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Sample records for ribozyme branch domain

  1. A new RNA branching activity: the GIR1 ribozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, Steinar D

    2006-01-01

    The formation of lariat intermediates during the first step of splicing of group II introns and spliceosomal introns is a well-studied fundamental reaction in molecular biology. Apart from this prominent example, there are surprisingly few occurrences of branched nucleotides or even 2......',5'-phosphodiester bonds in biology. We recently described a new ribozyme, the GIR1 branching ribozyme, which catalyzes the formation of a tiny lariat that caps an mRNA. This new example together with work on artificial branching ribozymes and deoxyribozymes shows that branching is facile and points...... to the possibility that branching reactions could be more prevalent than previously recognized....

  2. A natural fast-cleaving branching ribozyme from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria pringsheimi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yunjia; Nielsen, Henrik; Birgisdottir, Asa Birna

    2011-01-01

    The GIR1 branching ribozyme constitutes a separate class of naturally occurring ribozymes. Most studies have been performed with the single GIR1 known from the myxomycete Didymium iridis whereas the large number of GIR1s found in the amoeboflagellate Naegleria has remained largely uncharacterized....... Here, we investigate ribozyme cleavage properties of a collection of Naegleria GIR1 ribozymes and define the variant from N. pringsheimi as a suitable model due to its superior activity in vitro. We identify the minimal ribozyme by deletion analysis applying a new RNase R based assay for the branching...

  3. Molecular modelling of the GIR1 branching ribozyme gives new insight into evolution of structurally related ribozymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckert, Bertrand Dominique; Nielsen, Henrik; Einvik, Christer

    2008-01-01

    a catalytic core showing a different topology from that of group I ribozymes. The differences include a core J8/7 region that has been reduced and is complemented by residues from the pre-lariat fold. These findings provide the basis for an evolutionary mechanism that accounts for the change from group I...... splicing ribozyme to the branching GIR1 architecture. Such an evolutionary mechanism can be applied to other large RNAs such as the ribonuclease P....

  4. Speciation of a group I intron into a lariat capping ribozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Mélanie; Nielsen, Henrik; Oliéric, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The lariat-capping (LC) ribozyme is a natural ribozyme isolated from eukaryotic microorganisms. Despite apparent structural similarity to group I introns, the LC ribozyme catalyzes cleavage by a 2',5' branching reaction, leaving the 3' product with a 3-nt lariat cap that functionally substitutes ....... The structures also show how conserved interactions twist residues, forming the lariat to join chemical groups involved in branching....

  5. A ribozyme transcribed by a ribozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Prominent current ideas on how life emerged on Earth include an RNA world hypothesis in which RNA performed informational as well as catalytic functions in the absence of both DNA and protein. Demonstration of a self-replicative system based on ribonucleic acid polymers as both information carriers...... and catalysts would lend support to such a scenario. A pivotal component of this system would be an RNA dependent RNA polymerase ribozyme capable of replicating its own RNA gene. Recent work from the Holliger group at the Laboratory for Molecular Biology in Cambridge has provided synthetic ribozymes1 that just...

  6. Probing adenine rings and backbone linkages using base specific isotope-edited Raman spectroscopy: application to group II intron ribozyme domain V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Eldho, Nadukkudy V; Dayie, T Kwaku; Carey, Paul R

    2010-04-27

    with the differences in hydration radii. These subtle differences in electrostatic interactions may be related to observed variations in catalytic activity. For a reconstructed ribozyme comprising domains 1-3 (D123) connected in cis plus domain 5 (D5) supplied in trans, cleavage of spliced exon substrates in the presence of magnesium and K(+) or Cs(+) is more efficient than that in the presence of magnesium with Na(+) or Li(+).

  7. Artificial hammerhead ribozymes: engineering and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobjeva, M A; Davydova, A S; Venyaminova, Aliya G

    2011-01-01

    The properties of hammerhead ribozymes are described. Various hammerhead ribozyme constructs for target RNA cleavage were considered. Approaches to enhancement of the stability of artificial ribozymes in biological media and to regulation of the catalytic activity of hammerhead ribozymes using effector molecules are described. The effect of ribozymes on extended structured natural RNAs is discussed. Applications of artificial hammerhead ribozymes as inhibitors of gene expression at matrix RNA level were considered.

  8. Engineering integrated digital circuits with allosteric ribozymes for scaling up molecular computation and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penchovsky, Robert

    2012-10-19

    Here we describe molecular implementations of integrated digital circuits, including a three-input AND logic gate, a two-input multiplexer, and 1-to-2 decoder using allosteric ribozymes. Furthermore, we demonstrate a multiplexer-decoder circuit. The ribozymes are designed to seek-and-destroy specific RNAs with a certain length by a fully computerized procedure. The algorithm can accurately predict one base substitution that alters the ribozyme's logic function. The ability to sense the length of RNA molecules enables single ribozymes to be used as platforms for multiple interactions. These ribozymes can work as integrated circuits with the functionality of up to five logic gates. The ribozyme design is universal since the allosteric and substrate domains can be altered to sense different RNAs. In addition, the ribozymes can specifically cleave RNA molecules with triplet-repeat expansions observed in genetic disorders such as oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. Therefore, the designer ribozymes can be employed for scaling up computing and diagnostic networks in the fields of molecular computing and diagnostics and RNA synthetic biology.

  9. Lanthanide Cofactors for Triphosphorylation Ribozymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, K. J.; Müller, U. F.

    2017-07-01

    RNA world organisms could have used trimetaphosphate as energy source for thermodynamically unfavorable RNA polymerization. Using in vitro selection we show here that Lanthanides can serve as cofactors for ribozyme-catalyzed RNA triphosphorylation.

  10. Advancing Polymerase Ribozymes Towards Self-Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjhung, K. F.; Joyce, G. F.

    2017-07-01

    Autocatalytic replication and evolution in vitro by (i) a cross-chiral RNA polymerase catalyzing polymerization of mononucleotides of the opposite handedness; (ii) non-covalent assembly of component fragments of an existing RNA polymerase ribozyme.

  11. Chemical fidelity of an RNA polymerase ribozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attwater, J.; Tagami, S.; Kimoto, M.

    2013-01-01

    for function. Here we have explored the chemical fidelity, i.e. substrate selectivity and specificity for both single and multiple catalytic steps of the Z RNA polymerase ribozyme-a modern day analogue of the primordial RNA replicase. Using a wide range of nucleotide analogues and ionic conditions, we observe......The emergence of catalytically active RNA enzymes (ribozymes) is widely believed to have been an important transition in the origin of life. In the context of a likely heterogeneous chemical environment, substrate specificity and selectivity of these primordial enzymes would have been critical...

  12. Loss of a highly conserved sterile alpha motif domain gene (WEEP) results in pendulous branch growth in peach trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollender, Courtney A; Pascal, Thierry; Tabb, Amy; Hadiarto, Toto; Srinivasan, Chinnathambi; Wang, Wanpeng; Liu, Zhongchi; Scorza, Ralph; Dardick, Chris

    2018-05-15

    Plant shoots typically grow upward in opposition to the pull of gravity. However, exceptions exist throughout the plant kingdom. Most conspicuous are trees with weeping or pendulous branches. While such trees have long been cultivated and appreciated for their ornamental value, the molecular basis behind the weeping habit is not known. Here, we characterized a weeping tree phenotype in Prunus persica (peach) and identified the underlying genetic mutation using a genomic sequencing approach. Weeping peach tree shoots exhibited a downward elliptical growth pattern and did not exhibit an upward bending in response to 90° reorientation. The causative allele was found to be an uncharacterized gene, Ppa013325 , having a 1.8-Kb deletion spanning the 5' end. This gene, dubbed WEEP , was predominantly expressed in phloem tissues and encodes a highly conserved 129-amino acid protein containing a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain. Silencing WEEP in the related tree species Prunus domestica (plum) resulted in more outward, downward, and wandering shoot orientations compared to standard trees, supporting a role for WEEP in directing lateral shoot growth in trees. This previously unknown regulator of branch orientation, which may also be a regulator of gravity perception or response, provides insights into our understanding of how tree branches grow in opposition to gravity and could serve as a critical target for manipulating tree architecture for improved tree shape in agricultural and horticulture applications. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  13. 3-D branching of magnetic domains on compressed si-fe steel with goss texture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perevertov, Oleksiy; Schaefer, R.; Stupakov, Oleksandr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 11 (2014), s. 2007804 ISSN 0018-9464 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G; GA ČR GA13-18993S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : grain-oriented silicon steel * Kerr microscopy * magnetic domains * stress Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.386, year: 2014

  14. Molecular characterization of a new member of the lariat capping twin-ribozyme introns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yunjia; Nielsen, Henrik; Masquida, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Twin-ribozyme introns represent a complex class of mobile group I introns that harbour a lariat capping (LC) ribozyme and a homing endonuclease gene embedded in a conventional self-splicing group I ribozyme (GIR2). Twin-ribozyme introns have so far been confined to nucleolar DNA in Na...

  15. Kinetic partitioning mechanism of HDV ribozyme folding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiawen; Gong, Sha; Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Wenbing, E-mail: wbzhang@whu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China)

    2014-01-14

    RNA folding kinetics is directly tied to RNA biological functions. We introduce here a new approach for predicting the folding kinetics of RNA secondary structure with pseudoknots. This approach is based on our previous established helix-based method for predicting the folding kinetics of RNA secondary structure. In this approach, the transition rates for an elementary step: (1) formation, (2) disruption of a helix stem, and (3) helix formation with concomitant partial melting of an incompatible helix, are calculated with the free energy landscape. The folding kinetics of the Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme and the mutated sequences are studied with this method. The folding pathways are identified by recursive searching the states with high net flux-in(out) population starting from the native state. The theory results are in good agreement with that of the experiments. The results indicate that the bi-phasic folding kinetics for the wt HDV sequence is ascribed to the kinetic partitioning mechanism: Part of the population will quickly fold to the native state along the fast pathway, while another part of the population will fold along the slow pathway, in which the population is trapped in a non-native state. Single mutation not only changes the folding rate but also the folding pathway.

  16. Structural studies on an internal loop from a hairpin ribozyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Z.; SantaLucia, J. Jr.; Tinoco, I. Jr. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Ribozymes, RNA enzymes, catalyze site-specific RNA cleavage and ligation reactions. We are studying the three-dimensional structure of a hairpin ribozyme derived from the minus strand of tobacco ring spot virus satellite RNA ((-)sTRSV), which has been engineering to specifically cleave the HIV-1 RNA. The minimum structure for the catalytic reaction involves a 50-nucleotide ribozyme and a 14-nucleotide substrate. The proposed secondary structure of the ribozyme-substrate complex consists of four short helices separated by two internal loops. The relatively large size (64-nucleotide) of the ribozyme-substrate complex presents formidable problems in solving the structure using NMR. Therefore we are studying smaller structural subunits of the complex. We are determining the high resolution structure of the symmetric internal loop involving the cleavage site and the flanking helices. One strand of the internal loop was selectively {sup 13}C-labeled at C8 of each purine and C6 of each pyrimidine. By using {sup 13}C-edited two-dimensional NMR, the proton NOESY spectrum was greatly simplified. This allowed unambiguous sequential proton resonance assignments along each strand. Three-dimensional {sup 1}-{sup 13}C HMQC-NOESY was used to further facilitate resonance assignments. We are also enzymatically synthesizing the entire 50-nucleotide ribozyme and will combine it with the {sup 13}C-labeled substrate. Through comparison of the NOE connectivities of the labeled nucleotides from the internal loop alone with those from the entire complex, the differences between the two structures can be elucidated.

  17. Ionic interactions and the global conformations of the hammerhead ribozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassi, G S; Møllegaard, N E; Murchie, A I

    1995-01-01

    Here we investigate the global conformation of the hammerhead ribozyme. Electrophoretic studies demonstrate that the structure is folded in response to the concentration and type of ions present. Folding based on colinear alignment of arms II and III is suggested, with a variable angle subtended ...

  18. Stalking the fourth domain in metagenomic data: searching for, discovering, and interpreting novel, deep branches in marker gene phylogenetic trees.

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    Dongying Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most of our knowledge about the ancient evolutionary history of organisms has been derived from data associated with specific known organisms (i.e., organisms that we can study directly such as plants, metazoans, and culturable microbes. Recently, however, a new source of data for such studies has arrived: DNA sequence data generated directly from environmental samples. Such metagenomic data has enormous potential in a variety of areas including, as we argue here, in studies of very early events in the evolution of gene families and of species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed and implemented new methods for analyzing metagenomic data and used them to search the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS expedition data set for novel lineages in three gene families commonly used in phylogenetic studies of known and unknown organisms: small subunit rRNA and the recA and rpoB superfamilies. Though the methods available could not accurately identify very deeply branched ss-rRNAs (largely due to difficulties in making robust sequence alignments for novel rRNA fragments, our analysis revealed the existence of multiple novel branches in the recA and rpoB gene families. Analysis of available sequence data likely from the same genomes as these novel recA and rpoB homologs was then used to further characterize the possible organismal source of the novel sequences. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Of the novel recA and rpoB homologs identified in the metagenomic data, some likely come from uncharacterized viruses while others may represent ancient paralogs not yet seen in any cultured organism. A third possibility is that some come from novel cellular lineages that are only distantly related to any organisms for which sequence data is currently available. If there exist any major, but so-far-undiscovered, deeply branching lineages in the tree of life, we suggest that methods such as those described herein currently offer the best way to search for them.

  19. Investigation of retinal morphology alterations using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in a mouse model of retinal branch and central retinal vein occlusion.

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    Andreas Ebneter

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion is a leading cause of visual impairment. Experimental models of this condition based on laser photocoagulation of retinal veins have been described and extensively exploited in mammals and larger rodents such as the rat. However, few reports exist on the use of this paradigm in the mouse. The objective of this study was to investigate a model of branch and central retinal vein occlusion in the mouse and characterize in vivo longitudinal retinal morphology alterations using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Retinal veins were experimentally occluded using laser photocoagulation after intravenous application of Rose Bengal, a photo-activator dye enhancing thrombus formation. Depending on the number of veins occluded, variable amounts of capillary dropout were seen on fluorescein angiography. Vascular endothelial growth factor levels were markedly elevated early and peaked at day one. Retinal thickness measurements with spectral domain optical coherence tomography showed significant swelling (p<0.001 compared to baseline, followed by gradual thinning plateauing two weeks after the experimental intervention (p<0.001. Histological findings at day seven correlated with spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging. The inner layers were predominantly affected by degeneration with the outer nuclear layer and the photoreceptor outer segments largely preserved. The application of this retinal vein occlusion model in the mouse carries several advantages over its use in other larger species, such as access to a vast range of genetically modified animals. Retinal changes after experimental retinal vein occlusion in this mouse model can be non-invasively quantified by spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and may be used to monitor effects of potential therapeutic interventions.

  20. Many Activities, One Structure: Functional Plasticity of Ribozyme Folds

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    Matthew W.L. Lau

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic RNAs, or ribozymes, are involved in a number of essential biological processes, such as replication of RNA genomes and mobile genetic elements, RNA splicing, translation, and RNA degradation. The function of ribozymes requires the formation of active sites decorated with RNA functional groups within defined three-dimensional (3D structures. The genotype (sequence of RNAs ultimately determines what 3D structures they adopt (as a function of their environmental conditions. These 3D structures, in turn, give rise to biochemical activity, which can further elaborate them by catalytic rearrangements or association with other molecules. The fitness landscape of a non-periodic linear polymer, such as RNA, relates its primary structure to a phenotype. Two major challenges in the analysis of ribozymes is to map all possible genotypes to their corresponding catalytic activity (that is, to determine their fitness landscape experimentally, and to understand whether their genotypes and three-dimensional structures can support multiple different catalytic functions. Recently, the combined results of experiments that employ in vitro evolution methods, high-throughput sequencing and crystallographic structure determination have hinted at answers to these two questions: while the fitness landscape of ribozymes is rugged, meaning that their catalytic activity cannot be optimized by a smooth trajectory in sequence space, once an RNA achieves a stable three-dimensional fold, it can be endowed with distinctly different biochemical activities through small changes in genotype. This functional plasticity of highly structured RNAs may be particularly advantageous for the adaptation of organisms to drastic changes in selective pressure, or for the development of new biotechnological tools.

  1. Local neutral networks help maintain inaccurately replicating ribozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, András; Kun, Ádám; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2014-01-01

    The error threshold of replication limits the selectively maintainable genome size against recurrent deleterious mutations for most fitness landscapes. In the context of RNA replication a distinction between the genotypic and the phenotypic error threshold has been made; where the latter concerns the maintenance of secondary structure rather than sequence. RNA secondary structure is treated as a proxy for function. The phenotypic error threshold allows higher per digit mutation rates than its genotypic counterpart, and is known to increase with the frequency of neutral mutations in sequence space. Here we show that the degree of neutrality, i.e. the frequency of nearest-neighbour (one-step) neutral mutants is a remarkably accurate proxy for the overall frequency of such mutants in an experimentally verifiable formula for the phenotypic error threshold; this we achieve by the full numerical solution for the concentration of all sequences in mutation-selection balance up to length 16. We reinforce our previous result that currently known ribozymes could be selectively maintained by the accuracy known from the best available polymerase ribozymes. Furthermore, we show that in silico stabilizing selection can increase the mutational robustness of ribozymes due to the fact that they were produced by artificial directional selection in the first place. Our finding offers a better understanding of the error threshold and provides further insight into the plausibility of an ancient RNA world.

  2. Prebiotic Factors Influencing the Activity of a Ligase Ribozyme

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    Fabrizio Anella

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An RNA-lipid origin of life scenario provides a plausible route for compartmentalized replication of an informational polymer and subsequent division of the container. However, a full narrative to form such RNA protocells implies that catalytic RNA molecules, called ribozymes, can operate in the presence of self-assembled vesicles composed of prebiotically relevant constituents, such as fatty acids. Hereby, we subjected a newly engineered truncated variant of the L1 ligase ribozyme, named tL1, to various environmental conditions that may have prevailed on the early Earth with the objective to find a set of control parameters enabling both tL1-catalyzed ligation and formation of stable myristoleic acid (MA vesicles. The separate and concurrent effects of temperature, concentrations of Mg2+, MA, polyethylene glycol and various solutes were investigated. The most favorable condition tested consists of 100 mM NaCl, 1 mM Mg2+, 5 mM MA, and 4 °C temperature, whereas the addition of Mg2+-chelating solutes, such as citrate, tRNAs, aspartic acid, and nucleoside triphosphates severely inhibits the reaction. These results further solidify the RNA-lipid world hypothesis and stress the importance of using a systems chemistry approach whereby a wide range of prebiotic factors interfacing with ribozymes are considered.

  3. Mapping the Chemical Space of the RNA Cleavage and Its Implications for Ribozyme Catalysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mlýnský, V.; Kührová, P.; Jurečka, P.; Šponer, Jiří; Otyepka, M.; Banáš, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 48 (2017), s. 10828-10840 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/12/1878 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : delta-virus ribozyme * self-cleaving ribozymes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.177, year: 2016

  4. Structural and Thermodynamic Basis for Weak Interactions between Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase and Subunit-binding Domain of the Branched-chain [alpha]-Ketoacid Dehydrogenase Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brautigam, Chad A.; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, Jacinta L.; Naik, Mandar T.; Young, Brittany B.; Huang, Tai-huang; Chuang, David T. (AS); (UTSMC)

    2012-02-27

    The purified mammalian branched-chain {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), which catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain {alpha}-keto acids, is essentially devoid of the constituent dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component (E3). The absence of E3 is associated with the low affinity of the subunit-binding domain of human BCKDC (hSBDb) for hE3. In this work, sequence alignments of hSBDb with the E3-binding domain (E3BD) of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex show that hSBDb has an arginine at position 118, where E3BD features an asparagine. Substitution of Arg-118 with an asparagine increases the binding affinity of the R118N hSBDb variant (designated hSBDb*) for hE3 by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. The enthalpy of the binding reaction changes from endothermic with the wild-type hSBDb to exothermic with the hSBDb* variant. This higher affinity interaction allowed the determination of the crystal structure of the hE3/hSBDb* complex to 2.4-{angstrom} resolution. The structure showed that the presence of Arg-118 poses a unique, possibly steric and/or electrostatic incompatibility that could impede E3 interactions with the wild-type hSBDb. Compared with the E3/E3BD structure, the hE3/hSBDb* structure has a smaller interfacial area. Solution NMR data corroborated the interactions of hE3 with Arg-118 and Asn-118 in wild-type hSBDb and mutant hSBDb*, respectively. The NMR results also showed that the interface between hSBDb and hE3 does not change significantly from hSBDb to hSBDb*. Taken together, our results represent a starting point for explaining the long standing enigma that the E2b core of the BCKDC binds E3 far more weakly relative to other {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes.

  5. Generation and Development of RNA Ligase Ribozymes with Modular Architecture Through “Design and Selection”

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    Yuki Fujita

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In vitro selection with long random RNA libraries has been used as a powerful method to generate novel functional RNAs, although it often requires laborious structural analysis of isolated RNA molecules. Rational RNA design is an attractive alternative to avoid this laborious step, but rational design of catalytic modules is still a challenging task. A hybrid strategy of in vitro selection and rational design has been proposed. With this strategy termed “design and selection,” new ribozymes can be generated through installation of catalytic modules onto RNA scaffolds with defined 3D structures. This approach, the concept of which was inspired by the modular architecture of naturally occurring ribozymes, allows prediction of the overall architectures of the resulting ribozymes, and the structural modularity of the resulting ribozymes allows modification of their structures and functions. In this review, we summarize the design, generation, properties, and engineering of four classes of ligase ribozyme generated by design and selection.

  6. Pressure modulates the self-cleavage step of the hairpin ribozyme

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    Schuabb, Caroline; Kumar, Narendra; Pataraia, Salome; Marx, Dominik; Winter, Roland

    2017-03-01

    The ability of certain RNAs, denoted as ribozymes, to not only store genetic information but also catalyse chemical reactions gave support to the RNA world hypothesis as a putative step in the development of early life on Earth. This, however, might have evolved under extreme environmental conditions, including the deep sea with pressures in the kbar regime. Here we study pressure-induced effects on the self-cleavage of hairpin ribozyme by following structural changes in real-time. Our results suggest that compression of the ribozyme leads to an accelerated transesterification reaction, being the self-cleavage step, although the overall process is retarded in the high-pressure regime. The results reveal that favourable interactions between the reaction site and neighbouring nucleobases are strengthened under pressure, resulting therefore in an accelerated self-cleavage step upon compression. These results suggest that properly engineered ribozymes may also act as piezophilic biocatalysts in addition to their hitherto known properties.

  7. Folding of the natural hammerhead ribozyme is enhanced by interaction of auxiliary elements

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    PENEDO, J. CARLOS; WILSON, TIMOTHY J.; JAYASENA, SUMEDHA D.; KHVOROVA, ANASTASIA; LILLEY, DAVID M.J.

    2004-01-01

    It has been shown that the activity of the hammerhead ribozyme at μM magnesium ion concentrations is markedly increased by the inclusion of loops in helices I and II. We have studied the effect of such loops on the magnesium ion-induced folding of the ribozyme, using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. We find that with the loops in place, folding into the active conformation occurs in a single step, in the μM range of magnesium ion concentration. Disruption of the loop–loop interaction leads to a reversion to two-step folding, with the second stage requiring mM concentrations of magnesium ion. Sodium ions also promote the folding of the natural form of the ribozyme at high concentrations, but the folding occurs as a two-stage process. The loops clearly act as important auxiliary elements in the function of the ribozyme, permitting folding to occur efficiently under physiological conditions. PMID:15100442

  8. A four-way junction accelerates hairpin ribozyme folding via a discrete intermediate

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    Tan, Elliot; Wilson, Timothy J.; Nahas, Michelle K.; Clegg, Robert M.; Lilley, David M. J.; Ha, Taekjip

    2003-01-01

    The natural form of the hairpin ribozyme comprises two major structural elements: a four-way RNA junction and two internal loops carried by adjacent arms of the junction. The ribozyme folds into its active conformation by an intimate association between the loops, and the efficiency of this process is greatly enhanced by the presence of the junction. We have used single-molecule spectroscopy to show that the natural form fluctuates among three distinct states: the folded state and two additional, rapidly interconverting states (proximal and distal) that are inherited from the junction. The proximal state juxtaposes the two loop elements, thereby increasing the probability of their interaction and thus accelerating folding by nearly three orders of magnitude and allowing the ribozyme to fold rapidly in physiological conditions. Therefore, the hairpin ribozyme exploits the dynamics of the junction to facilitate the formation of the active site from its other elements. Dynamic interplay between structural elements, as we demonstrate for the hairpin ribozyme, may be a general theme for other functional RNA molecules. PMID:12883002

  9. Capturing hammerhead ribozyme structures in action by modulating general base catalysis.

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    Young-In Chi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We have obtained precatalytic (enzyme-substrate complex and postcatalytic (enzyme-product complex crystal structures of an active full-length hammerhead RNA that cleaves in the crystal. Using the natural satellite tobacco ringspot virus hammerhead RNA sequence, the self-cleavage reaction was modulated by substituting the general base of the ribozyme, G12, with A12, a purine variant with a much lower pKa that does not significantly perturb the ribozyme's atomic structure. The active, but slowly cleaving, ribozyme thus permitted isolation of enzyme-substrate and enzyme-product complexes without modifying the nucleophile or leaving group of the cleavage reaction, nor any other aspect of the substrate. The predissociation enzyme-product complex structure reveals RNA and metal ion interactions potentially relevant to transition-state stabilization that are absent in precatalytic structures.

  10. Two Divalent Metal Ions and Conformational Changes Play Roles in the Hammerhead Ribozyme Cleavage Reaction

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    Mir, Aamir; Chen, Ji; Robinson, Kyle; Lendy, Emma; Goodman, Jaclyn; Neau, David; Golden, Barbara L.

    2016-01-01

    The hammerhead ribozyme is a self-cleaving RNA broadly dispersed across all kingdoms of life. Although it was the first of the small, nucleolytic ribozymes discovered, the mechanism by which it catalyzes its reaction remains elusive. The nucleobase of G12 is well positioned to be a general base, but it is unclear if or how this guanine base becomes activated for proton transfer. Metal ions have been implicated in the chemical mechanism, but no interactions between divalent metal ions and the cleavage site have been observed crystallographically. To better understand how this ribozyme functions, we have solved crystal structures of wild-type and G12A mutant ribozymes. We observe a pH-dependent conformational change centered around G12, consistent with this nucleotide becoming deprotonated. Crystallographic and kinetic analysis of the G12A mutant reveals a Zn2+ specificity switch suggesting a direct interaction between a divalent metal ion and the purine at position 12. The metal ion specificity switch and the pH–rate profile of the G12A mutant suggest that the minor imino tautomer of A12 serves as the general base in the mutant ribozyme. We propose a model in which the hammerhead ribozyme rearranges prior to the cleavage reaction, positioning two divalent metal ions in the process. The first metal ion, positioned near G12, becomes directly coordinated to the O6 keto oxygen, to lower the pKa of the general base and organize the active site. The second metal ion, positioned near G10.1, bridges the N7 of G10.1 and the scissile phosphate and may participate directly in the cleavage reaction. PMID:26398724

  11. The glmS ribozyme cofactor is a general acid-base catalyst.

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    Viladoms, Júlia; Fedor, Martha J

    2012-11-21

    The glmS ribozyme is the first natural self-cleaving ribozyme known to require a cofactor. The d-glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P) cofactor has been proposed to serve as a general acid, but its role in the catalytic mechanism has not been established conclusively. We surveyed GlcN6P-like molecules for their ability to support self-cleavage of the glmS ribozyme and found a strong correlation between the pH dependence of the cleavage reaction and the intrinsic acidity of the cofactors. For cofactors with low binding affinities, the contribution to rate enhancement was proportional to their intrinsic acidity. This linear free-energy relationship between cofactor efficiency and acid dissociation constants is consistent with a mechanism in which the cofactors participate directly in the reaction as general acid-base catalysts. A high value for the Brønsted coefficient (β ~ 0.7) indicates that a significant amount of proton transfer has already occurred in the transition state. The glmS ribozyme is the first self-cleaving RNA to use an exogenous acid-base catalyst.

  12. Ribozyme Activity of RNA Nonenzymatically Polymerized from 3 ',5 '-Cyclic GMP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pino, S.; Costanzo, G.; Giorgi, A.; Šponer, Jiří; Šponer, Judit E.; Di Mauro, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 12 (2013), s. 5362-5383 ISSN 1099-4300 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/10/2302; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : RNA polymerization * RNA origin * ribozymes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.564, year: 2013

  13. Wobble pairs of the HDV ribozyme play specific roles in stabilization of active site dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sripathi, K.N.; Banáš, P.; Réblová, K.; Šponer, Jiří; Otyepka, M.; Walter, Nils G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 8 (2015), s. 5887-5900 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/12/1878 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : HEPATITIS -DELTA-VIRUS * SELF-CLEAVING RIBOZYMES * ACID-BASE CATALYSIS Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.449, year: 2015

  14. A novel strategy for selection of allosteric ribozymes yields RiboReporter™ sensors for caffeine and aspartame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alicia; Boomer, Ryan M.; Kurz, Markus; Keene, Sara C.; Diener, John L.; Keefe, Anthony D.; Wilson, Charles; Cload, Sharon T.

    2004-01-01

    We have utilized in vitro selection technology to develop allosteric ribozyme sensors that are specific for the small molecule analytes caffeine or aspartame. Caffeine- or aspartame-responsive ribozymes were converted into fluorescence-based RiboReporter™ sensor systems that were able to detect caffeine or aspartame in solution over a concentration range from 0.5 to 5 mM. With read-times as short as 5 min, these caffeine- or aspartame-dependent ribozymes function as highly specific and facile molecular sensors. Interestingly, successful isolation of allosteric ribozymes for the analytes described here was enabled by a novel selection strategy that incorporated elements of both modular design and activity-based selection methods typically used for generation of catalytic nucleic acids. PMID:15026535

  15. Targeted cleavage of hepatitis E virus 3' end RNA mediated by hammerhead ribozymes inhibits viral RNA replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, Bandi; Thakral, Deepshi; Panda, Subrat Kumar

    2003-01-01

    The 3' end of hepatitis E virus (HEV) contains cis-acting regulatory element, which plays an important role in viral replication. To develop specific replication inhibitor at the molecular level, mono- and di-hammerhead ribozymes (Rz) were designed and synthesized against the conserved 3' end sequences of HEV, which cleave at nucleotide positions 7125 and 7112/7125, respectively. Di-hammerhead ribozyme with two catalytic motifs in tandem was designed to cleave simultaneously at two sites spaced 13 nucleotides apart, which increases the overall cleavage efficiency and prevents the development of escape mutants. Specific cleavage products were obtained with both the ribozymes in vitro at physiological conditions. The inactive control ribozymes showed no cleavage. The ribozymes showed specific inhibition of HEV 3' end fused-luciferase reporter gene expression by ∼37 and ∼60%, respectively in HepG2 cells. These results demonstrate a feasible approach to inhibit the HEV replication to a limited extent by targeting the cis-acting 3' end of HEV with hammerhead ribozymes

  16. Disparate HDV ribozyme crystal structures represent intermediates on a rugged free-energy landscape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sripathi, K.N.; Tay, W.W.; Banáš, P.; Otyepka, M.; Šponer, Jiří; Walter, N. G.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 7 (2014), s. 1112-1128 ISSN 1355-8382 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1878 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : time-resolved FRET * steady-state FRET * small ribozyme Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.936, year: 2014

  17. Hammerhead ribozyme activity and oligonucleotide duplex stability in mixed solutions of water and organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-ichi Nakano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acids are useful for biomedical targeting and sensing applications in which the molecular environment is different from that of a dilute aqueous solution. In this study, the influence of various types of mixed solutions of water and water-soluble organic compounds on RNA was investigated by measuring the catalytic activity of the hammerhead ribozyme and the thermodynamic stability of an oligonucleotide duplex. The compounds with a net neutral charge, such as poly(ethylene glycol, small primary alcohols, amide compounds, and aprotic solvent molecules, added at high concentrations changed the ribozyme-catalyzed RNA cleavage rate, with the magnitude of the effect dependent on the NaCl concentration. These compounds also changed the thermodynamic stability of RNA base pairs of an oligonucleotide duplex and its dependence on the NaCl concentration. Specific interactions with RNA molecules and reduced water activity could account for the inhibiting effects on the ribozyme catalysis and destabilizing effects on the duplex stability. The salt concentration dependence data correlated with the dielectric constant, but not with water activity, viscosity, and the size of organic compounds. This observation suggests the significance of the dielectric constant effects on the RNA reactions under molecular crowding conditions created by organic compounds.

  18. Thermodynamics and kinetics of RNA tertiary structure formation in the junctionless hairpin ribozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Neil A; Hoogstraten, Charles G

    2017-09-01

    The hairpin ribozyme consists of two RNA internal loops that interact to form the catalytically active structure. This docking transition is a rare example of intermolecular formation of RNA tertiary structure without coupling to helix annealing. We have used temperature-dependent surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to characterize the thermodynamics and kinetics of RNA tertiary structure formation for the junctionless form of the ribozyme, in which loops A and B reside on separate molecules. We find docking to be strongly enthalpy-driven and to be accompanied by substantial activation barriers for association and dissociation, consistent with the structural reorganization of both internal loops upon complex formation. Comparisons with the parallel analysis of a ribozyme variant carrying a 2'-O-methyl modification at the self-cleavage site and with published data in other systems reveal a surprising diversity of thermodynamic signatures, emphasizing the delicate balance of contributions to the free energy of formation of RNA tertiary structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An anti-VEGF ribozyme embedded within the adenoviral VAI sequence inhibits glioblastoma cell angiogenic potential in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafrè, Silvia Anna; Niola, Francesco; Wannenes, Francesca; Farace, Maria Giulia

    2004-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in tumor angiogenesis, where it functions as one of the major angiogenic factors sustaining growth and draining catabolites. In this study, we developed an anti-VEGF ribozyme targeted to the 5' part of human VEGF mRNA. We endowed this ribozyme with an additional feature expected to improve its activity in vivo, by cloning it into a VAI transcriptional cassette. VAI is originally part of the adenovirus genome, and is characterized by high transcription rates, good stability due to its strong secondary structure and cytoplasmic localization. Transfection of U87 human glioblastoma cells with plasmid vectors encoding for this ribozyme resulted in a strong (-56%) reduction of VEGF secreted in the extracellular medium, indicating a good biological activity of the ribozyme. Moreover, this reduction in VEGF secretion had the important functional consequence of drastically diminishing the formation of tube-like structures of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells in a Matrigel in vitro angiogenesis assay. In conclusion, our VAI-embedded anti-VEGF ribozyme is a good inhibitor of angiogenesis in vitro, in a glioblastoma cell context. Thus, it may represent a useful tool for future applications in vivo, for antiangiogenic gene therapy of glioblastoma and of highly vascularized tumors. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. DiGIR1 and NaGIR1: naturally occurring group I-like ribozymes with unique core organization and evolved biological role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steinar; Einvik, Christer; Nielsen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    introns (twin-ribozyme introns) in distantly related organisms. The Didymium GIR1 (DiGIR1) and Naegleria GIR1 (NaGIR1) share fundamental features in structural organization and reactivity, and display significant differences when compared to the related group I splicing ribozymes. GIR1 lacks...

  1. Ribozyme Mediated gRNA Generation for In Vitro and In Vivo CRISPR/Cas9 Mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond Teck Ho; Ng, Ashley Shu Mei; Ingham, Philip W

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 is now regularly used for targeted mutagenesis in a wide variety of systems. Here we report the use of ribozymes for the generation of gRNAs both in vitro and in zebrafish embryos. We show that incorporation of ribozymes increases the types of promoters and number of target sites available for mutagenesis without compromising mutagenesis efficiency. We have tested this by comparing the efficiency of mutagenesis of gRNA constructs with and without ribozymes and also generated a transgenic zebrafish expressing gRNA using a heat shock promoter (RNA polymerase II-dependent promoter) that was able to induce mutagenesis of its target. Our method provides a streamlined approach to test gRNA efficiency as well as increasing the versatility of conditional gene knock out in zebrafish.

  2. Group I-like ribozymes with a novel core organization perform obligate sequential hydrolytic cleavages at two processing sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einvik, C; Nielsen, Henrik; Westhof, E

    1998-01-01

    A new category of self-splicing group I introns with conserved structural organization and function is found among the eukaryotic microorganisms Didymium and Naegleria. These complex rDNA introns contain two distinct ribozymes with different functions: a regular group I splicing...... available GIR1 sequences and propose a common RNA secondary structure resembling that of group I splicing-ribozymes, but with some important differences. The GIR1s lack most peripheral sequence components, as well as a P1 segment, and, at approximately 160-190 nt, they are the smallest functional group I...... ribozymes known from nature. All GIR1s were found to contain a novel 6-bp pseudoknot (P15) within their catalytic core region. Experimental support of the proposed structure was obtained from the Didymium GIR1 by RNA structure probing and site-directed mutagenesis. Three-dimensional modeling indicates...

  3. Competition Between Co(NH3)63+ and Inner Sphere Mg2+ Ions in the HDV Ribozyme

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Bo; Chen, Jui-Hui; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Golden, Barbara L.; Carey, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    Divalent cations play critical structural and functional roles in many RNAs. While the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme can undergo self-cleavage in the presence of molar concentrations of monovalent cations, divalent cations such as Mg2+ are required for efficient catalysis under physiological conditions. Moreover, the cleavage reaction can be inhibited with Co(NH3)63+, an analog of Mg(H2O)62+. Here, the binding of Mg2+ and Co(NH3)63+ to the HDV ribozyme are studied by Raman microscopic ...

  4. Compaction of a Bacterial Group I Ribozyme Coincides with the Assembly of Core Helices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Salas, U.; Rangan, P.; Krueger, S.; Briber, R.; Thirumalai, D.; Woodson, S.

    2004-01-01

    Counterions are critical to the self-assembly of RNA tertiary structure because they neutralize the large electrostatic forces which oppose the folding process. Changes in the size and shape of the Azoarcus group I ribozyme as a function of Mg 2+ and Na + concentration were followed by small angle neutron scattering. In low salt buffer, the RNA was expanded, with an average radius of gyration (R g ) of 53 ± 1 Angstroms. A highly cooperative transition to a compact form (R g = 31.5 ± 0.5 Angstroms) was observed between 1.6 and 1.7 mM MgCl 2 . The collapse transition, which is unusually sharp in Mg 2+ , has the characteristics of a first-order phase transition. Partial digestion with ribonuclease T1 under identical conditions showed that this transition correlated with the assembly of double helices in the ribozyme core. Fivefold higher Mg 2+ concentrations were required for self-splicing, indicating that compaction occurs before native tertiary interactions are fully stabilized. No further decrease in Rg was observed between 1.7 and 20 mM MgCl 2 , indicating that the intermediates have the same dimensions as the native ribozyme, within the uncertainty of the data (± 1 Angstroms). A more gradual transition to a final R g of approximately 33.5 Angstroms was observed between 0.45 and 2 M NaCl. This confirms the expectation that monovalent ions not only are less efficient in charge neutralization but also contract the RNA less efficiently than multivalent ions

  5. Stereospecificity of oligonucleotide interactions revisited: no evidence for heterochiral hybridization and ribozyme/DNAzyme activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Hoehlig

    Full Text Available A major challenge for the application of RNA- or DNA-oligonucleotides in biotechnology and molecular medicine is their susceptibility to abundant nucleases. One intriguing possibility to tackle this problem is the use of mirror-image (l-oligonucleotides. For aptamers, this concept has successfully been applied to even develop therapeutic agents, so-called Spiegelmers. However, for technologies depending on RNA/RNA or RNA/DNA hybridization, like antisense or RNA interference, it has not been possible to use mirror-image oligonucleotides because Watson-Crick base pairing of complementary strands is (thought to be stereospecific. Many scientists consider this a general principle if not a dogma. A recent publication proposing heterochiral Watson-Crick base pairing and sequence-specific hydrolysis of natural RNA by mirror-image ribozymes or DNAzymes (and vice versa prompted us to systematically revisit the stereospecificity of oligonucleotides hybridization and catalytic activity. Using hyperchromicity measurements we demonstrate that hybridization only occurs among homochiral anti-parallel complementary oligonucleotide strands. As expected, achiral PNA hybridizes to RNA and DNA irrespective of their chirality. In functional assays we could not confirm an alleged heterochiral hydrolytic activity of ribozymes or DNAzymes. Our results confirm a strict stereospecificity of oligonucleotide hybridization and clearly argue against the possibility to use mirror-image oligonucleotides for gene silencing or antisense applications.

  6. Heat capacity changes in RNA folding: application of perturbation theory to hammerhead ribozyme cold denaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulecky, Peter J; Feig, Andrew L

    2004-01-01

    In proteins, empirical correlations have shown that changes in heat capacity (DeltaC(P)) scale linearly with the hydrophobic surface area buried upon folding. The influence of DeltaC(P) on RNA folding has been widely overlooked and is poorly understood. In addition to considerations of solvent reorganization, electrostatic effects might contribute to DeltaC(P)s of folding in polyanionic species such as RNAs. Here, we employ a perturbation method based on electrostatic theory to probe the hot and cold denaturation behavior of the hammerhead ribozyme. This treatment avoids much of the error associated with imposing two-state folding models on non-two-state systems. Ribozyme stability is perturbed across a matrix of solvent conditions by varying the concentration of NaCl and methanol co-solvent. Temperature-dependent unfolding is then monitored by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The resulting array of unfolding transitions can be used to calculate a DeltaC(P) of folding that accurately predicts the observed cold denaturation temperature. We confirm the accuracy of the calculated DeltaC(P) by using isothermal titration calorimetry, and also demonstrate a methanol-dependence of the DeltaC(P). We weigh the strengths and limitations of this method for determining DeltaC(P) values. Finally, we discuss the data in light of the physical origins of the DeltaC(P)s for RNA folding and consider their impact on biological function.

  7. The influence of junction conformation on RNA cleavage by the hairpin ribozyme in its natural junction form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, J B; Lilley, D M

    1999-01-01

    In the natural form of the hairpin ribozyme the two loop-carrying duplexes that comprise the majority of essential bases for activity form two adjacent helical arms of a four-way RNA junction. In the present work we have manipulated the sequence around the junction in a way known to perturb the global folding properties. We find that replacement of the junction by a different sequence that has the same conformational properties as the natural sequence gives closely similar reaction rate and Arrhenius activation energy for the substrate cleavage reaction. By comparison, rotation of the natural sequence in order to alter the three-dimensional folding of the ribozyme leads to a tenfold reduction in the kinetics of cleavage. Replacement with the U1 four-way junction that is resistant to rotation into the antiparallel structure required to allow interaction between the loops also gives a tenfold reduction in cleavage rate. The results indicate that the conformation of the junction has a major influence on the catalytic activity of the ribozyme. The results are all consistent with a role for the junction in the provision of a framework by which the loops are presented for interaction in order to create the active form of the ribozyme. PMID:10024170

  8. Complexity in pH-Dependent Ribozyme Kinetics: Dark pKa Shifts and Wavy Rate-pH Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Erica A; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2018-02-06

    Charged bases occur in RNA enzymes, or ribozymes, where they play key roles in catalysis. Cationic bases donate protons and perform electrostatic catalysis, while anionic bases accept protons. We previously published simulations of rate-pH profiles for ribozymes in terms of species plots for the general acid and general base that have been useful for understanding how ribozymes respond to pH. In that study, we did not consider interaction between the general acid and general base or interaction with other species on the RNA. Since that report, diverse small ribozyme classes have been discovered, many of which have charged nucleobases or metal ions in the active site that can either directly interact and participate in catalysis or indirectly interact as "influencers". Herein, we simulate experimental rate-pH profiles in terms of species plots in which reverse protonated charged nucleobases interact. These analyses uncover two surprising features of pH-dependent enzyme kinetics. (1) Cooperativity between the general acid and general base enhances population of the functional forms of a ribozyme and manifests itself as hidden or "dark" pK a shifts, real pK a shifts that accelerate the reaction but are not readily observed by standard experimental approaches, and (2) influencers favorably shift the pK a s of proton-transferring nucleobases and manifest themselves as "wavy" rate-pH profiles. We identify parallels with the protein enzyme literature, including reverse protonation and wavelike behavior, while pointing out that RNA is more prone to reverse protonation. The complexities uncovered, which arise from simple pairwise interactions, should aid deconvolution of complex rate-pH profiles for RNA and protein enzymes and suggest veiled catalytic devices for promoting catalysis that can be tested by experiment and calculation.

  9. Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known cause. Causes can include: Left bundle branch block Heart attacks (myocardial infarction) Thickened, stiffened or weakened ... myocarditis) High blood pressure (hypertension) Right bundle branch block A heart abnormality that's present at birth (congenital) — ...

  10. Neuro-Oncology Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BTTC are experts in their respective fields. Neuro-Oncology Clinical Fellowship This is a joint program with ... can increase survival rates. Learn more... The Neuro-Oncology Branch welcomes Dr. Mark Gilbert as new Branch ...

  11. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  12. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch ...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  13. A speculated ribozyme site in the herpes simplex virus type 1 latency-associated transcript gene is not essential for a wild-type reactivation phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Dale; Singh, Sukhpreet; Osorio, Nelson; Hsiang, Chinhui; Jiang, Xianzhi; Jin, Ling; Jones, Clinton; Wechsler, Steven L

    2010-01-01

    During herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) latency in sensory neurons, LAT (latency-associated transcript) is the only abundantly expressed viral gene. LAT plays an important role in the HSV-1 latency-reactivation cycle, because LAT deletion mutants have a significantly decreased reactivation phenotype. Based solely on sequence analysis, it was speculated that LAT encodes a ribozyme that plays an important role in how LAT enhances the virus’ reactivation phenotype. Because LAT ribozyme activity has never been reported, we decided to test the converse hypothesis, namely, that this region of LAT does not encode a ribozyme function important for LAT’s ability to enhance the reactivation phenotype. We constructed a viral mutant (LAT-Rz) in which the speculated ribozyme consensus sequence was altered such that no ribozyme was encoded. We report here that LAT-Rz had a wild-type reactivation phenotype in mice, confirming the hypothesis that the speculated LAT ribozyme is not a dominant factor in stimulating the latency-reactivation cycle in mice. PMID:18982533

  14. Vesicle Encapsulation Studies Reveal that Single Molecule Ribozyme Heterogeneities Are Intrinsic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumus, Burak; Wilson, Timothy J.; Lilley, David M. J.; Ha, Taekjip

    2004-01-01

    Single-molecule measurements have revealed that what were assumed to be identical molecules can differ significantly in their static and dynamic properties. One of the most striking examples is the hairpin ribozyme, which was shown to exhibit two to three orders of magnitude variation in folding kinetics between molecules. Although averaged behavior of single molecules matched the bulk solution data, it was not possible to exclude rigorously the possibility that the variations around the mean values arose from different ways of interacting with the surface environment. To test this, we minimized the molecules' interaction with the surface by encapsulating DNA or RNA molecules inside 100- to 200-nm diameter unilamellar vesicles, following the procedures described by Haran and coworkers. Vesicles were immobilized on a supported lipid bilayer via biotin-streptavidin linkages. We observed no direct binding of DNA or RNA on the supported bilayer even at concentrations exceeding 100 nM, indicating that these molecules do not bind stably on the membrane. Since the vesicle diameter is smaller than the resolution of optical microscopy, the lateral mobility of the molecules is severely constrained, allowing long observation periods. We used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, nuclease digestion, and external buffer exchange to show that the molecules were indeed encapsulated within the vesicles. When contained within vesicles, the natural form of the hairpin ribozyme exhibited 50-fold variation in both folding and unfolding rates in 0.5 mM Mg2+, which is identical to what was observed from the molecules tethered directly on the surface. This strongly indicates that the observed heterogeneity in dynamic properties does not arise as an artifact of surface attachment, but is intrinsic to the nature of the molecules. PMID:15454471

  15. Chemical Feasibility of the General Acid/Base Mechanism of glmS Ribozyme Self-Cleavage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubecký, M.; Walter, Nils G.; Šponer, Jiří; Otyepka, M.; Banáš, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 10 (2015), s. 550-562 ISSN 0006-3525 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1878 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS * ACTIVE-SITE GUANINE * HAIRPIN RIBOZYME Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.248, year: 2015

  16. Comparison of ab Initio, DFT, and Semiempirical QM/MM Approaches for Description of Catalytic Mechanism of Hairpin Ribozyme

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mlýnský, V.; Banáš, P.; Šponer, Jiří; van der Kamp, M.W.; Mulholland, A.J.; Otyepka, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2014), s. 1608-1622 ISSN 1549-9618 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1878; GA ČR(CZ) GBP301/11/P558; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : MOLECULAR-DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS * DELTA-VIRUS RIBOZYME * ACID-BASE CATALYSIS Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.498, year: 2014

  17. Involvement of a cytosine side chain in proton transfer in the rate-determining step of ribozyme self-cleavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, I-hung; Been, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Ribozymes of hepatitis delta virus have been proposed to use an active-site cytosine as an acid-base catalyst in the self-cleavage reaction. In this study, we have examined the role of cytosine in more detail with the antigenomic ribozyme. Evidence that proton transfer in the rate-determining step involved cytosine 76 (C76) was obtained from examining cleavage activity of the wild-type and imidazole buffer-rescued C76-deleted (C76Δ) ribozymes in D2O and H2O. In both reactions, a similar kinetic isotope effect and shift in the apparent pKa indicate that the buffer is functionally substituting for the side chain in proton transfer. Proton inventory of the wild-type reaction supported a mechanism of a single proton transfer at the transition state. This proton transfer step was further characterized by exogenous base rescue of a C76Δ mutant with cytosine and imidazole analogues. For the imidazole analogues that rescued activity, the apparent pKa of the rescue reaction, measured under kcat/KM conditions, correlated with the pKa of the base. From these data a Brønsted coefficient (β) of 0.51 was determined for the base-rescued reaction of C76Δ. This value is consistent with that expected for proton transfer in the transition state. Together, these data provide strong support for a mechanism where an RNA side chain participates directly in general acid or general base catalysis of the wild-type ribozyme to facilitate RNA cleavage. PMID:11171978

  18. Competition Between Co(NH3)63+ and Inner Sphere Mg2+ Ions in the HDV Ribozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bo; Chen, Jui-Hui; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Golden, Barbara L.; Carey, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    Divalent cations play critical structural and functional roles in many RNAs. While the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme can undergo self-cleavage in the presence of molar concentrations of monovalent cations, divalent cations such as Mg2+ are required for efficient catalysis under physiological conditions. Moreover, the cleavage reaction can be inhibited with Co(NH3)63+, an analog of Mg(H2O)62+. Here, the binding of Mg2+ and Co(NH3)63+ to the HDV ribozyme are studied by Raman microscopic analysis of crystals. Raman difference spectra acquired at different metal ion conditions reveal changes in the ribozyme. When Mg2+ alone is introduced to the ribozyme, inner sphere coordination of Mg(H2O)x2+ (x≤5) to non-bridging PO2− oxygen, and changes in base stretches and phosphodiester group conformation are observed. In addition, binding of Mg2+ induces deprotonation of a cytosine assigned to the general acid C75, consistent with solution studies. When Co(NH3)63+ alone is introduced, deprotonation of C75 is again observed, as are distinctive changes in base vibrational ring modes and phosphodiester backbone conformation. In contrast to Mg2+ binding, Co(NH3)63+ binding does not perturb PO2− group vibrations, consistent with its ability to make only outer sphere contacts. Surprisingly, competitive binding studies reveal that Co(NH3)63+ ions displace some inner sphere-coordinated magnesium species, including ions coordinated to PO2− groups or the N7 of a guanine, likely G1 at the active site. These observations contrast with the tenet that Co(NH3)63+ ions displace only outer sphere magnesium ions. Overall, our data support two classes of inner sphere Mg2+-PO2− binding sites: sites that Co(NH3)63+ can displace, and others it cannot. PMID:19888753

  19. Entanglement branching operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    We introduce an entanglement branching operator to split a composite entanglement flow in a tensor network which is a promising theoretical tool for many-body systems. We can optimize an entanglement branching operator by solving a minimization problem based on squeezing operators. The entanglement branching is a new useful operation to manipulate a tensor network. For example, finding a particular entanglement structure by an entanglement branching operator, we can improve a higher-order tensor renormalization group method to catch a proper renormalization flow in a tensor network space. This new method yields a new type of tensor network states. The second example is a many-body decomposition of a tensor by using an entanglement branching operator. We can use it for a perfect disentangling among tensors. Applying a many-body decomposition recursively, we conceptually derive projected entangled pair states from quantum states that satisfy the area law of entanglement entropy.

  20. Importance of specific nucleotides in the folding of the natural form of the hairpin ribozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T J; Zhao, Z Y; Maxwell, K; Kontogiannis, L; Lilley, D M

    2001-02-20

    The hairpin ribozyme in its natural context consists of two loops in RNA duplexes that are connected as arms of a four-way helical junction. Magnesium ions induce folding into the active conformation in which the two loops are in proximity. In this study, we have investigated nucleotides that are important to this folding process. We have analyzed the folding in terms of the cooperativity and apparent affinity for magnesium ions as a function of changes in base sequence and functional groups, using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Our results suggest that the interaction between the loops is the sum of a number of component interactions. Some sequence variants such as A10U, G+1A, and C25U exhibit loss of cooperativity and reduced affinity of apparent magnesium ion binding. These variants are also very impaired in ribozyme cleavage activity. Nucleotides A10, G+1, and C25 thus appear to be essential in creating the conformational environment necessary for ion binding. The double variant G+1A/C25U exhibits a marked recovery of both folding and catalytic activity compared to either individual variant, consistent with the proposal of a triple-base interaction among A9, G+1, and C25 [Pinard, R., Lambert, D., Walter, N. G., Heckman, J. E., Major, F., and Burke, J. M. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 16035-16039]. However, substitution of A9 leads to relatively small changes in folding properties and cleavage activity, and the double variant G+1DAP/C25U (DAP is 2,6-diaminopurine), which could form an isosteric triple-base interaction, exhibits folding and cleavage activities that are both very impaired compared to those of the natural sequence. Our results indicate an important role for a Watson--Crick base pair between G+1 and C25; this may be buttressed by an interaction with A9, but the loss of this has less significant consequences for folding. 2'-Deoxyribose substitution leads to folding with reduced magnesium ion affinity in the following order: unmodified RNA > dA9

  1. Template-directed ligation of tethered mononucleotides by t4 DNA ligase for kinase ribozyme selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Nickens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In vitro selection of kinase ribozymes for small molecule metabolites, such as free nucleosides, will require partition systems that discriminate active from inactive RNA species. While nucleic acid catalysis of phosphoryl transfer is well established for phosphorylation of 5' or 2' OH of oligonucleotide substrates, phosphorylation of diffusible small molecules has not been demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study demonstrates the ability of T4 DNA ligase to capture RNA strands in which a tethered monodeoxynucleoside has acquired a 5' phosphate. The ligation reaction therefore mimics the partition step of a selection for nucleoside kinase (deoxyribozymes. Ligation with tethered substrates was considerably slower than with nicked, fully duplex DNA, even though the deoxynucleotides at the ligation junction were Watson-Crick base paired in the tethered substrate. Ligation increased markedly when the bridging template strand contained unpaired spacer nucleotides across from the flexible tether, according to the trends: A(2>A(1>A(3>A(4>A(0>A(6>A(8>A(10 and T(2>T(3>T(4>T(6 approximately T(1>T(8>T(10. Bridging T's generally gave higher yield of ligated product than bridging A's. ATP concentrations above 33 microM accumulated adenylated intermediate and decreased yields of the gap-sealed product, likely due to re-adenylation of dissociated enzyme. Under optimized conditions, T4 DNA ligase efficiently (>90% joined a correctly paired, or TratioG wobble-paired, substrate on the 3' side of the ligation junction while discriminating approximately 100-fold against most mispaired substrates. Tethered dC and dG gave the highest ligation rates and yields, followed by tethered deoxyinosine (dI and dT, with the slowest reactions for tethered dA. The same kinetic trends were observed in ligase-mediated capture in complex reaction mixtures with multiple substrates. The "universal" analog 5-nitroindole (dNI did not support ligation when

  2. Poisson branching point processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, K.; Teich, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of a special branching point process. The initial process is assumed to be a homogeneous Poisson point process (HPP). The initiating events at each branching stage are carried forward to the following stage. In addition, each initiating event independently contributes a nonstationary Poisson point process (whose rate is a specified function) located at that point. The additional contributions from all points of a given stage constitute a doubly stochastic Poisson point process (DSPP) whose rate is a filtered version of the initiating point process at that stage. The process studied is a generalization of a Poisson branching process in which random time delays are permitted in the generation of events. Particular attention is given to the limit in which the number of branching stages is infinite while the average number of added events per event of the previous stage is infinitesimal. In the special case when the branching is instantaneous this limit of continuous branching corresponds to the well-known Yule--Furry process with an initial Poisson population. The Poisson branching point process provides a useful description for many problems in various scientific disciplines, such as the behavior of electron multipliers, neutron chain reactions, and cosmic ray showers

  3. Renal Branch Artery Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Zarah; Thisted, Ebbe; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension is a common cause of pediatric hypertension. In the fraction of cases that are unrelated to syndromes such as neurofibromatosis, patients with a solitary stenosis on a branch of the renal artery are common and can be diagnostically challenging. Imaging techniques...... that perform well in the diagnosis of main renal artery stenosis may fall short when it comes to branch artery stenosis. We report 2 cases that illustrate these difficulties and show that a branch artery stenosis may be overlooked even by the gold standard method, renal angiography....

  4. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  5. Limits of neutral drift: lessons from the in vitro evolution of two ribozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Katherine L; Joyce, Gerald F

    2014-10-01

    The relative contributions of adaptive selection and neutral drift to genetic change are unknown but likely depend on the inherent abundance of functional genotypes in sequence space and how accessible those genotypes are to one another. To better understand the relative roles of selection and drift in evolution, local fitness landscapes for two different RNA ligase ribozymes were examined using a continuous in vitro evolution system under conditions that foster the capacity for neutral drift to mediate genetic change. The exploration of sequence space was accelerated by increasing the mutation rate using mutagenic nucleotide analogs. Drift was encouraged by carrying out evolution within millions of separate compartments to exploit the founder effect. Deep sequencing of individuals from the evolved populations revealed that the distribution of genotypes did not escape the starting local fitness peak, remaining clustered around the sequence used to initiate evolution. This is consistent with a fitness landscape where high-fitness genotypes are sparse and well isolated, and suggests, at least in this context, that neutral drift alone is not a primary driver of genetic change. Neutral drift does, however, provide a repository of genetic variation upon which adaptive selection can act.

  6. Branching trajectory continual integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, V.P.; Chebotarev, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Heuristic definition of the Feynman continual integral over branching trajectories is suggested which makes it possible to obtain in the closed form the solution of the Cauchy problem for the model Hartree equation. A number of properties of the solution is derived from an integral representation. In particular, the quasiclassical asymptotics, exact solution in the gaussian case and perturbation theory series are described. The existence theorem for the simpliest continual integral over branching trajectories is proved [ru

  7. Branches of the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dine, Michael; O'Neil, Deva; Sun Zheng

    2005-01-01

    With respect to the question of supersymmetry breaking, there are three branches of the flux landscape. On one of these, if one requires small cosmological constant, supersymmetry breaking is predominantly at the fundamental scale; on another, the distribution is roughly flat on a logarithmic scale; on the third, the preponderance of vacua are at very low scale. A priori, as we will explain, one can say little about the first branch. The vast majority of these states are not accessible even to crude, approximate analysis. On the other two branches one can hope to do better. But as a result of the lack of access to branch one, and our poor understanding of cosmology, we can at best conjecture about whether string theory predicts low energy supersymmetry or not. If we hypothesize that are on branch two or three, distinctive predictions may be possible. We comment of the status of naturalness within the landscape, deriving, for example, the statistics of the first branch from simple effective field theory reasoning

  8. Phylogenetic footprinting of non-coding RNA: hammerhead ribozyme sequences in a satellite DNA family of Dolichopoda cave crickets (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venanzetti Federica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The great variety in sequence, length, complexity, and abundance of satellite DNA has made it difficult to ascribe any function to this genome component. Recent studies have shown that satellite DNA can be transcribed and be involved in regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. Some satellite DNAs, such as the pDo500 sequence family in Dolichopoda cave crickets, have a catalytic hammerhead (HH ribozyme structure and activity embedded within each repeat. Results We assessed the phylogenetic footprints of the HH ribozyme within the pDo500 sequences from 38 different populations representing 12 species of Dolichopoda. The HH region was significantly more conserved than the non-hammerhead (NHH region of the pDo500 repeat. In addition, stems were more conserved than loops. In stems, several compensatory mutations were detected that maintain base pairing. The core region of the HH ribozyme was affected by very few nucleotide substitutions and the cleavage position was altered only once among 198 sequences. RNA folding of the HH sequences revealed that a potentially active HH ribozyme can be found in most of the Dolichopoda populations and species. Conclusions The phylogenetic footprints suggest that the HH region of the pDo500 sequence family is selected for function in Dolichopoda cave crickets. However, the functional role of HH ribozymes in eukaryotic organisms is unclear. The possible functions have been related to trans cleavage of an RNA target by a ribonucleoprotein and regulation of gene expression. Whether the HH ribozyme in Dolichopoda is involved in similar functions remains to be investigated. Future studies need to demonstrate how the observed nucleotide changes and evolutionary constraint have affected the catalytic efficiency of the hammerhead.

  9. Branches of the Facial Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Lee, Geun In; Park, Hye Jin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to review the name of the branches, to review the classification of the branching pattern, and to clarify a presence percentage of each branch of the facial artery, systematically. In a PubMed search, the search terms "facial," AND "artery," AND "classification OR variant OR pattern" were used. The IBM SPSS Statistics 20 system was used for statistical analysis. Among the 500 titles, 18 articles were selected and reviewed systematically. Most of the articles focused on "classification" according to the "terminal branch." Several authors classified the facial artery according to their terminal branches. Most of them, however, did not describe the definition of "terminal branch." There were confusions within the classifications. When the inferior labial artery was absent, 3 different types were used. The "alar branch" or "nasal branch" was used instead of the "lateral nasal branch." The angular branch was used to refer to several different branches. The presence as a percentage of each branch according to the branches in Gray's Anatomy (premasseteric, inferior labial, superior labial, lateral nasal, and angular) varied. No branch was used with 100% consistency. The superior labial branch was most frequently cited (95.7%, 382 arteries in 399 hemifaces). The angular branch (53.9%, 219 arteries in 406 hemifaces) and the premasseteric branch were least frequently cited (53.8%, 43 arteries in 80 hemifaces). There were significant differences among each of the 5 branches (P < 0.05) except between the angular branch and the premasseteric branch and between the superior labial branch and the inferior labial branch. The authors believe identifying the presence percentage of each branch will be helpful for surgical procedures.

  10. Domains and domain loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut

    2005-01-01

    politicians and in the media, especially in the discussion whether some languages undergo ‘domain loss’ vis-à-vis powerful international languages like English. An objection that has been raised here is that domains, as originally conceived, are parameters of language choice and not properties of languages...

  11. VD-411 branch driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, N.V.; Karev, A.G.; Mal'tsev, Eh.I.; Morozov, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The VD-411 branch driver for CAMAC moduli control by the SM-4 computer is described. The driver realizes data exchange with moduli disposed in 28 crates grouped in 4 branches. Data exchange can be carried out either in the program regime or in the regime of direct access to the memory. Fulfilment of 11 block regimes and one program regime is provided for. A possibility of individual programming of exchange methods in block regimes is left for users for organisation of quicker and most flexible data removal from the CAMAC moduli. In the regime of direct access the driver provides data transmission at the size up to 64 Kwords placing it in the computer memory of 2 M byte. High rate of data transmission and the developed system of interruptions ensure efficient utilization of the VD-411 branch driver at data removal from facilities in high energy physics experiments

  12. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick; Park, A Young

    2010-01-01

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  13. Intermittency in branching models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.B.; Texas Univ., Austin; Hwa, R.C.; Oregon Univ., Eugene

    1990-01-01

    The intermittency properties of three branching models have been investigated. The factorial moments show power-law behavior as function of small rapidity width. The slopes and energy dependences reveal different characteristics of the models. The gluon model has the weakest intermittency. (orig.)

  14. State-set branching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Møller; Veloso, Manuela M.; Bryant, Randal E.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we present a framework called state-set branching that combines symbolic search based on reduced ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) with best-first search, such as A* and greedy best-first search. The framework relies on an extension of these algorithms from expanding a sing...

  15. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  16. Design and kinetic analysis of hammerhead ribozyme and DNAzyme that specifically cleave TEL-AML1 chimeric mRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Woo-Hyung; Choi, Bo-Ra; Kim, Jae Hyun; Yeo, Woon-Seok; Oh, Sangtaek; Kim, Dong-Eun

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop the oligonucleotides to abolish an expression of TEL-AML1 chimeric RNA, which is a genetic aberration that causes the acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), hammerhead ribozymes and deoxyoligoribozymes that can specifically cleave TEL-AML1 fusion RNA were designed. Constructs of the deoxyribozyme with an asymmetric substrate binding arm (Dz26) and the hammerhead ribozyme with a 4 nt-bulged substrate binding arm in the stem III (buRz28) were able to cleave TEL-AML1 chimeric RNA specifically at sites close to the junction in vitro, without cleaving the normal TEL and AML1 RNA. Single-turnover kinetic analysis under enzyme-excess condition revealed that the buRz28 is superior to the Dz26 in terms of substrate binding and RNA-cleavage. In conjunction with current progress in a gene-delivery technology, the designed oligonucleotides that specifically cleave the TEL-AML1 chimeric mRNA are hoped to be applicable for the treatment of ALL in vivo

  17. Molecular trade-offs in RNA ligases affected the modular emergence of complex ribozymes at the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Nisha; Weinberg, Marc S.; Michod, Richard E.; Durand, Pierre M.

    2017-09-01

    In the RNA world hypothesis complex, self-replicating ribozymes were essential. For the emergence of an RNA world, less is known about the early processes that accounted for the formation of complex, long catalysts from small passively formed molecules. The functional role of small sequences has not been fully explored and, here, a possible role for smaller ligases is demonstrated. An established RNA polymerase model, the R18, was truncated from the 3' end to generate smaller molecules. All the molecules were investigated for self-ligation functions with a set of oligonucleotide substrates without predesigned base pairing. The smallest molecule that exhibited self-ligation activity was a 40-nucleotide RNA. It also demonstrated the greatest functional flexibility as it was more general in the kinds of substrates it ligated to itself although its catalytic efficiency was the lowest. The largest ribozyme (R18) ligated substrates more selectively and with greatest efficiency. With increase in size and predicted structural stability, self-ligation efficiency improved, while functional flexibility decreased. These findings reveal that molecular size could have increased from the activity of small ligases joining oligonucleotides to their own end. In addition, there is a size-associated molecular-level trade-off that could have impacted the evolution of RNA-based life.

  18. Molecular trade-offs in RNA ligases affected the modular emergence of complex ribozymes at the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Marc S.; Michod, Richard E.

    2017-01-01

    In the RNA world hypothesis complex, self-replicating ribozymes were essential. For the emergence of an RNA world, less is known about the early processes that accounted for the formation of complex, long catalysts from small passively formed molecules. The functional role of small sequences has not been fully explored and, here, a possible role for smaller ligases is demonstrated. An established RNA polymerase model, the R18, was truncated from the 3′ end to generate smaller molecules. All the molecules were investigated for self-ligation functions with a set of oligonucleotide substrates without predesigned base pairing. The smallest molecule that exhibited self-ligation activity was a 40-nucleotide RNA. It also demonstrated the greatest functional flexibility as it was more general in the kinds of substrates it ligated to itself although its catalytic efficiency was the lowest. The largest ribozyme (R18) ligated substrates more selectively and with greatest efficiency. With increase in size and predicted structural stability, self-ligation efficiency improved, while functional flexibility decreased. These findings reveal that molecular size could have increased from the activity of small ligases joining oligonucleotides to their own end. In addition, there is a size-associated molecular-level trade-off that could have impacted the evolution of RNA-based life. PMID:28989747

  19. Branching structure and strain hardening of branched metallocene polyethylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Enrique; Li, Si-Wan; Costeux, Stéphane; Dealy, John M.

    2015-01-01

    There have been a number of studies of a series of branched metallocene polyethylenes (BMPs) made in a solution, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) polymerization. The materials studied vary in branching level in a systematic way, and the most highly branched members of the series exhibit mild strain hardening. An outstanding question is which types of branched molecules are responsible for strain hardening in extension. This question is explored here by use of polymerization and rheological models along with new data on the extensional flow behavior of the most highly branched members of the set. After reviewing all that is known about the effects of various branching structures in homogeneous polymers and comparing this with the structures predicted to be present in BMPs, it is concluded that in spite of their very low concentration, treelike molecules with branch-on-branch structure provide a large number of deeply buried inner segments that are essential for strain hardening in these polymers

  20. Branching structure and strain hardening of branched metallocene polyethylenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Enrique; Li, Si-Wan; Costeux, Stéphane; Dealy, John M., E-mail: john.dealy@mcgill.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C4 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    There have been a number of studies of a series of branched metallocene polyethylenes (BMPs) made in a solution, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) polymerization. The materials studied vary in branching level in a systematic way, and the most highly branched members of the series exhibit mild strain hardening. An outstanding question is which types of branched molecules are responsible for strain hardening in extension. This question is explored here by use of polymerization and rheological models along with new data on the extensional flow behavior of the most highly branched members of the set. After reviewing all that is known about the effects of various branching structures in homogeneous polymers and comparing this with the structures predicted to be present in BMPs, it is concluded that in spite of their very low concentration, treelike molecules with branch-on-branch structure provide a large number of deeply buried inner segments that are essential for strain hardening in these polymers.

  1. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included...... in the Copenhagen City Heart Study examined in 1976-2003 free from previous myocardial infarction (MI), chronic heart failure, and left bundle branch block through registry linkage until 2009 for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. The prevalence of RBBB/IRBBB was higher in men (1.4%/4.7% in men vs. 0.......5%/2.3% in women, P block was associated with significantly...

  2. Generalized Markov branching models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junping

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we first considered a modified Markov branching process incorporating both state-independent immigration and resurrection. After establishing the criteria for regularity and uniqueness, explicit expressions for the extinction probability and mean extinction time are presented. The criteria for recurrence and ergodicity are also established. In addition, an explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is presented.\\ud \\ud We then moved on to investigate the basic proper...

  3. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  4. The branch librarians' handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Rivers, Vickie

    2004-01-01

    ""Recommended""--Booklist; ""an excellent addition...highly recommended""--Public Libraries; ""clear...very sound advice...strongly recommend""--Catholic Library World; ""excellent resource...organized...well written""--Against the Grain; ""interesting...thoroughly practical...a very good book...well organized...clearly written""--ARBA. This handbook covers a wide variety of issues that the branch librarian must deal with every day. Chapters are devoted to mission statements (the Dallas Public Library and Dayton Metro Library mission statements are highlighted as examples), library systems,

  5. Domain analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    The domain-analytic approach to knowledge organization (KO) (and to the broader field of library and information science, LIS) is outlined. The article reviews the discussions and proposals on the definition of domains, and provides an example of a domain-analytic study in the field of art studies....... Varieties of domain analysis as well as criticism and controversies are presented and discussed....

  6. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  7. Integrating over Higgs branches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.; Shatashvili, S.

    2000-01-01

    We develop some useful techniques for integrating over Higgs branches in supersymmetric theories with 4 and 8 supercharges. In particular, we define a regularized volume for hyperkaehler quotients. We evaluate this volume for certain ALE and ALF spaces in terms of the hyperkaehler periods. We also reduce these volumes for a large class of hyperkaehler quotients to simpler integrals. These quotients include complex coadjoint orbits, instanton moduli spaces on R 4 and ALE manifolds, Hitchin spaces, and moduli spaces of (parabolic) Higgs bundles on Riemann surfaces. In the case of Hitchin spaces the evaluation of the volume reduces to a summation over solutions of Bethe ansatz equations for the non-linear Schroedinger system. We discuss some applications of our results. (orig.)

  8. Technical normalization in the geoinformatics branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronislava Horáková

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A basic principle of the technical normalisation is to hold the market development by developing unified technical rules for all concerned subjects. The information and communication technological industry is characterised by certain specific features contrary to the traditional industry. These features bring to the normalisation domain new demands, mainly the flexibility enabling to reflect the rapidly development market of ICT elastic way. The goal of the paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current process of technical normalization in the geoinformatic branch

  9. The efficiency of bank branches

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Takbiri; Mohammad Mohammadi; Bahman Naderi

    2015-01-01

    Banking industry has significant contribution in development of economies of developing countries. Most banks execute their operations through different branches. Therefore it is important to measure the relative efficiencies of these branches. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is one of the most useful tools in measuring banks’ performance. The present paper aims to extract ranking pattern of banks based on performance evaluation using DEA analysis. In the present research, 120 bank branches o...

  10. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  11. A Conserved Target Site in HIV-1 Gag RNA is Accessible to Inhibition by Both an HDV Ribozyme and a Short Hairpin RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Scarborough

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisense-based molecules targeting HIV-1 RNA have the potential to be used as part of gene or drug therapy to treat HIV-1 infection. In this study, HIV-1 RNA was screened to identify more conserved and accessible target sites for ribozymes based on the hepatitis delta virus motif. Using a quantitative screen for effects on HIV-1 production, we identified a ribozyme targeting a highly conserved site in the Gag coding sequence with improved inhibitory potential compared to our previously described candidates targeting the overlapping Tat/Rev coding sequence. We also demonstrate that this target site is highly accessible to short hairpin directed RNA interference, suggesting that it may be available for the binding of antisense RNAs with different modes of action. We provide evidence that this target site is structurally conserved in diverse viral strains and that it is sufficiently different from the human transcriptome to limit off-target effects from antisense therapies. We also show that the modified hepatitis delta virus ribozyme is more sensitive to a mismatch in its target site compared to the short hairpin RNA. Overall, our results validate the potential of a new target site in HIV-1 RNA to be used for the development of antisense therapies.

  12. Intratumor Heterogeneity and Branched Evolution Revealed by Multiregion Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlinger, Marco; Rowan, Andrew J.; Horswell, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    .RESULTS: Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed branched evolutionary tumor growth, with 63 to 69% of all somatic mutations not detectable across every tumor region. Intratumor heterogeneity was observed for a mutation within an autoinhibitory domain of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase, correlating with S6...

  13. Kodiak: An Implementation Framework for Branch and Bound Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Markevicius, Mantas

    2015-01-01

    Recursive branch and bound algorithms are often used to refine and isolate solutions to several classes of global optimization problems. A rigorous computation framework for the solution of systems of equations and inequalities involving nonlinear real arithmetic over hyper-rectangular variable and parameter domains is presented. It is derived from a generic branch and bound algorithm that has been formally verified, and utilizes self-validating enclosure methods, namely interval arithmetic and, for polynomials and rational functions, Bernstein expansion. Since bounds computed by these enclosure methods are sound, this approach may be used reliably in software verification tools. Advantage is taken of the partial derivatives of the constraint functions involved in the system, firstly to reduce the branching factor by the use of bisection heuristics and secondly to permit the computation of bifurcation sets for systems of ordinary differential equations. The associated software development, Kodiak, is presented, along with examples of three different branch and bound problem types it implements.

  14. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  15. Concrete domains

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, G.; Plotkin, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the theory of a particular kind of computation domains called concrete domains. The purpose of this theory is to find a satisfactory framework for the notions of coroutine computation and sequentiality of evaluation.

  16. Domain Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørner, Dines

    Before software can be designed we must know its requirements. Before requirements can be expressed we must understand the domain. So it follows, from our dogma, that we must first establish precise descriptions of domains; then, from such descriptions, “derive” at least domain and interface requirements; and from those and machine requirements design the software, or, more generally, the computing systems.

  17. Detection of innersphere interactions between magnesium hydrate and the phosphate backbone of the HDV ribozyme using Raman crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Bo; Chen, Yuanyuan; Christian, Eric L; Chen, Jui-Hui; Chase, Elaine; Chadalavada, Durga M; Yajima, Rieko; Golden, Barbara L; Bevilacqua, Philip C; Carey, Paul R

    2008-07-30

    A Raman microscope and Raman difference spectroscopy are used to detect the vibrational signature of RNA-bound magnesium hydrate in crystals of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme and to follow the effects of magnesium hydrate binding to the nonbridging phosphate oxygens in the phosphodiester backbone. There is a correlation between the Raman intensity of the innersphere magnesium hydrate signature peak, near 322 cm-1, and the intensity of the PO2- symmetric stretch, near 1100 cm-1, perturbed by magnesium binding, demonstrating direct observation of -PO2-...Mg2+(H2O)x innersphere complexes. The complexes may be pentahydrates (x = 5) and tetrahydrates (x = 4). The assignment of the Raman feature near 322 cm-1 to a magnesium hydrate species is confirmed by isotope shifts observed in D2O and H218O that are semiquantitatively reproduced by calculations. The standardized intensity changes in the 1100 cm-1 PO2- feature seen upon magnesium hydrate binding indicates that there are approximately 5 innersphere Mg2+...-O2P contacts per HDV molecule when the crystal is exposed to a solution containing 20 mM magnesium.

  18. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  19. Spiral branches and star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasov, A.V.

    1974-01-01

    Origin of spiral branches of galaxies and formation of stars in them are considered from the point of view of the theory of the gravitational gas condensation, one of comparatively young theories. Arguments are presented in favour of the stellar condensation theory. The concept of the star formation of gas is no longer a speculative hypothesis. This is a theory which assumes quantitative verification and explains qualitatively many facts observed. And still our knowledge on the nature of spiral branches is very poor. It still remains vague what processes give origin to spiral branches, why some galaxies have spirals and others have none. And shapes of spiral branches are diverse. Some cases are known when spiral branches spread outside boundaries of galaxies themselves. Such spirals arise exclusively in the region where there are two or some interacting galaxies. Only first steps have been made in the explanation of the galaxy spiral branches, and it is necessary to carry out new observations and new theoretical calculations

  20. Structural and catalytic effects of an invariant purine substitution in the hammerhead ribozyme: implications for the mechanism of acid–base catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Eric P.; Vasquez, Ernesto E.; Scott, William G.

    2014-01-01

    The hammerhead ribozyme catalyzes RNA cleavage via acid–base catalysis. Whether it does so by general acid–base catalysis, in which the RNA itself donates and abstracts protons in the transition state, as is typically assumed, or by specific acid–base catalysis, in which the RNA plays a structural role and proton transfer is mediated by active-site water molecules, is unknown. Previous biochemical and crystallographic experiments implicate an invariant purine in the active site, G12, as the general base. However, G12 may play a structural role consistent with specific base catalysis. To better understand the role of G12 in the mechanism of hammerhead catalysis, a 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of a hammerhead ribozyme from Schistosoma mansoni with a purine substituted for G12 in the active site of the ribozyme was obtained. Comparison of this structure (PDB entry 3zd4), in which A12 is substituted for G, with three previously determined structures that now serve as important experimental controls, allows the identification of structural perturbations that are owing to the purine substitution itself. Kinetic measurements for G12 purine-substituted schistosomal hammerheads confirm a previously observed dependence of rate on the pK a of the substituted purine; in both cases inosine, which is similar to G in pK a and hydrogen-bonding properties, is unexpectedly inactive. Structural comparisons indicate that this may primarily be owing to the lack of the exocyclic 2-amino group in the G12A and G12I substitutions and its structural effect upon both the nucleotide base and phosphate of A9. The latter involves the perturbation of a previously identified and well characterized metal ion-binding site known to be catalytically important in both minimal and full-length hammerhead ribozyme sequences. The results permit it to be suggested that G12 plays an important role in stabilizing the active-site structure. This result, although not inconsistent with the

  1. Structural and catalytic effects of an invariant purine substitution in the hammerhead ribozyme: implications for the mechanism of acid-base catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Eric P; Vasquez, Ernesto E; Scott, William G

    2014-09-01

    The hammerhead ribozyme catalyzes RNA cleavage via acid-base catalysis. Whether it does so by general acid-base catalysis, in which the RNA itself donates and abstracts protons in the transition state, as is typically assumed, or by specific acid-base catalysis, in which the RNA plays a structural role and proton transfer is mediated by active-site water molecules, is unknown. Previous biochemical and crystallographic experiments implicate an invariant purine in the active site, G12, as the general base. However, G12 may play a structural role consistent with specific base catalysis. To better understand the role of G12 in the mechanism of hammerhead catalysis, a 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of a hammerhead ribozyme from Schistosoma mansoni with a purine substituted for G12 in the active site of the ribozyme was obtained. Comparison of this structure (PDB entry 3zd4), in which A12 is substituted for G, with three previously determined structures that now serve as important experimental controls, allows the identification of structural perturbations that are owing to the purine substitution itself. Kinetic measurements for G12 purine-substituted schistosomal hammerheads confirm a previously observed dependence of rate on the pK(a) of the substituted purine; in both cases inosine, which is similar to G in pK(a) and hydrogen-bonding properties, is unexpectedly inactive. Structural comparisons indicate that this may primarily be owing to the lack of the exocyclic 2-amino group in the G12A and G12I substitutions and its structural effect upon both the nucleotide base and phosphate of A9. The latter involves the perturbation of a previously identified and well characterized metal ion-binding site known to be catalytically important in both minimal and full-length hammerhead ribozyme sequences. The results permit it to be suggested that G12 plays an important role in stabilizing the active-site structure. This result, although not inconsistent with the potential

  2. General base catalysis for cleavage by the active-site cytosine of the hepatitis delta virus ribozyme: QM/MM calculations establish chemical feasibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Banáš, Pavel; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Hánošová, V.; Svozil, Daniel; Walter, N.G.; Šponer, Jiří; Otyepka, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 35 (2008), s. 11177-11187 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06030; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400040802; GA AV ČR 1QS500040581 Grant - others:NIH(US) GM62357 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : HDV ribozyme * catalysis * QM/MM calculations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.189, year: 2008

  3. Space plasma branch at NRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Naval Research Laboratory (Washington, D.C.) formed the Space Plasma Branch within its Plasma Physics Division on July 1. Vithal Patel, former Program Director of Magnetospheric Physics, National Science Foundation, also joined NRL on the same date as Associate Superintendent of the Plasma Physics Division. Barret Ripin is head of the newly organized branch. The Space Plasma branch will do basic and applied space plasma research using a multidisciplinary approach. It consolidates traditional rocket and satellite space experiments, space plasma theory and computation, with laboratory space-related experiments. About 40 research scientists, postdoctoral fellows, engineers, and technicians are divided among its five sections. The Theory and Computation sections are led by Joseph Huba and Joel Fedder, the Space Experiments section is led by Paul Rodriguez, and the Pharos Laser Facility and Laser Experiments sections are headed by Charles Manka and Jacob Grun.

  4. Coulomb branches with complex singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyres, Philip C.; Martone, Mario

    2018-06-01

    We construct 4d superconformal field theories (SCFTs) whose Coulomb branches have singular complex structures. This implies, in particular, that their Coulomb branch coordinate rings are not freely generated. Our construction also gives examples of distinct SCFTs which have identical moduli space (Coulomb, Higgs, and mixed branch) geometries. These SCFTs thus provide an interesting arena in which to test the relationship between moduli space geometries and conformal field theory data. We construct these SCFTs by gauging certain discrete global symmetries of N = 4 superYang-Mills (sYM) theories. In the simplest cases, these discrete symmetries are outer automorphisms of the sYM gauge group, and so these theories have lagrangian descriptions as N = 4 sYM theories with disconnected gauge groups.

  5. Branch prediction in the pentium family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Agner

    1998-01-01

    How the branch prediction mechanism in the Pentium has been uncovered with all its quirks, and the incredibly more effective branch prediction in the later versions.......How the branch prediction mechanism in the Pentium has been uncovered with all its quirks, and the incredibly more effective branch prediction in the later versions....

  6. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50.

  7. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  8. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  9. Module for the organization of a branch of the universal branch driver in the CAMAC standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguen Fuk; Smirnov, V.A.; Khmelevski, E.

    1976-01-01

    A module is elaborated for the organization of a branch of the universal branch driver in the CAMAC standard for the conjugation of a control crate trunk with a branch trunk. A block diagram of the module is described; its principal specifications are given. The universal branch driver system may accomodate up to 10 branch organization modules with one control source module

  10. Domain crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schraefel, M. C.; Rouncefield, Mark; Kellogg, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    In CSCW, how much do we need to know about another domain/culture before we observe, intersect and intervene with designs. What optimally would that other culture need to know about us? Is this a “how long is a piece of string” question, or an inquiry where we can consider a variety of contexts a...

  11. BDC 500 branch driver controller

    CERN Document Server

    Dijksman, A

    1981-01-01

    This processor has been designed for very fast data acquisition and date pre-processing. The dataway and branch highway speeds have been optimized for approximately 1.5 mu sec. The internal processor cycle is approximately 0.8 mu sec. The standard version contains the following functions (slots): crate controller type A1; branch highway driver including terminator; serial I/O port (TTY, VDU); 24 bit ALU and 24 bit program counter; 16 bit memory address counter and 4 word stack; 4k bit memory for program and/or data; battery backup for the memory; CNAFD and crate LAM display; request/grant logic for time- sharing operation of several BDCs. The free slots can be equipped with e.g. extra RAM, computer interfaces, hardware multiplier/dividers, etc. (0 refs).

  12. Branching geodesics in normed spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A O; Tuzhilin, A A

    2002-01-01

    We study branching extremals of length functionals on normed spaces. This is a natural generalization of the Steiner problem in normed spaces. We obtain criteria for a network to be extremal under deformations that preserve the topology of networks as well as under deformations with splitting. We discuss the connection between locally shortest networks and extremal networks. In the important particular case of the Manhattan plane, we get a criterion for a locally shortest network to be extremal

  13. Cash efficiency for bank branches

    OpenAIRE

    Cabello, Julia Garc?a

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks? branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank ...

  14. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  15. Branching processes and neutral evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Taïb, Ziad

    1992-01-01

    The Galton-Watson branching process has its roots in the problem of extinction of family names which was given a precise formulation by F. Galton as problem 4001 in the Educational Times (17, 1873). In 1875, an attempt to solve this problem was made by H. W. Watson but as it turned out, his conclusion was incorrect. Half a century later, R. A. Fisher made use of the Galton-Watson process to determine the extinction probability of the progeny of a mutant gene. However, it was J. B. S. Haldane who finally gave the first sketch of the correct conclusion. J. B. S. Haldane also predicted that mathematical genetics might some day develop into a "respectable branch of applied mathematics" (quoted in M. Kimura & T. Ohta, Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics. Princeton, 1971). Since the time of Fisher and Haldane, the two fields of branching processes and mathematical genetics have attained a high degree of sophistication but in different directions. This monograph is a first attempt to apply the current sta...

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Axonal Branch Dynamics in the Developing Nervous System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Chalmers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Branching is an important mechanism by which axons navigate to their targets during neural development. For instance, in the developing zebrafish retinotectal system, selective branching plays a critical role during both initial pathfinding and subsequent arborisation once the target zone has been reached. Here we show how quantitative methods can help extract new information from time-lapse imaging about the nature of the underlying branch dynamics. First, we introduce Dynamic Time Warping to this domain as a method for automatically matching branches between frames, replacing the effort required for manual matching. Second, we model branch dynamics as a birth-death process, i.e. a special case of a continuous-time Markov process. This reveals that the birth rate for branches from zebrafish retinotectal axons, as they navigate across the tectum, increased over time. We observed no significant change in the death rate for branches over this time period. However, blocking neuronal activity with TTX slightly increased the death rate, without a detectable change in the birth rate. Third, we show how the extraction of these rates allows computational simulations of branch dynamics whose statistics closely match the data. Together these results reveal new aspects of the biology of retinotectal pathfinding, and introduce computational techniques which are applicable to the study of axon branching more generally.

  17. Trusted Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Theis Solberg; Torbensen, Rune

    2012-01-01

    remote access via IP-based devices such as smartphones. The Trusted Domain platform fits existing legacy technologies by managing their interoperability and access controls, and it seeks to avoid the security issues of relying on third-party servers outside the home. It is a distributed system...... of wireless standards, limited resources of embedded systems, etc. Taking these challenges into account, we present a Trusted Domain home automation platform, which dynamically and securely connects heterogeneous networks of Short-Range Wireless devices via simple non-expert user. interactions, and allows......In the digital age of home automation and with the proliferation of mobile Internet access, the intelligent home and its devices should be accessible at any time from anywhere. There are many challenges such as security, privacy, ease of configuration, incompatible legacy devices, a wealth...

  18. Characterization of cis-Acting RNA Elements of Zika Virus by Using a Self-Splicing Ribozyme-Dependent Infectious Clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-Yu; Yu, Jiu-Yang; Huang, Xing-Yao; Fan, Hang; Li, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Ji, Xue; Cheng, Meng-Li; Ye, Qing; Zhao, Hui; Han, Jian-Feng; An, Xiao-Ping; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Bo; Tong, Yi-Gang; Qin, Cheng-Feng

    2017-11-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused significant outbreaks and epidemics in the Americas recently, raising global concern due to its ability to cause microcephaly and other neurological complications. A stable and efficient infectious clone of ZIKV is urgently needed. However, the instability and toxicity of flavivirus cDNA clones in Escherichia coli hosts has hindered the development of ZIKV infectious clones. Here, using a novel self-splicing ribozyme-based strategy, we generated a stable infectious cDNA clone of a contemporary ZIKV strain imported from Venezuela to China in 2016. The constructed clone contained a modified version of the group II self-splicing intron P.li.LSUI2 near the junction between the E and NS1 genes, which were removed from the RNA transcripts by an easy-to-establish in vitro splicing reaction. Transfection of the spliced RNAs into BHK-21 cells led to the production of infectious progeny virus that resembled the parental virus. Finally, potential cis -acting RNA elements in ZIKV genomic RNA were identified based on this novel reverse genetics system, and the critical role of 5'-SLA promoter and 5'-3' cyclization sequences were characterized by a combination of different assays. Our results provide another stable and reliable reverse genetics system for ZIKV that will help study ZIKV infection and pathogenesis, and the novel self-splicing intron-based strategy could be further expanded for the construction of infectious clones from other emerging and reemerging flaviviruses. IMPORTANCE The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks have drawn global concern due to the unexpected causal link to fetus microcephaly and other severe neurological complications. The infectious cDNA clones of ZIKV are critical for the research community to study the virus, understand the disease, and inform vaccine design and antiviral screening. A panel of existing technologies have been utilized to develop ZIKV infectious clones. Here, we successfully generated a stable

  19. Dynamic Crack Branching - A Photoelastic Evaluation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    0.41 mPai and a 0.18 MPa, and predicted a theoretical kinking angle of 84°whichagreed well with experimentally measured angle. After crack kinking...Consistent crack branching’at KIb = 2.04 MPaI -i- and r = 1.3 mm verified this crack branching criterion. The crack branching angle predicted by--.’ DD

  20. Convergence in gradient systems with branching of equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaktionov, V A; Pohozaev, Stanislav I; Shishkov, A E

    2007-01-01

    The basic model is a semilinear elliptic equation with coercive C 1 non-linearity: Δψ+f(ψ)=0 in Ω, ψ=0 on ∂Ω, where Ω subset of R N is a bounded smooth domain. The main hypothesis (H R ) about resonance branching is as follows: if a branching of equilibria occurs at a point ψ with k-dimensional kernel of the linearized operator Δ+f'(ψ)I, then the branching subset S k at ψ is a locally smooth k-dimensional manifold. For N=1 the first result on the stabilization to a single equilibrium is due to Zelenyak (1968). It is shown that Zelenyak's approach, which is based on the analysis of Lyapunov functions, can be extended to general gradient systems in Hilbert spaces with smooth resonance branching. The case of asymptotically small non-autonomous perturbations of such systems is also considered. The approach developed here represents an alternative to Hale's stabilization method (1992) and other similar techniques in the theory of gradient systems. Bibliography: 32 titles.

  1. Branched-Chain Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Keisuke; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Yukawa, Hideaki

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), viz., L-isoleucine, L-leucine, and L-valine, are essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in higher organisms and are important nutrition for humans as well as livestock. They are also valued as synthetic intermediates for pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the demand for BCAAs in the feed and pharmaceutical industries is increasing continuously. Traditional industrial fermentative production of BCAAs was performed using microorganisms isolated by random mutagenesis. A collection of these classical strains was also scientifically useful to clarify the details of the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are tightly regulated by feedback inhibition and transcriptional attenuation. Based on this understanding of the metabolism of BCAAs, it is now possible for us to pursue strains with higher BCAA productivity using rational design and advanced molecular biology techniques. Additionally, systems biology approaches using augmented omics information help us to optimize carbon flux toward BCAA production. Here, we describe the biosynthetic pathways of BCAAs and their regulation and then overview the microorganisms developed for BCAA production. Other chemicals, including isobutanol, i.e., a second-generation biofuel, can be synthesized by branching the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are also outlined.

  2. ACPSEM (NZ Branch) annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The 1998 annual meeting of the New Zealand Branch of the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine was held at the Christchurch School of Medicine over 26-27 November 1998, and attracted a record number of around 45 registrations. The meeting serves a number of purposes but one of the primary ones is to bring together scientists in medicine from around the country to compare notes on practices and advances, particularly in radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology physics. Following the meeting format established over recent years, separate workshops were devoted to radiotherapy physics and developments in the regional centres represented, and to practical issues relating to medical physics in diagnostic radiology. The workshops were held in parallel with presentations of scientific papers covering a wide range of topics, but with about half relating to engineering applications in medicine. (author)

  3. Branching process models of cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This volume develops results on continuous time branching processes and applies them to study rate of tumor growth, extending classic work on the Luria-Delbruck distribution. As a consequence, the authors calculate the probability that mutations that confer resistance to treatment are present at detection and quantify the extent of tumor heterogeneity. As applications, the authors evaluate ovarian cancer screening strategies and give rigorous proofs for results of Heano and Michor concerning tumor metastasis. These notes should be accessible to students who are familiar with Poisson processes and continuous time. Richard Durrett is mathematics professor at Duke University, USA. He is the author of 8 books, over 200 journal articles, and has supervised more than 40 Ph.D. students. Most of his current research concerns the applications of probability to biology: ecology, genetics, and most recently cancer.

  4. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  5. Field electron emission from branched nanotubes film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Baoqing; Tian Shikai; Yang Zhonghai

    2005-01-01

    We describe the preparation and analyses of films composed of branched carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The CNTs were grown on a Ni catalyst film using chemical vapor deposition from a gas containing acetylene. From scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses, the branched structure of the CNTs was determined; the field emission characteristics in a vacuum chamber indicated a lower turn on field for branched CNTs than normal CNTs

  6. Current perspectives on shoot branching regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunquan YUAN,Lin XI,Yaping KOU,Yu ZHAO,Liangjun ZHAO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching is regulated by the complex interactions among hormones, development, and environmental factors. Recent studies into the regulatory mecha-nisms of shoot branching have focused on strigolactones, which is a new area of investigation in shoot branching regulation. Elucidation of the function of the D53 gene has allowed exploration of detailed mechanisms of action of strigolactones in regulating shoot branching. In addition, the recent discovery that sucrose is key for axillary bud release has challenged the established auxin theory, in which auxin is the principal agent in the control of apical dominance. These developments increase our understan-ding of branching control and indicate that regulation of shoot branching involves a complex network. Here, we first summarize advances in the systematic regulatory network of plant shoot branching based on current information. Then we describe recent developments in the synthesis and signal transduction of strigolactones. Based on these considerations, we further summarize the plant shoot branching regulatory network, including long distance systemic signals and local gene activity mediated by strigolactones following perception of external envi-ronmental signals, such as shading, in order to provide a comprehensive overview of plant shoot branching.

  7. [Branches of the National Institute of Hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromulska, Marta

    2008-01-01

    National Epidemiological Institute (National Institute of Hygiene, from 7th September 1923) was established in 1918 in Warsaw and acted at national level. Its actions in the field of diseases combat were supported by bacteriological stations and vaccine production in voivodeship cities, which were taken charge of by the state, and names "National Epidemiological Institutes". According to the ministers resolution from 6th July 1921,Epidemiological Institutes were merged to National Central Epidemiological Institutes (PZH), the epidemiological institutes outside Warsaw were named branches, which were to be located in every voivodeship city, according to the initial organizational resolutions. There were country branches of NCEI in: Cracow, Lwów, Lódź, Toruń, Lublin, and Wilno in the period 1919-1923. New branches in Poznań (1925), Gdynia(1934), Katowice (Voivodeship Institute of Hygiene (1936), Luck (1937), Stanisławów (1937), Kielce(1938), and Brześć/Bug (Municipal Station acting as branch of National Central Epidemiological Institute. Branches were subordinated to NCEI-PZH) in Warsaw where action plans and unified research and diagnostic method were established and annual meeting of the country branches managers took place. All branches cooperated with hospitals, national health services, district general practitioners and administration structure in control of infectious diseases. In 1938, the post of branch inspector was established, the first of whom was Feliks Przesmycki PhD. Branches cooperated also with University of Cracow, University of Lwów and University of Wilno. In 1935, National Institutes of Food Research was incorporated in PZH, Water Department was established, and these areas of activity began to develop in the branches accordingly. In 1938 there were 13 branches of PZH, and each had three divisions: bacteriological, food research and water research. Three branches in Cracow, Kielce and Lublin worked during World War II under German

  8. .Gov Domains API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This dataset offers the list of all .gov domains, including state, local, and tribal .gov domains. It does not include .mil domains, or other federal domains outside...

  9. Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ghiringhelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study is focused on evaluation and use of the most effective and correct nutrients. In particular, our attention is directed to the role of certain amino acids in cachectic patients. During parenteral nutrition in humans, physician already associates in the PN-bags different formulations including amino acids, lipids and glucose solutions or essential amino acids solution alone or exclusively branched-chain amino acids (BCAA. Studies investigated the effects of dietary BCAA ingestion on different diseases and conditions such as obesity and metabolic disorders, liver disease, muscle atrophy, cancer, impaired immunity or injuries (surgery, trauma, burns, and sepsis. BCAAs have been shown to affect gene expression, protein metabolism, apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes, and insulin resistance. They have also been shown to inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro, and are essential for lymphocyte proliferation and dendritic cell maturation. Oral or parenteral administration of these three amino acids will allow us to evaluate the real efficacy of these compounds during a therapy to treat malnutrition in subjects unable to feed themselves.

  10. AVM branch vibration test equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    An inventory of the test equipment of the AVM Branch ''Acoustic and Vibratory Mechanics Analysis Methods'' group has been undertaken. The purpose of this inventory is to enable better acquaintance with the technical characteristics of the equipment, providing an accurate definition of their functionalities, ad to inform potential users of the possibilities and equipment available in this field. The report first summarizes the various experimental surveys conduced. Then, using the AVM equipment database to draw up an exhaustive list of available equipment, it provides a full-scope picture of the vibration measurement systems (sensors, conditioners and exciters) and data processing resources commonly used on industrial sites and in laboratories. A definition is also given of a mobile test unit, called 'shelter', and a test bench used for the testing and performance rating of the experimental analysis methods developed by the group. The report concludes with a description of two fixed installations: - the calibration bench ensuring the requisite quality level for the vibration measurement systems ; - the training bench, whereby know-how acquired in the field in the field of measurement and experimental analysis processes is made available to others. (author). 27 refs., 15 figs., 2 appends

  11. Geometrical scaling, furry branching and minijets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Scaling properties and their violations in hadronic collisions are discussed in the framework of the geometrical branching model. Geometrical scaling supplemented by Furry branching characterizes the soft component, while the production of jets specifies the hard component. Many features of multiparticle production processes are well described by this model. 21 refs

  12. Branching out Has So Much to Offer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joe

    2012-01-01

    In 1989 there were thirty ATM branches nationally. In January 2012 there were just twelve ATM branches with another three "proposed". How can that happen? How did it happen? Maybe the most pertinent question is: Why did it happen? There is no single answer to the last question, but perhaps it was something to do with the changes that…

  13. Conformal branching rules and modular invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Using the outer automorphisms of the affine algebra SU(n), we show how the branching rules for the conformal subalgebra SU(pq) contains SU(p) x SU(q) may be simply calculated. We demonstrate that new modular invariant combinations of SU(n) characters are obtainable from the branching rules. (orig.)

  14. Aeroacoustics of pipe systems with closed branches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonon, D.; Hirschberg, A.; Golliard, J.; Ziada, S.

    2011-01-01

    Flow induced pulsations in resonant pipe networks with closed branches are considered in this review paper. These pulsations, observed in many technical applications, have been identified as self-sustained aeroacoustic oscillations driven by the instability of the flow along the closed branches. The

  15. Branching miter joints : principles and artwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, T.; Verhoeff, K.; Hart, G.W.; Sarhangi, R.

    2010-01-01

    A miter joint connects two beams, typically of the same cross section, at an angle such that the longitudinal beam edges continue across the joint. When more than two beams meet in one point, like in a tree, we call this a branching joint. In a branching miter joint, the beams’ longitudinal edges

  16. Branching bisimulation congruence for probabilistic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trcka, N.; Georgievska, S.; Aldini, A.; Baier, C.

    2008-01-01

    The notion of branching bisimulation for the alternating model of probabilistic systems is not a congruence with respect to parallel composition. In this paper we first define another branching bisimulation in the more general model allowing consecutive probabilistic transitions, and we prove that

  17. Prebiotic branched galacto-oligosaccharides (gos)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts van Bueren-Brandt, Alica; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2018-01-01

    The invention relates to galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) compositions and the use thereof. Provided is the use of a GOS composition comprising branched and linear GOS species having a degree of polymerization (DP) of 3, wherein the branched DP3 GOS species are present in excess of linear DP3 GOS

  18. [Croatian Medical Association--Branch Zagreb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaić, Zvonimir; Sain, Snjezana; Gulić, Mirjana; Mahovlić, Vjekoslav; Krznarić, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    The available literature shows us that "Druztvo ljeciteljah u Zagrebus (the Society of Healers in Zagreb) was founded as far back as the year 1845 by a total of thirteen members. This data allows us to follow the role of doctors and health workers in Zagreb through their everyday profession, research, organizational and social work as well as management through a period of over one hundred to seventy years. The Branch Zagreb was active before the official establishment of subsidiaries of CMA which is evident from the minutes of the regular annual assembly of the Croatian Medical Association on 21 March 1948. Until the end of 1956, there was no clear division of labor, functions and competencies between the Branch and the Main Board. Their actions were instead consolidated and the Branch operated within and under the name of Croatian Medical Association. In that year the Branch became independent. The Branch Zagreb is the largest and one of the most active branches of the Croatian Medical Association. At the moment, the Branch brings together 3621 members, regular members--doctors of medicine (2497), doctors of dental medicine (384), retired physicians (710), and associate members (30 specialists with higher education who are not doctors). The Branch is especially accomplished in its activities in the area of professional development of its members and therefore organizes a series of scientific conferences in the framework of continuous education of physicians, allowing its members to acquire necessary points for the extension of their operating license. The choir "Zagrebacki lijecnici pjevaci" (Zagreb Physicians' Choir) of the Croatian Medical Music Society of the CMA and its activities are inseparable from the Branch Zagreb. The Branch is firmly linked to the parent body, the CMA, and thus has a visible impact on the strategy and the activities of the Association as a whole. Most professional societies of the CMA have their headquarters in Zagreb and this is

  19. Structural analysis of the role of TPX2 in branching microtubule nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thawani, Akanksha

    2017-01-01

    The mitotic spindle consists of microtubules (MTs), which are nucleated by the γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC). How the γ-TuRC gets activated at the right time and location remains elusive. Recently, it was uncovered that MTs nucleate from preexisting MTs within the mitotic spindle, which requires the protein TPX2, but the mechanism basis for TPX2 action is unknown. Here, we investigate the role of TPX2 in branching MT nucleation. We establish the domain organization of Xenopus laevis TPX2 and define the minimal TPX2 version that stimulates branching MT nucleation, which we find is unrelated to TPX2’s ability to nucleate MTs in vitro. Several domains of TPX2 contribute to its MT-binding and bundling activities. However, the property necessary for TPX2 to induce branching MT nucleation is contained within newly identified γ-TuRC nucleation activator motifs. Separation-of-function mutations leave the binding of TPX2 to γ-TuRC intact, whereas branching MT nucleation is abolished, suggesting that TPX2 may activate γ-TuRC to promote branching MT nucleation. PMID:28264915

  20. FY 1990 Applied Sciences Branch annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, B.M.; Dippo, P.C. (eds.)

    1991-11-01

    The Applied Sciences Branch actively supports the advancement of DOE/SERI goals for the development and implementation of the solar photovoltaic technology. The primary focus of the laboratories is to provide state-of-the-art analytical capabilities for materials and device characterization and fabrication. The branch houses a comprehensive facility which is capable of providing information on the full range of photovoltaic components. A major objective of the branch is to aggressively pursue collaborative research with other government laboratories, universities, and industrial firms for the advancement of photovoltaic technologies. Members of the branch disseminate research findings to the technical community in publications and presentations. This report contains information on surface and interface analysis, materials characterization, development, electro-optical characterization module testing and performance, surface interactions and FTIR spectroscopy.

  1. Code 672 observational science branch computer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, D. W.; Shirk, H. G.

    1988-01-01

    In general, networking increases productivity due to the speed of transmission, easy access to remote computers, ability to share files, and increased availability of peripherals. Two different networks within the Observational Science Branch are described in detail.

  2. Overview of the Advanced High Frequency Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the competencies, selected areas of research and technology development activities, and current external collaborative efforts of the NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced High Frequency Branch.

  3. Star-Branched Polymers (Star Polymers)

    KAUST Repository

    Hirao, Akira; Hayashi, Mayumi; Ito, Shotaro; Goseki, Raita; Higashihara, Tomoya; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of well-defined regular and asymmetric mixed arm (hereinafter miktoarm) star-branched polymers by the living anionic polymerization is reviewed in this chapter. In particular, much attention is being devoted to the synthetic

  4. Hierarchical assembly of branched supramolecular polymers from (cyclic Peptide)-polymer conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ming Liang; Jolliffe, Katrina A; Perrier, Sébastien

    2014-11-10

    We report the synthesis and assembly of (N-methylated cyclic peptide)-polymer conjugates for which the cyclic peptide is attached to either the α- or both α- and ω- end groups of a polymer. A combination of chromatographic, spectroscopic, and scattering techniques reveals that the assembly of the conjugates follows a two-level hierarchy, initially driven by H-bond formation between two N-methylated cyclic peptides, followed by unspecific, noncovalent aggregation of this peptide into small domains that behave as branching points and lead to the formation of branched supramolecular polymers.

  5. Convergence criterion for branched contіnued fractions of the special form with positive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Bodnar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of convergence of the important type of a multidimensional generalization of continued fractions, the branched continued fractions with independent variables, is considered. This fractions are an efficient apparatus for the approximation of multivariable functions, which are represented by multiple power series. When variables are fixed these fractions are called the branched continued fractions of the special form. Their structure is much simpler then the structure of general branched continued fractions. It has given a possibility to establish the necessary and sufficient conditions of convergence of branched continued fractions of the special form with the positive elements. The received result is the multidimensional analog of Seidel's criterion for the continued fractions. The condition of convergence of investigated fractions is the divergence of series, whose elements are continued fractions. Therefore, the sufficient condition of the convergence of this fraction which has been formulated by the divergence of series composed of partial denominators of this fraction, is established. Using the established criterion and Stieltjes-Vitali Theorem the parabolic theorems of branched continued fractions of the special form with complex elements convergence, is investigated. The sufficient conditions gave a possibility to make the condition of convergence of the branched continued fractions of the special form, whose elements lie in parabolic domains.

  6. Branch retinal artery occlusion in Susac's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Susac's syndrome is a rare disease attribuited to a microangiopathy involving the arterioles of the cochlea, retina and brain. Encefalopathy, hearing loss, and visual deficits are the hallmarks of the disease. Visual loss is due to multiple, recurrent branch arterial retinal occlusions. We report a case of a 20-year-old women with Susac syndrome presented with peripheral vestibular syndrome, hearing loss, ataxia, vertigo, and vision loss due occlusion of the retinal branch artery.

  7. AGB [asymptotic giant branch]: Star evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Asymptotic giant branch stars are red supergiant stars of low-to-intermediate mass. This class of stars is of particular interest because many of these stars can have nuclear processed material brought up repeatedly from the deep interior to the surface where it can be observed. A review of recent theoretical and observational work on stars undergoing the asymptotic giant branch phase is presented. 41 refs

  8. Multiprogrammation fast branch driver for microcomputer MICRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Josef; Lacroix, Jean.

    1975-01-01

    This branch driver allows in association with the FIFO memories of the microcomputer Micral, very fast exchanges with the 7 crates of a CAMAC branch. A CAMAC programm (command, test, read, write) is loaded in the 1K FIFO buffer of the Micral before execution time and executed in sequence at a rate of 1,5μs per CAMAC command. After programm execution, data may be transferred directly on a magnetic tape [fr

  9. Conformations and solution properties of star-branched polyelectrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borisov, O.V.; Zhulina, E.B.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Ballauff, M.; Muller, A.H.E.

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of star-like polyelectrolytes (PEs) exhibit distinctive features that originate from the topological complexity of branched macromolecules. In a salt-free solution of branched PEs, mobile counterions preferentially localize in the intramolecular volume of branched macroions.

  10. All change at the CERN UBS branch

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    UBS branches across the country are being modernised, and the CERN branch is no exception. The Bulletin brings you a preview of the project, which will get under way in January 2013.   Mock-up of the renovated UBS branch. The changes at the UBS branch in CERN's Main Building will be no simple facelift. The entire bank will be renovated, transforming the present relatively confined premises into an open and attractive area. "The renovation of the UBS branches is part of a wider campaign designed to further enhance our customer relations," explains Ezio Mangia, the head of the CERN branch.  The UBS bank currently occupies three sets of premises in CERN's Main Building (two on the ground floor and one in the basement). "By the end of the work, which is scheduled to be completed by the middle of next year, CERN customers will benefit from a new area with open-plan counters and "hole-in-the-wall" machines accessible to...

  11. A Dynamic Branch-Switching Method for Parametrically Excited Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y.T. Leung

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The branch-switching algorithm in static is applied to steady state dynamic problems. The governing ordinary differential equations are transformed to nonlinear algebraic equations by means of harmonic balance method using multiple frequency components. The frequency components of the (irrational nonlinearity of oscillator are obtained by Fast Fourier Transform and Toeplitz Jacobian method (FFT/TJM. All singularities, folds, flips, period doubling and period bubbling, are computed accurately in an analytical manner. Coexisting solutions can be predicted without using initial condition search. The consistence of both stability criteria in time and frequency domains is discussed. A highly nonlinear parametrically excited system is given as example. All connected solution paths are predicted.

  12. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lungs develop from the fetal digestive tract where epithelium invades the vascular rich stroma in a process called branching morphogenesis. In organogenesis, endothelial cells have been shown to be important for morphogenesis and the maintenance of organ structure. The aim of this study was to recapitulate human lung morphogenesis in vitro by establishing a three dimensional (3D co-culture model where lung epithelial cells were cultured in endothelial-rich stroma. Methods We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (VA10 recently developed in our laboratory. This cell line cell line maintains a predominant basal cell phenotype, expressing p63 and other basal markers such as cytokeratin-5 and -14. Here, we cultured VA10 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, to mimic the close interaction between these cell types during lung development. Morphogenesis and differentiation was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, immunostainings and confocal imaging. Results We found that in co-culture with endothelial cells, the VA10 cells generated bronchioalveolar like structures, suggesting that lung epithelial branching is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells. The VA10 derived epithelial structures display various complex patterns of branching and show partial alveolar type-II differentiation with pro-Surfactant-C expression. The epithelial origin of the branching VA10 colonies was confirmed by immunostaining. These bronchioalveolar-like structures were polarized with respect to integrin expression at the cell-matrix interface. The endothelial-induced branching was mediated by soluble factors. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2 and sprouty-2 were expressed at the growing tips of the branching structures and the branching was inhibited by the FGFR-small molecule inhibitor SU5402. Discussion In this study we show that a human lung epithelial cell line can be induced by endothelial cells to

  13. The critical domain size of stochastic population models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Jody R; Bonsall, Michael B; Maini, Philip K

    2017-02-01

    Identifying the critical domain size necessary for a population to persist is an important question in ecology. Both demographic and environmental stochasticity impact a population's ability to persist. Here we explore ways of including this variability. We study populations with distinct dispersal and sedentary stages, which have traditionally been modelled using a deterministic integrodifference equation (IDE) framework. Individual-based models (IBMs) are the most intuitive stochastic analogues to IDEs but yield few analytic insights. We explore two alternate approaches; one is a scaling up to the population level using the Central Limit Theorem, and the other a variation on both Galton-Watson branching processes and branching processes in random environments. These branching process models closely approximate the IBM and yield insight into the factors determining the critical domain size for a given population subject to stochasticity.

  14. Thermoelectric effects in disordered branched nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyak, Oleksiy; Piriatinskiy, Andrei

    2013-03-01

    We shall develop formalism of thermal and electrical transport in Si1 - x Gex and BiTe nanowires. The key feature of those nanowires is the possibility of dendrimer type branching. The branching tree can be of size comparable to the short wavelength of phonons and by far smaller than the long wavelength of conducting electrons. Hence it is expected that the branching may suppress thermal and let alone electrical conductance. We demonstrate that the morphology of branches strongly affects the electronic conductance. The effect is important to the class of materials known as thermoelectrics. The small size of the branching region makes large temperature and electrical gradients. On the other hand the smallness of the region would allow the electrical transport being ballistic. As usual for the mesoscopic systems we have to solve macroscopic (temperature) and microscopic ((electric potential, current)) equations self-consistently. Electronic conductance is studied via NEGF formalism on the irreducible electron transfer graph. We also investigate the figure of merit ZT as a measure of the suppressed electron conductance.

  15. Pulsed positive corona streamer propagation and branching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuizen, E.M. van; Rutgers, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    The propagation and branching of pulsed positive corona streamers in a short gap is observed with high resolution in space and time. The appearance of the pre-breakdown phenomena can be controlled by the electrode configuration, the gas composition and the impedance of the pulsed power circuit. In a point-wire gap the positive corona shows much more branching than in the parallel plane gap with a protrusion. In air, the branching is more pronounced than in argon. The pulsed power circuit appears to operate in two modes, either as an inductive circuit creating a lower number of thick streamers or as a resistive circuit giving a higher number of thin streamers. A possible cause for branching is electrostatic repulsion of two parts of the streamer head. The electric field at the streamer head is limited, the maximum values found are ∼170 kV cm -1 in air and ∼100 kV cm -1 in argon. At these maximum field strengths, the electrons have 5-10 eV energy, so the ionization is dominated by two-step processes. Differences between argon and ambient air in the field strength at which streamers propagate are ascribed to the difference in de-excitation processes in noble and molecular gases. The fact that the pulsed power circuit can control the streamer structure is important for applications, but this effect must also be taken into account in fundamental studies of streamer propagation and branching. (author)

  16. Pulsed positive corona streamer propagation and branching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhuizen, E.M. van [Department of Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)]. E-mail: e.m.v.veldhuizen@tue.nl; Rutgers, W.R. [Department of Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2002-09-07

    The propagation and branching of pulsed positive corona streamers in a short gap is observed with high resolution in space and time. The appearance of the pre-breakdown phenomena can be controlled by the electrode configuration, the gas composition and the impedance of the pulsed power circuit. In a point-wire gap the positive corona shows much more branching than in the parallel plane gap with a protrusion. In air, the branching is more pronounced than in argon. The pulsed power circuit appears to operate in two modes, either as an inductive circuit creating a lower number of thick streamers or as a resistive circuit giving a higher number of thin streamers. A possible cause for branching is electrostatic repulsion of two parts of the streamer head. The electric field at the streamer head is limited, the maximum values found are {approx}170 kV cm{sup -1} in air and {approx}100 kV cm{sup -1} in argon. At these maximum field strengths, the electrons have 5-10 eV energy, so the ionization is dominated by two-step processes. Differences between argon and ambient air in the field strength at which streamers propagate are ascribed to the difference in de-excitation processes in noble and molecular gases. The fact that the pulsed power circuit can control the streamer structure is important for applications, but this effect must also be taken into account in fundamental studies of streamer propagation and branching. (author)

  17. Computational models of airway branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D; Nelson, Celeste M

    2017-07-01

    The bronchial network of the mammalian lung consists of millions of dichotomous branches arranged in a highly complex, space-filling tree. Recent computational models of branching morphogenesis in the lung have helped uncover the biological mechanisms that construct this ramified architecture. In this review, we focus on three different theoretical approaches - geometric modeling, reaction-diffusion modeling, and continuum mechanical modeling - and discuss how, taken together, these models have identified the geometric principles necessary to build an efficient bronchial network, as well as the patterning mechanisms that specify airway geometry in the developing embryo. We emphasize models that are integrated with biological experiments and suggest how recent progress in computational modeling has advanced our understanding of airway branching morphogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurement of Tau Lepton Branching Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, N.

    2003-12-19

    We present {tau}{sup -} lepton branching fraction measurements based on data from the TPC/Two-Gamma detector at PEP. Using a sample of {tau}{sup -} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} events, we examine the resonance structure of the K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} system and obtain the first measurements of branching fractions for {tau}{sup -} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sub 1}{sup -}(1270) and {tau}{sup -} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sub 1}{sup -}(1400). We also describe a complete set of branching fraction measurements in which all the decays of the {tau}{sup -} lepton are separated into classes defined by the identities of the charged particles and an estimate of the number of neutrals. This is the first such global measurement with decay classes defined by the four possible charged particle species, e, {mu}, {pi}, and K.

  20. Evolution of the RNase P RNA structural domain in Leptospira spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankar, Vigneshwaran; Ahmed, Ahmed; Sivagnanam, Ulaganathan; Muthuraman, Krishnaraja; Karthikaichamy, Anbarasu; Wilson, Herald A; Devendran, Ajay; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Raj, Stephen M L

    2014-12-01

    We have employed the RNase P RNA (RPR) gene, which is present as single copy in chromosome I of Leptospira spp. to investigate the phylogeny of structural domains present in the RNA subunit of the tRNA processing enzyme, RNase P. RPR gene sequences of 150 strains derived from NCBI database along with sequences determined from 8 reference strains were examined to fathom strain specific structural differences present in leptospiral RPR. Sequence variations in the RPR gene impacted on the configuration of loops, stems and bulges found in the RPR highlighting species and strain specific structural motifs. In vitro transcribed leptospiral RPR ribozymes are demonstrated to process pre-tRNA into mature tRNA in consonance with the positioning of Leptospira in the taxonomic domain of bacteria. RPR sequence datasets used to construct a phylogenetic tree exemplified the segregation of strains into their respective lineages with a (re)speciation of strain SH 9 to Leptospira borgpetersenii, strains Fiocruz LV 3954 and Fiocruz LV 4135 to Leptospira santarosai, strain CBC 613 to Leptospira kirschneri and strain HAI 1536 to Leptospira noguchii. Furthermore, it allowed characterization of an isolate P2653, presumptively characterized as either serovar Hebdomadis, Kremastos or Longnan to Leptospira weilii, serovar Longnan. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Branching time, indeterminism and tense logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thomas; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the historical and philosophical background of the introduction of the notion of branching time in philosophical logic as it is revealed in the hitherto unpublished mail-correspondence between Saul Kripke and A.N. Prior in the late 1950s. The paper reveals that the idea...... relativity. The correspondence underpins the point that Prior’s later development of branching time may be understood as a crucial part of his attempt at the formulating a conceptual framework integrating basic human notions of time and free choice....

  2. Electronic branching ratio of the τ lepton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Coppage, D.; Davis, R.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.; Ro, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Perticone, D.; Poling, R.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Nemati, B.; Romero, V.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, P.; Zoeller, M.M.; Crawford, G.; Fulton, R.; Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Malchow, R.; Morrow, F.; Sung, M.K.; Whitmore, J.; Wilson, P.; Butler, F.; Fu, X.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Lambrecht, M.; Skubic, P.; Snow, J.; Wang, P.; Bortoletto, D.; Brown, D.N.; Dominick, J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Shibata, E.I.; Schaffner, S.F.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Battle, M.; Ernst, J.; Kroha, H.; Roberts, S.; Sparks, K.; Thorndike, E.H.; Wang, C.; Stroynowski, R.; Artuso, M.; Goldberg, M.; Haupt, T.; Horwitz, N.; Kennett, R.; Moneti, G.C.; Playfer, S.; Rozen, Y.; Rubin, P.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Thulasidas, M.; Yao, W.; Zhu, G.; Barnes, A.V.; Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Jain, V.; Letson, T.; Mestayer, M.D.; Akerib, D.S.; Barish, B.; Chadha, M.; Cowen, D.F.; Eigen, G.; Miller, J.S.; Urheim, J.; Weinstein, A.J.; Morrison, R.J.; Tajima, H.; Schmidt, D.; Sperka, D.; Procario, M.; Daoudi, M.; Ford, W.T.; Johnson, D.R.; Lingel, K.; Lohner, M.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.; Alexander, J.; Bebek, C.; Berkelman, K.; Besson, D.; Browder, T.E.; Cassel, D.G.; Cheu, E.; Coffman, D.M.; Drell, P.S.; Ehrlich, R.; Galik, R.S.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Geiser, B.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Honscheid, K.; Jones, C.; Kandaswamy, J.; Katayama, N.; Kim, P.C.; Kreinick, D.L.; Ludwig, G.S.; Masui, J.; Mevissen, J.; Mistry, N.B.; Nandi, S.; Ng, C.R.; Nordberg, E.; O'Grady, C.; Patterson, J.R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Sapper, M.; Selen, M.; Worden, H.; Worris, M.; Wuerthwein, F.; Avery, P.; Freyberger, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Yelton, J.; Henderson, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Pipkin, F.; Saulnier, M.; Wilson, R.; Wolinski, J.; Xiao, D.; Yamamoto, H.; Sadoff, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Using data accumulated by the CLEO I detector operating at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have measured the ratio R=Γ(τ→e bar ν e ν τ )/Γ 1 , where Γ 1 is the τ decay rate to final states with one charged particle. We find R=0.2231±0.0044±0.0073 where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. Together with the measured topological one-charged-particle branching fraction, this yields the branching fraction of the τ lepton to electrons, B e =0.192±0.004±0.006

  3. A new ripplon branch in He II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanatarov, I.V.; Tanatarov, I.V.; Adamenko, I.N.; Nemchenko, K.E.; Wyatt, A.F.G.

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the dispersion relation of ripplons, on the surface of superfluid helium, using the dispersive hydrodynamics approach and find a new ripplon branch. We obtain analytical equation for the dispersion relation and analytic expressions for the limiting cases. The probabilities of decay of unstable ripplons above the roton gap into rotons are derived. A numerical solution for the ripplon dispersion curve is obtained. The new ripplon branch is found at energies just below the instability point of the bulk spectrum, and is investigated; its stability is discussed.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of branched fcc/hcp ruthenium nanostructures and their catalytic activity in ammonia borane hydrolysis

    KAUST Repository

    AlYami, Noktan

    2018-01-30

    Several systems have shown the ability to stabilize uncommon crystal structures during the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. By tailoring the nanoparticle crystal structure, the physical and chemical properties of the particles can also be controlled. Herein, we first synthesized branched nanoparticles of mixed hcp/fcc ruthenium, which were formed using tungsten carbonyl [W(CO)6] as both a reducing agent and a source of carbon monoxide. The branched particles were formed from multiple particulates off a central core. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) clearly showed that the branched structures consisted of aligned hcp crystal domains, a mixture of fcc and hcp crystal domains with several defects and misalignments, and particles that contained multiple cores and branches. Branched particles were also formed with molybdenum carbonyl [Mo(CO)6], and faceted particles of hcp and fcc particles were formed with Re2(CO)10 as a carbon monoxide source. Without metal carbonyls, small particles of spherical hcp ruthenium were produced, and their size could be controlled by the selection of the precursor. The ruthenium nanoparticles were tested for ammonia borane hydrolysis; the branched nanoparticles were more reactive for catalytic hydrogen evolution than the faceted hcp/fcc nanoparticles or the spherical hcp nanoparticles. This work showcases the potential of crystal phase engineering of transition metal nanoparticles by different carbon monoxide precursors for tailoring their catalytic reactivity.

  5. Turing mechanism underlying a branching model for lung morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Sun, Mingzhu; Zhao, Xin

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian lung develops through branching morphogenesis. Two primary forms of branching, which occur in order, in the lung have been identified: tip bifurcation and side branching. However, the mechanisms of lung branching morphogenesis remain to be explored. In our previous study, a biological mechanism was presented for lung branching pattern formation through a branching model. Here, we provide a mathematical mechanism underlying the branching patterns. By decoupling the branching model, we demonstrated the existence of Turing instability. We performed Turing instability analysis to reveal the mathematical mechanism of the branching patterns. Our simulation results show that the Turing patterns underlying the branching patterns are spot patterns that exhibit high local morphogen concentration. The high local morphogen concentration induces the growth of branching. Furthermore, we found that the sparse spot patterns underlie the tip bifurcation patterns, while the dense spot patterns underlies the side branching patterns. The dispersion relation analysis shows that the Turing wavelength affects the branching structure. As the wavelength decreases, the spot patterns change from sparse to dense, the rate of tip bifurcation decreases and side branching eventually occurs instead. In the process of transformation, there may exists hybrid branching that mixes tip bifurcation and side branching. Since experimental studies have reported that branching mode switching from side branching to tip bifurcation in the lung is under genetic control, our simulation results suggest that genes control the switch of the branching mode by regulating the Turing wavelength. Our results provide a novel insight into and understanding of the formation of branching patterns in the lung and other biological systems.

  6. The impact of switching costs on closing of service branches

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Mira G.

    2002-01-01

    The paper deals with the optimal location of service branches. Consumers can receive service from different firms and branches offering substitute services. The consumer chooses the firm and the branch. Examples are banking services (which firm and branch?), healthcare providers, insurance companies and their agents, brokerage firms and their branches. With the change in the accessibility of the internet, the service industry witnesses the impact of the change in technology. More customers pr...

  7. Pulsational instabilities in hot pre-horizontal branch stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battich Tiara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ϵ mechanism is a self-excitation mechanism of pulsations which acts on the regions where nuclear burning takes place. It has been shown that the ϵ mechanism can excite pulsations in models of hot helium-core flash, and that the pulsations of LS IV-14· 116, a He-enriched hot subdwarf star, could be explained that way. We aim to study the ϵmechanism effects on models of hot pre-horizontal branch stars and determine, if possible, a domain of instability in the log g — log Teff plane. We compute non-adiabatic non-radial pulsations on such stellar models, adopting different values of initial chemical abundances and mass of the hydrogen envelope at the time of the main helium flash. We find an instability domain of long-period (400 s ≲ P ≲ 2500 s g-modes for models with 22000K ≲ Teff ≲ 50000K and 4.67 ≲ log g ≲ 6.15.

  8. BranchAnalysis2D/3D automates morphometry analyses of branching structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Aditya; Muñoz-Estrada, Jesús; Bourgeois, Justin R; Nalwalk, Julia W; Pumiglia, Kevin M; Sheen, Volney L; Ferland, Russell J

    2018-01-15

    Morphometric analyses of biological features have become increasingly common in recent years with such analyses being subject to a large degree of observer bias, variability, and time consumption. While commercial software packages exist to perform these analyses, they are expensive, require extensive user training, and are usually dependent on the observer tracing the morphology. To address these issues, we have developed a broadly applicable, no-cost ImageJ plugin we call 'BranchAnalysis2D/3D', to perform morphometric analyses of structures with branching morphologies, such as neuronal dendritic spines, vascular morphology, and primary cilia. Our BranchAnalysis2D/3D algorithm allows for rapid quantification of the length and thickness of branching morphologies, independent of user tracing, in both 2D and 3D data sets. We validated the performance of BranchAnalysis2D/3D against pre-existing software packages using trained human observers and images from brain and retina. We found that the BranchAnalysis2D/3D algorithm outputs results similar to available software (i.e., Metamorph, AngioTool, Neurolucida), while allowing faster analysis times and unbiased quantification. BranchAnalysis2D/3D allows inexperienced observers to output results like a trained observer but more efficiently, thereby increasing the consistency, speed, and reliability of morphometric analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. ORD’s Urban Watershed Management Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a poster for the Edison Science Day, tentatively scheduled for June 10, 2009. This poster presentation summarizes key elements of the EPA Office of Research and Development’s (ORD) Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB). An overview of the national problems posed by w...

  10. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  11. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed's Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering ampersand Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized

  12. Organizing Organoids: Stem Cells Branch Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jamie A

    2017-12-07

    In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Taguchi and Nishinakamura (2017) describe a carefully optimized method for making a branch-competent ureteric bud, a tissue fundamental to kidney development, from mouse embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells. The work illuminates embryology and has important implications for making more realistic kidney organoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Annealed star-branched polyelectrolytes in solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Wolterink, J.; Male, van J.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Koopal, L.K.; Zhulina, E.B.; Borisov, O.V.

    2002-01-01

    Equilibrium conformations of annealed star-branched polyelectrolytes (polyacids) are calculated with a numerical self-consistent-field (SCF) model. From the calculations we obtain also the size and charge of annealed polyelectrolyte stars as a function of the number of arms, pH, and the ionic

  14. Branch President gives evidence at Scottish Parliament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    As the Scottish Government moves forward with its recently announced package of measures on animal health and welfare, Hayley Atkin, BVA Policy Officer, describes a busy month for the President of BVA Scottish Branch representing members in the Scottish Parliament. British Veterinary Association.

  15. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni; Nano, Giovanni; Marcia, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  16. Laughter-induced left bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Grant V; Desai, Dipan; Spragg, David D; Zakaria, Sammy

    2012-10-01

    We present the case of a patient with ischemic heart disease and intermittent left bundle branch block, reproducibly induced by laughter. Following treatment of ischemia with successful deployment of a drug-eluting stent, no further episodes of inducible LBBB were seen. Transient ischemia, exacerbated by elevated intrathoracic pressure during laughter, may have contributed to onset of this phenomenon. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Branching bisimulation congruence for probabilistic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andova, S.; Georgievska, S.; Trcka, N.

    2012-01-01

    A notion of branching bisimilarity for the alternating model of probabilistic systems, compatible with parallel composition, is defined. For a congruence result, an internal transition immediately followed by a non-trivial probability distribution is not considered inert. A weaker definition of

  18. Infrared studies of asymptotic giant branch stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willems, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis studies are presented of asymptotic giant branch stars, which are thought to be an important link in the evolution of the galaxy. The studies were performed on the basis of data collected by the IRAS, the infrared astronomical satelite. 233 refs.; 33 figs.; 16 tabs

  19. Semileptonic b branching fractions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Gagnon, P

    2000-01-01

    I review recent results on semileptonic branching fractions at LEP for Z/sup 0/ to bb data, for the average b hadron then for b baryons. From the inclusive BR(b to lX), one can obtain the most precise value for the CKM matrix element V/sub cb/. (14 refs).

  20. Origin of buds, branches, and sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Recent research shows that survivor trees in rural, managed forests rebuild broken crowns with new branches and foliage after ice storm injury (Shortle et al. 2014). Veteran trees in historic parks and landscapes show repeated cycles of crown loss and recovery (Fay 2002). Crown rebuilding or reiteration from sprouts is a physiological response with architectural...

  1. High speed CAMAC differential branch highway driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, D.E.; Nelson, R.O.; Poore, R.V.; Sunier, J.W.; Ross, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    A new CAMAC branch driver is described that incorporates several unusual features which combine to give reliable, high-speed performance. These include balanced line driver/receivers, stored CAMAC command lists, 8 DMA channels, pseudo LAMS, hardware priority encoding of LAMS, and hardware-implemented Q-controlled block transfers. 3 figures

  2. SETD2 loss-of-function promotes renal cancer branched evolution through replication stress and impaired DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanu, N.; Grönroos, E.; Martinez, P.

    2015-01-01

    Defining mechanisms that generate intratumour heterogeneity and branched evolution may inspire novel therapeutic approaches to limit tumour diversity and adaptation. SETD2 (Su(var), Enhancer of zeste, Trithorax-domain containing 2) trimethylates histone-3 lysine-36 (H3K36me3) at sites of active t...

  3. Environmental control of branching in petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Revel S M; Janssen, Bart J; Luo, Zhiwei; Oplaat, Carla; Ledger, Susan E; Wohlers, Mark W; Snowden, Kimberley C

    2015-06-01

    Plants alter their development in response to changes in their environment. This responsiveness has proven to be a successful evolutionary trait. Here, we tested the hypothesis that two key environmental factors, light and nutrition, are integrated within the axillary bud to promote or suppress the growth of the bud into a branch. Using petunia (Petunia hybrida) as a model for vegetative branching, we manipulated both light quality (as crowding and the red-to-far-red light ratio) and phosphate availability, such that the axillary bud at node 7 varied from deeply dormant to rapidly growing. In conjunction with the phenotypic characterization, we also monitored the state of the strigolactone (SL) pathway by quantifying SL-related gene transcripts. Mutants in the SL pathway inhibit but do not abolish the branching response to these environmental signals, and neither signal is dominant over the other, suggesting that the regulation of branching in response to the environment is complex. We have isolated three new putatively SL-related TCP (for Teosinte branched1, Cycloidia, and Proliferating cell factor) genes from petunia, and have identified that these TCP-type transcription factors may have roles in the SL signaling pathway both before and after the reception of the SL signal at the bud. We show that the abundance of the receptor transcript is regulated by light quality, such that axillary buds growing in added far-red light have greatly increased receptor transcript abundance. This suggests a mechanism whereby the impact of any SL signal reaching an axillary bud is modulated by the responsiveness of these cells to the signal. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Tree Branching: Leonardo da Vinci's Rule versus Biomechanical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule. PMID:24714065

  5. Tree branching: Leonardo da Vinci's rule versus biomechanical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule.

  6. Convectons in periodic and bounded domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, Isabel; Batiste, Oriol; Alonso, Arantxa; Knobloch, Edgar

    2010-01-01

    Numerical continuation is used to compute spatially localized convection in a binary fluid with no-slip laterally insulating boundary conditions and the results are compared with the corresponding ones for periodic boundary conditions (PBC). The change in the boundary conditions produces a dramatic change in the snaking bifurcation diagram that describes the organization of localized states with PBC: the snaking branches turn continuously into a large amplitude state that resembles periodic convection with defects at the sidewalls. Odd parity convectons are more affected by the boundary conditions since the sidewalls suppress the horizontal pumping action that accompanies these states in spatially periodic domains.

  7. Convectons in periodic and bounded domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercader, Isabel; Batiste, Oriol; Alonso, Arantxa [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Knobloch, Edgar [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Numerical continuation is used to compute spatially localized convection in a binary fluid with no-slip laterally insulating boundary conditions and the results are compared with the corresponding ones for periodic boundary conditions (PBC). The change in the boundary conditions produces a dramatic change in the snaking bifurcation diagram that describes the organization of localized states with PBC: the snaking branches turn continuously into a large amplitude state that resembles periodic convection with defects at the sidewalls. Odd parity convectons are more affected by the boundary conditions since the sidewalls suppress the horizontal pumping action that accompanies these states in spatially periodic domains.

  8. 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    González, Miguel; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Martínez, Rodrigo; Minuesa, Carmen; Molina, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Ramos, Alfonso; WBPA15

    2016-01-01

    This volume gathers papers originally presented at the 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications (WBPA15), which was held from 7 to 10 April 2015 in Badajoz, Spain (http://branching.unex.es/wbpa15/index.htm). The papers address a broad range of theoretical and practical aspects of branching process theory. Further, they amply demonstrate that the theoretical research in this area remains vital and topical, as well as the relevance of branching concepts in the development of theoretical approaches to solving new problems in applied fields such as Epidemiology, Biology, Genetics, and, of course, Population Dynamics. The topics covered can broadly be classified into the following areas: 1. Coalescent Branching Processes 2. Branching Random Walks 3. Population Growth Models in Varying and Random Environments 4. Size/Density/Resource-Dependent Branching Models 5. Age-Dependent Branching Models 6. Special Branching Models 7. Applications in Epidemiology 8. Applications in Biology and Genetics Offer...

  9. Distribution of degrees of polymerization in statistically branched polymers with tetrafunctional branch points: model calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilík, Miloš; Kratochvíl, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2006), s. 196-203 ISSN 0959-8103 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100500501; GA AV ČR IAA4050403; GA AV ČR IAA4050409; GA ČR GA203/03/0617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : statistical branching * tetrafunctional branch points * molecular-weight distribution Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.475, year: 2006

  10. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jim; Melcher, C.; Bowen, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Complex natural resource issues require understanding a web of interactions among ecosystem components that are (1) interdisciplinary, encompassing physical, chemical, and biological processes; (2) spatially complex, involving movements of animals, water, and airborne materials across a range of landscapes and jurisdictions; and (3) temporally complex, occurring over days, weeks, or years, sometimes involving response lags to alteration or exhibiting large natural variation. Scientists in the Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center, investigate a diversity of these complex natural resource questions at the landscape and systems levels. This Fact Sheet describes the work of the Ecosystems Dynamics Branch, which is focused on energy and land use, climate change and long-term integrated assessments, herbivore-ecosystem interactions, fire and post-fire restoration, and environmental flows and river restoration.

  11. Photovoltaic Program Branch annual report, FY 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, K A [ed.

    1990-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Photovoltaic (PV) Program Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30, 1989. The branch is responsible for managing the subcontracted portion of SERI's PV Advanced Research and Development Project. In fiscal year (FY) 1989, this included nearly 50 subcontracts, with a total annualized funding of approximately $13.1 million. Approximately two-thirds of the subcontracts were with universities, at a total funding of nearly $4 million. The six technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontracted program: Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, New Ideas, and University Participation. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1989, and future research directions. Each report will be cataloged individually.

  12. Mass loss on the Asymptotic Giant Branch

    OpenAIRE

    Zijlstra, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Mass loss on the Asymptotic Giant Branch provides the origin of planetary nebulae. This paper reviews several relevant aspects of AGB evolution: pulsation properties, mass loss formalisms and time variable mass loss, evidence for asymmetries on the AGB, binarity, ISM interaction, and mass loss at low metallicity. There is growing evidence that mass loss on the AGB is already asymmetric, but with spherically symmetric velocity fields. The origin of the rings may be in pulsational instabilities...

  13. Bent and branched chains of nanoresonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikhova, A. S.; Popov, I. Yu

    2014-10-01

    We study the spectral problem for bent and branched chains of weakly coupled conglobate resonators. At the joint points the δ-coupling is assumed. Our approach is based on the theory of self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators and transfer matrix method. The structure of the spectrum is described. For the both cases it is proved that the Hamiltonian has negative eigenvalue for some values of the model parameters.

  14. COELIAC TRUNK BRANCHING PATTERN AND VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Jose Thomson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anatomical variations involving the visceral arteries are common. However, variations in coeliac trunk are usually asymptomatic, they may become important in patients undergoing diagnostic angiography for gastrointestinal bleeding or prior to an operative procedure. This study was useful for knowing the possible morphological variations before an upper abdominal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a descriptive study done by cadaveric dissection, conducted on thirty cadavers. The coeliac trunk being examined for its origin, branching pattern, distribution, and variations. Results were statistically analysed and compared with the previous studies. RESULTS In our study, 60% of the coeliac trunk shows variations and 40% have normal branching pattern. A complete absence of coeliac trunk was observed in one case. In the present study the Right inferior phrenic artery arising from coeliac trunk in 2 cases (6.6% and left inferior phrenic artery arising from coeliac trunk in 3 cases (9.9%. Both inferior phrenic arteries are arising from coeliac trunk in 2 cases (6.6%. The common hepatomesenteric trunk and gastro splenic trunk was found in 1 case (3.3%. Hepatosplenic trunk was found in 2 cases (6.6%. In another 2 cases (6.6% gastric and hepatic artery originate from coeliac trunk but splenic artery has a separate origin from abdominal aorta. An absent trunk was also found in 1 case (3.3%. In 5 cases (16.7% showed trifurcation with variation in the branching pattern. CONCLUSION The branching pattern and extreme degree variability in coeliac trunk as brought out in the observations of the present study make it obvious that the present study almost falls in description with previous studies.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of branched carbon nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharali Malik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have atomically smooth surfaces and tend not to form covalent bonds with composite matrix materials. Thus, it is the magnitude of the CNT/fiber interfacial strength that limits the amount of nanomechanical interlocking when using conventional CNTs to improve the structural behavior of composite materials through reinforcement. This arises from two well-known, long standing problems in this research field: (a inhomogeneous dispersion of the filler, which can lead to aggregation and (b insufficient reinforcement arising from bonding interactions between the filler and the matrix. These dispersion and reinforcement issues could be addressed by using branched multiwalled carbon nanotubes (b-MWCNTs as it is known that branched fibers can greatly enhance interfacial bonding and dispersability. Therefore, the use of b-MWCNTs would lead to improved mechanical performance and, in the case of conductive composites, improved electrical performance if the CNT filler was better dispersed and connected. This will provide major benefits to the existing commercial application of CNT-reinforced composites in electrostatic discharge materials (ESD: There would be also potential usage for energy conversion, e.g., in supercapacitors, solar cells and Li-ion batteries. However, the limited availability of b-MWCNTs has, to date, restricted their use in such technological applications. Herein, we report an inexpensive and simple method to fabricate large amounts of branched-MWCNTs, which opens the door to a multitude of possible applications.

  16. Cold versus hot fusion deuterium branching ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, H.; Bass, R.

    1995-01-01

    A major source of misunderstanding of the nature of cold nuclear fusion has been the expectation that the deuterium branching ratios occurring within a palladium lattice would be consistent with the gas-plasma branching ratios. This misunderstanding has led to the concept of the dead graduate student, the 1989's feverish but fruitless search for neutron emissions from cold fusion reactors, and the follow-on condemnation of the new science of cold fusion. The experimental facts are that in a properly loaded palladium lattice, the deuterium fusion produces neutrons at little above background, a greatly less-than-expected production of tritium (the tritium desert), and substantially more helium-4 than is observed in hot plasma physics. The experimental evidence is now compelling (800 reports of success from 30 countries) that cold nuclear fusion is a reality, that the branching ratios are unexpected, and that a new science is struggling to be recognized. Commercialization of some types of cold fusion devices has already begun

  17. Optimization of multi-branch switched diversity systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2009-01-01

    A performance optimization based on the optimal switching threshold(s) for a multi-branch switched diversity system is discussed in this paper. For the conventional multi-branch switched diversity system with a single switching threshold

  18. Auxin transport in the evolution of branching forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C Jill

    2017-07-01

    Contents 545 I. 545 II. 546 III. 546 IV. 548 V. 548 VI. 549 VII. 549 Acknowledgements 549 References 549 SUMMARY: Branching is one of the most striking aspects of land plant architecture, affecting resource acquisition and yield. Polar auxin transport by PIN proteins is a primary determinant of flowering plant branching patterns regulating both branch initiation and branch outgrowth. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that PIN-mediated polar auxin transport is a conserved regulator of branching in vascular plant sporophytes. However, the mechanisms of branching and auxin transport and relationships between the two are not well known outside the flowering plants, and the paradigm for PIN-regulated branching in flowering plants does not fit bryophyte gametophytes. The evidence reviewed here suggests that divergent auxin transport routes contributed to the diversification of branching forms in distinct land plant lineages. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Characterization of the Diameter, branch angle and longevity of axial branches of Nothofagusobliqua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Corvalán Vera

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of knowledge about grow dynamics of the living tree crown of Nothofagusobliqua secondary growth forests strongly limits the objective formulation of silvicultural schemes oriented to the industrial production of high quality wood. Therefore, in this work, we described basic relationships between tree size, age and angle branches insertion and the crown. Considering a sample data of 59 dominant trees, distributed in different age conditions, we applied a combined analysis technique of stem analysis, steam taper analysis and thickest branch measurement in each decile of the total height. This approach allowed us to determine that there is a significant relationship between the steam diameter, the angle insertion and the age of the branch, as well as the size and age of the trees. Also, the thicker branches tend to have lower insertion angles, to be older, to be located at lower relative heights and to be located in larger diameter sections. Taking into consideration these relationships, it is possible to build new predicted branch models as tools for the development of silvicultural schemes to suit different log grade.

  20. Asymptotic behaviour near extinction of continuous-state branching processes

    OpenAIRE

    Berzunza, Gabriel; Pardo, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In this note, we study the asymptotic behaviour near extinction of (sub-) critical continuous state branching processes. In particular, we establish an analogue of Khintchin's law of the iterated logarithm near extinction time for a continuous state branching process whose branching mechanism satisfies a given condition and its reflected process at its infimum.

  1. 40 CFR 721.10094 - Decene, branched and linear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decene, branched and linear. 721.10094... Substances § 721.10094 Decene, branched and linear. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as decene, branched and linear (PMN P-03-272; CAS...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3627 - Branched synthetic fatty acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branched synthetic fatty acid. 721... Substances § 721.3627 Branched synthetic fatty acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a branched synthetic fatty acid...

  3. The Adhesion Molecule KAL-1/anosmin-1 Regulates Neurite Branching through a SAX-7/L1CAM–EGL-15/FGFR Receptor Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Díaz-Balzac

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurite branching is essential for correct assembly of neural circuits, yet it remains a poorly understood process. For example, the neural cell adhesion molecule KAL-1/anosmin-1, which is mutated in Kallmann syndrome, regulates neurite branching through mechanisms largely unknown. Here, we show that KAL-1/anosmin-1 mediates neurite branching as an autocrine co-factor with EGL-17/FGF through a receptor complex consisting of the conserved cell adhesion molecule SAX-7/L1CAM and the fibroblast growth factor receptor EGL-15/FGFR. This protein complex, which appears conserved in humans, requires the immunoglobulin (Ig domains of SAX-7/L1CAM and the FN(III domains of KAL-1/anosmin-1 for formation in vitro as well as function in vivo. The kinase domain of the EGL-15/FGFR is required for branching, and genetic evidence suggests that ras-mediated signaling downstream of EGL-15/FGFR is necessary to effect branching. Our studies establish a molecular pathway that regulates neurite branching during development of the nervous system.

  4. Supersymmetric domain walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Kleinschmidt, Axel; Riccioni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    We classify the half-supersymmetric "domain walls," i.e., branes of codimension one, in toroidally compactified IIA/IIB string theory and show to which gauged supergravity theory each of these domain walls belong. We use as input the requirement of supersymmetric Wess-Zumino terms, the properties of

  5. Branching habit and the allocation of reproductive resources in conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Andrew B

    2012-09-01

    Correlated relationships between branch thickness, branch density, and twig and leaf size have been used extensively to study the evolution of plant canopy architecture, but fewer studies have explored the impact of these relationships on the allocation of reproductive resources. This study quantifies pollen cone production in conifers, which have similar basic reproductive biology but vary dramatically in branching habit, in order to test how differences in branch diameter influence pollen cone size and the density with which they are deployed in the canopy. Measurements of canopy branch density, the number of cones per branch and cone size were used to estimate the amount of pollen cone tissues produced by 16 species in three major conifer clades. The number of pollen grains produced was also estimated using direct counts from individual pollen cones. The total amount of pollen cone tissues in the conifer canopy varied little among species and clades, although vegetative traits such as branch thickness, branch density and pollen cone size varied over several orders of magnitude. However, branching habit controls the way these tissues are deployed: taxa with small branches produce small pollen cones at a high density, while taxa with large branches produce large cones relatively sparsely. Conifers appear to invest similar amounts of energy in pollen production independent of branching habit. However, similar associations between branch thickness, branch density and pollen cone size are seen across conifers, including members of living and extinct groups not directly studied here. This suggests that reproductive features relating to pollen cone size are in large part a function of the evolution of vegetative morphology and branching habit.

  6. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  7. STARDUST FROM ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gail, H.-P.; Zhukovska, S. V.; Hoppe, P.; Trieloff, M.

    2009-01-01

    The formation of dust in the outflows of low- and intermediate-mass stars on the first giant branch and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) is studied and the relative contributions of stars of different initial masses and metallicities to the interstellar medium (ISM) at the instant of solar system formation are derived. These predictions are compared with the characteristics of the parent stars of presolar dust grains found in primitive meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) inferred from their isotopic compositions. For this purpose, model calculations for dust condensation in stellar outflows are combined with synthetic models of stellar evolution on the first giant branch and AGB and an evolution model of the Milky Way for the solar neighborhood. The dust components considered are olivine, pyroxene, carbon, SiC, and iron. The corresponding dust production rates are derived for the solar vicinity. From these rates and taking into account dust destruction by supernova shocks in the ISM, the contributions to the inventory of presolar dust grains in the solar system are derived for stars of different initial masses and metallicities. It is shown that stars on the first giant branch and the early AGB are not expected to form dust, in accord with astronomical observations. Dust formation is concentrated in the last phase of evolution, the thermally pulsing AGB. Due to the limited lifetime of dust grains in the ISM only parent stars from a narrow range of metallicities are expected to contribute to the population of presolar dust grains. Silicate and silicon carbide dust grains are predicted to come from parent stars with metallicities not less than about Z ∼ 0.008 (0.6 x solar). This metallicity limit is higher than that inferred from presolar SiC grain isotope data. The population of presolar carbon dust grains is predicted to originate from a wider range of metallicities, down to Z ∼ 0.004. Masses of AGB stars that produce C-rich dust are in the range

  8. Organization and targets of the European Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldi, R

    1997-12-01

    After a short historical review of the formation, objectives and organization of the International Geothermal Association (IGA), this paper describes the functions, goals and activities of the IGA European Branch. In particular, the paper illustrates the plan of action established for the periods 1993-`95 and 1996-`98, and the issues dealt with by the European Forum as of August 1996. The last section of the paper outlines the main problems to be faced in the near future in order to facilitate the aggregation of efforts, the amalgamation of promotional initiatives and the coordination of the basic activities needed for the consolidation and growth of the geothermal community in Europe. (orig.)

  9. Accelerator Physics Branch annual technical report, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, J.A.

    1990-08-01

    The report describes, in a series of separate articles, the achievements of the Accelerator Physics Branch for the calendar year 1989. Work in basic problems of accelerator physics including ion sources, high-duty-factor rf quadrupoles, coupling effects in standing wave linacs and laser acceleration is outlined. A proposal for a synchrotron light source for Canada is described. Other articles cover the principal design features of the IMPELA industrial electron linac prototype, the cavities developed for the HERA complex at DESY, Hamburg, West Germany, and further machine projects that have been completed

  10. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  11. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  12. NASA Glenn Research Center Electrochemistry Branch Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Hoberecht, Mark; Reid, Concha

    2010-01-01

    This presentation covers an overview of NASA Glenn's history and heritage in the development of electrochemical systems for aerospace applications. Current programs related to batteries and fuel cells are addressed. Specific areas of focus are Li-ion batteries and Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel cells systems and their development for future Exploration missions. The presentation covers details of current component development efforts for high energy and ultra high energy Li-ion batteries and non-flow-through fuel cell stack and balance of plant development. Electrochemistry Branch capabilities and facilities are also addressed.

  13. Geology of the Cane Branch and Helton Branch watershed areas, McCreary County, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Erwin J.

    1957-01-01

    Cane Branch and Helton Branch in McCreary County, Kentucky, are about 1.4 miles apart (fig. 1). Can Branch, which is about 2.1 miles long, emptied into Hughes Fork of Beaver Creek. Its watershed area of about 1.5 square miles lies largely in the Wiborf 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (SW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle), but the downstream part of the area extends northward into the Hail 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (NW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle). Helton Branch, which is about 1.1 miles long, has two tributaries and empties into Little Hurricane Fork of Beaver Creek. It drains an area of about 0.8 square mile of while about 0.5 square mile is in the Hail quadrangle and the remainder in the Wilborg quadrangle. The total relief in the Can Branch area is about 500 feet and in the Helton Branch area about 400 feet. Narrow, steep-sided to canyon-like valley and winding ridges, typical of the Pottsville escarpment region, are characteristic of both areas. Thick woods and dense undergrowth cover much of the two areas. Field mapping was done on U.S. Geological Survey 7 1/2-minute maps having a scale of 1:24,000 and a contour interval of 20 feet. Elevations of lithologic contacts were determined with a barometer and a hand level. Aerial photographs were used principally to trace the cliffs formed by sandstone and conglomerate ledges. Exposures, except for those of the cliff- and ledge-forming sandstone and conglomerates, are not abundant. The most complete stratigraphic sections (secs. 3 and 4, fig. 2) in the two areas are exposed in cuts of newly completed Forest Service roads, but the rick in the upper parts of the exposures is weathered. To supplement these sections, additional sections were measured in cuts along the railroad and main highways in nor near the watersheds.

  14. Branched-linear and agglomerate protein polymers as vaccine platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leyi; Xia, Ming; Huang, Pengwei; Fang, Hao; Cao, Dianjun; Meng, Xiang-Jin; McNeal, Monica; Jiang, Xi; Tan, Ming

    2014-09-01

    Many viral structural proteins and their truncated domains share a common feature of homotypic interaction forming dimers, trimers, and/or oligomers with various valences. We reported previously a simple strategy for construction of linear and network polymers through the dimerization feature of viral proteins for vaccine development. In this study, technologies were developed to produce more sophisticated polyvalent complexes through both the dimerization and oligomerization natures of viral antigens. As proof of concept, branched-linear and agglomerate polymers were made via fusions of the dimeric glutathione-s-transferase (GST) with either a tetrameric hepatitis E virus (HEV) protruding protein or a 24-meric norovirus (NoV) protruding protein. Furthermore, a monomeric antigen, either the M2e epitope of influenza A virus or the VP8* antigen of rotavirus, was inserted and displayed by the polymer platform. All resulting polymers were easily produced in Escherichia coli at high yields. Immunization of mice showed that the polymer vaccines induced significantly higher specific humoral and T cell responses than those induced by the dimeric antigens. Additional evidence in supporting use of polymer vaccines included the significantly higher neutralization activity and protective immunity of the polymer vaccines against the corresponding viruses than those of the dimer vaccines. Thus, our technology for production of polymers containing different viral antigens offers a strategy for vaccine development against infectious pathogens and their associated diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Persistence-Based Branch Misprediction Bounds for WCET Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Branch prediction is an important feature of pipelined processors to achieve high performance. However, it can lead to overly pessimistic worst-case execution time (WCET) bounds when being modeled too conservatively. This paper presents bounds on the number of branch mispredictions for local...... dynamic branch predictors. To handle interferences between branch instructions we use the notion of persistence, a concept that is also found in cache analyses. The bounds apply to branches in general, not only to branches that close a loop. Furthermore, the bounds can be easily integrated into integer...... linear programming formulations of the WCET problem. An evaluation on a number of benchmarks shows that with these bounds, dynamic branch prediction does not necessarily lead to higher WCET bounds than static prediction schemes....

  16. Large branched self-assembled DNA complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosch, Paul; Waelti, Christoph; Middelberg, Anton P J; Davies, A Giles

    2007-01-01

    Many biological molecules have been demonstrated to self-assemble into complex structures and networks by using their very efficient and selective molecular recognition processes. The use of biological molecules as scaffolds for the construction of functional devices by self-assembling nanoscale complexes onto the scaffolds has recently attracted significant attention and many different applications in this field have emerged. In particular DNA, owing to its inherent sophisticated self-organization and molecular recognition properties, has served widely as a scaffold for various nanotechnological self-assembly applications, with metallic and semiconducting nanoparticles, proteins, macromolecular complexes, inter alia, being assembled onto designed DNA scaffolds. Such scaffolds may typically contain multiple branch-points and comprise a number of DNA molecules selfassembled into the desired configuration. Previously, several studies have used synthetic methods to produce the constituent DNA of the scaffolds, but this typically constrains the size of the complexes. For applications that require larger self-assembling DNA complexes, several tens of nanometers or more, other techniques need to be employed. In this article, we discuss a generic technique to generate large branched DNA macromolecular complexes

  17. Synthesis of branched naphthoquinones from castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Olímpio da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The naphthoquinones are cyclic aromatic α,β-dienonas with a basic framework derived from naphthalene. They are also found in many higher plants, algae, fungi and as the product of the  metabolism  of some  bacteria  having large biologica activity described in the literature such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anticancer and trypanocidal [1-3]. Castor oil is an abundant raw material in Brazil of great versatility and, it is present in biodiesel production, surfactants, cosmetics and others. Considering the importance of naphthoquinones and, the availability of the ricinoleic acid from castor oil, the aim of this study was the preparation of new branched naphthoquinones in order to test their trypanocidal activity. Castor oil was submitted to saponification with sodium hydroxide, ethanol and water under reflux for 6 h. We then carried out an acid hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid and the formed ricinoleic acid was extracted with ethyl acetate. Following, through Kochi-Anderson addition reaction it was performed the alkylation of a naphthoquinone 1 and 2, using ammonium persulfate, silver nitrate, acetonitrile and water, under heating at 70-80 ° C during 3 h, to give the branched naphthoquinones 4 and 5 (scheme 1. The naphthoquinone 3 will be similarly submitted to this procedure. The naphthoquinones 4 and 5 were purified by column chromatography on sílica gel using hexane as the eluent. The compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry and 1H and 13CNMR spectroscopy.

  18. Fixman compensating potential for general branched molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Abhinandan, E-mail: Abhi.Jain@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Kandel, Saugat; Wagner, Jeffrey; Larsen, Adrien; Vaidehi, Nagarajan, E-mail: nvaidehi@coh.org [Division of Immunology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, California 91010 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    The technique of constraining high frequency modes of molecular motion is an effective way to increase simulation time scale and improve conformational sampling in molecular dynamics simulations. However, it has been shown that constraints on higher frequency modes such as bond lengths and bond angles stiffen the molecular model, thereby introducing systematic biases in the statistical behavior of the simulations. Fixman proposed a compensating potential to remove such biases in the thermodynamic and kinetic properties calculated from dynamics simulations. Previous implementations of the Fixman potential have been limited to only short serial chain systems. In this paper, we present a spatial operator algebra based algorithm to calculate the Fixman potential and its gradient within constrained dynamics simulations for branched topology molecules of any size. Our numerical studies on molecules of increasing complexity validate our algorithm by demonstrating recovery of the dihedral angle probability distribution function for systems that range in complexity from serial chains to protein molecules. We observe that the Fixman compensating potential recovers the free energy surface of a serial chain polymer, thus annulling the biases caused by constraining the bond lengths and bond angles. The inclusion of Fixman potential entails only a modest increase in the computational cost in these simulations. We believe that this work represents the first instance where the Fixman potential has been used for general branched systems, and establishes the viability for its use in constrained dynamics simulations of proteins and other macromolecules.

  19. An Anomalous Branching of Coeliac Trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav Surekha D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations of the coeliac trunk arevery common. A variation of coeliac trunk oc-curs due to the developmental abnormalities inthe ventral splanchnic arteries. Present paperhighlights a rare variation of branching patternof coeliac trunk which was observed during rou-tine dissection. In a 63 year old male cadaver,we observed a bifurcation of coeliac trunk intoshort hepato-splenic and longer hepato-gastrictrunks. The hepato-splenic trunk divided intocommon hepatic artery and splenic artery. Cys-tic artery originated from proper hepatic arteryand then proper hepatic artery divided into rightand left hepatic arteries. Hepato-gastric trunkran laterally and upward, and then it divided intotwo branches: a left gastric artery and left ac-cessory hepatic artery. Knowledge of this rarevariation is clinically very important for sur-geons, especially while performing liver trans-plantation, gastric, gallbladder surgeries andtransarterial chemoembolization for hepatictumor and during invasive procedures like an-giography and also other radiological studies.

  20. Branching pathways in the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalisky, O.; Ottolenghi, M.

    1982-01-01

    The pulsed laser photolysis of light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (BR 570 ) is carried out between 25 C and -92 C in neutral and alkaline water-glycerol solutions. At relatively low temperatures the primary photoproduct K 610 equilibrates with a blue-shifted species, Ksub(p). Both K 610 and the new intermediate subsequently decay into another species, K'sub(p), in a process which competes with the formation of L 550 . Finally, K'sub(p) converts very slowly to L 550 . This branched pathway delays the formation of L 550 and thus of M 412 , without affecting the final yield of either species. A thermal back-reaction regenerating BR 570 takes place at the stage of L 550 , inhibiting the formation of M 412 . The reaction which also predominates at low temperatures, is relatively inefficient at high pH when the forward L 550 → M 412 step is highly catalyzed. It is the superposition of both these branching mechanisms which accounts for the complex effects of temperature and pH on the photocycle of BR 570 . The latter mechanism is accounted for by a molecular scheme in which deprotonation of a tyrosine moiety at the stage of L 550 constitutes a prerequisite for deprotonation of the retinal-lysine schiff-base as required for forming M 412 . This scheme appears to be directly related to the proton pump. (author)

  1. Cravity modulation of the moss Tortula modica branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorkavtsiv, Yaroslava; Kit, Nadja

    Among various abiotic factors the sensor system of plants constantly perceives light and gravitation impulses and reacts on their action by photo- and gravitropisms. Tropisms play fundamental part in ontogenesis and determination of plant forms. Essentially important question is how light initiating phototropic bending modulates gravitropism. In contrast to flower plants, red light is phototropically active for mosses, and phytochromic system controls initiation of apical growth, branching and photomorphogenesis of mosses. The aim of this investigation was to analyse cell branching of protonemata Tortula modica Zander depending on the direction of light and gravitation vector. The influence of light and gravitation on the form of protonemal turf T. modica, branching and the angle of lateral branches relative to axis of mother cell growth has been investigated. As moss protonemata is not branched in the darkness, light is necessary for branching activation. Minimally low intensity of the red light (0.2 mmol (.) m (-2) ({) .}sec (-1) ) induced branching without visual display of phototropic growth. It has been established that unidirectional action of light and gravitation intensifies branching, and, on the contrary, perpendicularly oriented vectors of factors weaken branches formation. Besides, parallel oriented vectors initiated branching from both cell sides, but oppositely directed vectors initiated branching only from one side. Clinostate rotation the change of the vector gravity and causes uniform cell branching, hence, light and gravitation mutually influence the branching system form of the protonemata cell. It has been shown that the angle of lateral branches in darkness does not depend on the direction of light and gravitation action. After lighting the local growth of the cell wall took place mainly under the angle 90 (o) to the axes of mother cell growth. Then the angle gradually decreased and in 3-4 cell divisions the lateral branch grew under the angle

  2. Managing International Branch Campuses: Lessons Learnt from Eight Years on a Branch Campus in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Christopher; Thabet, Rawy Abdelrahman

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: International branch campuses (IBCs) are complex entities and while much has been written about their expansion and development, the literature is largely from an external perspective. There have been few longitudinal studies examining the development of an IBC over time. The purpose of this paper is to review the development of one IBC…

  3. Modeling of branching density and branching distribution in low-density polyethylene polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.M.; Iedema, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    Low-density polyethylene (ldPE) is a general purpose polymer with various applications. By this reason, many publications can be found on the ldPE polymerization modeling. However, scission reaction and branching distribution are only recently considered in the modeling studies due to difficulties

  4. The influence of branch order on optimal leaf vein geometries: Murray's law and area preserving branching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A Price

    Full Text Available Models that predict the form of hierarchical branching networks typically invoke optimization based on biomechanical similitude, the minimization of impedance to fluid flow, or construction costs. Unfortunately, due to the small size and high number of vein segments found in real biological networks, complete descriptions of networks needed to evaluate such models are rare. To help address this we report results from the analysis of the branching geometry of 349 leaf vein networks comprising over 1.5 million individual vein segments. In addition to measuring the diameters of individual veins before and after vein bifurcations, we also assign vein orders using the Horton-Strahler ordering algorithm adopted from the study of river networks. Our results demonstrate that across all leaves, both radius tapering and the ratio of daughter to parent branch areas for leaf veins are in strong agreement with the expectation from Murray's law. However, as veins become larger, area ratios shift systematically toward values expected under area-preserving branching. Our work supports the idea that leaf vein networks differentiate roles of leaf support and hydraulic supply between hierarchical orders.

  5. The PCP genes Celsr1 and Vangl2 are required for normal lung branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Laura L.; Schnatwinkel, Carsten; Murdoch, Jennifer N.; Bogani, Debora; Formstone, Caroline J.; Townsend, Stuart; Greenfield, Andy; Niswander, Lee A.; Dean, Charlotte H.

    2010-01-01

    The lungs are generated by branching morphogenesis as a result of reciprocal signalling interactions between the epithelium and mesenchyme during development. Mutations that disrupt formation of either the correct number or shape of epithelial branches affect lung function. This, in turn, can lead to congenital abnormalities such as cystadenomatoid malformations, pulmonary hypertension or lung hypoplasia. Defects in lung architecture are also associated with adult lung disease, particularly in cases of idiopathic lung fibrosis. Identifying the signalling pathways which drive epithelial tube formation will likely shed light on both congenital and adult lung disease. Here we show that mutations in the planar cell polarity (PCP) genes Celsr1 and Vangl2 lead to disrupted lung development and defects in lung architecture. Lungs from Celsr1Crsh and Vangl2Lp mouse mutants are small and misshapen with fewer branches, and by late gestation exhibit thickened interstitial mesenchyme and defective saccular formation. We observe a recapitulation of these branching defects following inhibition of Rho kinase, an important downstream effector of the PCP signalling pathway. Moreover, epithelial integrity is disrupted, cytoskeletal remodelling perturbed and mutant endoderm does not branch normally in response to the chemoattractant FGF10. We further show that Celsr1 and Vangl2 proteins are present in restricted spatial domains within lung epithelium. Our data show that the PCP genes Celsr1 and Vangl2 are required for foetal lung development thereby revealing a novel signalling pathway critical for this process that will enhance our understanding of congenital and adult lung diseases and may in future lead to novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:20223754

  6. Conserved Domain Database (CDD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDD is a protein annotation resource that consists of a collection of well-annotated multiple sequence alignment models for ancient domains and full-length proteins.

  7. Additional chain-branching pathways in the low-temperature oxidation of branched alkanes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhandong

    2015-12-31

    Chain-branching reactions represent a general motif in chemistry, encountered in atmospheric chemistry, combustion, polymerization, and photochemistry; the nature and amount of radicals generated by chain-branching are decisive for the reaction progress, its energy signature, and the time towards its completion. In this study, experimental evidence for two new types of chain-branching reactions is presented, based upon detection of highly oxidized multifunctional molecules (HOM) formed during the gas-phase low-temperature oxidation of a branched alkane under conditions relevant to combustion. The oxidation of 2,5-dimethylhexane (DMH) in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) was studied using synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet photoionization molecular beam mass spectrometry (SVUV-PI-MBMS). Specifically, species with four and five oxygen atoms were probed, having molecular formulas of C8H14O4 (e.g., diketo-hydroperoxide/keto-hydroperoxy cyclic ether) and C8H16O5 (e.g., keto-dihydroperoxide/dihydroperoxy cyclic ether), respectively. The formation of C8H16O5 species involves alternative isomerization of OOQOOH radicals via intramolecular H-atom migration, followed by third O2 addition, intramolecular isomerization, and OH release; C8H14O4 species are proposed to result from subsequent reactions of C8H16O5 species. The mechanistic pathways involving these species are related to those proposed as a source of low-volatility highly oxygenated species in Earth\\'s troposphere. At the higher temperatures relevant to auto-ignition, they can result in a net increase of hydroxyl radical production, so these are additional radical chain-branching pathways for ignition. The results presented herein extend the conceptual basis of reaction mechanisms used to predict the reaction behavior of ignition, and have implications on atmospheric gas-phase chemistry and the oxidative stability of organic substances. © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  8. Statistical tracking of tree-like tubular structures with efficient branching detection in 3D medical image data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, X.; Heimann, T.; Lo, P.

    2012-01-01

    to their robustness against image noise and pathological changes. However, most tracking methods are limited to a specific application and do not support branching structures efficiently. In this work, we present a novel statistical tracking approach for the extraction of different types of tubular structures...... with ringlike cross-sections. Domain-specific knowledge is learned from training data sets and integrated into the tracking process by simple adaption of parameters. In addition, an efficient branching detection algorithm is presented. This approach was evaluated by extracting coronary arteries from 32 CTA data...... for the tracking of coronary arteries were achieved. For the extraction of airway trees, 51.3% of the total tree length, 53.6% of the total number of branches and a 4.98% false positive rate were attained. In both experiments, our approach is comparable to state-of-the-art methods....

  9. Quantification of branching in model three-arm star polyethylene

    KAUST Repository

    Ramachandran, Ramnath; Beaucage, Gregory B.; Rai, Durgesh K.; Lohse, David J.; Sun, Thomas; Tsou, Andy; Norman, Alexander Iain; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    The versatility of a novel scaling approach in quantifying the structure of model well-defined 3-arm star polyethylene molecules is presented. Many commercial polyethylenes have long side branches, and the nature and quantity of these branches varies widely among the various forms. For instance, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is typically a highly branched structure with broad distributions in branch content, branch lengths and branch generation (in hyperbranched structures). This makes it difficult to accurately quantify the structure and the inherent structure-property relationships. To overcome this drawback, model well-defined hydrogenated polybutadiene (HPB) structures have been synthesized via anionic polymerization and hydrogenation to serve as model analogues to long-chain branched polyethylene. In this article, model 3-arm star polyethylene molecules are quantified using the scaling approach. Along with the long-chain branch content in polyethylene, the approach also provides unique measurements of long-chain branch length and hyperbranch content. Such detailed description facilitates better understanding of the effect of branching on the physical properties of polyethylene. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  10. Quantification of branching in model three-arm star polyethylene

    KAUST Repository

    Ramachandran, Ramnath

    2012-01-24

    The versatility of a novel scaling approach in quantifying the structure of model well-defined 3-arm star polyethylene molecules is presented. Many commercial polyethylenes have long side branches, and the nature and quantity of these branches varies widely among the various forms. For instance, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is typically a highly branched structure with broad distributions in branch content, branch lengths and branch generation (in hyperbranched structures). This makes it difficult to accurately quantify the structure and the inherent structure-property relationships. To overcome this drawback, model well-defined hydrogenated polybutadiene (HPB) structures have been synthesized via anionic polymerization and hydrogenation to serve as model analogues to long-chain branched polyethylene. In this article, model 3-arm star polyethylene molecules are quantified using the scaling approach. Along with the long-chain branch content in polyethylene, the approach also provides unique measurements of long-chain branch length and hyperbranch content. Such detailed description facilitates better understanding of the effect of branching on the physical properties of polyethylene. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Simple statistical model for branched aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    , given that it already has bonds with others. The model is applied here to asphaltene nanoaggregates observed in molecular dynamics simulations of Cooee bitumen. The variation with temperature of the probabilities deduced from this model is discussed in terms of statistical mechanics arguments....... The relevance of the statistical model in the case of asphaltene nanoaggregates is checked by comparing the predicted value of the probability for one molecule to have exactly i bonds with the same probability directly measured in the molecular dynamics simulations. The agreement is satisfactory......We propose a statistical model that can reproduce the size distribution of any branched aggregate, including amylopectin, dendrimers, molecular clusters of monoalcohols, and asphaltene nanoaggregates. It is based on the conditional probability for one molecule to form a new bond with a molecule...

  12. [Phenolic compounds in branches of Tamarix rasissima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Li, Wei-Qi; Zheng, Ping; Wang, Rui; Yu, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Jian-Hong; Yao, Yao

    2014-06-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the branches of Tamarix rasissima, repeated silica gel column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and recrystallization were applied for chemical constituents isolation and purification. Ten phenolic compounds were isolated from the n-BuOH fraction and their structures were elucidated by physical properties and spectra analysis such as UV, ESI-MS and NMR as monodecarboxyellagic acid (1), ellagic acid (2), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid (3), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), 3, 3'-di-O-methylellagic acid-4'-O-alpha-D-arabinfuranoside (5), ferulic acid (6), isoferulic acid (7), caffeic acid (8), 4-O-acetyl-caffeic acid (9), and 4-methyl-1, 2-benzenediol (10). All compounds except for isoferulic acid were isolated firstly from this plant except for isoferulic acid, and compounds 5, 9 and 10 were obtained from Tamarix genus for the first time.

  13. Large Core Three Branch Polymer Power Splitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Prajzler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report about three branch large core polymer power splitters optimized for connecting standard plastic optical fibers. A new point of the design is insertion of a rectangle-shaped spacing between the input and the central part of the splitter, which will ensure more even distribution of the output optical power. The splitters were designed by beam propagation method using BeamPROP software. Acrylic-based polymers were used as optical waveguides being poured into the Y-grooves realized by computer numerical controlled engraving on poly(methyl methacrylate substrate. Measurement of the optical insertion losses proved that the insertion optical loss could be lowered to 2.1 dB at 650 nm and optical power coupling ratio could reach 31.8% : 37.3% : 30.9%.

  14. 6d, Coulomb branch anomaly matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intriligator, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    6d QFTs are constrained by the analog of 't Hooft anomaly matching: all anomalies for global symmetries and metric backgrounds are constants of RG flows, and for all vacua in moduli spaces. We discuss an anomaly matching mechanism for 6d theories on their Coulomb branch. It is a global symmetry analog of Green-Schwarz-West-Sagnotti anomaly cancellation, and requires the apparent anomaly mismatch to be a perfect square, . Then Δ I 8 is cancelled by making X 4 an electric/magnetic source for the tensor multiplet, so background gauge field instantons yield charged strings. This requires the coefficients in X 4 to be integrally quantized. We illustrate this for theories. We also consider the SCFTs from N small E8 instantons, verifying that the recent result for its anomaly polynomial fits with the anomaly matching mechanism.

  15. Unquenched flavor on the Higgs branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faedo, Antón F.; Mateos, David; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrío, Javier

    2016-01-01

    We construct the gravity duals of the Higgs branches of three-dimensional (four-dimensional) super Yang-Mills theories coupled to N_f quark flavors. The effect of the quarks on the color degrees of freedom is included, and corresponds on the gravity side to the backreaction of N_f flavor D6-branes (D7-branes) on the background of N_c color D2-branes (D3-branes). The Higgsing of the gauge group arises from the dissolution of some color branes inside the flavor branes. The dissolved color branes are represented by non-Abelian instantons whose backreaction is also included. The result is a cascading-like solution in which the effective number of color branes varies along the holographic direction. In the three-dimensional case the solution may include an arbitrary number of quasi-conformal (walking) regions.

  16. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch 2005 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 595, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in Fiscal Year (FY) 2005. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics including spacecraft navigation (autonomous and ground based); spacecraft trajectory design and maneuver planning; attitude analysis; attitude determination and sensor calibration; and attitude control subsystem (ACS) analysis and design. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, other government agencies, academia, and private industry.

  17. Transcriptome wide identification and characterization of starch branching enzyme in finger millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Rajhans; Tiwari, Apoorv; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Starch-branching enzymes (SBEs) are one of the four major enzyme classes involved in starch biosynthesis in plants and play an important role in determining the structure and physical properties of starch granules. Multiple SBEs are involved in starch biosynthesis in plants. Finger millet is calcium rich important serial crop belongs to grass family and the transcriptome data of developing spikes is available on NCBI. In this study it was try to find out the gene sequence of starch branching enzyme and annotate the sequence and submit the sequence for further use. Rice SBE sequence was taken as reference and for characterization of the sequence different in silico tools were used. Four domains were found in the finger millet Starch branching enzyme like alpha amylase catalytic domain from 925 to2172 with E value 0, N-terminal Early set domain from 634 to 915 with E value 1.62 e-42, Alpha amylase, C-terminal all-beta domain from 2224 to 2511 with E value 5.80e-24 and 1,4-alpha-glucan-branching enzyme from 421 to 2517 with E value 0. Major binding interactions with the GLC (alpha-d-glucose), CA (calcium ion), GOL (glycerol), TRS (2-amino-2-hydroxymethylpropane- 1, 3-diol), MG (magnesium ion) and FLC (citrate anion) are fond with different residues. It was found in the phylogenetic study of the finger millet SBE with the 6 species of grass family that two clusters were form A and B. In cluster A, finger millet showed closeness with Oryzasativa and Setariaitalica, Sorghum bicolour and Zea mays while cluster B was formed with Triticumaestivum and Brachypodium distachyon. The nucleotide sequence of Finger millet SBE was submitted to NCBI with the accession no KY648913 and protein structure of SBE of finger millet was also submitted in PMDB with the PMDB id - PM0080938. This research presents a comparative overview of Finger millet SBE and includes their properties, structural and functional characteristics, and recent developments on their post-translational regulation.

  18. Quasiparticle branch mixing rates in superconducting aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, C.C.; Clarke, J.

    1979-01-01

    The kinetic equation is used to compute the elastic and inelastic quasiparticle branch mixing rates for a superconducting film into which quasiparticles are injected via a tunnel barrier from a second superconducting film. Representative graphs are presented of the steady-state quasiparticle distribution, the quasiparticle charge imbalance Q* versus injection current, the charge relaxation rate tau -1 /sub Q/* vs Δ/k/sub B/T/sub c/ for several values of elastic scattering rate, and the quasiparticle branch relaxation rate tau -1 /sub Q/ as a function of energy. The quasiparticle potential developed in the injection film is related to tau -1 /sub Q/, and thence to tau -1 0 , a characteristic electron-phonon scattering time. Detailed measurements of tau/sub Q/ are reported for films of superconducting Al, some of which were doped with oxygen to give a range of transition temperatures from 1.2 to 2.1 K. From the dependence of tau -1 /sub Q/* on Δ/k/sub B/T/sub c/, values are deduced for the gap anisotropy of the films. In the cleanest samples, tau 0 or approx. = 2Δ) mean-free-path measurements, but a factor of about 4 smaller than that obtained from recombination time measurements and theoretical calculations. The value of tau -1 /sub o/ in the Al films increases with the transition temperature T/sub c/ as T 5 /sub c/ or T 6 /sub c/, instead of T 3 /sub c/ as predicted by simple theory. It is suggested that the rapid increase of tau -1 0 with T/sub c/ may arise from either a strong dependence of α 2 F (ω) on T/sub c/ or from a small concentration of magnetic impurities

  19. Pen Branch fault: Confirmatory drilling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, A.; Coruh, C.; Costain, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    The Confirmatory Drilling Project is the final investigation under the Pen Branch Fault Program initiated to determine the capability of the Pen Branch fault (PBF) to release seismic energy. This investigation focused on a small zone over the fault where previously collected seismic reflection data had indicated the fault deforms the subsurface at 150 msec (with reference to an 80 m reference datum). Eighteen drill holes, 2 to basement and the others to 300 ft, were arranged in a scatter pattern over the fault. To adequately define configuration of the layers deformed by the fault boreholes were spaced over a zone of 800 ft, north to south. The closely spaced data were to confirm or refute the existence of flat lying reflectors observed in seismic reflection data and to enable the authors to identify and correlate lithologic layers with seismic reflection data. Results suggest that deformation by the fault in sediments 300 ft deep ad shallower is subtle. Corroboration of the geologic interpretation with the seismic reflection profile is ongoing but preliminary results indicate that specific reflectors can be assigned to lithologic layers. A large amplitude package of reflections below a flat lying continuous reflection at 40 msec can be correlated with a lithology that corresponds to carbonate sediments in geologic cross-section. Further, data also show that a geologic layer as shallow as 30 ft can be traced on these seismic data over the same subsurface distance where geologic cross-section shows corresponding continuity. The subsurface structure is thus corroborated by both methods at this study site

  20. Branching pathways in the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalisky, O.; Ottolenghi, M. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Physical Chemistry)

    1982-01-01

    The pulsed laser photolysis of light-adapted bacteriorhodopsin (BR/sub 570/) is carried out between 25 C and -92 C in neutral and alkaline water-glycerol solutions. At relatively low temperatures the primary photoproduct K/sub 610/ equilibrates with a blue-shifted species, Ksub(p). Both K/sub 610/ and the new intermediate subsequently decay into another species, K'sub(p), in a process which competes with the formation of L/sub 550/. Finally, K'sub(p) converts very slowly to L/sub 550/. This branched pathway delays the formation of L/sub 550/ and thus of M/sub 412/, without affecting the final yield of either species. A thermal back-reaction regenerating BR/sub 570/ takes place at the stage of L/sub 550/, inhibiting the formation of M/sub 412/. The reaction which also predominates at low temperatures, is relatively inefficient at high pH when the forward L/sub 550/ ..-->.. M/sub 412/ step is highly catalyzed. It is the superposition of both these branching mechanisms which accounts for the complex effects of temperature and pH on the photocycle of BR/sub 570/. The latter mechanism is accounted for by a molecular scheme in which deprotonation of a tyrosine moiety at the stage of L/sub 550/ constitutes a prerequisite for deprotonation of the retinal-lysine schiff-base as required for forming M/sub 412/. This scheme appears to be directly related to the proton pump.

  1. Command and Data Handling Branch Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Rachel Mae

    2016-01-01

    Modular Integrated Stackable Layers (MISL) is a computer system designed for simple, fast, and cost effective flexible reconfiguration in space environments such as the ISS and Orion projects for various uses. Existing applications include wireless and wired communications, data acquisition and instrumentation, and camera systems, and potential applications include bus protocol converters and subsystem control. MISL is based on Texas Instruments (TI)' MSP430 16-bit ultra-low-power microcontroller device. The purpose of my project was to integrate the MISL system with a liquid crystal display (LCD) touchscreen. The LCD, manufactured by Crystalfontz and part number CFAF320240F-035T-TS, is a 320 by 240 RGB resistive color screen including an optional carrier board. The vast majority of the project was done with Altium Designer, a tool for printed circuit board (PCB) schematic capture, 3D design, and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) development. The new PCB was to allow the LCD to directly stack to the rest of MISL. Research was done with datasheets for the TI microcontroller and touchscreen display in order to meet desired hardware specifications. Documentation on prior MISL projects was also utilized. The initial step was to create a schematic for the LCD, power bus, and data bus connections between components. A layout was then designed with the required physical dimensions, routed traces and vias, power and ground planes, layer stacks, and other specified design rules such as plane clearance and hole size. Multiple consultation sessions were held with Hester Yim, the technical discipline lead for the Command and Data Handling Branch, and Christy Herring, the lead PCB layout designer in the Electronic Design and Manufacturing Branch in order to ensure proper configuration. At the moment, the PCB is awaiting revision by the latter-mentioned branch. Afterwards, the board will begin to undergo the manufacturing and testing process. Throughout the internship at

  2. A Concise Synthesis of Three Branches Derived from Polysaccharide RN1 and Anti-Pancreatic Cancer Activity Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqin Cai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available RN1, a polysaccharide from flowers of Panax pseudo-ginsieng Wall. Var. notoginseng (Burkill Hoo & Tseng, is a potential multi-targeting drug candidate for pancreatic cancer treatment. However, the active targeting domain of RN1 is still unknown. Herein, three RN1 derived branches were synthesized via [3+2] or [2+2] strategies, efficiently. Two pentasaccharides, 18 and 27, showed similar inhibition effect on pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells to that of RN1 at same concentration. Interestingly, tetrasaccharide 21 potently inhibited gemcitabineresistant cell line Panc-1 at high concentration. These suggest that the branches of RN1 might be the active targeting domain and tetrasaccharide 21 might be a potential leading compound for pancreatic cancer with gemcitabine resistance.

  3. Directing the Branching Growth of Cuprous Oxide by OH- Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunfeng; Si, Yunfei; Xue, Dongfeng

    The effect of OH- ions on the branching growth of cuprous oxide microcrystals was systematically studied by a reduction route, where copper-citrate complexes were reduced by glucose under alkaline conditions. Different copper salts including Cu(NO3)2, CuCl2, CuSO4, and Cu(Ac)2 were used in this work. The results indicate that the Cu2O branching growth habit is closely correlated to the concentration of OH- ions, which plays an important role in directing the diffusion-limited branching growth of Cu2O and influencing the reduction power of glucose. A variety of Cu2O branching patterns including 6-pod, 8-pod and 24-pod branches, have been achieved without using template and surfactant. The current method can provide a good platform for studying the growth mechanism of microcrystal branching patterns.

  4. Tradeoffs Between Branch Mispredictions and Comparisons for Sorting Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Branch mispredictions is an important factor affecting the running time in practice. In this paper we consider tradeoffs between the number of branch mispredictions and the number of comparisons for sorting algorithms in the comparison model. We prove that a sorting algorithm using O(dnlog n......) comparisons performs Omega(nlogd n) branch mispredictions. We show that Multiway MergeSort achieves this tradeoff by adopting a multiway merger with a low number of branch mispredictions. For adaptive sorting algorithms we similarly obtain that an algorithm performing O(dn(1+log (1+Inv/n))) comparisons must...... perform Omega(nlogd (1+Inv/n)) branch mispredictions, where Inv is the number of inversions in the input. This tradeoff can be achieved by GenericSort by Estivill-Castro and Wood by adopting a multiway division protocol and a multiway merging algorithm with a low number of branch mispredictions....

  5. ["Habitual" left branch block alternating with 2 "disguised" bracnch block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, S; Jullien, G; Mathieu, P; Mostefa, S; Gérard, R

    1976-10-01

    Two cases of alternating left bundle branch block and "masquerading block" (with left bundle branch morphology in the stnadard leads and right bundle branch block morphology in the precordial leads) were studied by serial tracings and his bundle electrocardiography. In case 1 "the masquerading" block was associated with a first degree AV block related to a prolongation of HV interval. This case is to our knowledge the first cas of alternating bundle branch block in which his bundle activity was recorded in man. In case 2, the patient had atrial fibrilation and His bundle recordings were performed while differents degrees of left bundle branch block were present: The mechanism of the alternation and the concept of "masquerading" block are discussed. It is suggested that this type of block represents a right bundle branch block associated with severe lesions of the "left system".

  6. Induced chorioretinal venous anastomosis in experimental retinal branch vein occlusion.

    OpenAIRE

    McAllister, I L; Yu, D Y; Vijayasekaran, S; Barry, C; Constable, I

    1992-01-01

    Iatrogenic retinal vein to choroidal vein anastomoses were created using laser photocoagulation in six of seven dog eyes in which a partial branch retinal vein occlusion had previously been created photochemically. A similar attempt to create an anastomosis was made in six control eyes in which no branch vein occlusion was present. In the eyes in which a branch retinal vein had been created, a venous chorioretinal anastomosis appeared to be present by 3 to 6 weeks. In three control eyes simil...

  7. An asymptotic analysis of closed queueing networks with branching populations

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, N.; Coffman, E.G.; Kogan, Y.A.

    1995-01-01

    textabstractClosed queueing networks have proven to be valuable tools for system performance analysis. In this paper, we broaden the applications of such networks by incorporating populations of {em branching customers: whenever a customer completes service at some node of the network, it is replaced by N>=0 customers, each routed independently to a next node, where N has a given, possibly node-dependent branching distribution. Applications of these branching and queueing networks focus on {e...

  8. Activities of the Development Branch. 1978-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candame de Gallo, Rita; Marrapodi, M.R.E.; Baez, L.B.

    1982-01-01

    The activities carried out by the Development Branch from 1978 through 1981 are summarized. Subjects covered include: Metallurgy, Nuclear Fuels, Instrumentation and Control, Nuclear Reactors, as well as the various projects developed during this period and the administrative and technical activities of various groups belonging to this Branch. A list of publications by personnel of this Branch during the same period is also included. (C.A.K.) [es

  9. Cadaveric Study of the Articular Branches of the Shoulder Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, Maxim S; Bickelhaupt, Brittany; Fehl, Jacob; Benfield, Jonathan A; Curley, Jonathan; Rahimi, Ohmid; Nagpal, Ameet S

    This cadaveric study investigated the anatomic relationships of the articular branches of the suprascapular (SN), axillary (AN), and lateral pectoral nerves (LPN), which are potential targets for shoulder analgesia. Sixteen embalmed cadavers and 1 unembalmed cadaver, including 33 shoulders total, were dissected. Following dissections, fluoroscopic images were taken to propose an anatomical landmark to be used in shoulder articular branch blockade. Thirty-three shoulders from 17 total cadavers were studied. In a series of 16 shoulders, 16 (100%) of 16 had an intact SN branch innervating the posterior head of the humerus and shoulder capsule. Suprascapular sensory branches coursed laterally from the spinoglenoid notch then toward the glenohumeral joint capsule posteriorly. Axillary nerve articular branches innervated the posterolateral head of the humerus and shoulder capsule in the same 16 (100%) of 16 shoulders. The AN gave branches ascending circumferentially from the quadrangular space to the posterolateral humerus, deep to the deltoid, and inserting at the inferior portion of the posterior joint capsule. In 4 previously dissected and 17 distinct shoulders, intact LPNs could be identified in 14 (67%) of 21 specimens. Of these, 12 (86%) of 14 had articular branches innervating the anterior shoulder joint, and 14 (100%) of 14 LPN articular branches were adjacent to acromial branches of the thoracoacromial blood vessels over the superior aspect of the coracoid process. Articular branches from the SN, AN, and LPN were identified. Articular branches of the SN and AN insert into the capsule overlying the glenohumeral joint posteriorly. Articular branches of the LPN exist and innervate a portion of the anterior shoulder joint.

  10. Finite-size scaling of survival probability in branching processes

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Millan, Rosalba; Font-Clos, Francesc; Corral, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Branching processes pervade many models in statistical physics. We investigate the survival probability of a Galton-Watson branching process after a finite number of generations. We reveal the finite-size scaling law of the survival probability for a given branching process ruled by a probability distribution of the number of offspring per element whose standard deviation is finite, obtaining the exact scaling function as well as the critical exponents. Our findings prove the universal behavi...

  11. Human vagus nerve branching in the cervical region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Hammer

    Full Text Available Vagus nerve stimulation is increasingly applied to treat epilepsy, psychiatric conditions and potentially chronic heart failure. After implanting vagus nerve electrodes to the cervical vagus nerve, side effects such as voice alterations and dyspnea or missing therapeutic effects are observed at different frequencies. Cervical vagus nerve branching might partly be responsible for these effects. However, vagus nerve branching has not yet been described in the context of vagus nerve stimulation.Branching of the cervical vagus nerve was investigated macroscopically in 35 body donors (66 cervical sides in the carotid sheath. After X-ray imaging for determining the vertebral levels of cervical vagus nerve branching, samples were removed to confirm histologically the nerve and to calculate cervical vagus nerve diameters and cross-sections.Cervical vagus nerve branching was observed in 29% of all cases (26% unilaterally, 3% bilaterally and proven histologically in all cases. Right-sided branching (22% was more common than left-sided branching (12% and occurred on the level of the fourth and fifth vertebra on the left and on the level of the second to fifth vertebra on the right side. Vagus nerves without branching were significantly larger than vagus nerves with branches, concerning their diameters (4.79 mm vs. 3.78 mm and cross-sections (7.24 mm2 vs. 5.28 mm2.Cervical vagus nerve branching is considerably more frequent than described previously. The side-dependent differences of vagus nerve branching may be linked to the asymmetric effects of the vagus nerve. Cervical vagus nerve branching should be taken into account when identifying main trunk of the vagus nerve for implanting electrodes to minimize potential side effects or lacking therapeutic benefits of vagus nerve stimulation.

  12. The normal distribution of thoracoabdominal aorta small branch artery ostia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, Paul; Williams, David M.; Vellody, Ranjith; Kelly, Aine Marie; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Carlos, Ruth C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the normal distribution of aortic branch artery ostia. CT scans of 100 subjects were retrospectively reviewed. The angular distributions of the aorta with respect to the center of the T3 to L4 vertebral bodies, and of branch artery origins with respect to the center of the aorta were measured. At each vertebral body level the distribution of intercostal/lumbar arteries and other branch arteries were calculated. The proximal descending aorta is posteriorly placed becoming a midline structure, at the thoracolumbar junction, and remains anterior to the vertebral bodies within the abdomen. The intercostal and lumbar artery ostia have a distinct distribution. At each vertebral level from T3 caudally, one intercostal artery originates from the posterior wall of the aorta throughout the thoracic aorta, while the other intercostal artery originates from the medial wall of the descending thoracic aorta high in the chest, posteromedially from the mid-thoracic aorta, and from the posterior wall of the aorta low in the chest. Mediastinal branches of the thoracic aorta originate from the medial and anterior wall. Lumbar branches originate only from the posterior wall of the abdominal aorta. Aortic branch artery origins arise with a bimodal distribution and have a characteristic location. Mediastinal branches of the thoracic aorta originate from the medial and anterior wall. Knowing the location of aortic branch artery ostia may help distinguish branch artery pseudoaneurysms from penetrating ulcers.

  13. Measurements of the branching fractions of [Formula: see text] decays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Abellan Beteta, C; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nisar, S; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    The branching fractions of the decay [Formula: see text] for different intermediate states are measured using data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb -1 , collected by the LHCb experiment. The total branching fraction, its charmless component [Formula: see text] and the branching fractions via the resonant [Formula: see text] states η c (1 S ) and ψ (2 S ) relative to the decay via a J / ψ intermediate state are [Formula: see text] Upper limits on the B + branching fractions into the η c (2 S ) meson and into the charmonium-like states X (3872) and X (3915) are also obtained.

  14. Branched RNA: A New Architecture for RNA Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Aviñó

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Branched RNAs with two and four strands were synthesized. These structures were used to obtain branched siRNA. The branched siRNA duplexes had similar inhibitory capacity as those of unmodified siRNA duplexes, as deduced from gene silencing experiments of the TNF-α protein. Branched RNAs are considered novel structures for siRNA technology, and they provide an innovative tool for specific gene inhibition. As the method described here is compatible with most RNA modifications described to date, these compounds may be further functionalized to obtain more potent siRNA derivatives and can be attached to suitable delivery systems.

  15. Spontaneous Age-Related Neurite Branching in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Elizabeth M. H.; Rodgers, Kasey E.; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of morphological changes that occur in the nervous system during normal aging could provide insight into cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disease. Previous studies have suggested that the nervous system of C. elegans maintains its structural integrity with age despite the deterioration of surrounding tissues. Unexpectedly, we observed that neurons in aging animals frequently displayed ectopic branches, and that the prevalence of these branches increased with time. Within age-matched populations, the branching of mechnosensory neurons correlated with decreased response to light touch and decreased mobility. The incidence of branching was influenced by two pathways that can affect the rate of aging, the Jun kinase pathway and the insulin/IGF-1 pathway. Loss of Jun kinase signaling, which slightly shortens lifespan, dramatically increased and accelerated the frequency of neurite branching. Conversely, inhibition of the daf-2 insulin/IGF-1-like signaling pathway, which extends lifespan, delayed and suppressed branching, and this delay required DAF-16/FOXO activity. Both JNK-1 and DAF-16 appeared to act within neurons in a cell-autonomous manner to influence branching, and, through their tissue-specific expression, it was possible to disconnect the rate at which branching occurred from the overall rate of aging of the animal. Old age has generally been associated with the decline and deterioration of different tissues, except in the case of tumor cell growth. To our knowledge, this is the first indication that aging can potentiate another form of growth, the growth of neurite branches, in normal animals. PMID:21697377

  16. Marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve: An anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Ahmad Khanfour

    2014-06-01

    Results: Results showed that the (MMBFN arises as a single branch, two branches, and three branches in 36.7%, 43.3% and 20% of specimens, respectively. In 83.3% of cases, one of the main or secondary branches of the marginal mandibular nerve crosses superficial (lateral to the facial vessels. There are communications either between the main or the secondary branches of the marginal mandibular nerve itself in 53.6% of specimens and with the buccal branch of the facial nerve in 40%, also with the anterior branch of the great auricular nerve in 3.3%, and with the transverse cervical nerve in 3.3% of specimens. The relationship of the nerve to the lower border of the mandible at a point midway between the angle of the mandible and symphysis menti is variable; it is either totally above it in most of the specimens 80%, or below it in 10% or at it in the remaining 10% of the specimens. The branches that lie above the lower border of the mandible are always deep into the superficial layer of the parotid fascia, while those branches that lie below the lower border of the mandible are intrafascially. The termination of the nerve is deep into the muscles of the ipsilateral lower lip in all specimens.

  17. Evolution of SH2 domains and phosphotyrosine signalling networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bernard A.; Nash, Piers D.

    2012-01-01

    Src homology 2 (SH2) domains mediate selective protein–protein interactions with tyrosine phosphorylated proteins, and in doing so define specificity of phosphotyrosine (pTyr) signalling networks. SH2 domains and protein-tyrosine phosphatases expand alongside protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) to coordinate cellular and organismal complexity in the evolution of the unikont branch of the eukaryotes. Examination of conserved families of PTKs and SH2 domain proteins provides fiduciary marks that trace the evolutionary landscape for the development of complex cellular systems in the proto-metazoan and metazoan lineages. The evolutionary provenance of conserved SH2 and PTK families reveals the mechanisms by which diversity is achieved through adaptations in tissue-specific gene transcription, altered ligand binding, insertions of linear motifs and the gain or loss of domains following gene duplication. We discuss mechanisms by which pTyr-mediated signalling networks evolve through the development of novel and expanded families of SH2 domain proteins and the elaboration of connections between pTyr-signalling proteins. These changes underlie the variety of general and specific signalling networks that give rise to tissue-specific functions and increasingly complex developmental programmes. Examination of SH2 domains from an evolutionary perspective provides insight into the process by which evolutionary expansion and modification of molecular protein interaction domain proteins permits the development of novel protein-interaction networks and accommodates adaptation of signalling networks. PMID:22889907

  18. The COMPASS-Like Complex Promotes Flowering and Panicle Branching in Rice1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiliang; Jiang, Haiyang; Cheng, Beijiu

    2018-01-01

    Flowering time (heading date) and panicle branch number are important agronomic traits that determine yield in rice (Oryza sativa). The activation of flowering requires histone methylation, but the roles of trimethylation of Lys 4 of histone 3 (H3K4me3) in modulating heading date and panicle development are unclear. Here, we showed that the COMPASS-like complex promotes flowering and panicle branching. The rice (Oryza sativa) WD40 protein OsWDR5a interacts with the TRITHORAX-like protein OsTrx1/SET domain group protein 723 (SDG723) to form the core components of the COMPASS-like complex. Plants in which OsWDR5a or OsTrx1 expression was decreased by RNA interference produced fewer secondary branches and less grain and exhibited a delayed heading date under long-day and short-day conditions, whereas loss of OsWDR5a function resulted in embryo lethality. OsWDR5a binds to Early heading date 1 to regulate its H3K4me3 and expression levels. Together, our results show that the COMPASS-like complex promotes flowering and panicle development and suggest that modulation of H3K4me3 levels by the COMPASS-like complex is critical for rice development. PMID:29440594

  19. Molecular Design of Branched and Binary Molecules at Ordered Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genson, Kirsten Larson [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This study examined five different branched molecular architectures to discern the effect of design on the ability of molecules to form ordered structures at interfaces. Photochromic monodendrons formed kinked packing structures at the air-water interface due to the cross-sectional area mismatch created by varying number of alkyl tails and the hydrophilic polar head group. The lower generations formed orthorhombic unit cell with long range ordering despite the alkyl tails tilted to a large degree. Favorable interactions between liquid crystalline terminal groups and the underlying substrate were observed to compel a flexible carbosilane dendrimer core to form a compressed elliptical conformation which packed stagger within lamellae domains with limited short range ordering. A twelve arm binary star polymer was observed to form two dimensional micelles at the air-water interface attributed to the higher polystyrene block composition. Linear rod-coil molecules formed a multitude of packing structures at the air-water interface due to the varying composition. Tree-like rod-coil molecules demonstrated the ability to form one-dimensional structures at the air-water interface and at the air-solvent interface caused by the preferential ordering of the rigid rod cores. The role of molecular architecture and composition was examined and the influence chemically competing fragments was shown to exert on the packing structure. The amphiphilic balance of the different molecular series exhibited control on the ordering behavior at the air-water interface and within bulk structures. The shell nature and tail type was determined to dictate the preferential ordering structure and molecular reorganization at interfaces with the core nature effect secondary.

  20. Spiegelzymes® mirror-image hammerhead ribozymes and mirror-image DNAzymes, an alternative to siRNAs and microRNAs to cleave mRNAs in vivo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Wyszko

    Full Text Available With the discovery of small non-coding RNA (ncRNA molecules as regulators for cellular processes, it became intriguing to develop technologies by which these regulators can be applied in molecular biology and molecular medicine. The application of ncRNAs has significantly increased our knowledge about the regulation and functions of a number of proteins in the cell. It is surprising that similar successes in applying these small ncRNAs in biotechnology and molecular medicine have so far been very limited. The reasons for these observations may lie in the high complexity in which these RNA regulators function in the cells and problems with their delivery, stability and specificity. Recently, we have described mirror-image hammerhead ribozymes and DNAzymes (Spiegelzymes® which can sequence-specifically hydrolyse mirror-image nucleic acids, such as our mirror-image aptamers (Spiegelmers discovered earlier. In this paper, we show for the first time that Spiegelzymes are capable of recognising complementary enantiomeric substrates (D-nucleic acids, and that they efficiently hydrolyse them at submillimolar magnesium concentrations and at physiologically relevant conditions. The Spiegelzymes are very stable in human sera, and do not require any protein factors for their function. They have the additional advantages of being non-toxic and non-immunogenic. The Spiegelzymes can be used for RNA silencing and also as therapeutic and diagnostic tools in medicine. We performed extensive three-dimensional molecular modelling experiments with mirror-image hammerhead ribozymes and DNAzymes interacting with D-RNA targets. We propose a model in which L/D-double helix structures can be formed by natural Watson-Crick base pairs, but where the nucleosides of one of the two strands will occur in an anticlinal conformation. Interestingly enough, the duplexes (L-RNA/D-RNA and L-DNA/D-RNA in these models can show either right- or left-handedness. This is a very new

  1. Acute Bilateral Superior Branch Vestibular Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario A. Yacovino

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapid onset of a bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH is often attributed to vestibular ototoxicity. However, without any prior exposure to ototoxins, the idiopathic form of BVH is most common. Although sequential bilateral vestibular neuritis (VN is described as a cause of BVH, clinical evidence for simultaneous and acute onset bilateral VN is unknown. We describe a patient with an acute onset of severe gait ataxia and oscillopsia with features compatible with acute BVH putatively due to a bilateral VN, which we serially evaluated with clinical and laboratory vestibular function testing over the course of 1 year. Initially, bilateral superior and horizontal semicircular canals and bilateral utricles were impaired, consistent with damage to both superior branches of each vestibular nerve. Hearing was spared. Only modest results were obtained following 6 months of vestibular rehabilitation. At a 1-year follow-up, only the utricular function of one side recovered. This case is the first evidence supporting an acute presentation of bilateral VN as a cause for BVH, which would not have been observed without critical assessment of each of the 10 vestibular end organs.

  2. Introduction to the police scientific development branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botten, R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Police Scientific Development Branch (Pdb) of the UK Home Office evaluates technologies, develops equipment and detection standards for the police and security communities. PSDB's guidance helps to protect critical sites, including nuclear sites, in the United Kingdom. PSDB evaluates doors, walls, fences, locks, glazing and other barrier to determine whether they meet national and European standards against conventional physical attack. PSDB also evaluates intruder-detection systems. If solutions for security problems do not exist commercially, it might help to develop them. Examples include computer machine-vision systems to guide a pan-tilt-zoom camera automatically, and to assess intruder alarms. PSDB's automatic alarm verification system (AMETHYST) is now being installed for test at a nuclear power station on England's south coast. PSDB has used its analysis of the effects of exploding bombs on building materials to influence building codes. The PSDB also evaluates technologies for crime investigation, surveillance, explosive detection and bomb search. PSDB uses its experience to help train security practitioners to select, specify, and audit security at critical sites, including sites that handle nuclear materials. PSDB's technologies and advice have helped to protect the UK against terrorist attacks. Its expertise can be made available to help meet other European needs. (author)

  3. Correlation functions of Coulomb branch operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerchkovitz, Efrat [Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Gomis, Jaume [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Ishtiaque, Nafiz [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Waterloo,Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Karasik, Avner; Komargodski, Zohar [Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2017-01-24

    We consider the correlation functions of Coulomb branch operators in four-dimensional N=2 Superconformal Field Theories (SCFTs) involving exactly one anti-chiral operator. These extremal correlators are the “minimal' non-holomorphic local observables in the theory. We show that they can be expressed in terms of certain determinants of derivatives of the four-sphere partition function of an appropriate deformation of the SCFT. This relation between the extremal correlators and the deformed four-sphere partition function is non-trivial due to the presence of conformal anomalies, which lead to operator mixing on the sphere. Evaluating the deformed four-sphere partition function using supersymmetric localization, we compute the extremal correlators explicitly in many interesting examples. Additionally, the representation of the extremal correlators mentioned above leads to a system of integrable differential equations. We compare our exact results with previous perturbative computations and with the four-dimensional tt{sup ∗} equations. We also use our results to study some of the asymptotic properties of the perturbative series expansions we obtain in N=2 SQCD.

  4. Markov branching in the vertex splitting model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefánsson, Sigurdur Örn

    2012-01-01

    We study a special case of the vertex splitting model which is a recent model of randomly growing trees. For any finite maximum vertex degree D, we find a one parameter model, with parameter α element of [0,1] which has a so-called Markov branching property. When D=∞ we find a two parameter model with an additional parameter γ element of [0,1] which also has this feature. In the case D = 3, the model bears resemblance to Ford's α-model of phylogenetic trees and when D=∞ it is similar to its generalization, the αγ-model. For α = 0, the model reduces to the well known model of preferential attachment. In the case α > 0, we prove convergence of the finite volume probability measures, generated by the growth rules, to a measure on infinite trees which is concentrated on the set of trees with a single spine. We show that the annealed Hausdorff dimension with respect to the infinite volume measure is 1/α. When γ = 0 the model reduces to a model of growing caterpillar graphs in which case we prove that the Hausdorff dimension is almost surely 1/α and that the spectral dimension is almost surely 2/(1 + α). We comment briefly on the distribution of vertex degrees and correlations between degrees of neighbouring vertices

  5. Artificial Intelligence Research Branch future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Helen (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains information on the activities of the Artificial Intelligence Research Branch (FIA) at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) in 1992, as well as planned work in 1993. These activities span a range from basic scientific research through engineering development to fielded NASA applications, particularly those applications that are enabled by basic research carried out in FIA. Work is conducted in-house and through collaborative partners in academia and industry. All of our work has research themes with a dual commitment to technical excellence and applicability to NASA short, medium, and long-term problems. FIA acts as the Agency's lead organization for research aspects of artificial intelligence, working closely with a second research laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and AI applications groups throughout all NASA centers. This report is organized along three major research themes: (1) Planning and Scheduling: deciding on a sequence of actions to achieve a set of complex goals and determining when to execute those actions and how to allocate resources to carry them out; (2) Machine Learning: techniques for forming theories about natural and man-made phenomena; and for improving the problem-solving performance of computational systems over time; and (3) Research on the acquisition, representation, and utilization of knowledge in support of diagnosis design of engineered systems and analysis of actual systems.

  6. Star-Branched Polymers (Star Polymers)

    KAUST Repository

    Hirao, Akira

    2015-09-01

    The synthesis of well-defined regular and asymmetric mixed arm (hereinafter miktoarm) star-branched polymers by the living anionic polymerization is reviewed in this chapter. In particular, much attention is being devoted to the synthetic development of miktoarm star polymers since 2000. At the present time, the almost all types of multiarmed and multicomponent miktoarm star polymers have become feasible by using recently developed iterative strategy. For example, the following well-defined stars have been successfully synthesized: 3-arm ABC, 4-arm ABCD, 5-arm ABCDE, 6-arm ABCDEF, 7-arm ABCDEFG, 6-arm ABC, 9-arm ABC, 12-arm ABC, 13-arm ABCD, 9-arm AB, 17-arm AB, 33-arm AB, 7-arm ABC, 15-arm ABCD, and 31-arm ABCDE miktoarm star polymers, most of which are quite new and difficult to synthesize by the end of the 1990s. Several new specialty functional star polymers composed of vinyl polymer segments and rigid rodlike poly(acetylene) arms, helical polypeptide, or helical poly(hexyl isocyanate) arms are introduced.

  7. Domain: Labour market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Mulders, J.; Wadensjö, E.; Hasselhorn, H.M.; Apt, W.

    This domain chapter is dedicated to summarize research on the effects of labour market contextual factors on labour market participation of older workers (aged 50+) and identify research gaps. While employment participation and the timing of (early) retirement is often modelled as an individual

  8. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc; Doi, Roy

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  9. Domain-Specific Multimodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessellund, Anders

    the overall level of abstraction. It does, however, also introduce a new problem of coordinating multiple different languages in a single system. We call this problem the coordination problem. In this thesis, we present the coordination method for domain-specific multimodeling that explicitly targets...

  10. GlycoDomainViewer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Hiren J; Jørgensen, Anja; Schjoldager, Katrine T

    2018-01-01

    features, which enhances visibility and accessibility of the wealth of glycoproteomic data being generated. The GlycoDomainViewer enables visual exploration of glycoproteomic data, incorporating information from recent N- and O-glycoproteome studies on human and animal cell lines and some organs and body...

  11. The framing of scientific domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam Christensen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    domains, and UNISIST helps understanding this navigation. Design/methodology/approach The UNISIST models are tentatively applied to the domain of art history at three stages, respectively two modern, partially overlapping domains, as well as an outline of an art historical domain anno c1820...

  12. The Horizontal Branch of the Sculptor Dwarf galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salaris, Maurizio; de Boer, Thomas; Tolstoy, Eline; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Cassisi, Santi

    2013-01-01

    We have performed the first detailed simulation of the horizontal branch of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy by means of synthetic modelling techniques, taking consistently into account the star formation history and metallicity evolution as determined from the main sequence and red giant branch

  13. Converging from branching to linear metrics on Markov chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacci, Giorgio; Bacci, Giovanni; Larsen, Kim G.

    2017-01-01

    -approximant is computable in polynomial time in the size of the MC. The upper-approximants are bisimilarity-like pseudometrics (hence, branching-time distances) that converge point-wise to the linear-time metrics. This convergence is interesting in itself, because it reveals a nontrivial relation between branching...

  14. Converging from Branching to Linear Metrics on Markov Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacci, Giorgio; Bacci, Giovanni; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2015-01-01

    time in the size of the MC. The upper-approximants are Kantorovich-like pseudometrics, i.e. branching-time distances, that converge point-wise to the linear-time metrics. This convergence is interesting in itself, since it reveals a nontrivial relation between branching and linear-time metric...

  15. Total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume models for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume models for miombo woodlands of Malawi. Daud J Kachamba, Tron Eid. Abstract. The objective of this study was to develop general (multispecies) models for prediction of total tree, merchantable stem and branch volume including options with diameter at breast height (dbh) ...

  16. Stochastic and deterministic causes of streamer branching in liquid dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadidian, Jouya; Zahn, Markus; Lavesson, Nils; Widlund, Ola; Borg, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Streamer branching in liquid dielectrics is driven by stochastic and deterministic factors. The presence of stochastic causes of streamer branching such as inhomogeneities inherited from noisy initial states, impurities, or charge carrier density fluctuations is inevitable in any dielectric. A fully three-dimensional streamer model presented in this paper indicates that deterministic origins of branching are intrinsic attributes of streamers, which in some cases make the branching inevitable depending on shape and velocity of the volume charge at the streamer frontier. Specifically, any given inhomogeneous perturbation can result in streamer branching if the volume charge layer at the original streamer head is relatively thin and slow enough. Furthermore, discrete nature of electrons at the leading edge of an ionization front always guarantees the existence of a non-zero inhomogeneous perturbation ahead of the streamer head propagating even in perfectly homogeneous dielectric. Based on the modeling results for streamers propagating in a liquid dielectric, a gauge on the streamer head geometry is introduced that determines whether the branching occurs under particular inhomogeneous circumstances. Estimated number, diameter, and velocity of the born branches agree qualitatively with experimental images of the streamer branching

  17. Branching of positive discharge streamers in air at varying pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briels, T.M.P.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Ebert, U.M.

    2005-01-01

    The formation of positive streamers in a 17-mm gap in air is studied at pressures varying in the range from 1010 to 100 mbar. An intensified charge coupled device camera is used to image the discharge. At high pressures, the discharge shows many branches, while at low pressure, fewer branches arise.

  18. Dorzolamide increases retinal oxygen tension after branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noergaard, Michael Hove; Bach-Holm, Daniella; Scherfig, Erik

    2008-01-01

    To study the effect of dorzolamide on the preretinal oxygen tension (RPO(2)) in retinal areas affected by experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs.......To study the effect of dorzolamide on the preretinal oxygen tension (RPO(2)) in retinal areas affected by experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs....

  19. The International Branch Campus as Transnational Strategy in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen; Huisman, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    The international branch campus is a phenomenon on the rise, but we still have limited knowledge of the strategic choices underlying the start of these ventures. The objective of this paper is to shed light on the motivations and decisions of universities to engage (or not) with the establishment of international branch campuses. As a point of…

  20. Multicriterial ranking approach for evaluating bank branch performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleskerov, F; Ersel, H; Yolalan, R

    14 ranking methods based on multiple criteria are suggested for evaluating the performance of the bank branches. The methods are explained via an illustrative example, and some of them are applied to a real-life data for 23 retail bank branches in a large-scale private Turkish commercial bank.

  1. Frosted branch angiitis associated with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Amod

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous occurrence of frosted branch angiitis and immune-mediated rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis is reported. The two diseases possibly share a common immune mechanism. Patients of frosted branch angiitis should undergo complete systemic evaluation including renal function tests even if the patient is systemically asymptomatic.

  2. 33 CFR 117.927 - Coosaw River (Whale Branch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coosaw River (Whale Branch). 117.927 Section 117.927 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... (Whale Branch). The draw of the Seaboard System Railroad bridge, mile 5.3 at Seabrook, and the draw of...

  3. Towards an abstract parallel branch and bound machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Bruin (Arie); G.A.P. Kindervater (Gerard); H.W.J.M. Trienekens

    1995-01-01

    textabstractMany (parallel) branch and bound algorithms look very different from each other at first glance. They exploit, however, the same underlying computational model. This phenomenon can be used to define branch and bound algorithms in terms of a set of basic rules that are applied in a

  4. Chemical Analysis of Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in M62

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapenna, E.; Mucciarelli, A.; Ferraro, F. R.; Origlia, L.; Lanzoni, B.; Massari, D.; Dalessandro, E.

    2015-01-01

    We have collected UVES-FLAMES high-resolution spectra for a sample of 6 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and 13 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Galactic globular cluster (GC) M62 (NGC 6266). Here we present the detailed abundance analysis of iron, titanium, and light elements (O, Na, Mg, and Al).

  5. Critical Age-Dependent Branching Markov Processes and their ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper studies: (i) the long-time behaviour of the empirical distribution of age and normalized position of an age-dependent critical branching Markov process conditioned on non-extinction; and (ii) the super-process limit of a sequence of age-dependent critical branching Brownian motions.

  6. Axion-dilaton domain walls and fake supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonner, Julian; Townsend, Paul K

    2007-01-01

    Dynamical systems methods are used to investigate domain-wall solutions of a two-parameter family of models in which gravity is coupled to an axion and to a dilaton with an exponential potential of either sign. A complete global analysis is presented for (i) constant axion and (ii) flat walls, including a study of bifurcations and a new exact domain-wall solution with non-constant axion. We reconsider 'fake-supergravity' issues in light of these results. We show, by example, how domain walls determine multi-valued superpotentials that branch at stationary points that are not stationary points of the potential, and we apply this result to potentials with anti-de Sitter vacua. We also show by example that 'adapted' truncation to a single-scalar model may be inconsistent, and we propose a 'generalized' fake-supergravity formalism that applies in some such cases

  7. Branch formation induced by microbeam irradiation of Adiantum protonemata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.

    1998-01-01

    Branches were induced in centrifuged Adiantum protonemal cells by partial irradiation with polarized red light. Nuclear behavior and microtubule pattern change during branch formation were investigated. A branch formed at any part where a red microbeam was focused along a long apical cell. The nucleus moved towards the irradiated area and remained there until a branch developed. The pattern of microtubules changed from parallel to oblique at the irradiated area and then a transverse arrangement of microtubules appeared on both sides of the area. It appeared as if the nucleus was suspended between two microtubule rings. This nuclear behavior and the changes in microtubule pattern were different from those observed during branch formation under whole cell irradiation. From the results of this work we suggest that there is an importance for precise control of experimental conditions

  8. BPP: a sequence-based algorithm for branch point prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Fan, Xiaodan; Wang, Yejun; Sun, Ming-An; Shao, Jianlin; Guo, Dianjing

    2017-10-15

    Although high-throughput sequencing methods have been proposed to identify splicing branch points in the human genome, these methods can only detect a small fraction of the branch points subject to the sequencing depth, experimental cost and the expression level of the mRNA. An accurate computational model for branch point prediction is therefore an ongoing objective in human genome research. We here propose a novel branch point prediction algorithm that utilizes information on the branch point sequence and the polypyrimidine tract. Using experimentally validated data, we demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms existing methods. Availability and implementation: https://github.com/zhqingit/BPP. djguo@cuhk.edu.hk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. THE BANKRUPT RISK IN FEED DISTRIBUTION BRANCH IN DOLJ DISTRICT – FDR MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu CĂPRARIU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:In this article, we are intending to present a score function in order to calculate the bankrupt risk for a special domain: feed distribution.All analysis models of the bankruptcy risk have at their basis a score function according to which it is determined with approximation whether the company would get bankruptcy or would have performing economic results, in a period immediately following the analysis.Having a personal analysis in feed distribution branch, I elaborated a score function for counting bankrupt risk, based on financial and non-financial studies of many companies and we called this model “Feed Distribution Risk Model” (FDR. The target was to obtain a high level of precision, so I choose the feed industry and more specific only feed distribution branch and I analyzed statistics about the evolution of the feed distribution companies in Romania and about the normal level of some financial or non-financial indicators for these companies.I have choose five feed distribution companies and I counted two international score functions and two Romanian score function with FDR function. Finally, I concluded that the three main differences between the classic models and this one are that the FDR model is for a specified branch – the feed distribution, it uses an important number of indicators and uses non-financial indicators, which explain the shareholders bonity. As directions to continue the investigations, I propose the elaboration of another models for other branches and adjust the financial information with true dates.

  10. Surface effects on the red giant branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, W. H.; Themeßl, N.; Hekker, S.

    2018-05-01

    Individual mode frequencies have been detected in thousands of individual solar-like oscillators on the red giant branch (RGB). Fitting stellar models to these mode frequencies, however, is more difficult than in main-sequence stars. This is partly because of the uncertain magnitude of the surface effect: the systematic difference between observed and modelled frequencies caused by poor modelling of the near-surface layers. We aim to study the magnitude of the surface effect in RGB stars. Surface effect corrections used for main-sequence targets are potentially large enough to put the non-radial mixed modes in RGB stars out of order, which is unphysical. Unless this can be circumvented, model-fitting of evolved RGB stars is restricted to the radial modes, which reduces the number of available modes. Here, we present a method to suppress gravity modes (g-modes) in the cores of our stellar models, so that they have only pure pressure modes (p-modes). We show that the method gives unbiased results and apply it to three RGB solar-like oscillators in double-lined eclipsing binaries: KIC 8410637, KIC 9540226 and KIC 5640750. In all three stars, the surface effect decreases the model frequencies consistently by about 0.1-0.3 μHz at the frequency of maximum oscillation power νmax, which agrees with existing predictions from three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. Though our method in essence discards information about the stellar cores, it provides a useful step forward in understanding the surface effect in RGB stars.

  11. Determining Diagonal Branches in Mine Ventilation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krach, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    The present paper discusses determining diagonal branches in a mine ventilation network by means of a method based on the relationship A⊗ PT(k, l) = M, which states that the nodal-branch incidence matrix A, modulo-2 multiplied by the transposed path matrix PT(k, l ) from node no. k to node no. l, yields the matrix M where all the elements in rows k and l - corresponding to the start and the end node - are 1, and where the elements in the remaining rows are 0, exclusively. If a row of the matrix M is to contain only "0" elements, the following condition has to be fulfilled: after multiplying the elements of a row of the matrix A by the elements of a column of the matrix PT(k, l), i.e. by the elements of a proper row of the matrix P(k, l ), the result row must display only "0" elements or an even number of "1" entries, as only such a number of "1" entries yields 0 when modulo-2 added - and since the rows of the matrix A correspond to the graph nodes, and the path nodes level is 2 (apart from the nodes k and l, whose level is 1), then the number of "1" elements in a row has to be 0 or 2. If, in turn, the rows k and l of the matrix M are to contain only "1" elements, the following condition has to be fulfilled: after multiplying the elements of the row k or l of the matrix A by the elements of a column of the matrix PT(k, l), the result row must display an uneven number of "1" entries, as only such a number of "1" entries yields 1 when modulo-2 added - and since the rows of the matrix A correspond to the graph nodes, and the level of the i and j path nodes is 1, then the number of "1" elements in a row has to be 1. The process of determining diagonal branches by means of this method was demonstrated using the example of a simple ventilation network with two upcast shafts and one downcast shaft. W artykule przedstawiono metodę wyznaczania bocznic przekątnych w sieci wentylacyjnej kopalni metodą bazującą na zależności A⊗PT(k, l) = M, która podaje, że macierz

  12. Implications of the philosophy of Ch.S. Peirce for interdisciplinary design: developments in domain theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, M.F.T.; Trum, H.M.G.J.; Nauta jr., D.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Vries de, de B.

    2000-01-01

    Subject of this paper is the establishment of a connection between categorical pragmatism, developed by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) through phenomenological analysis, and Domain Theory, developed by Thijs Bax and Henk Trum since 1977. The first is a phenomenological branch of philosophy, the

  13. TENCompetence Domain Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    This is the version 1.1 of the TENCompetence Domain Model (version 1.0 released at 19-6-2006; version 1.1 at 9-11-2008). It contains several files: a) a pdf with the model description, b) three jpg files with class models (also in the pdf), c) a MagicDraw zip file with the model itself, d) a release

  14. SH2 Domain Histochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhs, Sophia; Nollau, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Among posttranslational modifications, the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues is a key modification in cell signaling. Because of its biological importance, characterization of the cellular state of tyrosine phosphorylation is of great interest. Based on the unique properties of endogenously expressed SH2 domains recognizing tyrosine phosphorylated signaling proteins with high specificity we have developed an alternative approach, coined SH2 profiling, enabling us to decipher complex patterns of tyrosine phosphorylation in various normal and cancerous tissues. So far, SH2 profiling has largely been applied for the analysis of protein extracts with the limitation that information on spatial distribution and intensity of tyrosine phosphorylation within a tissue is lost. Here, we describe a novel SH2 domain based strategy for differential characterization of the state of tyrosine phosphorylation in formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. This approach demonstrates that SH2 domains may serve as very valuable tools for the analysis of the differential state of tyrosine phosphorylation in primary tissues fixed and processed under conditions frequently applied by routine pathology laboratories.

  15. Optimization of multi-branch switched diversity systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2009-10-01

    A performance optimization based on the optimal switching threshold(s) for a multi-branch switched diversity system is discussed in this paper. For the conventional multi-branch switched diversity system with a single switching threshold, the optimal switching threshold is a function of both the average channel SNR and the number of diversity branches, where computing the optimal switching threshold is not a simple task when the number of diversity branches is high. The newly proposed multi-branch switched diversity system is based on a sequence of switching thresholds, instead of a single switching threshold, where a different diversity branch uses a different switching threshold for signal comparison. Thanks to the fact that each switching threshold in the sequence can be optimized only based on the number of the remaining diversity branches, the proposed system makes it easy to find these switching thresholds. Furthermore, some selected numerical and simulation results show that the proposed switched diversity system with the sequence of optimal switching thresholds outperforms the conventional system with the single optimal switching threshold. © 2009 IEEE.

  16. Wind-Induced Reconfigurations in Flexible Branched Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Oluwafemi; Shoele, Kourosh

    2017-11-01

    Wind induced stresses are the major mechanical cause of failure in trees. We know that the branching mechanism has an important effect on the stress distribution and stability of a tree in the wind. Eloy in PRL 2011, showed that Leonardo da Vinci's original observation which states the total cross section of branches is conserved across branching nodes is the best configuration for resisting wind-induced fracture in rigid trees. However, prediction of the fracture risk and pattern of a tree is also a function of their reconfiguration capabilities and how they mitigate large wind-induced stresses. In this studies through developing an efficient numerical simulation of flexible branched trees, we explore the role of the tree flexibility on the optimal branching. Our results show that the probability of a tree breaking at any point depends on both the cross-section changes in the branching nodes and the level of tree flexibility. It is found that the branching mechanism based on Leonardo da Vinci's original observation leads to a uniform stress distribution over a wide range of flexibilities but the pattern changes for more flexible systems.

  17. Effect of reinforcement on plastic limit loads of branch junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun-Jae; Myeong, Man-Sik; Yoon, Kee-Bong

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides effects of reinforcement shape and area on plastic limit loads of branch junctions under internal pressure and in-plane/out-of-plane bending, via detailed three-dimensional finite element limit analysis assuming elastic-perfectly plastic material behaviour. It is found that reinforcement is most effective when (in-plane/out-of-plane) bending is applied to the branch pipe. When bending is applied to the run pipe, reinforcement is less effective when bending is applied to the branch pipe. The reinforcement effect is the least effective for internal pressure.

  18. Dy163-Ho163 branching: an s-process barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, H.; Walter, G.; Macklin, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of Dy163 and Er164 have been measured to analyze the s-process branching at Dy163-Ho163. The reproduction of the s-process abundance of Er164 via this branching is sensitive to temperature kT, neutron density, and electron density n/sub e/. The calculations using information from other branchings on kT and the neutron density n/sub n/ give constraints for n/sub e/ at the site of the s-process

  19. Stable isotopes in a branching coral monitor seasonal temperature variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, R.B.; Wellington, G.M.

    1981-01-01

    Results are reported of 18 O composition measurements of specimens of the branching reef coral Pocillopora damicornis, which have grown in the field, while seawater temperatures were continuously recorded. It is shown that seasonal temperature changes are accurately recorded by 18 O variations in branches of this reef coral and that isotopic profiles may be used to estimate growth rates of branching corals, which lack annual density banding. The method provides a technique for high resolution palaeoclimatic reconstruction of seasonal temperature ranges and accurate estimation of rates of reef carbonate production. (U.K.)

  20. Business Systems Branch Abilities, Capabilities, and Services Web Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Pena, Aida Yoguely

    2009-01-01

    During the INSPIRE summer internship I acted as the Business Systems Branch Capability Owner for the Kennedy Web-based Initiative for Communicating Capabilities System (KWICC), with the responsibility of creating a portal that describes the services provided by this Branch. This project will help others achieve a clear view ofthe services that the Business System Branch provides to NASA and the Kennedy Space Center. After collecting the data through the interviews with subject matter experts and the literature in Business World and other web sites I identified discrepancies, made the necessary corrections to the sites and placed the information from the report into the KWICC web page.

  1. Global solution branches for a nonlocal Allen-Cahn equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuto, Kousuke; Mori, Tatsuki; Tsujikawa, Tohru; Yotsutani, Shoji

    2018-05-01

    We consider the Neumann problem of a 1D stationary Allen-Cahn equation with nonlocal term. Our previous paper [4] obtained a local branch of asymmetric solutions which bifurcates from a point on the branch of odd-symmetric solutions. This paper derives the global behavior of the branch of asymmetric solutions, and moreover, determines the set of all solutions to the nonlocal Allen-Cahn equation. Our proof is based on a level set analysis for an integral map associated with the nonlocal term.

  2. On Computational Power of Quantum Read-Once Branching Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Ablayev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review our current results concerning the computational power of quantum read-once branching programs. First of all, based on the circuit presentation of quantum branching programs and our variant of quantum fingerprinting technique, we show that any Boolean function with linear polynomial presentation can be computed by a quantum read-once branching program using a relatively small (usually logarithmic in the size of input number of qubits. Then we show that the described class of Boolean functions is closed under the polynomial projections.

  3. Domain decomposition method for solving elliptic problems in unbounded domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoromskij, B.N.; Mazurkevich, G.E.; Zhidkov, E.P.

    1991-01-01

    Computational aspects of the box domain decomposition (DD) method for solving boundary value problems in an unbounded domain are discussed. A new variant of the DD-method for elliptic problems in unbounded domains is suggested. It is based on the partitioning of an unbounded domain adapted to the given asymptotic decay of an unknown function at infinity. The comparison of computational expenditures is given for boundary integral method and the suggested DD-algorithm. 29 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  4. An extracellular cell-attached pullulanase confers branched α-glucan utilization in human gut Lactobacillus acidophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Sofie; Goh, Yong Jun; Rasmussen, Kasper Bøwig

    2017-01-01

    binding modules, a domain of unknown function, and a C-terminal surface layer association protein (SLAP) domain. Here we explore the specificity of a representative of this group of pullulanases, LaPul13_14 and its role in branched α-glucans metabolism in the well characterized Lactobacillus acidophilus...... in the presence of α-glucans but was repressed by glucose. The debranching activity is conferred exclusively by LaPul13_14 and is abolished in a mutant strain lacking a functional LaPul13_14 gene. Hydrolysis kinetics of recombinant LaPul13_14 confirmed the preference for short branched α-glucan oligomers....... Branched α-1,6-glucans in dietary starch and glycogen are non-degradable by human enzymes and constitute a metabolic resource for the gut microbiota. The role of health-beneficial lactobacilli prevalent in the human small intestine in starch metabolism remains unexplored in contrast to colonic bacterial...

  5. Functional Domain Driven Design

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Guzmán, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Las tecnologías están en constante expansión y evolución, diseñando nuevas técnicas para cumplir con su fin. En el desarrollo de software, las herramientas y pautas para la elaboración de productos software constituyen una pieza en constante evolución, necesarias para la toma de decisiones sobre los proyectos a realizar. Uno de los arquetipos para el desarrollo de software es el denominado Domain Driven Design, donde es importante conocer ampliamente el negocio que se desea modelar en form...

  6. Feature-level domain adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouw, Wouter M.; Van Der Maaten, Laurens J P; Krijthe, Jesse H.

    2016-01-01

    -level domain adaptation (flda), that models the dependence between the two domains by means of a feature-level transfer model that is trained to describe the transfer from source to target domain. Subsequently, we train a domain-adapted classifier by minimizing the expected loss under the resulting transfer...... modeled via a dropout distribution, which allows the classiffier to adapt to differences in the marginal probability of features in the source and the target domain. Our experiments on several real-world problems show that flda performs on par with state-of-the-art domainadaptation techniques.......Domain adaptation is the supervised learning setting in which the training and test data are sampled from different distributions: training data is sampled from a source domain, whilst test data is sampled from a target domain. This paper proposes and studies an approach, called feature...

  7. Compensating for Incomplete Domain Knowledge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, Lynn M; Drezner, Steve; Rue, Rachel; Reyes, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    .... First, many senior leader positions require experience in more than one functional or operational domain, but it is difficult to develop a corps of senior leaders with all the required combinations of domain knowledge...

  8. Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA for branched chain acyltransferase with analysis of the deduced protein structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, K.B.; Litwer, S.; Bradford, A.P.; Aitken, A.; Danner, D.J.; Yeaman, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence was determined for a 1.6-kilobase human cDNA putative for the branched chain acyltransferase protein of the branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. Translation of the sequence reveals an open reading frame encoding a 315-amino acid protein of molecular weight 35,759 followed by 560 bases of 3'-untranslated sequence. Three repeats of the polyadenylation signal hexamer ATTAAA are present prior to the polyadenylate tail. Within the open reading frame is a 10-amino acid fragment which matches exactly the amino acid sequence around the lipoate-lysine residue in bovine kidney branched chain acyltransferase, thus confirming the identity of the cDNA. Analysis of the deduced protein structure for the human branched chain acyltransferase revealed an organization into domains similar to that reported for the acyltransferase proteins of the pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes. This similarity in organization suggests that a more detailed analysis of the proteins will be required to explain the individual substrate and multienzyme complex specificity shown by these acyltransferases

  9. Critical evaluation of branch polarity and apical dominance as dictators of colony astogeny in a branching coral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shaish

    Full Text Available The high morphological resemblance between branching corals and trees, can lead to comparative studies on pattern formation traits, best exemplified in plants and in some cnidarians. Here, 81 branches of similar size of the hermatypic coral Stylophora pistillata were lopped of three different genets, their skeletons marked with alizarin red-S, and divided haphazardly into three morphometric treatment groups: (I upright position; (II horizontal position, intact tip; and (III horizontal position, cut tip. After 1 y of in-situ growth, the 45 surviving ramets were brought to the laboratory, their tissues removed and their architectures analyzed by 22 morphological parameters (MPs. We found that within 1 y, isolated branches developed into small coral colonies by growing new branches from all branch termini, in all directions. No architectural dissimilarity was assigned among the three studied genets of treatment I colonies. However, a major architectural disparity between treatment I colonies and colonies of treatments II and III was documented as the development of mirror structures from both sides of treatments II and III settings as compared to tip-borne architectures in treatment I colonies. We did not observe apical dominance since fragments grew equally from all branch sides without documented dominant polarity along branch axis. In treatment II colonies, no MP for new branches originating either from tips or from branch bases differed significantly. In treatment III colonies, growth from the cut tip areas was significantly lower compared to the base, again, suggesting lack of apical dominance in this species. Changes in branch polarity revealed genet associated plasticity, which in one of the studied genets, led to enhanced growth. Different genets exhibited canalization flexibility of growth patterns towards either lateral growth, or branch axis extension (skeletal weight and not porosity was measured. This study revealed that colony

  10. BOREAS TE-04 Branch Bag Data from Boreal Tree Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Contains 1996 TE-04 data of branch bag studies of photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance of boreal forest species using the open MPH-1000...

  11. News and Events - Nanodelivery Systems and Devices Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The latest news from the Nanodelivery Systems and Devices Branch and the Alliance, as well as upcoming and past events attended by the Nanodelivery Systems and Devices Branchstaff, and relevant upcoming scientific meetings.

  12. Controlling branching in streamer discharge by laser background ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, E; Kato, S; Furutani, H; Sasaki, A; Kishimoto, Y

    2011-01-01

    Irradiation with a KrF laser controlled the positive streamer branching in atmospheric argon gas. This laser irradiation changed the amount of background ionization before the streamer discharge. Measuring the ionization current allowed us to evaluate the initial electron density formed by the KrF laser. We observed characteristic feather-like branching structure and found that it was only suppressed in the irradiated region. The threshold of ionization density which can influence the branching was evaluated to be 5 x 10 5 cm -3 . The relationship between the size of avalanche head and mean distance between initial electrons explained this suppression behaviour. These experimental results support that the feather-like structure originates from the branching model of Loeb-Meek, a probabilistic merging of individual avalanches.

  13. Walker Branch Watershed Vegetation Inventory, 1967-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The original objectives of the long-term vegetation survey of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee (WBW; Curlin and Nelson 1968) was to quantify...

  14. Measurement of the τ leptonic branching fractions in DELPHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, M.

    1994-11-01

    Preliminary measurements of the τ leptonic branching fractions from the DELPHI experiment at LEP are presented. The analysis is based on about 25000 Z o →τ + τ - events observed in 1991 and 1992. 7 refs., 5 tabs

  15. Multi-Branch Fully Convolutional Network for Face Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Yancheng; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Face detection is a fundamental problem in computer vision. It is still a challenging task in unconstrained conditions due to significant variations in scale, pose, expressions, and occlusion. In this paper, we propose a multi-branch fully

  16. Finite-size scaling of survival probability in branching processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Millan, Rosalba; Font-Clos, Francesc; Corral, Álvaro

    2015-04-01

    Branching processes pervade many models in statistical physics. We investigate the survival probability of a Galton-Watson branching process after a finite number of generations. We derive analytically the existence of finite-size scaling for the survival probability as a function of the control parameter and the maximum number of generations, obtaining the critical exponents as well as the exact scaling function, which is G(y)=2ye(y)/(e(y)-1), with y the rescaled distance to the critical point. Our findings are valid for any branching process of the Galton-Watson type, independently of the distribution of the number of offspring, provided its variance is finite. This proves the universal behavior of the finite-size effects in branching processes, including the universality of the metric factors. The direct relation to mean-field percolation is also discussed.

  17. The Coulomb Branch of 3d N= 4 Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullimore, Mathew; Dimofte, Tudor; Gaiotto, Davide

    2017-09-01

    We propose a construction for the quantum-corrected Coulomb branch of a general 3d gauge theory with N=4 supersymmetry, in terms of local coordinates associated with an abelianized theory. In a fixed complex structure, the holomorphic functions on the Coulomb branch are given by expectation values of chiral monopole operators. We construct the chiral ring of such operators, using equivariant integration over BPS moduli spaces. We also quantize the chiral ring, which corresponds to placing the 3d theory in a 2d Omega background. Then, by unifying all complex structures in a twistor space, we encode the full hyperkähler metric on the Coulomb branch. We verify our proposals in a multitude of examples, including SQCD and linear quiver gauge theories, whose Coulomb branches have alternative descriptions as solutions to Bogomolnyi and/or Nahm equations.

  18. Branch file system for nonconventional literature from the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorakova, K.

    1982-01-01

    The branch filing system collects research and study reports, translations, trip reports, literature searches and information on scientific and technical events in Czechoslovakia. The method is described of filing, processing and use of the materials. (M.D.)

  19. VT West Branch Natural Channel Design Restoration 2001-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Because of the well known problems of the river, the West Branch was identified as a restoration implementation site to be funded as part of the...

  20. VT West Branch Natural Channel Post Monitoring 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Because of the well known problems of the river, the West Branch was identified as a restoration implementation site to be funded as part of the...

  1. Employment of Veterans in the Federal Executive Branch

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — These quick facts use data from the 2011 Employment of Veterans in the Federal Executive Branch to compare Veteran employment in the Federal Government by agency,...

  2. Bi-objective branch-and-cut algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadegaard, Sune Lauth; Ehrgott, Matthias; Nielsen, Lars Relund

    Most real-world optimization problems are of a multi-objective nature, involving objectives which are conflicting and incomparable. Solving a multi-objective optimization problem requires a method which can generate the set of rational compromises between the objectives. In this paper, we propose...... are strengthened by cutting planes. In addition, we suggest an extension of the branching strategy "Pareto branching''. Extensive computational results obtained for the bi-objective single source capacitated facility location problem prove the effectiveness of the algorithms....... and compares it to an upper bound set. The implicit bound set based algorithm, on the other hand, fathoms branching nodes by generating a single point on the lower bound set for each local nadir point. We outline several approaches for fathoming branching nodes and we propose an updating scheme for the lower...

  3. Branching innovation, recombinant innovation, and endogenous technological transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.; Izquierdo, L.; Zeppini, P.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a model of technological transitions based on two different types of innovations. Branching innovations refer to technological improvements along a particular path, while recombinant innovations represent fusions of multiple paths. Recombinant innovations create "short-cuts" which reduce

  4. Ligand binding by PDZ domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Celestine N.; Bach, Anders; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    , for example, are particularly rich in these domains. The general function of PDZ domains is to bring proteins together within the appropriate cellular compartment, thereby facilitating scaffolding, signaling, and trafficking events. The many functions of PDZ domains under normal physiological as well...... as pathological conditions have been reviewed recently. In this review, we focus on the molecular details of how PDZ domains bind their protein ligands and their potential as drug targets in this context....

  5. Summarization by domain ontology navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    of the subject. In between these two extremes, conceptual summaries encompass selected concepts derived using background knowledge. We address in this paper an approach where conceptual summaries are provided through a conceptualization as given by an ontology. The ontology guiding the summarization can...... be a simple taxonomy or a generative domain ontology. A domain ontology can be provided by a preanalysis of a domain corpus and can be used to condense improved summaries that better reflects the conceptualization of a given domain....

  6. Continuous state branching processes in random environment: The Brownian case

    OpenAIRE

    Palau, Sandra; Pardo, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    We consider continuous state branching processes that are perturbed by a Brownian motion. These processes are constructed as the unique strong solution of a stochastic differential equation. The long-term extinction and explosion behaviours are studied. In the stable case, the extinction and explosion probabilities are given explicitly. We find three regimes for the asymptotic behaviour of the explosion probability and, as in the case of branching processes in random environment, we find five...

  7. Sheathotomy in complicated cases of branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafoord, S.; Karlsson, N.; Cour, M. la

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical experience and results of using a microsurgical technique to decompress the arteriovenous connection in complicated branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) combined with haemorrhage, oedema an ischaemia. Methods: We carried out a retrospective, non-randomized, interve......Purpose: To report the clinical experience and results of using a microsurgical technique to decompress the arteriovenous connection in complicated branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) combined with haemorrhage, oedema an ischaemia. Methods: We carried out a retrospective, non...

  8. Branched-chain amino acids for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Koretz, R L; Kjaergard, L L

    2003-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be caused by a decreased plasma ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to aromatic amino acids. Treatment with BCAA may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be caused by a decreased plasma ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to aromatic amino acids. Treatment with BCAA may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  9. Branch retinal vein occlusion associated with quetiapine fumarate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siang Lim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report a case of branch retinal vein occlusion in a young adult with bipolar mood disorder treated with quetiapine fumarate. Case Presentation A 29 years old gentleman who was taking quetiapine fumarate for 3 years for bipolar mood disorder, presented with sudden vision loss. He was found to have a superior temporal branch retinal vein occlusion associated with hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion Atypical antipsychotic drugs have metabolic side effects which require regular monitoring and prompt treatment.

  10. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model

    OpenAIRE

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tugrul, Murat; Eguiluz, Victor M.; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age $\\tau$ as $\\tau^{-\\alpha}$. Depending on the exponent $\\alpha$, the scaling of tree depth with tree size $n$ displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition ($\\alpha=1$) tree depth grows as $(\\log n)^2$. This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus p...

  11. Fast multiprogrammable branch driver for Micral mini-computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, J.; Lacroix, J.

    1975-01-01

    This branch driver allows in association with the stack memories of the minicomputer Micral, very fast exchanges with the 7 crates of a CAMAC branch. A CAMAC program (read, write and control commands) is loaded in the IK stack memory of the Micral and executed in sequence at a rate of 1,6μs per CAMAC command. After programm execution, data may be transferred directly on a magnetic tape

  12. 75 FR 13287 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for an Unmodified SF 278 Executive Branch Personnel Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Executive Branch Personnel Public Financial Disclosure Report. Form Number: SF... Executive Branch Personnel Public Financial Disclosure Report AGENCY: Office of Government Ethics (OGE... 278 Executive Branch Personnel Public Financial Disclosure Report to the Office of Management and...

  13. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN DURIAN (DURIO ZIBETHINUS L. BRANCH BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Durian (Durio zibethinus L. fruit form on the bark of branches. The aim of our research was to assess whether branches bearing different number of fruits have different nutrient contents in their bark. We determined the nitrogen (N, phosphorous (P, potassium (K, and carbon (C content in branch bark 30 days after fruit set using branches bearing different number of fruits per panicle (0, 1, 2 or >2 of two varieties (‘Otong’ and ‘Kani’. Bark was cut into 0.03 m long and 0.005 m wide segments with an average thickness of 0.00085 m. The bark of branches bearing a different number of fruits had the same N, P, K, and C content but different ratios of C/N, C/P, C/K, N/K, and P/K. The bark of ‘Otong’ branches had a higher N content but a lower C/N ratio than ‘Kani’ bark.

  14. Randomly oriented twin domains in electrodeposited silver dendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Evica R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver dendrites were prepared by electrochemical deposition. The structures of Ag dendrites, the type of twins and their distribution were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Z-contrast high angle annular dark field transmission electron microscopy (HAADF, and crystallografically sensitive orientation imaging microscopy (OIM. The results revealed that silver dendrites are characterized by the presence of randomly distributed 180° rotational twin domains. The broad surface of dendrites was of the {111} type. Growth directions of the main dendrite stem and all branches were of type. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172054

  15. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  16. Reproductive success and mortality rates of Ceriodaphnia dubia maintained in water from Upper Three Runs, Pen Branch, and Fourmile Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1994-12-01

    It is anticipated that the new SRS NPDES permit will require toxicity testing of at numerous outfalls and receiving streams, using the standard test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Because SRS surface waters differ markedly from the standard culture water that is used for Ceriodaphnia, studies were undertaken to determine if unimpacted SRS surface waters will support this species. Three SRS surface waters were evaluated; Upper Three Runs at Road 8-1, Pen Branch at Road B, and Fourmile Branch at Road F. Toxicity tests were performed monthly on each water source for eleven months. All three water sources exhibited varying degrees of toxicity to Ceriodaphnia, with Pen Branch being the least toxic and Fourmile Branch being the most toxic. These results indicate that if in-stream toxicity testing is required, it may not be possible to separate the naturally occurring toxic effects of the receiving water from possible toxic effects of SRS effluents

  17. Flow structure in a downward branch pipe with a closed end. Characteristics of flow velocity in the branch pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Koji; Nakamura, Akira; Takenaka, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Many pipes branch off from a main pipe in industrial plants. The penetration of hot water into the branch pipe causes thermal stratification. The thermal stratification layer fluctuates and causes thermal fatigue. The characteristics of velocity distributions in the branch pipe for inner diameters from D_b=21 mm to 43 mm were investigated by laser Doppler velocimetry in this paper. As for the flow in the branch pipe at L=4D_b, the mean velocity of the spiral flow was a simple forced vortex which indicated a straight velocity distribution. The maximum circumferential velocity U_θ _m_a_x and minimum axial velocity U_z _m_i_n at L=4D_b were expressed with D_b and main flow velocity. Empirical formulas were proposed for estimating the distributions of U_θ _m_a_x and U_z _m_i_n in the axial direction. (author)

  18. Branching enzyme assay: selective quantitation of the alpha 1,6-linked glucosyl residues involved in the branching points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisman, C R; Tolmasky, D S; Raffo, S

    1985-06-01

    Methods previously described for glycogen or amylopectin branching enzymatic activity are insufficiently sensitive and not quantitative. A new, more sensitive, specific, and quantitative one was developed. It is based upon the quantitation of the glucose residues joined by alpha 1,6 bonds introduced by varying amounts of branching enzyme. The procedure involved the synthesis of a polysaccharide from Glc-1-P and phosphorylase in the presence of the sample to be tested. The branched polysaccharide was then purified and the glucoses involved in the branching points were quantitated after degradation with phosphorylase and debranching enzymes. This method appeared to be useful, not only in enzymatic activity determinations but also in the study of the structure of alpha-D-glucans when combined with those of total polysaccharide quantitation, such as iodine and phenol-sulfuric acid.

  19. Branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase mutant of Staphylococcus carnosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis by a mutant strain of Staphylococcus carnosus deficient in branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (IlvE) activity was analysed. This mutant was unable to produce the appropriate branched-chain alpha-ketoacid precursors for branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis from...... in rich medium and growth in defined medium supplemented with 2-methylpropanoic acid lead to extensive alteration of the fatty acid composition in the cell membrane. In rich medium, a change from 51.7% to 17.1% anteiso-C15:0, and from 3.6% to 33.9% iso-C14:0 fatty acids as compared to the wild-type strain...... for 2-methylpropanoic acid production, revealing that the IlvE protein plays an important, but not essential role in the biosynthesis of branched-chain fatty acids and secondary metabolites in S. carnosus....

  20. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest

    2012-01-01

    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......, to reconstruct the distribution of the Cole-Cole parameters of the earth. The accurate modeling of the transmitter waveform had a strong influence on the forward response, and we showed that the difference between a solution using a step response and a solution using the accurate modeling often is above 100...

  1. Domain architecture conservation in orthologs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background As orthologous proteins are expected to retain function more often than other homologs, they are often used for functional annotation transfer between species. However, ortholog identification methods do not take into account changes in domain architecture, which are likely to modify a protein's function. By domain architecture we refer to the sequential arrangement of domains along a protein sequence. To assess the level of domain architecture conservation among orthologs, we carried out a large-scale study of such events between human and 40 other species spanning the entire evolutionary range. We designed a score to measure domain architecture similarity and used it to analyze differences in domain architecture conservation between orthologs and paralogs relative to the conservation of primary sequence. We also statistically characterized the extents of different types of domain swapping events across pairs of orthologs and paralogs. Results The analysis shows that orthologs exhibit greater domain architecture conservation than paralogous homologs, even when differences in average sequence divergence are compensated for, for homologs that have diverged beyond a certain threshold. We interpret this as an indication of a stronger selective pressure on orthologs than paralogs to retain the domain architecture required for the proteins to perform a specific function. In general, orthologs as well as the closest paralogous homologs have very similar domain architectures, even at large evolutionary separation. The most common domain architecture changes observed in both ortholog and paralog pairs involved insertion/deletion of new domains, while domain shuffling and segment duplication/deletion were very infrequent. Conclusions On the whole, our results support the hypothesis that function conservation between orthologs demands higher domain architecture conservation than other types of homologs, relative to primary sequence conservation. This supports the

  2. An investigation of cognitive 'branching' processes in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Nicholas D; Seal, Marc L; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A

    2009-11-10

    Patients with depression demonstrate cognitive impairment on a wide range of cognitive tasks, particularly putative tasks of frontal lobe function. Recent models of frontal lobe function have argued that the frontal pole region is involved in cognitive branching, a process requiring holding in mind one goal while performing sub-goal processes. Evidence for this model comes from functional neuroimaging and frontal-pole lesion patients. We have utilised these new concepts to investigate the possibility that patients with depression are impaired at cognitive 'branching'. 11 non-medicated patients with major depression were compared to 11 matched controls in a behavioural study on a task of cognitive 'branching'. In the version employed here, we recorded participant's performance as they learnt to perform the task. This involved participants completing a control condition, followed by a working memory condition, a dual-task condition and finally the branching condition, which integrates processes in the working memory and dual-task conditions. We also measured participants on a number of other cognitive tasks as well as mood-state before and after the branching experiment. Patients took longer to learn the first condition, but performed comparably to controls after six runs of the task. Overall, reaction times decreased with repeated exposure on the task conditions in controls, with this effect attenuated in patients. Importantly, no differences were found between patients and controls on the branching condition. There was, however, a significant change in mood-state with patients increasing in positive affect and decreasing in negative affect after the experiment. We found no clear evidence of a fundamental impairment in anterior prefrontal 'branching processes' in patients with depression. Rather our data argue for a contextual learning impairment underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disorder. Our data suggest that MDD patients are able to perform high

  3. Simple model of inhibition of chain-branching combustion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babushok, Valeri I.; Gubernov, Vladimir V.; Minaev, Sergei S.; Miroshnichenko, Taisia P.

    2017-11-01

    A simple kinetic model has been suggested to describe the inhibition and extinction of flame propagation in reaction systems with chain-branching reactions typical for hydrocarbon systems. The model is based on the generalised model of the combustion process with chain-branching reaction combined with the one-stage reaction describing the thermal mode of flame propagation with the addition of inhibition reaction steps. Inhibitor addition suppresses the radical overshoot in flame and leads to the change of reaction mode from the chain-branching reaction to a thermal mode of flame propagation. With the increase of inhibitor the transition of chain-branching mode of reaction to the reaction with straight-chains (non-branching chain reaction) is observed. The inhibition part of the model includes a block of three reactions to describe the influence of the inhibitor. The heat losses are incorporated into the model via Newton cooling. The flame extinction is the result of the decreased heat release of inhibited reaction processes and the suppression of radical overshoot with the further decrease of the reaction rate due to the temperature decrease and mixture dilution. A comparison of the results of modelling laminar premixed methane/air flames inhibited by potassium bicarbonate (gas phase model, detailed kinetic model) with the results obtained using the suggested simple model is presented. The calculations with the detailed kinetic model demonstrate the following modes of combustion process: (1) flame propagation with chain-branching reaction (with radical overshoot, inhibitor addition decreases the radical overshoot down to the equilibrium level); (2) saturation of chemical influence of inhibitor, and (3) transition to thermal mode of flame propagation (non-branching chain mode of reaction). The suggested simple kinetic model qualitatively reproduces the modes of flame propagation with the addition of the inhibitor observed using detailed kinetic models.

  4. Microsphere preparation using highly branched dextran degraded by electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Min Ho; Yoo, Sun Kyun [Joongbu Univ., Geumsan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Suk; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Dextrans as noble alternative consist predominantly of linear a-1,6 glucose linkages with some degree of branching via 1,2-, 1,3-, or 1,4- linkage. Dextrans have been investigated as potential macromolecular carriers for delivery of drugs and proteins, primarily to increase the longevity of therapeutic agents in the delivery of drugs and proteins, primarily to increase the longevity of therapeutic agents in the circulation. In most previous researches, linear type of dextrans with molecular weight of new type of drug delivery agent. Since 1950, the clinical dextran has been manufactured by acid hydrolysis, of which processes are multi-steps and time-consumed. Therefore, the objective of this research is evaluate the microsphere synthesised by highly branched dextran degraded by a electron beam radiation. Linear type of dextran was purchased from Sigma company. Branch type of dextran was produced and purified in our lab. The branch degree of dextran was evaluated using dextranase and analyzed by TLC. The air-dry dextran and two solution dextran was irradiated at room temperature using a electrostatic beam. The electron beam energy applied was 1.0 to 2.5 MeV. Dose was 70 kGy. The molecular average weight if 11,215,000 of linear dextran and 7,413,000 was degraded to 213,000 and 112,000, respectively. Branched dextran applied by a beam still retained its branched structure. The size of microsphere was dependant of the amount of PPG added to make water to water emulsion. Swelling of microsphere of branched dextran was higher than of linear dextran.

  5. A spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney branching morphogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V.S.

    2015-08-01

    © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Kidney development is initiated by the outgrowth of an epithelial ureteric bud into a population of mesenchymal cells. Reciprocal morphogenetic responses between these two populations generate a highly branched epithelial ureteric tree with the mesenchyme differentiating into nephrons, the functional units of the kidney. While we understand some of the mechanisms involved, current knowledge fails to explain the variability of organ sizes and nephron endowment in mice and humans. Here we present a spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney morphogenesis in which the growth of the two key populations is described by a system of time-dependant ordinary differential equations. We assume that branching is symmetric and is invoked when the number of epithelial cells per tip reaches a threshold value. This process continues until the number of mesenchymal cells falls below a critical value that triggers cessation of branching. The mathematical model and its predictions are validated against experimentally quantified C57Bl6 mouse embryonic kidneys. Numerical simulations are performed to determine how the final number of branches changes as key system parameters are varied (such as the growth rate of tip cells, mesenchyme cells, or component cell population exit rate). Our results predict that the developing kidney responds differently to loss of cap and tip cells. They also indicate that the final number of kidney branches is less sensitive to changes in the growth rate of the ureteric tip cells than to changes in the growth rate of the mesenchymal cells. By inference, increasing the growth rate of mesenchymal cells should maximise branch number. Our model also provides a framework for predicting the branching outcome when ureteric tip or mesenchyme cells change behaviour in response to different genetic or environmental developmental stresses.

  6. Microsphere preparation using highly branched dextran degraded by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Min Ho; Yoo, Sun Kyun; Kang, Hyun Suk; Lee, Byung Cheol

    2011-01-01

    Dextrans as noble alternative consist predominantly of linear a-1,6 glucose linkages with some degree of branching via 1,2-, 1,3-, or 1,4- linkage. Dextrans have been investigated as potential macromolecular carriers for delivery of drugs and proteins, primarily to increase the longevity of therapeutic agents in the delivery of drugs and proteins, primarily to increase the longevity of therapeutic agents in the circulation. In most previous researches, linear type of dextrans with molecular weight of new type of drug delivery agent. Since 1950, the clinical dextran has been manufactured by acid hydrolysis, of which processes are multi-steps and time-consumed. Therefore, the objective of this research is evaluate the microsphere synthesised by highly branched dextran degraded by a electron beam radiation. Linear type of dextran was purchased from Sigma company. Branch type of dextran was produced and purified in our lab. The branch degree of dextran was evaluated using dextranase and analyzed by TLC. The air-dry dextran and two solution dextran was irradiated at room temperature using a electrostatic beam. The electron beam energy applied was 1.0 to 2.5 MeV. Dose was 70 kGy. The molecular average weight if 11,215,000 of linear dextran and 7,413,000 was degraded to 213,000 and 112,000, respectively. Branched dextran applied by a beam still retained its branched structure. The size of microsphere was dependant of the amount of PPG added to make water to water emulsion. Swelling of microsphere of branched dextran was higher than of linear dextran

  7. A spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney branching morphogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V.S.; Combes, A.N.; Short, K.M.; Lefevre, J.; Hamilton, N.A.; Smyth, I.M.; Little, M.H.; Byrne, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Kidney development is initiated by the outgrowth of an epithelial ureteric bud into a population of mesenchymal cells. Reciprocal morphogenetic responses between these two populations generate a highly branched epithelial ureteric tree with the mesenchyme differentiating into nephrons, the functional units of the kidney. While we understand some of the mechanisms involved, current knowledge fails to explain the variability of organ sizes and nephron endowment in mice and humans. Here we present a spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney morphogenesis in which the growth of the two key populations is described by a system of time-dependant ordinary differential equations. We assume that branching is symmetric and is invoked when the number of epithelial cells per tip reaches a threshold value. This process continues until the number of mesenchymal cells falls below a critical value that triggers cessation of branching. The mathematical model and its predictions are validated against experimentally quantified C57Bl6 mouse embryonic kidneys. Numerical simulations are performed to determine how the final number of branches changes as key system parameters are varied (such as the growth rate of tip cells, mesenchyme cells, or component cell population exit rate). Our results predict that the developing kidney responds differently to loss of cap and tip cells. They also indicate that the final number of kidney branches is less sensitive to changes in the growth rate of the ureteric tip cells than to changes in the growth rate of the mesenchymal cells. By inference, increasing the growth rate of mesenchymal cells should maximise branch number. Our model also provides a framework for predicting the branching outcome when ureteric tip or mesenchyme cells change behaviour in response to different genetic or environmental developmental stresses.

  8. The tree of life might be rooted in the branch leading to Nanoarchaeota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giulio, Massimo

    2007-10-15

    It is suggested that the tree of life might be rooted in the domain of the Archaea, in the branch leading to the phylum of Nanoarchaeota. This hypothesis seems to be corroborated by the uniqueness and ancestrality of some traits possessed by Nanoarchaeum equitans, such as split genes separately codifying for the 5' and 3' halves of the tRNA molecule. These half genes are the oldest ancestral form of gene we have ever seen. This, along with the absence of operons from the genome of N. equitans, would seem to indicate that this genome is a molecular fossil of the evolutionary stage which the ancestral genomes had reached when the first lines of divergence were established. Moreover, the late appearance of DNA coinciding with the rooting of the universal phylogenetic tree would make the genome of N. equitans a witness to this fundamental event.

  9. Hybrid Bacterial Foraging and Particle Swarm Optimization for detecting Bundle Branch Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kora, Padmavathi; Kalva, Sri Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal cardiac beat identification is a key process in the detection of heart diseases. Our present study describes a procedure for the detection of left and right bundle branch block (LBBB and RBBB) Electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns. The electrical impulses that control the cardiac beat face difficulty in moving inside the heart. This problem is termed as bundle branch block (BBB). BBB makes it harder for the heart to pump blood effectively through the heart circulatory system. ECG feature extraction is a key process in detecting heart ailments. Our present study comes up with a hybrid method combining two heuristic optimization methods: Bacterial Forging Optimization (BFO) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for the feature selection of ECG signals. One of the major controlling forces of BFO algorithm is the chemotactic movement of a bacterium that models a test solution. The chemotaxis process of the BFO depends on random search directions which may lead to a delay in achieving the global optimum solution. The hybrid technique: Bacterial Forging-Particle Swarm Optimization (BFPSO) incorporates the concepts from BFO and PSO and it creates individuals in a new generation. This BFPSO method performs local search through the chemotactic movement of BFO and the global search over the entire search domain is accomplished by a PSO operator. The BFPSO feature values are given as the input for the Levenberg-Marquardt Neural Network classifier.

  10. Protein domain organisation: adding order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummerfeld Sarah K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. Results We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Conclusion Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected

  11. Protein domain organisation: adding order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerfeld, Sarah K; Teichmann, Sarah A

    2009-01-29

    Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected degree of clustering and more domain pairs in forward and

  12. Correlation between the ripple phase and stripe domains in membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernchou, Uffe; Midtiby, Henrik; Ipsen, John Hjort; Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the relationship between stripe domains and the ripple phase in membranes. These have previously been observed separately without being linked explicitly. Past results have demonstrated that solid and ripple phases exhibit rich textural patterns related to the orientational order of tilted lipids and the orientation of ripple corrugations. Here we reveal a highly complex network pattern of ripple and solid domains in DLPC, DPPC bilayers with structures covering length scales from 10 nm to 100 μm. Using spincoated double supported membranes we investigate domains by correlated AFM and fluorescence microscopy. Cooling experiments demonstrate the mode of nucleation and growth of stripe domains enriched in the fluorescent probe. Concurrent AFM imaging reveals that these stripe domains have a one-to-one correspondence with a rippled morphology running parallel to the stripe direction. Both thin and thick stripe domains are observed having ripple periods of 13.5±0.2 nm and 27.4±0.6 nm respectively. These are equivalent to previously observed asymmetric/equilibrium and symmetric/metastable ripple phases, respectively. Thin stripes grow from small solid domains and grow predominantly in length with a speed of ~3 times that of the thick stripes. Thick stripes grow by templating on the sides of thinner stripes or can emerge directly from the fluid phase. Bending and branching angles of stripes are in accordance with an underlying six fold lattice. We discuss mechanisms for the nucleation and growth of ripples and discuss a generic phase diagram that may partly rationalize the coexistence of metastable and stable phases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prediction Reweighting for Domain Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuang Li; Shiji Song; Gao Huang

    2017-07-01

    There are plenty of classification methods that perform well when training and testing data are drawn from the same distribution. However, in real applications, this condition may be violated, which causes degradation of classification accuracy. Domain adaptation is an effective approach to address this problem. In this paper, we propose a general domain adaptation framework from the perspective of prediction reweighting, from which a novel approach is derived. Different from the major domain adaptation methods, our idea is to reweight predictions of the training classifier on testing data according to their signed distance to the domain separator, which is a classifier that distinguishes training data (from source domain) and testing data (from target domain). We then propagate the labels of target instances with larger weights to ones with smaller weights by introducing a manifold regularization method. It can be proved that our reweighting scheme effectively brings the source and target domains closer to each other in an appropriate sense, such that classification in target domain becomes easier. The proposed method can be implemented efficiently by a simple two-stage algorithm, and the target classifier has a closed-form solution. The effectiveness of our approach is verified by the experiments on artificial datasets and two standard benchmarks, a visual object recognition task and a cross-domain sentiment analysis of text. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is competitive with the state-of-the-art domain adaptation algorithms.

  14. Method and Apparatus of Multiplexing and Acquiring Data from Multiple Optical Fibers Using a Single Data Channel of an Optical Frequency-Domain Reflectometry (OFDR) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jr., Allen R (Inventor); Chan, Hon Man (Inventor); Piazza, Anthony (Nino) (Inventor); Richards, William Lance (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method and system for multiplexing a network of parallel fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor-fibers to a single acquisition channel of a closed Michelson interferometer system via a fiber splitter by distinguishing each branch of fiber sensors in the spatial domain. On each branch of the splitter, the fibers have a specific pre-determined length, effectively separating each branch of fiber sensors spatially. In the spatial domain the fiber branches are seen as part of one acquisition channel on the interrogation system. However, the FBG-reference arm beat frequency information for each fiber is retained. Since the beat frequency is generated between the reference arm, the effective fiber length of each successive branch includes the entire length of the preceding branch. The multiple branches are seen as one fiber having three segments where the segments can be resolved. This greatly simplifies optical, electronic and computational complexity, and is especially suited for use in multiplexed or branched OFS networks for SHM of large and/or distributed structures which need a lot of measurement points.

  15. Path integral formulation and Feynman rules for phylogenetic branching models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, P D; Bashford, J D; Sumner, J G [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, GPO Box 252C, 7001 Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    2005-11-04

    A dynamical picture of phylogenetic evolution is given in terms of Markov models on a state space, comprising joint probability distributions for character types of taxonomic classes. Phylogenetic branching is a process which augments the number of taxa under consideration, and hence the rank of the underlying joint probability state tensor. We point out the combinatorial necessity for a second-quantized, or Fock space setting, incorporating discrete counting labels for taxa and character types, to allow for a description in the number basis. Rate operators describing both time evolution without branching, and also phylogenetic branching events, are identified. A detailed development of these ideas is given, using standard transcriptions from the microscopic formulation of non-equilibrium reaction-diffusion or birth-death processes. These give the relations between stochastic rate matrices, the matrix elements of the corresponding evolution operators representing them, and the integral kernels needed to implement these as path integrals. The 'free' theory (without branching) is solved, and the correct trilinear 'interaction' terms (representing branching events) are presented. The full model is developed in perturbation theory via the derivation of explicit Feynman rules which establish that the probabilities (pattern frequencies of leaf colourations) arising as matrix elements of the time evolution operator are identical with those computed via the standard analysis. Simple examples (phylogenetic trees with two or three leaves), are discussed in detail. Further implications for the work are briefly considered including the role of time reparametrization covariance.

  16. Path integral formulation and Feynman rules for phylogenetic branching models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, P D; Bashford, J D; Sumner, J G

    2005-01-01

    A dynamical picture of phylogenetic evolution is given in terms of Markov models on a state space, comprising joint probability distributions for character types of taxonomic classes. Phylogenetic branching is a process which augments the number of taxa under consideration, and hence the rank of the underlying joint probability state tensor. We point out the combinatorial necessity for a second-quantized, or Fock space setting, incorporating discrete counting labels for taxa and character types, to allow for a description in the number basis. Rate operators describing both time evolution without branching, and also phylogenetic branching events, are identified. A detailed development of these ideas is given, using standard transcriptions from the microscopic formulation of non-equilibrium reaction-diffusion or birth-death processes. These give the relations between stochastic rate matrices, the matrix elements of the corresponding evolution operators representing them, and the integral kernels needed to implement these as path integrals. The 'free' theory (without branching) is solved, and the correct trilinear 'interaction' terms (representing branching events) are presented. The full model is developed in perturbation theory via the derivation of explicit Feynman rules which establish that the probabilities (pattern frequencies of leaf colourations) arising as matrix elements of the time evolution operator are identical with those computed via the standard analysis. Simple examples (phylogenetic trees with two or three leaves), are discussed in detail. Further implications for the work are briefly considered including the role of time reparametrization covariance

  17. Fragrance Release from the Surface of Branched Poly (Amide S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Youngs

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are powerful tools in organic synthesis that are able to catalyse a wide variety of selective chemical transformations under mild and environmentally friendly conditions. Enzymes such as the lipases have also found applications in the synthesis and degradation of polymeric materials. However, the use of these natural catalysts in the synthesis and the post-synthetic modification of dendrimers and hyperbranched molecules is an application of chemistry yet to be explored extensively. In this study the use of two hydrolytic enzymes, a lipase from Candida cylindracea and a cutinase from Fusarium solani pisii, were investigated in the selective cleavage of ester groups situated on the peripheral layer of two families of branched polyamides. These branched polyamides were conjugated to simple fragrances citronellol and L-menthol via ester linkages. Hydrolysis of the ester linkage between the fragrances and the branched polyamide support was carried out in aqueous buffered systems at slightly basic pH values under the optimum operative conditions for the enzymes used. These preliminary qualitative investigations revealed that partial cleavage of the ester functionalities from the branched polyamide support had occurred. However, the ability of the enzymes to interact with the substrates decreased considerably as the branching density, the rigidity of the structure and the bulkiness of the polyamide-fragrance conjugates increased.

  18. Multifunctionalities driven by ferroic domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J. C.; Huang, Y. L.; He, Q.; Chu, Y. H.

    2014-08-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to ferroic systems in pursuit of advanced applications in past decades. Most recently, the emergence and development of multiferroics, which exhibit the coexistence of different ferroic natures, has offered a new route to create functionalities in the system. In this manuscript, we step from domain engineering to explore a roadmap for discovering intriguing phenomena and multifunctionalities driven by periodic domain patters. As-grown periodic domains, offering exotic order parameters, periodic local perturbations and the capability of tailoring local spin, charge, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom, are introduced as modeling templates for fundamental studies and novel applications. We discuss related significant findings on ferroic domain, nanoscopic domain walls, and conjunct heterostructures based on the well-organized domain patterns, and end with future prospects and challenges in the field.

  19. Mapping the Moral Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically-grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) based on a theoretical model of five universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so present new findings about morality: 1. Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a five-factor structure of moral concerns. 2. Convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant. 3. We establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality. PMID:21244182

  20. Branch Width and Height Influence the Incorporation of Branches into Foraging Trails and Travel Speed in Leafcutter Ants Atta cephalotes (L.) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, B M; Chaves-Campos, J

    2016-06-01

    Fallen branches are often incorporated into Atta cephalotes (L.) foraging trails to optimize leaf tissue transport rates and economize trail maintenance. Recent studies in lowlands show laden A. cephalotes travel faster across fallen branches than on ground, but more slowly ascending or descending a branch. The latter is likely because (1) it is difficult to travel up or downhill and (2) bottlenecks occur when branches are narrower than preceding trail. Hence, both branch height and width should determine whether branches decrease net travel times, but no study has evaluated it yet. Laden A. cephalotes were timed in relation to branch width and height across segments preceding, accessing, across, and departing a fallen branch in the highlands of Costa Rica. Ants traveled faster on branches than on cleared segments of trunk-trail, but accelerated when ascending or descending the branch-likely because of the absence of bottlenecks during the day in the highlands. Branch size did not affect ant speed in observed branches; the majority of which (22/24) varied from 11 to 120 mm in both height and width (average 66 mm in both cases). To determine whether ants exclude branches outside this range, ants were offered the choice between branches within this range and branches that were taller/wider than 120 mm. Ants strongly preferred the former. Our results indicate that A. cephalotes can adjust their speed to compensate for the difficulty of traveling on branch slopes. More generally, branch size should be considered when studying ant foraging efficiency.

  1. The Coin Problem  and Pseudorandomness for Branching Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua; Verbin, Elad

    2010-01-01

    in the model of emph{read-once width-$w$ branching programs}. We prove that in order to succeed in this model, $beta$ must be at least $1/ (log n)^{Theta(w)}$. For constant $w$ this is tight by considering the recursive tribes function, and for other values of $w$ this is nearly tight by considering other read...... be distinguished by small-width read-once branching programs. We suggest one application for this kind of theorems: we prove that Nisan's Generator fools width-$w$ read-once emph{regular} branching programs, using seed length $O(w^4 log n log log n + log n log (1/eps))$. For $w=eps=Theta(1)$, this seed length...

  2. Branched nanotrees with immobilized acetylcholine esterase for nanobiosensor applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risveden, Klas; Dick, Kimberly A; Bhand, Sunil

    2010-01-01

    A novel lab-on-a-chip nanotree enzyme reactor is demonstrated for the detection of acetylcholine. The reactors are intended for use in the RISFET (regional ion sensitive field effect transistor) nanosensor, and are constructed from gold-tipped branched nanorod structures grown on SiN(x)-covered w......A novel lab-on-a-chip nanotree enzyme reactor is demonstrated for the detection of acetylcholine. The reactors are intended for use in the RISFET (regional ion sensitive field effect transistor) nanosensor, and are constructed from gold-tipped branched nanorod structures grown on Si......N(x)-covered wafers. Two different reactors are shown: one with simple, one-dimensional nanorods and one with branched nanorod structures (nanotrees). Significantly higher enzymatic activity is found for the nanotree reactors than for the nanorod reactors, most likely due to the increased gold surface area...

  3. Weighted Branching Simulation Distance for Parametric Weighted Kripke Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foshammer, Louise; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mariegaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns branching simulation for weighted Kripke structures with parametric weights. Concretely, we consider a weighted extension of branching simulation where a single transitions can be matched by a sequence of transitions while preserving the branching behavior. We relax this notion...... to allow for a small degree of deviation in the matching of weights, inducing a directed distance on states. The distance between two states can be used directly to relate properties of the states within a sub-fragment of weighted CTL. The problem of relating systems thus changes to minimizing the distance...... which, in the general parametric case, corresponds to finding suitable parameter valuations such that one system can approximately simulate another. Although the distance considers a potentially infinite set of transition sequences we demonstrate that there exists an upper bound on the length...

  4. Unusually Looped and Muzzled Branches of Right Coronary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Guru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is the major cause of death in developed countries as it accounts on an average for 1 of every 5 deaths. Morphological variations of coronary arterial system is one of the causative factor for CAD. Anatomical knowledge of all possible variant patterns of coronary arterial system is imperative in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of CAD. We report here a rare branching pattern of right coronary artery (RCA. The origin of RCA was normal but the course and branching pattern of it were atypical. RCA was not occupying its usual position in atrioventricular (coronary sulcus and its course was incomplete. It gave a ventricular branch to right ventricle, which presented an unusual looping pattern. It terminated as right marginal artery following its muzzled appearance within the musculature of the ventricle.

  5. The CERN branch of the UBS has a new manager

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The staff of the UBS CERN branch (apart from Nicole Savoini, not in the picture). The new branch manager Mr Denis Mellet (fourth from the right) is standing just in front of his predecessor Mr Pierre Guyenon. Mr Pierre Guyenon, who has managed the CERN branch of the UBS for the last seven years, retired on 31 May. Pierre Guyenon was always committed to establishing a harmonious and trusting relationship between CERN, its employees and the bank. He also maintained an excellent atmosphere within his team. We would like to thank him for his work and wish him a happy retirement. Mr Denis Mellet, who has worked for the bank for many years in various capacities, has taken over from Mr Guyenon.

  6. RAB-10 Regulates Dendritic Branching by Balancing Dendritic Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caitlin A.; Yan, Jing; Howell, Audrey S.; Dong, Xintong; Shen, Kang

    2015-01-01

    The construction of a large dendritic arbor requires robust growth and the precise delivery of membrane and protein cargoes to specific subcellular regions of the developing dendrite. How the microtubule-based vesicular trafficking and sorting systems are regulated to distribute these dendritic development factors throughout the dendrite is not well understood. Here we identify the small GTPase RAB-10 and the exocyst complex as critical regulators of dendrite morphogenesis and patterning in the C. elegans sensory neuron PVD. In rab-10 mutants, PVD dendritic branches are reduced in the posterior region of the cell but are excessive in the distal anterior region of the cell. We also demonstrate that the dendritic branch distribution within PVD depends on the balance between the molecular motors kinesin-1/UNC-116 and dynein, and we propose that RAB-10 regulates dendrite morphology by balancing the activity of these motors to appropriately distribute branching factors, including the transmembrane receptor DMA-1. PMID:26633194

  7. Neutron fluctuations a treatise on the physics of branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Pazsit, Imre; Pzsit, Imre

    2007-01-01

    The transport of neutrons in a multiplying system is an area of branching processes with a clear formalism. This book presents an account of the mathematical tools used in describing branching processes, which are then used to derive a large number of properties of the neutron distribution in multiplying systems with or without an external source. In the second part of the book, the theory is applied to the description of the neutron fluctuations in nuclear reactor cores as well as in small samples of fissile material. The question of how to extract information about the system under study is discussed. In particular the measurement of the reactivity of subcritical cores, driven with various Poisson and non-Poisson (pulsed) sources, and the identification of fissile material samples, is illustrated. The book gives pragmatic information for those planning and executing and evaluating experiments on such systems. - Gives a complete treatise of the mathematics of branching particle processes, and in particular n...

  8. Domain wall networks on solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Domain wall networks on the surface of a soliton are studied in a simple theory. It consists of two complex scalar fields, in 3+1 dimensions, with a global U(1)xZ n symmetry, where n>2. Solutions are computed numerically in which one of the fields forms a Q ball and the other field forms a network of domain walls localized on the surface of the Q ball. Examples are presented in which the domain walls lie along the edges of a spherical polyhedron, forming junctions at its vertices. It is explained why only a small restricted class of polyhedra can arise as domain wall networks

  9. Topological domain walls in helimagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenherr, P.; Müller, J.; Köhler, L.; Rosch, A.; Kanazawa, N.; Tokura, Y.; Garst, M.; Meier, D.

    2018-05-01

    Domain walls naturally arise whenever a symmetry is spontaneously broken. They interconnect regions with different realizations of the broken symmetry, promoting structure formation from cosmological length scales to the atomic level1,2. In ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials, domain walls with unique functionalities emerge, holding great promise for nanoelectronics and spintronics applications3-5. These walls are usually of Ising, Bloch or Néel type and separate homogeneously ordered domains. Here we demonstrate that a wide variety of new domain walls occurs in the presence of spatially modulated domain states. Using magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations, we show three fundamental classes of domain walls to arise in the near-room-temperature helimagnet iron germanium. In contrast to conventional ferroics, the domain walls exhibit a well-defined inner structure, which—analogous to cholesteric liquid crystals—consists of topological disclination and dislocation defects. Similar to the magnetic skyrmions that form in the same material6,7, the domain walls can carry a finite topological charge, permitting an efficient coupling to spin currents and contributions to a topological Hall effect. Our study establishes a new family of magnetic nano-objects with non-trivial topology, opening the door to innovative device concepts based on helimagnetic domain walls.

  10. The BRCT domain is a phospho-protein binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaochun; Chini, Claudia Christiano Silva; He, Miao; Mer, Georges; Chen, Junjie

    2003-10-24

    The carboxyl-terminal domain (BRCT) of the Breast Cancer Gene 1 (BRCA1) protein is an evolutionarily conserved module that exists in a large number of proteins from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Although most BRCT domain-containing proteins participate in DNA-damage checkpoint or DNA-repair pathways, or both, the function of the BRCT domain is not fully understood. We show that the BRCA1 BRCT domain directly interacts with phosphorylated BRCA1-Associated Carboxyl-terminal Helicase (BACH1). This specific interaction between BRCA1 and phosphorylated BACH1 is cell cycle regulated and is required for DNA damage-induced checkpoint control during the transition from G2 to M phase of the cell cycle. Further, we show that two other BRCT domains interact with their respective physiological partners in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Thirteen additional BRCT domains also preferentially bind phospho-peptides rather than nonphosphorylated control peptides. These data imply that the BRCT domain is a phospho-protein binding domain involved in cell cycle control.

  11. Mechanistic insights into phosphoprotein-binding FHA domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiangyang; Van Doren, Steven R

    2008-08-01

    [Structure: see text]. FHA domains are protein modules that switch signals in diverse biological pathways by monitoring the phosphorylation of threonine residues of target proteins. As part of the effort to gain insight into cellular avoidance of cancer, FHA domains involved in the cellular response to DNA damage have been especially well-characterized. The complete protein where the FHA domain resides and the interaction partners determine the nature of the signaling. Thus, a key biochemical question is how do FHA domains pick out their partners from among thousands of alternatives in the cell? This Account discusses the structure, affinity, and specificity of FHA domains and the formation of their functional structure. Although FHA domains share sequence identity at only five loop residues, they all fold into a beta-sandwich of two beta-sheets. The conserved arginine and serine of the recognition loops recognize the phosphorylation of the threonine targeted. Side chains emanating from loops that join beta-strand 4 with 5, 6 with 7, or 10 with 11 make specific contacts with amino acids of the ligand that tailor sequence preferences. Many FHA domains choose a partner in extended conformation, somewhat according to the residue three after the phosphothreonine in sequence (pT + 3 position). One group of FHA domains chooses a short carboxylate-containing side chain at pT + 3. Another group chooses a long, branched aliphatic side chain. A third group prefers other hydrophobic or uncharged polar side chains at pT + 3. However, another FHA domain instead chooses on the basis of pT - 2, pT - 3, and pT + 1 positions. An FHA domain from a marker of human cancer instead chooses a much longer protein fragment that adds a beta-strand to its beta-sheet and that presents hydrophobic residues from a novel helix to the usual recognition surface. This novel recognition site and more remote sites for the binding of other types of protein partners were predicted for the entire family

  12. Modern prospects of development of branch of solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchkina, Veronika

    2017-10-01

    Advantages of solar energy for modern companies are evident already. Article describes mechanism of the solar electricity generation. Process of production of solar modules with appliance of the modern technologies of sun energy production. The branch of solar energy “green energy” become advanced in Russia and has a stable demand. Classification of investments on the different stages of construction projects of solar power plants and calculation of their economic efficiency. Studying of introduction of these technologies allows to estimate the modern prospects of development of branch of solar power.

  13. The influence of flexible branches in flexible polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wescott, J.T.

    1998-06-01

    In this work the influence of branches in flexible polymer systems has been investigated by consideration of (1) the behaviour of isolated poly-α-olefin chains and (2) the p -T phase behaviour of poly(4-methylpentene-1)(P4MP1). Molecular dynamics simulations of isolated poly-α-olefins were performed in order to gauge directly the effect of molecular structure on chain dimensions, flexibility (via the persistence length) and shape. Under Θ-conditions the addition of short linear branches was shown to increase the flexibility of the backbone. In conditions of good solvent, however, the effect of longer and bulkier branches was to increase the persistence length and average size of the coil with the arrangement of side chain atoms making a small difference. The side branches themselves also affected the solvent conditions experienced by the backbone, behaving much like bound solvent. Consideration of ethylene-α-olefin copolymers, where the branch content was varied from 0-50%, showed that under good solvent conditions the branches increased the chain stiffness only when the gap between side branches was less than five backbone carbon atoms. The backbone torsions were also shown to play an important role in determining these trends. For comparison with the above simulations, persistence length values for polyethylene (= 7.3±0.2A) and P4MP1 (=7.6±0.3A) were measured experimentally by neutron scattering in dilute solution. A value of 6.7±0.5 for the characteristic ratio of PE was also calculated. To investigate the role of a bulky side group in crystalline phases, wide angle X-ray diffraction experiments using a Hikosaka pressure cell were performed on P4MP1. Computer modelling, utilising the experimental data obtained, determined the structure of a disordered phase produced at room temperature and a new high pressure/high temperature phase. The disordered phase was found to be due to a collapse of the backbone combined with some disordering of the side chains

  14. Vere-Jones' self-similar branching model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saichev, A.; Sornette, D.

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by its potential application to earthquake statistics as well as for its intrinsic interest in the theory of branching processes, we study the exactly self-similar branching process introduced recently by Vere-Jones. This model extends the ETAS class of conditional self-excited branching point-processes of triggered seismicity by removing the problematic need for a minimum (as well as maximum) earthquake size. To make the theory convergent without the need for the usual ultraviolet and infrared cutoffs, the distribution of magnitudes m ' of daughters of first-generation of a mother of magnitude m has two branches m ' ' >m with exponent β+d, where β and d are two positive parameters. We investigate the condition and nature of the subcritical, critical, and supercritical regime in this and in an extended version interpolating smoothly between several models. We predict that the distribution of magnitudes of events triggered by a mother of magnitude m over all generations has also two branches m ' ' >m with exponent β+h, with h=d√(1-s), where s is the fraction of triggered events. This corresponds to a renormalization of the exponent d into h by the hierarchy of successive generations of triggered events. For a significant part of the parameter space, the distribution of magnitudes over a full catalog summed over an average steady flow of spontaneous sources (immigrants) reproduces the distribution of the spontaneous sources with a single branch and is blind to the exponents β,d of the distribution of triggered events. Since the distribution of earthquake magnitudes is usually obtained with catalogs including many sequences, we conclude that the two branches of the distribution of aftershocks are not directly observable and the model is compatible with real seismic catalogs. In summary, the exactly self-similar Vere-Jones model provides an attractive new approach to model triggered seismicity, which alleviates delicate questions on the role of

  15. Measurement of Tau Branching Ratios to Five Charged Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Doucet, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Stumpf, L.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S.D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1999-01-01

    The branching ratios of the decay of the tau lepton to five charged hadrons have been measured with the OPAL detector at LEP using data collected between 1991 and 1995 at e+e- centre-of-mass energies close to the Z resonance. The branching ratios are measured to be BR(tau- to 3h-2h+nutau) = 0.091+-0.014+-0.005% BR(tau- to 3h-2h+pi0nutau) = 0.027+-0.018+-0.007% where the first error is statistical and the second systematic.

  16. The CERN branch of the UBS has a new manager

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    After seven years at the helm of the CERN branch of the UBS, Mr. Denis Mellet retired on 1 October.   Denis Mellet has always striven to develop harmonious relations, in a climate of trust, between CERN and the staff of the bank. He has succeeded in maintaining a pleasant atmosphere within his team. We would like to thank him for his work and wish him a happy retirement. He is succeeded by M. Ezio Mangia, who has worked for many years in the bank’s branches department.

  17. EFTPOS Impacts on Branch Banking: an extra organisational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Shailer

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Perceptions and experiences of bank branch managers and merchant who have installed EFTPOS are surveyed to investigate the impact of EFTPOS on branch banking activities using internal and extra-organisational perspectives. Impacts are identified by reference to banking activities and interpreted as efficiency, effectiveness and competitiveness impacts. It appears that bank managers may have difficulty in isolating the impacts of EFTPOS on banking activities from concurrent changes in banking practices and might overestimate some beneficial impacts. Results indicate a much richer view can be obtained using an organisational perspective of a system's impacts.

  18. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tuğrul, Murat; Eguíluz, Víctor M; Hernández-García, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age τ as τ(-α). Depending on the exponent α, the scaling of tree depth with tree size n displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition (α=1) tree depth grows as (logn)(2). This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus providing a theoretical support for age-dependent speciation and associating it to the occurrence of a critical point.

  19. Branch migration and the international dispersal of families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, N; Lucas, D; Mok, M

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the dispersal of facilities where family members migrate to different destination countries. Terminology for internationally dispersed families is proposed, and the term branch migration is suggested for the migration of related people from the same source country to different destination countries. Data from two 1993 surveys of senior secondary students show that 22% of Sydney students and 20% of Hong Kong students have relatives in two or more other countries. The data suggest that many Asian migrant families have branched between the US, Canada, Australia and other migrant-receiving nations. The causes and implications of the international dispersal of families are discussed.

  20. Survival probabilities for branching Brownian motion with absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, John; Harris, Simon

    2007-01-01

    We study a branching Brownian motion (BBM) with absorption, in which particles move as Brownian motions with drift $-\\rho$, undergo dyadic branching at rate $\\beta>0$, and are killed on hitting the origin. In the case $\\rho>\\sqrt{2\\beta}$ the extinction time for this process, $\\zeta$, is known to be finite almost surely. The main result of this article is a large-time asymptotic formula for the survival probability $P^x(\\zeta>t)$ in the case $\\rho>\\sqrt{2\\beta}$, where $P^x$ is...

  1. RADIONUCLIDE INVENTORY AND DISTRIBUTION: FOURMILE BRANCH, PEN BRANCH, AND STEEL CREEK IOUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiergesell, R.; Phifer, M.

    2014-04-29

    As a condition to the Department of Energy (DOE) Low Level Waste Disposal Federal Facility Review Group (LFRG) review team approving the Savannah River Site (SRS) Composite Analysis (CA), SRS agreed to follow up on a secondary issue, which consisted of the consolidation of several observations that the team concluded, when evaluated collectively, could potentially impact the integration of the CA results. This report addresses secondary issue observations 4 and 21, which identify the need to improve the CA sensitivity and uncertainty analysis specifically by improving the CA inventory and the estimate of its uncertainty. The purpose of the work described herein was to be responsive to these secondary issue observations by re-examining the radionuclide inventories of the Integrator Operable Units (IOUs), as documented in ERD 2001 and Hiergesell, et. al. 2008. The LFRG concern has been partially addressed already for the Lower Three Runs (LTR) IOU (Hiergesell and Phifer, 2012). The work described in this investigation is a continuation of the effort to address the LFRG concerns by re-examining the radionuclide inventories associated with Fourmile Branch (FMB) IOU, Pen Branch (PB) IOU and Steel Creek (SC) IOU. The overall approach to computing radionuclide inventories for each of the IOUs involved the following components: • Defining contaminated reaches of sediments along the IOU waterways • Identifying separate segments within each IOU waterway to evaluate individually • Computing the volume and mass of contaminated soil associated with each segment, or “compartment” • Obtaining the available and appropriate Sediment and Sediment/Soil analytical results associated with each IOU • Standardizing all radionuclide activity by decay-correcting all sample analytical results from sample date to the current point in time, • Computing representative concentrations for all radionuclides associated with each compartment in each of the IOUs • Computing the

  2. Synthesis and characterization of an exact comb polyisoprene with three branches having the middle branch twice the molecular weight of the other two identical external branches

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar

    2013-01-01

    An exact comb polyisoprene (PI) with three branches, with the middle branch having twice the molecular weight of the two other identical external branches, was synthesized by using anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques and appropriate chlorosilane chemistry. The synthetic approach involves (a) the selective replacement of the two chlorines of 4-(dichloromethylsilyl) diphenylethylene (DCMSDPE, key molecule) with identical PI chains by titration with PILi, (b) the addition of sec-BuLi to the double bond of DPE followed by the polymerization of isoprene from the newly created anionic site to form a 3-arm living star PI, (c) the selective replacement of the two chlorines of trichloromethylsilane with 3-arm star PI to form an H-shape intermediate, and (d) the replacement of the remaining chlorine of trichloromethylsilane by linear PI chains with double the molecular weight. All intermediate and final products were characterized via size exclusion chromatography, temperature gradient interaction chromatography and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. As expected, due to the inability to control the exact stoichiometry of the linking reactants, the main product (exact comb PI) is contaminated by a few by-products, despite the fact that anionic polymerization is the most efficient way to produce well-defined polymers. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Three ancient hormonal cues co-ordinate shoot branching in a moss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudert, Yoan; Palubicki, Wojtek; Ljung, Karin; Novak, Ondrej; Leyser, Ottoline; Harrison, C Jill

    2015-03-25

    Shoot branching is a primary contributor to plant architecture, evolving independently in flowering plant sporophytes and moss gametophytes. Mechanistic understanding of branching is largely limited to flowering plants such as Arabidopsis, which have a recent evolutionary origin. We show that in gametophytic shoots of Physcomitrella, lateral branches arise by re-specification of epidermal cells into branch initials. A simple model co-ordinating the activity of leafy shoot tips can account for branching patterns, and three known and ancient hormonal regulators of sporophytic branching interact to generate the branching pattern- auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone. The mode of auxin transport required in branch patterning is a key divergence point from known sporophytic pathways. Although PIN-mediated basipetal auxin transport regulates branching patterns in flowering plants, this is not so in Physcomitrella, where bi-directional transport is required to generate realistic branching patterns. Experiments with callose synthesis inhibitors suggest plasmodesmal connectivity as a potential mechanism for transport.

  4. Resource Unavailability (RU) Per Domain Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagiannis, Georgios; Westberg, L.; Bader, A.; Tschofenig, Hannes; Tschofenig, H.

    2006-01-01

    This draft specifies a Per Domain Behavior that provides the ability to Diffserv nodes located outside Diffserv domain(s), e.g., receiver or other Diffserv enabled router to detect when the resources provided by the Diffserv domain(s) are not available. The unavailability of resources in the domain

  5. Taxonomies of Educational Objective Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Ghanem Nayef; Nik Rosila Nik Yaacob; Hairul Nizam Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights an effort to study the educational objective domain taxonomies including Bloom’s taxonomy, Lorin Anderson’s taxonomy, and Wilson’s taxonomy. In this study a comparison among these three taxonomies have been done. Results show that Bloom’s taxonomy is more suitable as an analysis tool to Educational Objective domain.

  6. The sensory-motor bridge neurorraphy: an anatomic study of feasibility between sensory branch of the musculocutaneous nerve and deep branch of the radial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubier, Jean-Noel; Teboul, Frédéric

    2011-05-01

    Restoring elbow flexion remains the first step in the management of total palsy of the brachial plexus. Non avulsed upper roots may be grafted on the musculocutaneous nerve. When this nerve is entirely grafted, some motor fibres regenerate within the sensory fibres quota. Aiming potential utilization of these lost motor fibres, we attempted suturing the sensory branch of the musculocutaneous nerve onto the deep branch of the radial nerve. The objective of our study was to assess the anatomic feasibility of such direct suturing of the terminal sensory branch of the musculocutaneous nerve onto the deep branch of the radial nerve. The study was carried out with 10 upper limbs from fresh cadavers. The sensory branch of the musculocutaneous muscle was dissected right to its division. The motor branch of the radial nerve was identified and dissected as proximally as possible into the radial nerve. Then, the distance separating the two nerves was measured so as to assess whether direct neurorraphy of the two branches was feasible. The excessive distance between the two branches averaged 6 mm (1-13 mm). Thus, direct neurorraphy of the sensory branch of the musculocutaneous nerve and the deep branch of the radial nerve was possible. When the whole musculocutaneous nerve is grafted, some of its motor fibres are lost amongst the sensory fibres (cutaneous lateral antebrachial nerve). By suturing this sensory branch onto the deep branch of the radial nerve, "lost" fibres may be retrieved, resulting in restoration of digital extension. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Texture of lipid bilayer domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe Bernchou; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Midtiby, Henrik Skov

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the texture of gel (g) domains in binary lipid membranes composed of the phospholipids DPPC and DOPC. Lateral organization of lipid bilayer membranes is a topic of fundamental and biological importance. Whereas questions related to size and composition of fluid membrane domain...... are well studied, the possibility of texture in gel domains has so far not been examined. When using polarized light for two-photon excitation of the fluorescent lipid probe Laurdan, the emission intensity is highly sensitive to the angle between the polarization and the tilt orientation of lipid acyl...... chains. By imaging the intensity variations as a function of the polarization angle, we map the lateral variations of the lipid tilt within domains. Results reveal that gel domains are composed of subdomains with different lipid tilt directions. We have applied a Fourier decomposition method...

  8. Polar Domain Discovery with Sparkler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, R.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ottilingam, N. K.; Singh, K.; Lopez, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    The scientific web is vast and ever growing. It encompasses millions of textual, scientific and multimedia documents describing research in a multitude of scientific streams. Most of these documents are hidden behind forms which require user action to retrieve and thus can't be directly accessed by content crawlers. These documents are hosted on web servers across the world, most often on outdated hardware and network infrastructure. Hence it is difficult and time-consuming to aggregate documents from the scientific web, especially those relevant to a specific domain. Thus generating meaningful domain-specific insights is currently difficult. We present an automated discovery system (Figure 1) using Sparkler, an open-source, extensible, horizontally scalable crawler which facilitates high throughput and focused crawling of documents pertinent to a particular domain such as information about polar regions. With this set of highly domain relevant documents, we show that it is possible to answer analytical questions about that domain. Our domain discovery algorithm leverages prior domain knowledge to reach out to commercial/scientific search engines to generate seed URLs. Subject matter experts then annotate these seed URLs manually on a scale from highly relevant to irrelevant. We leverage this annotated dataset to train a machine learning model which predicts the `domain relevance' of a given document. We extend Sparkler with this model to focus crawling on documents relevant to that domain. Sparkler avoids disruption of service by 1) partitioning URLs by hostname such that every node gets a different host to crawl and by 2) inserting delays between subsequent requests. With an NSF-funded supercomputer Wrangler, we scaled our domain discovery pipeline to crawl about 200k polar specific documents from the scientific web, within a day.

  9. 24 CFR 3280.805 - Branch circuits required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., water heater, range, and central or room air conditioner, etc.). There shall be one or more circuits of... outlets, the sum of rated amperes shall not exceed the branch-circuit rating. Motor loads or other... specified for ranges in § 3280.811(a)(5). For central air conditioning, see Article 440 of the National...

  10. Branched flow and caustics in random media with magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jakob; Fleischmann, Ragnar; Geisel, Theo

    2009-03-01

    Classical particles as well as quantum mechanical waves exhibit complex behaviour when propagating through random media. One of the dominant features of the dynamics in correlated, weak disorder potentials is the branching of the flow. This can be observed in several physical systems, most notably in the electron flow in two-dimensional electron gases [1], and has also been used to describe the formation of freak waves [2]. We present advances in the theoretical understanding and numerical simulation of classical branched flows in magnetic fields. In particular, we study branching statistics and branch density profiles. Our results have direct consequences for experiments which measure transport properties in electronic systems [3].[1] e.g. M. A. Topinka et al., Nature 410, 183 (2001), M. P. Jura et al., Nature Physics 3, 841 (2007)[2] E. J. Heller, L. Kaplan and A. Dahlen, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C09023 (2008)[3] J. J. Metzger, R. Fleischmann and T. Geisel, in preparation

  11. Pen Branch Delta and Savannah River Swamp Hydraulic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The proposed Savannah River Site (SRS) Wetlands Restoration Project area is located in Barnwell County, South Carolina on the southwestern boundary of the SRS Reservation. The swamp covers about 40.5 km2 and is bounded to the west and south by the Savannah River and to the north and east by low bluffs at the edge of the Savannah River floodplain. Water levels within the swamp are determined by stage along the Savannah River, local drainage, groundwater seepage, and inflows from four tributaries, Beaver Dam Creek, Fourmile Branch, Pen Branch, and Steel Creek. Historic discharges of heated process water into these tributaries scoured the streambed, created deltas in the adjacent wetland, and killed native vegetation in the vicinity of the delta deposits. Future releases from these tributaries will be substantially smaller and closer to ambient temperatures. One component of the proposed restoration project will be to reestablish indigenous wetland vegetation on the Pen Branch delta that covers about 1.0 km2. Long-term predictions of water levels within the swamp are required to determine the characteristics of suitable plants. The objective of the study was to predict water levels at various locations within the proposed SRS Wetlands Restoration Project area for a range of Savannah River flows and regulated releases from Pen Branch. TABS-MD, a United States Army Corps of Engineer developed two-dimensional finite element open channel hydraulic computer code, was used to model the SRS swamp area for various flow conditions

  12. Comorbidity in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Linneberg, Allan; Rosenberg, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate comorbidity before and after the diagnosis of branch retinal vein occlusion to determine whether it is a consequence of arterial thickening and therefore could serve as a diagnostic marker for other comorbidities and to evaluate the risk factors for the development of such occlusion....

  13. Symmetry Reduction in Infinite Games with Finite Branching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markey, Nicolas; Vester, Steen

    2014-01-01

    infinite-state games on graphs with finite branching where the objectives of the players can be very general. As particular applications, it is shown that the technique can be applied to reduce the state space in parity games as well as when doing modelchecking of the Alternating-time temporal logic ATL....

  14. Modelling primary branch growth based on a multilevel nonlinear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition to random effects, various time series correlation structures were evaluated to account for residual autocorrelation, and the AR(1) and ARMA(1,1) structures were selected for the branch diameter and length growth models, respectively. Model validation results using an independent data set confirmed that ...

  15. Pediatric Oncology Branch - Support Services | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Support Services As part of the comprehensive care provided at the NCI Pediatric Oncology Branch, we provide a wide range of services to address the social, psychological, emotional, and practical facets of pediatric cancer and to support patients and families while they are enrolled in clinical research protocols.

  16. Pediatric Oncology Branch - training- resident electives | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resident Electives Select pediatric residents may be approved for a 4-week elective rotation at the Pediatric Oncology Branch. This rotation emphasizes the important connection between research and patient care in pediatric oncology. The resident is supervised directly by the Branch’s attending physician and clinical fellows. Residents attend daily in-patient and out-patient

  17. Investigation of branching of bromine in latent ion traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vareille, J.C.; Moliton, J.P.; Decossas, J.L.; Teyssier, J.L.; Delaunay, B.

    1981-01-01

    We show that the branching of bromide atoms is possible on chemically active sites produced by Kr 8+ , Cl 6+ and He 2+ ion irradiation on cellulose triacetate. The number of fixed atoms increases with ion fluence and atomic number. These results are in good agreement with those concerning radical yield around the ions' path. (orig.)

  18. Construction Of Bank Branches: Critical Issues For Successful ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It does this using the framework of the project management body of knowledge, PMBoK. In particular, it examines branch delivery from the parameters of the project management process and the nine area of knowledge identified by the Project Management Institute. LBS Management Review Vol.6(1) 2001: 1-8 ...

  19. Prioritization of Mellat Bank's Branches in semnan by means of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banks and credit and financial institutions are one of the most effective institutions in economic system of any country, playing a great role in investments in order to advance and promote the countries' economy. The present paper uses the technique of AHP process to measure and compare the various branches of Mellat ...

  20. Branched polymeric media: Perchlorate-selective resins from hyperbranched polyethyleneimine

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Dennis P.; Yu, Changjun; Chang, ChingYu; Wan, Yanjian; Frechet, Jean; Goddard, William A.; Diallo, Mamadou S.

    2012-01-01

    prohibitive when treating groundwater with higher concentration of ClO4 - (e.g., 100-1000 ppb). In this article, we describe a new perchlorate-selective resin with high exchange capacity. This new resin was prepared by alkylation of branched polyethyleneimine

  1. Branching in current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukrinov, Yu M; Mahfouzi, F

    2007-01-01

    We study branching in the current-voltage characteristics of the intrinsic Josephson junctions of high-temperature superconductors in the framework of the capacitively coupled Josephson junction model with diffusion current. A system of dynamical equations for the gauge-invariant phase differences between superconducting layers for a stack of ten intrinsic junctions has been numerically solved. We have obtained a total branch structure in the current-voltage characteristics. We demonstrate the existence of a 'breakpoint region' on the current-voltage characteristics and explain it as a result of resonance between Josephson and plasma oscillations. The effect of the boundary conditions is investigated. The existence of two outermost branches and correspondingly two breakpoint regions for the periodic boundary conditions is shown. One branch, which is observed only at periodic boundary conditions, corresponds to the propagating of the plasma mode. The second one corresponds to the situation when the charge oscillations on the superconducting layers are absent, excluding the breakpoint. A time dependence of the charge oscillations at breakpoints is presented

  2. Managing International Branch Campuses: What Do We Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, the growth of the international branch campus (IBC) has been one of the most striking developments in the internationalisation of higher education. There are now over 200 IBCs across the world, mostly in the Middle East and East and South-east Asia. Despite the growing numbers of IBCs and the considerable financial and…

  3. Global Expansion of International Branch Campuses: Managerial and Leadership Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jason E.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the author outlines the growth of international branch campuses (IBCs) over the past fifty years and discusses some of the major management and leadership challenges associated with creating and sustaining IBCs. Part one of the chapter provides a discussion of the global expansion of IBCs. The second part focuses on the…

  4. Evaluating Student Satisfaction of Quality at International Branch Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Syed Zamberi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to present the determinants of students' perceptions of quality and experience of study at international branch campuses in Malaysia, a country that is set to become an academic hub in Asia. This study used a multi-method approach for data collection. The respondents comprised 245 students (both undergraduate and…

  5. Interactive Design and Visualization of Branched Covering Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Lawrence; Kumar, Prashant; Golbabaei, Sanaz; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Eugene

    2018-01-01

    Branched covering spaces are a mathematical concept which originates from complex analysis and topology and has applications in tensor field topology and geometry remeshing. Given a manifold surface and an -way rotational symmetry field, a branched covering space is a manifold surface that has an -to-1 map to the original surface except at the ramification points, which correspond to the singularities in the rotational symmetry field. Understanding the notion and mathematical properties of branched covering spaces is important to researchers in tensor field visualization and geometry processing, and their application areas. In this paper, we provide a framework to interactively design and visualize the branched covering space (BCS) of an input mesh surface and a rotational symmetry field defined on it. In our framework, the user can visualize not only the BCSs but also their construction process. In addition, our system allows the user to design the geometric realization of the BCS using mesh deformation techniques as well as connecting tubes. This enables the user to verify important facts about BCSs such as that they are manifold surfaces around singularities, as well as the Riemann-Hurwitz formula which relates the Euler characteristic of the BCS to that of the original mesh. Our system is evaluated by student researchers in scientific visualization and geometry processing as well as faculty members in mathematics at our university who teach topology. We include their evaluations and feedback in the paper.

  6. The binary branching nature of syllable constituents: the English onset

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motivating evidence is drawn from other languages, specifically Italian, Spanish and Portuguese, because it is believed that, except for the coda, the binary branching nature of syllable constituents is universally imposed in the world\\'s languages. Also, no one language or dialect can exhaustively account for all linguistic ...

  7. Controlling the branching ratio of photodissociation using aligned molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.J.; Wendt-Larsen, I.; Stapelfeldt, H.

    1999-01-01

    Using a sample of iodine molecules, aligned by a strong, linearly polarized laser pulse, we control the branching ratio of the I+I and I+I* photodissociation channels by a factor of 26. The control relies on selective photoexcitation of two potential curves that each correlate adiabatically...

  8. Symbol Tables and Branch Tables: Linking Applications Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Louis M.

    2011-01-01

    This document explores the computer techniques used to execute software whose parts are compiled and linked separately. The computer techniques include using a branch table or indirect address table to connect the parts. Methods of storing the information in data structures are discussed as well as differences between C and C++.

  9. Remarks on interior transmission eigenvalues, Weyl formula and branching billiards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshtanov, E; Vainberg, B

    2012-01-01

    This paper contains the Weyl formula for the counting function of the interior transmission problem when the latter is parameter elliptic. Branching billiard trajectories are constructed, and the second term of the Weyl asymptotics is estimated from above under some conditions on the set of periodic billiard trajectories. (paper)

  10. Synthesis and application of branched type II arabinogalactans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Christian Franch; Boos, Irene; Ruprecht, Colin

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of linear- and (1→6)-branched β-(1→3)-D-galactans, structures found in plant arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) is described. The synthetic strategy relies on iterative couplings of mono- and disaccharide thioglycoside donors, followed by a late stage glycosylation of heptagalactan bac...

  11. TÜV - Zertifizierungen in der Life Science Branche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, Peter; Gerbl-Rieger, Susanne; Kloth, Sabine; Schübel, Christian; Daxenberger, Andreas; Engler, Claus

    Life Sciences [1] (Lebenswissenschaften) sind ein globales Innovationsfeld mit Anwendungen der Bio- und Medizinwissenschaften, der Pharma-, Chemie-, Kosmetik- und Lebensmittelindustrie. Diese Branche zeichnet sich durch eine stark interdisziplinäre Ausrichtung aus, mit Anwendung wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse und Einsatz von Ausgangsstoffen aus der modernen Biologie, Chemie und Humanmedizin sowie gezielter marktwirtschaftlich orientierter Arbeit.

  12. On the contraction factors of long-chain branched macromolecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, Pavel; Netopilík, Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 51, February (2014), s. 177-181 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP205/11/J043 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : long- chain branching * contraction factor * radius of gyration Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.005, year: 2014

  13. Operational Considerations for Opening a Branch Campus Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Lawrence M.; Lammey, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Universities have been attracted to the creation of international branch campuses (IBCs) for many reasons, including cultural immersion of students and faculty and global brand recognition for a university seeking to enhance its reputation and strengthen its academic standards. This chapter provides specific advice for how IBCs can negotiate entry…

  14. Inverse parameter identification for a branching 1 D arterial network

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bogaers, Alfred EJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the invertability of a branching 1 D arterial blood flow network. We limit our investigation to a single bifurcating vessel, where the material properties, unloaded areas and variables characterizing the input and output...

  15. Gas compressor with side branch absorber for pulsation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ralph E [San Antonio, TX; Scrivner, Christine M [San Antonio, TX; Broerman, III, Eugene L.

    2011-05-24

    A method and system for reducing pulsation in lateral piping associated with a gas compressor system. A tunable side branch absorber (TSBA) is installed on the lateral piping. A pulsation sensor is placed in the lateral piping, to measure pulsation within the piping. The sensor output signals are delivered to a controller, which controls actuators that change the acoustic dimensions of the SBA.

  16. The complexity of finding arc-disjoint branching flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Jensen, J.; Havet, Frédéric; Yeo, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The concept of arc-disjoint flows in networks was recently introduced in Bang-Jensen and Bessy (2014). This is a very general framework within which many well-known and important problems can be formulated. In particular, the existence of arc-disjoint branching flows, that is, flows which send on...

  17. A method of piecewise-smooth numerical branching

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ligurský, Tomáš; Renard, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 7 (2017), s. 815-827 ISSN 1521-4001 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LQ1602 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : numerical branching * piecewise smooth * steady-state problem * contact problem * Coulomb friction Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/zamm.201600219/epdf

  18. MYOCARDIAL DEFORMATION AND COMPLETE LEFT BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Pavlyukova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue Doppler imaging is evolving as a useful echocardiographic tool for quantitative assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Over the last 10 years, myocardial deformation imaging has become possible initially with tissue Doppler , and more recently with myocardial speckle-tracking using 2D echocardiography. Unlike simple tissue velocity measurements, deformation measurements are specific for the region of interest. Strain rate or strain measurements have been used as sensitive indicators for subclinical diseases, and it is the most widely used tool to assess mechanical dyssynchrony. Left bundle branch block is a frequent, etiologically heterogeneous, clinically hostile and diagnostically challenging entity. About 2% of patients underwent cardiac stress testing show stable or intermittent left bundle branch block. Presence of left bundle branch block is associated with a lower and slower diastolic coronary flow velocity especially during hyperemia. Stress echocardiography is the best option for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, albeit specificity and sensitivity reduce in patients with left bundle branch block in the territory of left anterior descending artery in presence of initial septum dyskinesia.

  19. Design of Hierarchical Ring Networks Using Branch-and-Price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy; Stidsen, Thomas K.

    2004-01-01

    -ring is designed connecting the metro-rings, minimizing fixed link establishment costs of the federal-ring. A branch-and-price algorithm is presented for the design of the bottom layer and it is suggested that existing methods are used for the design of the federal-ring. Computational results are given...

  20. External branch spinal nerve paralysis on keloid scar | Frioui | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paralysis of the external branch of spinal nerve is very rare. It manifests clinically by a weakness and abnormal morphology of the shoulder. We must think about it in front of any simple surgery of the cervical region. We report the case of a 20 year old patient, who consulted several doctors for pain and progressive ...

  1. A measurement of the $\\tau$ leptonic branching fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Agasi, E; Ajinenko, I; Aleksan, Roy; Alekseev, G D; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Alvsvaag, S J; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andreazza, A; Andrieux, M L; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barate, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Barrio, J A; Bartl, Walter; Bates, M J; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Baudot, J; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Billoir, P; Bloch, D; Blume, M; Blyth, S; Bocci, V; Bolognese, T; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Bosworth, S; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Bricman, C; Brillault, L; Brown, R C A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Buys, A; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Cankocak, K; Cao, F; Carena, F; Carrilho, P; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerrito, L; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Chauveau, J; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Cindro, V; Collins, P; Contreras, J L; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Dahl-Jensen, Erik; Dahm, J; D'Almagne, B; Dam, M; Damgaard, G; Daum, A; Dauncey, P D; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Defoix, C; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; De Boeck, H; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; La Vaissière, C de; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; De Saint-Jean, C; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Djama, F; Dolbeau, J; Dönszelmann, M; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Dufour, Y; Dupont, F; Edsall, D M; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Ershaidat, N; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, Michael; Ferrer, A; Filippas-Tassos, A; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Formenti, F; Franek, B J; Frenkiel, P; Fries, D E C; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gibbs, M; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Gunnarsson, P; Günther, M; Guy, J; Haedinger, U; Hahn, F; Hahn, M; Hahn, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hao, W; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Higón, E; Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Hill, T S; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Ioannou, P; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, Christian; Juillot, P; Kaiser, M; Kapusta, F; Karlsson, M; Karvelas, E; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klein, H; Klovning, A; Kluit, P M; Köhne, J H; Köne, B; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Korcyl, K; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Kramer, P H; Kreuter, C; Królikowski, J; Kronkvist, I J; Krumshtein, Z; Krupinski, W; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Laktineh, I; Lamblot, S; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Last, I; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Legan, C K; Leitner, R; Lemoigne, Y; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liko, D; Lindner, R; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Lokajícek, M; Loken, J G; López, J M; López-Fernandez, A; López-Aguera, M A; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Maehlum, G; Maio, A; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Maron, T; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Morettini, P; Müller, H; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Niss, P; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Pagès, P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Plaszczynski, S; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Prest, M; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Reale, M; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Richardson, J; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp, I; Romero, A; Roncagliolo, I; Ronchese, P; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rosso, E; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Rückstuhl, W; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schyns, M A E; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seitz, A; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siccama, I; Siegrist, P; Simonetti, S; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Sitár, B; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stepaniak, K; Stichelbaut, F; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tavernet, J P; Chikilev, O G; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Trischuk, W; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyndel, M; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Vilanova, D; Vincent, P; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Waldner, F; Weierstall, M; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wielers, M; Wilkinson, G R; Williams, W S C; Winter, M; Witek, M; Woschnagg, K; Yip, K; Yushchenko, O P; Zach, F; Zacharatou-Jarlskog, C; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zito, M; Zontar, D; Zuberi, R; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1995-01-01

    A sample of 25000 \\Z\\rightarrow\\tt events collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP in 1991 and 1992 is used to measure the leptonic branching fractions of the \\tau lepton. The results are B(\\TEL) = (17.51 \\pm 0.39)\\% and B(\\tau\\rightarrow \\mu\

  2. Domain shape instabilities and dendrite domain growth in uniaxial ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Akhmatkhanov, Andrey R.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of domain wall shape instabilities and the formation of nanodomains in front of moving walls obtained in various uniaxial ferroelectrics are discussed. Special attention is paid to the formation of self-assembled nanoscale and dendrite domain structures under highly non-equilibrium switching conditions. All obtained results are considered in the framework of the unified kinetic approach to domain structure evolution based on the analogy with first-order phase transformation. This article is part of the theme issue `From atomistic interfaces to dendritic patterns'.

  3. Separated matter and antimatter domains with vanishing domain walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgov, A.D.; Godunov, S.I.; Rudenko, A.S.; Tkachev, I.I., E-mail: dolgov@fe.infn.it, E-mail: sgodunov@itep.ru, E-mail: a.s.rudenko@inp.nsk.su, E-mail: tkachev@ms2.inr.ac.ru [Physics Department and Laboratory of Cosmology and Elementary Particle Physics, Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova st. 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-01

    We present a model of spontaneous (or dynamical) C and CP violation where it is possible to generate domains of matter and antimatter separated by cosmologically large distances. Such C(CP) violation existed only in the early universe and later it disappeared with the only trace of generated baryonic and/or antibaryonic domains. So the problem of domain walls in this model does not exist. These features are achieved through a postulated form of interaction between inflaton and a new scalar field, realizing short time C(CP) violation.

  4. An investigation of cognitive 'branching' processes in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Steven CR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with depression demonstrate cognitive impairment on a wide range of cognitive tasks, particularly putative tasks of frontal lobe function. Recent models of frontal lobe function have argued that the frontal pole region is involved in cognitive branching, a process requiring holding in mind one goal while performing sub-goal processes. Evidence for this model comes from functional neuroimaging and frontal-pole lesion patients. We have utilised these new concepts to investigate the possibility that patients with depression are impaired at cognitive 'branching'. Methods 11 non-medicated patients with major depression were compared to 11 matched controls in a behavioural study on a task of cognitive 'branching'. In the version employed here, we recorded participant's performance as they learnt to perform the task. This involved participants completing a control condition, followed by a working memory condition, a dual-task condition and finally the branching condition, which integrates processes in the working memory and dual-task conditions. We also measured participants on a number of other cognitive tasks as well as mood-state before and after the branching experiment. Results Patients took longer to learn the first condition, but performed comparably to controls after six runs of the task. Overall, reaction times decreased with repeated exposure on the task conditions in controls, with this effect attenuated in patients. Importantly, no differences were found between patients and controls on the branching condition. There was, however, a significant change in mood-state with patients increasing in positive affect and decreasing in negative affect after the experiment. Conclusion We found no clear evidence of a fundamental impairment in anterior prefrontal 'branching processes' in patients with depression. Rather our data argue for a contextual learning impairment underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disorder. Our

  5. Statistical tracking of tree-like tubular structures with efficient branching detection in 3D medical image data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X; Heimann, T; Meinzer, H P; Wegner, I; Lo, P; Sumkauskaite, M; Puderbach, M; De Bruijne, M

    2012-01-01

    The segmentation of tree-like tubular structures such as coronary arteries and airways is an essential step for many 3D medical imaging applications. Statistical tracking techniques for the extraction of elongated structures have received considerable attention in recent years due to their robustness against image noise and pathological changes. However, most tracking methods are limited to a specific application and do not support branching structures efficiently. In this work, we present a novel statistical tracking approach for the extraction of different types of tubular structures with ringlike cross-sections. Domain-specific knowledge is learned from training data sets and integrated into the tracking process by simple adaption of parameters. In addition, an efficient branching detection algorithm is presented. This approach was evaluated by extracting coronary arteries from 32 CTA data sets and distal airways from 20 CT scans. These data sets were provided by the organizers of the workshop ‘3D Segmentation in the Clinic: A Grand Challenge II-Coronary Artery Tracking (CAT08)’ and ‘Extraction of Airways from CT 2009 (EXACT’09)’. On average, 81.5% overlap and 0.51 mm accuracy for the tracking of coronary arteries were achieved. For the extraction of airway trees, 51.3% of the total tree length, 53.6% of the total number of branches and a 4.98% false positive rate were attained. In both experiments, our approach is comparable to state-of-the-art methods. (paper)

  6. Secondary motion in three-dimensional branching networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Abhijit; Pradhan, Kaustav

    2017-06-01

    A major aim of the present work is to understand and thoroughly document the generation, the three-dimensional distribution, and the evolution of the secondary motion as the fluid progresses downstream through a branched network. Six generations (G0-G5) of branches (involving 63 straight portions and 31 bifurcation modules) are computed in one go; such computational challenges are rarely taken in the literature. More than 30 × 106 computational elements are employed for high precision of computed results and fine quality of the flow visualization diagrams. The study of co-planar vis-à-vis non-planar space-filling configurations establishes a quantitative evaluation of the dependence of the fluid dynamics on the three-dimensional arrangement of the same individual branches. As compared to the secondary motion in a simple curved pipe, three distinctive features, viz., the change of shape and size of the flow-cross-section, the division of non-uniform primary flow in a bifurcation module, and repeated switchover from clockwise to anticlockwise curvature and vice versa in the flow path, make the present situation more complex. It is shown that the straight portions in the network, in general, attenuate the secondary motion, while the three-dimensionally complex bifurcation modules generate secondary motion and may alter the number, arrangement, and structure of vortices. A comprehensive picture of the evolution of quantitative flow visualizations of the secondary motion is achieved by constructing contours of secondary velocity | v → S | , streamwise vorticity ω S , and λ 2 iso-surfaces. It is demonstrated, for example, that for in-plane configuration, the vortices on any plane appear in pair (i.e., for each clockwise rotating vortex, there is an otherwise identical anticlockwise vortex), whereas the vortices on a plane for the out-of-plane configuration may be dissimilar, and there may even be an odd number of vortices. We have formulated three new parameters

  7. Environmental Control of Branching in Petunia1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplaat, Carla; Wohlers, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Plants alter their development in response to changes in their environment. This responsiveness has proven to be a successful evolutionary trait. Here, we tested the hypothesis that two key environmental factors, light and nutrition, are integrated within the axillary bud to promote or suppress the growth of the bud into a branch. Using petunia (Petunia hybrida) as a model for vegetative branching, we manipulated both light quality (as crowding and the red-to-far-red light ratio) and phosphate availability, such that the axillary bud at node 7 varied from deeply dormant to rapidly growing. In conjunction with the phenotypic characterization, we also monitored the state of the strigolactone (SL) pathway by quantifying SL-related gene transcripts. Mutants in the SL pathway inhibit but do not abolish the branching response to these environmental signals, and neither signal is dominant over the other, suggesting that the regulation of branching in response to the environment is complex. We have isolated three new putatively SL-related TCP (for Teosinte branched1, Cycloidia, and Proliferating cell factor) genes from petunia, and have identified that these TCP-type transcription factors may have roles in the SL signaling pathway both before and after the reception of the SL signal at the bud. We show that the abundance of the receptor transcript is regulated by light quality, such that axillary buds growing in added far-red light have greatly increased receptor transcript abundance. This suggests a mechanism whereby the impact of any SL signal reaching an axillary bud is modulated by the responsiveness of these cells to the signal. PMID:25911529

  8. Ferroelectric negative capacitance domain dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transient negative capacitance is shown to originate from reverse domain nucleation and unrestricted domain growth. However, with the onset of domain coalescence, the capacitance becomes positive again. The persistence of the negative capacitance state is therefore limited by the speed of domain wall motion. By changing the applied electric field, capacitor area or external resistance, this domain wall velocity can be varied predictably over several orders of magnitude. Additionally, detailed insights into the intrinsic material properties of the ferroelectric are obtainable through these measurements. A new method for reliable extraction of the average negative capacitance of the ferroelectric is presented. Furthermore, a simple analytical model is developed, which accurately describes the negative capacitance transient time as a function of the material properties and the experimental boundary conditions.

  9. The WW domain protein Kibra acts upstream of Hippo in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgartner, Roland; Poernbacher, Ingrid; Buser, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    inactivating the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie is well established, much less is known about the upstream events that regulate Hippo signaling activity. The FERM domain proteins Expanded and Merlin appear to represent two different signaling branches that feed into the Hippo pathway. Signaling...... by the atypical cadherin Fat may act via Expanded, but how Merlin is regulated has remained elusive. Here, we show that the WW domain protein Kibra is a Hippo signaling component upstream of Hippo and Merlin. Kibra acts synergistically with Expanded, and it physically interacts with Merlin. Thus, Kibra...

  10. An Extracellular Cell-Attached Pullulanase Confers Branched α-Glucan Utilization in Human Gut Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Marie S; Goh, Yong Jun; Rasmussen, Kasper Bøwig; Cypryk, Wojciech; Celebioglu, Hasan Ufuk; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Svensson, Birte; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2017-06-15

    Of the few predicted extracellular glycan-active enzymes, glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 14 (GH13_14) pullulanases are the most common in human gut lactobacilli. These enzymes share a unique modular organization, not observed in other bacteria, featuring a catalytic module, two starch binding modules, a domain of unknown function, and a C-terminal surface layer association protein (SLAP) domain. Here, we explore the specificity of a representative of this group of pullulanases, Lactobacillus acidophilus Pul13_14 ( La Pul13_14), and its role in branched α-glucan metabolism in the well-characterized Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, which is widely used as a probiotic. Growth experiments with L. acidophilus NCFM on starch-derived branched substrates revealed a preference for α-glucans with short branches of about two to three glucosyl moieties over amylopectin with longer branches. Cell-attached debranching activity was measurable in the presence of α-glucans but was repressed by glucose. The debranching activity is conferred exclusively by La Pul13_14 and is abolished in a mutant strain lacking a functional La Pul13_14 gene. Hydrolysis kinetics of recombinant La Pul13_14 confirmed the preference for short-branched α-glucan oligomers consistent with the growth data. Curiously, this enzyme displayed the highest catalytic efficiency and the lowest K m reported for a pullulanase. Inhibition kinetics revealed mixed inhibition by β-cyclodextrin, suggesting the presence of additional glucan binding sites besides the active site of the enzyme, which may contribute to the unprecedented substrate affinity. The enzyme also displays high thermostability and higher activity in the acidic pH range, reflecting adaptation to the physiologically challenging conditions in the human gut. IMPORTANCE Starch is one of the most abundant glycans in the human diet. Branched α-1,6-glucans in dietary starch and glycogen are nondegradable by human enzymes and constitute a

  11. Wavefield extrapolation in pseudodepth domain

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xuxin

    2013-02-01

    Wavefields are commonly computed in the Cartesian coordinate frame. Its efficiency is inherently limited due to spatial oversampling in deep layers, where the velocity is high and wavelengths are long. To alleviate this computational waste due to uneven wavelength sampling, we convert the vertical axis of the conventional domain from depth to vertical time or pseudodepth. This creates a nonorthognal Riemannian coordinate system. Isotropic and anisotropic wavefields can be extrapolated in the new coordinate frame with improved efficiency and good consistency with Cartesian domain extrapolation results. Prestack depth migrations are also evaluated based on the wavefield extrapolation in the pseudodepth domain.© 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  12. Dissecting Genetic Network of Fruit Branch Traits in Upland Cotton by Association Mapping Using SSR Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Mei

    Full Text Available Genetic architecture of branch traits has large influences on the morphological structure, photosynthetic capacity, planting density, and yield of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.. This research aims to reveal the genetic effects of six branch traits, including bottom fruit branch node number (BFBNN, bottom fruit branch length (BFBL, middle fruit branch node number (MFBNN, middle fruit branch length (MFBL, upper fruit branch node number (UFBNN, and upper fruit branch length (UFBL. Association mapping was conducted for these traits of 39 lines and their 178 F1 hybrids in three environments. There were 20 highly significant Quantitative Trait SSRs (QTSs detected by mixed linear model approach analyzing a full genetic model with genetic effects of additive, dominance, epistasis and their environment interaction. The phenotypic variation explained by genetic effects ranged from 32.64 ~ 91.61%, suggesting these branch traits largely influenced by genetic factors.

  13. [Ways of appearing new branches in medicine in the years 1800-1914. An attempt at formulation of an issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Bozena

    2009-01-01

    A process of appearing medical branches lasted for many centuries. Its origins can be found already in long-ago civilizations. However, the comprehensive development of knowledge on the turn of the 18th century, its transmission by the press, professional contacts, including the foreign ones, brought about the consciousness of needs and activities in medical circles. A significant role in the process of appearing particular domains was played by technological progress. The inventions improved on cognitive processes within natural sciences and quickened exploring the new truths that were also employed in medical care. All these achievements of the 19th century, in Author's opinion, resulted in the significant development of particular domains called branches that nowadays are commonly accepted. Among medical and important for the development of separate branches one often mentions the achievements of pathological anatomy, and even bacteriology, which influenced the beginnings of medical analytic and development of diagnostics. Moreover, the progress of therapy in the years 1840-1870 brought about modern methods of getting pharmaceutical remedies and ways of using medicaments. The knowledge together with experiences let prepare description of particular diseases. There was also created a scientific workshop and methodological tactic, which was distinct for separate cases of illnesses. A great role was played by statistics and different ways of registering particulars, also by means of photography. Bibliography and scientific literature were to transmit and compare the knowledge. All these circumstances show the intricacy of the discussed issue. Additionally, the described conditions reveal the importance of other reasons that played a significant role in setting up separate specialization-non-medical reasons of social, economic or political nature. The last ones have not been analyzed inherently by us. What interesting, in some countries and especially in Anglo

  14. Distribution and evolution of stable single α-helices (SAH domains in myosin motor proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Simm

    Full Text Available Stable single-alpha helices (SAHs are versatile structural elements in many prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins acting as semi-flexible linkers and constant force springs. This way SAH-domains function as part of the lever of many different myosins. Canonical myosin levers consist of one or several IQ-motifs to which light chains such as calmodulin bind. SAH-domains provide flexibility in length and stiffness to the myosin levers, and may be particularly suited for myosins working in crowded cellular environments. Although the function of the SAH-domains in human class-6 and class-10 myosins has well been characterised, the distribution of the SAH-domain in all myosin subfamilies and across the eukaryotic tree of life remained elusive. Here, we analysed the largest available myosin sequence dataset consisting of 7919 manually annotated myosin sequences from 938 species representing all major eukaryotic branches using the SAH-prediction algorithm of Waggawagga, a recently developed tool for the identification of SAH-domains. With this approach we identified SAH-domains in more than one third of the supposed 79 myosin subfamilies. Depending on the myosin class, the presence of SAH-domains can range from a few to almost all class members indicating complex patterns of independent and taxon-specific SAH-domain gain and loss.

  15. Topology Based Domain Search (TBDS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manning, William

    2002-01-01

    This effort will explore radical changes in the way Domain Name System (DNS) is used by endpoints in a network to improve the resilience of the endpoint and its applications in the face of dynamically changing infrastructure topology...

  16. Domain Discretization and Circle Packings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    A circle packing is a configuration of circles which are tangent with one another in a prescribed pattern determined by a combinatorial triangulation, where the configuration fills a planar domain or a two-dimensional surface. The vertices in the triangulation correspond to centers of circles...... to domain discretization problems such as triangulation and unstructured mesh generation techniques. We wish to ask ourselves the question: given a cloud of points in the plane (we restrict ourselves to planar domains), is it possible to construct a circle packing preserving the positions of the vertices...... and constrained meshes having predefined vertices as constraints. A standard method of two-dimensional mesh generation involves conformal mapping of the surface or domain to standardized shapes, such as a disk. Since circle packing is a new technique for constructing discrete conformal mappings, it is possible...

  17. Heliborne time domain electromagnetic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.

    2009-01-01

    Atomic Minerals Directorate (AMD), are using heliborne and ground time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) system for the exploration of deep seated unconformity type uranium deposits. Uranium has been explored in various parts of the world like Athabasca basin using time domain electromagnetic system. AMD has identified some areas in India where such deposits are available. Apart from uranium exploration, the TDEM systems are used for the exploration of deep seated minerals like diamonds. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is involved in the indigenous design of the heliborne time domain system since this system is useful for DAE and also it has a scope of wide application. In this paper we discuss about the principle of time domain electromagnetic systems, their capabilities and the development and problems of such system for various other mineral exploration. (author)

  18. Anisotropy of domain wall resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viret; Samson; Warin; Marty; Ott; Sondergard; Klein; Fermon

    2000-10-30

    The resistive effect of domain walls in FePd films with perpendicular anisotropy was studied experimentally as a function of field and temperature. The films were grown directly on MgO substrates, which induces an unusual virgin magnetic configuration composed of 60 nm wide parallel stripe domains. This allowed us to carry out the first measurements of the anisotropy of domain wall resistivity in the two configurations of current perpendicular and parallel to the walls. At 18 K, we find 8.2% and 1.3% for the domain wall magnetoresistance normalized to the wall width (8 nm) in these two respective configurations. These values are consistent with the predictions of Levy and Zhang.

  19. Maneuver from the Air Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    Overload From the previous discussion, cognitive maneuver seeks to degrade the enemy’s capacity for...in all domains, the ability to maneuver from the air domain in the cognitive sense, comes primarily from air power’s unique ability to overload the... cognitive maneuver mechanisms developed in the 1980s as part of broader maneuver warfare theory. The result is a proposed definition of maneuver from

  20. Ferroelectric Negative Capacitance Domain Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr$_{0.2}$Ti$_{0.8}$)O$_3$ capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transien...

  1. Gravity and domain wall problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, B.; Senjanovic, G.

    1992-11-01

    It is well known that the spontaneous breaking of discrete symmetries may lead to conflict with big-bang cosmology. This is due to formation of domain walls which give unacceptable contribution to the energy density of the universe. On the other hand, it is expected that gravity breaks global symmetries explicitly. In this work we propose that this could provide a natural solution to the domain-wall problem. (author). 17 refs

  2. Incompleteness in the finite domain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pudlák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2017), s. 405-441 ISSN 1079-8986 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : finite domain Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2016 https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/bulletin-of-symbolic-logic/article/incompleteness-in-the-finite-domain/D239B1761A73DCA534A4805A76D81C76

  3. EH domain of EHD1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieken, Fabien; Jovic, Marko; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve, E-mail: scaplan@unmc.edu; Sorgen, Paul L. [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Eppley Cancer Center (United States)], E-mail: psorgen@unmc.edu

    2007-12-15

    EHD1 is a member of the mammalian C-terminal Eps15 homology domain (EH) containing protein family, and regulates the recycling of various receptors from the endocytic recycling compartment to the plasma membrane. The EH domain of EHD1 binds to proteins containing either an Asn-Pro-Phe or Asp-Pro-Phe motif, and plays an important role in the subcellular localization and function of EHD1. Thus far, the structures of five N-terminal EH domains from other proteins have been solved, but to date, the structure of the EH domains from the four C-terminal EHD family paralogs remains unknown. In this study, we have assigned the 133 C-terminal residues of EHD1, which includes the EH domain, and solved its solution structure. While the overall structure resembles that of the second of the three N-terminal Eps15 EH domains, potentially significant differences in surface charge and the structure of the tripeptide-binding pocket are discussed.

  4. EH domain of EHD1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieken, Fabien; Jovic, Marko; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve; Sorgen, Paul L.

    2007-01-01

    EHD1 is a member of the mammalian C-terminal Eps15 homology domain (EH) containing protein family, and regulates the recycling of various receptors from the endocytic recycling compartment to the plasma membrane. The EH domain of EHD1 binds to proteins containing either an Asn-Pro-Phe or Asp-Pro-Phe motif, and plays an important role in the subcellular localization and function of EHD1. Thus far, the structures of five N-terminal EH domains from other proteins have been solved, but to date, the structure of the EH domains from the four C-terminal EHD family paralogs remains unknown. In this study, we have assigned the 133 C-terminal residues of EHD1, which includes the EH domain, and solved its solution structure. While the overall structure resembles that of the second of the three N-terminal Eps15 EH domains, potentially significant differences in surface charge and the structure of the tripeptide-binding pocket are discussed

  5. DEMATEL METHOD IN ERP SYSTEMS FOR TSL BRANCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold TORBACKI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces issues concerning the implementation of key performance indicators (KPIs dedicated to the TSL (Transport-Shipping-Logistics branch. The KPIs are used in different modules of the ERP (Enterprise resource planning information systems, which support strategic decision making. Selected indicators have been used to create four perspectives of Balanced Scorecard in accordance with Balanced Scorecard methodology. Using the multi-factor method of DEMATEL (Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory analysis, the evaluation of indicators and Balanced Scorecard’s perspectives has been performed. This article can be useful to persons interested in the implementation of modern solutions in ERP applications dedicated to the TSL branch. Presented article can be useful to persons from upper management of TSL companies who are interested in modern methods of supporting strategic management and for IT system developers who are considering expanding modules of ERP software solutions dedicated to TSL industry which support strategic management and decision making.

  6. Higher order branching of periodic orbits from polynomial isochrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Toni

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the higher order local bifurcations of limit cycles from polynomial isochrones (linearizable centers when the linearizing transformation is explicitly known and yields a polynomial perturbation one-form. Using a method based on the relative cohomology decomposition of polynomial one-forms complemented with a step reduction process, we give an explicit formula for the overall upper bound of branch points of limit cycles in an arbitrary $n$ degree polynomial perturbation of the linear isochrone, and provide an algorithmic procedure to compute the upper bound at successive orders. We derive a complete analysis of the nonlinear cubic Hamiltonian isochrone and show that at most nine branch points of limit cycles can bifurcate in a cubic polynomial perturbation. Moreover, perturbations with exactly two, three, four, six, and nine local families of limit cycles may be constructed.

  7. Behavior of Steel Branch Connections during Fatigue Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sládek A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue behavior of the branch connection made of low-alloyed steel with yield stress of 355 MPa during low-cycle bending test is investigated in the article. Numerical prediction of the stress and strain distribution are described and experimentally verified by fatigue test of the branch connection sample. Experimental verification is based on low-cycle bending testing of the steel pipes welded by manual metal arc process and loaded by external force in the appropriate distance. Stresses and displacement of the samples induced by bending moment were measured by unidirectional strain gauges and displacement transducers. Samples were loaded in different testing levels according to required stress for 2.106 cycles. Increase of the stress value was applied until the crack formation and growth was observed. Results showed a high agreement of numerical and experimental results of stress and displacement.

  8. Theoretical red-giant branches for globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VandenBerg, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The authors reports computations of stellar evolutionary sequences from the base of the red-giant branch to the helium flash. Representative models with masses in the range of 0.8 to 0.9 solar masses were selected in order that the stars on the giant branches had ages of approximately 16 billion yr. Initial numerical experiments indicated that a value of α = 1.6 for the ratio of the mixing length to the pressure scale height was needed to provide the best of the Z = 0.0001 model sequence with the observations of M92. Sequences for the other assumed metallicities, Z = 0.0003, 0.001, 0.003, and 0.006, were then computed for the same value of the mixing-length parameter and overlayed directly on the observations. (Auth.)

  9. An introduction to branching measure-valued processes

    CERN Document Server

    Dynkin, Eugene B

    1994-01-01

    For about half a century, two classes of stochastic processes-Gaussian processes and processes with independent increments-have played an important role in the development of stochastic analysis and its applications. During the last decade, a third class-branching measure-valued (BMV) processes-has also been the subject of much research. A common feature of all three classes is that their finite-dimensional distributions are infinitely divisible, allowing the use of the powerful analytic tool of Laplace (or Fourier) transforms. All three classes, in an infinite-dimensional setting, provide means for study of physical systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom. This is the first monograph devoted to the theory of BMV processes. Dynkin first constructs a large class of BMV processes, called superprocesses, by passing to the limit from branching particle systems. Then he proves that, under certain restrictions, a general BMV process is a superprocess. A special chapter is devoted to the connections between ...

  10. Soft hadronic production by ECCO in the geometrical branching model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, J.; Hwa, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Soft production of hadrons in hadronic collisions is described in the geometrical branching model and implemented by the eikonal cascade code (ECCO). It is shown that the major global features of multiparticle production can be reproduced by one essential characterization of the dynamics of branching, namely, a scaling law for the mass distribution of daughter clusters. Without further adjustment of any parameters, the event generator can produce local features of multiplicity fluctuations in agreement with the NA22 intermittency data. The scaling exponent ν is determined to be 1.522 at √s =22 GeV, independent of the dimensionality of the intermittency analysis. It is shown that ν is approximately independent of the collision energy

  11. A tool for simulating parallel branch-and-bound methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubeva, Yana; Orlov, Yury; Posypkin, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    The Branch-and-Bound method is known as one of the most powerful but very resource consuming global optimization methods. Parallel and distributed computing can efficiently cope with this issue. The major difficulty in parallel B&B method is the need for dynamic load redistribution. Therefore design and study of load balancing algorithms is a separate and very important research topic. This paper presents a tool for simulating parallel Branchand-Bound method. The simulator allows one to run load balancing algorithms with various numbers of processors, sizes of the search tree, the characteristics of the supercomputer's interconnect thereby fostering deep study of load distribution strategies. The process of resolution of the optimization problem by B&B method is replaced by a stochastic branching process. Data exchanges are modeled using the concept of logical time. The user friendly graphical interface to the simulator provides efficient visualization and convenient performance analysis.

  12. Anomalous Medial Branch of Radial Artery: A Rare Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbhi Wadhwa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Radial artery is an important consistent vessel of the upper limb. It is a useful vascular access site for coronary procedures and its reliable anatomy has resulted in an elevation of radial forearm flaps for reconstructive surgeries of head and neck. Technical failures, in both the procedures, are mainly due to anatomical variations, such as radial loops, ectopic radial arteries or tortuosity in the vessel. We present a rare and a unique anomalous medial branch of the radial artery spiraling around the flexor carpi radialis muscle in the forearm with a high rising superficial palmar branch of radial artery. Developmentally it probably is a remanent of the normal pattern of capillary vessel maintenance and regression. Such a case is of importance for reconstructive surgeons and coronary interventionists, especially in view of its unique medial and deep course.

  13. Agriculture and Food Processes Branch program summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The work of the Agriculture and Food Processes Branch within the US DOE's Office of Industrial Programs is discussed and reviewed. The Branch is responsible for assisting the food and agricultural sectors of the economy in increasing their energy efficiency by cost sharing with industry the development and demonstration of technologies industry by itself would not develop because of a greater than normal risk factor, but have significant energy conservation benefits. This task is made more difficult by the diversity of agriculture and the food industry. The focus of the program is now on the development and demonstration of energy conservation technology in high energy use industry sectors and agricultural functions (e.g., sugar processing, meat processing, irrigation, and crop drying, high energy use functions common to many sectors of the food industry (e.g., refrigeration, drying, and evaporation), and innovative concepts (e.g., energy integrated farm systems. Specific projects within the program are summarized. (LCL)

  14. First measurement of the Omega /sup -/ decay branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Bourquin, M; Chatelus, Y; Chollet, J C; Degré, A; Froidevaux, D; Fyfe, A R; Gaillard, J M; Gee, C N P; Gibson, W M; Igo-Kemenes, P; Jeffreys, P W; Merkel, B; Morand, R; Plothow, H; Repellin, J P; Saunders, B J; Sauvage, G; Schiby, B; Siebert, H W; Smith, V J; Streit, K P; Strub, R; Thresher, J J; Tovey, Stuart N

    1979-01-01

    In an experiment in the CERN-SPS charged-hyperon beam, the main Omega /sup -/ decay branching ratios have been measured to be Gamma ( Omega /sup -/ to Lambda K/sup -/)/ Gamma (all)=0.686+or-0.013, Gamma ( Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup 0/ pi /sup -/)/ Gamma (all) =0.234+or-0.013, Gamma ( Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup -/ pi /sup 0/)/ Gamma (all)=0.080+or-0.008. The relative branching ratio of the two Xi pi modes provides a test of the Delta I=1/2 rule in decuplet-octet transitions. A search has also been made for the rare decay modes Omega /sup -/ to Lambda pi /sup -/, Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup -/ gamma , Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup -/ pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ and Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup 0/e/sup -/ nu . (6 refs).

  15. Mass loss by stars on the asymptotic giant branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantsman, Yu.L.

    1986-01-01

    The theoretical populations of white dwarfs and carbon stars were generated for Salpeter initial mass function and constant stellar birth rate history. The effect of very strong mass loss on the mass distribution of white dwarfs and luminosity distribution of carbon stars is discussed and the results are compared with observations. This comparison suggested that a signioficant mass loss by stars on the asymptotic giant branch occurs besides stellar wind and planetary nebulae ejection. Thus it is possible to explain the absence of carbon stars with Msub(bol) 1.0 Msub(sun). The luminosity of asymptotic giant branch stars in the globular clusters of the Magellanic Clouds appears to be a very good indicator of the age

  16. Polymers and Random graphs: Asymptotic equivalence to branching processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spouge, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    In 1974, Falk and Thomas did a computer simulation of Flory's Equireactive RA/sub f/ Polymer model, rings forbidden and rings allowed. Asymptotically, the Rings Forbidden model tended to Stockmayer's RA/sub f/ distribution (in which the sol distribution ''sticks'' after gelation), while the Rings Allowed model tended to the Flory version of the RA/sub f/ distribution. In 1965, Whittle introduced the Tree and Pseudomultigraph models. We show that these random graphs generalize the Falk and Thomas models by incorporating first-shell substitution effects. Moreover, asymptotically the Tree model displays postgelation ''sticking.'' Hence this phenomenon results from the absence of rings and occurs independently of equireactivity. We also show that the Pseudomultigraph model is asymptotically identical to the Branching Process model introduced by Gordon in 1962. This provides a possible basis for the Branching Process model in standard statistical mechanics

  17. A tool for simulating parallel branch-and-bound methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubeva Yana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Branch-and-Bound method is known as one of the most powerful but very resource consuming global optimization methods. Parallel and distributed computing can efficiently cope with this issue. The major difficulty in parallel B&B method is the need for dynamic load redistribution. Therefore design and study of load balancing algorithms is a separate and very important research topic. This paper presents a tool for simulating parallel Branchand-Bound method. The simulator allows one to run load balancing algorithms with various numbers of processors, sizes of the search tree, the characteristics of the supercomputer’s interconnect thereby fostering deep study of load distribution strategies. The process of resolution of the optimization problem by B&B method is replaced by a stochastic branching process. Data exchanges are modeled using the concept of logical time. The user friendly graphical interface to the simulator provides efficient visualization and convenient performance analysis.

  18. Domain-to-domain coupling in voltage-sensing phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Souhei; Matsuda, Makoto; Kawanabe, Akira; Okamura, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    Voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) consists of a transmembrane voltage sensor and a cytoplasmic enzyme region. The enzyme region contains the phosphatase and C2 domains, is structurally similar to the tumor suppressor phosphatase PTEN, and catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphoinositides. The transmembrane voltage sensor is connected to the phosphatase through a short linker region, and phosphatase activity is induced upon membrane depolarization. Although the detailed molecular characteristics of the voltage sensor domain and the enzyme region have been revealed, little is known how these two regions are coupled. In addition, it is important to know whether mechanism for coupling between the voltage sensor domain and downstream effector function is shared among other voltage sensor domain-containing proteins. Recent studies in which specific amino acid sites were genetically labeled using a fluorescent unnatural amino acid have enabled detection of the local structural changes in the cytoplasmic region of Ciona intestinalis VSP that occur with a change in membrane potential. The results of those studies provide novel insight into how the enzyme activity of the cytoplasmic region of VSP is regulated by the voltage sensor domain.

  19. Highly Branched Bio-Based Unsaturated Polyesters by Enzymatic Polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hiep Dinh; Löf, David; Hvilsted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    A one-pot, enzyme-catalyzed bulk polymerization method for direct production of highly branched polyesters has been developed as an alternative to currently used industrial procedures. Bio-based feed components in the form of glycerol, pentaerythritol, azelaic acid, and tall oil fatty acid (TOFA)...... stability, very high water contact angles of up to 141° and a glass transition temperature that could be controlled through the feed composition....

  20. BRANCH ASPECTS OF ACCOUNTING PAYMENTS BY COMPANIES OF MOBILE NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Konovalova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper some branch aspects of accounting payments by companies of mobile network are analyzed. Analyzed topical by regarded problem for Sverdlovskaya region. Researched civic-law notions, that applying at the telecommunication area. The authors gives recommendations for system of accounting specific aspects of payments on the basis of they economic essence, and gives sentences to change legislation activeing at the Russian Federation.

  1. Branch xylem density variations across the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Patiño

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Xylem density is a physical property of wood that varies between individuals, species and environments. It reflects the physiological strategies of trees that lead to growth, survival and reproduction. Measurements of branch xylem density, ρx, were made for 1653 trees representing 598 species, sampled from 87 sites across the Amazon basin. Measured values ranged from 218 kg m−3 for a Cordia sagotii (Boraginaceae from Mountagne de Tortue, French Guiana to 1130 kg m−3 for an Aiouea sp. (Lauraceae from Caxiuana, Central Pará, Brazil. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in average ρx across regions and sampled plots as well as significant differences between families, genera and species. A partitioning of the total variance in the dataset showed that species identity (family, genera and species accounted for 33% with environment (geographic location and plot accounting for an additional 26%; the remaining "residual" variance accounted for 41% of the total variance. Variations in plot means, were, however, not only accountable by differences in species composition because xylem density of the most widely distributed species in our dataset varied systematically from plot to plot. Thus, as well as having a genetic component, branch xylem density is a plastic trait that, for any given species, varies according to where the tree is growing in a predictable manner. Within the analysed taxa, exceptions to this general rule seem to be pioneer species belonging for example to the Urticaceae whose branch xylem density is more constrained than most species sampled in this study. These patterns of variation of branch xylem density across Amazonia suggest a large functional diversity amongst Amazonian trees which is not well understood.

  2. SM Higgs decay branching ratios and total Higgs width

    CERN Multimedia

    Daniel Denegri

    2001-01-01

    Upper: Higgs decay ratios as a function of Higgs mass. The largest branching ratio is not necessarily the most usefull one. The most usefull ones are gamma gamma bbar ZZ and WW as in those modes latter signal to background ratios can be achieved. Lower: Total Higgs decay width versus Higgs mass. At low masses the natural width is extremely small, thus observability depends on instrumental resolution primarily.

  3. Numerical solution of incompressible flow through branched channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Louda, Petr; Kozel, K.; Příhoda, Jaromír; Beneš, L.; Kopáček, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2011), s. 318-324 ISSN 0045-7930 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/0977; GA ČR GAP101/10/1230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : channel flow * branched channel * EARSM turbulence model Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.810, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045793010003506

  4. From the twig tips to the deeper branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Stothard, J. Russell

    2013-01-01

    upon disease control. While useful in determining dynamics at the tips of the evolutionary tree, these molecular tools also provide insights into deeper evolutionary branches. Although Ascaris is found throughout the globe, molecular analysis of worms retrieved from sub-Saharan Africa point towards...... a significant center of genetic diversity, possibly denoting a likely center of evolutionary origin with subsequent parasite diaspora. Resolving these issues precisely, however, requires greater scrutiny of genetic variation within Parascaris and Baylisascaris. © 2013...

  5. ACCOUNTING AS BRANCH OF KNOWLEDGE: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, Manoel Raimundo Santana; Martins, Gilberto de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the accounting as branch of knowledge in three different fields: science, technology and practice. Through theoretical essay, we was argued that, although distinct, these fields interact, in that, as epistemology that justified the analysis here undertaken, the practical activities may be technology subject matter and that to be effective if based on one or more sciences. The difference between science and technology is given by the nature of knowledg...

  6. Precision measurement of the D*(0) decay branching fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, Y.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, T.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Han, Y. L.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, H. P.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, R. Q.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales, C. Morales; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pu, Y. N.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ren, H. L.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrie, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Using 482 pb(-1) of data taken at root s = 4.009 GeV, we measure the branching fractions of the decays of D*(0) into D-0 pi(0) and D-0 gamma to be B(D*(0) -> D-0 pi(0)) = (65.5 +/- 0.8 +/- 0.5)% and B(D*(0) -> D0 gamma) = (34.5 +/- 0.8 +/- 0.5)%, respectively, by assuming that the D*(0) decays only

  7. FDTD modeling of solar energy absorption in silicon branched nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Christin; Lopez, Rene; Redwing, Joan; Melde, Kathleen

    2013-05-06

    Thin film nanostructured photovoltaic cells are increasing in efficiency and decreasing the cost of solar energy. FDTD modeling of branched nanowire 'forests' are shown to have improved optical absorption in the visible and near-IR spectra over nanowire arrays alone, with a factor of 5 enhancement available at 1000 nm. Alternate BNW tree configurations are presented, achieving a maximum absorption of over 95% at 500 nm.

  8. Branch xylem density variations across the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, S.; Lloyd, J.; Paiva, R.; Baker, T. R.; Quesada, C. A.; Mercado, L. M.; Schmerler, J.; Schwarz, M.; Santos, A. J. B.; Aguilar, A.; Czimczik, C. I.; Gallo, J.; Horna, V.; Hoyos, E. J.; Jimenez, E. M.; Palomino, W.; Peacock, J.; Peña-Cruz, A.; Sarmiento, C.; Sota, A.; Turriago, J. D.; Villanueva, B.; Vitzthum, P.; Alvarez, E.; Arroyo, L.; Baraloto, C.; Bonal, D.; Chave, J.; Costa, A. C. L.; Herrera, R.; Higuchi, N.; Killeen, T.; Leal, E.; Luizão, F.; Meir, P.; Monteagudo, A.; Neil, D.; Núñez-Vargas, P.; Peñuela, M. C.; Pitman, N.; Priante Filho, N.; Prieto, A.; Panfil, S. N.; Rudas, A.; Salomão, R.; Silva, N.; Silveira, M.; Soares Dealmeida, S.; Torres-Lezama, A.; Vásquez-Martínez, R.; Vieira, I.; Malhi, Y.; Phillips, O. L.

    2009-04-01

    Xylem density is a physical property of wood that varies between individuals, species and environments. It reflects the physiological strategies of trees that lead to growth, survival and reproduction. Measurements of branch xylem density, ρx, were made for 1653 trees representing 598 species, sampled from 87 sites across the Amazon basin. Measured values ranged from 218 kg m-3 for a Cordia sagotii (Boraginaceae) from Mountagne de Tortue, French Guiana to 1130 kg m-3 for an Aiouea sp. (Lauraceae) from Caxiuana, Central Pará, Brazil. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in average ρx across regions and sampled plots as well as significant differences between families, genera and species. A partitioning of the total variance in the dataset showed that species identity (family, genera and species) accounted for 33% with environment (geographic location and plot) accounting for an additional 26%; the remaining "residual" variance accounted for 41% of the total variance. Variations in plot means, were, however, not only accountable by differences in species composition because xylem density of the most widely distributed species in our dataset varied systematically from plot to plot. Thus, as well as having a genetic component, branch xylem density is a plastic trait that, for any given species, varies according to where the tree is growing in a predictable manner. Within the analysed taxa, exceptions to this general rule seem to be pioneer species belonging for example to the Urticaceae whose branch xylem density is more constrained than most species sampled in this study. These patterns of variation of branch xylem density across Amazonia suggest a large functional diversity amongst Amazonian trees which is not well understood.

  9. Measurement of the branching fraction for D0 -> K- π+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barate, R.; Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Orteu, S.; Padilla, C.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Alemany, R.; Becker, U.; Bazarko, A. O.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lutters, G.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moneta, L.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rizzo, G.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thompson, E.; Thomson, F.; Turnbull, R. M.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Martin, E. B.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Giehl, I.; Greene, A. M.; Hoffmann, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Leroy, O.; Motsch, F.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Ragusa, F.; Berlich, R.; Blum, W.; Büscher, V.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; St. Denis, R.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Choi, Y.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Höcker, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Tournefier, E.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassis, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Kelly, M. S.; Lehto, M.; Newton, W. M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; González, S.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zobernig, G.

    1997-02-01

    The branching fraction for D0 -> K- π+ is measured with the statistics collected by ALEPH from 1991 to 1994. The method is based on the comparison between the rate for the reconstructed D*+ -> D0π+, D0 -> K-π+ decay chain and the rate for inclusive soft pion production at low transverse momentum with respect to the nearest jet. The result is B(D0 -> K- π+) = (3.90 +/- 0.09 +/- 0.12)%

  10. A particle system with cooperative branching and coalescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sturm, A.; Swart, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2015), s. 1616-1649 ISSN 1050-5164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0752 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : interacting particle system * cooperative branching * coalescence * phase transition * upper invariant law * survival * extinction Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.755, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/SI/swart-0442871.pdf

  11. From Subsidiary to Branch Organization of International Banks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldberg, Lawrence; Sweeney, Richard J.; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    Nordea is the first major international bank planning to operate important host country activities in branches as the Second European banking directive envisions rather than as subsidiaries. Nordea is the result of mergers of roughly equal-size universal banks in four Nordic countries...... institutional foundations for substantial market discipline in banking. In particular, distress resolution and insolvency procedures for banks must be made rule based and credible for host country authorities to accept home country control....

  12. HORIZONTAL BRANCH MORPHOLOGY OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: A MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jogesh Babu, G.; Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar; Mondal, Saptarshi

    2009-01-01

    The proper interpretation of horizontal branch (HB) morphology is crucial to the understanding of the formation history of stellar populations. In the present study a multivariate analysis is used (principal component analysis) for the selection of appropriate HB morphology parameter, which, in our case, is the logarithm of effective temperature extent of the HB (log T effHB ). Then this parameter is expressed in terms of the most significant observed independent parameters of Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) separately for coherent groups, obtained in a previous work, through a stepwise multiple regression technique. It is found that, metallicity ([Fe/H]), central surface brightness (μ v ), and core radius (r c ) are the significant parameters to explain most of the variations in HB morphology (multiple R 2 ∼ 0.86) for GGC elonging to the bulge/disk while metallicity ([Fe/H]) and absolute magnitude (M v ) are responsible for GGC belonging to the inner halo (multiple R 2 ∼ 0.52). The robustness is tested by taking 1000 bootstrap samples. A cluster analysis is performed for the red giant branch (RGB) stars of the GGC belonging to Galactic inner halo (Cluster 2). A multi-episodic star formation is preferred for RGB stars of GGC belonging to this group. It supports the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) model in three episodes instead of two as suggested by Carretta et al. for halo GGC while AGB model is suggested to be revisited for bulge/disk GGC.

  13. Branches of Triangulated Origami Near the Unfolded State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bryan Gin-ge; Santangelo, Christian D.

    2018-01-01

    Origami structures are characterized by a network of folds and vertices joining unbendable plates. For applications to mechanical design and self-folding structures, it is essential to understand the interplay between the set of folds in the unfolded origami and the possible 3D folded configurations. When deforming a structure that has been folded, one can often linearize the geometric constraints, but the degeneracy of the unfolded state makes a linear approach impossible there. We derive a theory for the second-order infinitesimal rigidity of an initially unfolded triangulated origami structure and use it to study the set of nearly unfolded configurations of origami with four boundary vertices. We find that locally, this set consists of a number of distinct "branches" which intersect at the unfolded state, and that the number of these branches is exponential in the number of vertices. We find numerical and analytical evidence that suggests that the branches are characterized by choosing each internal vertex to either "pop up" or "pop down." The large number of pathways along which one can fold an initially unfolded origami structure strongly indicates that a generic structure is likely to become trapped in a "misfolded" state. Thus, new techniques for creating self-folding origami are likely necessary; controlling the popping state of the vertices may be one possibility.

  14. Cell lineage branching as a strategy for proliferative control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzi, Gentian; Lander, Arthur D; Khammash, Mustafa

    2015-02-19

    How tissue and organ sizes are specified is one of the great unsolved mysteries in biology. Experiments and mathematical modeling implicate feedback control of cell lineage progression, but a broad understanding of what lineage feedback accomplishes is lacking. By exploring the possible effects of various biologically relevant disturbances on the dynamic and steady state behaviors of stem cell lineages, we find that the simplest and most frequently studied form of lineage feedback - which we term renewal control - suffers from several serious drawbacks. These reflect fundamental performance limits dictated by universal conservation-type laws, and are independent of parameter choice. Here we show that introducing lineage branches can circumvent all such limitations, permitting effective attenuation of a wide range of perturbations. The type of feedback that achieves such performance - which we term fate control - involves promotion of lineage branching at the expense of both renewal and (primary) differentiation. We discuss the evidence that feedback of just this type occurs in vivo, and plays a role in tissue growth control. Regulated lineage branching is an effective strategy for dealing with disturbances in stem cell systems. The existence of this strategy provides a dynamics-based justification for feedback control of cell fate in vivo.

  15. Chemical Composition of Sea Buckthorn Leaves, Branches and Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradt Ina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea buckthorn leaves and branches presently create waste-/by-products of harvesting after pruning the plants. It is already known that sea buckthorn berries are important for their chemical composition and based on this occupy a wide field in nutrition. We raised the idea that sea buckthorn leaves, branches, and especially the bark, have also an extraordinary chemical composition like the berries. The aim of this study was to describe these by-products. For this purpose, detailed full analyses of corresponding samples from Russia (seven varieties and Germany (four varieties were performed. Especially the dry mass, fat content, proteins, carbohydrates, starch content, and crude fiber were investigated to obtain an overview. Minor components like total phenol content, metals, and water- and fat-soluble vitamins were also studied. All analytical parameters were based on an official collection of analysis methods (German ASU - amtliche Sammlung von Untersuchungsverfahren. The results of the full analysis of leaves and branches show some interesting aspects about the differences between male and female plants. Furthermore, we observed differences between Russian and German sea buckthorn varieties. Investigation of minor components showed that vitamins were present in very low amount (< 0.1 %.

  16. Dynamic Properties of Star-Branched Polymer Brushes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikorski, A.; Romiszowski, P.

    2004-01-01

    We studied a simplified model of a polymer brush. It consisted of star-branched chains, which were restricted to a simple cubic lattice. Each star-branched macromolecule consisted of three linear arms of equal length emanating from a common origin (the branching point). The chains were grafted to an impenetrable surface, i.e. they were terminally attached to the surface with one arm. The number of chains was varied from low to high grafting density. The model system was studied at good solvent conditions because the excluded volume effect was the only potential of interaction included in the model. The properties of this model system were studied by means of Monte Carlo simulation. The sampling algorithm was based on local changes of chain conformations. The dynamic properties of the polymer brush were studied and correlated with its structure. The differences in relaxation times of particular star arms were shown. The short-time mobility of polymer layers was analyzed. The lateral self-diffusion of chains was also studied and discussed. (author)

  17. Plexin A3 and turnout regulate motor axonal branch morphogenesis in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sainath

    Full Text Available During embryogenesis motor axons navigate to their target muscles, where individual motor axons develop complex branch morphologies. The mechanisms that control axonal branching morphogenesis have been studied intensively, yet it still remains unclear when branches begin to form or how branch locations are determined. Live cell imaging of individual zebrafish motor axons reveals that the first axonal branches are generated at the ventral extent of the myotome via bifurcation of the growth cone. Subsequent branches are generated by collateral branching restricted to their synaptic target field along the distal portion of the axon. This precisely timed and spatially restricted branching process is disrupted in turnout mutants we identified in a forward genetic screen. Molecular genetic mapping positioned the turnout mutation within a 300 kb region encompassing eight annotated genes, however sequence analysis of all eight open reading frames failed to unambiguously identify the turnout mutation. Chimeric analysis and single cell labeling reveal that turnout function is required cell non-autonomously for intraspinal motor axon guidance and peripheral branch formation. turnout mutant motor axons form the first branch on time via growth cone bifurcation, but unlike wild-type they form collateral branches precociously, when the growth cone is still navigating towards the ventral myotome. These precocious collateral branches emerge along the proximal region of the axon shaft typically devoid of branches, and they develop into stable, permanent branches. Furthermore, we find that null mutants of the guidance receptor plexin A3 display identical motor axon branching defects, and time lapse analysis reveals that precocious branch formation in turnout and plexin A3 mutants is due to increased stability of otherwise short-lived axonal protrusions. Thus, plexin A3 dependent intrinsic and turnout dependent extrinsic mechanisms suppress collateral branch

  18. Domain Decomposition Solvers for Frequency-Domain Finite Element Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Copeland, Dylan; Kolmbauer, Michael; Langer, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    The paper is devoted to fast iterative solvers for frequency-domain finite element equations approximating linear and nonlinear parabolic initial boundary value problems with time-harmonic excitations. Switching from the time domain to the frequency domain allows us to replace the expensive time-integration procedure by the solution of a simple linear elliptic system for the amplitudes belonging to the sine- and to the cosine-excitation or a large nonlinear elliptic system for the Fourier coefficients in the linear and nonlinear case, respectively. The fast solution of the corresponding linear and nonlinear system of finite element equations is crucial for the competitiveness of this method. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  19. Domain Decomposition Solvers for Frequency-Domain Finite Element Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Copeland, Dylan

    2010-10-05

    The paper is devoted to fast iterative solvers for frequency-domain finite element equations approximating linear and nonlinear parabolic initial boundary value problems with time-harmonic excitations. Switching from the time domain to the frequency domain allows us to replace the expensive time-integration procedure by the solution of a simple linear elliptic system for the amplitudes belonging to the sine- and to the cosine-excitation or a large nonlinear elliptic system for the Fourier coefficients in the linear and nonlinear case, respectively. The fast solution of the corresponding linear and nonlinear system of finite element equations is crucial for the competitiveness of this method. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  20. Ideal crop plant architecture is mediated by tassels replace upper ears1, a BTB/POZ ankyrin repeat gene directly targeted by TEOSINTE BRANCHED1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhaobin; Li, Wei; Unger-Wallace, Erica; Yang, Jinliang; Vollbrecht, Erik; Chuck, George

    2017-10-10

    Axillary branch suppression is a favorable trait bred into many domesticated crop plants including maize compared with its highly branched wild ancestor teosinte. Branch suppression in maize was achieved through selection of a gain of function allele of the teosinte branched1 (tb1) transcription factor that acts as a repressor of axillary bud growth. Previous work indicated that other loci may function epistatically with tb1 and may be responsible for some of its phenotypic effects. Here, we show that tb1 mediates axillary branch suppression through direct activation of the tassels replace upper ears1 ( tru1 ) gene that encodes an ankyrin repeat domain protein containing a BTB/POZ motif necessary for protein-protein interactions. The expression of TRU1 and TB1 overlap in axillary buds, and TB1 binds to two locations in the tru1 gene as shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation and gel shifts. In addition, nucleotide diversity surveys indicate that tru1 , like tb1 , was a target of selection. In modern maize, TRU1 is highly expressed in the leaf trace vasculature of axillary internodes, while in teosinte, this expression is highly reduced or absent. This increase in TRU1 expression levels in modern maize is supported by comparisons of relative protein levels with teosinte as well as by quantitative measurements of mRNA levels. Hence, a major innovation in creating ideal maize plant architecture originated from ectopic overexpression of tru1 in axillary branches, a critical step in mediating the effects of domestication by tb1.

  1. Estimating biological elementary flux modes that decompose a flux distribution by the minimal branching property

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2014-01-01

    biologically feasible EFMs by considering their graphical properties. A previous study on the transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes found that distinct branches at a branch point metabolite usually belong to distinct metabolic pathways. This suggests an intuitive property of biologically feasible EFMs......, i.e. minimal branching. RESULTS: We developed the concept of minimal branching EFM and derived the minimal branching decomposition (MBD) to decompose flux distributions. Testing in the core Escherichia coli metabolic network indicated that MBD can distinguish branches at branch points and greatly...... knowledge, which facilitates interpretation. Comparison of the methods applied to a complex flux distribution in Lactococcus lactis similarly showed the advantages of MBD. The minimal branching EFM concept underlying MBD should be useful in other applications....

  2. Hilbert Series and Mixed Branches of T[SU(N)] theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carta, Federico [Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC,Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Hayashi, Hirotaka [Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC,Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Tokai University,4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

    2017-02-07

    We consider mixed branches of 3dN=4T[SU(N)] theory. We compute the Hilbert series of the Coulomb branch part of the mixed branch from a restriction rule acting on the Hilbert series of the full Coulomb branch that will truncate the magnetic charge summation only to the subset of BPS dressed monopole operators that arise in the Coulomb branch sublocus where the mixed branch stems. This restriction can be understood directly from the type IIB brane picture by a relation between the magnetic charges of the monopoles and brane position moduli. We also apply the restriction rule to the Higgs branch part of a given mixed branch by exploiting 3d mirror symmetry. Both cases show complete agreement with the results calculated by different methods.

  3. On the anomalous characteristics in the P and R branches in a hydrogen fulcher band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Shinichiro; Okamoto, Atsushi; Yamasaki, Daisuke; Iida, Yohei; Kajita, Shin; Shikama, Taiichi; Oishi, Tetsutaro; Tanaka, Satoru; Xiao Bingjia

    2006-01-01

    Anomalous characteristics in the P and R branches in hydrogen Fulcher-α emissions were investigated with respect to rotational temperature and population in the excited electronic state (upper-Fulcher state). The ro-vibrational population distribution of the ground electronic state was deduced by applying the coronal equilibrium to the Q branch, and then the population for the P and R branches was predicted. The anomalies in P and R branches can be found in the rotational temperature and the branching ratio between the branches. Our results suggest that the sum of the emission from P and R branches seems to agree with that predicted based on the Q branch emission. (author)

  4. Measuring of the efficiency of bank branches on the basis of DEA approach

    OpenAIRE

    Korchahin, A.; Zhukau, A.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of the measuring of efficiency of bank branches in a bank strategic planning is considered. The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is employed as a managerial tool to evaluate performance of network of bank branches.

  5. Pittsfield Local Flood Protection, West Branch and Southwest Branch, Housatonic River, Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Detailed Project Report for Water Resources Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    a bakery , a gas station, and the Linden Street bridge were flooded during the March 1977 storm. Flooding also occurred on the Southwest Branch...and service station, one bakery , and five other commercial establishments. Most of these structures are not suited to being elevated above the design...of a shopping plaza and a fast-food franchise in the flood plain on West Housatonic Street (Route 20). The following three alternate plans of

  6. Domain walls at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, C.A. de; Marques, G.C.; Silva, A.J. da; Ventura, I.

    1983-08-01

    It is suggested that the phase transition of lambda phi 4 theory as a function of temperature coincides with the spontaneous appearance of domain walls. Based on one-loop calculations, T sub(c) = 4M/√ lambda is estimated as the temperature for these domains to because energetically favored, to be compared with T sub(c) = 4.9M/√ lambda from effective potential calculations (which are performed directly in the broken phase). Domain walls, as well as other Types of fluctuations, disorder the system above T sub(c), leading to =0. The critical exponent for the specific heat above T sub(c) is computed; and α=2/3 + 0 (√ lambda) is obtained. (Author) [pt

  7. Domain similarity based orthology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitard-Feildel, Tristan; Kemena, Carsten; Greenwood, Jenny M; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2015-05-13

    Orthologous protein detection software mostly uses pairwise comparisons of amino-acid sequences to assert whether two proteins are orthologous or not. Accordingly, when the number of sequences for comparison increases, the number of comparisons to compute grows in a quadratic order. A current challenge of bioinformatic research, especially when taking into account the increasing number of sequenced organisms available, is to make this ever-growing number of comparisons computationally feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We propose to speed up the detection of orthologous proteins by using strings of domains to characterize the proteins. We present two new protein similarity measures, a cosine and a maximal weight matching score based on domain content similarity, and new software, named porthoDom. The qualities of the cosine and the maximal weight matching similarity measures are compared against curated datasets. The measures show that domain content similarities are able to correctly group proteins into their families. Accordingly, the cosine similarity measure is used inside porthoDom, the wrapper developed for proteinortho. porthoDom makes use of domain content similarity measures to group proteins together before searching for orthologs. By using domains instead of amino acid sequences, the reduction of the search space decreases the computational complexity of an all-against-all sequence comparison. We demonstrate that representing and comparing proteins as strings of discrete domains, i.e. as a concatenation of their unique identifiers, allows a drastic simplification of search space. porthoDom has the advantage of speeding up orthology detection while maintaining a degree of accuracy similar to proteinortho. The implementation of porthoDom is released using python and C++ languages and is available under the GNU GPL licence 3 at http://www.bornberglab.org/pages/porthoda .

  8. Isaac Newton Institute of Chile: The fifteenth anniversary of its "Yugoslavia" Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, M. S.

    In 2002, the Isaac Newton Institute of Chile established in Belgrade its "Yugoslavia" Branch, one of 15 branches in nine countries in Eastern Europe and Eurasia. On the occasion of fifteen years since its foundation, the activities of "Yugoslavia" Branch of the Isaac Newton Institute of Chile are briefly reviewed.

  9. π0 decay branching ratios of 5ΛHe and 12ΛC hypernuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, S.; Ajimura, S.; Aoki, K.; Banu, A.; Bhang, H.C.; Fukuda, T.; Hashimoto, O.; Hwang, J.I.; Kameoka, S.; Kang, B.H.; Kim, E.H.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, M.J.; Maruta, T.; Miura, Y.; Miyake, Y.; Nagae, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakamura, S.N.; Noumi, H.; Okayasu, Y.; Outa, H.; Park, H.; Saha, P.K.; Sato, Y.; Sekimoto, M.; Takahashi, T.; Tamura, H.; Tanida, K.; Toyoda, A.; Tsukada, K.; Watanabe, T.; Yim, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    We precisely measured π0 branching ratios of 5 Λ He and 12 Λ C hypernuclei produced via the (π+,K+) reaction. Using these π0 branching ratios with the π- branching ratios and lifetimes, we obtained the π0 decay widths and the non-mesonic weak decay widths with an accuracy of ∼5% (stat) for both hypernuclei

  10. 78 FR 66265 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... Elizabeth River Eastern Branch, mile 1.1, at Norfolk, VA. This deviation is necessary to facilitate... maintenance. The Norfolk Southern 5 railroad Bridge, at mile 1.1, across the Elizabeth River (Eastern Branch...

  11. Flowering branches cause injuries to second-year main stems of Artemisia tridentata nutt. subspecies tridentata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance S. Evans; Angela Citta; Stewart C. Sanderson

    2012-01-01

    Eccentricity of stems of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. (big sagebrush) has been reported previously. Analysis of samples observed over 2 years documented that each stem terminal produces about 8-10 branches each year, and during second-year growth, 3-8 of these develop into short, flowering, determinate branches. Each flowering branch produces hundreds of seeds and then...

  12. The Distributed-SDF Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuadrado, Daniel Lázaro; Ravn, Anders Peter; Koch, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Distributed-SDF domain for Ptolemy II is to allow distributed simulation of SDF models. It builds on top of the existing SDF domain by extending it. From the user’s point of view, using the Distributed-SDF director is sufficient to run the distributed version. It provides optio...... distributed nature. First of all, known memory bounds of the JVM can be overcome. Second, it yields smaller simulation times, mainly for models with high degree of parallelism and granularity....

  13. Improving the performance of DomainDiscovery of protein domain boundary assignment using inter-domain linker index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zomaya Albert Y

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of protein domain boundaries is critical for the characterisation and understanding of protein function. The ability to identify domains without the knowledge of the structure – by using sequence information only – is an essential step in many types of protein analyses. In this present study, we demonstrate that the performance of DomainDiscovery is improved significantly by including the inter-domain linker index value for domain identification from sequence-based information. Improved DomainDiscovery uses a Support Vector Machine (SVM approach and a unique training dataset built on the principle of consensus among experts in defining domains in protein structure. The SVM was trained using a PSSM (Position Specific Scoring Matrix, secondary structure, solvent accessibility information and inter-domain linker index to detect possible domain boundaries for a target sequence. Results Improved DomainDiscovery is compared with other methods by benchmarking against a structurally non-redundant dataset and also CASP5 targets. Improved DomainDiscovery achieves 70% accuracy for domain boundary identification in multi-domains proteins. Conclusion Improved DomainDiscovery compares favourably to the performance of other methods and excels in the identification of domain boundaries for multi-domain proteins as a result of introducing support vector machine with benchmark_2 dataset.

  14. Long-branch attraction bias and inconsistency in Bayesian phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaczkowski, Bryan; Thornton, Joseph W

    2009-12-09

    Bayesian inference (BI) of phylogenetic relationships uses the same probabilistic models of evolution as its precursor maximum likelihood (ML), so BI has generally been assumed to share ML's desirable statistical properties, such as largely unbiased inference of topology given an accurate model and increasingly reliable inferences as the amount of data increases. Here we show that BI, unlike ML, is biased in favor of topologies that group long branches together, even when the true model and prior distributions of evolutionary parameters over a group of phylogenies are known. Using experimental simulation studies and numerical and mathematical analyses, we show that this bias becomes more severe as more data are analyzed, causing BI to infer an incorrect tree as the maximum a posteriori phylogeny with asymptotically high support as sequence length approaches infinity. BI's long branch attraction bias is relatively weak when the true model is simple but becomes pronounced when sequence sites evolve heterogeneously, even when this complexity is incorporated in the model. This bias--which is apparent under both controlled simulation conditions and in analyses of empirical sequence data--also makes BI less efficient and less robust to the use of an incorrect evolutionary model than ML. Surprisingly, BI's bias is caused by one of the method's stated advantages--that it incorporates uncertainty about branch lengths by integrating over a distribution of possible values instead of estimating them from the data, as ML does. Our findings suggest that trees inferred using BI should be interpreted with caution and that ML may be a more reliable framework for modern phylogenetic analysis.

  15. Long-branch attraction bias and inconsistency in Bayesian phylogenetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Kolaczkowski

    Full Text Available Bayesian inference (BI of phylogenetic relationships uses the same probabilistic models of evolution as its precursor maximum likelihood (ML, so BI has generally been assumed to share ML's desirable statistical properties, such as largely unbiased inference of topology given an accurate model and increasingly reliable inferences as the amount of data increases. Here we show that BI, unlike ML, is biased in favor of topologies that group long branches together, even when the true model and prior distributions of evolutionary parameters over a group of phylogenies are known. Using experimental simulation studies and numerical and mathematical analyses, we show that this bias becomes more severe as more data are analyzed, causing BI to infer an incorrect tree as the maximum a posteriori phylogeny with asymptotically high support as sequence length approaches infinity. BI's long branch attraction bias is relatively weak when the true model is simple but becomes pronounced when sequence sites evolve heterogeneously, even when this complexity is incorporated in the model. This bias--which is apparent under both controlled simulation conditions and in analyses of empirical sequence data--also makes BI less efficient and less robust to the use of an incorrect evolutionary model than ML. Surprisingly, BI's bias is caused by one of the method's stated advantages--that it incorporates uncertainty about branch lengths by integrating over a distribution of possible values instead of estimating them from the data, as ML does. Our findings suggest that trees inferred using BI should be interpreted with caution and that ML may be a more reliable framework for modern phylogenetic analysis.

  16. Association mapping in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) reveals independent control of apical vs. basal branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambeesan, Savithri U; Mandel, Jennifer R; Bowers, John E; Marek, Laura F; Ebert, Daniel; Corbi, Jonathan; Rieseberg, Loren H; Knapp, Steven J; Burke, John M

    2015-03-11

    Shoot branching is an important determinant of plant architecture and influences various aspects of growth and development. Selection on branching has also played an important role in the domestication of crop plants, including sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Here, we describe an investigation of the genetic basis of variation in branching in sunflower via association mapping in a diverse collection of cultivated sunflower lines. Detailed phenotypic analyses revealed extensive variation in the extent and type of branching within the focal population. After correcting for population structure and kinship, association analyses were performed using a genome-wide collection of SNPs to identify genomic regions that influence a variety of branching-related traits. This work resulted in the identification of multiple previously unidentified genomic regions that contribute to variation in branching. Genomic regions that were associated with apical and mid-apical branching were generally distinct from those associated with basal and mid-basal branching. Homologs of known branching genes from other study systems (i.e., Arabidopsis, rice, pea, and petunia) were also identified from the draft assembly of the sunflower genome and their map positions were compared to those of associations identified herein. Numerous candidate branching genes were found to map in close proximity to significant branching associations. In sunflower, variation in branching is genetically complex and overall branching patterns (i.e., apical vs. basal) were found to be influenced by distinct genomic regions. Moreover, numerous candidate branching genes mapped in close proximity to significant branching associations. Although the sunflower genome exhibits localized islands of elevated linkage disequilibrium (LD), these non-random associations are known to decay rapidly elsewhere. The subset of candidate genes that co-localized with significant associations in regions of low LD represents the most

  17. Multifractal structure of multiparticle production in the branching models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.B.; Hwa, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure is described for the multifractal analysis of data on multiparticle production obtained at high energy either in experiment or in Monte Carlo simulation. It is shown how the spectrum f(α) of the rapidity-density index α can be determined from the multiplicity fluctuation of the rapidity distribution, as the resolution is changed. The branching model is used to illustrate the procedure. It is found that the φ 3 model has a narrower f(α) than the gluon model, suggesting that multifractality is a useful arena for confrontation between theory and experiment. 13 refs., 2 figs

  18. Measurement of the Λ→n+γ branching ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, A.J.; Larson, K.D.; Bassalleck, B.; Fickinger, W.J.; Hall, J.R.; Hallin, A.L.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Horvath, D.; Lowe, J.; McIntyre, E.K.; Measday, D.F.; Miller, J.P.; Roberts, B.L.; Robinson, D.K.; Sakitt, M.; Salomon, M.; Waltham, C.E.; Warner, T.M.; Whitehouse, D.A.; Wolfe, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The branching ratio for the Λ weak radiative decay has been measured to be B(Λ→n+γ)/(Λ→anything) =[1.78±0.24(stat)± 0.16 0.14 (syst)]x10 -3 . A low-energy kaon beam was used to produce the Λ hyperons via the reaction K - +p→Λ+π 0 at rest. Photons from the signal channel and π 0 decay were detected with a NaI(Tl) array. The final spectrum contains 287 events after background subtraction, an order of magnitude more events than from the only previous measurement

  19. Remembered branches: towards a future of Korean homosexual film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J

    2000-01-01

    Korean cinema has long labored under an imported Confucian homophobia which, through its effects if not its causes, seems to mirror the Western conception of the closet. Recent cinematic developments in Korea, including a queer film festival in Seoul, are slowly but surely beginning to change that. Using as primary texts the recent Korean gay film Broken Branches and the long-forgotten lesbian film Ascetic: Woman and Woman, my essay hopes to serve as a set of introductory remarks on a queer Korean cinema culture whose surface has only just been broached.

  20. Summary of activities of the Research Branch during 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    A general view of the work performed during 1981 by CNEA's Research Branch in basic and applied research is provided. The information includes the main activities and achievements in: 1) Physics Department: Tandar Project; Technical Assistance and Engineering; Experimental and Theoretical Nuclear Physics; Solid State Physics. 2) Reactor Chemistry Department: Chemical Control Division; Moderator and Coolant Physical-Chemistry Division; Radiation Chemistry Division. 3) Radiobiology Department: Radiation Pathology; Cellular Biology; Somatic Effects of the Ionizing Radiations; Genetics; Radiomicrobiology; Bioterium; Irradiation and Dosimetry Section, and, finally, in Biomathematics, Labelled Molecules and Radiochemistry. (M.E.L.) [es