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Sample records for ribotyping is200 typing

  1. Genomic relationships between selected phage types of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype typhimurium defined by ribotyping, IS200 typing and PFGE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J. E.; Skov, M. N.; Angen, Øystein

    1997-01-01

    — DTs 69, 103 and 153. The same grouping was observed by principal component analysis, but a minimum spanning tree linked DT 12 to group E and not group D in this analysis. Among the typing methods used, IS200 gave the best representation of the overall similarity between the S. typhimurium isolates...

  2. Molecular Typing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates by Opa-Typing and Ribotyping in New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejvak Khaki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Control and preventive measures for gonococcal infections are based on precise epidemiological characteristics of N. gonorrhoeae isolates. In the present study the potential utility of opa-typing and ribotyping for molecular epidemiological study of consecutive gonococcal strains was determined. Sixty gonococcal isolates were subjected to ribotyping with two restriction enzymes, AvaII and HincII, and opa-typing with TaqI and HpaII for epidemiological characterization of gonococcal population. Ribotyping with AvaII yielded 6 ribotype patterns while twelve RFLP patterns were observed with HincII. Opa-typing of the 60 isolates revealed a total 54 opa-types, which 48 were unique and 6 formed clusters. Fifty-two opa-types were observed with TaqI-digested PCR product while opa-typing with HpaII demonstrated 54 opa-types. The opa-types from isolates that were epidemiologically unrelated were distinct, whereas those from the sexual contacts were identical. The results showed that opa-typing is highly useful for characterizing gonococcal strains from sexual contacts and has more discriminatory than ribotyping that could differentiate between gonococci of the same ribotype. The technique even with a single restriction enzyme has a high level of discrimination (99.9% between epidemiologically unrelated isolates. In conclusion, the molecular methods such as opa-typing and ribotyping can be used for epidemiological characterization of gonococcal strains.

  3. Usefulness of phage typing and "two-way ribotyping" to differentiate Salmonella enteritidis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeras, E; Usera, M A; Calderón, C; Mendoza, M C

    1997-12-01

    The capacity to differentiate Salmonella enteritidis strains by phage typing and "two-way ribotyping" performed with PstI and SphI was evaluated. The typeability was 96.8% in phage typing and 100% in ribotyping. The series was differentiated into 13 phage types, 19 combined ribotypes, and 39 subtypes or clonal lines by combining results from both methods (of which 11, 13, and 35, respectively, were represented by natural strains). Ribotyping differentiated strains ascribed to PTs 1, 4, 6a, 7, 8, RDNC and UPT. Conversely, some strains of PTs 1, 4, 5a, 6, 6a, 7, 34, RDNC and UPT fall into the most frequent combined ribotype. A dendrogram of genetic similarity generated from the combined ribotypes was traced, and, at a 0.82 similarity level, it showed a major cluster (including 17 combined ribotypes, 88.4% strains ascribed to all PTs tested except PT11), a minor cluster, and four additional lines more loosely related.

  4. Comparison of a Commercially Available Repetitive-Element PCR System (DiversiLab) with PCR Ribotyping for Typing of Clostridium difficile Strains ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, C; Van Broeck, J; Spigaglia, P.; Burghoffer, B.; Delmée, M; Mastrantonio, P; Barbut, F

    2011-01-01

    This study compared a repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR) method (DiversiLab system) to PCR ribotyping. The discriminatory power of rep-PCR was 0.997. Among the PCR ribotype 027 isolates tested, different rep types could be distinguished. rep-PCR showed a higher discriminatory power than PCR ribotyping. Nevertheless, this method requires technical skill, and visual interpretation of rep-PCR fingerprint patterns may be difficult.

  5. Comparison of a commercially available rep-PCR system (Diversilab(R)) with PCR-ribotyping for typing of Clostridium difficile strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, C.; van Broeck, Johan; Spigaglia, P.; Burghoffer, B; Delmée, Michel; Mastrantonio, P; Barbut, F

    2011-01-01

    This study compared a rep-PCR method (DiversiLab® system) to PCR-ribotyping. The discriminatory power of rep-PCR was 0.997. Among the PCR-ribotype 027, different rep-types could be distinguished. Rep-PCR showed a higher discriminatory power than PCR-ribotyping. Nevertheless, this method requires technical skill and visual interpretation of rep-PCR fingerprint patterns may be difficult.

  6. Comparison of a Commercially Available Repetitive-Element PCR System (DiversiLab) with PCR Ribotyping for Typing of Clostridium difficile Strains ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, C.; Van Broeck, J.; Spigaglia, P.; Burghoffer, B; Delmée, M; Mastrantonio, P; Barbut, F

    2011-01-01

    This study compared a repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR) method (DiversiLab system) to PCR ribotyping. The discriminatory power of rep-PCR was 0.997. Among the PCR ribotype 027 isolates tested, different rep types could be distinguished. rep-PCR showed a higher discriminatory power than PCR ribotyping. Nevertheless, this method requires technical skill, and visual interpretation of rep-PCR fingerprint patterns may be difficult.

  7. IS200 and multilocus sequence typing for the identification of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains from Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gamboa, Areli; Silva, Claudia; Fernández-Mora, Marcos; Wiesner, Magdalena; Ponce de León, Alfredo; Calva, Edmundo

    2015-06-01

    In this work, IS200 and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) were used to analyze 19 strains previously serotyped as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and isolated in Indonesia (16 strains), Mexico (2 strains), and Switzerland (1 strain). Most of the strains showed the most common Typhi sequence types, ST1 and ST2, and a new Typhi genotype (ST1856) was described. However, one isolate from Mexico and another from Indonesia were of the ST365 and ST426 sequence types, indicating that they belonged to serovars Weltevreden and Aberdeen, respectively. These results were supported by the amplification of IS200 fragments, which rapidly distinguish Typhi from other serovars. Our results demonstrate the utility of IS200 and MLST in the classification of Salmonella strains into serovars. These methods provide information on the clonal relatedness of strains isolated worldwide.

  8. Comparison of Ribotyping and sequence-based typing for discriminating among isolates of Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Our goal was to compare the discriminatory power of PvuII ribotyping and MLST using a single set of diverse Bordetella bronchiseptica isolates and to determine whether subtyping based on repeat region sequences of the pertactin gene (prn) provides additional resolution. Methods and Results: ...

  9. Molecular typing of Salmonella typhi strains from Dhaka (Bangladesh) and development of DNA probes identifying plasmid-encoded multidrug-resistant isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.M. Hermans (Peter); S.K. Saha; W.J. van Leeuwen (Wibeke); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractSeventy-eight Salmonella typhi strains isolated in 1994 and 1995 from patients living in Dhaka, Bangladesh, were subjected to phage typing, ribotyping, IS200 fingerprinting, and PCR fingerprinting. The collection displayed a high degree of genetic homogeneit

  10. Molecular typing of Salmonella typhi strains from Dhaka (Bangladesh) and development of DNA probes identifying plasmid-encoded multidrug-resistant isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.M. Hermans (Peter); S.K. Saha; W.J. van Leeuwen (Wibeke); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractSeventy-eight Salmonella typhi strains isolated in 1994 and 1995 from patients living in Dhaka, Bangladesh, were subjected to phage typing, ribotyping, IS200 fingerprinting, and PCR fingerprinting. The collection displayed a high degree of genetic

  11. Emergence of new PCR ribotypes from the hypervirulent Clostridium difficile 027 lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Esmeralda; Dawson, Lisa F; Cairns, Michelle D; Stabler, Richard A; Wren, Brendan W

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea worldwide. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and severity of disease have increased in North America and Europe due to the emergence of a hypervirulent clone designated PCR ribotype 027. In this study, we sought to identify phenotypic differences among a collection of 26 presumed PCR ribotype 027 strains from the US and the UK isolated between 1988 and 2008 and also re-evaluated the PCR ribotype. We demonstrated that some of the strains typed as BI by restriction endonuclease analysis, and presumed to be PCR ribotype 027, were in fact other PCR ribotypes such as 176, 198 and 244 due to slight variation in banding pattern compared to the 027 strains. The reassigned 176, 198 and 244 ribotype strains were isolated in the US between 2001 and 2004 and appeared to have evolved recently from the 027 lineage. In addition, the UK strains were more motile and more resistant to most of the antibiotics compared to the US counterparts. We conclude that there should be a heightened awareness of newly identified PCR ribotypes such as 176, 198 and 244, and that they may be as problematic as the notorious 027 strains.

  12. Toxin A-negative toxin B-positive ribotype 017 Clostridium difficile is the dominant strain type in patients with diarrhoea attending tuberculosis hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullin, B; Wojno, J; Abratt, V; Reid, S J

    2017-01-01

    The molecular epidemiology of C. difficile strains causing disease in South Africa is currently unknown. Previously, multidrug resistant ribotype (RT)017 strains were those most commonly isolated from patients with diarrhoea attending Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. This larger study aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of C. difficile strains in the greater Cape Town and regional areas. C. difficile strains were isolated from patients with diarrhoea attending hospitals in the Western Cape region of South Africa that tested positive using the GeneXpert CDiff diagnostic test. Ribotyping and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) were used to type isolates, and their susceptibilities to several antibiotics were determined by gradient diffusion test strips. A total of 269 non-repeat C. difficile isolates were obtained. A large proportion of isolates (64.3 %) belonged to the RT017 group, many of which were clonally related when investigated by MLVA. RT017 strains were particularly prevalent in patients attending specialist tuberculosis (TB) hospitals. The majority of RT017 isolates were co-resistant to moxifloxacin and rifampicin, two antibiotics which are used intensively during anti-TB therapy. Non-RT017 strains were generally susceptible to both antibiotics. Resistance to erythromycin was observed for both groups of strains. RT017 C. difficile strains are the most commonly isolated strains from patients attending healthcare facilities in the greater Cape Town and regional areas. The presence of multidrug resistant RT017 strains in patients with diarrhoea attending local TB hospitals reflects a potential reservoir for future infections.

  13. Evaluation and application of ribotyping for epidemiological studies of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fussing, V.; Barfod, Kristen; Nielsen, R.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate ribotyping as an epidemiological tool for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and apply the method in studies of A. pleuropneumoniae infections in Danish pig herds. The evaluation of ribotyping was based on the 13 international reference strains and 106......, and the discriminatory power was between 0.85-0.89. The relatively low discriminatory power was caused by four predominant types, containing 61% of the isolates. The typing system was applied in studies of routes of infection of specific pathogen-free (SPF) pig herds and included 112 strains of A. pleuropneumoniae...

  14. Clostridium difficile ribotype 027, toxinotype III, the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Ed J; Berg, Renate J van den; Debast, Sylvia; Visser, Caroline E; Veenendaal, Dick; Troelstra, Annet; Kooi, Tjallie van der; Hof, Susan van den; Notermans, Daan W

    2006-01-01

    Outbreaks due to Clostridium difficile polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotype 027, toxinotype III, were detected in 7 hospitals in the Netherlands from April 2005 to February 2006. One hospital experienced at the same time a second outbreak due to a toxin A-negative C. difficile PCR ribotype 017 t

  15. Clostridium difficile ribotype 027, toxinotype III, the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Ed J; Berg, Renate J van den; Debast, Sylvia; Visser, Caroline E; Veenendaal, Dick; Troelstra, Annet; Kooi, Tjallie van der; Hof, Susan van den; Notermans, Daan W

    2006-01-01

    Outbreaks due to Clostridium difficile polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotype 027, toxinotype III, were detected in 7 hospitals in the Netherlands from April 2005 to February 2006. One hospital experienced at the same time a second outbreak due to a toxin A-negative C. difficile PCR ribotype 017 t

  16. Serotyping, ribotyping, PCR-mediated ribosomal 16S-23S spacer analysis and arbitrarily primed PCR for epidemiological studies on Legionella pneumophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H. Maas (Hugo); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); N. van Leeuwen (N.)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractFifty clinical and environmental isolates of Legionella pneumophila were typed serologically and by DNA fingerprinting using arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR). Furthermore, variability in and around ribosomal operons was assessed by conventional ribotyping and

  17. Clostridium difficile ribotypes in humans and animals in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; Rupnik, Maja; Diniz, Amanda Nádia; Vilela, Eduardo Garcia; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria

    2015-12-01

    Clostridium difficile is an emerging enteropathogen responsible for pseudomembranous colitis in humans and diarrhoea in several domestic and wild animal species. Despite its known importance, there are few studies about C. difficile polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotypes in Brazil and the actual knowledge is restricted to studies on human isolates. The aim of the study was therefore to compare C. difficile ribotypes isolated from humans and animals in Brazil. Seventy-six C. difficile strains isolated from humans (n = 25), dogs (n = 23), piglets (n = 12), foals (n = 7), calves (n = 7), one cat, and one manned wolf were distributed into 24 different PCR ribotypes. Among toxigenic strains, PCR ribotypes 014/020 and 106 were the most common, accounting for 14 (18.4%) and eight (10.5%) samples, respectively. Fourteen different PCR ribotypes were detected among human isolates, nine of them have also been identified in at least one animal species. PCR ribotype 027 was not detected, whereas 078 were found only in foals. This data suggests a high diversity of PCR ribotypes in humans and animals in Brazil and support the discussion of C. difficile as a zoonotic pathogen.

  18. Molecular Basis of Ribotype Variation in the Seventh Pandemic Clone and its O139 Variant of Vibrio cholerae

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    Ruiting Lan

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Ribotyping has been widely used to characterise the seventh pandemic clone including South American and O139 variants which appeared in 1991 and 1992 respectively. To reveal the molecular basis of ribotype variation we analysed the rrn operons and their flanking regions. All but one variation detected by BglI, the most discriminatory enzyme, was found to be due to changes within the rrn operons, resulting from recombination between operons. The recombinants are detected because of the presence of a BglI site in the 16S gene in three of the nine rrn operons and/or changes of intergenic spacer types of which four variants were identified. As the frequency of rrn recombination is high, ribotyping becomes a less useful tool for evolutionary studies and long term monitoring of the pathogenic clones of Vibrio cholerae as variation could undergo precise reversion by the same recombination event.

  19. Ribotyping of strains of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis cultured from the nasopharynx and middle ear of children with otitis media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brygge, K; Sørensen, C H; Colding, H

    1998-01-01

    . The distribution of these types was found to be almost identical to the distribution among 16 M. catarrhalis strains cultured from middle ear exudates of 16 children with acute otitis media. Ribotype HAPA was found in two-thirds of all the cultures investigated, and 44% of the children harboured more than one......Moraxella (Branhaomella) catarrhalis is frequently present in the nasopharyngeal microflora of small children, especially during episodes of acute otitis media . By means of ribotyping (restriction endonuclease analysis of chromosomal DNA combined with rRNA probing), we studied the genetic...... heterogeneity of 78 cultures of M. catarrhalis obtained from different localities in the nasopharynx of nine young children with secretory otitis media. Using HindIII and PstI as endonucleases, five different ribotypes were recognized, representing at least five different genotypes of M. catarrhalis...

  20. Clostridium difficile ribotypes in humans and animals in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is an emerging enteropathogen responsible for pseudomembranous colitis in humans and diarrhoea in several domestic and wild animal species. Despite its known importance, there are few studies aboutC. difficile polymerase chain reaction (PCR ribotypes in Brazil and the actual knowledge is restricted to studies on human isolates. The aim of the study was therefore to compare C. difficileribotypes isolated from humans and animals in Brazil. Seventy-six C. difficile strains isolated from humans (n = 25, dogs (n = 23, piglets (n = 12, foals (n = 7, calves (n = 7, one cat, and one manned wolf were distributed into 24 different PCR ribotypes. Among toxigenic strains, PCR ribotypes 014/020 and 106 were the most common, accounting for 14 (18.4% and eight (10.5% samples, respectively. Fourteen different PCR ribotypes were detected among human isolates, nine of them have also been identified in at least one animal species. PCR ribotype 027 was not detected, whereas 078 were found only in foals. This data suggests a high diversity of PCR ribotypes in humans and animals in Brazil and support the discussion of C. difficile as a zoonotic pathogen.

  1. Sporulation properties and antimicrobial susceptibility in endemic and rare Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidaric, Valerija; Rupnik, Maja

    2016-06-01

    Increased sporulation and antibiotic resistance have been proposed to be associated with certain Clostridium difficile epidemic strains such as PCR ribotype 027. In this study we examined these properties in another widespread PCR ribotype, 014/020, in comparison to prevalent PCR ribotype 002 and a group of rarely represented PCR ribotypes. Highest sporulation was observed in 014/020 strains at 24 h, while after 72 h PCR ribotype 002 and rare PCR ribotypes formed higher total number of spores. PCR ribotype 014/020 strains exhibited slightly higher resistance to tested antimicrobials, followed by group of rare PCR ribotypes and less common PCR ribotype 002. Neither sporulation properties nor antibiotic resistance clearly differed in endemic and rare strains.

  2. Toxin profiles, PCR ribotypes and resistance patterns of Clostridium difficile: a multicentre study in China, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiong; Wu, Shi; Huang, Haihui; Ni, Yuxing; Chen, Ye; Hu, Yunjian; Yu, Yunsong

    2016-12-01

    A total of 178 clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile were collected from five major teaching hospitals representing northern, eastern and southern China from August 2012 to July 2013. Among the 178 isolates, 162 (91.0%) were toxigenic, including 66 (40.7%) toxin A-negative, toxin B-positive, 95 (58.6%) toxin A-positive, toxin B-positive and only 1 (0.6%) toxin A-, toxin B- and binary toxin-positive. Twenty-nine different PCR ribotypes were identified, of which 017 (21.0%), 012 (17.3%) and novel type H (16.7%) were the most prevalent. PCR ribotypes 027 and 078 were not found. All toxigenic strains were susceptible to metronidazole, vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam. Resistance to moxifloxacin, clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, fusidic acid, imipenem, linezolid and rifampicin was observed in 45.1%, 79.6%, 75.3%, 46.9%, 3.7%, 29.6%, 4.9%, 2.5% and 12.3% of the isolates, respectively. Ribotype 017 showed resistance to more antimicrobial agents tested than other ribotype strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  3. Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 is not evenly distributed in Hesse, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvand, Mardjan; Bettge-Weller, Gudrun

    2016-08-01

    Clostridium difficile-isolates associated with CDI in different healthcare facilities in Hesse were analysed. The most common ribotypes were 001 (31.1%) and 027 (27.0%). The proportion of ribotype 027 among regional C. difficile-isolates was 10.8% in North Hesse, 17.2% in Middle Hesse, and 33.5% in the Rhine-Main Metropolitan Area. In the latter region, ribotype 027 was the most prevalent ribotype.

  4. Fatal community-acquired ribotype 002 Clostridium difficile bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauby, Nicolas; Libois, Agnès; Van Broeck, Johan; Delmée, Michel; Vandenberg, Olivier; Martiny, Delphine

    2017-04-01

    Extra-colonic infections, and especially bacteremia, are infrequent manifestations of Clostridium difficile infection. C. difficile bacteremia is generally health-care associated and polymicrobial. We report the case of a patient on hunger strike that presented a C. difficile colitis and mono-microbial bacteremia on its admission to the hospital. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of stool and blood isolates indicated clonality. The strain was characterized as a ribotype 002, an emerging ribotype previously associated with high fatality rate. The patient received treatment by intra-venous amoxicillin-clavulanate and oral vancomycin but eventually died on the seventh day of admission with concomitant pneumonia and pulmonary embolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Serotyping, ribotyping, PCR-mediated ribosomal 16S-23S spacer analysis and arbitrarily primed PCR for epidemiological studies on Legionella pneumophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H. Maas (Hugo); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); N. van Leeuwen (N.)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractFifty clinical and environmental isolates of Legionella pneumophila were typed serologically and by DNA fingerprinting using arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR). Furthermore, variability in and around ribosomal operons was assessed by conventional ribotyping and PCR-med

  6. Associations of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 ribotype profiles with clinical disease and antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S. R.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, N. E.

    1999-01-01

    A total of 122 Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains were characterized thoroughly by comparing clinical and pathological observations, ribotype profiles, and antimicrobial resistance. Twenty-one different ribotype profiles were found and compared by cluster analysis, resulting in the identificat......A total of 122 Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains were characterized thoroughly by comparing clinical and pathological observations, ribotype profiles, and antimicrobial resistance. Twenty-one different ribotype profiles were found and compared by cluster analysis, resulting...... of resistance to antibiotics because strains isolated from pigs with meningitis were resistant to sulfamethazoxazole and strains isolated from pigs with pneumonia, endocarditis, pericarditis, or septicemia were resist-ant to tetracycline....

  7. Evaluation and application of ribotyping for epidemiological studies of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fussing, V.; Barfod, Kristen; Nielsen, R.

    1998-01-01

    , and the discriminatory power was between 0.85-0.89. The relatively low discriminatory power was caused by four predominant types, containing 61% of the isolates. The typing system was applied in studies of routes of infection of specific pathogen-free (SPF) pig herds and included 112 strains of A. pleuropneumoniae....... Airborne transmission from neighboring conventional pig farms was investigated in 12 cases of infected SPF herds. Transmission via vehicles transporting pigs between SPF herds was investigated in nine cases while transmission by trading of pigs between SPF herds was investigated in two cases. Serotype 2...... was isolated from all SPF herds included in this study, except one, emphasizing the high prevalence of this serotype in Denmark. By ribotyping, airborne transmission was indicated in five of 12 cases, transmission via pig transporting vehicle was indicated in six of nine cases, and transmission via trading...

  8. Hypervirulent Clostridium difficile PCR-ribotypes exhibit resistance to widely used disinfectants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa F Dawson

    Full Text Available The increased prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI has coincided with enhanced transmissibility and severity of disease, which is often linked to two distinct clonal lineages designated PCR-ribotype 027 and 017 responsible for CDI outbreaks in the USA, Europe and Asia. We assessed sporulation and susceptibility of three PCR-ribotypes; 012, 017 and 027 to four classes of disinfectants; chlorine releasing agents (CRAs, peroxygens, quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC and biguanides. The 017 PCR-ribotype, showed the highest sporulation frequency under these test conditions. The oxidizing biocides and CRAs were the most efficacious in decontamination of C. difficile vegetative cells and spores, the efficacy of the CRAs were concentration dependent irrespective of PCR-ribotype. However, there were differences observed in the susceptibility of the PCR-ribotypes, independent of the concentrations tested for Virkon®, Newgenn®, Proceine 40® and Hibiscrub®. Whereas, for Steri7® and Biocleanse® the difference observed between the disinfectants were dependent on both PCR-ribotype and concentration. The oxidizing agent Perasafe® was consistently efficacious across all three PCR ribotypes at varying concentrations; with a consistent five Log10 reduction in spore titre. The PCR-ribotype and concentration dependent differences in the efficacy of the disinfectants in this study indicate that disinfectant choice is a factor for llimiting the survival and transmission of C. difficile spores in healthcare settings.

  9. Sequence Similarity of Clostridium difficile Strains by Analysis of Conserved Genes and Genome Content Is Reflected by Their Ribotype Affiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurka, Hedwig; Ehrenreich, Armin; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Monot, Marc; Rupnik, Maja; Barbut, Frederic; Indra, Alexander; Dupuy, Bruno; Liebl, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    PCR-ribotyping is a broadly used method for the classification of isolates of Clostridium difficile, an emerging intestinal pathogen, causing infections with increased disease severity and incidence in several European and North American countries. We have now carried out clustering analysis with selected genes of numerous C. difficile strains as well as gene content comparisons of their genomes in order to broaden our view of the relatedness of strains assigned to different ribotypes. We analyzed the genomic content of 48 C. difficile strains representing 21 different ribotypes. The calculation of distance matrix-based dendrograms using the neighbor joining method for 14 conserved genes (standard phylogenetic marker genes) from the genomes of the C. difficile strains demonstrated that the genes from strains with the same ribotype generally clustered together. Further, certain ribotypes always clustered together and formed ribotype groups, i.e. ribotypes 078, 033 and 126, as well as ribotypes 002 and 017, indicating their relatedness. Comparisons of the gene contents of the genomes of ribotypes that clustered according to the conserved gene analysis revealed that the number of common genes of the ribotypes belonging to each of these three ribotype groups were very similar for the 078/033/126 group (at most 69 specific genes between the different strains with the same ribotype) but less similar for the 002/017 group (86 genes difference). It appears that the ribotype is indicative not only of a specific pattern of the amplified 16S–23S rRNA intergenic spacer but also reflects specific differences in the nucleotide sequences of the conserved genes studied here. It can be anticipated that the sequence deviations of more genes of C. difficile strains are correlated with their PCR-ribotype. In conclusion, the results of this study corroborate and extend the concept of clonal C. difficile lineages, which correlate with ribotypes affiliation. PMID:24482682

  10. Infection due to C. difficile ribotype 078: first report of cases in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, K

    2010-08-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important healthcare-associated pathogen. Hypervirulent strains such as those belonging to ribotype 027 have been widely reported in recent years. A second strain associated with hypervirulence is ribotype 078 and the prevalence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) due to this ribotype appears to be increasing. This report describes an outbreak, in which 15cases of CDI due to ribotype 078 were detected in an Irish hospital and from a nursing home in the hospital\\'s catchment area. C. difficile ribotype 078 accounted for 15% of total isolates submitted for ribotyping. The average age of patients with CDI due to ribotype 078 was 76 years. Forty-six percent of patients experienced recurrence of symptoms within eight weeks of diagnosis and CDI was felt to have directly contributed to five of the eight deaths. Use of enhanced DNA fingerprinting identified clusters within the 15 cases and suggested hitherto unrecognised links between some patients with CDI. Such approaches offer the promise to delineate common sources and transmission routes for C. difficile.

  11. Clinical Severity of Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotype 027: A Case-Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Oliver W.; Rodrigues, Boaventura; Elston, Tony; Verlander, Neville Q.; Brown, Derek F. J.; Brazier, Jonathan; Reacher, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile is a leading infectious cause of health care associated diarrhoea. Several industrialised countries have reported increased C. difficile infections and outbreaks, which have been attributed to the emergent PCR ribotype 027 strain. Methods and Findings We conducted a case-case study to compare severity of C. difficile disease for patients with 027 versus non-027 ribotypes. We retrospectively collected clinical information about 123/136 patients with C. difficile infections admitted to hospitals in the East of England region in 2006 and from whom stool isolates were cultured and ribotyped as part of an earlier national survey. We defined severe C. difficile disease as having one or more of shock, paralytic ileus, pseudo membranous colitis or toxic megacolon. Patient median age was 83 years old (range 3 to 98, interquartile range 75 to 89), 86% were prescribed antibiotics in the eight weeks before illness onset, 41% had ribotype 027 and 30-day all cause mortality during hospital admission was 21%. Severe disease occurred in 24% (95%CI 13% to 37%) and 17% (95%CI 9% to 27%) of patients with PCR ribotype 027 and non-027 ribotypes respectively. In a multivariable model, ribotype 027 was not associated with severe disease after adjusting for sex, discharge from hospital prior to 60 days of current admission, gastroenteritis on admission, number of initiator antibiotics for C. difficile disease, and hospital where the patient was admitted. Conclusions Our study found no evidence to support previous assertions that ribotype 027 is more virulent than other PCR ribotypes. This finding raises questions about the contribution of this strain to the recent increase in C. difficile disease throughout North America and Europe. PMID:18350149

  12. Occurrence of Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 in hospitals of Silesia, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptekorz, Małgorzata; Szczegielniak, Anna; Wiechuła, Barbara; Harmanus, Celine; Kuijper, Ed; Martirosian, Gayane

    2017-02-12

    Clostridium difficile is an important healthcare-associated pathogen, responsible for a broad spectrum of diarrheal diseases. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the occurrence of C. difficile infection (CDI), to characterize cultured C. difficile strains and to investigate the association of fecal lactoferrin with CDI. Between January 2013 and June 2014, 148 stool samples were obtained from adult diarrheal patients (C. difficile as a suspected pathogen) hospitalized in different healthcare facilities of 15 Silesian hospitals. Out of 134 isolated C. difficile strains, 108 were ribotyped: 82.4% belonged to Type 027, 2.8% to Type 176, 2.8% to Type 014, 1.9% to Type 010 and 0.9% to Types 001, 018, 020 and 046 each. In total, 6.5% non-typable strains were identified. All Type 027 isolates contained both toxin genes tcdA & tcdB, and binary toxin genes (cdtA &cdtB). Susceptibility testing revealed that all Type 027 isolates were sensitive to metronidazole and vancomycin and resistant to moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem and erythromycin. Of 89 Type 027 strains, 16 had a ermB (688 bp) gene coinciding with high levels of erythromycin resistance (MIC >256 μg/mL). Of 16 ermB positive strains, 14 demonstrated also high level of resistance to clindamycin (>256 μg/mL). A significant difference (p = 0.004) in lactoferrin level was found between C. difficile toxin-positive (n = 123; median 185.9 μg/mL; IQR 238.8) and toxin-negative (n = 25; median 22.4 μg/mL; IQR 141.7) fecal samples. Stool samples from n = 89 patients with CDI caused by Type 027 demonstrated significantly higher (p = 0.03) lactoferrin level (median 173.0 μg/mL; IQR 237.3) than from patients with CDI caused by other ribotypes and non-typable C. difficile strains (median 189.4 μg/mL; IQR 190.8).

  13. Update of Clostridium difficile infection due to PCR ribotype 027 in Europe, 2008.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kuijper, E J

    2008-07-31

    Outbreaks of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) with increased severity, high relapse rate and significant mortality have been related to the emergence of a new, hypervirulent C. difficile strain in North America and Europe. This emerging strain is referred to as PCR ribotype 027 (Type 027). Since 2005, individual countries have developed surveillance studies about the spread of type 027.C. difficile Type 027 has been reported in 16 European countries. It has been responsible for outbreaks in Belgium, Germany, Finland, France, Ireland, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Switzerland and the United Kingdom (England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland). It has also been detected in Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Hungary, Poland and Spain. Three countries experienced imported patients with CDI due to Type 027 who acquired the infection abroad.The antimicrobial resistance pattern is changing, and outbreaks due to clindamycin-resistant ermB positive Type 027 strains have occurred in three European countries. Ongoing epidemiological surveillance of cases of CDI, with periodic characterisation of the strains involved, is required to detect clustering of cases in time and space and to monitor the emergence of new, highly virulent clones.

  14. Comparison of ribotyping and genome fingerprinting of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennekov, T; Colding, H; Ojeniyi, B;

    1996-01-01

    Forty Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, previously characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, were ribotyped with EcoRI, BamHI, ClaI, and PvuII. Ribotyping with PvuII proved to be as discriminatory as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI or DraI while EcoRI and BamHI were not. ClaI co...

  15. Pan-European longitudinal surveillance of antibiotic resistance among prevalent Clostridium difficile ribotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J; Vernon, J; Morris, K; Nicholson, S; Todhunter, S; Longshaw, C; Wilcox, M H

    2015-03-01

    Clostridium difficile infection remains a major healthcare burden. Until the recent introduction of fidaxomicin, antimicrobial treatments were limited to metronidazole and vancomycin. The emergence of epidemic C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 and its potential link to decreased antibiotic susceptibility highlight the lack of large-scale antimicrobial susceptibility and epidemiological data available. We report results of epidemiological and antimicrobial susceptibility investigations of C. difficile isolates collected prior to fidaxomicin introduction, establishing important baseline data. Thirty-nine sites in 22 countries submitted a total of 953 C. difficile isolates for PCR ribotyping, toxin testing, and susceptibility testing to metronidazole, vancomycin, fidaxomicin, rifampicin, moxifloxacin, clindamycin, imipenem, chloramphenicol, and tigecycline. Ninety-nine known ribotypes were identified. Ribotypes 027, 014, 001/072, and 078 were most frequently isolated in line with previous European studies. There was no evidence of resistance to fidaxomicin, and reduced susceptibility to metronidazole and vancomycin was also scarce. Rifampicin, moxifloxacin, and clindamycin resistance (13%, 40%, and 50% of total isolates, respectively) were evident in multiple ribotypes. There was a significant correlation between lack of ribotype diversity and greater antimicrobial resistance (measured by cumulative resistance score). Well-known epidemic ribotypes 027 and 001/072 were associated with multiple antimicrobial resistance, but high levels of resistance were also observed, particularly in 018 and closely related emergent ribotype 356 in Italy. This raises the possibility of antimicrobial exposure as the underlying reason for their appearance, and highlights the need for ongoing epidemiological and antimicrobial resistance surveillance. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh and fermented Italian sausages and ribotyping of contaminating strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, Alessandra; Mioni, Renzo; Manfreda, Gerardo

    2007-11-30

    Listeria monocytogenes has been detected in fresh as well as dry and semidry fermented sausages, rendering preparation and consumption of these products as a potential risk to human health. The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the L. monocytogenes prevalence in 288 fresh and 237 fermented sausages produced in northern Italy; (2) to quantify the average pathogen Most Probable Number (MPN) per g of sausage; (3) to evaluate the sausage strain genetic diversity by automated PvuII ribotyping; and (4) to predict the pathogenicity lineage of these isolates determining their DuPont Identification Library Codes (DUP-IDs) by EcoRI ribotyping. The overall prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the sampled sausages was 28.2%. The percentage of L. monocytogenes positive fresh sausages was significantly higher than that of fermented sausages (i.e. 38.9 vs 15.2%), which had a pathogen load always lower than 10 MPN/g. In contrast, 16.1% of fresh sausages were contaminated by 10 to 100 MPN/g and 20.5% had more than 100 MPN/g. PvuII successfully discriminated sausage isolates with a Simpson's numerical index of discrimination of 0.637. A total of 12 and 9 different PvuII ribogroups were identified among 47 fresh and 24 fermented randomly selected sausage strains, respectively. Six of those ribogroups were shared between strains contaminating both kinds of sausages. According to the evaluation of the strain DUP-IDs, the majority of the isolates investigated in this study were part of the type II L. monocytogenes pathogenicity lineage, but type I lineage strains were identified among fermented sausage isolates. In conclusion, L. monocytogenes prevalence in Italian sausages was estimated to be around 28.2%. However, 84.2% of the samples were contaminated by less than 100 MPN of L. monocytogenes per g and the majority of L. monocytogenes contaminating strains would be classified in the type II pathogenicity lineage, including serotypes 1/2a, 1/2c and 3a.

  17. Pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae Causing Bacterial Brown Spot and Halo Blight in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Are Distinguishable by Ribotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ana J.; Landeras, Elena; Mendoza, M. Carmen

    2000-01-01

    Ribotyping was evaluated as a method to differentiate between Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola and pv. syringae strains causing bacterial brown spot and halo blight diseases in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Ribotyping, with restriction enzymes BglI and SalI and using the Escherichia coli rrnB operon as the probe, differentiated 11 and 14 ribotypes, respectively, and a combination of data from both procedures yielded 19 combined ribotypes. Cluster analysis of the combined ribotypes differentiated the pathovars phaseolicola and syringae, as well as different clonal lineages within these pathovars. The potential of ribotyping to screen for correlations between lineages and factors such as geographical region and/or bean varieties is also reported. PMID:10653764

  18. An exploratory study to evaluate Clostridium difficile polymerase chain reaction ribotypes and infection outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabit AK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abrar K Thabit,1,2 David P Nicolau1,3 1Center for Anti-Infective Research and Development, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CT, USA; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CT, USA Background: Clostridium difficile infection ranges from mild to severe prolonged diarrhea with systemic symptoms. Previous studies have assessed the correlation of some disease severity parameters to C. difficile ribotypes. However, certain clinical parameters of interest have not yet been evaluated.Aim: We conducted an exploratory study to evaluate the correlation of C. difficile ribotypes to parameters not assessed previously, notably days to diarrhea resolution (in terms of days to formed stools and days to less than three stools per day, length of hospital stay, 30-day recurrence rates, and 30-day readmission rates. Additional severity parameters evaluated include leukocytosis, serum creatinine, fever, and nausea/vomiting.Methods: Polymerase chain reaction ribotyping was performed on C. difficile isolates from baseline stool samples of 29 patients. A retrospective chart review was conducted to assess the parameters of interest.Results: The most common ribotypes were 027 (38%, 014/020 (21%, and 106/174 (21%. Numerically, 027 ribotype patients required more days to less than three stools per day versus 014/020 and 106/174 ribotype patients (P=0.2. The three ribotypes were similar regarding time to formed stools, duration of hospitalization, and 30-day readmission rate (P=0.2, 0.6, and 0.8, respectively. Recurrence within 30 days occurred in two patients with 027 and two patients with 014/020 (P=0.6. Leukocytosis and fever were more prominent with 027 than with 014/020 and 106/174 (P=0.04 for both parameters, although the degree of nausea/vomiting did not differ between the three groups (P=0.3. A serum creatinine level ≥1.5 times the premorbid level was seen in only three

  19. Increased incidence of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027 in Hesse, Germany, 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvand, M; Vollandt, D; Bettge-Weller, G; Harmanus, C; Kuijper, E J

    2014-03-13

    After the first outbreak of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype (RT) 027 in Germany in 2007, no further outbreaks were reported until the recent re-emergence of RT 027 in Hesse, a federal state with 6 million inhabitants located in south-west Germany. We undertook a survey to determine the prevalence of RT 027 and other strains in a prospective study. From January 2011 to July 2013, we analysed 291 specimens from patients diagnosed with C. difficile infection (CDI) in 40 healthcare facilities in Hesse. The mean incidence of CDI in hospitals including at least 10 patients in the survey was 9.9 per 10,000 patient days (range 4.8-22.8) in November 2012. We obtained 214 toxigenic C. difficile isolates. RT 001 was the most prevalent (31.8%). RT 027, the second most common type (26.6%), was prevalent in all hospitals (n=14) from which at least seven isolates were available for typing, but its frequency varied considerably (range: 9.1–70%). The annual frequency of RT 027 increased from 21.4% in 2011 to 30.0% in 2013 (p=0.04). Our study indicates that infections with C. difficile RT 027 are now prevalent in Hesse. It underscores the need for surveillance programmes to analyse the molecular epidemiology of C. difficile.

  20. Efficacy of three surface disinfectants against spores of Clostridium difficile ribotype 027.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horejsh, Douglas; Kampf, Günter

    2011-03-01

    The emergence of Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 raised the question of sporicidal surface disinfectants are also effective against spores of C. difficile ribotype 027. Three surface disinfectants based on magnesium monoperoxyphthalate hexahydrate (Dismozon pur), a combination of (ethylenedioxy)dimethanol, glutaral and benzyl-C12-18-alkyldimethylammonium chlorides (Kohrsolin extra) and a combination of glutaral, benzyl-C12-18-alkyldimethylammonium chlorides and didecyl-dimethylammonium chloride (Kohrsolin FF) were tested in a suspension test in various concentrations and contact times against spores of three C. difficile strains including ribotype 027. All three surface disinfectant reduced the number of spores by ≥4 log(10) steps, e.g. Dismozon pur at 1.5% and 2 h exposure time, Kohrsolin extra at 2% and 4 h exposure time, and Kohrsolin FF at 2% and 6 h exposure time. Spores of ribotype 027 did not show a lower susceptibility to Dismozon pur compared to the other two C. difficile strains. All three tested surface disinfectants should be effective for surface disinfection in outbreaks caused by C. difficile ribotype 027. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Clostridium difficile ribotypes in Austria: a multicenter, hospital-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indra, Alexander; Schmid, Daniela; Huhulescu, Steliana; Simons, Erica; Hell, Markus; Stickler, Karl; Allerberger, Franz

    2015-08-01

    A prospective, noninterventional survey was conducted among Clostridium difficile positive patients identified in the time period of July until October 2012 in 18 hospitals distributed across all nine Austrian provinces. Participating hospitals were asked to send stool samples or isolates from ten successive patients with C.difficile infection to the National Clostridium difficile Reference Laboratory at the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety for PCR-ribotyping and in vitro susceptibility testing. A total of 171 eligible patients were identified, including 73 patients with toxin-positive stool specimens and 98 patients from which C. difficile isolates were provided. Of the 159 patients with known age, 127 (74.3%) were 65 years or older, the median age was 76 years (range: 9-97 years), and the male to female ratio 2.2. Among these patients, 73% had health care-associated and 20% community-acquired C. difficile infection (indeterminable 7%). The all-cause, 30-day mortality was 8.8% (15/171). Stool samples yielded 46 different PCR-ribotypes, of which ribotypes 027 (20%), 014 (15.8%), 053 (10.5%), 078 (5.3%), and 002 (4.7%) were the five most prevalent. Ribotype 027 was found only in the provinces Vienna, Burgenland, and Lower Austria. Severe outcome of C. difficile infection was found to be associated with ribotype 053 (prevalence ratio: 3.04; 95% CI: 1.24, 7.44), not with the so-called hypervirulent ribotypes 027 and 078. All 027 and 053 isolates exhibited in vitro resistance against moxifloxacin. Fluoroquinolone use in the health care setting must be considered as a factor favoring the spread of these fluoroquinolone resistant C. difficile clones.

  2. Ribotyping for differentiating Flavobacterium meningosepticum isolates from clinical and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Bangsborg, J; Fiehn, N E;

    1994-01-01

    ). To examine the taxonomic relevance of the ribosomal patterns of the 52 F. meningosepticum strains, the patterns were compared with existing DNA-DNA hybridization data with restriction enzymes PstI and HindIII. Ribotyping of the 52 F. meningosepticum strains showed banding patterns that could identify them...... correctly to one of the five genomic groups or subgroups. To assess the value of ribotyping for the interpretation of epidemiological data, the discriminatory power of the method was investigated for the 52 F. meningosepticum strains. With one to four restriction enzymes (PstI, HindIII, ClaI, Eco...

  3. An investigation of the subtype diversity of clinical isolates of Irish Clostridium difficile ribotypes 027 and 078 by repetitive-extragenic palindromic PCR.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Solomon, K

    2011-08-01

    A repetitive-extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) subtyping method (DiversiLab) in conjunction with ribotyping, toxinotyping and antimicrobial-susceptibility testing was used to detect subtypes within Clostridium difficile ribotypes 027 and 078. Clinical isolates of ribotypes 027 (toxinotype III) (n = 30) and 078 (toxinotype V) (n = 23) were provided by health-care facilities across the Republic of Ireland over 2 months in 2006 and 1 month in 2009. Ribotype 027 isolates were significantly more related to each other (9 different subtype profiles) when compared to ribotype 078 isolates (14 different profiles) (P = 0.001; cut-off >90 % similarity). Almost half of ribotype 078 isolates (45.5 %) showed no relationship to each other. The clonality of ribotype 027 isolates suggests effective adaptation to the human niche, whereas the considerable genetic diversity within ribotype 078 isolates suggests that they may have originated from a variety of sources. Subtyping correlated well with antimicrobial susceptibility, in particular clindamycin susceptibility for ribotype 027, but diverse antimicrobial-susceptibility profiles were seen in ribotype 078 isolates, even within a single health-care facility. Between 2006 and 2009, a change in the predominant subtype of ribotype 027 was seen, with the recent clone representing half of all ribotype 027 isolates studied. This strain exhibited 89 % similarity to a rep-PCR profile of the North American NAP-1 strain.

  4. Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotypes from Different Animal Hosts and Different Geographic Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zidaric, V.; Janezic, S.; Indra, A.

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic sporogenic bacterium traditionally associated with human nosocomial infections, and animals have been recognized as an important potential reservoir for human infections (Rodriguez-Palacios et al., 2013). Ribotype 078 is often reported in animals but accordin...

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of the Hypervirulent Bacterium Clostridium difficile Strain G46, Ribotype 027

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulton, Tom; Rose, Graham; Baybayan, Primo; Hall, Richard; Freeman, Jane; Turton, Jane; Picton, Steve; Korlach, Jonas; Gharbia, Saheer; Shah, Haroun

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is one of the leading causes of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in health care facilities worldwide. Here, we report the genome sequence of C. difficile strain G46, ribotype 027, isolated from an outbreak in Glamorgan, Wales, in 2006. PMID:25814591

  6. Characterization of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida isolates by ribotyping and plasmid profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Dalsgaard, Inger; Larsen, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 38 strains of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, three oxidase-negative but otherwise typical Aer. salmonicida, three typical Aer. salmonicida, and two reference strains, isolated from several countries and fish species were examined with respect to rRNA gene restriction patterns (ribotypes...

  7. Vibrio cholerae O1 Strains of Different Ribotypes have Similar hlyA RFLP Patterns but Different Vacuolating Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Vidal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive cytoplasmic vacuolation on Vero and HeLa cells in vitro by the Vibrio cholerae pore forming toxin HlyA, has been previously reported by our group. Vibrio cholerae O1 and non-O1 pathogenic strains show differences in the potential to induce vacuolation, here we study occurring variations on vacuolating cytotoxic ability, related to changes in the nucleotide sequence of the hlyA-orf. A collection of eight toxigenic strains of V. cholerae O1 El Tor and a non-toxigenic one, all belonging to different ribotypes was tested for their vacuolating ability, and hlyA-orf similarity based on PCR and RFLPs. The strains had extremely different vacuolating capacities, those from the ribotype 2 isolated from the US Gulf Coast, showed the highest vacuolating titer (10240 dil, and the rest of the collection had considerably lower titers ranging among 40 to 360 dilutions. PCR of hlyA-orf, was performed and RFLPs were generated using seven restriction enzymes, this approach later revealed small changes of restriction maps, among the strains. The phenogram constructed from the RFLPs, showed two major branches, one of them included most of the strains, the other separates the only Mexican wild type non-O1 Vibrio cholerae. To test for vacuolating ability out of the Vibrio genetic context, the amplified hlyA-orfs from the collection of strains were cloned in pGEMT- vector system and supernatants from the recombinant E coli DH5-, showed no differences on vacuolating titers, the clones always were low producers. Results from the cloning, together with those from the phenogram indicated that the hlyA gene is mainly conserved and the differences on vacuolating activity are unrelated to minute changes seen in the hlyA-orf. Production of high vacuolating titers on Vibrio strains could be due to transcriptional regulation. Whether the high vacuolating titer would be related to increased virulence, is still to be found.

  8. Comparison of four molecular typing methods for characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and determination of transcontinental spread of C. diphtheriae based on BstEII rRNA gene profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zoysa, Aruni; Hawkey, Peter; Charlett, Andre; Efstratiou, Androulla

    2008-11-01

    The diphtheria epidemic in the Russian Federation in the 1990s made diphtheria a focus of global concern once again. The development of rapid and reproducible typing methods for the molecular characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae has become a priority in order to be able to monitor the spread of this important pathogen on a global scale. We report on a comparison of four molecular typing methods (ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE], random amplification of polymorphic DNA [RAPD], and amplified fragment length polymorphism [AFLP]) for the characterization of C. diphtheriae strains. Initially, 755 isolates originating from 26 countries were analyzed by ribotyping. One strain of each ribotype was then randomly chosen and characterized by PFGE, RAPD, and AFLP. In order to ascertain whether the Eastern European epidemic ribotype could be further discriminated, 10 strains of ribotype D1 (the epidemic ribotype) from different geographical regions were randomly chosen and subjected to analysis by PFGE, RAPD, and AFLP. The results revealed that ribotyping is highly discriminatory and reproducible and is currently the method of choice for typing C. diphtheriae. PFGE and AFLP were less discriminatory than ribotyping and RAPD. An assessment of the transcontinental spread of the organism showed that several genotypes of C. diphtheriae circulated on different continents of the world and that each outbreak was caused by a distinct clone. The ribotypes seen in Europe appeared to be distinct from those seen elsewhere, and certain ribotypes appeared to be unique to particular countries.

  9. Surveillance snapshot of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitals across Queensland detects binary toxin producing ribotype UK 244.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Charlotte A; Hall, Lisa; Foster, Nikki F; Gray, Mareeka; Allen, Michelle; Richardson, Leisha J; Robson, Jennifer; Vohra, Renu; Schlebusch, Sanmarie; George, Narelle; Nimmo, Graeme R; Riley, Thomas V; Paterson, David L

    2014-12-31

    In North America and Europe, the binary toxin positive Clostridium difficile strains of the ribotypes 027 and 078 have been associated with death, toxic megacolon and other adverse outcomes. Following an increase in C. difficile infections (CDIs) in Queensland, a prevalence study involving 175 hospitals was undertaken in early 2012, identifying 168 cases of CDI over a 2 month period. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were recorded, and C. difficile isolates were ribotyped and tested for the presence of binary toxin genes. Most patients (106/168, 63.1%) were aged over 60 years. Overall, 98 (58.3%) developed symptoms after hospitalisation; 89 cases (53.0%) developed symptoms more than 48 hours after admission. Furthermore, 27 of the 62 (67.7%) patients who developed symptoms in the community ad been hospitalised within the last 3 months. Thirteen of the 168 (7.7%) cases identified had severe disease, resulting in admission to the Intensive Care Unit or death within 30 days of the onset of symptoms. The 3 most common ribotypes isolated were UK 002 (22.9%), UK 014 (13.3%) and the binary toxin-positive ribotype UK 244 (8.4%). The only other binary toxin positive ribotype isolated was UK 078 (n = 1). Of concern was the detection of the binary toxin positive ribotype UK 244, which has recently been described in other parts of Australia and New Zealand. No isolates were of the international epidemic clone of ribotype UK 027, although ribotype UK 244 is genetically related to this clone. Further studies are required to track the epidemiology of ribotype UK 244 in Australia and New Zealand.

  10. Phenotypic characterization and PCR-Ribotypic profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from cystic fibrosis patients in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Fazeli

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The isolates of P. aeruginosa showed meaningful difference between drug resistance to antibiotics. The majority of P. aeruginosa isolated from CF patients showed pattern1 of PCR-Ribotyping.

  11. Potentially hypervirulent Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078 lineage isolates in pigs and possible implications for humans in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Chen; Lee, Jen-Jie; Tsai, Bo-Yang; Liu, Yi-Fen; Chen, Chih-Ming; Tien, Ni; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Chen, Ter-Hsin

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is a human and animal pathogen. Recently, the incidence of community-acquired C. difficile infection has increased, and many studies have indicated that C. difficile might be food-borne. The correlation between C. difficile infection in humans and in animals has been a topic of debate. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relatedness of C. difficile from human and pigs in Taiwan. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of C. difficile in healthy humans and pigs from 2011 to 2015. The isolation rate of C. difficile from pigs in 13 commercial farms was 49% (100/204), and a high proportion of hypervirulent (C. difficile carrying tcdA, tcdB, and cdtA/B genes and a 39-bp deletion in the tcdC gene) ribotype 078 lineage isolates (90%, 90/100; including 078, 126, 127, and 066-like isolates) were identified. In addition, the C. difficile ribotype 127 isolates from pigs typically exhibited moxifloxacin resistance (37/43; 86%). In healthy humans, the isolation rate was 4.3% (3/69), and all healthy human isolates were non-toxigenic. In particular, we compared the porcine isolates with two patient strains (ribotype 127) obtained from two hospitals in central Taiwan. The multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis revealed a high genetic relatedness between ribotype 127 from patients and pigs. This study indicated that isolates of the ribotype 078 lineage, and especially ribotype 127, were widely distributed in pig farms and showed a high frequency of moxifloxacin resistance. The closely related ribotype 127 from patients and pigs may have had a common origin or low diversity. In conclusion, C. difficile ribotype 127 is a noteworthy pathogen in pigs and poses a potential public health threat.

  12. Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes 001 and 176 - the common denominator of C. difficile infection epidemiology in the Czech Republic, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutova, Marcela; Matejkova, Jana; Kuijper, Ed J; Drevinek, Pavel; Nyc, Otakar

    2016-07-21

    In 2014, 18 hospitals in the Czech Republic participated in a survey of the incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in the country. The mean CDI incidence was 6.1 (standard deviation (SD):7.2) cases per 10,000 patient bed-days and 37.8 cases (SD: 41.4) per 10,000 admissions. The mean CDI testing frequency was 39.5 tests (SD: 25.4) per 10,000 patient bed-days and 255.8 tests (SD: 164.0) per 10,000 admissions. A total of 774 C. difficile isolates were investigated, of which 225 (29%) belonged to PCR ribotype 176, and 184 isolates (24%) belonged to PCR ribotype 001. Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) revealed 27 clonal complexes formed by 84% (190/225) of PCR ribotype 176 isolates, and 14 clonal complexes formed by 77% (141/184) of PCR ribotype 001 isolates. Clonal clusters of PCR ribotypes 176 and 001 were observed in 11 and 7 hospitals, respectively. Our data demonstrate the spread of two C. difficile PCR ribotypes within 18 hospitals in the Czech Republic, stressing the importance of standardising CDI testing protocols and implementing mandatory CDI surveillance in the country.

  13. Tracing the Spread of Clostridium difficile Ribotype 027 in Germany Based on Bacterial Genome Sequences.

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    Matthias Steglich

    Full Text Available We applied whole-genome sequencing to reconstruct the spatial and temporal dynamics underpinning the expansion of Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 in Germany. Based on re-sequencing of genomes from 57 clinical C. difficile isolates, which had been collected from hospitalized patients at 36 locations throughout Germany between 1990 and 2012, we demonstrate that C. difficile genomes have accumulated sequence variation sufficiently fast to document the pathogen's spread at a regional scale. We detected both previously described lineages of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. difficile ribotype 027, FQR1 and FQR2. Using Bayesian phylogeographic analyses, we show that fluoroquinolone-resistant C. difficile 027 was imported into Germany at least four times, that it had been widely disseminated across multiple federal states even before the first outbreak was noted in 2007, and that it has continued to spread since.

  14. High-resolution genotyping of Listeria monocytogenes by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis compared to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, ribotyping, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Fussing, V.; Ojeniyi, B.

    2004-01-01

    of different origin. The AFLP technique was compared with three other molecular typing methods - ribotyping, random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) - in terms of discriminatory ability. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism was included......The purpose of this study was to evaluate fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis for the inter- and intraspecies differentiation of a collection of 96 strains of Listeria monocytogenes and 10 non- L. monocytogenes strains representing six other Listeria species...... for virulence gene allele characterization. The 96 L. monocytogenes strains were divided into two major clusters by AFLP fingerprinting at a similarity level of 82% in concordance with the results of PFGE, RAPD, and ribotyping. One main cluster consisted of all of the 24 L. monocytogenes hly allele 1 strains...

  15. DETECTION, RIBOTYPING AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PROPERTIES OF CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE STRAINS ISOLATED FROM THE CASES OF DIARRHEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzegaran, Samaneh; Ganjifard, Mahmood; Tanha, Amir Saber

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clostridium difficile is the most prevalent cause of antibiotic-associated infectious diarrhea al-around the world. Prevalence of virulent and resistant strains of Clostridium difficile is increasing now a day. The present investigation was carried out to study the prevalence, ribotyping and antibiotic resistance pattern of C. difficile isolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic pediatrics. Materials and methods: Four-hundred stool specimens were collected from the diarrheic and non-diarrheic pediatrics hospitalized due to the diseases other than diarrhea. Samples were cultured and their positive results were subjected to disk diffusion and PCR-based ribotyping. Results: Thirty-five out of 400 (8.75%) samples were positive for C. difficile. Prevalence of C. difficile in diarrheic and non-diarrheic pediatrics were 11.25% and 4.16%, respectively. Male had the higher prevalence of bacteria than female (P < 0.05). eight to twelve months old pediatrics were the most commonly infected group. R27 (14.28%), R1 (10.71%), R12 (7.14%), R13 (7.14%) and R18 (7.14%) were most commonly detected ribotypes. There were no positive results for studied ribotypes in non-diarrheic pediatrics. C. difficile strains had the highest levels of resistance against tetracycline (71.42%), erythromycin (57.14%), moxifloxacin (48.57%), metronidazole (28.57%) and clindamycin (22.85%) antibiotics. Conclusion: Prescription of antibiotics in diarrheic pediatrics, males and also 8-12 months old pediatrics should be done in a regular and cautious manner. PMID:27999477

  16. Predominance of Clostridium difficile ribotypes 012, 027 and 046 in a university hospital in Chile, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Garrido, Á; Barra-Carrasco, J; Macias, J H; Carman, R; Fawley, W N; Wilcox, M H; Hernández-Rocha, C; Guzmán-Durán, A M; Alvarez-Lobos, M; Paredes-Sabja, D

    2016-04-01

    In a 1-year survey at a university hospital we found that 20·6% (81/392) of patients with antibiotic associated diarrohea where positive for C. difficile. The most common PCR ribotypes were 012 (14·8%), 027 (12·3%), 046 (12·3%) and 014/020 (9·9). The incidence rate was 2·6 cases of C. difficile infection for every 1000 outpatients.

  17. Genomic relationships of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 strains evaluated by ribotyping, sequence analysis of ribosomal intergenic regions, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fussing, V.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the genomic relationship among 112 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 strains obtained throughout Europe and North America. HindIII ribotyping of the strains resulted in five ribotypes of high similarity (87-98%). Sequence analysis of the riboso...

  18. A study of phage- and ribotype patterns of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Jensen, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the geographical distribution of phage and ribotypes of Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis in the 5 Nordic countries. A total of 403 isolates of S. aureus was isolated from 403 different dairy herds. One hundred five strains were isolated in Denm...

  19. A study of phage- and ribotype patterns of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Jensen, N.E.;

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the geographical distribution of phage and ribotypes of Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis in the 5 Nordic countries. A total of 403 isolates of S. aureus was isolated from 403 different dairy herds. One hundred five strains were isolated in Denm...

  20. Role of binary toxin in the outcome of Clostridium difficile infection in a non-027 ribotype setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigadas, E; Alcalá, L; Marín, M; Martín, A; Iglesias, C; Bouza, E

    2016-01-01

    Binary toxin (BT) has been associated with strains causing more severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), such as ribotype 027. Data on the outcome of patients having BT present in ribotypes other than 027 are scarce. Our objective was to investigate the association between BT isolates and outcome of CDI in a non-027 ribotype setting. We prospectively included CDI episodes (January-June 2013 and March-June 2014) from symptomatic patients aged >2 years. Epidemiological and clinical data were recorded. BT genes were detected using multiplex PCR. During the study period, we identified 326 episodes of CDI, of which 319 were available for molecular analysis. Of these, 54 (16·9%) were caused by C. difficile strains with BT. Most (90·7%) isolates with BT were ribotype 078/126. CDI patients with BT-positive strains did not differ from those with BT-negative strains in terms of recurrence (13·0% vs. 15·5%, P = 0·835), treatment failure (0·0% vs. 2·3%, P = 0·594), overall mortality (11·1% vs. 9·1%, P = 0·612), or CDI-related mortality (0·0% vs. 1·9%, P = 0·612). Multivariate regression revealed no association between BT and poor outcome. In conclusion, in a non-027 setting, we found that most BT isolates were 078/126 and were not associated with poor outcome.

  1. Analysis of a Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078 100 kilobase island reveals the presence of a novel transposon, Tn6164

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corver Jeroen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium difficile is the main cause of antibiotic associated diarrhea. In the past decade, the number of C. difficile patients has increased dramatically, coinciding with the emergence of two PCR ribotypes 027 and 078. PCR ribotype 078 is also frequently found during C. difficile outbreaks in pigfarms. Previously, the genome of the PCR ribotype 078 strain M120, a human isolate, was described to contain a unique insert of 100 kilobases. Results Analysis of this insert revealed over 90 open reading frames, encoding proteins originating from transposons, phages and plasmids. The insert was shown to be a transposon (Tn6164, as evidenced by the presence of an excised and circularised molecule, containing the ligated 5’and 3’ends of the insert. Transfer of the element could not be shown through filter-mating experiments. Whole genome sequencing of PCR ribotype 078 strain 31618, isolated from a diarrheic piglet, showed that Tn6164 was not present in this strain. To test the prevalence of Tn6164, a collection of 231 Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078 isolates from human (n = 173 and porcine (n = 58 origin was tested for the presence of this element by PCR. The transposon was present in 9 human, tetracycline resistant isolates, originating from various countries in Europe, and none of the pig strains. Nine other strains, also tetracycline resistant human isolates, contained half of the transposon, suggesting multiple insertion steps yielding the full Tn6164. Other PCR ribotypes (n = 66 were all negative for the presence of the transposon. Multi locus variable tandem repeat analysis revealed genetic relatedness among transposon containing isolates. Although the element contained several potential antibiotic resistance genes, it did not yield a readily distinguishable phenotype. Conclusions Tn6164 is a newly described transposon, occurring sporadically in C. difficile PCR ribotype 078 strains. Although no transfer of the

  2. Evaluation of phenotypic and genotypic methods for epidemiological typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, H. C.; Rosdahl, V. T.

    1995-01-01

    The value of five different typing methods (antibiogram typing, biotyping, phage typing, plasmid profiling and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the gene encoding 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA (ribotyping)), in discriminating 105 Staphylococcus aureus strains from bovine milk samples obtained....... The combination of phage, bio- or ribotyping or all three methods in combination are considered to be an efficient combination of typing methods for epidemiological investigation of S. aureus mastitis....

  3. Comparison of Clostridium difficile Ribotypes Circulating in Australian Hospitals and Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; Riley, Thomas V; Paterson, David L; Foster, Niki F; Huber, Charlotte A; Hong, Stacey; Harris-Brown, Tiffany; Robson, Jenny; Clements, Archie C A

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is becoming less exclusively a health care-associated CDI (HA-CDI). The incidence of community-associated CDI (CA-CDI) has increased over the past few decades. It has been postulated that asymptomatic toxigenic C. difficile (TCD)-colonized patients may play a role in the transfer of C. difficile between the hospital setting and the community. Thus, to investigate the relatedness of C. difficile across the hospital and community settings, we compared the characteristics of symptomatic and asymptomatic host patients and the pathogens from these patients in these two settings over a 3-year period. Two studies were simultaneously conducted; the first study enrolled symptomatic CDI patients from two tertiary care hospitals and the community in two Australian states, while the second study enrolled asymptomatic TCD-colonized patients from the same tertiary care hospitals. A total of 324 patients (96 with HA-CDI, 152 with CA-CDI, and 76 colonized with TCD) were enrolled. The predominant C. difficile ribotypes isolated in the hospital setting corresponded with those isolated in the community, as it was found that for 79% of the C. difficile isolates from hospitals, an isolate with a matching ribotype was isolated in the community, suggesting that transmission between these two settings is occurring. The toxigenic C. difficile strains causing symptomatic infection were similar to those causing asymptomatic infection, and patients exposed to antimicrobials prior to admission were more likely to develop a symptomatic infection (odds ratio, 2.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.20 to 7.14). Our findings suggest that the development of CDI symptoms in a setting without establishment of hospital epidemics with binary toxin-producing C. difficile strains may be driven mainly by host susceptibility and exposure to antimicrobials, rather than by C. difficile strain characteristics. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Toxin detection and ribotyping of nosocomial Clostridium difficile strains%院内感染艰难梭菌的毒素检测及核糖体分型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章黎华; 董丹凤; 江岑; 彭奕冰

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解艰难梭菌临床分离株的毒力情况,并运用核糖体分型技术进行流行病学研究.方法 采集住院腹泻患者的未成形粪便标本,无水乙醇处理后接种CDMN选择培养基行艰难梭菌分离培养,并通过革兰染色、耐氧试验和凝集试验行菌落鉴定;提取菌株DNA,选择特异性引物用PCR法扩增毒素基因tcdA和tcdB;核糖体分型针对细菌基因组16S~23S rDNA间区序列进行扩增,并根据电泳带型的多态性实现分型.结果 共计分离得44株艰难梭菌,3种毒素型分别为A+B+型、A-B+型和A-B-型,分别占 57% 、34%和9%;18种核糖体型中以R8 型和R4 型为主,分别占 20%和18%.结论 本研究临床分离的艰难梭菌菌株中,毒素型以A+B+型为主,核糖体分型存在相对优势的型别;无证据提示存在院内艰难梭菌感染的暴发流行.%Objective To investigate the virulence of Clostridium difficile clinical isolates, and conduct an epidemiologic study by PCR-ribotyping for the strains. Methods The unfonned stool samples from hospitalized patients with diarrhea were collected, and were inoculated onto CDMN selective culture media after pretreatment with dehydrated alcohol tor the culture of Clostridium difficile. Isolates were identified by Cram staining, oxygen tolerance test and agglutination assay. Bacterial genome DNA was extracted from the Clostridium difficile strains, and toxin gene tcdA and tcdB were amplified by PCR with specific primers. Meanwhile, PCR-ribotyping was performed through amplification of the genomic 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region sequence, followed by electrophoresis to distinguish different ribotypes according to the polymorphism of the bands. Results Forty-four Clostridium difficile strains were divided into 3 toxin types: A + B + strains, A - B + strains and A - B - strains, which accounted for 57% , 34% and 9% , respectively. All the strains belonged to 18 ribotypes. mainly rihotype R8 (20

  5. PCR ribotype prevalence and molecular basis of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) and fluoroquinolone resistance in Irish clinical Clostridium difficile isolates.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Solomon, Katie

    2011-09-01

    Antimicrobial use is recognized as a risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and outbreaks. We studied the relationship between PCR ribotype, antimicrobial susceptibility and the genetic basis of resistance in response to exposure to antimicrobial agents.

  6. Fulminant pseudomembranous colitis caused by Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027 in a healthy young woman in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Satoshi; Kou, Tadayuki; Kato, Haru; Watanabe, Masaki; Uno, Shoichi; Senoh, Mitsutoshi; Fukuda, Tadashi; Hata, Atsuko; Yazumi, Shujiro

    2014-11-01

    In the past two decades, Clostridium difficile polymerase chain reaction ribotype 027 strain has rapidly emerged as the leading cause of antibiotic-associated colitis in North America and Europe; however, it has been reported only occasionally in Japan. We report a case of fulminant pseudomembranous colitis caused by this strain in a healthy young woman in Japan without any previous medical history. The strain isolated from our patient was susceptible to both gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin, thus representing a historic strain. The acquisition of fluoroquinolone resistance was reported as the important key genetic event linked to the virulence of this strain. It is noteworthy that the fluoroquinolone-susceptible 027 strain caused fulminant colitis in a healthy young woman in a non-endemic area. Our experience suggests that C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 has the potential virulence factors that are not associated with a fluoroquinolone resistance-conferring mutation.

  7. Subtyping and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078/126 isolates of human and animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; Blanco, José L; Harmanus, Celine; Kuijper, Ed; García, Marta E

    2017-02-01

    The Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype complex 078/126 (RT078/126) is often involved in human disease and is also frequently isolated from diverse animal species. The high genetic relatedness between human and animal RT078/126 isolates found in different regions has encouraged discussion about the zoonotic potential of this lineage. We compared for the first time the genetic diversity and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of human and animal C. difficile RT078/126 isolates from Spain. A collection of 96 isolates (50 of human and 46 of animal origin; 63 and 33 of ribotypes 078 and 126, respectively) was subtyped by an improved amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting method and tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 67 genotypes were distinguished, three of which grouped together isolates of human and animal origin. Furthermore, two main groups of isolates that mostly correlated with PCR ribotypes could be distinguished in the AFLP dendrogram. Human origin was significantly associated with resistance to ertapenem, erythromycin and moxifloxacin; resistance to clindamycin and erythromycin was associated with RT126 and AFLP group 1. Twenty-nine isolates (30.2% of total) displayed heteroresistance to metronidazole. Substantial differences were observed in the susceptibility profiles of isolates belonging to a same genotype. Altogether, these results provide a valuable baseline for future studies on the epidemiology of C. difficile RT078/126. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. International typing study of Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Carl E; Merrigan, Michelle M; Johnson, Stuart; Gerding, Dale N; Riley, Thomas V; Silva, Joseph; Brazier, Jon S

    2014-08-01

    We report the results of an international Clostridium difficile typing study to cross reference strain designations for seven typing methodologies and facilitate inter-laboratory communication. Four genotypic and three phenotypic methods were used to type 100 isolates and compare the results to 39 PCR ribotypes identified among the collection.

  9. Diphtheria in the Republic of Georgia: Use of Molecular Typing Techniques for Characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakvelidze, Alexander; Kekelidze, Merab; Gomelauri, Tsaro; Deng, Yingkang; Khetsuriani, Nino; Kobaidze, Ketino; De Zoysa, Aruni; Efstratiou, Androulla; Morris, J. Glenn; Imnadze, Paata

    1999-01-01

    Sixty-six Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains (62 of the gravis biotype and 4 of the mitis biotype) isolated during the Georgian diphtheria epidemic of 1993 to 1998 and 13 non-Georgian C. diphtheriae strains (10 Russian and 3 reference isolates) were characterized by (i) biotyping, (ii) toxigenicity testing with the Elek assay and PCR, (iii) the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, and (iv) pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fifteen selected strains were ribotyped. Six RAPD types and 15 PFGE patterns were identified among all strains examined, and 12 ribotypes were found among the 15 strains that were ribotyped. The Georgian epidemic apparently was caused by one major clonal group of C. diphtheriae (PFGE type A, ribotype R1), which was identical to the predominant epidemic strain(s) isolated during the concurrent diphtheria epidemic in Russia. A dendrogram based on the PFGE patterns revealed profound differences between the minor (nonpredominant) epidemic strains found in Georgia and Russia. The methodologies for RAPD typing, ribotyping, and PFGE typing of C. diphtheriae strains were improved to enable rapid and convenient molecular typing of the strains. The RAPD technique was adequate for biotype differentiation; however, PFGE and ribotyping were better (and equal to each other) at discriminating between epidemiologically related and unrelated isolates. PMID:10488190

  10. Hospital-based Clostridium difficile infection surveillance reveals high proportions of PCR ribotypes 027 and 176 in different areas of Poland, 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pituch, Hanna; Obuch-Woszczatyński, Piotr; Lachowicz, Dominika; Wultańska, Dorota; Karpiński, Paweł; Młynarczyk, Grażyna; van Dorp, Sofie M; Kuijper, Ed J

    2015-01-01

    As part of the European Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net), which aims to build capacity for CDI surveillance in Europe, we constructed a new network of hospital-based laboratories in Poland. We performed a survey in 13 randomly selected hospital-laboratories in different sites of the country to determine their annual CDI incidence rates from 2011 to 2013. Information on C. difficile laboratory diagnostic testing and indications for testing was also collected. Moreover, for 2012 and 2013 respectively, participating hospital-laboratories sent all consecutive isolates from CDI patients between February and March to the Anaerobe Laboratory in Warsaw for further molecular characterisation, including the detection of toxin-encoding genes and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-ribotyping. Within the network, the mean annual hospital CDI incidence rates were 6.1, 8.6 and 9.6 CDI per 10,000 patient-days in 2011, 2012, and 2013 respectively. Six of the 13 laboratories tested specimens only on the request of a physician, five tested samples of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea or samples from patients who developed diarrhoea more than two days after admission (nosocomial diarrhoea), while two tested all submitted diarrhoeal faecal samples. Most laboratories (9/13) used tests to detect glutamate dehydrogenase and toxin A/B either separately or in combination. In the two periods of molecular surveillance, a total of 166 strains were characterised. Of these, 159 were toxigenic and the majority belonged to two PCR-ribotypes: 027 (n=99; 62%) and the closely related ribotype 176 (n=22; 14%). The annual frequency of PCR-ribotype 027 was not significantly different during the surveillance periods (62.9% in 2012; 61.8% in 2013). Our results indicate that CDIs caused by PCR-ribotype 027 predominate in Polish hospitals participating in the surveillance, with the closely related 176 ribotype being the second most common agent of infection.

  11. Shedding of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 078 by zoo animals, and report of an unstable metronidazole-resistant isolate from a zebra foal (Equus quagga burchellii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; Blanco, José L; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Peláez, Teresa; Harmanus, Celine; Kuijper, Ed; García, Marta E

    2014-03-14

    Clostridium difficile is an emerging and potentially zoonotic pathogen, but its prevalence in most animal species, including exhibition animals, is currently unknown. In this study we assessed the prevalence of faecal shedding of C. difficile by zoo animals, and determined the ribotype, toxin profile and antimicrobial susceptibility of recovered isolates. A total of 200 samples from 40 animal species (36.5% of which came from plains zebra, Equus quagga burchellii) were analysed. C. difficile was isolated from 7 samples (3.5% of total), which came from the following animal species: chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes), dwarf goat (Capra hircus), and Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica), with one positive sample each; and plains zebra, with 4 positive samples from 3 different individuals. Most recovered isolates (4/7, 57.1%) belonged to the epidemic PCR ribotype 078, produced toxins A and B, and had the genes encoding binary toxin (i.e. A(+)B(+)CDT(+) isolates). The remaining three isolates belonged to PCR ribotypes 039 (A(-)B(-)CDT(-)), 042 (A(+)B(+)CDT(-)) and 110 (A(-)B(+)CDT(-)). Regardless of their ribotype, all isolates displayed high-level resistance to the fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and levofloxacin. Some isolates were also resistant to meropenem and/or ertapenem. A ribotype 078 isolate recovered from a male zebra foal initially showed in vitro resistance to metronidazole (MIC ≥ 256 μg/ml), but lost that trait after subculturing on non-selective media. We conclude that zoo animals belonging to different species can carry ribotype 078 and other toxigenic strains of C. difficile showing resistance to antimicrobial compounds commonly used in veterinary and/or human medicine.

  12. Cost analysis of an outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection ribotype 027 in a Dutch tertiary care centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beurden, Y H; Bomers, M K; van der Werff, S D; Pompe, E A P M; Spiering, S; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E; Mulder, C J J

    2017-04-01

    The economic impact of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) on the healthcare system is significant. From May 2013 to May 2014, an outbreak of C. difficile ribotype 027 occurred in a Dutch tertiary care hospital, involving 72 patients. The primary aim of this study was to provide insight into the financial burden that this CDI outbreak brought upon this hospital. A retrospective analysis was performed to estimate the costs of a one-year-long C. difficile ribotype 027 outbreak. Medical charts were reviewed for patient data. In addition, all costs associated with the outbreak control measures were collected. The attributable costs of the whole outbreak were estimated to be €1,222,376. The main contributing factor was missed revenue due to increased length of stay of CDI patients and closure of beds to enable contact isolation of CDI patients (36%). A second important cost component was extra surveillance and activities of the Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Control (25%). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to provide insight into the attributable costs of CDI in an outbreak setting, and to delineate the major cost items. It is clear that the economic consequences of CDI are significant. The high costs associated with a CDI outbreak should help to justify the use of additional resources for CDI prevention and control. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 艰难梭菌核糖体分型及腹泻发病危险因素研究%PCR ribotype profiles of Clostridium difficile and risk factors of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨富英; 李萍; 李永强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate risk factors of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD), to explore PCR ribotype profiles of Clostridium difficile, and to provide empirical evidence for prevention of CDAD. Methods Among 449 patients suffered from antibiotic-associated diarrhea, 92 of them were diagnosed with CDAD. Risk factors of CDAD were extracted by using Logistic regression analysis. Clostridium difficile grown on Cycloserine-cefoxitin-fructose agar were molecularly typed with PCR ribotyping method. Results Nasogastric tube feeding, multiple chronic diseases, higher APACHE Ⅱ score, high level of serum C reaction protein, and use of third-generation cephalosporin, quinolone or combination of antibiotics increased the odds of CDAD, whereas use of glycopeptide or nitro-inidazole antibiotics decreased the odds of CDAD (P<0. 05,P<0. 01). Twenty strains of Clostridium difficile were classified into 5 ribotypes, and 8 of them were GZ Ⅲ. Conclusion Morbidity of CDAD is high in inpatients, measures which contribute to reducing risk factors should be taken to prevent CDAD.%目的 探讨艰难梭菌相关性腹泻(CDAD)发病危险因素及进行艰难梭菌核糖体分型,为针对性防护提供依据.方法 选取449例抗生素相关性腹泻患者,其中92例诊断为CDAD;采用Logistic回归分析筛选CDAD发病危险因素;厌氧菌培养艰难梭菌再行PCR核糖体分型.结果 CDAD发病的危险因素是鼻饲,多种慢性病,高APACHEⅡ评分,高超敏C反应蛋白,应用第三代头孢菌素、喹诺酮类抗生素及联用抗生素;使用糖肽类、硝基咪唑类抗生素降低CDAD发病(P<0.05,P<0.01).20株艰难梭菌分为5个亚型即GZⅠ~GZⅣ型,其中GZⅢ型8株.结论 住院患者CDAD发病率较高,需针对危险因素进行防护.

  14. Comparative ribotyping of Staphylococcus intermedius isolated from members of the Canoidea gives possible evidence for host-specificity and co-evolution of bacteria and hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2001-01-01

    A total of 41 Staphylococcus intermedius isolates were isolated from skin of healthy members of six phylogenetic groups within the Canoidea (the dog family, skunk subfamily, weasel subfamily, racoon family, red panda and bear family) of different geographical origin and compared by EcoRI ribotyping...

  15. Contrasting activity patterns determined by BrdU incorporation in bacterial ribotypes from the Arctic Ocean in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre E Galand

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The winter Arctic Ocean is one of the most unexplored marine environments from a microbiological perspective. Heterotrophic bacteria maintain their activity at a baseline level during the extremely low energy conditions of the winter, but little is known about the specific phylotypes that have the potential to survive and grow in such harsh environment. In this study, we aimed at identifying actively growing ribotypes in winter Arctic Ocean seawater cultures by experimental incubations with the thymidine analogue bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, followed by immunocapturing, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP fingerprinting, cloning and sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. We incubated water collected at different months over the Arctic winter and showed that the actively growing bacterial fraction, taking up BrdU, represented only a subset of the total community. Among the BrdU-labeled bacterial taxa we identified the Flavobacteria Polaribacter, the Alphaproteobacteria SAR11, the Gammaproteobacteria Arctic 96B-16 cluster and, predominately, members of Colwellia spp. Interestingly, Colwellia sequences formed three clusters (93 and 97% pairwise 16S rRNA identity that contributed in contrasting ways to the active communities in the incubations. Polaribacter, Arctic 96B-16 and one cluster of Colwellia were more abundant in the active community represented by the BrdU labelled DNA. In contrast, SAR11 and two other Colwellia clusters were underrepresented in the BrdU labelled community compared to total communities. Despite the limitation of the long incubations needed to label slow growing arctic communities, the BrdU approach revealed the potential for active growth in low-energy conditions in some relevant groups of polar bacteria, including Polaribacter and Arctic 96B-16. Moreover, under similar incubation conditions, the growth of different Colwellia ribotypes varied, suggesting that related clusters of Colwellia may have distinct

  16. 利用脉冲场凝胶电泳及核糖体分型技术对14株上海崇明地区O139群霍乱弧菌分型分析%Study on 14 Vibrio cholerae O139 strains by PFGE and ribotyping in Chongming, Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠丽红; 陈洪友; 陈敏

    2011-01-01

    目的 对14株上海市崇明地区2005年O139群霍乱弧菌菌株进行脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFCE)及核糖体分型分析.方法 用PFGE、核糖体分型对霍乱弧菌进行分析.结果 14株O139群霍乱弧菌产毒株经核糖体分型分析为同一型;而PFGE双酶切分型结果为其中10株为同一型,其余4株为高度同源性.结论 上海市崇明地区2005年流行的O139群霍乱弧菌核酸指纹分型基本一致.%Objective To understand the genotypes of 14 strains of Vibrio cholerae O139 isolated in Chongming in 2005. Methods Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and ribotyping were conducted to analyze the Vibrio cholerae strains. Results Ribotyping indicated that the genotypes of all the O139 strains were same; but PFGE indicated that 10 of 14 strains of Vibrio cholerae O139 belonged to same type, the other 4 strains were highly homologous. Conclusion The genotypes of Vibrro cholerae O139 circulating in Chongming in Shanghai in 2005 were similarly.

  17. Surface layer proteins from virulent Clostridium difficile ribotypes exhibit signatures of positive selection with consequences for innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark; Walsh, Thomas A; Marszalowska, Izabela; Webb, Andrew E; MacAogain, Micheál; Rogers, Thomas R; Windle, Henry; Kelleher, Dermot; O'Connell, Mary J; Loscher, Christine E

    2017-03-23

    Clostridium difficile is a nosocomial pathogen prevalent in hospitals worldwide and increasingly common in the community. Sequence differences have been shown to be present in the Surface Layer Proteins (SLPs) from different C. difficile ribotypes (RT) however whether these differences influence severity of infection is still not clear. We used a molecular evolutionary approach to analyse SLPs from twenty-six C. difficile RTs representing different slpA sequences. We demonstrate that SLPs from RT 027 and 078 exhibit evidence of positive selection (PS). We compared the effect of these SLPs to those purified from RT 001 and 014, which did not exhibit PS, and demonstrate that the presence of sites under positive selection correlates with ability to activate macrophages. SLPs from RTs 027 and 078 induced a more potent response in macrophages, with increased levels of IL-6, IL-12p40, IL-10, MIP-1α, MIP-2 production relative to RT 001 and 014. Furthermore, RTs 027 and 078 induced higher expression of CD40, CD80 and MHC II on macrophages with decreased ability to phagocytose relative to LPS. These results tightly link sequence differences in C. difficile SLPs to disease susceptibility and severity, and suggest that positively selected sites in the SLPs may play a role in driving the emergence of hyper-virulent strains.

  18. Investigation of Clostridium difficile interspecies relatedness using multilocus sequence typing, multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, C; Avesani, V; Taminiau, B; Van Broeck, J; Brévers, B; Delmée, M; Daube, G

    2015-12-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and antimicrobial susceptibility were performed on 37 animal and human C. difficile isolates belonging to 15 different PCR-ribotypes in order to investigate the relatedness of human and animal isolates and to identify possible transmission routes. MLVA identified a total of 21 different types while MLST only distinguished 12 types. Identical C. difficile strains were detected in the same animal species for PCR-ribotypes 014, 078, UCL 16U and UCL 36, irrespective of their origin or the isolation date. Non clonal strains were found among different hosts; however, a high genetic association between pig and cattle isolates belonging to PCR-ribotype 078 was revealed. MLVA also showed genetic differences that clearly distinguished human from animal strains. For a given PCR-ribotype, human and animal strains presented a similar susceptibility to the antimicrobials tested. All strains were susceptible to vancomycin, metronidazole, chloramphenicol and rifampicin, while PCR-ribotypes 078, UCL 5a, UCL 36 and UCL 103 were associated with erythromycin resistance. The data suggest a wide dissemination of clones at hospitals and breeding-farms or a contamination at the slaughterhouse, but less probability of interspecies transmission. However, further highly discriminatory genotyping methods are necessary to elucidate interspecies and zoonotic transmission of C. difficile.

  19. Estimation of the Relative Abundance of Different Bacteroides and Prevotella Ribotypes in Gut Samples by Restriction Enzyme Profiling of PCR-Amplified 16S rRNA Gene Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jacqueline; Scott, Karen P.; Avguštin, Gorazd; Newbold, C. James; Flint, Harry J.

    1998-01-01

    We describe an approach for determining the genetic composition of Bacteroides and Prevotella populations in gut contents based on selective amplification of 16S rRNA gene sequences (rDNA) followed by cleavage of the amplified material with restriction enzymes. The relative contributions of different ribotypes to total Bacteroides and Prevotella 16S rDNA are estimated after end labelling of one of the PCR primers, and the contribution of Bacteroides and Prevotella sequences to total eubacterial 16S rDNA is estimated by measuring the binding of oligonucleotide probes to amplified DNA. Bacteroides and Prevotella 16S rDNA accounted for between 12 and 62% of total eubacterial 16S rDNA in samples of ruminal contents from six sheep and a cow. Ribotypes 4, 5, 6, and 7, which include most cultivated rumen Prevotella strains, together accounted for between 20 and 86% of the total amplified Bacteroides and Prevotella rDNA in these samples. The most abundant Bacteroides or Prevotella ribotype in four animals, however, was ribotype 8, for which there is only one known cultured isolate, while ribotypes 1 and 2, which include many colonic Bacteroides spp., were the most abundant in two animals. This indicates that some abundant Bacteroides and Prevotella groups in the rumen are underrepresented among cultured rumen Prevotella isolates. The approach described here provides a rapid, convenient, and widely applicable method for comparing the genotypic composition of bacterial populations in gut samples. PMID:9758785

  20. Toxic megacolon from hypervirulent Clostridium difficile infection (ribotype 027) following elective total knee replacement: an emerging challenge in modern health care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumilli, Buchi Rajendra Babu; Koneru, Prasanthi; Fayyaz, Irfan

    2010-01-01

    We present a rare case of community acquired (presenting in hospital on the day of admission or within 48 h of admission) Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with the hypervirulent (ribotype 027) strain causing toxic megacolon in a patient, diagnosed on the third postoperative day following an elective total knee replacement. The patient did not have any of the commonly reported risk factors for CDI. The source of sepsis was initially presumed to be the operated prosthetic joint, and this caused a delay in the correct diagnosis and institution of appropriate antimicrobial treatment which may have contributed to a poorer outcome. This case highlights the risk of patients arriving from the community manifesting life threatening CDI in the hospital. PMID:22242068

  1. Phylogenetic diversity of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca clinical isolates revealed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, gyrA and parC genes sequencing and automated ribotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisse, S; Verhoef, J

    2001-05-01

    The infra-specific phylogenetic diversity and genetic structure of both Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca was investigated using a combination of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, sequencing of gyrA and parC genes, and automated ribotyping. After RAPD analysis with four independent primers of 120 clinical isolates collected from 22 European hospitals in 13 countries, K. pneumoniae isolates fell into three clusters and K. oxytoca isolates fell into two clusters, while Klebsiella planticola isolates formed a sixth cluster. Each cluster was geographically widespread. K. pneumoniae cluster I (KpI) accounted for 80% of the isolates of this species and included reference strains of the three subspecies K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae and K. pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis. Clusters KpII and KpIII were equally represented, as were the two K. oxytoca clusters. Individualization of each cluster was fully confirmed by phylogenetic analysis of gyrA and parC gene sequences. In addition, sequence data supported the evolutionary separation of K. pneumoniae from a phylogenetic group including K. oxytoca, Klebsiella terrigena, K. planticola and Klebsiella ornithinolytica. Automated ribotyping using Mlu I appeared suitable for identification of each Klebsiella cluster. The adonitol fermentation test was found to be useful for cluster identification in K. pneumoniae, since it was negative in all strains of clusters KpIII and in some KpII strains, but always positive in cluster KpI. The usefulness of gyrA and parC sequence data for population genetics and cluster identification in bacteria was demonstrated, even for the phylogenetic positioning of quinolone-resistant isolates.

  2. Combined multilocus sequence typing and O serogrouping distinguishes Escherichia coli subtypes associated with infant urosepsis and/or meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidet, Philippe; Mahjoub-Messai, Farah; Blanco, Jorge; Blanco, Jesús; Dehem, Marie; Aujard, Yannick; Bingen, Edouard; Bonacorsi, Stéphane

    2007-07-15

    The genetic relatedness of 223 invasive Escherichia coli strains that cause either meningitis or urosepsis without meningitis in young infants was determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), ribotyping, and phylogenetic polymerase chain reaction grouping. We also determined the serotypes and virulence genotypes (on the basis of 11 virulence genes). The strains belonged to 29 sequence type complexes (STc), 20 ribotypes, 26 O serogroups, and 39 virulence genotypes. MLST combined with O serogrouping identified 49 subtypes, or "sequence O types." Some sequence O types were almost exclusively associated with either urosepsis (STc27(O2), STc27(O6), and STc29(O2)) or meningitis (STc29(O18)). In contrast, STc29(O45) was equally frequent in these 2 infection sites. Similarly, several virulence genotypes were specifically associated with one of these syndromes. These results point to the existence of specialized invasive subtypes that cause urosepsis or meningitis in infants and identify a new dually virulent invasive clone.

  3. Typing of Salmonella enterica serovar Saintpaul: an outbreak investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Christensen, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    factor, antibiogram typing, plasmid profiling, ribotyping and pulsed field gel electrophoresis, in order to identify the most probable source of infection. After typing, the source of the investigated outbreak remains obscure because so far no isolates with traits of the outbreak strain have been...... explanation for the failure to find isolates with traits of the outbreak strain could be the presence of a third, but so far unidentified, source. The present investigation illustrates the necessity of using more than one epidemiological typing method for outbreak investigation. This is especially important...

  4. Study of Humoral Immunity to Commensal Oral Bacteria in Human Infants Demonstrates the Presence of Secretory Immunoglobulin A Antibodies Reactive with Actinomyces naeslundii Genospecies 1 and 2 Ribotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael F.; Evans, Mishell K.; Kirchherr, Jennifer L.; Sheridan, Michael J.; Bowden, G. H. W.

    2004-01-01

    The mouths of three human infants were examined from birth to age 2 years to detect colonization of Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2. These bacteria did not colonize until after tooth eruption. The diversity of posteruption isolates was determined by ribotyping. Using immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we determined the reactivity of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) antibodies in saliva samples collected from each infant before and after colonization against cell wall proteins from their own A. naeslundii strains and carbohydrates from standard A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 strains. A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 carbohydrate-reactive SIgA antibodies were not detected in any saliva sample. However, SIgA antibodies reactive with cell wall proteins were present in saliva before these bacteria colonized the mouth. These antibodies could be almost completely removed by absorption with A. odontolyticus, a species known to colonize the human mouth shortly after birth. However, after colonization by A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2, specific antibodies were induced that could not be removed by absorption with A. odontolyticus. Cluster analysis of the patterns of reactivity of postcolonization salivary antibodies from each infant with antigens from their own strains showed that not only could these antibodies discriminate among strains but antibodies in saliva samples collected at different times showed different reactivity patterns. Overall, these data suggest that, although much of the salivary SIgA antibodies reactive with A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 are directed against genus-specific or more broadly cross-reactive antigens, species, genospecies, and possibly strain-specific antibodies are induced in response to colonization. PMID:15138172

  5. Genome Analysis of Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotype 014 Lineage in Australian Pigs and Humans Reveals a Diverse Genetic Repertoire and Signatures of Long-Range Interspecies Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Daniel R.; Squire, Michele M.; Collins, Deirdre A.; Riley, Thomas V.

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype (RT) 014 is well-established in both human and porcine populations in Australia, raising the possibility that C. difficile infection (CDI) may have a zoonotic or foodborne etiology. Here, whole genome sequencing and high-resolution core genome phylogenetics were performed on a contemporaneous collection of 40 Australian RT014 isolates of human and porcine origin. Phylogenies based on MLST (7 loci, STs 2, 13, and 49) and core orthologous genes (1260 loci) showed clustering of human and porcine strains indicative of very recent shared ancestry. Core genome single nucleotide variant (SNV) analysis found 42% of human strains showed a clonal relationship (separated by ≤2 SNVs in their core genome) with one or more porcine strains, consistent with recent inter-host transmission. Clones were spread over a vast geographic area with 50% of the human cases occurring without recent healthcare exposure. These findings suggest a persistent community reservoir with long-range dissemination, potentially due to agricultural recycling of piggery effluent. We also provide the first pan-genome analysis for this lineage, characterizing its resistome, prophage content, and in silico virulence potential. The RT014 is defined by a large “open” pan-genome (7587 genes) comprising a core genome of 2296 genes (30.3% of the total gene repertoire) and an accessory genome of 5291 genes. Antimicrobial resistance genotypes and phenotypes varied across host populations and ST lineages and were characterized by resistance to tetracycline [tetM, tetA(P), tetB(P) and tetW], clindamycin/erythromycin (ermB), and aminoglycosides (aph3-III-Sat4A-ant6-Ia). Resistance was mediated by clinically important mobile genetic elements, most notably Tn6194 (harboring ermB) and a novel variant of Tn5397 (harboring tetM). Numerous clinically important prophages (Siphoviridae and Myoviridae) were identified as well as an uncommon accessory gene regulator locus (agr3

  6. Molecular types and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Clostridium difficile isolates in different epidemiological settings in a tertiary care center in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Roll, Tamar; Na'amnih, Wasef; Cohen, Dani; Carmeli, Yehuda; Adler, Amos

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this prospective study were to examine the correlation between the molecular types and the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Clostridium difficile isolates with the source of acquisition and the occurrence of C. difficile infections (CDI) in a tertiary center in Israel. All available isolates from community-acquired (CA) CDI episodes (n=43) and matching numbers of isolates from community-onset, hospital acquired (CO-HA, n=67) and HA-CDI (n=56) and 32 cases of recurrent CDI were typed and tested for susceptibility to vancomycin and metronidazole. The most common types were SlpA hr-02 (21%), SlpA hr-05/PCR-ribotype-014 (12%), PCR-ribotype-027 (10%) and SlpA cr-02 (10%). The PCR-ribotype-027 was most common in the CO-HA group and the hr-05 type was more common in the CA group. Non-susceptibility to metronidazole and/or vancomycin was found in 4/7 of re-infection isolates. Our study shows that CA-CDI is uncommon and is caused by similar strains as HA-CDI, albeit with different rates. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Carriage and acquisition rates of Clostridium difficile in hospitalized horses, including molecular characterization, multilocus sequence typing and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, C; Taminiau, B; Brévers, B; Avesani, V; Van Broeck, J; Leroux, A A; Amory, H; Delmée, M; Daube, G

    2014-08-06

    Clostridium difficile has been identified as a significant agent of diarrhoea and enterocolitis in both foals and adult horses. Hospitalization, antibiotic therapy or changes in diet may contribute to the development of C. difficile infection. Horses admitted to a care unit are therefore at greater risk of being colonized. The aim of this study was to investigate the carriage of C. difficile in hospitalized horses and the possible influence of some risk factors in colonization. During a seven-month period, faecal samples and data relating the clinical history of horses admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital were collected. C. difficile isolates were characterized through toxin profiles, cytotoxicity activity, PCR-ribotyping, antimicrobial resistance and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Ten isolates were obtained with a total of seven different PCR-ribotypes, including PCR-ribotype 014. Five of them were identified as toxinogenic. A high resistance to gentamicin, clindamycin and ceftiofur was found. MLST revealed four different sequencing types (ST), which included ST11, ST26, ST2 and ST15, and phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the isolates clustered in the same lineage. Clinical history suggests that horses frequently harbour toxigenic and non-toxigenic C. difficile and that in most cases they are colonized regardless of the reason for hospitalization; the development of diarrhoea is more unusual.

  8. A multicenter evaluation of genotypic methods for the epidemiologic typing of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fry, Norman K.; Alexiou-Daniel, Stella; Bangsborg, Jette Marie

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare genotypic methods for epidemiologic typing of Legionella pneumophila serogroup (sg) 1, in order to determine the best available method within Europe for implementation and standardization by members of the European Working Group on Legionella Infections. METHODS: Coded.......990 for PFGE using Sfil: E ranged from 0.06 for AP- and AP/rep-PCR to 1.00 for ribotyping using Pstl/EcoRI and AFLP: in general, E was inversely related to D. Although offering only limited discrimination (D=0.838), mAb typing was both rapid and highly epidemiologically concordant (E=1.00). CONCLUSIONS: Two...

  9. [Molecular-genetic approaches to diagnosis and intraspecific typing of causative agents of glanders and melioidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, V A; Iliukhin, V I

    2005-01-01

    Pathogenic Burkholderia--Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei--are causative agents of glanders and melioidosis, severe infectious diseases of man and animals. They are regarded as potential agents of bioterrorism. The existing bacteriological and immunological methods of identification of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei are not efficient enough for the rapid diagnosis and typing of strains. Described in the paper are molecular methods of detection of the agents by PCR, hybridization and strain typing made on the basis of bacterial total cell protein profiles, RAPD, ribotyping as well as of plasmid and DNA microrestriction analyses.

  10. Differentiation of Shewanella putrefaciens and Shewanella alga on the basis of whole-cell protein profiles, ribotyping, phenotypic characterization, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Jørgensen, K.; Christensen, H.

    1997-01-01

    Seventy-six presumed Shewanella putrefaciens isolates from fish, oil drillings, and clinical specimens, the type strain of Shewanella putrefaciens (ATCC 8071), the type strain of Shewanella alga (IAM 14159), and the type strain of Shewanella hanedai (ATCC 33224) were compared by several typing...... defined species S. alga (U. Simidu et at., Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 40:331-336, 1990). Fifty-two typically psychrotolerant strains formed the other, more heterogeneous major cluster, with 43 to 47 mol% G + C. The type strain of S. putrefaciens was included in this group. The two groups were confirmed...... by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. It is concluded that the isolates must be considered two different species, S. alga and S. putrefaciens, and that most mesophilic isolates formerly identified as S. putrefaciens belong to S. alga. The ecological role and potential pathogenicity of S. alga can...

  11. Evaluation of phenotypic and genotypic methods for epidemiological typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, H. C.; Rosdahl, V. T.

    1995-01-01

    The value of five different typing methods (antibiogram typing, biotyping, phage typing, plasmid profiling and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the gene encoding 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA (ribotyping)), in discriminating 105 Staphylococcus aureus strains from bovine milk samples obtained...... from 105 different Danish dairy herds was investigated. A total of 85 strains (81%) proved susceptible to all of the 11 antibiotics tested, and the remaining 20 strains could be divided into 5 different antibiogram patterns. The predominant resistance pattern, penicillin resistance, was observed in 15...... (75%) of the 20 antibiotic resistant strains. Biotyping assigned the strains to 14 different types, with the most common type accounting for 25.7% of the strains. Ninety eight (93.3%) strains could be typed by phages, assigning them to 19 different phage types. The predominant phage type accounted...

  12. Development of a typing system for epidemiological studies of porcine toxin-producing Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fussing, V.; Nielsen, Jens; Bisgaard, M.

    1999-01-01

    pneumonic lungs. Strains from lungs were all of capsular Type A, whereas strains from nasal swabs were of both capsular Types A and D. Only 9% of the strains contained plasmids, which could not be associated with antibiotic resistance. Phage-typing divided 61% of strains into 10 groups, while 39% were non......The aim of the present study was to evaluate capsular-typing, plasmid-profiling, phage-typing and ribotyping for epidemiological studies of toxin-producing Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida in Denmark. The evaluation of methods was based on 68 strains from nasal swabs and 14 strains from...... of Danish strains. Phage-typing of isolates from an outbreak of atrophic rhinitis involving six herds in 1985 showed the existence of an epidemic strain. This type was recognised in the herd suspected of being the source of the infections and in four of the five infected herds. These findings were supported...

  13. Typing and clustering of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolates by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using insertion sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskresenskaya, E; Savin, C; Leclercq, A; Tseneva, G; Carniel, E

    2014-06-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is an enteropathogen that has an animal reservoir and causes human infections, mostly in temperate and cold countries. Most of the methods previously used to subdivide Y. pseudotuberculosis were performed on small numbers of isolates from a specific geographical area. One aim of this study was to evaluate the typing efficiency of restriction fragment length polymorphism of insertion sequence hybridization patterns (IS-RFLP) compared to other typing methods, such as serotyping, ribotyping, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), on the same set of 80 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis of global origin. We found that IS100 was not adequate for IS-RFLP but that both IS285 and IS1541 efficiently subtyped Y. pseudotuberculosis. The discriminatory index (DI) of IS1541-RFLP (0.980) was superior to those of IS285-RFLP (0.939), ribotyping (0.944), MLST (0.861), and serotyping (0.857). The combination of the two IS (2IS-RFLP) further increased the DI to 0.998. Thus, IS-RFLP is a powerful tool for the molecular typing of Y. pseudotuberculosis and has the advantage of exhibiting well-resolved banding patterns that allow for a reliable comparison of strains of worldwide origin. The other aim of this study was to assess the clustering power of IS-RFLP. We found that 2IS-RFLP had a remarkable capacity to group strains with similar genotypic and phenotypic markers, thus identifying robust populations within Y. pseudotuberculosis. Our study thus demonstrates that 2IS- and even IS1541-RFLP alone might be valuable tools for the molecular typing of global isolates of Y. pseudotuberculosis and for the analysis of the population structure of this species.

  14. Typing and Clustering of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Isolates by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis Using Insertion Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskresenskaya, E.; Savin, C.; Leclercq, A.; Tseneva, G.

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is an enteropathogen that has an animal reservoir and causes human infections, mostly in temperate and cold countries. Most of the methods previously used to subdivide Y. pseudotuberculosis were performed on small numbers of isolates from a specific geographical area. One aim of this study was to evaluate the typing efficiency of restriction fragment length polymorphism of insertion sequence hybridization patterns (IS-RFLP) compared to other typing methods, such as serotyping, ribotyping, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), on the same set of 80 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis of global origin. We found that IS100 was not adequate for IS-RFLP but that both IS285 and IS1541 efficiently subtyped Y. pseudotuberculosis. The discriminatory index (DI) of IS1541-RFLP (0.980) was superior to those of IS285-RFLP (0.939), ribotyping (0.944), MLST (0.861), and serotyping (0.857). The combination of the two IS (2IS-RFLP) further increased the DI to 0.998. Thus, IS-RFLP is a powerful tool for the molecular typing of Y. pseudotuberculosis and has the advantage of exhibiting well-resolved banding patterns that allow for a reliable comparison of strains of worldwide origin. The other aim of this study was to assess the clustering power of IS-RFLP. We found that 2IS-RFLP had a remarkable capacity to group strains with similar genotypic and phenotypic markers, thus identifying robust populations within Y. pseudotuberculosis. Our study thus demonstrates that 2IS- and even IS1541-RFLP alone might be valuable tools for the molecular typing of global isolates of Y. pseudotuberculosis and for the analysis of the population structure of this species. PMID:24671793

  15. Novel Molecular Type of Clostridium difficile in Neonatal Pigs, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Michele M.; Carter, Glen P.; Mackin, Kate E.; Chakravorty, Anjana; Norén, Torbjörn; Elliott, Briony; Lyras, Dena

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile causes neonatal enteritis in piglets; strains of PCR ribotype 078 are most commonly identified. We investigated C. difficile prevalence in piglets in Australia and isolated a novel strain with a unique pathogenicity locus. In a mouse infection model, this strain produced more weight loss than did a ribotype 078 strain. PMID:23697508

  16. Possible Interplay Between Hospital and Community Transmission of a Novel Clostridium Difficile Sequence Type 295 Recognized by Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Geraldine; Mac Aogáin, Micheál; Kelleghan, Maureen; O'Connell, Brian; Hurley, Caroline; Montague, Elizabeth; Conlon, Mary; Murray, Helena; Rogers, Thomas R

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To use next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis to enhance epidemiological information to identify and resolve a Clostridium difficile outbreak and to evaluate its effectiveness beyond the capacity of current standard PCR ribotyping. METHODS NGS analysis was performed as part of prospective surveillance of all detected C. difficile isolates at a university hospital. An outbreak of a novel C. difficile sequence type (ST)-295 was identified in a hospital and a community hostel for homeless adults. Phylogenetic analysis was performed of all ST-295 and closest ST-2 isolates. Epidemiological details were obtained from hospital records and the public health review of the community hostel. RESULTS We identified 7 patients with C. difficile ST-295 infections between June 2013 and April 2015. Of these patients, 3 had nosocomial exposure to this infection and 3 had possible hostel exposure. Current Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA)- Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) surveillance definitions (2010) were considered in light of our NGS findings. The initial transmission was not detectable using current criteria, because of 16 weeks between ST-295 exposure and symptoms. We included 3 patients with hostel exposure who met surveillance criteria of hospital-acquired infection due to their hospital admissions. CONCLUSION NGS analysis enhanced epidemiological information and helped identify and resolve an outbreak beyond the capacity of standard PCR ribotyping. In this cluster of cases, NGS was used to identify a hostel as the likely source of community-based C. difficile transmission. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:680-684.

  17. Probe hybridization array typing: a binary typing method for Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, U; Zhang, L; France, A M; Ghosh, D; Shalaby, W; Xie, J; Marrs, C F; Foxman, B

    2007-01-01

    The ability to distinguish between Escherichia coli strains is critical for outbreak investigations. Binary typing, based on the presence or absence of genetic material, provides a high-throughput alternative to gel- and PCR-based typing techniques that generate complex banding patterns and lack uniform interpretation criteria. We developed, validated, and determined the discriminatory power of an E. coli binary typing method, probe hybridization array typing (PHAT). In PHAT, the absence or presence of genetic material is identified by using DNA hybridization to produce a reproducible and portable fingerprint for each genome. PHAT probes were generated from genome subtractive hybridization experiments. We PHAT typed the ECOR collection of strains from a variety of geographical locations, and 33 rectal E. coli strains selected from college-aged women with urinary tract infection. In the set of 33 human rectal strains, the discriminatory power of PHAT (98%) equaled that of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, for ECOR strains, which include nonhuman strains, the current set of PHAT probes was less discriminating than MLST, ribotyping, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (80% versus 97, 92, and 97%, respectively). When we limited the analysis to ECOR strains of B2 and D lineage, which are associated with human infection, current PHAT probes were highly discriminatory (94%). PHAT can be applied in a high-throughput format (i.e., "library on a slide"), the discriminatory ability can be varied based on the probe set, and PHAT is readily adapted to other bacterial species with high variation in genetic content.

  18. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of human and animal Clostridium difficile isolates of various toxigenic types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemee, Ludovic; Dhalluin, Anne; Pestel-Caron, Martine; Lemeland, Jean-François; Pons, Jean-Louis

    2004-06-01

    A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme was developed to study the genetic relationships and population structure of 72 Clostridium difficile isolates from various hosts, geographic sources, PCR ribotypes, and toxigenic types (determined by PCR targeting tcdA and tcdB genes). MLST was performed by DNA sequence analysis of seven housekeeping genes (aroE, ddl, dutA, tpi, recA, gmk, and sodA). The number of alleles ranged from five (dutA and ddl) to eleven (recA). Allelic profiles allowed the definition of 34 different sequence types (STs). These STs lacked correlation with geographic source but were well correlated to toxigenic type. The dendrogram generated from a matrix of pairwise genetic distances showed that animal isolates did not constitute a distinct lineage from human isolates and that there was no hypervirulent lineage within the population of toxigenic human isolates (isolates recovered from pseudomembranous colitis and antibiotic-associated diarrhea did not cluster in distinct lineages). However, A(-) B(+) variant isolates shared the same ST that appeared as a divergent lineage in the population studied, indicating a single evolutionary origin. The population structure was further examined by analysis of allelic polymorphism. The dendrogram generated from composite sequence-based analysis revealed a homogeneous population associated with three divergent lineages, one of which was restricted to A(-) B(+) variant isolates. C. difficile exhibited a clonal population structure, as revealed by the estimation of linkage disequilibrium (Ia) between loci. The analysis of alleles within clonal complexes estimated that point mutation generated new alleles at a frequency eightfold higher than recombinational exchange, and the congruence of the dendrograms generated from separate housekeeping loci confirmed the mutational evolution of this species.

  19. Molecular typing of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from the middle-east coastline of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanyi; Xie, Yanping; Xu, Jingye; Wang, Qingzhong; Gu, Ming; Yang, Jielin; Zhou, Min; Wang, Dapeng; Shi, Chunlei; Shi, Xianming

    2012-02-15

    The occurrence of outbreaks of Vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis in China highlights the need for strain characterization and subtyping of this pathogenic species. A total of 56 epidemiologically-unrelated strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated from clinical samples, seafood and various environmental sites in the middle-east coastline of China from 2006 to 2008. The isolates were characterized using four molecular typing methods, including ribotyping, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and sequence analysis of the gyrB gene. Genetic profiles of cluster analysis from these molecular typing tests clearly showed that there were differences in potential pathogenicity among isolates from seafood and its environments. Genetic characterization of two isolates (F13 and QS2) that originated from seafood demonstrated that they were potentially pathogenic. Discriminatory indices of four typing methods for the 56 V. parahaemolyticus isolates were differentiated by Simpson's Index of Diversity. The discriminatory index of ERIC-PCR typing was maximal (D=0.942), while that of sequence analysis of the gyrB gene was minimal (D=0.702). The discriminatory ability was greatly enhanced (D=0.966) when ERIC-PCR was coupled with sequence analysis of the gyrB gene. These results suggest that ERIC-PCR combined with sequence analysis of gyrB gene may be a reliable, rapid typing strategy for V. parahaemolyticus strains.

  20. Molecular Epidemiologic Typing Systems of Bacterial Pathogens: Current Issues and Perpectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J Struelens

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiologic typing of bacterial pathogens can be applied to answer a number of different questions: in case of outbreak, what is the extent and mode of transmission of epidemic clone(s ? In case of long-term surveillance, what is the prevalence over time and the geographic spread of epidemic and endemic clones in the population? A number of molecular typing methods can be used to classify bacteria based on genomic diversity into groups of closely-related isolates (presumed to arise from a common ancestor in the same chain of transmission and divergent, epidemiologically-unrelated isolates (arising from independent sources of infection. Ribotyping, IS-RFLP fingerprinting, macrorestriction analysis of chromosomal DNA and PCR-fingerprinting using arbitrary sequence or repeat element primers are useful methods for outbreak investigations and regional surveillance. Library typing systems based on multilocus sequence-based analysis and strain-specific probe hybridization schemes are in development for the international surveillance of major pathogens like Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Accurate epidemiological interpretation of data obtained with molecular typing systems still requires additional research on the evolution rate of polymorphic loci in bacterial pathogens.

  1. Use of molecular typing methods to trace the dissemination of Listeria monocytogenes in a shrimp processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destro, M T; Leitão, M F; Farber, J M

    1996-02-01

    Molecular typing of bacteria has been widely used in epidemiological studies but not as extensively for tracing the transmission of pathogenic bacteria in food plants. This study was conducted to examine the potential use of two molecular typing methods, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), to trace Listeria monocytogenes contamination in a shrimp processing plant. Ribotyping and phase typing were also performed on a select number of strains. One hundred fifteen strains of L. monocytogenes collected in different areas of a shrimp processing plant were first serotyped and then subtyped by molecular typing. RAPD and PFGE showed great promise for typing L. monocytogenes isolates since distinguishable and reproducible DNA polymorphisms were obtained. When the composite profile from both (RAPD and PFGE) methods was generated, there was an increase in the discriminatory power to discern differences between strains of L. monocytogenes. The results indicated that environmental strains all fell into composite profile groupings unique to the environment, while strains from both water and utensils shared another composite profile group. L. monocytogenes fresh shrimp isolates belonging to one profile group were found in different areas of the processing line. This same profile group was also present in food handlers from the processing and packaging areas of the plant.

  2. Comparison of methods for the identification and sub-typing of O157 and non-O157 Escherichia coli serotypes and their integration into a polyphasic taxonomy approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto-Calvo M.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic data from 12 strains of Escherichia coli were collected, including carbon source utilisation profiles, ribotypes, sequencing data of the 16S–23S rRNA internal transcribed region (ITS and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR spectroscopic profiles. The objectives were to compare several identification systems for E. coli and to develop and test a polyphasic taxonomic approach using the four methodologies combined for the sub-typing of O157 and non-O157 E. coli. The nucleotide sequences of the 16S–23S rRNA ITS regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, sequenced and compared with reference data available at the GenBank database using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST . Additional information comprising the utilisation of carbon sources, riboprint profiles and FT-IR spectra was also collected. The capacity of the methods for the identification and typing of E. coli to species and subspecies levels was evaluated. Data were transformed and integrated to present polyphasic hierarchical clusters and relationships. The study reports the use of an integrated scheme comprising phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic information (carbon source profile, sequencing of the 16S–23S rRNA ITS, ribotyping and FT-IR spectroscopy for a more precise characterisation and identification of E. coli. The results showed that identification of E. coli strains by each individual method was limited mainly by the extension and quality of reference databases. On the contrary, the polyphasic approach, whereby heterogeneous taxonomic data were combined and weighted, improved the identification results, gave more consistency to the final clustering and provided additional information on the taxonomic structure and phenotypic behaviour of strains, as shown by the close clustering of strains with similar stress resistance patterns.

  3. Multilocus sequence typing identifies evidence for recombination and two distinct lineages of Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Frances; Cassiday, Pamela; Tondella, Maria Lucia; Dezoysa, Aruni; Efstratiou, Androulla; Sing, Andreas; Zasada, Aleksandra; Bernard, Kathryn; Guiso, Nicole; Badell, Edgar; Rosso, Marie-Laure; Baldwin, Adam; Dowson, Christopher

    2010-11-01

    We describe the development of a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the causative agent of the potentially fatal upper respiratory disease diphtheria. Global changes in diphtheria epidemiology are highlighted by the recent epidemic in the former Soviet Union (FSU) and also by the emergence of nontoxigenic strains causing atypical disease. Although numerous techniques have been developed to characterize C. diphtheriae, their use is hindered by limited portability and, in some instances, poor reproducibility. One hundred fifty isolates from 18 countries and encompassing a period of 50 years were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Strain discrimination was in accordance with previous ribotyping data, and clonal complexes associated with disease outbreaks were clearly identified by MLST. The data produced are portable, reproducible, and unambiguous. The MLST scheme described provides a valuable tool for monitoring and characterizing endemic and epidemic C. diphtheriae strains. Furthermore, multilocus sequence analysis of the nucleotide data reveals two distinct lineages within the population of C. diphtheriae examined, one of which is composed exclusively of biotype belfanti isolates and the other of multiple biotypes.

  4. Clostridium difficile-ribotype 027 er en udfordring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Trine Nyboe; Ravn, Pernille; Skinhøj, Ida Elisabeth Gjørup

    2014-01-01

    Infection with Clostridium difficile is the primary infective cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. In 2008, a major outbreak of CD027 took place in North Zealand, Denmark. We described this infection in a single medical department. Patients positive for C. difficile enlisted at Medical...

  5. Ribotyping of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerner-Smidt, P

    1992-01-01

    The Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex consists of four genotypically distinct but phenotypically very similar bacterial species or DNA groups: A. calcoaceticus (DNA group 1), A. baumannii (DNA group 2), unnamed DNA group 3 (P. J. M. Bouvet and P. A. D. Grimont, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 36:228-240, 1986), and unnamed DNA group 13 (I. Tjernberg and J. Ursing, APMIS 97:595-605, 1989). Because strains in this complex cause nosocomial outbreaks, it is important to be able...

  6. Session Types = Intersection Types + Union Types

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, Luca

    2011-01-01

    We propose a semantically grounded theory of session types which relies on intersection and union types. We argue that intersection and union types are natural candidates for modeling branching points in session types and we show that the resulting theory overcomes some important defects of related behavioral theories. In particular, intersections and unions provide a native solution to the problem of computing joins and meets of session types. Also, the subtyping relation turns out to be a pre-congruence, while this is not always the case in related behavioral theories.

  7. Type-indexed data types

    OpenAIRE

    Hinze, R.; Jeuring, J.T.; Löh, A.

    2004-01-01

    A polytypic function is a function that can be instantiated on many data types to obtain data type specific functionality. Examples of polytypic functions are the functions that can be derived in Haskell, such as show, read, and ‘==’.More advanced examples are functions for digital searching, pattern matching, unification, rewriting, and structure editing. For each of these problems, we not only have to define polytypic functionality, but also a type-indexed data type: a data type that is con...

  8. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching. The ABO Blood Group System ... that provided by the ABO positive/negative blood typing. For example, sometimes if the donor and recipient ...

  9. Blood typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    A blood sample is needed. The test to determine your blood group is called ABO typing. Your blood sample is mixed with antibodies against type A and B blood. Then, the sample is checked to see whether ...

  10. Multilocus sequence typing of 33 clinical Clostridium difficile isolates%33株艰难梭菌临床分离株的多位点序列分型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨靖; 李志荣; 赵建宏; 强翠欣; 李宏; 温海楠; 时东彦; 李继红; 宋文杰

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解我国石家庄地区艰难梭菌临床分离株的多位点序列分型(MLST)情况.方法 回顾性研究.收集2010年7月至2011年12月石家庄市两家医院成人腹泻患者分离的33株艰难梭菌,并对其进行PCR毒素基因检测、PCR核糖体分型和MLST.采用START2系统进行统计学分析.结果 所分离的33株艰难梭菌中共检出10种ST型别(ST2/3/4/35/37/53/54/55/102/172)和12种核糖体型别,其中ST37/S Ⅰ(9/33,占27.3%)和ST54/SⅢ(8/33,占24.2%)是该地区流行的主要型别.ST172是新发现的ST型,已被MLST数据库收录.系统发育分析显示,其中6个ST型(ST2、ST3、ST4、ST53、ST54、ST102)位于一个较大组别,而ST35、ST37、ST55、ST172为零散型别.结论 在石家庄地区医院内成人腹泻患者分离的33株艰难梭菌以ST37和ST54型为主,并且医院间无明显的同源性.%Objective To investigate the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for clinical Clostridium difficile isolates in Shijiazhuang of China.Methods A laboratory-based study was carried out retrospectively to characterize 33 C.difficile strains isolated from diarrhea patients during July 2010 to December 2011 according to toxin types,PCR ribotyping and MLST.START2 system was used to analyze the results.Results Ten ST types (ST 2/3/4/35/37/53/54/55/102/172) and 12 PCR ribotyping were identified in 33 C.difficile strains.The most prevalent ST types and PCR ribotyping were ST37/S Ⅰ (9/33,27.3%) and ST54/SⅢ (8/33,24.2%).ST172 was a new ST type reported firstly in the world,and has been included in the MLST database.Phylogenetic analysis also revealed that 6 STs (ST2,ST3,ST4,ST53,ST54,ST102) were placed in one large group.Genotypes ST35,ST37,ST55,ST172 were considered as singletons.Conclusions The most common ST types for 33 clinical C.difficile strains isolated from Shijiazhuang were ST37 and ST54.No significant homology was found between ST types and hospitals.

  11. Type inference for correspondence types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Gordon, Andy; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    We present a correspondence type/effect system for authenticity in a π-calculus with polarized channels, dependent pair types and effect terms and show how one may, given a process P and an a priori type environment E, generate constraints that are formulae in the Alternating Least Fixed-Point (A...

  12. Type Tricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2017-01-01

    an expert as a typography professor, Sofie Beier knows exactly what the students need to know and how they can improve their skills. ‘Type Tricks’ is not only perfect for students, it also comes in handy for every type designer. It gives them the opportunity to reread information they were thaught at during...

  13. Type-indexed data types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinze, R.; Jeuring, J.T.; Löh, A.

    2002-01-01

    A polytypic function is a function that can be instantiated on many data types to obtain data type specific functionality. Examples of polytypic functions are the functions that can be derived in Haskell, such as show, read, and ‘==’.More advanced examples are functions for digital searching, patter

  14. Første påvisning af Clostridium difficile type 027 i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søes, Lillian M; Brock, Inger; Torpdahl, Mia

    2009-01-01

    Increasing rates of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) with an unusual, severe course have been reported in Canada, USA and several European countries since 2003. A new virulent strain, PCR ribotype 027 (CD027), is associated with this increase. We report the first Danish case...

  15. Pollutant Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the types of air pollutants, including common or criteria pollutants, and hazardous air pollutants and links to additional information. Also links to resources on other air pollution issues.

  16. Multilocus sequence typing of Lactobacillus casei reveals a clonal population structure with low levels of homologous recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diancourt, Laure; Passet, Virginie; Chervaux, Christian; Garault, Peggy; Smokvina, Tamara; Brisse, Sylvain

    2007-10-01

    Robust genotyping methods for Lactobacillus casei are needed for strain tracking and collection management, as well as for population biology research. A collection of 52 strains initially labeled L. casei or Lactobacillus paracasei was first subjected to rplB gene sequencing together with reference strains of Lactobacillus zeae, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and other species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all 52 strains belonged to a single compact L. casei-L. paracasei sequence cluster, together with strain CIP107868 (= ATCC 334) but clearly distinct from L. rhamnosus and from a cluster with L. zeae and CIP103137(T) (= ATCC 393(T)). The strains were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism, multilocus sequence typing based on internal portions of the seven housekeeping genes fusA, ileS, lepA, leuS, pyrG, recA, and recG, and tandem repeat variation (multilocus variable-number tandem repeats analysis [MLVA] using nine loci). Very high concordance was found between the three methods. Although amounts of nucleotide variation were low for the seven genes (pi ranging from 0.0038 to 0.0109), 3 to 12 alleles were distinguished, resulting in 31 sequence types. One sequence type (ST1) was frequent (17 strains), but most others were represented by a single strain. Attempts to subtype ST1 strains by MLVA, ribotyping, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat characterization, and single nucleotide repeat variation were unsuccessful. We found clear evidence for homologous recombination during the diversification of L. casei clones, including a putative intragenic import of DNA into one strain. Nucleotides were estimated to change four times more frequently by recombination than by mutation. However, statistical congruence between individual gene trees was retained, indicating that recombination is not frequent enough to disrupt the phylogenetic signal. The developed multilocus sequence typing scheme should be useful for future studies of L. casei

  17. Multiple Types of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 6 in a Hospital Heated-Water System Associated with Sporadic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visca, Paolo; Goldoni, Paola; Lück, P. Christian; Helbig, Jürgen H.; Cattani, Lorena; Giltri, Giuseppe; Bramati, Simone; Pastoris, Maddalena Castellani

    1999-01-01

    Five sporadic cases of nosocomial Legionnaires’ disease were documented from 1989 to 1997 in a hospital in northern Italy. Two of them, which occurred in a 75-year-old man suffering from ischemic cardiopathy and in an 8-year-old girl suffering from acute leukemia, had fatal outcomes. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 6 was isolated from both patients and from hot-water samples taken at different sites in the hospital. These facts led us to consider the possibility that a single clone of L. pneumophila serogroup 6 had persisted in the hospital environment for 8 years and had caused sporadic infections. Comparison of clinical and environmental strains by monoclonal subtyping, macrorestriction analysis (MRA), and arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) showed that the strains were clustered into three different epidemiological types, of which only two types caused infection. An excellent correspondence between the MRA and AP-PCR results was observed, with both techniques having high discriminatory powers. However, it was not possible to differentiate the isolates by means of ribotyping and analysis of rrn operon polymorphism. Environmental strains that antigenically and chromosomally matched the infecting organism were present at the time of infection in hot-water samples taken from the ward where the patients had stayed. Interpretation of the temporal sequence of events on the basis of the typing results for clinical and environmental isolates enabled the identification of the ward where the patients became infected and the modes of transmission of Legionella infection. The long-term persistence in the hot-water system of different clones of L. pneumophila serogroup 6 indicates that repeated heat-based control measures were ineffective in eradicating the organism. PMID:10364584

  18. Comparative study on the phenotypic characteristics and molecular typing of foodborne Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Guangdong province%广东省食源性副溶血弧菌表型特征与分型比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冬梅; 朱海明; 马聪; 柯碧霞; 方伟; 谭海玲; 李柏生; 邓小玲; 柯昌文

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the phenotypic characteristics of foodbome Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Guangdong province through carrying out a comprehensive comparison including pulse field gel electrophoresis,ribotyping and serotyping.Methods 74 different Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from seafood and cases due to food poisoning in Guangdong province were under serotyping and susceptibility testing,in addition to the testing of direct heat hemolysin(tdh)and the heat hemolysin-related hemolysin hormone(trh)via PCR.Ribosomal genotyping(ribotyping)with EcoR Ⅰ restriction enzyme was utilized on 74 different Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates,whereas pulsed-field gel electrophoresis(PFGE)with the Not Ⅰ restriction enzyme was used on 74 different Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates.BioNumerics software was used to compare the isolates from different sources,times and places in order to elicit the correlation between different strains.Results Although Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 100.00% sensitive to chloramphenicol,it still presented different levels of resistance against 13 other antibiotics.Among the 74 different strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus under testing,24.32% showed positive for the tdh virulence gene,whereas 4.05% positive for trh.74 different Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains were found to belong to 26 serotypes,where the O5:K17 and O2:K28 serotypes were dominant in those isolates that causing seafood-poisoning.The O3:K6 serotype was found to be the dominant of those isolates that causing food-poisoning.Based on ribosomal genotyping,the 74 Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates were divided into 62 different ribotypes,whereas the 74 strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were divided into 67 different PFGE types,thus exhibiting considerable genetic diversities of the strains.Conclusion Majority of the isolates causing food-poisoning carried tdh virulence gene.PFGE was shown to have the highest resolution,followed by ribotyping with serotyping being the lowest

  19. Experimental investigation on phase transformation type micropump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The phase transformation type micropump without moving parts was experimentally studied in this note.To analyze the pumping mechanism of the micropump, a simplified physical model was presented. The experimental results indicate that the pump characteristic is mainly dependent on the heating and cooling conditions. For a given system, there exist an optimal combination of heating current and switch time with which the flow rate reaches maximum. Comparing with the natural cooling, the forced convective cooling needs larger heating current to obtain the same flow rate. In our experiments, the maximum flow rate is 33 μL/min when the inner diameter of the micropump is 200 μm, and the maximum pumping pressure reaches over 20 kPa. The theoretical analysis shows that the pumping mechanism of the micropump mainly lies in the large density difference between liquid and gas phases and the effect of gas chocking.

  20. Type Inference for Guarded Recursive Data Types

    OpenAIRE

    Stuckey, Peter J.; Sulzmann, Martin

    2005-01-01

    We consider type inference for guarded recursive data types (GRDTs) -- a recent generalization of algebraic data types. We reduce type inference for GRDTs to unification under a mixed prefix. Thus, we obtain efficient type inference. Inference is incomplete because the set of type constraints allowed to appear in the type system is only a subset of those type constraints generated by type inference. Hence, inference only succeeds if the program is sufficiently type annotated. We present refin...

  1. type-0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Srinivasa Rao

    2006-01-01

    modular right ideal in a near-ring are initiated. Based on these J0r(R, the right Jacobson radical of type-0 of a near-ring R is introduced. It is obtained that J0r is a radical map and N(R⊆J0r(R, where N(R is the nil radical of a near-ring R. Some characterizations of J0r(R are given and its relation with some of the radicals is also discussed.

  2. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of rRNA genes for molecular typing of members of the family Legionellaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsborg, J M; Gerner-Smidt, P; Colding, H

    1995-01-01

    with four restriction enzymes (HindIII, NciI, ClaI, and PstI). Fifty-eight clinical and environmental L. pneumophila strains including geographically unrelated as well as epidemiologically connected isolates were investigated. Epidemiologically related strains had the same ribotypes independent...

  3. Type Classes for Lightweight Substructural Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Gan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Linear and substructural types are powerful tools, but adding them to standard functional programming languages often means introducing extra annotations and typing machinery. We propose a lightweight substructural type system design that recasts the structural rules of weakening and contraction as type classes; we demonstrate this design in a prototype language, Clamp. Clamp supports polymorphic substructural types as well as an expressive system of mutable references. At the same time, it adds little additional overhead to a standard Damas-Hindley-Milner type system enriched with type classes. We have established type safety for the core model and implemented a type checker with type inference in Haskell.

  4. Guarded dependent type theory with coinductive types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizjak, Aleš; Grathwohl, Hans Bugge; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    , type based, way. Clock quantifiers are used for controlled elimination of the later modality and for encoding coinductive types using guarded recursive types. Key to the development of gDTT are novel type and term formers involving what we call delayed substitutions’. These generalise the applicative...... functor rules for the later modality considered in earlier work, and are crucial for programming and proving with dependent types. We show soundness of the type theory with respect to a denotational model....

  5. Blood Type Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood > Blood Donor Community > Games > Blood Type Game Blood Type Game This feature requires version 6 or later ... many points as possible by matching the appropriate blood type of a donor to the blood type of ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Facts About Type 2 Type 2 diabetes is the ... 2, In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ... Where Do I Begin With Type2? Living With Type 1 Diabetes Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes ...

  8. Epidemiological aspects of group B streptococci of bovine and human origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N. E.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1996-01-01

    restriction enzymes, HindIII and HhaI. All isolates could be typed by ribotyping and seven ribotypes were identified among the reference strains. The restriction enzymes used alone or in combination gave typing results that allowed discrimination between and within serotype. Combined use of serotype, Hind......Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the gene encoding rRNA (ribotyping) was used in combination with conventional epidemiological markers to study phenotypic variations among Streptococcus agalactiae of bovine origin and the possible epidemiological interrelationship between the bovine...

  9. Guarded dependent type theory with coinductive types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizjak, Aleš; Grathwohl, Hans Bugge; Clouston, Ranald;

    2015-01-01

    We present guarded dependent type theory, gDTT, an extensional dependent type theory with a later' modality and clock quantifiers for programming and proving with guarded recursive and coinductive types. The later modality is used to ensure the productivity of recursive definitions in a modular...

  10. Types of Breast Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Breast Pumps Types of Breast Pumps Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... used for feeding a baby. Types of Breast Pumps There are three basic types of breast pumps: ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ways to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type ... To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type ...

  12. Types of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your ... is serious. What are the different types of diabetes? The most common types of diabetes are type ...

  13. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald;

    2016-01-01

    This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type-checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...... terms. CTT provides a computational interpretation of functional extensionality, is conjectured to have decidable type checking, and has an implemented type-checker. Our new type theory, called guarded cubical type theory, provides a computational interpretation of extensionality for guarded recursive...

  14. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald;

    2016-01-01

    This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...... terms. CTT provides a computational interpretation of functional extensionality, enjoys canonicity for the natural numbers type, and is conjectured to support decidable type-checking. Our new type theory, guarded cubical type theory (GCTT), provides a computational interpretation of extensionality...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... August 1, 2013 Last Edited: October 27, 2015 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, In ... Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed ...

  17. Type XI Collagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yunyun

    2016-01-01

    Type XI collagen is a fibrillary collagen. Type XI collagen is broadly distributed in articular cartilage, testis, trachea, tendons, trabecular bone, skeletal muscle, placenta, lung, and the neoepithelium of the brain. Type XI collagen is able to regulate fibrillogenesis by maintaining the spacing...... and diameter of type II collagen fibrils, and a nucleator for the fibrillogenesis of collagen types I and II. Mutations in type XI collagen are associated with Stickler syndrome, Marshall syndrome, fibrochondrogenesis, otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia deafness, and Weissenbacher–Zweymüller syndrome. Type XI...... collagen binds heparin, heparan sulfate, and dermatan sulfate. Currently there are no biomarkers for type XI collagen....

  18. Types and Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Meineche Smidt, Erik

    to have well-known automata analogues, such as language equality, language inclusion, etc. This provides optimal or best known algorithms for the type system, by a process of translating type equations to automata, solving the analogous problem, and translating the result back to type equations. Apart......A hierarchical type system for imperative programming languages gives rise to various computational problems, such as type equivalence, type ordering, etc. We present a particular class of finite automata which are shown to be isomorphic to type equations. All the relevant type concepts turn out...... from suggesting an implementation, this connection lends a certain naturality to our type system. We also introduce a very general form of extended (recursive) type equations which are explained in terms of (monotone) alternating automata. Since types are simply equationally defined trees...

  19. Type checking with open type functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrijvers, Tom; Jones, Simon Peyton; Chakravarty, Manual

    2008-01-01

    We report on an extension of Haskell with open type-level functions and equality constraints that unifies earlier work on GADTs, functional dependencies, and associated types. The contribution of the paper is that we identify and characterise the key technical challenge of entailment checking; an...

  20. Type Classes for Mathematics in Type Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Spitters, Bas

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of first-class type classes in the Coq system calls for re-examination of the basic interfaces used for mathematical formalization in type theory. We present a new set of type classes for mathematics and take full advantage of their unique features to make practical a particularly flexible approach formerly thought infeasible. Thus, we address both traditional proof engineering challenges as well as new ones resulting from our ambition to build upon this development a library of constructive analysis in which abstraction penalties inhibiting efficient computation are reduced to a minimum. The base of our development consists of type classes representing a standard algebraic hierarchy, as well as portions of category theory and universal algebra. On this foundation we build a set of mathematically sound abstract interfaces for different kinds of numbers, succinctly expressed using categorical language and universal algebra constructions. Strategic use of type classes lets us support these high...

  1. Multiparty Asynchronous Session Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honda, Kohei; Yoshida, Nobuko; Carbone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    peers are directly abstracted as a global scenario. Global types retain the friendly type syntax of binary session types while specifying dependencies and capturing complex causal chains of multiparty asynchronous interactions. A global type plays the role of a shared agreement among communication peers...

  2. Custodial Teacher Social Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Joseph W.

    Two types of teacher behavior were elicited from student responses to the Pupil Control Behavior Form (PCB). Two custodial teacher types emerged from the data: the "screamer" type, described as a teacher who controlled pupil behavior with verbal methods that expressed anger or frustration; and the "cold fish" type, depicted as a teacher who…

  3. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald;

    2016-01-01

    This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning with co...

  4. Vermin on pig farms are vectors for Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes 078 and 045

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.; Siemeling, L.; Kuijper, E.J.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a gram positive, spore forming, toxin producing, anaerobic bacteria and an opportunistic pathogen for Man and many animal species, causing diarrhea in young piglets. Piglets probably become colonized from the environment. To investigate the possible spread and transmission

  5. Automated ribotyping and antibiotic resistance determining of Bacillus spp from conjunctiva of diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertaç Argun Kıvanç

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: Diabetic patients seem to be more prone to B. cereus infections than healthy individuals. It would be greatly beneficial to understand and recognize the prevalence of microorganisms and their resistance patterns for better outcome in ocular surgeries.

  6. Routine disc diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Clostridium difficile and association with PCR ribotype 027

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, H M; Danielsen, T K; Justesen, U S

    2015-01-01

    Reduced susceptibility to metronidazole and vancomycin in Clostridium difficile has been reported, which emphasises the need for simple antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods. The aim of this study was to apply a published disc diffusion method and zone diameter breakpoint correlates...... diameters than non-027 isolates. The disc diffusion method is very simple and inexpensive, and the published zone diameter breakpoints will detect C. difficile isolates with reduced susceptibility to metronidazole and vancomycin....

  7. Vermin on pig farms are vectors for Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes 078 and 045

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.; Siemeling, L.; Kuijper, E.J.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a gram positive, spore forming, toxin producing, anaerobic bacteria and an opportunistic pathogen for Man and many animal species, causing diarrhea in young piglets. Piglets probably become colonized from the environment. To investigate the possible spread and transmission o

  8. Breast Cancer Types: What Your Type Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumor. Using a tissue sample from your breast biopsy or using your tumor if you've already undergone surgery, your medical team determines your breast cancer type. This information helps your doctor decide which treatment ...

  9. Multiparty Symmetric Sum Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Yoshida, Nobuko; Honda, Kohei

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new theory of multiparty session types based on symmetric sum types, by which we can type non-deterministic orchestration choice behaviours. While the original branching type in session types can represent a choice made by a single participant and accepted by others...... determining how the session proceeds, the symmetric sum type represents a choice made by agreement among all the participants of a session. Such behaviour can be found in many practical systems, including collaborative workflow in healthcare systems for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Processes...... with the symmetric sums can be embedded into the original branching types using conductor processes. We show that this type-driven embedding preserves typability, satisfies semantic soundness and completeness, and meets the encodability criteria adapted to the typed setting. The theory leads to an efficient...

  10. Advances in Blood Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishy, N; Sapatnekar, S

    The clinical importance of blood group antigens relates to their ability to evoke immune antibodies that are capable of causing hemolysis. The most important antigens for safe transfusion are ABO and D (Rh), and typing for these antigens is routinely performed for patients awaiting transfusion, prenatal patients, and blood donors. Typing for other blood group antigens, typically of the Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood groups, is sometimes necessary, for patients who have, or are likely to develop antibodies to these antigens. The most commonly used typing method is serological typing, based on hemagglutination reactions against specific antisera. This method is generally reliable and practical for routine use, but it has certain drawbacks. In recent years, molecular typing has emerged as an alternative or supplemental typing method. It is based on detecting the polymorphisms and mutations that control the expression of blood group antigens, and using this information to predict the probable antigen type. Molecular typing methods are useful when traditional serological typing methods cannot be used, as when a patient has been transfused and the sample is contaminated with red blood cells from the transfused blood component. Moreover, molecular typing methods can precisely identify clinically significant variant antigens that cannot be distinguished by serological typing; this capability has been exploited for the resolution of typing discrepancies and shows promise for the improved transfusion management of patients with sickle cell anemia. Despite its advantages, molecular typing has certain limitations, and it should be used in conjunction with serological methods.

  11. Land Type Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an inventory of the number of acres of various land types found at Kenai National Moose Range. Forestlands are the predominant land type, followed by tundra,...

  12. Blood Type Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  13. Unlocking Personality Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieger, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    This article examines some of the intricacies of personality types and their effect on career choices. Proposes that knowing students' Myers-Briggs personality types can help school counselors guide them down the right career path. (GCP)

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home ... Care of Type 2 Diabetes This two-page introduction to type 2 diabetes is in PDF format ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... instead of going into cells, it can cause two problems: Right away, your cells may be starved ... Materials — Taking Care of Type 2 Diabetes This two-page introduction to type 2 diabetes is in ...

  16. Types of Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Cardiomyopathy The types of cardiomyopathy include: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Dilated ... cardiomyopathy Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy Unclassified ... Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is very common and can affect ...

  17. Types of Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colitis? > Types of Ulcerative Colitis Types of Ulcerative Colitis Email Print + Share If you are diagnosed with ... abdomen may occur in active disease. Left-sided Colitis Continuous inflammation that begins at the rectum and ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People Working to Stop Diabetes Common Terms Diabetes Statistics Infographics Living with Diabetes Home Recently Diagnosed Where ... Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... to later on. Some groups have a higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes than others. Type ...

  20. Types of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  1. Types of Hemolytic Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Hemolytic Anemia There are many types of hemolytic anemia. The ... the condition, but you develop it. Inherited Hemolytic Anemias With inherited hemolytic anemias, one or more of ...

  2. Different Types of Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Different types of lupus Lupus Foundation of America February 24, 2017 Resource ... lupus. Learn more about each type below. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic lupus is the most common form ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More ... Generation of Brilliant Researchers Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Online We Support Your Doctor Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient ...

  4. Unlocking Personality Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieger, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    This article examines some of the intricacies of personality types and their effect on career choices. Proposes that knowing students' Myers-Briggs personality types can help school counselors guide them down the right career path. (GCP)

  5. Types of chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000910.htm Types of chemotherapy To use the sharing features on this page, ... or on cancer cells. How Doctors Choose Your Chemotherapy The type and dose of chemotherapy your doctor ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being active. But, your doctor may need ...

  7. Refining Inductive Types

    CERN Document Server

    Atkey, Robert; Ghani, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Dependently typed programming languages allow sophisticated properties of data to be expressed within the type system. Of particular use in dependently typed programming are indexed types that refine data by computationally useful information. For example, the N-indexed type of vectors refines lists by their lengths. Other data types may be refined in similar ways, but programmers must produce purpose-specific refinements on an ad hoc basis, developers must anticipate which refinements to include in libraries, and implementations must often store redundant information about data and their refinements. In this paper we show how to generically derive inductive characterisations of refinements of inductive types, and argue that these characterisations can alleviate some of the aforementioned difficulties associated with ad hoc refinements. Our characterisations also ensure that standard techniques for programming with and reasoning about inductive types are applicable to refinements, and that refinements can the...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Americans/Pacific Islanders, as well as the aged population. Patient Education Materials — Taking Care of Type 2 ... 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  10. Diabetes Type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not ... You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, obese, have a family ...

  11. Osteogenesis imperfecta type V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, Frank; Moffatt, Pierre; Cheung, Moira;

    2013-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type V is an autosomal dominant bone fragility disorder that we had described a decade ago. Recent research has shown that OI type V is caused by a recurrent c.-14C>T mutation in IFITM5. In the present study, we assessed all patients diagnosed with OI type V at our...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll in ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse over time – even if you don’t need medications at first, you may need to later on. Some groups have a higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes than others. Type 2 diabetes is more common ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight ... About Type 2 Enroll in the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 ... zone with Tough Mudder! Learn More: Take Ryan’s Challenge - 2017-03-d2sd.html Learn More Take Ryan’s ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My ... Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy ...

  17. Type Systems for Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Ebbe; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Sangiorgi, Davide

    of controls and a set of reaction rules, collectively a bigraphical reactive system (BRS). Possible advantages of developing bigraphical type systems include: a deeper understanding of a type system itself and its properties; transfer of the type systems to the concrete family of calculi that the BRS models...

  18. Types of Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Tate; Nicholas, Amy; Ruggiero, Tony; Blandford, William; Thayer, Sara; Bull, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    There are several types of data systems that support data from Part C/619 programs. Although the system types have similarities, each has its own unique characteristics and purposes. The attributes that make one type of data system a particularly good fit for one data-related need or function can be less desirable for another need or function. In…

  19. Types of Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Tate; Nicholas, Amy; Ruggiero, Tony; Blandford, William; Thayer, Sara; Bull, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    There are several types of data systems that support data from Part C/619 programs. Although the system types have similarities, each has its own unique characteristics and purposes. The attributes that make one type of data system a particularly good fit for one data-related need or function can be less desirable for another need or function. In…

  20. Guarded Type Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    2011-01-01

    conditional using the instanceof operator and thus the cast type is redundantly mentioned twice. We propose a new typing rule for Java called Guarded Type Promotion aimed at eliminating the need for the explicit casts when guarded. This new typing rule is backward compatible and has been fully implemented...... in a Java 6 compiler. Through our extensive testing of real-life code we show that guarded casts account for approximately one fourth of all casts and that Guarded Type Promotion can eliminate the need for 95 percent of these guarded casts....

  1. Improving Precision of Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    Types in programming languages provide a powerful tool for the programmer to document the code so that a large aspect of the intent can not only be presented to fellow programmers but also be checked automatically by compilers. The precision with which types model the behavior of programs...... is crucial to the quality of these automated checks, and in this thesis we present three different improvements to the precision of types in three different aspects of the Java programming language. First we show how to extend the type system in Java with a new type which enables the detection of unintended...... mixing of unrelated types. Secondly, we present an improvement of the type checking algorithm in Java which enables the compiler to detect and ease the use of a common programming idiom called guarded casts. Thirdly, we present an improvement of the precision with which classes generated by a parser...

  2. Typing Manuscripts and Reports. Typing 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederland Independent School District, TX.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 13. SUBJECT MATTER: Typing manuscripts and reports. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The introductory material contains general instructions on spacing, margins, and paging. The main text contains 32 manuscripts which are varied according to arrangement and length. The guide is lithographed and spiral bound with a soft…

  3. Interactions between Child Types and Classroom Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Daniel; Kendall, Arthur J.

    Research is described which explores the hypothesis that different classroom situations may be optimal for different individuals. The approach used cluster analysis to identify student and classroom "types" whose interactions were then examined in an analysis of variance framework. About 1,300 fourth graders from 50 classrooms were involved in the…

  4. Mastering TypeScript

    CERN Document Server

    Rozentals, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Whether you are a JavaScript developer aiming to learn TypeScript, or an experienced TypeScript developer wanting to take your skills to the next level, this book is for you. From basic to advanced language constructs, test-driven development, and object-oriented techniques, you will learn how to get the most out of the TypeScript language.

  5. Types of biological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayya, Shreemathi S; Monteiro, Ashma D; Ganapathy, Sachit

    2017-06-01

    Identification and description of variables used in any study is a necessary component in biomedical research. Statistical analyses rely on the type of variables that are involved in the study. In this short article, we introduce the different types of biological variables. A researcher has to be familiar with the type of variable he/she is dealing with in his/her research to decide about appropriate graphs/diagrams, summary measures and statistical analysis.

  6. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  7. Tukey types of ultrafilters

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrinen, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the structure of the Tukey types of ultrafilters on countable sets partially ordered by reverse inclusion. A canonization of cofinal maps from a p-point into another ultrafilter is obtained. This is used in particular to study the Tukey types of p-points and selective ultrafilters. Results fall into three main categories: comparison to a basis element for selective ultrafilters, embeddings of chains and antichains into the Tukey types, and Tukey types generated by block-basic ultrafilters on FIN.

  8. Types of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Foreign aid is given for many purposes and different intentions, yet most studies treat aid flows as a unitary concept. This paper uses factor analysis to separate aid flows into different types. The main types can be interpreted as aid for economic purposes, social purposes, and reconstruction......; a residual category captures remaining purposes. Estimating the growth effects of separable types of aid suggests that most aid has no effects while reconstruction aid has direct positive effects. Although this type only applies in special circumstances, it has become more prevalent in more recent years....

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stop Diabetes at School Tour de Cure Women's Series Destination Races Do-It-Yourself Fundraising Become a ... Chat Closed engagement en -- Free Type 2 Education Series - 2017-06-free-type-2-education-series.html ...

  10. Beyond Type D personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelle, Aline J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Szabó, Balázs M

    2009-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important.......Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important....

  11. Types of OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a spontaneous mutation. Spontaneous mutations are common. Biochemical tests on cultured skin fibroblasts show a lower-than-normal amount of type I collagen. Collagen structure is normal. People with OI Type I experience the psychological burden of appearing normal and healthy to the ...

  12. Diabetes Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is ... kidneys, nerves, and gums and teeth. Type 1 diabetes happens most often in children and young adults ...

  13. Molecular Typing and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this chapter, general background and bench protocols are provided for a number of molecular typing techniques in common use today. Methods for the molecular typing and differentiation of microorganisms began to be widely adopted following the development of the polymerase chai...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Books for Practitioners Professional Membership Please Join Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible ... Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About ...

  15. Types of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Types of Heart Failure Updated:Feb 9,2017 Left-sided heart failure ... making. This content was last reviewed April 2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure Introduction Types of Heart ...

  16. Beyond Type D personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelle, Aline J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Szabó, Balázs M

    2009-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important.......Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important....

  17. Types of Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood and the bone marrow look under the microscope. One type is defined by a certain chromosome change in ... are low. In the bone marrow, those same types of cells look abnormal under the microscope (dysplasia). Ringed sideroblasts may or may not be ...

  18. Typed links in Webvise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    We extended the Webvise open hypermedia system with support for typed links.  The ECDL'99 paper describes these extensions.......We extended the Webvise open hypermedia system with support for typed links.  The ECDL'99 paper describes these extensions....

  19. Flash-Type Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  20. Personality types of dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, G H; Grandy, T G; Erskine, C G

    1991-12-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was used to determine the personality types of dental graduates, 1964-1984, from Creighton University, School of Dentistry. The MBTI reveals the strength and nature of preferences along four dimensions: extraversion-introversion, sensing-intuition, thinking-feeling, and judging-perceptive. In sample (N = 472), four personality types: ISTJ (108), ESTJ (66), ISFJ (48), and ENTJ (37), accounted for 54.9% (N = 259) of the dentists. The remaining 45.1% (N = 213) were divided among 12 personality types without any type accounting for more than 6.1% (N = 29). Comparisons with a general population (N = 9,320) revealed that the dental sample included more introverts (58.9%), thinkers (65.9%) and judgers (75.0%). The implications of personality characteristics, as applied to dentistry through communication patterns, relationships with co-workers and management styles were discussed.

  1. Blood-type distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom Jun; Myeong Lee, Dong; Hun Lee, Sung; Gim, Wan-Suk

    2007-01-01

    We statistically verify the Hardy-Weinberg principle in genetics by investigating the independence of ABO-blood types of married couples. The allelic frequencies derived from the phenotypic frequencies in ethnic groups via the Hardy-Weinberg principle are used to define a genetic distance (called the blood distance in this work) between two groups. The blood distances are compared with the geographic distances, and then used to construct a network of ethnic groups. We also investigate the relationship between the ABO blood types and the human personalities, gauged by the Myers-Briggs-type indicator (MBTI) psychological test. The statistical χ2-test reveals the independence between the blood types and MBTI results with an exception of type B males. A psychological implication is discussed.

  2. New mutation type in pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rebollo, Eduardo; Barrio, Raquel; Pérez-Nanclares, Gustavo; Carcavilla, Atilano; Garin, Intza; Castaño, Luis; de Nanclares, Guiomar Pérez

    2008-11-01

    The GNAS gene encodes the alpha-subunit of the stimulatory G proteins, which play a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction of peptide and neurotransmitter receptors. Heterozygous inactivating maternally inherited mutations of GNAS (including translation initiation mutations, amino acid substitutions, nonsense mutations, splice site mutations and small insertions or deletions) lead to a phenotype in which Albright hereditary osteodystrophy is associated with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia. We sought to identify the molecular defect in a patient who was thought to have PHP-Ia. The GNAS gene of a 5-year-old boy with brachydactily, mental retardation, pseudohypoparathyroidism and congenital hypothyroidism was investigated. We found a heterozygous inversion of exon 2 and part of intron 1 of de novo origin. Molecular studies of cDNA from blood RNA demonstrated that both the normal and the mutant variants were stable and that new splice-sites were generated. This report demonstrates the first evidence for an inversion at the GNAS gene responsible of pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia.

  3. Parametric Compositional Data Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hvitved, Tom

    2012-01-01

    In previous work we have illustrated the benefits that compositional data types (CDTs) offer for implementing languages and in general for dealing with abstract syntax trees (ASTs). Based on Swierstra's data types \\'a la carte, CDTs are implemented as a Haskell library that enables the definition...... of recursive data types and functions on them in a modular and extendable fashion. Although CDTs provide a powerful tool for analysing and manipulating ASTs, they lack a convenient representation of variable binders. In this paper we remedy this deficiency by combining the framework of CDTs with Chlipala...

  4. Type 2 diabetes models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Dorte Xenia

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with type 2 diabetes in vivo models and techniques suitable for testing new anti-diabetic compounds. In particular, the testing of TRP antagonist for beneficial effects against type 2 diabetes is considered. There are many choices of both in vitro techniques and in vivo models......, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin secretion, and insulin resistance in vivo and should, thus, be sufficient to demonstrate preclinical proof of concept of a TRP antagonist in type 2 diabetes in rodents. The experiments are suggestions and could be replaced or supplemented by others....

  5. Griscelli syndrome type-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bela J Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Griscelli syndrome (GS is a rare autosomal recessive multisystem disorder of pigmentary dilution of skin, silver gray hair, variable immunodeficiency, neurological impairment, and abnormal accumulation of melanosomes in melanocytes. GS type 3 is characterized by hypomelanosis with no immunological and neurological manifestation. Prognosis is very good in type 3 GS and usually require no active intervention, as opposed to type 1 and 2 where early diagnosis and treatment plays a crucial role in patient's survival. The characteristic phenotypic appearance, especially the pigment dilution of the patient's hair, is emphasized here.

  6. Making Type Inference Practical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Oxhøj, Nicholas; Palsberg, Jens

    1992-01-01

    We present the implementation of a type inference algorithm for untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. The algorithm significantly improves our previous one, presented at OOPSLA'91, since it can handle collection classes, such as List, in a useful way. Abo....... Experiments indicate that the implementation type checks as much as 100 lines pr. second. This results in a mature product, on which a number of tools can be based, for example a safety tool, an image compression tool, a code optimization tool, and an annotation tool. This may make type inference for object...

  7. Type-II Leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jihn E

    2016-01-01

    I will talk on our new theory on baryogenesis through type-II leptogenesis which is different from the well-known type-I leptogenesis. I will comment on the Jarlskog phases, $\\delta_{\\rm CKM}$ and $\\delta_{\\rm PMNS}$, in the CKM and PMNS matrices. In the type-II leptogenesis, the PMNS phase is used for Sakharov's condition on the global quantum number generation in the Universe. For this to be effective, the SU(2)$\\times$U(1) gauge symmetry must be broken during the leptogenesis epoch.

  8. The type III manufactory

    CERN Document Server

    Palcoux, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Using unusual objects in the theory of von Neumann algebra, as the chinese game Go or the Conway game of life (generalized on finitely presented groups), we are able to build, by hands, many type III factors.

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being ... 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Control Complications Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Enroll in the ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... Type 2 Diabetes Program Food & Fitness Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity ...

  13. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension The World Health Organization divides pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... are called pulmonary hypertension.) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 PAH includes: PAH that has no ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program Gestational What is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Genetics ... battle diabetes and every 23 seconds someone new is diagnosed. Diabetes causes more deaths a year than ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... medications or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse ...

  17. Type VI secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Dor; Orth, Kim

    2015-03-30

    Bacteria employ a variety of tools to survive in a competitive environment. Salomon and Orth describe one such tool-the Type 6 Secretion Systems used by bacteria to deliver a variety of toxins into competing cells.

  18. Types of Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... are some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Funding the Next Generation of Brilliant Researchers Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Online We Support Your Doctor Clinical ... Type 2 Diabetes Recipes for Healthy Living Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Shop Diabetes » Close nonprofit software

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being ... 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Control Complications Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Enroll in the ...

  1. Description of vegetation types

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides descriptions of five vegetation types found in Iowa- oak savannah, mature hardwoods, floodplain woods, scrub woods, and riparian woods. Oak...

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type ... time Give monthly Give in honor Give in memory Donate Now Why Give? Nearly 30 million battle ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an Employer Options for the Uninsured Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life ... form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, ... starved for energy. Over time, high blood glucose levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Living WIth Type 2 Diabetes Program In It Together We Can Help Center for Information Legal ... Tour de Cure Women's Series Destination Races Do-It-Yourself Fundraising Become a Volunteer American Diabetes Month® ...

  7. Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Anders; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2001-01-01

    Prediction of Type 1 diabetes at individual level is relevant for any possible intervention before clinical disease develops. Currently available markers of Type 1 diabetes include genetic specificities and immune markers, in addition to a positive family history. This chapter reviews the measures...... and methods of importance in predicting Type 1 diabetes. Based on numerical examples it is demonstrated that available markers have a low level of performance, even when combined. Even so, combined marker information may allow for the identification of the large majority of the general population who...... is at very low disease risk. The impact at population level of predicting Type 1 diabetes varies between societies because the performance of markers depends on levels of disease risk and distribution of markers within a population. The incorporation of the influence of non-genetic etiological factors may...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home ... 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ... EXPO Volunteer Opportunities Sponsorship and Exhibit Opportunities Camp Learning at Camp Find a Camp Fundraising Events Step ...

  10. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  11. Types of Crude Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The petroleum industry often classifies these types by geographical source, but the classification scheme here is more useful in a spill cleanup scenario. It indicates general toxicity, physical state, and changes caused by time and weathering.

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In ... Food Recipes Planning Meals What Can I Eat Weight Loss Fitness In My Community Calendar of Events Local ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License ... Find Your Local Office Find your local diabetes education program Calendar of Events Wellness Lives Here Drive ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower ... EXPO Volunteer Opportunities Sponsorship and Exhibit Opportunities Camp Learning at Camp Find a Camp Fundraising Events Step ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Genetics of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in the ... 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 ... Dinners! A year of delicious meals to help prevent and manage diabetes. Healthy Recipes: Build a Better ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  18. Types of Hypotension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drops much lower in shock than in other types of hypotension. Many factors can cause shock. Examples include major blood loss, certain severe ... FEAR ACT OIG CONTACT US National Institutes of Health ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  20. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Program In It Together We Can Help Center for Information Legal Assistance Success Stories ... with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods ...

  1. Facts about Type 2

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    Full Text Available ... to Give Close Are You at Risk? Home Prevention Diagnosing Diabetes and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 ... Dinners! A year of delicious meals to help prevent and manage diabetes. Ways to Give: Show Your ...

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning What Can I ... levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their ...

  3. Types of Heart Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Heart Surgery Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Coronary artery bypass grafting ( ... TAHs) might be used to treat these patients. Surgery To Place Ventricular Assist Devices or Total Artificial ...

  4. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health ... type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, ...

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's ... going into cells, it can cause two problems: Right away, your cells may be starved for energy. ...

  6. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... insulin to keep your blood glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, oral medications (pills), and insulin. When glucose builds up in the blood instead of going into cells, ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C ... Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, oral medications (pills), and insulin. When glucose builds up in ...

  8. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue ... and binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type ... time Give monthly Give in honor Give in memory Donate Now Why Give? Nearly 30 million battle ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for the Uninsured Medicare Medicaid & CHIP For Parents & Kids Safe at School Everyday Life Children and Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals ...

  11. Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Anders; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2001-01-01

    Prediction of Type 1 diabetes at individual level is relevant for any possible intervention before clinical disease develops. Currently available markers of Type 1 diabetes include genetic specificities and immune markers, in addition to a positive family history. This chapter reviews the measures...... and methods of importance in predicting Type 1 diabetes. Based on numerical examples it is demonstrated that available markers have a low level of performance, even when combined. Even so, combined marker information may allow for the identification of the large majority of the general population who...... is at very low disease risk. The impact at population level of predicting Type 1 diabetes varies between societies because the performance of markers depends on levels of disease risk and distribution of markers within a population. The incorporation of the influence of non-genetic etiological factors may...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Learning About Prediabetes Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  13. Parametric compositional data types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hvitved, Tom

    2012-01-01

    In previous work we have illustrated the benefits that compositional data types (CDTs) offer for implementing languages and in general for dealing with abstract syntax trees (ASTs). Based on Swierstra's data types \\'a la carte, CDTs are implemented as a Haskell library that enables the definition...... of recursive data types and functions on them in a modular and extendable fashion. Although CDTs provide a powerful tool for analysing and manipulating ASTs, they lack a convenient representation of variable binders. In this paper we remedy this deficiency by combining the framework of CDTs with Chlipala...... resorting to abstract types: this is crucial when we want to perform transformations on CDTs that inspect the recursively computed CDTs, e.g. constant folding....

  14. Type Families with Class, Type Classes with Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano, Alejandro; Hage, Jurriaan; Bahr, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Type classes and type families are key ingredients in Haskell programming. Type classes were introduced to deal with ad-hoc polymorphism, although with the introduction of functional dependencies, their use expanded to type-level programming. Type families also allow encoding type-level functions...

  15. Types of quantum information

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2007-01-01

    Quantum, in contrast to classical, information theory, allows for different incompatible types (or species) of information which cannot be combined with each other. Distinguishing these incompatible types is useful in understanding the role of the two classical bits in teleportation (or one bit in one-bit teleportation), for discussing decoherence in information-theoretic terms, and for giving a proper definition, in quantum terms, of ``classical information.'' Various examples (some updating...

  16. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  17. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  18. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru

    1997-04-04

    An LMFBR type reactor comprises a plurality of reactor cores in a reactor container. Namely, a plurality of pot containing vessels are disposed in the reactor vessel and a plurality of reactor cores are formed in a state where an integrated-type fuel assembly is each inserted to a pot, and a coolant pipeline is connected to each of the pot containing-vessel to cool the reactor core respectively. When fuels are exchanged, the integrated-type fuel assembly is taken out together with the pot from the reactor vessel in a state where the integrated-type fuel assembly is immersed in the coolants in the pot as it is. Accordingly, coolants are supplied to each of the pot containing-vessel connected with the coolant pipeline and circulate while cooling the integrated-type fuel assembly for every pot. Then, when the fuels are exchanged, the integrated type fuel assembly is taken out to the outside of the reactor together with the pot by taking up the pot from the pot-containing vessel. Then, neutron economy is improved to thereby improve reactor power and the breeding ratio. (N.H.)

  19. [Type 2 diabetes complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlienger, Jean-Louis

    2013-05-01

    People with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of many complications, which are mainly due to complex and interconnected mechanisms such as hyperglycemia, insulino-resistance, low-grade inflammation and accelerated atherogenesis. Cardi-cerebrovascular disease are frequently associated to type 2 diabetes and may become life threatening, particularly coronaropathy, stroke and heart failure. Their clinical picture are sometimes atypical and silencious for a long time. Type 2 diabetes must be considered as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Nephropathy is frequent in type 2 diabetes but has a mixed origin. Now it is the highest cause of end-stage renal disease. Better metabolic and blood pressure control and an improved management of microalbuminuria are able to slowdown the course of the disease. Retinopathy which is paradoxically slightly progressive must however be screened and treated in these rather old patients which are globally at high ophthalmologic risk. Diabetic foot is a severe complication secondary to microangiopathy, microangiopathy and neuropathy. It may be considered as a super-complication of several complications. Its screening must be done on a routine basis. Some cancer may be considered as an emerging complication of type 2 diabetes as well as cognitive decline, sleep apnea syndrome, mood disorders and bone metabolism impairments. Most of the type 2 diabetes complications may be prevented by a strategy combining a systematic screening and multi-interventional therapies.

  20. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Hillaris, Alexander; Nindos, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts which extend to the hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type IV IP bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprised 48 Interplanetary type IV bursts observed by the Wind/WAVES in the 13.825 MHz?20 KHz frequency range. The dynamic spec tra of the RSTN, DAM, ARTEMIS-IV, CULGOORA, Hiraiso and IZMIRAN Radio-spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona; these were supplemented with SXR ?ux recordings from GOES and CME data from LASCO. Positional information for the coronal bursts were obtained by the Nan\\c{c}ay radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs and SXR ?ares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact; their duration was on average 106 min. This type of events were, mostly, associated with M and X class ?ares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs; 32 of these events had CME...

  1. Play the Blood Typing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire The Blood Typing Game What happens if you get a blood ... learn about human blood types! Play the Blood Typing Game About this game Embed the Blood Typing ...

  2. Presence of Clostridium difficile in pig faecal samples and wild animal species associated with pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Lasheras, S; Bolea, R; Mainar-Jaime, R C; Kuijper, E; Sevilla, E; Martín-Burriel, I; Chirino-Trejo, M

    2017-02-01

    To determine the presence of Clostridium difficile on fattening pig farms in north-eastern Spain. Twenty-seven farms were sampled. Pools of pig faecal samples (n = 210), samples of intestinal content from common farm pest species (n = 95) and environment-related samples (n = 93) were collected. Isolates were tested for toxin genes of C. difficile, and typed by PCR-ribotyping and toxinotyping. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of six antimicrobial agents were determined using Etest. Thirty-four isolates were obtained from 12 farms, and 30 (88·2%) had toxin genes. Seven ribotypes were identified. Ribotype 078 and its variant 126 were predominant (52·9%). The same ribotypes were isolated from different animal species on the same farm. None of the isolates were resistant to metronidazole or vancomycin. Clostridium difficile was common within the pig farm environment. Most of the positive samples came from pest species or were pest-related environmental samples. Pest species were colonized with toxigenic and antimicrobial-resistant C. difficile strains of the same ribotypes that are found in humans and pigs. Rodents and pigeons may transmit toxigenic and antimicrobial-resistant C. difficile strains that are of the same ribotypes as those occuring in humans. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Mechanized timbering for faces with artificial Petrosani shield type roofing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koronka, F.

    1979-01-01

    A new type of mechanized shield timbering is described for faces of continuous extraction which can be successfully used at coal mines of the Valya-Zhiuluy (Socialist Republic of Romania) coal beds in working bed 3. The component elements of the metal timbering section are: base frame, inclined curvilinear shield, 2-span curvilinear hinged beam, coupling, 2 extension support rods, hydraulic push rod for moving the main frame into the face and hydraulic cylinder for controlling the discharge coupling. The maximum height of the timbering section is 3.4, the minimum height is 2.7 m, the width of coverage of the section is 0.7 m, the carrier capacity of the section is 1600 kN, working pressure in the hydraulic system is 200 N/cm/sup 2/, the spacing of timbering feed is 0.8 m, natural weight of section 3.5 T. A plan is presented for geometric elements of the timbering and its assemblies with indication of their controllable movement. Results are reported on the experimental tests of the timbering in the mine shafts Lonea and the parameters for quantitative evaluation of the timbering achieved in this case, in particular, diagrams are presented for the change in pressure absorbed by the timbering and reaction of the supports changing with time. Experience has indicated that timbering of the Petrosani type is used efficiently together with extraction combines 2K-52, Ks 1 Kg, Ravageuse and others. The most effective is the use of the described timbering in faces of width 50-60 m. The obtained indicators in technical-economic parameters make it possible to evaluate the Petrosani type timbering on a higher operating level as compared to the imported types of timbering.

  4. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillaris, A.; Bouratzis, C.; Nindos, A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal

  5. Geodesic order types

    OpenAIRE

    Aichholzer, Oswin; Korman Cozzetti, Matías; Pilz, Alexander; Vogtenhuber, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    The geodesic between two points a and b in the interior of a simple polygon P is the shortest polygonal path inside P that connects a to b. It is thus the natural generalization of straight line segments on unconstrained point sets to polygonal environments. In this paper we use this extension to generalize the concept of the order type of a set of points in the Euclidean plane to geodesic order types. In particular, we show that, for any set S of points and an ordered subset of at least four...

  6. Type Inference for Session Types in the Pi-Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Eva Fajstrup; Harbo, Jacob Buchreitz; Huttel, Hans

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a direct algorithm for session type inference for the π-calculus. Type inference for session types has previously been achieved by either imposing limitations and restriction on the π-calculus, or by reducing the type inference problem to that for linear types. Our approach...

  7. Type Inference for Session Types in the Pi-Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Graversen, Eva Fajstrup; Wahl, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a direct algorithm for session type inference for the π-calculus. Type inference for session types has previously been achieved by either imposing limitations and restriction on the π-calculus, or by reducing the type inference problem to that for linear types. Our approa...

  8. TypeScript essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Nance, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The book introduces the TypeScript language and its features to anyone looking to develop rich web applications. Whether you are new to web development or are an experienced engineer with strong JavaScript skills, this book will get you writing code quickly. A basic understanding of JavaScript and its language features are necessary for this book.

  9. Compositional data types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hvitved, Tom

    2011-01-01

    a wide array of recursion schemes including monadic computations. Above all, we generalise recursive data types to contexts, which allow us to characterise a special yet frequent kind of catamorphisms. The thus established notion of term homomorphisms allows for flexible reuse and enables short...

  10. Compiling with Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    ogy and Theoretical Computer Science 1993, Bombay, New York, 1993. Springer-Verlag. Extended abstract. [17] E. Biagioni . Sequence types for functional...FOX-95-06. [18] E. Biagioni , R. Harper, P. Lee, and B. Milnes. Signatures for a network protocol stack: A systems application of Standard ML. In ACM

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... first, you may need to later on. Some groups have a higher risk for developing type 2 ... function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == ' ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  13. Simply—typed Underdeterminism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EwenDenney

    1998-01-01

    An extension of the simply-typed lambda calculus with constructs for expressing a notion called underdeterminism is studied.This allows us to interpret notions of stud and skeleton used in top-down program development.We axionatise a simple notion of program refinement,and give a semantics,for which the calculus is proved sound and complete.

  14. Compositional data types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hvitved, Tom

    2011-01-01

    -cut fusion style deforestation which yields considerable speedups. We demonstrate our framework in the setting of compiler construction, and moreover, we compare compositional data types with generic programming techniques and show that both are comparable in run-time performance and expressivity while our...

  15. Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeFronzo, Ralph A; Ferrannini, Ele; Groop, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an expanding global health problem, closely linked to the epidemic of obesity. Individuals with T2DM are at high risk for both microvascular complications (including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (such as cardiovascular...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... conversation about type 2 diabetes. Shopdiabetes.org: Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! - 2017-03-book-oclock-scramble.html Shopdiabetes.org Your Stress-Free System for Family Dinners! A year of ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professional Books Patient Access to Research Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our ... most common form of diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, ...

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... levels may hurt your eyes, kidneys, nerves or heart. Some people with type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being active. But, your doctor may need to also prescribe oral medications or insulin to help you meet your target ...

  19. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  20. TWO TYPES OF EDUCATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫子辰

    2015-01-01

    <正>The education has a significant impact not only on individuals but also on the nation.There are two types of education,one is student-central,and the other keeps a watchful eye on the marks.Which one is better on earth?The following is my viewpoint.

  1. Plaque Type Blue Naevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sentamilselvi G

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of plaque type blue naevus was encountered in a Dermatology Clinic in Madras. The various clinical differential diagnoses are discussed, the hitopathological features described and the benign nature of the tumour stressed. The case is reported for its rarity and to create an awareness of this entity.

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & ...

  3. Compositional data types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hvitved, Tom

    2011-01-01

    -cut fusion style deforestation which yields considerable speedups. We demonstrate our framework in the setting of compiler construction, and moreover, we compare compositional data types with generic programming techniques and show that both are comparable in run-time performance and expressivity while our...

  4. [C4 type photosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozak, Anna; Wasilewska, Wioleta; Buczyńska, Alicja; Romanowska, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    C4 photosynthesis includes several anatomical and biochemical modifications that allow plants to concentrate CO2 at the site of Rubisco. The photorespiratory pathway is repressed in C4 plants, since the rates of photosynthesis and biomass production are increased. This is an adaptation to high light intensities, high temperatures and dryness. C4 plants contain two distinct types of photosynthetic cells, mesophyll and bundle sheath. The processes of assimilation and reduction of CO2 are separated spatiality and catayzed by two different enzymes. Only the bundle sheath chloroplasts perform the reactions of the Calvin-Benson cycle with the help of the Rubisco enzyme present exclusively in this cell type. The primary CO2 fixation occurs in mesophyll cells through the action of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. The light-dependent reactions of the photosynthesis occur exclusively in the latter cell type. These differences in photochemistry lead to distinct redox profiles in both types of cells. C4 plants are divided into three biochemical subtypes on the basis of differences in the mechanisms of decarboxylation of the C4 acids. C4 plants will provide the main source of food for humans and animals in the nearest decade.

  5. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices ...

  6. Teaching to the Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Maggie

    2008-01-01

    Before she became an art teacher, the author relates that she worked at a graphic design agency and there she learned to fully appreciate typefaces and how they influence messages. In the years that she taught middle school art, the author has incorporated some basics of type design into her graphics unit, along with calligraphy, printmaking, and…

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... org > Diabetes Basics > Type 2 Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Facts ... 2 Recently Diagnosed Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Control Complications Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Enroll ... Cost of Diabetes Advocate Toolkit Call to Congress Research & ...

  8. Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... glucose, the body uses alternative fuels stored in muscle and fat. Calories are lost as excess glucose is released ... are. Age. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases as you get older, ... tend to exercise less, lose muscle mass and gain weight as they age. But ...

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for ... But, your doctor may need to also prescribe oral medications or insulin to help you meet your target blood glucose levels. Type 2 usually gets worse ... Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics ...

  10. [Definition of shock types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, H A; Baumann, G; Gänsslen, A; Janssens, U; Knoefel, W; Koch, T; Marx, G; Müller-Werdan, U; Pape, H C; Prange, W; Roesner, D; Standl, T; Teske, W; Werner, G; Zander, R

    2001-11-01

    Definitions of shock types. Hypovolaemic shock is a state of insufficient perfusion of vital organs with consecutive imbalance of oxygen supply and demand due to an intravascular volume deficiency with critically impaired cardiac preload. Subtypes are haemorrhagic shock, hypovolaemic shock in the narrow sense, traumatic-haemorrhagic shock and traumatic-hypovolaemic shock. Cardiac shock is caused by a primary critical cardiac pump failure with consecutive inadequate oxygen supply of the organism. Anaphylactic shock is an acute failure of blood volume distribution (distributive shock) and caused by IgE-dependent, type-I-allergic, classical hypersensibility, or a physically, chemically, or osmotically induced IgE-independent anaphylactoid hypersensibility. The septic shock is a sepsis-induced distribution failure of the circulating blood volume in the sense of a distributive shock. The neurogenic shock is a distributive shock induced by generalized and extensive vasodilatation with consecutive hypovolaemia due to an imbalance of sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of vascular smooth muscles.

  11. Action Type Deontic Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2014-01-01

    A new deontic logic, Action Type Deontic Logic, is presented. To motivate this logic, a number of benchmark cases are shown, representing inferences a deontic logic should validate. Some of the benchmark cases are singled out for further comments and some formal approaches to deontic reasoning ar...... the benchmarks. Finally, possibilities for further research are indicated. In the appendix, decidability of the satisfiability of formulas is proved via a technique known from monadic First Order Logic....

  12. Types of Ubiquitin Ligases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreale, Francesca Ester; Walden, Helen

    2016-03-24

    Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification of proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes. Ubiquitination requires the sequential action of three enzymes: E1 (ubiquitin-activating enzymes), E2 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes), and E3 (ubiquitin ligases). This SnapShot highlights the main types of E3 ubiquitin ligases, which can be classified in three families depending on the presence of characteristic domains and on the mechanism of ubiquitin transfer to the substrate protein.

  13. Types du Caucase

    OpenAIRE

    Makhacheva, Taus

    2015-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "Types du Caucase - antique postcard collection/ 2013 to the present time. Coming from the personal archive of the artist, these postcards date back to the 19th century and can be considered representative for the "popularized ethnography" of the Russian Empire. Their primitive typology follows the classical rules of exotization : they depict "pittoresque" groups from various tribes, families or nationalities, or representatives of diverse professions. ...

  14. Unobscured Type 2 AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Yong; Smith, Paul; Rigby, Jane; Hines, Dean; Donley, Jennifer; Schmidt, Gary; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M; 10.1088/0004-637X/714/1/115

    2010-01-01

    Type 2 AGNs with intrinsically weak broad emission lines (BELs) would be exceptions to the unified model. After examining a number of proposed candidates critically, we find that the sample is contaminated significantly by objects with BELs of strengths indicating that they actually contain intermediate-type AGNs, plus a few Compton-thick sources as revealed by extremely low ratios of X-ray to nuclear IR luminosities. We develop quantitative metrics that show two (NGC 3147 and NGC 4594) of the remaining candidates to have BELs 2-3 orders of magnitude weaker than those of typical type-1 AGNs. Several more galaxies remain as candidates to have anomalously weak BELs, but this status cannot be confirmed with the existing information. Although the parent sample is poorly defined, the two confirmed objects are well under 1% of its total number of members, showing that the absence of a BEL is possible, but very uncommon in AGN. We evaluate these two objects in detail using multi-wavelength measurements. They have li...

  15. Beyond trial types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrholm, Mads; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-05-01

    Conventional wisdom on psychological experiments has held that when one or more independent variables are manipulated it is essential that all other conditions are kept constant such that confounding factors can be assumed negligible (Woodworth, 1938). In practice, the latter assumption is often questionable because it is generally difficult to guarantee that all other conditions are constant between any two trials. Therefore, the most common way to check for confounding violations of this assumption is to split the experimental conditions in terms of "trial types" to simulate a reduction of unintended trial-by-trial variation. Here, we pose a method which is more general than the use of trial types: use of mathematical models treating measures of potentially confounding factors and manipulated variables as equals on the single-trial level. We show how the method can be applied with models that subsume under the generalized linear item response theory (GLIRT), which is the case for most of the well-known psychometric models (Mellenbergh, 1994). As an example, we provide a new analysis of a single-letter recognition experiment using a nested likelihood ratio test that treats manipulated and measured variables equally (i.e., in exactly the same way) on the single-trial level. The test detects a confounding interaction with time-on-task as a single-trial measure and yields a substantially better estimate of the effect size of the main manipulation compared with an analysis made in terms of trial types.

  16. Type Safe Extensible Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Wonseok

    2009-10-01

    Software products evolve over time. Sometimes they evolve by adding new features, and sometimes by either fixing bugs or replacing outdated implementations with new ones. When software engineers fail to anticipate such evolution during development, they will eventually be forced to re-architect or re-build from scratch. Therefore, it has been common practice to prepare for changes so that software products are extensible over their lifetimes. However, making software extensible is challenging because it is difficult to anticipate successive changes and to provide adequate abstraction mechanisms over potential changes. Such extensibility mechanisms, furthermore, should not compromise any existing functionality during extension. Software engineers would benefit from a tool that provides a way to add extensions in a reliable way. It is natural to expect programming languages to serve this role. Extensible programming is one effort to address these issues. In this thesis, we present type safe extensible programming using the MLPolyR language. MLPolyR is an ML-like functional language whose type system provides type-safe extensibility mechanisms at several levels. After presenting the language, we will show how these extensibility mechanisms can be put to good use in the context of product line engineering. Product line engineering is an emerging software engineering paradigm that aims to manage variations, which originate from successive changes in software.

  17. Hyperprolinemia Type IA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Pavone MD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hyperprolinemia type I (HPI is a rare and inherited autosomal recessive disorder caused by proline oxidase deficiency. Hyperprolinemia type 1 is biochemically defined as high plasma proline levels without urinary Δ-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate excretion. Hyperprolinemia type 1 has been considered a benign metabolic disorder, but a relationship with neurological disorders has recently been suggested. Study Design: We retrospectively analyzed plasma amino acid values obtained by amino acid analysis from 10 030 children admitted for neurological reasons during the years 1996 to 2010 at the Regional Sicilian Centre for Metabolic Diseases. Patients with proline levels above the normal range of 129 to 245 μM were identified. Results: Only 2 children showed high levels of proline (450-480 μM and 380-470 μM, respectively, but their disorders (tubercular neuroencephalitis and progressive mitochondrial encephalopathy did not seem to be related to hyperprolinemia as a causative factor. Conclusion: The question of HPI as benign metabolic anomaly or as a direct cause of brain damage is still open. Since HPI is rare, other observations on this regard are necessary.

  18. Molecular characterisation of Czech Clostridium difficile isolates collected in 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutova, M; Nyc, O; Matejkova, J; Allerberger, F; Wilcox, M H; Kuijper, E J

    2016-11-01

    Clostridium difficile is a leading nosocomial pathogen and molecular typing is a crucial part of monitoring its occurrence and spread. Over a three-year period (2013-2015), clinical C. difficile isolates from 32 Czech hospitals were collected for molecular characterisation. Of 2201 C. difficile isolates, 177 (8%) were non-toxigenic, 2024 (92%) were toxigenic (tcdA and tcdB) and of these, 677 (33.5%) carried genes for binary toxin production (cdtA, cdtB). Capillary-electrophoresis (CE) ribotyping of the 2201 isolates yielded 166 different CE-ribotyping profiles, of which 53 were represented by at least two isolates for each profile. Of these, 29 CE-ribotyping patterns were common to the Leeds-Leiden C. difficile reference strain library and the WEBRIBO database (83.7% isolates), and 24 patterns were recognized only by the WEBRIBO database (11.2% isolates). Isolates belonging to these 53 CE-ribotyping profiles comprised 94.9% of all isolates. The ten most frequent CE-ribotyping profiles were 176 (n=588, 26.7%), 001 (n=456, 20.7%), 014 (n=176, 8%), 012 (n=127, 5.8%), 017 (n=85, 3.9%), 020 (n=68, 3.1%), 596 (n=55, 2.5%), 002-like (n=45, 2.1%), 010 (n=35, 1.6%) and 078 (n=34, 1.6%). Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of seven housekeeping genes performed in one isolate of each of 53 different CE-ribotyping profiles revealed 40 different sequence types (STs). We conclude that molecular characterisation of Czech C. difficile isolates revealed a high diversity of CE-ribotyping profiles; the prevailing RTs were 001 (20.7%) and 176 (027-like, 26.7%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Phenotyping and genotyping methods applied to investigate the relatedness of Brazilian isolates of Enterobacter cloacae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.C. Darini

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the resolving power of several typing methods to identify relatedness among Brazilian strains of Enterobacter cloacae, we selected twenty isolates from different patients on three wards of a University Hospital (Orthopedics, Nephrology, and Hematology. Traditional phenotyping methods applied to isolates included biotyping, antibiotic sensitivity, phage-typing, and O-serotyping. Plasmid profile analysis, ribotyping, and macrorestriction analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE were used as genotyping methods. Sero- and phage-typing were not useful since the majority of isolates could not be subtyped by these methods. Biotyping, antibiogram and plasmid profile permitted us to classify the samples into different groups depending on the method used, and consequently were not reliable. Ribotyping and PFGE were significantly correlated with the clinical epidemiological analysis. PFGE did not type strains containing nonspecific DNase. Ribotyping was the most discriminative method for typing Brazilian isolates of E. cloacae.

  20. Self-Assessments of Five Types of Typing Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Ronald A.

    1980-01-01

    Examined the usefulness of self-assessments of typing ability. Self-assessment of straight copy typing ability emerged as the best predictor of tested typing ability. Minority group members were generally less accurate in self-assessment of their typing ability. Presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Toronto,…

  1. Composing and decomposing data types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Wouter Swierstra's data types à la carte is a technique to modularise data type definitions in Haskell. We give an alternative implementation of data types à la carte that offers more flexibility in composing and decomposing data types. To achieve this, we refine the subtyping constraint, which...... is at the centre of data types à la carte. On the one hand this refinement is more general, allowing subtypings that intuitively should hold but were not derivable beforehand. This aspect of our implementation removes previous restrictions on how data types can be combined. On the other hand our refinement is more...... data types and to define extensible functions on data types in an ad hoc manner. The implementation makes essential use of closed type families in Haskell. The use of closed type families instead of type classes comes with a set of trade-offs, which we review in detail. Finally, we show that our...

  2. Laryngeal cleft type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo de Assis Pereira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The clinical itinerary and the institution of conservative therapy in a case of laryngeal cleft type 1 refers to a child born by cesarean section, Apgar 9 and 10, a history of placental nd abruption in the 2 month of pregnancy, with respiratory nd distress on the 2 day of life and difficulty in breast feeding mothers. Presented evidence of aspiration pneumonia. The videodeglutogram showed aspiration of large amounts of material contrasted during swallowing. In bronchoscopy was visualized formation of threadlike small slit making the diagnosis of laryngeal cleft. We then decided, by institution of conservative treatment with enteral nutrition training and thickened with swallowing.

  3. Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zen Yoh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Before the concept of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP was established, this form of pancreatitis had been recognized as lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis or non-alcoholic duct destructive chronic pancreatitis based on unique histological features. With the discovery in 2001 that serum IgG4 concentrations are specifically elevated in AIP patients, this emerging entity has been more widely accepted. Classical cases of AIP are now called type 1 as another distinct subtype (type 2 AIP has been identified. Type 1 AIP, which accounts for 2% of chronic pancreatitis cases, predominantly affects adult males. Patients usually present with obstructive jaundice due to enlargement of the pancreatic head or thickening of the lower bile duct wall. Pancreatic cancer is the leading differential diagnosis for which serological, imaging, and histological examinations need to be considered. Serologically, an elevated level of IgG4 is the most sensitive and specific finding. Imaging features include irregular narrowing of the pancreatic duct, diffuse or focal enlargement of the pancreas, a peri-pancreatic capsule-like rim, and enhancement at the late phase of contrast-enhanced images. Biopsy or surgical specimens show diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration containing many IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. A dramatic response to steroid therapy is another characteristic, and serological or radiological effects are normally identified within the first 2 or 3 weeks. Type 1 AIP is estimated as a pancreatic manifestation of systemic IgG4-related disease based on the fact that synchronous or metachronous lesions can develop in multiple organs (e.g. bile duct, salivary/lacrimal glands, retroperitoneum, artery, lung, and kidney and those lesions are histologically identical irrespective of the organ of origin. Several potential autoantigens have been identified so far. A Th2-dominant immune reaction and the activation of

  4. Type 1 narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Matilda; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness with unintentional sleep attacks and cataplexy. The disorder is caused by a loss of hypocretinergic neurons in the brain. The specific loss of these neurons in narcolepsy is thought to result from an autoimmune...... attack, and this is supported by evidence of both environmental and genetic factors pointing toward an involvement of the immune system. However, definitive proof of an autoimmune etiology is still missing. Several different immune-mediated disorders targeting neurons are known, and many...

  5. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodkin, Ana; Gomez, Christopher M

    2012-01-01

    The autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are a genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive motor incoordination, in some cases with ataxia alone and in others in association with additional progressive neurological deficits. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is the prototype of a pure cerebellar ataxia, associated with a severe form of progressive ataxia and cerebellar dysfunction. SCA6, originally classified as such by Zhuchenko et al. (1997), is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the CACNA1A gene which encodes the α1A subunit of the P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channel. SCA6 is one of ten polyglutamine-encoding CAG nucleotide repeat expansion disorders comprising other neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease. The present review describes clinical, genetic, and pathological manifestations associated with this illness. Currently, there is no treatment for this neurodegenerative disease. Successful therapeutic strategies must target a valid pathological mechanism; thus, understanding the underlying mechanisms of disease is crucial to finding a proper treatment. Hence, this chapter will discuss as well the molecular mechanisms possibly associated with SCA6 pathology and their implication for the development of future treatment.

  6. Exploring legacy systems using types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, A. van; Moonen, L.M.F.

    2000-01-01

    We show how hypertext-based program understanding tools can achieve new levels of abstraction by using inferred type information for cases where the subject software system is written in a weakly typed language. We propose TypeExplorer, a tool for browsing COBOL legacy systems based on these types.

  7. Efficient Type Representation in TAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Certifying compilers generate proofs for low-level code that guarantee safety properties of the code. Type information is an essential part of safety proofs. But the size of type information remains a concern for certifying compilers in practice. This paper demonstrates type representation techniques in a large-scale compiler that achieves both concise type information and efficient type checking. In our 200,000-line certifying compiler, the size of type information is about 36% of the size of pure code and data for our benchmarks, the best result to the best of our knowledge. The type checking time is about 2% of the compilation time.

  8. Enteroendocrine cell types revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelstoft, Maja S; Egerod, Kristoffer Lihme; Lund, Mari L

    2013-01-01

    The GI-tract is profoundly involved in the control of metabolism through peptide hormones secreted from enteroendocrine cells scattered throughout the gut mucosa. A large number of recently generated transgenic reporter mice have allowed for direct characterization of biochemical and cell...... biological properties of these previously highly elusive enteroendocrine cells. In particular the surprisingly broad co-expression of six functionally related hormones in the intestinal enteroendocrine cells indicates that it should be possible to control not only the hormone secretion but also the type...... and number of enteroendocrine cells. However, this will require a more deep understanding of the factors controlling differentiation, gene expression and specification of the enteroendocrine cells during their weekly renewal from progenitor cells in the crypts of the mucosa....

  9. Type 1 Tyrosinaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mannion, MA

    2016-06-01

    Tyrosinaemia type 1 (TYR1, OMIM# 276700) is a rare autosomal recessive disease that results from an enzyme defect that leads to a deficiency in fumarylacetoacetase (FAH)1. We present 3 cases of TYR1 in the Irish population over a 9 year period, the only cases known to have been diagnosed in Ireland since 1989. The common presenting symptom was hypoglycaemia and the diagnosis was made by the identification of the pathognomonic biomarker succinylacetone on urine organic acid analysis. We discuss the clinical presentation, biochemical and genetic results including one novel mutation. We also highlight the importance of early initiation of Nitisinone (NTBC), which reduces the complications of TYR1 and the incidence of liver transplantation in this population2.

  10. Mechanoluminescent Contact Type Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Yefremov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanoluminescent sensing elements convert mechanical stress into optical radiation. Advantages of such sensors are the ability to generate an optical signal, solid-state, simple structure, and resistance to electromagnetic interference. Mechanoluminescent sensor implementations can possess the concentrated and distributed sensitivity, thereby allowing us to detect the field of mechanical stresses distributed across the area and in volume. Most modern semiconductor photo-detectors can detect mechanoluminescent radiation, so there are no difficulties to provide its detection when designing the mechanoluminescent sensing devices. Mechanoluminescent substances have especial sensitivity to shock loads, and this effect can be used to create a fuse the structure of which includes a target contact type sensor with a photosensitive actuator. The paper briefly describes the theoretical basics of mechanoluminiscence: a light signal emerges from the interaction of crystalline phosphor luminescence centers with electrically charged dislocations, moving due to the deformation of the crystal. A mathematical model of the mechanoluminescent conversion is represented as a functional interaction between parameters of the mechanical shock excitation and the sensor light emission. Examples of computing the optical mechanoluminescent output signal depending on the duration and peak level of impulse load are given. It is shown that the luminous flux, generated by mechanoluminescent sensing element when there is an ammunition-target collision causes the current emerging in photo-detector (photodiode that is sufficient for a typical actuator of the fuse train to operate. The potential possibility to create a contact target type sensor based on the light-sensitive mechanoluminescent sensor was proved by the calculation and simulation results.

  11. Pragmatic phenomenological types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goranson, Ted; Cardier, Beth; Devlin, Keith

    2015-12-01

    We approach a well-known problem: how to relate component physical processes in biological systems to governing imperatives in multiple system levels. The intent is to further practical tools that can be used in the clinical context. An example proposes a formal type system that would support this kind of reasoning, including in machines. Our example is based on a model of the connection between a quality of mind associated with creativity and neuropsychiatric dynamics: constructing narrative as a form of conscious introspection, which allows the manipulation of one's own driving imperatives. In this context, general creativity is indicated by an ability to manage multiple heterogeneous worldviews simultaneously in a developing narrative. 'Narrative' in this context is framed as the organizing concept behind rational linearization that can be applied to metaphysics as well as modeling perceptive dynamics. Introspection is framed as the phenomenological 'tip' that allows a perceiver to be within experience or outside it, reflecting on and modifying it. What distinguishes the approach is the rooting in well founded but disparate disciplines: phenomenology, ontic virtuality, two-sorted geometric logics, functional reactive programming, multi-level ontologies and narrative cognition. This paper advances the work by proposing a type strategy within a two-sorted reasoning system that supports cross-ontology structure. The paper describes influences on this approach, and presents an example that involves phenotype classes and monitored creativity enhanced by both soft methods and transcranial direct-current stimulation. The proposed solution integrates pragmatic phenomenology, situation theory, narratology and functional programming in one framework.

  12. Study of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains isolated in Romania, northwestern Russia and the Republic of Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Maria; Grimont, Francine; Narvskaya, Olga; Straut, Monica; Surdeanu, Maria; Cojocaru, Radu; Mokrousov, Igor; Diaconescu, Angela; Andronescu, Constantin; Melnic, Anatol; Mutoi, Ludmila; Grimont, Patrick A D

    2002-03-01

    A selection of 167 Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains isolated in Romania, the Russian Federation and the Republic of Moldova were analysed by biotyping, phage typing, the toxin production test and by molecular techniques such as ribotyping, pulsed field gel electrophoresis and random amplified polymorphic DNA, in order to establish the epidemiological relatedness, genetic divergence and strain circulation within and between the bordering countries. Using a set of five digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotides and BstEII digestion, 34 ribotypes were identified. The strains isolated in the epidemic areas (Russia and Moldova) were very closely related but different from those isolated in Romania. C1 and C5 were the main ribotypes identified in these areas. Neither ribotype was found in Romania, where the main circulating types were C3 and C7. Field inversion gel electrophoresis was more discriminative than ribotyping and revealed 54 macrorestriction profiles after SfiI restriction. Both methods showed a significant homogeneity of the strains from epidemic areas and a large diversity among the Romanian strains. Random amplification was useful as an identification method for the epidemic strains, but not for the Romanian ones which displayed a large number of amplification profiles. The phenotypic methods associated with molecular typing techniques enabled distinguishing between strains, detecting the epidemic clone, and sustaining the absence of transmission across borders.

  13. Typewriting: Is Problem Typing Synonymous with Production Typing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Ted D.; Stoddard, Lucille T.

    1977-01-01

    Notes that in a good production typing program that builds significant keystroking skills along with high-level production skills, quality of typing work plus the time required to complete that quality work must be adequately reflected. Essential conditions of production typing are outlined. (HD)

  14. Calderon type reproducing formula on spaces of homogeneous type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓东皋; 韩永生

    1995-01-01

    By using the Calderon-Zygmund operator theory, a continuous version of the Calderon type reproducing formula associated to a para-accretive function on spaces of homogeneous type is proved. A new characterization of the Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces on spaces of homogeneous type is also obtained.

  15. Updating signal typing in voice: addition of type 4 signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Alicia; Olszewski, Aleksandra; Jiang, Jack J; Zhang, Yu

    2010-06-01

    The addition of a fourth type of voice to Titze's voice classification scheme is proposed. This fourth voice type is characterized by primarily stochastic noise behavior and is therefore unsuitable for both perturbation and correlation dimension analysis. Forty voice samples were classified into the proposed four types using narrowband spectrograms. Acoustic, perceptual, and correlation dimension analyses were completed for all voice samples. Perturbation measures tended to increase with voice type. Based on reliability cutoffs, the type 1 and type 2 voices were considered suitable for perturbation analysis. Measures of unreliability were higher for type 3 and 4 voices. Correlation dimension analyses increased significantly with signal type as indicated by a one-way analysis of variance. Notably, correlation dimension analysis could not quantify the type 4 voices. The proposed fourth voice type represents a subset of voices dominated by noise behavior. Current measures capable of evaluating type 4 voices provide only qualitative data (spectrograms, perceptual analysis, and an infinite correlation dimension). Type 4 voices are highly complex and the development of objective measures capable of analyzing these voices remains a topic of future investigation.

  16. Characterisation of Clostridium difficile strains isolated from Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullin, B; Brock, T; Rajabally, N; Anwar, F; Vedantam, G; Reid, S; Abratt, V

    2016-10-01

    The C. difficile infection rate in South Africa is concerning. Many strains previously isolated from diarrhetic patients at Groote Schuur Hospital were ribotype 017. This study further characterised these strains with respect to their clonal relationships, antibiotic susceptibility, toxin production and various attributes impacting on pathogen colonisation. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) was used to characterise all C. difficile isolates. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by E-test and PCR-based analysis of the ermB, gyrA and gyrB genes. Auto-aggregation of cells was measured in broth, and biofilm formation observed in 24-well plates. Toxins were measured using the Wampole C DIFF TOX A/B II kit. Most isolates belonged to the ribotype 017 group. Identical MLVA types occurred in different wards over time, and several patients were infected with identical strains. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and metronidazole, but some ribotype 017 isolates showed reduced metronidazole susceptibility (≥2 mg l(-1)). Sixty-nine percent of ribotype 017 isolates were resistant to moxifloxacin, and 94 % to erythromycin, compared to 0 % and 17 % resistance, respectively, in non-ribotype 017 isolates. The ermB gene and mutations in the gyrA and/or gyrB genes were linked to erythromycin and moxifloxacin resistance, respectively. Ribotype 017 isolates auto-aggregated more strongly than other isolates and produced lower levels of the TcdB toxin than a reference strain. Certain strains produced strong biofilms. Patient-to-patient transfer and unique infection events could cause the predominance of ribotype 017 strains in the cohort. Multi-drug resistant strains are a potential reservoir for future infections.

  17. Characterization of Staphylococcus simulans strains isolated from cases of bovine mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Larsen, H. D.; Jensen, N. E.

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to characterize Staphylococcus simulans isolated from cases of bovine mastitis. A total of 134 isolates of S. simulans selected from 80 quarters from 61 cows or heifers in 37 different herds were characterized by EcoRI ribotyping. From 22 quarters two to seven consecutive......, where 76 paired or multiple isolates were at disposal, the same ribotype was constantly found in the same quarter. This study showed that S. simulans causing bovine mastitis could be divided into relatively large number of different types, but that two types predominated. More than one type could...

  18. Tornado type wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting

    1984-01-01

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  19. Neurofibromatosis Type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Kasiri Ghahi

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2 is an inherited disease which is mainly characterized by the development of multiple schwannomas and meningiomas.  Incidence of the disease is about 1 in 60,000. Affected individuals inevitably develop schwannomas, typically affecting both auditory-vestibular nerve which lead in hearing loss and deafness. The majority of patients present with hearing loss, which is usually unilateral at onset and may be accompanied or preceded by tinnitus. Vestibular schwannomas may also cause dizziness or imbalance as a first symptom. Nausea, vomiting or true vertigo are rare symptoms, except in late-stage disease. NF II is caused by a defect in the gene that normally gives rise to a product called Merlin or Schwannomin, located on chromosome 22. Diagnosis is based on clinical and neuroimaging studies. Presymptomatic genetic testing is an integral part of the management of NF2 families. Prenatal diagnosis and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis is possible.

  20. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takeshi; Iida, Masaaki; Moriki, Yasuyuki

    1994-10-18

    A reactor core is divided into a plurality of coolants flowrate regions, and electromagnetic pumps exclusively used for each of the flowrate regions are disposed to distribute coolants flowrates in the reactor core. Further, the flowrate of each of the electromagnetic pumps is automatically controlled depending on signals from a temperature detector disposed at the exit of the reactor core, so that the flowrate of the region can be controlled optimally depending on the burning of reactor core fuels. Then, the electromagnetic pumps disposed for every divided region are controlled respectively, so that the coolants flowrate distribution suitable to each of the regions can be attained. Margin for fuel design is decreased, fuels are used effectively, as well as an operation efficiency can be improved. Moreover, since the electromagnetic pump has less flow resistance compared with a mechanical type pump, and flow resistance of the reactor core flowrate control mechanism is eliminated, greater circulating flowrate can be ensured after occurrence of accident in a natural convection using a buoyancy of coolants utilizable for after-heat removal as a driving force. (N.H.).

  1. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwashige, Kengo

    1996-06-21

    In an LMFBR type reactor, partitions are disposed to a coolant channel at positions lower than the free liquid level, and the width of the partitions is adapted to have a predetermined condition. Namely, when low temperature fluid overflowing the wall of the coolant channel, flows down and collided against the free liquid surface in the coolant channel, since the dropping speed thereof is reduced abruptly, large pressure waves are caused by kinetic force of the low temperature fluid. However, if appropriate numbers of partitions having an appropriate shape are formed, the dropping speed of the low temperature fluid is moderated to reduce the pressure waves. In addition, since the pressure waves are dispersed to the circumferential and lateral directions of the coolant flow channel respectively, the propagation of the pressure waves can be prevented effectively. Further, when the flow of the low temperature fluid is changed to the circumferential direction, for example, by earthquakes, since the partitions act as members resisting against the circumferential change of the low temperature fluid, the change of the direction can be suppressed. (N.H.)

  2. Treatise on intuitionistic type theory

    CERN Document Server

    Granström, Johan Georg

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic type theory can be described, somewhat boldly, as a fulfillment of the dream of a universal language for science.  In particular, intuitionistic type theory is a foundation for mathematics and a programming language.

  3. Organ Type and Waiting Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Organ Type and Waiting Time Most candidates, except those with living donors, wait ... organ needed How does organ type affect waiting times? Heart Allocation Physicians assign a status code to ...

  4. OF NIGERIAN TYPE 2 DIABETICS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impact of a parental history of Type 2 DM on anthropometric measurements known to govern glucose tolerance was examined in ... body fat distribution and insulin resistance. ..... ponderance of enlarged fat cells in this type of adipose tissue.

  5. Computing effects for correspondence types

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We show that type and effect inference is possible for a type and  effect system for authenticity using non-injective correspondences, opponent  types and a spi-calculus with symmetric encryption. We do this by a general  account of how effects can be computed given knowledge of how and where they  appear in type judgments. 

  6. Presenting symptoms in type 1 vs. type 2 myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, L.; Sarkisian, Laura; Poulsen, T. S.

    2015-01-01

    had to be present. Results: During the inclusion period 360 patients with a type 1 MI were indentified, whereas 119 patients had a type 2 MI. As shown in the Table patients with type 1 MI more frequently had chest pain/discomfort than type 2 MI patients. However, patients with type 2 MI more often....... type 2 MI. Methods: During January 2010-January 2011 unselected patients admitted to a single hospital with a catchment area of 300.000 residents were studied. All patients having cardiac troponin I measured on clinical indication were considered and had a supplementary history taken with focus...... symptom in patients with type 2 MI appears to be dyspnea. (Table Presented )....

  7. COMPRESSOR TYPE OZONATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulyaev P. V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of a compressor type ozonator. It describes the design of a high-productivity compressor ozone generator, which can be used for industrial decontamination of mixed feeds, water, milk, and in the system of presowing treatment of seeds. This construction allows generating ozone with high concentration to 5 g/m3 at high feed air or oxygen from the compressor station (up to 2000 l/min. The article describes the design of the basic elements of tubular ozone generator, examines the factors influencing the productivity of the ozonator. The proposed mathematical model allows calculating the productivity of the ozonator when considering multiple influencing factors. These factors take into account: the parameters of supply voltage, such as the magnitude and frequency of the supply voltage; the configuration and geometrical parameters of electrodes such as, the area of the electrodes, the configuration of the surface of the electrodes and distance between electrodes; parameters dielectric barrier; and the transported gas parameters such as volume, temperature, pressure and composition. Special attention is paid to the design of the electrodes made of woven wire mesh with mesh sizes from 1.5×1.5 to 2.0×2.0 mm. It is noted, that such electrodes allow obtaining the maximum productivity of an ozonator, and they do not lead to overheating of the dielectric barrier, and do not output down the generator. In the same way, the article presents the results of the mathematical modeling of ozone generator productivity while changing various factors

  8. Lectin typing of Campylobacter concisus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hynes, Sean O; Permin, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    A total of 44 clinical isolates and the type strain of the putative pathogen Campylobacter concisus were grouped based on their reactions with plant lectins. The optimized lectin typing system used C. concisus strains proteolytically pretreated and subsequently typed by using a panel of four...

  9. Type inference for COBOL systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, A. van; Moonen, L.M.F.

    1998-01-01

    Types are a good starting point for various software reengineering tasks. Unfortunately, programs requiring reengineering most desperately are written in languages without an adequate type system (such as COBOL). To solve this problem, we propose a method of automated type inference for these lang

  10. Computing effects for correspondence types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans

    2010-01-01

    We show that type and effect inference is possible for a type and  effect system for authenticity using non-injective correspondences, opponent  types and a spi-calculus with symmetric encryption. We do this by a general  account of how effects can be computed given knowledge of how and where they...

  11. Separation of Salmonella typhimurium DT2 and DT135: Molecular characterization of isolates of avian origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Skov, M. N.; Brown, D. J.;

    1997-01-01

    characterization of 23 Danish isolates, 10 German isolates and the two type strains have subsequently been performed. With only minor exceptions, strains examined could be separated by combination of 0:5 agglutination, ribotyping, and PFGE typing into two major groups in conformity with their phage types...

  12. Computer-assisted analysis and epidemiological value of genotyping methods for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P. de; Duim, B.; Rigter, A.; Plas, J. van der; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    For epidemiological tracing of the thermotolerant Campylobacter species C. jejuni and C. coli, reliable and highly discriminatory typing techniques are necessary. In this study the genotyping techniques of flagellin typing (flaA typing), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), automated ribotyping,

  13. Computer-assisted analysis and epidemiological value of genotyping methods for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, P. de; Duim, B.; Rigter, A.; Plas, J. van der; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F.; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    For epidemiological tracing of the thermotolerant Campylobacter species C. jejuni and C. coli, reliable and highly discriminatory typing techniques are necessary. In this study the genotyping techniques of flagellin typing (flaA typing), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), automated ribotyping,

  14. Mucopolysaccharidosis type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wraith, J E; Jones, Simon

    2014-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase a-L-Iduronidase leading to accumulation of the GAGs, dermatan sulfate, and heparan sulphate, The disease spectrum includes a disorder with severe involvement and CNS disease Hurler disease (HPS I H) a chronic disease without CNS disease Scheie disease (HPS I S5) and the intermediate Hurler/Scheie disease(HPS I HIS).The urine GAGs pattern. confirmed by Iduronidase enzyme assay is diagnostic. Over 200 mutations exist. Genotype / phenotype correlation is poor but two nonsense mutations results in Hurler disease.The skeletal disease dysostosis multiplex (DM) is seen in severe variants of MPS I. The hypoplastic odontoid putting these patients at high risk of cervical cord damage. MPS IH (Hurler Disease) affected infants develop a spinal 'gibbus' deformity, persistent nasal discharge, middle ear effusions and frequent upper respiratory infection. They have "coarse", facial features, and an enlarged tongue. . Progressive upper airway disease leads to obstructive sleep apnoea. Corneal clouding and cognitive impairment appears, growth ceases. Joint stiffness and contractures limit mobility. Cardiac disease is universal. Death occurs before 10 years. SCHEIE patients are diagnosed as teenagers with hepatomegaly, joint contractures, cardiac valve abnormalities and corneal clouding . Prolonged survival with considerable disability without cognitive impairment is usual. MPS IH/S Hurler/Scheie. is diagnosed by 6.5 years, with variable skeletal and visceral manifestations without cognitive involvement. Joint stiffness, corneal clouding, , umbilical hernia, abnormal facies, hepatomegaly, joint contractures, and cervical myelopathy occur. Patients die in their 20s .Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) the standard treatment of MPS IH for 30 years is unpredictable .When performed before 2 years it can stabilize cognitive impairment. Hepatosplenomegaly, urine GAGs excretion, upper

  15. Jackson-type and Bernstein-type inequalities for multipliers on Herz-type Hardy spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE LinSen; LAN JiaCheng; LAN SenHua; YAN DunYan

    2009-01-01

    We establish Jackson-type and Bernstein-type inequalities for multipliers on Herz-type Hardy spaces.These inequalities can be applied to some important operators in Fourier analysis,such as the Bochner-Riesz multiplier over the critical index,the generalized Bochner-Riesz mean and the generalized Able-Poisson operator.

  16. Jackson-type and Bernstein-type inequalities for multipliers on Herz-type Hardy spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We establish Jackson-type and Bernstein-type inequalities for multipliers on Herz-type Hardy spaces. These inequalities can be applied to some important operators in Fourier analysis, such as the Bochner-Riesz multiplier over the critical index, the generalized Bochner-Riesz mean and the generalized Able-Poisson operator.

  17. Design of single-phase driven screw-thread-type ultrasonic motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lien-Kai; Tsai, Mi-Ching

    2016-05-01

    Most screw-thread-type ultrasonic motors are designed to be two-phase driven. This paper aims to present a novel single phase driven design that generates the required wobble motion, thus significantly simplifying the driving circuit of the ultrasonic motor. The proposed single-phase driven screw-thread-type ultrasonic motor works with two orthogonal bending modes generated by an asymmetric stator design. The novel stator design can improve the vibration displacement and further enhance the performance of the single phase driven motor. The vibration characteristics of the asymmetric stator structure were analyzed by ANSYS finite element analysis software. Based on the design and analysis processes, a prototype of the desired screw-thread-type ultrasonic motor was fabricated and tested. When the operating voltage is 200 Vpp, the obtained main characteristics of the proposed motor are as follows: the working frequency is between 28.3 and 29.5 kHz; the maximum no-load velocity is approximately 4.1 mm s-1; and the thrust force is 1.6 N.

  18. Typing is writing: Linguistic properties modulate typing execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinet, Svetlana; Ziegler, Johannes C; Alario, F-Xavier

    2016-12-01

    Typing is becoming our preferred way of writing. Perhaps because of the relative recency of this change, very few studies have investigated typing from a psycholinguistic perspective. In addition, and despite obvious similarities between typing and handwriting, typing research has remained rather disconnected from handwriting research. The current study aimed at bridging this gap by evaluating how typing is affected by a number of psycholinguistic variables defined at the word, syllable, and letter levels. In a writing-to-dictation task, we assessed typing performance by measuring response accuracy, onset latencies - an index of response preparation and initiation - and interkeystroke intervals (IKIs) - an index of response execution processes. The lexical and sublexical factors revealed a composite pattern of effects. Lexical frequency improved response latencies and accuracy, while bigram frequency speeded up IKIs. Sound-spelling consistency improved latencies, but had an inhibitory effect on IKI. IKIs were also longer at syllable boundaries. Together, our findings can be fit within a framework for typed production that combines the previously developed theories of spelling and typing execution. At their interface, we highlight the need for an intermediate hierarchical stage, perhaps in the form of a graphemic buffer for typing.

  19. Type System in Programming Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hui; ZHANG Xingyuan; LIN Dong; XIE Xiren

    2001-01-01

    Type system provides a precise description of a programming lan guage. This is a prerequisite for the implementation and use of language. It also conducts mechanical and transparent type-checking on programs to prevent the oc currence of execution error during the running of programs. So, it can be said that, on the one hand, type system works as a formal tool to do mathematical analysis of language; on the other hand, it is a formal method for rigorously and precisely designing and implementing language. In this paper, some basic concepts of type system are discussed first. And then, the implementation of a graph-rewriting-based functional language - SClean's type system is given in details. It is hoped that the proposed method of using and implementing type system is of practical usefulness.

  20. Types for BioAmbients

    CERN Document Server

    Capecchi, Sara; 10.4204/EPTCS.19.7

    2010-01-01

    The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues). Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  1. Type System in Programming Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋慧; 林东; 等

    2001-01-01

    Type system provides a precise description of a programming language,This is a prerequisite for the implementation and use of language.It also conducts mechanical and transparent type-checking on programs to prevent the occurrence of execution error during the running of programs.So,it can be said that,on the one hand.type system works as a formal tool to do mathematical analysis of language;on the other hand,it is a formal method for rigorously and precisely designing and implementing language.In this paper,some basic concepts of type system are discussed first.And then,the implementation of a graph-rewriting-based functional language-SClean's type system is given in details,It is hoped that the proposed method of using and implementing type system is of practical usefulness.

  2. Types for BioAmbients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capecchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues. Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  3. Characterization of lactobacilli from Scotch malt whisky distilleries and description of Lactobacillus ferintoshensis sp. nov., a new species isolated from malt whisky fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, K L; Pettersson, B; Priest, F G

    2001-04-01

    Sixty-four strains of Lactobacillus were isolated from fermentation samples from 23 malt whisky distilleries located in the major whisky producing regions of Scotland. The strains were assigned to 26 ribotype patterns. Strains of some ribotype patterns were widely distributed and recovered from distilleries throughout Scotland, while strains representing other ribotypes were particular to a specific region or even a certain distillery. Repeated sampling of a single distillery over a 12 month period showed that the range of bacteria present, as indicated by ribotyping, was stable, but was influenced by changes in malt supply and the period of closure for annual maintenance. Partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis of ribotype representatives revealed Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus pentosus as the major species present in the distilleries; however, four isolates could not be identified by this procedure. Determination of the full 16S rDNA gene sequence from one of these isolates (strain R7-84) revealed >98.5% similarity to Lactobacillus buchneri and its phylogenetic neighbours. DNA from two other strains showed greater than 70% hybridization to DNA from R7-84 under non-stringent renaturation conditions and DNA from strain R7-84 shared less than 65% hybridization with members of the L. buchneri group. It is proposed that these three strains should be placed in a new species for which the name Lactobacillus ferintoshensis represented by the type strain R7-84(T) is suggested.

  4. Genus distribution of ladder type and cross type graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is given to calculate the explicit expressions of embedding genus distribution for ladder type graphs and cross type graphs. As an example, we refind the genus distri- bution of the graph Jn which is the first class of graphs studied for genus distribution where its genus depends on n.

  5. Genus distribution of ladder type and cross type graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN LiangXia; FENG KeQin; LIU YanPei; WANG DianJun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is given to calculate the explicit expressions of embedding genus distribution for ladder type graphs and cross type graphs.As an example,we refind the genus distribution of the graph Jn which is the first class of graphs studied for genus distribution where its genus depends on n.

  6. Type-safe pattern combinators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Macros still haven't made their way into typed higher-order programming languages such as Haskell and Standard ML. Therefore, to extend the expressiveness of Haskell or Standard ML, one must express new linguistic features in terms of functions that fit within the static type systems of these lan...... of these languages. This is particularly challenging when introducing features that span across multiple types and that bind variables. We address this challenge by developing, in a step by step manner, mechanisms for encoding patterns and pattern matching in Haskell in a type-safe way....

  7. Management of type IIb dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Hidenori; Ishibashi, Shun; Bujo, Hideaki; Hayashi, Toshio; Yokoyama, Shinji; Oikawa, Shinichi; Kobayashi, Junji; Shirai, Kohji; Ota, Takao; Yamashita, Shizuya; Gotoda, Takanari; Harada-Shiba, Mariko; Sone, Hirohito; Eto, Masaaki; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamada, Nobuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Although the Japan Atherosclerosis Society guideline for the diagnosis and prevention of atherosclerosis cardiovascular diseases for the Japanese population provides targets for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol to prevent cardiovascular disease in patients with dyslipidemia, there is no guideline specifically targeting the treatment of type IIb dyslipidemia, which is one of the most common types of dyslipidemia, along with type IIa and type IV dyslipidemia. Type IIb dyslipidemia is important because it sometimes accompanies atherogenic lipid profiles, such as small, dense LDL, remnants, low HDL cholesterolemia. It is also associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and chronic kidney disease (CKD), and most patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) show this phenotype; therefore, it is assumed that patients with type IIb dyslipidemia have a high risk for cardiovascular disease. Thus, the management of type IIb dyslipidemia is very important for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, so we have attempted to provide a guideline for the management of type IIb dyslipidemia.

  8. Linear contextual modal type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Abstract. When one implements a logical framework based on linear type theory, for example the Celf system [?], one is immediately con- fronted with questions about their equational theory and how to deal with logic variables. In this paper, we propose linear contextual modal type theory that giv...... a mathematical account of the nature of logic variables. Our type theory is conservative over intuitionistic contextual modal type theory proposed by Nanevski, Pfenning, and Pientka. Our main contributions include a mechanically checked proof of soundness and a working implementation....

  9. Equations of the mixed type

    CERN Document Server

    Bitsadze, A V

    1963-01-01

    Equations of the Mixed Type compiles a series of lectures on certain fundamental questions in the theory of equations of mixed type. This book investigates the series of problems concerning linear partial differential equations of the second order in two variables, and possessing the property that the type of the equation changes either on the boundary of or inside the considered domain. Topics covered include general remarks on linear partial differential equations of mixed type; study of the solutions of second order hyperbolic equations with initial conditions given along the lines of parab

  10. A Type System for Tom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Kirchner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Extending a given language with new dedicated features is a general and quite used approach to make the programming language more adapted to problems. Being closer to the application, this leads to less programming flaws and easier maintenance. But of course one would still like to perform program analysis on these kinds of extended languages, in particular type checking and inference. In this case one has to make the typing of the extended features compatible with the ones in the starting language. The Tom programming language is a typical example of such a situation as it consists of an extension of Java that adds pattern matching, more particularly associative pattern matching, and reduction strategies. This paper presents a type system with subtyping for Tom, that is compatible with Java's type system, and that performs both type checking and type inference. We propose an algorithm that checks if all patterns of a Tom program are well-typed. In addition, we propose an algorithm based on equality and subtyping constraints that infers types of variables occurring in a pattern. Both algorithms are exemplified and the proposed type system is showed to be sound and complete.

  11. Types for DSP Assembler Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ken

    2006-01-01

    for reuse, and a procedure that computes point-wise vector multiplication. The latter uses a common idiom of prefetching memory resulting in out-of-bounds reading from memory. I present two extensions to the baseline type system: The first extension is a simple modification of some type rules to allow out...... the requirements of a procedure. I implement a proof-of-concept type checker for both the baseline type system and the extensions. I get good performance results on a small benchmark suite of programs representative of handwritten DSP assembler code. These empirical results are encouraging and strongly suggest...

  12. Bilateral Hardy-type Inequalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Fa CHEN

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the Hardy-type inequalities on the intervals (may be infinite) with two weights,either vanishing at two endpoints of the interval or having mean zero.For the first type of inequalities,in terms of new isoperimetric constants,the factor of upper and lower bounds becomes smaller than the known ones.The second type of the inequalities is motivated from probability theory and is new in the analytic context.The proofs are now rather elementary.Similar improvements are made for Nash inequality,Sobolev-type inequality,and the logarithmic Sobolev inequality on the intervals.

  13. Object-Oriented Type Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1991-01-01

    We present a new approach to inferring types in untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. It guarantees that all messages are understood, annotates the program with type information, allows polymorphic methods, and can be used as the basis of an op-timizing......We present a new approach to inferring types in untyped object-oriented programs with inheritance, assignments, and late binding. It guarantees that all messages are understood, annotates the program with type information, allows polymorphic methods, and can be used as the basis of an op...

  14. A Minimal Propositional Type Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Propositional type theory, first studied by Henkin, is the restriction of simple type theory to a single base type that is interpreted as the set of the two truth values. We show that two constants (falsity and implication) suffice for denotational and deductive completeness. Denotational completeness means that every value of the full set-theoretic type hierarchy can be described by a closed term. Deductive completeness is shown for a sequent-based proof system that extends a propositional natural deduction system with lambda conversion and Boolean replacement.

  15. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia;

    2014-01-01

    We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types...... the way we interpret @i in propositional and first-order hybrid logic. This means: interpret @iαa , where αa is an expression of any type a , as an expression of type a that rigidly returns the value that αa receives at the i-world. The axiomatization and completeness proofs are generalizations of those...

  16. Florence Nightingale: her personality type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossey, Barbara M

    2010-03-01

    This article casts new and refreshing light on Florence Nightingale's life and work by examining her personality type. Using the theory-based Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the author examines Nightingale's personality type and reveals that she was an introverted-intuitive-thinking-judging type. The merit of using the MBTI is that it allows us to more clearly understand three major areas of Nightingale's life that have been partially unacknowledged or misunderstood: her spiritual development as a practicing mystic, her management of her chronic illness to maintain her prodigious work output, and her chosen strategies to transform her visionary ideas into new health care and social realities.

  17. Java type unification with wild cards

    OpenAIRE

    Pluemicke, Martin

    2007-01-01

    International audience; With the introduction of Java 5.0 the type system has been extended by parameterized types, type variables, type terms, and wildcards. As a result very complex types can arise. The term Vector

  18. Safety Analysis versus Type Inference with Partial Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1992-01-01

    Safety analysis is an algorithm for determining if a term in an untyped lambda calculus with constants is safe, i.e., if it does not cause an error during evaluation. This ambition is also shared by algorithms for type inference. Safety analysis and type inference are based on rather different...... perspectives, however. Safety analysis is global in that it can only analyze a complete program. In contrast, type inference is local in that it can analyze pieces of a program in isolation. In this paper we prove that safety analysis is sound, relative to both a strict and a lazy operational semantics. We...... also prove that safety analysis accepts strictly more safe lambda terms than does type inference for simple types. The latter result demonstrates that global program analysis can be more precise than local ones....

  19. Types of subtalar joint facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min-Ho; Choi, Byoung Young; Lee, Ji Yong; Han, Chang Sung; Lee, Jin Suk; Yang, Young Chul; Cho, Byung Pil

    2015-08-01

    Articular facets of the clinical subtalar joint (CSTJ) were analyzed using a total of 118 (right 57, left 61) dry, paired calcanei and tali from 68 Korean adult cadavers. The CSTJ facets were classified into the following three types depending on their continuity: type A, all three facets are separated; type B, the anterior and middle facets are partially connected; and type C, the anterior and middle facets are fused to form a single facet. The continuity between the anterior and middle facets was represented by the degree of separation (DS), which ranged between 2.00 (type A) and 1.00 (type C). Type A was most common (39.0 %) in calcanei and rarest (11.0 %) in tali. Matching of calcaneus-talus pairs yielded five combined types: A-A (11.0 %), A-B (28.0 %), B-B (18.6 %), B-C (13.6 %), and C-C (28.8 %). The mean DS was slightly greater in calcanei (1.53) than in tali (1.32), and decreased in the order of types A-A, A-B, B-B, B-C, and C-C. The intersecting angles between the anterior and middle facets, which are related to the mobility of the CSTJ, were inversely related to the DS. These findings indicate that the anterior and middle facets are fused more frequently in tali than in calcanei, and combinations of different CSTJ facet types (A-B, B-C) exist over 40 % of feet. Our results indicate that types with a smaller DS (such as B-C and C-C) are relatively mobile but less stable compared to those with a greater DS (such as A-A and A-B).

  20. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present...

  1. Typed combinators for generic traversal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lämmel, R.; Vonk, J.

    2001-01-01

    Lacking support for generic traversal, functional programming languages suffer from a scalability problem when applied to large-scale program transformation problems. As a solution, we introduce emph{functional strategies: typeful generic functions that not only can be applied to terms of any type,

  2. Type Inference of Turbo Pascal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Ole Ildsgaard; Schwartzbach, Michael I; Askari, Hosein

    1995-01-01

    of Turbo Pascal. It has the form of a preprocessor that analyzes programs in which the type annotations are only partial or even absent. The resulting program has full type annotations, will be accepted by the standard Turbo Pascal compiler, and has polymorphic use of procedures resolved by means of code...

  3. Paranormal weighted conditional type operators

    OpenAIRE

    Estaremi, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, some sub-classes of paranormal weighted conditional expectation type operators, such as *-paranormal, quasi-*-paranormal and (n; k)-quasi-*-paranormal weighted conditional expectation type opera- tors on $L^2(\\Sigma)$ are investigated. Also, some applications about the spectrum, point spectrum, joint point spectrum, approximate point spectrum and joint approximate point spectrum of these classes are presented.

  4. Homological Type of Geometric Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The present paper gives an account and quantifies the change in topology induced by small and type II geometric transitions, by introducing the notion of the \\emph{homological type} of a geometric transition. The obtained results agree with, and go further than, most results and estimates, given to date by several authors, both in mathematical and physical literature.

  5. Types of Cancer Teens Get

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Types of Cancer Teens Get KidsHealth > For Teens > Types of Cancer Teens Get A A A What's in this article? ... que padecen los adolescentes Cancer is rare in teens. Certain diseases like breast cancer usually affect adult ...

  6. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML...

  7. Type 1 Diabetes and Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabi, Sarah S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF In people with type 1 diabetes, sleep may be disrupted as a result of both behavioral and physiological aspects of diabetes and its management. This sleep disruption may negatively affect disease progression and development of complications. This review highlights key research findings regarding sleep in people with type 1 diabetes.

  8. Moment Distributions of Phase Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2011-01-01

    Moment distributions of phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions are shown to remain within their respective classes. We provide a probabilistic phase-type representation for the former case and an alternative representation, with an analytically appealing form, for the latter. First order...

  9. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML of ...

  10. Brauer algebras of type B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.M.; Liu, S.

    2015-01-01

    For each n ≥ 1, we define an algebra having many properties that one might expect to hold for a Brauer algebra of type Bn. It is defined by means of a presentation by generators and relations. We show that this algebra is a subalgebra of the Brauer algebra of type Dn+1 and point out a cellular struc

  11. The Spindle Type Cotton Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spindle type cotton picker was commercialized during the mid 1900’s and is currently produced by two US agricultural equipment manufacturers, John Deere and CaseIH. Picking is the predominate machine harvest method used throughout the US and world. Harvesting efficiency of a spindle type cotton ...

  12. Type specimen studies in Pleurotus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, Ronald H.; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard

    1999-01-01

    An epitype specimen is designated for Pleurotus cornucopiae. Morphological examination of Mexican material and the type specimen of P. opuntiae showed that the distribution of this species includes North Africa and the highlands of Mexico. The type specimen of Lentinus (Pleurotus) eugrammus reveals

  13. Type-2 fuzzy fractional derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazandarani, Mehran; Najariyan, Marzieh

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce two definitions of the differentiability of type-2 fuzzy number-valued functions of fractional order. The definitions are in the sense of Riemann-Liouville and Caputo derivative of order β ɛ (0, 1), and based on type-2 Hukuhara difference and H2-differentiability. The existence and uniqueness of the solutions of type-2 fuzzy fractional differential equations (T2FFDEs) under Caputo type-2 fuzzy fractional derivative and the definition of Laplace transform of type-2 fuzzy number-valued functions are also given. Moreover, the approximate solution to T2FFDE by a Predictor-Evaluate-Corrector-Evaluate (PECE) method is presented. Finally, the approximate solutions of two examples of linear and nonlinear T2FFDEs are obtained using the PECE method, and some cases of T2FFDEs applications in some sciences are presented.

  14. DNA typing by capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, N.

    1997-10-08

    Capillary electrophoresis is becoming more and more important in nucleic acid analysis including DNA sequencing, typing and disease gene measurements. This work summarized the background of DNA typing. The recent development of capillary electrophoresis was also discussed. The second part of the thesis showed the principle of DNA typing based on using the allelic ladder as the absolute standard ladder in capillary electrophoresis system. Future work will be focused on demonstrating DNA typing on multiplex loci and examples of disease diagnosis in the on-line format of PCR-CE. Also capillary array electrophoresis system should allow high throughput, fast speed DNA typing. Only the introduction and conclusions for this report are available here. A reprint was removed for separate processing.

  15. Personality types of oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, C A; Holcombe, J K

    1993-12-01

    Personality type influences the choice of occupation. The breadth of specialty areas within oncology nursing allows for divergent activities and relationships and, thus, the accommodation of different personality characteristics. This exploratory study examined personality types for a convenience sample of oncology nurses predominantly employed in hospitals. According to the personality typology defined by Carl Jung, a person demonstrates a preference among four dimensions, i.e., extraversion/introversion, sensory/intuition, thinking/feeling, and judging/perceiving. The type with the strongest self-selection for these oncology nurses was ISFJ, where feeling is introverted and perception is practical, so that helping others is both a responsibility and a pleasure. The discussion relates the personality types to Jung's theory and their impact in clinical practice. Strengths and weaknesses of each personality type are described.

  16. Intersection Types and Related Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Parys

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach to the following meta-problem: given a quantitative property of trees, design a type system such that the desired property for the tree generated by an infinitary ground lambda-term corresponds to some property of a derivation of a type for this lambda-term, in this type system. Our approach is presented in the particular case of the language finiteness problem for nondeterministic higher-order recursion schemes (HORSes: given a nondeterministic HORS, decide whether the set of all finite trees generated by this HORS is finite. We give a type system such that the HORS can generate a tree of an arbitrarily large finite size if and only if in the type system we can obtain derivations that are arbitrarily large, in an appropriate sense; the latter condition can be easily decided.

  17. Theoretical models for Type I and Type II supernova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent theoretical progress in understanding the origin and nature of Type I and Type II supernovae is discussed. New Type II presupernova models characterized by a variety of iron core masses at the time of collapse are presented and the sensitivity to the reaction rate /sup 12/C(..cap alpha..,..gamma..)/sup 16/O explained. Stars heavier than about 20 M/sub solar/ must explode by a ''delayed'' mechanism not directly related to the hydrodynamical core bounce and a subset is likely to leave black hole remnants. The isotopic nucleosynthesis expected from these massive stellar explosions is in striking agreement with the sun. Type I supernovae result when an accreting white dwarf undergoes a thermonuclear explosion. The critical role of the velocity of the deflagration front in determining the light curve, spectrum, and, especially, isotopic nucleosynthesis in these models is explored. 76 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Type-II Weyl semimetals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluyanov, Alexey A; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, QuanSheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, B Andrei

    2015-11-26

    Fermions--elementary particles such as electrons--are classified as Dirac, Majorana or Weyl. Majorana and Weyl fermions had not been observed experimentally until the recent discovery of condensed matter systems such as topological superconductors and semimetals, in which they arise as low-energy excitations. Here we propose the existence of a previously overlooked type of Weyl fermion that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets in a new phase of matter. This particle was missed by Weyl because it breaks the stringent Lorentz symmetry in high-energy physics. Lorentz invariance, however, is not present in condensed matter physics, and by generalizing the Dirac equation, we find the new type of Weyl fermion. In particular, whereas Weyl semimetals--materials hosting Weyl fermions--were previously thought to have standard Weyl points with a point-like Fermi surface (which we refer to as type-I), we discover a type-II Weyl point, which is still a protected crossing, but appears at the contact of electron and hole pockets in type-II Weyl semimetals. We predict that WTe2 is an example of a topological semimetal hosting the new particle as a low-energy excitation around such a type-II Weyl point. The existence of type-II Weyl points in WTe2 means that many of its physical properties are very different to those of standard Weyl semimetals with point-like Fermi surfaces.

  19. Wild type measles virus attenuation independent of type I IFN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat Branka

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles virus attenuation has been historically performed by adaptation to cell culture. The current dogma is that attenuated virus strains induce more type I IFN and are more resistant to IFN-induced protection than wild type (wt. Results The adaptation of a measles virus isolate (G954-PBL by 13 passages in Vero cells induced a strong attenuation of this strain in vivo. The adapted virus (G954-V13 differs from its parental strain by only 5 amino acids (4 in P/V/C and 1 in the M gene. While a vaccine strain, Edmonston Zagreb, could replicate equally well in various primate cells, both G954 strains exhibited restriction to the specific cell type used initially for their propagation. Surprisingly, we observed that both G954 strains induced type I IFN, the wt strain inducing even more than the attenuated ones, particularly in human plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells. Type I IFN-induced protection from the infection of both G954 strains depended on the cell type analyzed, being less efficient in the cells used to grow the viral strain. Conclusion Thus, mutations in M and P/V/C proteins can critically affect MV pathogenicity, cellular tropism and lead to virus attenuation without interfering with the α/β IFN system.

  20. Groundwater types in Southeast Srem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorić Enike

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The region of Southeast Srem is rich in ground waters, which is of great significance to agricultural production. The objective of this paper was to designate the zones of different groundwater types from the aspect of recharge, based on the analysis of groundwater regimes in the study area. A very complex groundwater regime in Southeast Srem, which depends on a great number of natural and some anthropogenic factors, makes it difficult to designate clearly the zones of the three main types of groundwater regime. Still, the boundaries of the zones of groundwater regime types were defined based on the results of correlation analysis of the basic factors affecting the groundwater regime. Zone I includes the climatic type of groundwater. Its fluctuation corresponds to the vertical factors of water balance (precipitation and evaporation and it is not affected by the river water level. This zone extends North and East of the line Putinci, Golubinci, Stara Pazova, Batajnica, Dobanovci, mainly in the area of the loess plateau. Within the zone, groundwater is at a relatively great depth. Only exceptionally, in the valleys, it appears almost on the surface. Zone II includes the climatic-hydrological groundwater type, which is the transition between the climatic type and the hydrological type. The fluctuation of groundwater regime is affected both by the effect of vertical balance factors, and by the effect of watercourses. Climatic-hydrological groundwater type covers the central and the lowest part of the study area and the South part of the middle terrace. Zone III is classified as the hydrological groundwater type and it covers the riparian areas along the Sava and the Danube. The aquifer is hydraulically connected with the river Sava.

  1. Operational Semantics of Termination Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1996-01-01

    In principle termination analysis is easy: find a well-founded ordering and prove that calls decrease with respect to the ordering. We show how to embed termination information into a polymorphic type system for an eager higher-order functional language allowing multiple-argument functions...... and algebraic data types. The well-founded orderings are defined by pattern matching against the definition of the algebraic data types. We prove that the analysis is semantically sound with respect to a big-step (or natural) operational semantics. We compare our approach based on operational semantics to one...

  2. User Types in Online Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Online applications are presented in the context of information society. Online applications characteristics are analyzed. Quality characteristics are presented in relation to online applications users. Types of users for AVIO application are presented. Use cases for AVIO application are identified. The limitations of AVIO application are defined. Types of users in online applications are identified. The threedimensional matrix of access to the online application resources is built. The user type-oriented database is structured. Access management of the fields related to the database tables is analyzed. The classification of online applications users is done.

  3. Types of Treatment: Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Information Treatment Types of Treatment Clinical Trials Clinical Trials Clinical Trials SHARE: Print Glossary Taking part in a clinical ... for cancer are based on previous clinical trials. Clinical Trial Service: LLS provides personalized clinical trial navigation when ...

  4. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...

  5. HRD in "Z" Type Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert; Anderson, Kathleen

    1982-01-01

    Describes the "Z" type training methods used in Japan. This training emphasizes interpersonal relations, long-term development, participative relationships, ability to perform several jobs, and individual patience and tolerance. (CT)

  6. [Surgery for diabetes type 2?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Markus K; Nocito, A; Schiesser, M

    2010-02-17

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a chronic disease with increasing prevalence in western society. Obesity represents a well established risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus type 2. Several studies on surgical procedures for the treatment of obesity have shown a postoperative reduction of obesity-related co-morbidities. Thus, diabetes mellitus type 2 was shown to resolve or improve in more than 75% of morbidly obese patients (BMI >35) after bariatric surgery. These insights paved the way for the advent of metabolic surgery - a novel field with the goal to improve glucose metabolism in patients with a BMI of less than 35. Encouraging results from mostly observational studies have sparked the interest in the surgical management of diabetes mellitus type 2.

  7. Allegheny County Soil Type Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains soil type and soil classification, by area. Additional info at: http://mcdc.cas.psu.edu/datawiz.htm;...

  8. Play the Blood Typing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire The Blood Typing Game What happens if you get a blood transfusion ... of the game 2012 Winner of the Best Game Category by Swedish Learning Awards " The winner has ...

  9. Types of Arrhythmia in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If an abnormal rhythm occurs, it's important to find out what kind it is. Treatment recommendations depend on its type. Arrhythmias can cause the heart rate to be irregular, fast or slow ( View an animation of arrhythmia ). Fast ...

  10. Types of Managed Care Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share Types of Managed Care Plans Page Content Article Body ​Managed care plans have ... to any deductible you must meet. High Deductible Plans (HDP): HDPs, also known as consumer directed health ...

  11. LABORATORY FERMENTERS OF CAPACITY TYPE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu I Sidorov

    2012-01-01

    ...) of a capacity type with mixing devices that are intended for the cultivation of prokaryotes and also vegetable, animal, and insect cells, which the following firms such as Sartorius BBI Systems, New...

  12. Forest Cover Types - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays general forest cover types for the United States. Data were derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) composite images...

  13. Moment Distributions of Phase Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    -type distributions. We construct representations for moment distributions based on a general matrix-exponential distribution which turns out to be a generalization of the moment distributions based on exponential distributions. For moment distributions based on phase{type distributions we find an appropriate...... alternative representation in terms of sub{intensity matrices. Finally we are able to nd explicit expressions for both the Lorenz curve and the Gini index....

  14. Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Ponranjini, Vedeswari C.; Jayachandran, S; L Kayal; K Bakyalakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome (APS) Type 1 is a rare hereditary disorder that damages organs in the body. This disease entity is the result of a mutation in the AIRE gene. It is characterized by three classic clinical features - hypoparathyroidism, Addison′s disease, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. For a patient to be diagnosed as having APS Type 1 syndrome at least two of these features needs to be present. The third entity may develop as the disease progresses. We report a case o...

  15. Text Type and Translation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘福娟

    2015-01-01

    Translation strategy and translation standards are undoubtedly the core problems translators are confronted with in translation. There have arisen many kinds of translation strategies in translation history, among which the text type theory is considered an important breakthrough and a significant complement of traditional translation standards. This essay attempts to demonstrate the value of text typology (informative, expressive, and operative) to translation strategy, emphasizing the importance of text types and their communicative functions.

  16. Familial episodic ataxia type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugundhan, K; Thiruvarutchelvan, K; Sivakumar, S

    2011-10-01

    The familial episodic ataxia type II is a rare, dominantly inherited disease characterized by episodes of ataxia of early onset, often with completely normal cerebellar function between attacks. We report a family with affected members who had features of episodic ataxia type II and cerebellar atrophy on MRI imaging. All the affected members were successfully treated with acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. They are asymptomatic at 2 year follow-up.

  17. Sun and Other Types of Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Causes Cancer? Sun and Other Types of Radiation Learn about the different types of radiation and ... other diseases. Learn more here. Other Types of Radiation Exposure Not all types of radiation have been ...

  18. Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 10 (SCA10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NATIONAL ATAXIA FOUNDATION FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT ... Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 10 (SCA10) What is spinocerebellar ataxia type 10? Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10) is one specific type of ataxia among a group ...

  19. Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 5 (SCA5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NATIONAL ATAXIA FOUNDATION FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT ... Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 5 (SCA5) What is spinocerebellar ataxia type 5? Spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 is one specific type of ataxia among a group of ...

  20. Recent advances in autoimmune pancreatitis: type 1 and type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisawa, Terumi; Chari, Suresh T; Lerch, Markus M; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Gress, Thomas M; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2013-09-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a form of chronic pancreatitis characterised clinically by frequent presentation with obstructive jaundice, histologically by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with fibrosis, and therapeutically by a dramatic response to steroids. When so defined, AIP can be sub-classified into two subtypes, 1 and 2. Recent international consensus diagnostic criteria for AIP have been developed for diagnosis of both forms of AIP. Type 1 AIP is the pancreatic manifestation of a multiorgan disease, recently named IgG4-related disease. Little is known about the pathogenesis of either form of AIP. Despite frequent association of type 1 AIP with elevated serum IgG4 levels and infiltration with IgG4-positive plasma cells, it is unlikely that IgG4 plays a pathogenic role in AIP. Type 1 AIP responds to steroids, but there needs to be consensus on treatment regimens for induction and therapeutic end points. Relapses are common, but can be reduced by long-term use of low-dose steroids. Recent reports suggest that immunomodulators (azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine and mycophenolate mofetil), as well biological agents (the antibody to CD20, rituximab) may have a role in maintaining remission in relapsing type 1 AIP. Future studies should clarify the best management options for treatment of relapses and maintenance of remission. Type 2 AIP is a pancreas-specific disorder not associated with IgG4. It presents in younger individuals equally with obstructive jaundice and pancreatitis. The inflammatory process responds to steroid therapy; relapses are uncommon. The clinical spectrum and long-term outcomes of medically treated type 2 AIP are still being evaluated.

  1. Simple algebras of Weyl type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Yucai(

    2001-01-01

    [1] Kawamoto, N., Generalizations of Witt algebras over a field of characteristic zero, Hiroshima Math. J., 1986, 16: 417.[2] Osborn, J. M., New simple infinite-dimensional Lie algebras of characteristic 0, J. Alg., 1996, 185: 820.[3] Dokovic, D. Z., Zhao, K., Derivations, isomorphisms, and second cohomology of generalized Witt algebras, Trans. of Amer. Math. Soc., 1998, 350(2): 643.[4] Dokovic, D. Z., Zhao, K., Generalized Cartan type W Lie algebras in characteristic zero, J. Alg., 1997, 195: 170.[5] Osborn, J. M., Zhao, K., Generalized Poisson bracket and Lie algebras of type H in characteristic 0, Math. Z., 1999, 230: 107.[6] Osborn, J. M., Zhao, K., Generalized Cartan type K Lie algebras in characteristic 0, Comm. Alg., 1997, 25: 3325.[7] Zhao, K., Isomorphisms between generalized Cartan type W Lie algebras in characteristic zero, Canadian J. Math., 1998, 50: 210.[8] Passman, D. P., Simple Lie algebras of Witt type, J. Algebra, 1998, 206: 682.[9] Jordan, D. A., On the simplicity of Lie algebras of derivations of commutative algebras, J. Alg., 2000, 206: 682.[10] Xu, X., New generalized simple Lie algebras of Cartan type over a field with characteristic 0, J. Alg., 2000, 244: 23.[11] Su, Y., Xu, X., Zhang, H., Derivation-simple algebras and the structures of Lie algebras of generalized Witt type, J. Alg., 2000, 233: 642.[12] Dixmer, J., Enveloping Algebras, Amsterdam: North Holland, 1977.

  2. Pomegranate and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, Saleem; Swedan, Samer; Alguraan, Ziyad

    2013-05-01

    Over the last decade, various studies have linked pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn), a fruit native to the Middle East, with type 2 diabetes prevention and treatment. This review focuses on current laboratory and clinical research related to the effects of pomegranate fractions (peels, flowers, and seeds) and some of their active components on biochemical and metabolic variables associated with the pathologic markers of type 2 diabetes. This review systematically presents findings from cell culture and animal studies as well as clinical human research. One key mechanism by which pomegranate fractions affect the type 2 diabetic condition is by reducing oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. This reduction may occur by directly neutralizing the generated reactive oxygen species, increasing certain antioxidant enzyme activities, inducing metal chelation activity, reducing resistin formation, and inhibiting or activating certain transcriptional factors, such as nuclear factor κB and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Fasting blood glucose levels were decreased significantly by punicic acid, methanolic seed extract, and pomegranate peel extract. Known compounds in pomegranate, such as punicalagin and ellagic, gallic, oleanolic, ursolic, and uallic acids, have been identified as having anti-diabetic actions. Furthermore, the juice sugar fraction was found to have unique antioxidant polyphenols (tannins and anthocyanins), which could be beneficial to control conditions in type 2 diabetes. These findings provide evidence for the anti-diabetic activity of pomegranate fruit; however, before pomegranate or any of its extracts can be medically recommended for the management of type 2 diabetes, controlled, clinical studies, are needed.

  3. Different collagen types define two types of idiopathic epiretinal membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Kritzenberger, Michaela; Junglas, Benjamin; Framme, Carsten; Helbig, Horst; Gabel, Veit-Peter; Fuchshofer, Rudolf; Ernst R. Tamm; Hillenkamp, Jost

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims: To identify differences in extracellular matrix contents between idiopathic epiretinal membranes (IEM) of cellophane macular reflex (CMRM) or preretinal macular fibrosis (PMFM) type. Methods and results: IEM were analyzed by light and quantitative transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Substantial differences between CMRM and PMFM were observed regarding the nature of extracellular fibrils. In CMRM, the fibrils were thin with...

  4. Quantization via Linear homotopy types

    CERN Document Server

    Schreiber, Urs

    2014-01-01

    In the foundational logical framework of homotopy-type theory we discuss a natural formalization of secondary integral transforms in stable geometric homotopy theory. We observe that this yields a process of non-perturbative cohomological quantization of local pre-quantum field theory; and show that quantum anomaly cancellation amounts to realizing this as the boundary of a field theory that is given by genuine (primary) integral transforms, hence by linear polynomial functors. Recalling that traditional linear logic has semantics in symmetric monoidal categories and serves to formalize quantum mechanics, what we consider is its refinement to linear homotopy-type theory with semantics in stable infinity-categories of bundles of stable homotopy types (generalized cohomology theories) formalizing Lagrangian quantum field theory, following Nuiten and closely related to recent work by Haugseng and Hopkins-Lurie. For the reader interested in technical problems of quantization we provide non-perturbative quantizati...

  5. Glucagon and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asger; Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    In normal physiology, glucagon from pancreatic alpha cells plays an important role in maintaining glucose homeostasis via its regulatory effect on hepatic glucose production. Patients with type 2 diabetes suffer from fasting and postprandial hyperglucagonemia, which stimulate hepatic glucose...... production and, thus, contribute to the hyperglycemia characterizing these patients. Although this has been known for years, research focusing on alpha cell (patho)physiology has historically been dwarfed by research on beta cells and insulin. Today the mechanisms behind type 2 diabetic hyperglucagonemia...... or antagonization of the glucagon receptor constitutes potentially effective treatment strategies for patients with type 2 diabetes. In this review, we focus on the regulation of glucagon secretion by the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GIP. Furthermore, potential advantages and limitations...

  6. Blood types in Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, G.L.; Klontz, G.W.

    1961-01-01

    Intraspecific differences in erythrocyte antigens (blood types) were shown to occur in four species of Pacific salmon, the sockeye or red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), the chinook or king salmon (0. tshawytscha), the chum salmon (O. keta), and the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Antisalmon-erythrocyte sera prepared in rabbits and chickens were used after absorption of species-specific antibodies. Some of these blood types were shown to differ in their frequency of occurrence between different geographic races. In addition, isoimmunizations were conducted on one race of sockeye salmon. Antisera of seven different specificities were prepared and at least eight different patterns of antigenic composition were displayed by the cells tested.

  7. Type-2 fuzzy granular models

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Mauricio A; Castro, Juan R

    2017-01-01

    In this book, a series of granular algorithms are proposed. A nature inspired granular algorithm based on Newtonian gravitational forces is proposed. A series of methods for the formation of higher-type information granules represented by Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets are also shown, via multiple approaches, such as Coefficient of Variation, principle of justifiable granularity, uncertainty-based information concept, and numerical evidence based. And a fuzzy granular application comparison is given as to demonstrate the differences in how uncertainty affects the performance of fuzzy information granules.

  8. Ameloblastoma, Solid/Multicystic Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Angela M.

    2009-01-01

    The ameloblastoma, particularly the solid/multicystic type, is the most clinically significant odontogentic tumor. The tumor is often locally aggressive and has a significant impact and may have a patient’s morbidity and mortality. In this report, we present a case of a large ameloblastoma that presented with the typical radiographic features of variably sized radiolucent loculations. Microscopically the tumor showed a variety of histologic types, with plexiform and follicular predominating. The tumor was treated with a partial resection of the mandible. PMID:20596851

  9. NEUROFIBROMATOSIS TYPE I: CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : Neurofibromatosis (NF is a term that has been applied to a variety of related syndromes, characterized by neuro ectodermal tumors arising within multiple organs and autosomal-dominant inheritance. Neurofibromatosis type I(NF-1, known as well as Recklinghausen’s disease, we have presented a case report of 10 year old boy with complain of scalp swelling on right postero-lateral aspect of scalp with multiple flat, hypo pigmented macule on back, neck. On radiology work up including MRI there were multiple plexiform neuroibromas, multiple non-neoplastic hamartomatous lesion suggestive of neurofibromatosis type.

  10. Interpretations of Recursive Type Definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    1992-01-01

    A system of hierarchical imperative types is extended to allow infinite values. The general structure of value assignments to types in the context of a hierarchy is considered, and it is shown that both a minimal and a maximal value assignment exist. We give two different characterizations...... of intermediate value assignments: In terms of the predicates that describe them as subsets of the maximal values, and in terms of computational stability. As an application we introduce rational infinite values in our system. Programs can then work on infinite imperative data structures which are allocated...

  11. Blood metals concentration in type 1 and type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice; Peruzzu, Angela; Tolu, Francesco; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Oggiano, Riccardo; Madeddu, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Mechanisms for the onset of diabetes and the development of diabetic complications remain under extensive investigations. One of these mechanisms is abnormal homeostasis of metals, as either deficiency or excess of metals, can contribute to certain diabetic outcomes. Therefore, this paper will report the blood levels of chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in subjects with type 1 diabetes (n = 192, mean age 48.8 years, mean disease duration 20.6 years), type 2 diabetes (n = 68, mean age 68.4 years, mean disease duration 10.2 years), and in control subjects (n = 59, mean age 57.2 years), and discuss the results indicating their possible role in diabetes. The metal concentrations were measured by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave-induced acid digestion of blood samples. The accuracy was checked using a blood-based certified reference material, and recoveries of all elements were in the range of 92-101 % of certified values. Type 1 diabetes was found to be associated with Cr (p = 0.02), Mn (p < 0.001), Ni (p < 0.001), Pb (p = 0.02), and Zn (p < 0.001) deficiency, and type 2 diabetes with Cr (p = 0.014), Mn (p < 0.001), and Ni (p < 0.001) deficiency. These deficiencies were appreciated also subdividing the understudied patients for gender and age groups. Furthermore, in type 1 diabetes, there was a positive correlation between Pb and age (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.400) and Pb and BMI (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.309), while a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.002, ρ = -0.218). In type 2 diabetes, there was a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.017, ρ = -0.294) and Fe and BMI (p = 0.026, ρ = -0.301). Thus, these elements may play a role in both forms of diabetes and combined mineral supplementations could have beneficial effects.

  12. Clause Types in Southeastern Tepehuan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Thomas L.

    The clause in Southeastern Tepehuan consists of a predicate, its associated arguments, and other modifying elements. This paper seeks to show the various types of semantic and surface clauses and the relation between them. The semantic clause consists of various semantic components, both nuclear and peripheral, semantic prosodies, and certain…

  13. Invariant Classification of Gait Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a method of classifying human gait in an invariant manner based on silhouette comparison. A database of artificially generated silhouettes is created representing the three main types of gait, i.e. walking, jogging, and running. Silhouettes generated from different camera angles...

  14. Magnesium and type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mario; Barbagallo; Ligia; J; Dominguez

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is frequently associated with both extracellular and intracellular magnesium(Mg) deficits. A chronic latent Mg deficit or an overt clinical hypomagnesemia is common in patients with type 2 diabetes, especially in those with poorly controlled glycemic profiles. Insulinand glucose are important regulators of Mg metabolism. Intracellular Mg plays a key role in regulating insulin action, insulin-mediated-glucose-uptake and vascular tone. Reduced intracellular Mg concentrations result in a defective tyrosine-kinase activity, postreceptorial impairment in insulin action and worsening of insulin resistance in diabetic patients. A low Mg intake and an increased Mg urinary loss appear the most important mechanisms that may favor Mg depletion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Low dietary Mg intake has been related to the development of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Benefits of Mg supplementation on metabolic profiles in diabetic patients have been found in most, but not all clinical studies and larger prospective studies are needed to support the potential role of dietary Mg supplementation as a possible public health strategy in diabetes risk. The aim of this review is to revise current evidence on the mechanisms of Mg deficiency in diabetes and on the possible role of Mg supplementation in the prevention and management of the disease.

  15. [Obesity and type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, Hermann; Hoppichler, Friedrich; Wascher, Thomas C; Schindler, Karin; Ludvik, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes are nowadays summarized as "diabesity". That is due to the fact that obesity is frequently preceding and the most important risk factor in the increase of Type 2 Diabetes. The body mass index (BMI) is a crude measure of body fatness. Even normal weight persons can have lack in muscles (sarcopenia), which leads to the recommendation to measure waist und body fatness (e.g. BIA). Lifestyle management including nutrition and physical activity are important for diabetes prevention. In the therapy of Type 2 Diabetes body weight is increasingly used as secondary target. Also the choice of the anti-diabetic medication and concomitant medications is increasingly influenced by body weight. The significance of anti-obesity medications in the therapy of type 2 diabetes will have to be clarified by future studies. Bariatric surgery is at present indicated with a BMI above BMI > 35 kg/m(2) and can lead at least to partial diabetes remission but has to be part of a lifelong care concept.

  16. Rijke-Type Thermoacoustic Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beke, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    Thermoacoustic instability can appear in any thermal device when the unsteady heat transfer is favourably coupled with the fluctuations of acoustic pressure. In this paper, we present a project type of physical measuring and modelling task; the aim of our project is to help our students increase their knowledge of thermoacoustics. Our paper…

  17. Two types of parasitic assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jurgec

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that consonant harmony and parasitic vowel harmony are more similar than previously assumed. I provide a unified and restrictive analysis of parasitic assimilation using feature spreading constraints. In particular, I attribute the differences between the attested and unattested patterns to two types of markedness constraints—alignment and agreement.

  18. "Divergent" Ramanujan-type supercongruences

    CERN Document Server

    Guillera, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    "Divergent" Ramanujan-type series for $1/\\pi$ and $1/\\pi^2$ provide us with new nice examples of supercongruences of the same kind as those related to the convergent cases. In this paper we manage to prove three of the supercongruences by means of the Wilf--Zeilberger algorithmic technique.

  19. Imagery of Errors in Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Martina; Martinez, Fanny; Wenke, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    Using a typing task we investigated whether insufficient imagination of errors and error corrections is related to duration differences between execution and imagination. In Experiment 1 spontaneous error imagination was investigated, whereas in Experiment 2 participants were specifically instructed to imagine errors. Further, in Experiment 2 we…

  20. Personality and personal network type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeven-Eggens, Lilian; De Fruyt, Filip; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn; Bosker, Roel J.; Van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2008-01-01

    The association between personality and personal relationships is mostly studied within dyadic relationships. We examined these variables within the context of personal network types. We used Latent Class Analysis to identify groups Of Students with similar role relationships with three focal figure

  1. Unoriented Minimal Type 0 Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Carlisle, J E; Carlisle, James E; Johnson, Clifford V

    2004-01-01

    We define a family of string equations with perturbative expansions that admit an interpretation as an unoriented minimal string theory with background D-branes and R-R fluxes. The theory also has a well-defined non-perturbative sector and we expect it to have a continuum interpretation as an orientifold projection of the non-critical type~0A string for \\hat{c}=0, the (2,4) model. There is a second perturbative region which is consistent with an interpretation in terms of background R-R fluxes. We identify a natural parameter in the formulation that we speculate may have an interpretation as characterizing the contribution of a new type of background D-brane. There is a non-perturbative map to a family of string equations which we expect to be the \\hat{c}=0 type 0B string. The map exchanges D-branes and R-R fluxes. We present the general structure of the string equations for the (2,4k) type 0A models.

  2. Living with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & ...

  3. Evaluation of Type A personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, F.; Kornitzer, M.; Dramaix, M.

    1986-01-01

    When we look for the criteria for causation of Type A behaviour for coronary heart disease, we lack the reproducibility, the predictability to a certain extent, a pathogenic mechanism and an animal model, all four of the eight recognized criteria for causal inference. The debate therefore is still wide open. PMID:3774714

  4. Gaussian Fibonacci Circulant Type Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices have become important tools in solving integrable system, Hamiltonian structure, and integral equations. In this paper, we prove that Gaussian Fibonacci circulant type matrices are invertible matrices for n>2 and give the explicit determinants and the inverse matrices. Furthermore, the upper bounds for the spread on Gaussian Fibonacci circulant and left circulant matrices are presented, respectively.

  5. Personality and personal network type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeven-Eggens, Lilian; De Fruyt, Filip; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn; Bosker, Roel J.; Van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2008-01-01

    The association between personality and personal relationships is mostly studied within dyadic relationships. We examined these variables within the context of personal network types. We used Latent Class Analysis to identify groups Of Students with similar role relationships with three focal

  6. Tension type headaches: a review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    23. Epidemiology. A wide variation in the prevalence of tension-type headaches .... intensity tending to be less in the morning, building up after noon, and reducing ... with a change in position or the start of Valsalva-like sneezing. • Associated ...

  7. Fuchsian equations of type DN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golyshev, V.

    2007-01-01

    We prove that a generic differential operator of type DN is irreducible, regular, (anti)self-adjoint, and has quasiunipotent local monodromies. We prove that the defining matrix of a DN operator can be recovered from the expression of the operator as a polynomial in t and d/dt. -

  8. Standard types of regulation loops; Chaines de regulation types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, M. [ENSAM, Centre d`Enseignement et de Recherche de Lille, 59 - Lille (France)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to give help in the analysis of industrial regulation problems using different types of real installations. The increasing complexity of industrial systems requires the use of a decomposition-recomposition procedure using a scheme with different blocs. Examples are given to help the non-specialist users in the mastery of essential choices and in the distinction between operational and material separations. The examples concern: the heating loop of a central heating installation, the sensors and actuators of industrial systems (the temperature regulation of a tubular furnace, the electro-hydraulic positioning systems used in machine tools, forming, aeronautics etc.., the regulation of a mixing system for hot and cold fluids, and the regulation of a fluidizing system. The usual types of regulation loops are presented with the different steps of the resolution of a regulation problem. (J.S.) 7 refs.

  9. Headache and Decompression Sickness: Type I or Type II?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    neurological exam was normal. Recompression with 100% oxygen produced relief within fifteen minutes. Follow up revealed no recurrence . Case 2 A twenty-seven...Follow up revealed no recurrence . Both cases pose an intriguing question. Should headache always be considered Type II DCS? DCS has a wide range of...with the supporting basis for this alternative view. The background for this paper is based on orthodontic and osteopathic medicine. For years

  10. Genotypic and serotypic stability of Campylobacter jejuni strains during in vitro and in vivo passage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva M.; Engberg, J.; Fussing, V.

    2001-01-01

    The stability of four typing methods and the sero- and genotypic stability of three Campylobacter jejuni strains were evaluated after subculturing 50 times in triplicate and after colonising mice for up to 26 days. The employed methods were Penner heat-stable serotyping; automated ribotyping (Ribo...

  11. Molecular mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalal, S; Ciofu, O; Høiby, Niels;

    2000-01-01

    Twenty P. aeruginosa isolates were collected from six cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, aged 27 to 33, in 1994 (9 isolates) and 1997 (11 isolates) at the CF Center, Copenhagen, Denmark, and were typed by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) or ribotyping. Five of the patients had isolates with the...

  12. Hardy type inequalities on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi P; Saker, Samir H

    2016-01-01

    The book is devoted to dynamic inequalities of Hardy type and extensions and generalizations via convexity on a time scale T. In particular, the book contains the time scale versions of classical Hardy type inequalities, Hardy and Littlewood type inequalities, Hardy-Knopp type inequalities via convexity, Copson type inequalities, Copson-Beesack type inequalities, Liendeler type inequalities, Levinson type inequalities and Pachpatte type inequalities, Bennett type inequalities, Chan type inequalities, and Hardy type inequalities with two different weight functions. These dynamic inequalities contain the classical continuous and discrete inequalities as special cases when T = R and T = N and can be extended to different types of inequalities on different time scales such as T = hN, h > 0, T = qN for q > 1, etc.In this book the authors followed the history and development of these inequalities. Each section in self-contained and one can see the relationship between the time scale versions of the inequalities and...

  13. An Imperative Type Hierarchy with Partial Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1989-01-01

    notation for defining recursive types, that is superior to traditional type sums and products. We show how the ordering on types extends to an ordering on types with invariants. We allow the use of least upper bounds in type definitions and show how to compute upper bounds of invariants.......A type hierarchy for a programming language defines an ordering on the types such that any application for small types may be reused for all larger types. The imperative facet makes this non-trivial; the straight-forward definitions will yield an inconsistent system. We introduce a new type...... constructor, the partial product, and show how to define a consistent hierarchy in the context of fully recursive types. A simple polymorphism is derived by introducing a notion of placeholder types. By extending the partial product types to include structural invariants we obtain a particularly appropriate...

  14. On the internal structures of inductive types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The paper investigates the internal structures of hereditary inductive types in logical type theory. By defining a bisimulation equality on the inhabitants of each hereditary inductive type, one is able to show that the inhabitants of a hereditary inductive type satisfy the basic properties of sets. A hereditary inductive type can therefore be conceived as a universe of sets.

  15. TSC measurements on proton-irradiated p-type Si-sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donegani, Elena; Fretwurst, Eckhart; Garutti, Erika; Junkes, Alexandra [University of Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Thin n{sup +}p Si sensors are potential candidates for coping with neutron equivalent fluences up to 2.10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} and an ionizing dose in the order of a few MGy, which are expected e.g. for the HL-LHC upgrade. The aim of the present work is to provide experimental data on radiation-induced defects in order to: firstly, get a deeper understanding of the properties of hadron induced defects, and secondly develop a radiation damage model based on microscopic measurements. Therefore, the outcomes of Thermally Stimulated Current measurements on 200 μm thick Float-Zone (FZ) and Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) diodes will be shown, as a results of irradiation with 23 MeV protons and isothermal annealing. The samples were irradiated in the fluence range (0.3-1).10{sup 14} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, so that the maximal temperature at which the TSC signal is still sharply distinguishable from the dark current is 200 K. In particular, special focus will be given to the defect introduction rate and to the issue of boron removal in p-type silicon. Annealing studies allow to distinguish which defects mainly contribute to the leakage current and which to the space charge, and thus correlate microscopic defects properties with macroscopic sensor properties.

  16. 29 CFR 779.329 - Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services... customer and type of goods or services. In some industries the type of goods or services sold or the type... retail regardless of the type of goods or services sold or the type of customer. Where a sale is...

  17. Type IV Wind Turbine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Margaris, Ioannis D.

    project to be incorporated in the wind power plant level. This document describes the Type 4 wind turbine simulation model, implemented in the EaseWind project. The implemented wind turbine model is one of the initial necessary steps toward integrating new control services in the wind power plant level....... In the project, this wind turbine model will be further incorporated in a wind power plant model together with the implementation in the wind power control level of the new control functionalities (inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping). For this purpose an aggregate wind power plant...... (WPP) will be considered. The aggregate WPP model, which will be based on the upscaling of the individual wind turbine model on the electrical part, will make use of an equivalent wind speed. The implemented model follows the basic structure of the generic standard Type 4 wind turbine model proposed...

  18. Tuberculosis vaccine types and timings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Ian M

    2015-03-01

    Traditionally, the design of new vaccines directed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the most successful bacterial pathogen on the planet, has focused on prophylactic candidates that would be given to individuals while they are still young. It is becoming more apparent, however, that there are several types of vaccine candidates now under development that could be used under various conditions. Thus, in addition to prophylactic vaccines, such as recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG or BCG-boosting vaccines, other applications include vaccines that could prevent infection, vaccines that could be given in emergency situations as postexposure vaccines, vaccines that could be used to facilitate chemotherapy, and vaccines that could be used to reduce or prevent relapse and reactivation disease. These approaches are discussed here, including the type of immunity we are trying to specifically target, as well as the limitations of these approaches.

  19. Instream Physical Habitat Modelling Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, John; Boegh, Eva; Krogsgaard, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    -friendly and have flexible data needs. They can easily be implemented in new regions using expert information or different types of local data. Furthermore, they are easily presentable to stakeholders and have the potential to be applied over large spatial scales. Integral care must be taken in the use...... and disadvantages as management tools for member states in relation to the requirements of the WFD, but due to their different model structures they are distinct in their data needs, transferability, user-friendliness and presentable outputs. Water resource managers need information on what approaches will best...... management tools, but require large amounts of data and the model structure is complex. It is concluded that the use of habitat suitability indices (HSIs) and fuzzy rules in hydraulic-habitat modelling are the most ready model types to satisfy WFD demands. These models are well documented, transferable, user...

  20. Life history types and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, Mikkel

    strategies and types in migratory freshwater fish, using brown trout and alewife as study organisms. Firstly, we investigated underlying mechanisms of resident and migratory life history strategies of salmonids, using indicators for nutritional status, stress, tissue damage and smoltification. Secondly......, avian predation pressure on the groups with different life history strategies was explored in their respective habitats. Thirdly, we demonstrated that the life history type of alewives, through regulation of zooplankton availability, influence the ontogeny of concurrent largemouth bass. Finally, a field...... study approach was used to evaluate the effect of PIT tagging on body condition of brown trout. Within a salmonid population several life history strategies can be found, each of which involves variations in migration and residency. Migratory life history strategies are often viewed as an adaptive...

  1. [Tyrosinemia type II. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatiya, A I; Bouayed, M A; Touiza, E; Daoudi, K; Bhalil, S; Elmesbahi, I; Tahri, H

    2005-01-01

    Tyrosinemia type II or Richner-Hanhart syndrome is a rare hereditary disease characterized by the association of pseudoherpetiform corneal ulcerations and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. We report the case of a 12 year-old young man presenting a superficial punctate keratitis and a corneal dystrophy in both eyes, associated with a palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. The dosage of the serum level of tyrosine is meaningfully raised to 1236 micromol/l. A dietary treatment restraining tyrosine and phenylalanine is started with favorable results after an evolution of 6 months. Tyrosinemia type II is an autosomal recessive disease, due to an enzymatic deficit in tyrosine aminotransferase. The diagnosis is based on the clinic and high level of serum and urinary tyrosine as well as of its urinary metabolites. This disease must be suspected in all cases of dentritic keratitis not reacting on the antiviral treatment, and more especially if it is associated with cutaneous lesions such as palmo-plantar keratosis.

  2. Types for X10 Clocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Martins

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available X10 is a modern language built from the ground up to handle future parallel systems, from multicore machines to cluster configurations. We take a closer look at a pair of synchronisation mechanisms: finish and clocks. The former waits for the termination of parallel computations, the latter allow multiple concurrent activities to wait for each other at certain points in time. In order to better understand these concepts we study a type system for a stripped down version of X10. The main result assures that well typed programs do not run into the errors identified in the X10 language reference, namely the ClockUseException. The study will open, we hope, doors to a more flexible utilisation of clocks in the X10 language.

  3. Five types of organizational strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly

    2014-01-01

    Models in the strategy field defining the strategy concept emphasize schools of thought or strategy perspectives, but not how to define the idiosyncratic composition of an organization’s strategy content. Based on a literature review in which meanings have been attached to the concept, this paper...... presents a new model including five types of organizational strategy. The model emphasizes that key influencers may make heterogeneous contributions to an organization’s strategy and also that significant effects may result from interaction between types of strategy.......Models in the strategy field defining the strategy concept emphasize schools of thought or strategy perspectives, but not how to define the idiosyncratic composition of an organization’s strategy content. Based on a literature review in which meanings have been attached to the concept, this paper...

  4. Introducing inulin-type fructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberfroid, Marcel B

    2005-04-01

    Inulin is a generic term to cover all beta(2-->1) linear fructans. Chicory inulin is a linear beta(2-->1) fructan (degree of polymerisation (DP) 2 to 60; DPav=12), its partial enzymatic hydrolysis product is oligofructose (DP 2 to 8; DPav=4), and by applying specific separation technologies a long-chain inulin known as inulin HP (DP 10 to 60; DPav=25) can be produced. Finally, a specific product known as oligofructose-enriched inulin is obtained by combining chicory long-chain inulin and oligofructose. Because of the beta-configuration of the anomeric C2 in their fructose monomers, inulin-type fructans resist hydrolysis by intestinal digestive enzymes, they classify as 'non-digestible' carbohydrates, and they are dietary fibres. By increasing faecal biomass and water content of the stools, they improve bowel habits, but they have characteristic features different from other fibres. They affect gastrointestinal functions not because of their physico-chemical properties but rather because of their biochemical and physiological attributes. In the colon, they are rapidly fermented to produce SCFA that are good candidates to explain some of the systemic effects of inulin-type fructans. Fermentation of inulin-type fructans in the large bowel is a selective process; bifidobacteria (and possibly a few other genera) are preferentially stimulated to grow, thus causing significant changes in the composition of the gut microflora by increasing the number of potentially health-promoting bacteria and reducing the number of potentially harmful species. Both oligofructose and inulin are prebiotic. They also induce changes in colonic epithelium stimulating proliferation in the crypts, increasing the concentration of polyamines, changing the profile of mucins, and modulating endocrine as well as immune functions. From a nutrition labelling perspective, inulin-type fructans are not only prebiotic dietary fibres; they are also low-calorie carbohydrates [6.3 kJ/g (1.5 kcal

  5. Familial colorectal cancer type X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Therkildsen, Christina; Da Silva, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Heredity is a major cause of colorectal cancer, but although several rare high-risk syndromes have been linked to disease-predisposing mutations, the genetic mechanisms are undetermined in the majority of families suspected of hereditary cancer. We review the clinical presentation, histopathologic...... features, and the genetic and epigenetic profiles of the familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) syndrome with the aim to delineate tumor characteristics that may contribute to refined diagnostics and optimized tumor prevention....

  6. DNA typing from cigarette butts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Takayama, Tomohiro; Hirata, Keiji; Yamada, Sadao; Nagai, Atsushi; Nakamura, Isao; Bunai, Yasuo; Ohya, Isao

    2003-03-01

    We performed DNA typing for D1S80, HLADQA1, TH01 and PM using the butts of 100 cigarettes that were smoked by ten different individuals (ten cigarettes per individual). The results obtained from DNA typing for D1S80 agreed with the results obtained using bloodstains in 76 cigarette butt samples. Sixteen samples produced false results, showing the loss of the longer allelic hetero-band. When examined using agarose gel electrophoresis, high-molecular weight DNA was not observed in these samples. The same results were also observed for buccal swab samples and saliva stains obtained from the same individuals. In the remaining eight cigarette butt samples, PCR products were not detected. The results obtained from DNA typing for TH01, HLADQA1 and PM agreed with the results obtained using bloodstains in 90 samples. In the remaining ten samples of a specific kind of cigarette (Marlboro), the PCR products were not detected. The extracts from the ends of the Marlboro cigarettes were stained yellow. When the DNA extracted from Marlboro cigarette butts was treated with Microcon-100 (amicon) or SizeSep 400 Span Columns (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech), PCR products could be detected. When PCR amplification was performed after adding extracts from the ends of unsmoked Marlboro cigarettes to DNA extracted from bloodstains, PCR products could not be detected. The present data indicate that the degradation of high-molecular weight DNA and the inhibition of PCR by dyes of the cigarette end should be kept in mind when performing DNA typing using cigarette ends.

  7. Combining different types of classifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Gatnar, Eugeniusz

    2008-01-01

    Model fusion has proved to be a very successful strategy for obtaining accurate models in classification and regression. The key issue, however, is the diversity of the component classifiers because classification error of an ensemble depends on the correlation between its members. The majority of existing ensemble methods combine the same type of models, e.g. trees. In order to promote the diversity of the ensemble members, we propose to aggregate classifiers of different t...

  8. Treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Scheen, André

    2003-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease resulting from a dynamic interaction between defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. As most subjects are overweighted or obese, the initial treatment is optimization of the meal plan and enhancement of physical activity in order to obtain sustained weight reduction. In case of failure of life-style changes, various oral antihyperglycaemic agents may be used. Some are targeting defective insulin secretion (sulphonylureas, glinides) while oth...

  9. Repair Types, Procedures - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    New Jersey, USA. Repair Types, Procedures – Part I RTO-EN-AVT-156 9 - 19 [5] Drieker R, Botello C, MacBeth S, and Grody J, “Aircraft Battle... MacBeth S, and Grody J, “Aircraft Battle Damage Assessment and Repair (ABDAR), Vol. III: Field Test Report,” AFRL-HE-WP-TR-2002-0039, July 2000. [8

  10. Epidermolytic Hyperkeratosis -NPS 2 Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Jayanta Kumar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (epidermolytic hyperkeratosis or EHK with some unusual features is described. It was diagnosed in a 6 month old girl with no family history of either EHK or focal lesions suggestive of mosaicism. The girl probably had EHK type NPS-2; but non-involvement of face and lack of foul body odor set the case apart.

  11. Phacomatosis pigmentovascularis of cesioflammea type*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Delky Johanna Villarreal; Leal, Fabiano

    2016-01-01

    Phacomatosis pigmentovascularis is a rare syndrome, defined as the simultaneous presence of vascular nevus and melanocytic nevus in the same patient. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman presented with dermal melanosis and extensive vascular nevus, which match the typical manifestations of phakomatosis pigmetovascularis of cesioflammea type, according to Happle's classification. The rare occurrence of this genodermatosis and the clinical exuberance of the skin lesions motivated this case report.

  12. Session Types in Abelian Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Hirai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There was a PhD student who says "I found a pair of wooden shoes. I put a coin in the left and a key in the right. Next morning, I found those objects in the opposite shoes." We do not claim existence of such shoes, but propose a similar programming abstraction in the context of typed lambda calculi. The result, which we call the Amida calculus, extends Abramsky's linear lambda calculus LF and characterizes Abelian logic.

  13. Gastaut type idiopathic occipital epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Volkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic occipital epilepsy is a rare epileptic syndrome. Its incidence in a Novosibirsk cohort of patients with idiopathic focal epilepsy is 0.9%. Objective: to present a clinical description of new cases of Gastaut syndrome, the types of its course, and treatment options in these patients. Patients and methods. The study covers 17 cases of Gastaut type idiopathic occipital epilepsy in 13 women and 4 men aged 11–53 years. Results. Among 17 cases we present 4 family cases with the disease. Three generations in 2 families were observed to have epilepsy, including Gastaut syndrome concurrent with childhood absence epilepsy. The adolescent onset of the disease was seen in most cases. Its main symptoms were focal visual seizures (100%, focal sensory seizures (58.9%, cephalalgia (47.1%, speech disorders (41.2%, and secondarily generalized convulsive seizures (35.3%. According to the frequency of seizures, the investigators identified 5 types of the course: single focal seizures, rare focal seizures with or without convulsions, frequent focal seizures with or without convulsions. The identity of the course of epilepsy was found in familial cases. 76.5% of the patients had a good quality of life: 41.2% of them were untreated while 35.3% were treated; no seizures were noted. 

  14. Rare types of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, B; Mihai, Cătălina; Cijevschi-Prelipcean, Cristina; Lăcătuşu, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a heterogenous disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and induced by a large number of etiopathogenic conditions. Beside type 1 and type 2 diabetes, which account for almost 90% of all cases, practitioners may encounter patients with more infrequent forms of diabetes, as those induced by mutations of a single gene, atypical immune disorders or neonatal diabetes. Monogenic diabetes is represented by genetic disorders in the structure of the beta-cell (the MODY syndromes and the mutations of mitochondrial DNA) or in the insulin's action (type A insulin resistance syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, leprechaunism, lipodystrophies). The rare forms of immune diabetes are determined by antibodies against insulin or insulin receptor or appear as a component of the "stiff man syndrome". Neonatal diabetes is induced by mutations in genes that control beta-cell development and function and may have a transient or permanent nature. Knowledge of the uncommon forms of diabetes mellitus enables physicians to apply the optimal treatment, to estimate the evolution of the patient and to apply a complete family screening in order to diagnose all other blood relatives as soon as possible.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions mucopolysaccharidosis type I mucopolysaccharidosis type I Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a condition that affects many ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: otopalatodigital syndrome type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Genetic Testing (1 link) Genetic Testing Registry: Oto-palato-digital syndrome, type I Other Diagnosis and ... syndrome faciopalatoosseous syndrome FPO OPD syndrome, type 1 oto-palato-digital syndrome, type I Taybi syndrome Related ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: otopalatodigital syndrome type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Genetic Testing (1 link) Genetic Testing Registry: Oto-palato-digital syndrome, type II Other Diagnosis and ... syndrome faciopalatoosseous syndrome FPO OPD syndrome, type 2 oto-palato-digital syndrome, type II Taybi syndrome Related ...

  18. Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En español Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Diabetes ... 1 of 9 sections The Basics: Types of Diabetes What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease. People ...

  19. Language Arts Multidisciplinary: A Touch of Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Mary Ellen

    1979-01-01

    Suggests teaching elementary students to type by providing a typing learning station and one 30-minute lesson each week. Includes ideas for relating typing to other curriculum areas such as punctuation, spelling, and writing. (SJL)

  20. 7 CFR 29.3559 - Type 36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3559 Type 36. That type of air-cured tobacco commonly known as Green River, Green River... Green River section of Kentucky....

  1. Genetics Home Reference: spastic paraplegia type 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions spastic paraplegia type 11 spastic paraplegia type 11 Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Spastic paraplegia type 11 is part of a group of ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: spastic paraplegia type 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions spastic paraplegia type 4 spastic paraplegia type 4 Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Spastic paraplegia type 4 is part of a group of ...

  3. A Data Type for Efficient Representation of Other Data Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A self-organizing, monomorphic data type denoted a sequence has been conceived to address certain concerns that arise in programming parallel computers. A sequence in the present sense can be regarded abstractly as a vector, set, bag, queue, or other construct. Heretofore, in programming a parallel computer, it has been necessary for the programmer to state explicitly, at the outset, what parts of the program and the underlying data structures must be represented in parallel form. Not only is this requirement not optimal from the perspective of implementation; it entails an additional requirement that the programmer have intimate understanding of the underlying parallel structure. The present sequence data type overcomes both the implementation and parallel structure obstacles. In so doing, the sequence data type provides unified means by which the programmer can represent a data structure for natural and automatic decomposition to a parallel computing architecture. Sequences exhibit the behavioral and structural characteristics of vectors, but the underlying representations are automatically synthesized from combinations of programmers advice and execution use metrics. Sequences can vary bidirectionally between sparseness and density, making them excellent choices for many kinds of algorithms. The novelty and benefit of this behavior lies in the fact that it can relieve programmers of the details of implementations. The creation of a sequence enables decoupling of a conceptual representation from an implementation. The underlying representation of a sequence is a hybrid of representations composed of vectors, linked lists, connected blocks, and hash tables. The internal structure of a sequence can automatically change from time to time on the basis of how it is being used. Those portions of a sequence where elements have not been added or removed can be as efficient as vectors. As elements are inserted and removed in a given portion, then different methods are

  4. Typeview: A Tool for Understanding Type Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Axel; Chitil, Olaf; Huch, Frank

    2000-01-01

    In modern statically typed functional languages, type inference is used to determine the type of each function automatically. Whenever this fails, the compiler emits an error message that is often very complex. Sometimes the expression mentioned in the type error message is not the one that is wrong. We therefore implement an interactive tool that allows programmers to browse through the source code of their program and query the types of each expression. If a variable cannot be typed, we wou...

  5. A simple solution to type specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Partial evaluation specializes terms, but traditionally this specialization does not apply to the type of these terms. As a result, specializing, e.g., an interpreter written in a typed language, which requires a “universal” type to encode expressible values, yields residual programs with type tags...... inference instead of being based on symbolic interpretation. Type Specialization is very elegant in principle but it also appears non-trivial in practice. Stating the problem in terms of types instead of in terms of type encodings suggests a very simple type-directed solution, namely, to use a projection...... from the universal type to the specific type of the residual program. Standard partial evaluation then yields a residual program without type tags, simply and efficiently....

  6. A Simple Solution to Type Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Partial evaluation specializes terms, but traditionally this specialization does not apply to the type of these terms. As a result, specializing, e.g., an interpreter written in a typed language, which requires a “universal” type to encode expressible values, yields residual programs with type tags...... inference instead of being based on symbolic interpretation. Type Specialization is very elegant in principle but it also appears non-trivial in practice. Stating the problem in terms of types instead of in terms of type encodings suggests a very simple type-directed solution, namely, to use a projection...... from the universal type to the specific type of the residual program. Standard partial evaluation then yields a residual program without type tags, simply and efficiently....

  7. Adiabatic Wankel type rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, R.; Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

    1988-01-01

    This SBIR Phase program accomplished the objective of advancing the technology of the Wankel type rotary engine for aircraft applications through the use of adiabatic engine technology. Based on the results of this program, technology is in place to provide a rotor and side and intermediate housings with thermal barrier coatings. A detailed cycle analysis of the NASA 1007R Direct Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) rotary engine was performed which concluded that applying thermal barrier coatings to the rotor should be successful and that it was unlikely that the rotor housing could be successfully run with thermal barrier coatings as the thermal stresses were extensive.

  8. Simple algebras of Weyl type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Over a field F of arbitrary characteristic, we define the associative and the Lie algebras of Weyl type on the same vector space A[D]=A[D] from any pair of a commutative associative algebra A with an identity element and the polynomial algebra [D] of a commutative derivation subalgebra D of A. We prove that A[D], as a Lie algebra (modulo its center) or as an associative algebra, is simple if and only if A is D-simple and A[D] acts faithfully on A. Thus we obtain a lot of simple algebras.

  9. Dust around Type Ia supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lifan

    2005-10-20

    An explanation is given of the low value of R lambda triple bond A lambda/E(B - V), the ratio of absolute to selective extinction deduced from Type Ia supernova observations. The idea involves scattering by dust clouds located in the circumstellar environment, or at the highest velocity shells of the supernova ejecta. The scattered light tends to reduce the effective R lambda in the optical, but has an opposite effect in the ultraviolet. The presence of circumstellar dust can be tested by ultraviolet to near infrared observations and by multi-epoch spectropolarimetry of SNe Ia.

  10. Bianchi type I string cosmologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D N Pant; Sanjay Oli

    2003-03-01

    By making use of Letelier’s form of energy–momentum tensor for a cloud of stringdust we present some classes of solutions of general relativistic field equations which describe cosmological string-dust models in Bianchi type I space-time. Some of the classes of models obey Takabayashi’s equation of state whereas a class of models exhibits inflation in the initial stage. Two of the classes presented here have Kasner’s space-time as past asymptote.

  11. Type 1 diabetes pathogenesis - Prevention???

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C S Muralidhara Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes is multi-faceted, including, autoimmunity, genetics and environment. Autoimmunity directed against pancreatic islet cells results in slowly progressive selective beta-cell destruction ("Primary autoimmune insulitis", culminating over years in clinically manifested insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM. Circulating serum autoantibodies directed against the endocrine cells of the islets of Langerhans (Islet cell autoantibodies - ICAb are an important hallmark of this disease. Assays for islet cell autoantibodies have facilitated the investigation and understanding of several facets in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. Their applications have extended into clinical practice and have opened new avenues for early preclinical prediction and preventive prophylaxis in IDDM/type 1 DM. Recently, surprisingly, differences in insulin content between T1DM islets, as well as, ′patchy′ or ′lobular′ destruction of islets have been described. These unique pathobiological phenomena, suggest that beta cell destruction may not always be inexorable and inevitably complete/total, and thus raise hopes for possible therapeutic interruption of beta cell autoimmunity - destruction and cure of type 1 diabetes. "Recurrent or secondary autoimmune insulitis" refers to the rapid reappearance of islet cell autoantibodies post pancreas transplant, and selective islet beta cell destruction in the grafted pancreas [never forgetting or "anamnestic" beta cell destructive memory], in the absence of any graft pancreas rejection [monozygotic twin to twin transplantation]. The one definite environmental factor is congenital rubella, because of which a subset of children subsequently develop type 1 diabetes. The putative predisposing factors are viruses, gluten and cow′s milk. The putative protective factors include gut flora, helminths, viral infections, and Vitamin D. Prevention of T1DM can include: Primary prevention strategies

  12. [Zinc and type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaka, Ayako; Fujitani, Yoshio

    2016-07-01

    Pancreatic β cells contain the highest amount of zinc among cells within the human body, and hence, the relationship between zinc and diabetes has been a topic of great interest. While many studies demonstrating possible involvement of zinc deficiency in diabetes have been reported, precise mechanisms how zinc regulates glucose metabolism are still far from understood. Recent studies revealed that zinc can transmit signals that are driven by a variety of zinc transporters in a tissue and cell-type specific manner and deficiency in some zinc transporters may cause human diseases. Here, we review the role of zinc in metabolism particularly focusing on the emerging role of zinc transporters in diabetes.

  13. Instream Physical Habitat Modelling Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conallin, John; Boegh, Eva; Krogsgaard, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    management tools, but require large amounts of data and the model structure is complex. It is concluded that the use of habitat suitability indices (HSIs) and fuzzy rules in hydraulic-habitat modelling are the most ready model types to satisfy WFD demands. These models are well documented, transferable, user-friendly...... and disadvantages as management tools for member states in relation to the requirements of the WFD, but due to their different model structures they are distinct in their data needs, transferability, user-friendliness and presentable outputs. Water resource managers need information on what approaches will best...

  14. Infrastructure: concept, types and value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Lantsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches of influence of infrastructure on the economic growth and development of the countries gained currency. However the majority of authors drop the problem of definition of accurate concept of studied object and its criteria out. In the given article various approaches in the definition of «infrastructure» concept, criterion and the characteristics of infrastructure distinguishing it from other capital assets are presented. Such types of infrastructure, as personal, institutional, material, production, social, etc. are considered. Author’s definition of infrastructure is given.

  15. Type 2-diabetes i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2012-01-01

    Our vision is that the opportunistic screening system will be improved in order to find patients with occult type 2 diabetes (T2D), since an early treatment based on a correct phenotyping is the goal. Individual goals for HbA1c, blood pressure and lipids must be set up, and the number of drugs us...... must fit with the patient's phenotype to avoid polypharmacy. A new flow chart for the organisation of T2D has been formulated giving the general practitioners the role as co-ordinators....

  16. Caldera types and collapse styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.

    2008-12-01

    Three main types of collapse calderas can be defined, 1) summit caldera, 2) classic caldera, and 3) graben caldera. Summit calderas are those formed at the top of large volcanoes and are related to relatively small- volume pyroclastic products that include plinian fallouts and ignimbrites, such as Crater Lake, Las Cañadas, and Somma-Vesuvio. Classic calderas are semi-circular to irregular-shaped large structures, several km in diameter that are related to relatively large-volume pyroclastic products including pumice fallouts and widespread ignimbrites, such as Long-Valley, Campi Flegrei, and Los Humeros. Graben calderas are explosive volcano-tectonic collapse structures from which large-volume, ignimbrite-forming eruptions occurred through several vents along the graben walls and the intra-graben block faults causing the collapse of the graben or of a sector of the graben. The main products of graben calderas are surge-deposits and large-volume widespread ignimbrite sheets. Pumice fallouts are practically absent. Examples include the Sierra Madre Occidental in Mexico, La Pacana (Andes), Catalan Pyrenees, and perhaps Scafell (United Kingdom). Any of the three caldera types mentioned above could have collapsed at least in three different ways, 1) piston, when the collapse occurs as a single crustal block; 2) trap-door, when collapse occurs unevenly along one side while the opposite side remains with no collapse; 3) piece-meal, when collapse occurs as broken pieces of the crust on top of the magma chamber.

  17. Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedeswari C Ponranjini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome (APS Type 1 is a rare hereditary disorder that damages organs in the body. This disease entity is the result of a mutation in the AIRE gene. It is characterized by three classic clinical features - hypoparathyroidism, Addison′s disease, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. For a patient to be diagnosed as having APS Type 1 syndrome at least two of these features needs to be present. The third entity may develop as the disease progresses. We report a case of a 35-year-old female patient with a history of seizure from the age of 11 years, who was managed with anticonvulsant drugs. With worsening of the seizure episodes, patient was diagnosed to have hypoparathyroidism together with the manifestations of oral candidiasis, nails dystrophy, enamel hypoplasia, and hypogonadism. A diagnosis of APS-1 was considered. The facility for genetic analysis of the AIRE gene mutation was not accessible, as the test costs were prohibitive and not affordable for the patient. Patient management was directed to treating individual disease components. However, cerebral and dental changes were irreversible.

  18. Treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, André J

    2003-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease resulting from a dynamic interaction between defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. As most subjects are overweighted or obese, the initial treatment is optimization of the meal plan and enhancement of physical activity in order to obtain sustained weight reduction. In case of failure of life-style changes, various oral antihyperglycaemic agents may be used. Some are targeting defective insulin secretion (sulphonylureas, glinides) while others are targeting insulin resistance (metformin, thiazolidinediones). Criteria of drug selection should include both patient's characteristics (body weight, age, degree of hyperglycaemia, comorbidities) and pharmacological properties of the compound (mode of action, safety profile, cost). Monotherapy is usually recommended first, but combined therapy using drugs with additive or synergistic effects may be required to obtain appropriate blood glucose control. As the natural history of the disease is characterized by a progressive exhaustion of beta cells, exogenous insulin may be required in the long term, usually in combination with oral agents. Finally, as patients with type 2 diabetes are insulin-resistant and often have a metabolic syndrome, a multifactorial intervention including aggressive treatment of arterial hypertension and dyslipidaemia is recommended in order to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular complications.

  19. Mix bed type desalting device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanaoka, Shuichi; Shiozawa, Yoshihiro; Kazama, Seiichi

    1998-12-18

    The present invention provides a condensate desalting device of a BWR type reactor capable of preventing degradation of ion exchange resins by water containing oxidative materials such as hydrogen peroxide thereby keeping reactor water at high purity. Namely, a mixed bed type desalting device comprises a desalting tower for removing impurities in water by ion exchange resins and a regeneration device for cleaning/regenerating the ion exchange resins. Means for loading iron cruds into water is disposed in the desalting tower. With such a constitution, oxidative materials such as hydrogen peroxide react with the iron cruds thereby enabling to suppress oxidative reaction during ion exchange. Since passage or cleaning/regeneration of water is conducted while loading the iron cruds between ion exchange resin particles and on the surface layer of an ion exchange resin layer by using the above-mentioned reaction, degradation of ion exchange performance of the ion exchange resins by hydrogen peroxide can be prevented upon condensate cleaning operation or resin cleaning/regeneration. As a result, degradation of quality of reactor water can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  20. Phage typing of Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Pereira, A.; Melo Cristino, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    This study included 502 staphylococcus strains; Staphylococcus saprophyticus (297 strains) S. cohnii (47), S. xylosus (10), S. epidermidis (67) and S. aureus (81). Mitomycin C induction was performed on 100 isolates of S. saprophyticus and all induced strains were reacted with each other. Twenty-six strains proved to be lysogenic. Phages were propagated and titrated. With 12 of the phages there were three frequent associations, named lytic groups A, B and C, which included 75% of all typable strains. Typability of the system was 45% and reproducibility was between 94.2% and 100%. Phages did not lyse S. aureus and S. epidermidis strains, but they lysed S. saprophyticus and only rare strains of other novobiocin resistant species. Effective S. saprophyticus typing serves ecological purposes and tracing the origin of urinary strains from the skin or mucous membranes. Phage typing in association with plasmid profiling previously described, are anticipated as complementary methods with strong discriminatory power for differentiating among S. saprophyticus strains. PMID:1752305

  1. 49 CFR 192.175 - Pipe-type and bottle-type holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe-type and bottle-type holders. 192.175 Section....175 Pipe-type and bottle-type holders. (a) Each pipe-type and bottle-type holder must be designed so as to prevent the accumulation of liquids in the holder, in connecting pipe, or in...

  2. 14 CFR 21.31 - Type design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Type design. 21.31 Section 21.31... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.31 Type design. The type design consists of— (a) The... configuration and the design features of the product shown to comply with the requirements of that part of...

  3. Accounting Students' Performance and Personality Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourayi, Mahmoud M.; Cherry, Alan A.

    1993-01-01

    Completion of the Myers Briggs Type Inventory by 103 accounting majors revealed no significant differences among personality types in achievement, except that sensing types perform better in accounting in general. Results seem to belie the suggestion that accounting attracts introverts and that the intuitive type is best suited to accounting in…

  4. Types and concept analysis for legacy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, T.; Moonen, L.M.F.

    2000-01-01

    We combine type inference and concept analysis in order to gain insight into legacy software systems. Type inference for Cobol yields the types for variables and program parameters. These types are used to perform mathematical concept analysis on legacy systems. We have developed ConceptRefinery, a

  5. Psychological Types of Academically Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.; Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs; Cassady, Jerrell C.

    2007-01-01

    This study provides descriptive information about the psychological types of a sample of 931 gifted adolescents who attended a public residential academy. Psychological types are assessed with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI reports on four pairs of personality types: Extraversion/Introversion (E/I), Sensing/Intuition (S/N),…

  6. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels...

  7. Verifying Process Algebra Proofs in Type Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sellink, M.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study automatic verification of proofs in process algebra. Formulas of process algebra are represented by types in typed λ-calculus. Inhabitants (terms) of these types represent proofs. The specific typed λ-calculus we use is the Calculus of Inductive Constructions as implemented in

  8. Psychological Types of Academically Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.; Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs; Cassady, Jerrell C.

    2007-01-01

    This study provides descriptive information about the psychological types of a sample of 931 gifted adolescents who attended a public residential academy. Psychological types are assessed with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI reports on four pairs of personality types: Extraversion/Introversion (E/I), Sensing/Intuition (S/N),…

  9. Polymorphic Endpoint Types for Copyless Message Passing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Bono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We present PolySing#, a calculus that models process interaction based on copyless message passing, in the style of Singularity OS. We equip the calculus with a type system that accommodates polymorphic endpoint types, which are a variant of polymorphic session types, and we show that well-typed processes are free from faults, leaks, and communication errors. The type system is essentially linear, although linearity alone may leave room for scenarios where well-typed processes leak memory. We identify a condition on endpoint types that prevents these leaks from occurring.

  10. Finite Type Non—Minimal Submanifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋鸿藻; 吴报强

    1992-01-01

    The notion of finite type xubmanifolds was introduced by B.Y.Chen.In this paper we consider the characteristics and the classifications of finite type non-minimal submanifolds.The characteristic theorems of 2-type Chen submanifolds、mass-symmetric hypersurfaces and Dupin hypersurfaces in Esm are obtained.The classification theorems of 3-type hypersurfaces and null 2-type curves in Esm are also proved.

  11. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative....... The technique of the proof is subsequently applied to show that every compact manifold of negative type must have trivial fundamental group, and to obtain a necessary criterion for product manifolds to be of negative type....

  12. Ceramide content is higher in type I compared to type II fibers in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ditte Bech; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Ara, Ignacio;

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated fiber-type-specific muscle ceramide content in obese subjects and type 2 diabetes patients. Two substudies, one which compared type 2 diabetes patients to both lean- and obese BMI-matched subjects and the other study which compared lean body-matched post-obese, obese...... index was higher in lean compared to type 2 diabetes patients and obese controls. Also in control and post-obese subjects, a higher insulin sensitivity was observed compared to obese subjects. Ceramide content was consistently higher in type I than in type II muscle fibers and higher in deltoideus than...... vastus lateralis across all groups. No significant differences between groups were observed in ceramide content in either of the two substudies. In human skeletal muscle, ceramide content was higher in type I than in type II fibers in patients with type 2 diabetes and in obese subjects, but overall...

  13. Exercise and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with metabolic dysregulation and chronic inflammation, and regular exercise may provide a strong stimulus for improving both. In this review, we first discuss the link between inflammation and metabolism. Next, we give an update on the clinical...... metabolic effects of exercise in T2DM patients with special focus on which parameters to consider for optimizing metabolic improvements. We then discuss the mechanisms whereby exercise exerts its anti-inflammatory and related metabolic effects. Evidence exists that interleukin (IL)-1β is involved...... in pancreatic β-cell damage, whereas tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α appears to be a key molecule in peripheral insulin resistance. Mechanistic studies in humans suggest that moderate acute elevations in IL-6, as provoked by exercise, exert direct anti-inflammatory effects by an inhibition of TNF...

  14. Two types of psychological hedonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garson, Justin

    2016-04-01

    I develop a distinction between two types of psychological hedonism. Inferential hedonism (or "I-hedonism") holds that each person only has ultimate desires regarding his or her own hedonic states (pleasure and pain). Reinforcement hedonism (or "R-hedonism") holds that each person's ultimate desires, whatever their contents are, are differentially reinforced in that person's cognitive system only by virtue of their association with hedonic states. I'll argue that accepting R-hedonism and rejecting I-hedonism provides a conciliatory position on the traditional altruism debate, and that it coheres well with the neuroscientist Anthony Dickinson's theory about the evolutionary function of hedonic states, the "hedonic interface theory." Finally, I'll defend R-hedonism from potential objections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Progenitors of Supernovae Type Ia

    CERN Document Server

    Toonen, S; Bours, M; Zwart, S Portegies; Claeys, J; Mennekens, N; Ruiter, A

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significance of Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) in many fields in astrophysics, SNeIa lack a theoretical explanation. The standard scenarios involve thermonuclear explosions of carbon/oxygen white dwarfs approaching the Chandrasekhar mass; either by accretion from a companion or by a merger of two white dwarfs. We investigate the contribution from both channels to the SNIa rate with the binary population synthesis (BPS) code SeBa in order to constrain binary processes such as the mass retention efficiency of WD accretion and common envelope evolution. We determine the theoretical rates and delay time distribution of SNIa progenitors and in particular study how assumptions affect the predicted rates.

  16. Forensic DNA typing in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Y P

    2009-04-01

    In the field of forensic genetics, essential developmental impulses come from the advances of the molecular biology and human genome projects. This paper overviews existing technologies for forensic genetics in China and gives a perspective of forensic DNA analysis. In China, work has been done in the development of blood group serology of the conventional markers. Forensic scientists in China also contributed to the progress of DNA analysis by the validation of numerous test methods and by optimization of these methods. During these years, forensic DNA analysis in China has experienced tremendous progress towards development of robust, efficient and precise protocols, including the development of short tandem repeat analysis, mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome analysis. Forensic scientists are constantly looking for new methods to further improve DNA typing. Therefore, this paper also focuses on emerging new technologies in China, which represent an interest for forensic genetics.

  17. Standardization of type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Coelho, Rodrigo C V; Reis, Ribamar R R; Siffert, Beatriz B

    2014-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been intensively investigated due to its great homogeneity and high luminosity, which make it possible to use them as standardizable candles for the determination of cosmological parameters. In 2011, the physics Nobel prize was awarded for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae. This is a pedagogical article, aimed at those starting their study of that subject, in which we dwell on some topics related to the analysis of SNe Ia and their use in luminosity distance estimators. Here we investigate their spectral properties and light curve standardization, paying careful attention to the fundamental quantities directly related to the SNe Ia observables. Finally, we describe our own step-by-step implementation of a classical light curve fi?tter, the stretch, applying it to real data from the Carnegie Supernova Project.

  18. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome characterized by variable penetrance of medullary thyroid carcinoma(MTC), pheochromocytoma (PHEO), and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). MEN2 consists of two clinical subtypes, MEN2A and MEN2B. Familial medullary thyroid cancer is now viewed as a phenotypic variant of MEN2A with decreased penetrance for PHEO and PHPT rather than a distinct entity. All subtypes are caused by gain-of-function mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. Recognition of the clinical entity in individuals and families at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation is crucial for the management and prevention of associated malignancies. Recent guidelines released by the American Thyroid Association regarding the management of MTC will be summarized in this chapter.

  19. Progenitors of type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Natures of progenitors of type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) have not yet been clarified. There has been long and intensive discussion on whether the so-called single degenerate (SD) scenario or the double degenerate (DD) scenario, or anything else, could explain a major population of SNe Ia, but the conclusion has not yet been reached. With rapidly increasing observational data and new theoretical ideas, the field of studying the SN Ia progenitors has been quickly developing, and various new insights have been obtained in recent years. This article aims at providing a summary of the current situation regarding the SN Ia progenitors, both in theory and observations. It seems difficult to explain the emerging diversity seen in observations of SNe Ia by a single population, and we emphasize that it is important to clarify links between different progenitor scenarios and different sub-classes of SNe Ia.

  20. Genetics of Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette Korre; Pedersen, Casper-Emil Tingskov; Moltke, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects millions of people worldwide. Improving the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and ultimately improving the treatment strategies are, thus, of great interest. To achieve this, identification of genetic variation predisposing to T2D is important. A large number...... disease-associated variants due to genetic drift. Collectively, this increases the statistical power to detect association signals in isolated populations compared to large outbred populations. In this review, we elaborate on why isolated populations are a powerful resource for the identification...... of complex disease variants and describe their contributions to the understanding of the genetics of T2D. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York....