcano, L; Lima-Rodriguez, U; Mayeta, M; Noblet, M; Benítez, Y; Lardoeyt-Ferrer, R; Yosela-Martin, S; Carbonell, P; Pérez-Ramos, M; de León, N; Perez, M; Carbonell, J

    2014-11-01

    To analyze trends in cytogenetic prenatal diagnosis in Cuba and to analyze possible causes leading to a low Down syndrome prevalence in a country where the triple test is not available. An analysis of the Cuban program in prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis from 1984 to 2012 was conducted. Results are described, with particular emphasis on indications, abnormal results, types of invasive procedures, and terminations of pregnancy. Cytogenetic prenatal diagnostic analyses (n = 75,095) were conducted; maternal age was the indication for 77.9% of the amniocenteses and chorionic villus samplings. The detection rate of chromosomally abnormal pregnancies was 2.3% for maternal age and increased to 8-9% for other indications. When a chromosomal abnormality was identified, 88.5% terminated the pregnancy. In 2002, the live birth prevalence of Down syndrome was 8.4 per 10,000 live births, and in 2012, 7 per 10,000. Prenatal diagnosis in Cuba has contributed to a significant reduction in chromosomal aberrations. The impact increased because of the demographic trends of the population, the high index of terminations of pregnancy, and the establishment of a network of cytogenetic laboratories throughout Cuba. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren: a study in Cuba and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D; D'Haese, Patrick C; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E; Díaz, Raquel Junco; Núñez, Fidel Angel; Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Doak, Colleen M; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Wieringa, Frank T; Polman, Katja

    2015-04-20

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  15. Newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia in Cuba: six years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ernesto Carlos; Carvajal, Frank; Frómeta, Amarilys; Arteaga, Ana Luisa; Castells, Elisa María; Espinosa, Tania; Coto, Remigio; Pérez, Pedro Lucio; Tejeda, Yileidis; Del Río, Lesley; Segura, Mary Triny; Almenares, Pedro; Robaina, René; Fernández, José Luis

    2013-06-05

    Since 2005, a newborn screening program for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) by measuring 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) in dried blood spots was introduced in Cuba. The hormone was measured by the 17OHP Neonatal UMELISA method, in samples collected on the 5th day as average. Confirmatory test was performed to those neonates with 17OHP values above 55 nmol/l. Some perinatal factors that can influence on 17OHP levels were studied. From January 2005 to December 2010, 621,303 newborns were screened and 39 CAH cases were detected. Coverage of the program reached 98%. The incidence of CAH in Cuba was 1:15,931, similar to that reported by other programs. A recall for suspected CAH was performed in 10,799 cases (1.74%). Therapy in classical CAH patients was started at the mean age of 22 days. 17OHP levels were significantly higher in newborns with lower birth-weight (BW) and/or gestational age (GA). In addition, 17OHP values were affected by the gender, twin status or mode of delivery. In Cuba, the nationwide newborn screening program has allowed the early detection of CAH. The use of an optimized cut-off level for BW or GA could lead to a reduction in the percentage of recalled babies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Paralisia facial periférica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jarjura Jorge Jr.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Os autores fazem uma revisão sobre o anatomo fisiologia, os diagnósticos clinico e eletrofisiológico da Paralisia Facial Periférica assim como relacionam as afecções envolvidas no processo, discutindo seu tratamento clinico e cirúrgico. Em seguida relatam 5 casos de diversas etiologias tratados no ambulatório de Paralisia Facial da Disciplina de Otorrinolaringologia da FCMB da PUC-SP.

  17. The Internationalization of SMEs in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Leiva Bonilla, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the internationalization process of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Costa Rica. Its ultimate goal is to draw conclusions that might enable the various stakeholders in the process (businesses, government, support agencies, and academia) to make decisions based on better information. To do this we will review the current status of this business sector, compare the patterns of internationalization identified in the theory with those experienced by Costa Rican ...

  18. Iberoamérica de los otros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Segawa

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available La llegada de Cristóbal Colón a nuestro continente representó el primer encuentro entre dos partes del mundo: Eurasia y África y las Américas. Hoy no es fácil que pensemos sobre la idea de Iberoamérica como el resultado de la confluencia de cinco siglos de interacciones mutuas. El concepto de Iberoamérica como región o identidad contrasta hoy con la fragmentación que viene caracterizando el difícil cotidiano de los antiguos bloques políticos como Yugoslavia, Checoslovaquia y la Unión Soviética. De manera simultánea, se constata la vigencia de una economía con tendencias a una nueva división internacional del trabajo, en busca de una rápida integración planetaria por medio de la consolidación de las estructuras empresariales mundiales, cuyo ajuste acelera la universalidad de la producción, distribución, acumulación y consumo de bienes materiales.

  19. macrosociales en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Martínez Pizarro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Luego de una década de intenso crecimiento de las remesas, cuya magnitud relativa es insoslayable en varios países, se evalúan sus posibles impactos macrosociales a nivel nacional en países de América Latina. Se presenta una breve alusión teórica al fenómeno de las remesas y se sintetizan las inquietudes que rodean a este fenómeno en la región: la estimación de su volumen, los costos de transferencia y las posibilidades para generar externalidades productivas en las áreas de recepción de estos recursos. Además, se pone atención en las asociaciones de migrantes que envían remesas colectivamente. Después se examinan sus impactos macrosociales contrastados con información empírica disponible sobre la pobreza, la distribución del ingreso y el gasto social en países seleccionados. Al hablar de “migración”, “remesas” y “desarrollo” conviene examinar científicamente esas relaciones con el bienestar y no únicamente emplear una visión optimista en función de su aumento y la magnitud absoluta y relativa que han alcanzado

  20. Perfil profesional del Licenciado en Farmacia de la Universidad de Oriente, Cuba Professional profile of the Bachelor of Pharmacy in Universidad de Oriente, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Leonor Ortega López

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Teniendo en cuenta la necesidad de un currículo que garantice una formación universitaria universal, contextual, flexible y comprometida con la realidad social y profesional, en el presente trabajo se diseñó el perfil profesional que caracterizará al egresado de la Licenciatura en Ciencias Farmacéuticas de la Universidad de Oriente, Cuba. Se utilizó para ello el Modelo de Actuación Profesional; se precisó el problema profesional, el objeto de la profesión y el objetivo profesional, y sobre la base del sentido articulador entre estas configuraciones se definieron los campos, esferas y modos de actuación, dejando explícito, además, los objetivos educativos e instructivos que se aspiran alcanzar.Taking into account the need of a curriculum assuring universal, contextual and flexible university formation that is committed to the social and professional realities of the country, the present paper designed the professional profile of the Pharmaceutical Sciences graduate in the University of Oriente, Cuba. To this end, the Professional Performance Model was used; the professional problem, the object of the profession and the professional objectives were defined. On the basis of the articulation of these configurations, the various fields, spheres and modes of performance were established, thus clearly stating the educational and learning objectives that are expected to be attained.