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  1. Ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 and internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... in some East Asian countries such as China, Korea and. *Corresponding author. E-mail: soonkwan@kangwon.ac.kr. Tel: +82 33 250 6476. Fax: +82 33 250 6470. Abbreviations: nrDNA, Nuclear ribosomal DNA; ITS, internal transcribed spacer; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; BLAST, basic local alignment ...

  2. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Conrad L; Seifert, Keith A; Huhndorf, Sabine; Robert, Vincent; Spouge, John L; Levesque, C André; Chen, Wen

    2012-04-17

    Six DNA regions were evaluated as potential DNA barcodes for Fungi, the second largest kingdom of eukaryotic life, by a multinational, multilaboratory consortium. The region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 used as the animal barcode was excluded as a potential marker, because it is difficult to amplify in fungi, often includes large introns, and can be insufficiently variable. Three subunits from the nuclear ribosomal RNA cistron were compared together with regions of three representative protein-coding genes (largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, and minichromosome maintenance protein). Although the protein-coding gene regions often had a higher percent of correct identification compared with ribosomal markers, low PCR amplification and sequencing success eliminated them as candidates for a universal fungal barcode. Among the regions of the ribosomal cistron, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has the highest probability of successful identification for the broadest range of fungi, with the most clearly defined barcode gap between inter- and intraspecific variation. The nuclear ribosomal large subunit, a popular phylogenetic marker in certain groups, had superior species resolution in some taxonomic groups, such as the early diverging lineages and the ascomycete yeasts, but was otherwise slightly inferior to the ITS. The nuclear ribosomal small subunit has poor species-level resolution in fungi. ITS will be formally proposed for adoption as the primary fungal barcode marker to the Consortium for the Barcode of Life, with the possibility that supplementary barcodes may be developed for particular narrowly circumscribed taxonomic groups.

  3. Molecular phylogeny of Oncaeidae (Copepoda using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iole Di Capua

    Full Text Available Copepods belonging to the Oncaeidae family are commonly and abundantly found in marine zooplankton. In the Mediterranean Sea, forty-seven oncaeid species occur, of which eleven in the Gulf of Naples. In this Gulf, several Oncaea species were morphologically analysed and described at the end of the XIX century by W. Giesbrecht. In the same area, oncaeids are being investigated over seasonal and inter-annual scales at the long-term coastal station LTER-MC. In the present work, we identified six oncaeid species using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS rDNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI. Phylogenetic analyses based on these two genomic regions validated the sisterhood of the genera Triconia and the Oncaea sensu stricto. ITS1 and ITS2 phylogenies produced incongruent results about the position of Oncaea curta, calling for further investigations on this species. We also characterised the ITS2 region by secondary structure predictions and found that all the sequences analysed presented the distinct eukaryotic hallmarks. A Compensatory Base Change search corroborated the close relationship between O. venusta and O. curta and between O. media and O. venusta already identified by ITS phylogenies. The present results, which stem from the integration of molecular and morphological taxonomy, represent an encouraging step towards an improved knowledge of copepod biodiversity: The two complementary approaches, when applied to long-term copepod monitoring, will also help to better understanding their genetic variations and ecological niches of co-occurring species.

  4. 16S partial gene mitochondrial DNA and internal transcribed spacers ribosomal DNA as differential markers of Trichuris discolor populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, R; Halajian, A; de Rojas, M; Marrugal, A; Guevara, D; Cutillas, C

    2012-05-25

    Comparative morphological, biometrical and molecular studies of Trichuris discolor isolated from Bos taurus from Spain and Iran was carried out. Furthermore, Trichuris ovis isolated from B. taurus and Capra hircus from Spain has been, molecularly, analyzed. Morphological studies revealed clear differences between T. ovis and T. discolor isolated from B. taurus but differences were not observed between populations of T. discolor isolated from different geographical regions. Nevertheless, the molecular studies based on the amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 ribosomal DNA and 16S partial gene mitochondrial DNA showed clear differences between both populations of T. discolor from Spain and Iran suggesting two cryptic species. Phylogenetic studies corroborated these data. Thus, phylogenetic trees based on ITS1, ITS2 and 16S partial gene sequences showed that individuals of T. discolor from B. taurus from Iran clustered together and separated, with high bootstrap values, of T. discolor isolated from B. taurus from Spain, while populations of T. ovis from B. taurus and C. hircus from Spain clustered together but separated with high bootstrap values of both populations of T. discolor. Furthermore, a comparative phylogenetic study has been carried out with the ITS1and ITS2 sequences of Trichuris species from different hosts. Three clades were observed: the first clustered all the species of Trichuris parasitizing herbivores (T. discolor, T. ovis, Trichuris leporis and Trichuris skrjabini), the second clustered all the species of Trichuris parasitizing omnivores (Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis) and finally, the third clustered species of Trichuris parasitizing carnivores (Trichuris muris, Trichuris arvicolae and Trichuris vulpis). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of four species of Trichuris (Nematoda: Enoplida) by their second internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, R; Cutillas, C; De Rojas, M; Arias, P

    2000-12-01

    Adult worms of Trichuris ovis and T. globulosa were collected from Ovis aries (sheep) and Capra hircus (goats). T. suis was isolated from Sus scrofa domestica (swine) and T. leporis was isolated from Lepus europaeus (rabbits) in Spain. Genomic DNA was isolated and a ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) was amplified and sequenced using polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) techniques. The ITS2 of T. ovis and T. globulosa was 407 nucleotides in length and had a GC content of about 62%. Furthermore, the ITS2 of T. suis and T. leporis was 534 and 418 nucleotides in length and had a GC content of about 64.8% and 62.4%, respectively. There was evidence of slight variation in the sequence within individuals of all species analyzed, indicating intraindividual variation in the sequence of different copies of the ribosomal DNA. Furthermore, low-level intraspecific variation was detected. Sequence analyses of ITS2 products of T. ovis and T. globulosa demonstrated no sequence difference between them. Nevertheless, differences were detected between the ITS2 sequences of T. suis, T. leporis, and T. ovis, indicating that Trichuris species can reliably be differentiated by their ITS2 sequences and PCR-linked restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP).

  6. Analysis of the first and second internal transcribed spacer sequences of the ribosomal DNA in Biomphalaria tenagophila complex (Mollusca: Planorbidae

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    Teofânia HDA Vidigal

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The first and second internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2 of the ribosomal DNA of Biomphalaria tenagophila complex (B. tenagophila, B. occidentalis, and B. t. guaibensis were sequenced and compared. The alignment lengths of these regions were about 655 bp and 481 bp, respectively. Phylogenetic relationships among the Biomphalaria species were inferred by Maximum Parsimony and Neighbor-joining methods. The phylogenetic trees produced, in most of the cases, were in accordance with morphological systematics and other molecular data previously obtained by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The present results provide support for the proposal that B. tenagophila represents a complex comprising B. tenagophila, B. occidentalis and B. t. guaibensis.

  7. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six DNA regions were evaluated in a multi-national, multi-laboratory consortium as potential DNA barcodes for Fungi, the second largest kingdom of eukaryotic life. The region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 used as the animal barcode was excluded as a potential marker, because it...

  8. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoch, C.L.; Seifert, K.A.; Huhndorf, S.; Robert, V.; Spouge, J.L.; Levesque, C.A.; Chen, W.; Crous, P.W.; Boekhout, T.; Damm, U.; Hoog, de G.S.; Eberhardt, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; Hagen, F.; Houbraken, J.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Stielow, B.; Vu, T.D.; Walther, G.

    2012-01-01

    Six DNA regions were evaluated as potential DNA barcodes for Fungi, the second largest kingdom of eukaryotic life, by a multinational, multilaboratory consortium. The region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 used as the animal barcode was excluded as a potential marker, because it

  9. Low variation in ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacers of the symbiotic fungi of leaf-cutting ants (Attini: Formicidae

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    Silva-Pinhati A.C.O.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-cutting ants of the genera Atta and Acromyrmex (tribe Attini are symbiotic with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Leucoagaricus (tribe Leucocoprineae, which they cultivate on vegetable matter inside their nests. We determined the variation of the 28S, 18S, and 5.8S ribosomal DNA (rDNA gene loci and the rapidly evolving internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2 of 15 sympatric and allopatric fungi associated with colonies of 11 species of leafcutter ants living up to 2,600 km apart in Brazil. We found that the fungal rDNA and ITS sequences from different species of ants were identical (or nearly identical to each other, whereas 10 GenBank Leucoagaricus species showed higher ITS variation. Our findings suggest that Atta and Acromyrmex leafcutters living in geographic sites that are very distant from each other cultivate a single fungal species made up of closely related lineages of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. We discuss the strikingly high similarity in the ITS1 and ITS2 regions of the Atta and Acromyrmex symbiotic L. gongylophorus studied by us, in contrast to the lower similarity displayed by their non-symbiotic counterparts. We suggest that the similarity of our L. gongylophorus isolates is an indication of the recent association of the fungus with these ants, and propose that both the intense lateral transmission of fungal material within leafcutter nests and the selection of more adapted fungal strains are involved in the homogenization of the symbiotic fungal stock.

  10. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schoch, C.L.; Seifert, K.A.; Huhndorf, S.; Robert, V.; Spouge, J.L.; Levesque, C.A.; Chen, W.; Bolchacova, E.; Voigt, K.; Crous, P.W.; Miller, A.N.; Wingfield, M. J.; Aime, M.C.; An, K.D.; Bai, F.Y.; Barreto, R.W.; Bergeron, M.J.; Blackwell, M.; Boekhout, T.; Bogale, M.; Boonyuen, N.; Burgaz, A.R.; Buyck, B.; Cai, L.; Cai, Q.; Cardinali, G.; Chaverri, P.; Coppins, B.J.; Crespo, A.; Cubas, P.; Cummings, C.; Damm, U.; de Beer, Z.W.; de Hoog, G.S.; Del-Prado, R.; Dentinger, B.; Dieguez-Uribeondo, J.; Divakar, P.K.; Douglas, B.; Duenas, M.; Duong, T.A.; Eberhardt, U.; Edwards, J.E.; Elshahed, M.S.; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Furtado, M.; Garcia, M.A.; Ge, Z.W.; Griffith, G.W.; Griffiths, K.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; Grube, M.; Gryzenhout, M.; Guo, L.D.; Hagen, F.; Hambleton, S.; Hamelin, R.C.; Hansen, K.; Harrold, P.; Heller, G.; Herrera, C.; Hirayama, K.; Hirooka, Y.; Ho, H.M.; Hoffmann, K.; Hofstetter, V.; Hognabba, F.; Hollingsworth, P.M.; Hong, S.B.; Hosaka, K.; Houbraken, J.; Hughes, K.; Huhtinen, S.; Hyde, K.D.; James, T.; Johnson, E.M.; Johnson, J.E.; Johnston, P.R.; Jones, E.B.; Kelly, L.J.; Kirk, P.M.; Knapp, D.G.; Koljalg, U.; Kovacs, G.M.; Kurtzman, C.P.; Landvik, S.; Leavitt, S.D.; Liggenstoffer, A.S.; Liimatainen, K.; Lombard, L.; Luangsa-Ard, J.J.; Lumbsch, H.T.; Maganti, H.; Maharachchikumbura, S.S.; Martin, M.P.; May, T.W.; McTaggart, A.R.; Methven, A.S.; Meyer, W.; Moncalvo, J.M.; Mongkolsamrit, S.; Nagy, L.G.; Nilsson, R.H.; Niskanen, T.; Nyilasi, I.; Okada, G.; Okane, I.; Olariaga, I.; Otte, J.; Papp, T.; Park, D.; Petkovits, T.; Pino-Bodas, R.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Raja, H.A.; Redecker, D.; Rintoul, T.; Ruibal, C.; Sarmiento-Ramirez, J.M.; Schmitt, I.; Schussler, A.; Shearer, C.; Sotome, K.; Stefani, F.O.; Stenroos, S.; Stielow, B.; Stockinger, H.; Suetrong, S.; Suh, S.O.; Sung, G.H.; Suzuki, M.; Tanaka, K.; Tedersoo, L.; Telleria, M.T.; Tretter, E.; Untereiner, W.A.; Urbina, H.; Vagvolgyi, C.; Vialle, A.; Vu, T.D.; Walther, G.; Wang, Q.M.; Wang, Y.; Weir, B.S.; Weiss, M.; White, M.M.; Xu, J.; Yahr, R.; Yang, Z.L.; Yurkov, A.; Zamora, J.C.; Zhang, N.; Zhuang, W.Y.; Schindel, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 16 (2012), s. 6241-6246 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : DNA barcoding * fungal biodiversity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.737, year: 2012

  11. Authentication of ruta graveolens and its adulterant using internal transcribed spacer (its) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qurainy, F.A.; Khan, S.; Ali, M.A.; Hemaid, M.A.; Ashraf, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) is commonly known as 'Sudab' which is well known for hippocratic medicine and is commonly used in indigenous health-care system in India. Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. (Euphorbiaceae) in raw drug trading has almost similar morphology to R. graveolens in dried state, is being sold locally or used clinically as an adulterant of R. graveolens (genuine) at a relatively low price under the same name 'Sudab' which has ultimately reduced the efficacy and quality of this herb. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of nuclear ribosomal DNA gene of genuine and adulterant were sequenced and analyzed to assess species admixture in raw drug trading of genuine herbal drug. The BLAST search results of ITS sequence of genuine sample of 'Sudab' i.e., R. graveolens showed 99% similarity to the sequence of R. graveolens, however, E. dracunculoides showed 100% similarity to the species of Euphorbia and did not show any similarity with R. graveolens. The sequence alignment of both species was entirely different to each other. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequence of adulterant sample i.e., E. dracunculoides together with sequences of Euphorbia species available in the GenBank has also clearly showed its nesting within the Euphorbia tree. The generated ITS sequences of both samples in the present study may be referred hereafter as species-specific DNA barcode signature, which can be used in authenticating and validating the exact species identities to discriminate the genuine sample of 'Sudab' from its adulterants if any available to guarantee the quality and purity of this drug in the herbal drug market. (author)

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of cercospora and mycosphaerella based on the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, S B; Dunkle, L D; Zismann, V L

    2001-07-01

    ABSTRACT Most of the 3,000 named species in the genus Cercospora have no known sexual stage, although a Mycosphaerella teleomorph has been identified for a few. Mycosphaerella is an extremely large and important genus of plant pathogens, with more than 1,800 named species and at least 43 associated anamorph genera. The goal of this research was to perform a large-scale phylogenetic analysis to test hypotheses about the past evolutionary history of Cercospora and Mycosphaerella. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence data (ITS1, 5.8S rRNA gene, ITS2), the genus Mycosphaerella is monophyletic. In contrast, many anamorph genera within Mycosphaerella were polyphyletic and were not useful for grouping species. One exception was Cercospora, which formed a highly supported monophyletic group. Most Cercospora species from cereal crops formed a subgroup within the main Cercospora cluster. Only species within the Cercospora cluster produced the toxin cercosporin, suggesting that the ability to produce this compound had a single evolutionary origin. Intraspecific variation for 25 taxa in the Mycosphaerella clade averaged 1.7 nucleotides (nts) in the ITS region. Thus, isolates with ITS sequences that differ by two or more nucleotides may be distinct species. ITS sequences of groups I and II of the gray leaf spot pathogen Cercospora zeae-maydis differed by 7 nts and clearly represent different species. There were 6.5 nt differences on average between the ITS sequences of the sorghum pathogen Cercospora sorghi and the maize pathogen Cercospora sorghi var. maydis, indicating that the latter is a separate species and not simply a variety of Cercospora sorghi. The large monophyletic Mycosphaerella cluster contained a number of anamorph genera with no known teleomorph associations. Therefore, the number of anamorph genera related to Mycosphaerella may be much larger than suspected previously.

  13. Assessment of phylogenetic relationship of rare plant species collected from Saudi Arabia using internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qurainy, F; Khan, S; Nadeem, M; Tarroum, M; Alaklabi, A

    2013-03-11

    The rare and endangered plants of any country are important genetic resources that often require urgent conservation measures. Assessment of phylogenetic relationships and evaluation of genetic diversity is very important prior to implementation of conservation strategies for saving rare and endangered plant species. We used internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA for the evaluation of sequence identity from the available taxa in the GenBank database by using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST). Two rare plant species viz, Heliotropium strigosum claded with H. pilosum (98% branch support) and Pancratium tortuosum claded with P. tenuifolium (61% branch support) clearly. However, some species, viz Scadoxus multiflorus, Commiphora myrrha and Senecio hadiensis showed close relationships with more than one species. We conclude that nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequences are useful markers for phylogenetic study of these rare plant species in Saudi Arabia.

  14. Sequence analysis of the 5.8S ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) from five species of the Oxalis tuberosa alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosto, D S; Hopp, H E

    1996-01-01

    The internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1 and ITS2) of the 18S-25S nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence and the intervening 5.8S region from five species of the genus Oxalis was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and subjected to direct DNA sequencing. On the basis of cytogenetic studies some species of this genus were postulated to be related by the number of chromosomes. Sequence homologies in the ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 among species are in good agreement with previous relationships established on the basis of chromosome numbers. We also identified a highly conserved sequence of six bp in the ITS1, reported to be present in a wide range of flowering plants, but not in the Oxalidaceae family to which the genus Oxalis belongs to.

  15. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Devika; Bradford, William D.; Freeland, Amy; Cady, Gillian; Wang, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in budding yeast are encoded by ~100–200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how “normal” copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen a yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2)-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a “normal” rDNA copy number. PMID:28915237

  16. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Devika; Bradford, William D; Freeland, Amy; Cady, Gillian; Wang, Jianmin; Pruitt, Steven C; Gerton, Jennifer L

    2017-09-01

    Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in budding yeast are encoded by ~100-200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how "normal" copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen a yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2)-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a "normal" rDNA copy number.

  17. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devika Salim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs in budding yeast are encoded by ~100-200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how "normal" copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen a yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a "normal" rDNA copy number.

  18. Genetic diversity and molecular evolution of Naga King Chili inferred from internal transcribed spacer sequence of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehie, Mechuselie; Kumaria, Suman; Devi, Khumuckcham Sangeeta; Tandon, Pramod

    2016-02-01

    Sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNAs were explored to study the genetic diversity and molecular evolution of Naga King Chili. Our study indicated the occurrence of nucleotide polymorphism and haplotypic diversity in the ITS regions. The present study demonstrated that the variability of ITS1 with respect to nucleotide diversity and sequence polymorphism exceeded that of ITS2. Sequence analysis of 5.8S gene revealed a much conserved region in all the accessions of Naga King Chili. However, strong phylogenetic information of this species is the distinct 13 bp deletion in the 5.8S gene which discriminated Naga King Chili from the rest of the Capsicum sp. Neutrality test results implied a neutral variation, and population seems to be evolving at drift-mutation equilibrium and free from directed selection pressure. Furthermore, mismatch analysis showed multimodal curve indicating a demographic equilibrium. Phylogenetic relationships revealed by Median Joining Network (MJN) analysis denoted a clear discrimination of Naga King Chili from its closest sister species (Capsicum chinense and Capsicum frutescens). The absence of star-like network of haplotypes suggested an ancient population expansion of this chili.

  19. Development and evaluation of specific PCR primers targeting the ribosomal DNA-internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of peritrich ciliates in environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lei; Zhang, Qianqian; Gong, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Peritrich ciliates are highly diverse and can be important bacterial grazers in aquatic ecosystems. Morphological identifications of peritrich species and assemblages in the environment are time-consuming and expertise-demanding. In this study, two peritrich-specific PCR primers were newly designed to amplify a fragment including the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal rDNA from environmental samples. The primers showed high specificity in silico, and in tests with peritrich isolates and environmental DNA. Application of these primers in clone library construction and sequencing yielded exclusively sequences of peritrichs for water and sediment samples. We also found the ITS1, ITS2, ITS, D1 region of 28S rDNA, and ITS+D1 region co-varied with, and generally more variable than, the V9 region of 18S rDNA in peritrichs. The newly designed specific primers thus provide additional tools to study the molecular diversity, community composition, and phylogeography of these ecologically important protists in different systems.

  20. Phylogeny of Alternaria fungi known to produce host-specific toxins on the basis of variation in internal transcribed spacers of ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaba, M; Tsuge, T

    1995-10-01

    The internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) of ribosomal DNA from Alternaria species, including seven fungi known to produce host-specific toxins, were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-amplification and direct sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence data by the Neighbor-joining method showed that the seven toxin-producing fungi belong to a monophyletic group together with A. alternata. In contract, A. dianthi, A. panax, A. dauci, A. bataticola, A. porri, A. sesami and A. solani, species that can be morphologically distinguished from A. alternata, could be clearly separated from A. alternata by phylogenetic of the ITS variation. These results suggest that Alternaria pathogens which produce host-specific toxins are pathogenic variants within a single variable species, A. alternata.

  1. DNA Binding by the Ribosomal DNA Transcription Factor Rrn3 Is Essential for Ribosomal DNA Transcription*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanchick, Ann; Zhi, Huijun; Cavanaugh, Alice H.; Rothblum, Katrina; Schneider, David A.; Rothblum, Lawrence I.

    2013-01-01

    The human homologue of yeast Rrn3 is an RNA polymerase I-associated transcription factor that is essential for ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription. The generally accepted model is that Rrn3 functions as a bridge between RNA polymerase I and the transcription factors bound to the committed template. In this model Rrn3 would mediate an interaction between the mammalian Rrn3-polymerase I complex and SL1, the rDNA transcription factor that binds to the core promoter element of the rDNA. In the course of studying the role of Rrn3 in recruitment, we found that Rrn3 was in fact a DNA-binding protein. Analysis of the sequence of Rrn3 identified a domain with sequence similarity to the DNA binding domain of heat shock transcription factor 2. Randomization, or deletion, of the amino acids in this region in Rrn3, amino acids 382–400, abrogated its ability to bind DNA, indicating that this domain was an important contributor to DNA binding by Rrn3. Control experiments demonstrated that these mutant Rrn3 constructs were capable of interacting with both rpa43 and SL1, two other activities demonstrated to be essential for Rrn3 function. However, neither of these Rrn3 mutants was capable of functioning in transcription in vitro. Moreover, although wild-type human Rrn3 complemented a yeast rrn3-ts mutant, the DNA-binding site mutant did not. These results demonstrate that DNA binding by Rrn3 is essential for transcription by RNA polymerase I. PMID:23393135

  2. DNA binding by the ribosomal DNA transcription factor rrn3 is essential for ribosomal DNA transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanchick, Ann; Zhi, Huijun; Cavanaugh, Alice H; Rothblum, Katrina; Schneider, David A; Rothblum, Lawrence I

    2013-03-29

    The human homologue of yeast Rrn3 is an RNA polymerase I-associated transcription factor that is essential for ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription. The generally accepted model is that Rrn3 functions as a bridge between RNA polymerase I and the transcription factors bound to the committed template. In this model Rrn3 would mediate an interaction between the mammalian Rrn3-polymerase I complex and SL1, the rDNA transcription factor that binds to the core promoter element of the rDNA. In the course of studying the role of Rrn3 in recruitment, we found that Rrn3 was in fact a DNA-binding protein. Analysis of the sequence of Rrn3 identified a domain with sequence similarity to the DNA binding domain of heat shock transcription factor 2. Randomization, or deletion, of the amino acids in this region in Rrn3, amino acids 382-400, abrogated its ability to bind DNA, indicating that this domain was an important contributor to DNA binding by Rrn3. Control experiments demonstrated that these mutant Rrn3 constructs were capable of interacting with both rpa43 and SL1, two other activities demonstrated to be essential for Rrn3 function. However, neither of these Rrn3 mutants was capable of functioning in transcription in vitro. Moreover, although wild-type human Rrn3 complemented a yeast rrn3-ts mutant, the DNA-binding site mutant did not. These results demonstrate that DNA binding by Rrn3 is essential for transcription by RNA polymerase I.

  3. Genetic analysis of Fasciola isolates from cattle in Korea based on second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) sequence of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Se-Eun; Nguyen, Thuy Thi-Dieu; Kang, Tae-Gyu; Kweon, Chang-Hee; Kang, Seung-Won

    2011-09-01

    Nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) has been used efficiently to identify the liver fluke species collected from different hosts and various geographic regions. ITS-2 sequences of 19 Fasciola samples collected from Korean native cattle were determined and compared. Sequence comparison including ITS-2 sequences of isolates from this study and reference sequences from Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica and intermediate Fasciola in Genbank revealed seven identical variable sites of investigated isolates. Among 19 samples, 12 individuals had ITS-2 sequences completely identical to that of pure F. hepatica, five possessed the sequences identical to F. gigantica type, whereas two shared the sequence of both F. hepatica and F. gigantica. No variations in length and nucleotide composition of ITS-2 sequence were observed within isolates that belonged to F. hepatica or F. gigantica. At the position of 218, five Fasciola containing a single-base substitution (C>T) formed a distinct branch inside the F. gigantica-type group which was similar to those of Asian-origin isolates. The phylogenetic tree of the Fasciola spp. based on complete ITS-2 sequences from this study and other representative isolates in different locations clearly showed that pure F. hepatica, F. gigantica type and intermediate Fasciola were observed. The result also provided additional genetic evidence for the existence of three forms of Fasciola isolated from native cattle in Korea by genetic approach using ITS-2 sequence.

  4. Expression of protein-coding genes embedded in ribosomal DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steinar D; Haugen, Peik; Nielsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a specialised chromosomal location that is dedicated to high-level transcription of ribosomal RNA genes. Interestingly, rDNAs are frequently interrupted by parasitic elements, some of which carry protein genes. These are non-LTR retrotransposons and group II introns that e...... in the nucleolus....

  5. Eukaryotic ribosome display with in situ DNA recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyue; Edwards, Bryan M; Kastelic, Damjana; Taussig, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Ribosome display is a cell-free display technology for in vitro selection and optimisation of proteins from large diversified libraries. It operates through the formation of stable protein-ribosome-mRNA (PRM) complexes and selection of ligand-binding proteins, followed by DNA recovery from the selected genetic information. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosome display systems have been developed. In this chapter, we describe the eukaryotic rabbit reticulocyte method in which a distinct in situ single-primer RT-PCR procedure is used to recover DNA from the selected PRM complexes without the need for prior disruption of the ribosome.

  6. Organization of Replication of Ribosomal DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linskens, Maarten H.K.; Huberman, Joel A.

    1988-01-01

    Using recently developed replicon mapping techniques, we have analyzed the replication of the ribosomal DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results show that (i) the functional origin of replication colocalizes with an autonomously replicating sequence element previously mapped to the

  7. cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and overexpression of ribosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RPS16 of eukaryote is a component of the 40S small ribosomal subunit encoded by RPS16 gene and is also a homolog of prokaryotic RPS9. The cDNA and genomic sequence of RPS16 was cloned successfully for the first time from the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain ...

  8. (Brassicaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 93; Issue 2. Phylogeny and biogeography of Alyssum (Brassicaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequences. Yan Li Yan Kong Zhe Zhang Yanqiang Yin Bin Liu Guanghui Lv Xiyong Wang. Research Article Volume 93 Issue 2 August 2014 pp 313-323 ...

  9. DNA barcode and identification of the varieties and provenances of Taiwan's domestic and imported made teas using ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Chia-Hsiang; Yen, Cheng-En; Chang, Chieh

    2017-04-01

    The major aim of made tea identification is to identify the variety and provenance of the tea plant. The present experiment used 113 tea plants [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] housed at the Tea Research and Extension Substation, from which 113 internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) fragments, 104 trnL intron, and 98 trnL-trnF intergenic sequence region DNA sequences were successfully sequenced. The similarity of the ITS2 nucleotide sequences between tea plants housed at the Tea Research and Extension Substation was 0.379-0.994. In this polymerase chain reaction-amplified noncoding region, no varieties possessed identical sequences. Compared with the trnL intron and trnL-trnF intergenic sequence fragments of chloroplast cpDNA, the proportion of ITS2 nucleotide sequence variation was large and is more suitable for establishing a DNA barcode database to identify tea plant varieties. After establishing the database, 30 imported teas and 35 domestic made teas were used in this model system to explore the feasibility of using ITS2 sequences to identify the varieties and provenances of made teas. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using ITS2 sequences with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean, which indicated that the same variety of tea plant is likely to be successfully categorized into one cluster, but contamination from other tea plants was also detected. This result provides molecular evidence that the similarity between important tea varieties in Taiwan remains high. We suggest a direct, wide collection of made tea and original samples of tea plants to establish an ITS2 sequence molecular barcode identification database to identify the varieties and provenances of tea plants. The DNA barcode comparison method can satisfy the need for a rapid, low-cost, frontline differentiation of the large amount of made teas from Taiwan and abroad, and can provide molecular evidence of their varieties and provenances. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Nuclear ribosomal DNA diversity of a cotton pest ( Rotylenchulus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) has emerged as a major cotton pest in the United States. A recent analysis of over 20 amphimictic populations of this pest from the US and three other countries has shown no sequence variation at the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) despite the region's ...

  11. Kinetic pathway of 40S ribosomal subunit recruitment to hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Gabriele; Petrov, Alexey N; Marceau, Caleb D; Popov, Lauren M; Chen, Jin; O'Leary, Seán E; Wang, Richard; Carette, Jan E; Sarnow, Peter; Puglisi, Joseph D

    2015-01-13

    Translation initiation can occur by multiple pathways. To delineate these pathways by single-molecule methods, fluorescently labeled ribosomal subunits are required. Here, we labeled human 40S ribosomal subunits with a fluorescent SNAP-tag at ribosomal protein eS25 (RPS25). The resulting ribosomal subunits could be specifically labeled in living cells and in vitro. Using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between RPS25 and domain II of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES), we measured the rates of 40S subunit arrival to the HCV IRES. Our data support a single-step model of HCV IRES recruitment to 40S subunits, irreversible on the initiation time scale. We furthermore demonstrated that after binding, the 40S:HCV IRES complex is conformationally dynamic, undergoing slow large-scale rearrangements. Addition of translation extracts suppresses these fluctuations, funneling the complex into a single conformation on the 80S assembly pathway. These findings show that 40S:HCV IRES complex formation is accompanied by dynamic conformational rearrangements that may be modulated by initiation factors.

  12. Evolutionary history of Phakopsora pachyrhizi (the Asian soybean rust in Brazil based on nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra C. M. Freire

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Phakopsora pachyrhizi has dispersed globally and brought severe economic losses to soybean growers. The fungus has been established in Brazil since 2002 and is found nationwide. To gather information on the temporal and spatial patterns of genetic variation in P. pachyrhizi , we sequenced the nuclear internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2. Total genomic DNA was extracted using either lyophilized urediniospores or lesions removed from infected leaves sampled from 26 soybean fields in Brazil and one field in South Africa. Cloning prior to sequencing was necessary because direct sequencing of PCR amplicons gave partially unreadable electrophoretograms with peak displacements suggestive of multiple sequences with length polymorphism. Sequences were determined from four clones per field. ITS sequences from African or Asian isolates available from the GenBank were included in the analyses. Independent sequence alignments of the ITS1 and ITS2 datasets identified 27 and 19 ribotypes, respectively. Molecular phylogeographic analyses revealed that ribotypes of widespread distribution in Brazil displayed characteristics of ancestrality and were shared with Africa and Asia, while ribotypes of rare occurrence in Brazil were indigenous. The results suggest P. pachyrhizi found in Brazil as originating from multiple, independent long-distance dispersal events.

  13. cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and analysis of the ribosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ribosomal protein L37A (RPL37A) is a component of 60S large ribosomal subunit encoded by the RPL37A gene, which belongs to the family of ribosomal L37AE proteins, located in the cytoplasm. The complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) and the genomic sequence of RPL37A were cloned successfully from giant ...

  14. Complete nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence amplification and molecular analyses of Bangia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiajie; Jiang, Bo; Chai, Sanming; He, Yuan; Zhu, Jianyi; Shen, Zonggen; Shen, Songdong

    2016-09-01

    Filamentous Bangia, which are distributed extensively throughout the world, have simple and similar morphological characteristics. Scientists can classify these organisms using molecular markers in combination with morphology. We successfully sequenced the complete nuclear ribosomal DNA, approximately 13 kb in length, from a marine Bangia population. We further analyzed the small subunit ribosomal DNA gene (nrSSU) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence regions along with nine other marine, and two freshwater Bangia samples from China. Pairwise distances of the nrSSU and 5.8S ribosomal DNA gene sequences show the marine samples grouping together with low divergences (00.003; 0-0.006, respectively) from each other, but high divergences (0.123-0.126; 0.198, respectively) from freshwater samples. An exception is the marine sample collected from Weihai, which shows high divergence from both other marine samples (0.063-0.065; 0.129, respectively) and the freshwater samples (0.097; 0.120, respectively). A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree based on a combined SSU-ITS dataset with maximum likelihood method shows the samples divided into three clades, with the two marine sample clades containing Bangia spp. from North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia; and one freshwater clade, containing Bangia atropurpurea from North America and China.

  15. DNA replication initiator Cdc6 also regulates ribosomal DNA transcription initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shijiao; Xu, Xiaowei; Wang, Guopeng; Lu, Guoliang; Xie, Wenbing; Tao, Wei; Zhang, Hongyin; Jiang, Qing; Zhang, Chuanmao

    2016-04-01

    RNA-polymerase-I-dependent ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription is fundamental to rRNA processing, ribosome assembly and protein synthesis. However, how this process is initiated during the cell cycle is not fully understood. By performing a proteomic analysis of transcription factors that bind RNA polymerase I during rDNA transcription initiation, we identified that the DNA replication initiator Cdc6 interacts with RNA polymerase I and its co-factors, and promotes rDNA transcription in G1 phase in an ATPase-activity-dependent manner. We further showed that Cdc6 is targeted to the nucleolus during late mitosis and G1 phase in a manner that is dependent on B23 (also known as nucleophosmin, NPM1), and preferentially binds to the rDNA promoter through its ATP-binding domain. Overexpression of Cdc6 increases rDNA transcription, whereas knockdown of Cdc6 results in a decreased association of both RNA polymerase I and the RNA polymerase I transcription factor RRN3 with rDNA, and a reduction of rDNA transcription. Furthermore, depletion of Cdc6 impairs the interaction between RRN3 and RNA polymerase I. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Cdc6 also serves as a regulator of rDNA transcription initiation, and indicate a mechanism by which initiation of rDNA transcription and DNA replication can be coordinated in cells. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Phylogenetic Information Content of Copepoda Ribosomal DNA Repeat Units: ITS1 and ITS2 Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagoskin, Maxim V.; Lazareva, Valentina I.; Grishanin, Andrey K.; Mukha, Dmitry V.

    2014-01-01

    The utility of various regions of the ribosomal repeat unit for phylogenetic analysis was examined in 16 species representing four families, nine genera, and two orders of the subclass Copepoda (Crustacea). Fragments approximately 2000 bp in length containing the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) 18S and 28S gene fragments, the 5.8S gene, and the internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS1 and ITS2) were amplified and analyzed. The DAMBE (Data Analysis in Molecular Biology and Evolution) software was used to analyze the saturation of nucleotide substitutions; this test revealed the suitability of both the 28S gene fragment and the ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions for the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. Distance (minimum evolution) and probabilistic (maximum likelihood, Bayesian) analyses of the data revealed that the 28S rDNA and the ITS1 and ITS2 regions are informative markers for inferring phylogenetic relationships among families of copepods and within the Cyclopidae family and associated genera. Split-graph analysis of concatenated ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions of cyclopoid copepods suggested that the Mesocyclops, Thermocyclops, and Macrocyclops genera share complex evolutionary relationships. This study revealed that the ITS1 and ITS2 regions potentially represent different phylogenetic signals. PMID:25215300

  17. Comparison of six simple methods for extracting ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA from Toxocara and Toxascaris nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaeili, F; Kia, E B; Sharbatkhori, M; Sharifdini, M; Jalalizand, N; Heidari, Z; Zarei, Z; Stensvold, C R; Mirhendi, H

    2013-06-01

    Six simple methods for extraction of ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA from Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina were compared by evaluating the presence, appearance and intensity of PCR products visualized on agarose gels and amplified from DNA extracted by each of the methods. For each species, two isolates were obtained from the intestines of their respective hosts: T. canis and T. leonina from dogs, and T. cati from cats. For all isolates, total DNA was extracted using six different methods, including grinding, boiling, crushing, beating, freeze-thawing and the use of a commercial kit. To evaluate the efficacy of each method, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene were chosen as representative markers for ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA, respectively. Among the six DNA extraction methods, the beating method was the most cost effective for all three species, followed by the commercial kit. Both methods produced high intensity bands on agarose gels and were characterized by no or minimal smear formation, depending on gene target; however, beating was less expensive. We therefore recommend the beating method for studies where costs need to be kept at low levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of tissue-embedded ascarid larvae by ribosomal DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwata, Kenji; Shinohara, Akio; Yagi, Kinpei; Horii, Yoichiro; Tsuchiya, Kimiyuki; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2004-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to identify tissue-embedded ascarid nematode larvae. Two sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA), ITS1 and ITS2, of the ascarid parasites were amplified and compared with those of ascarid-nematodes registered in a DNA database (GenBank). The ITS sequences of the PCR products obtained from the ascarid parasite specimen in our laboratory were compatible with those of registered adult Ascaris and Toxocara parasites. PCR amplification of the ITS regions was sensitive enough to detect a single larva of Ascaris suum mixed with porcine liver tissue. Using this method, ascarid larvae embedded in the liver of a naturally infected turkey were identified as Toxocara canis. These results suggest that even a single larva embedded in tissues from patients with larva migrans could be identified by sequencing the ITS regions.

  19. 18S Ribosomal RNA Evaluation as Preanalytical Quality Control for Animal DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Ann Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene is present in all eukaryotic cells. In this study, we evaluated the use of this gene to verify the presence of PCR-amplifiable host (animal DNA as an indicator of sufficient sample quality for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR analysis. We compared (i samples from various animal species, tissues, and sample types, including swabs; (ii multiple DNA extraction methods; and (iii both fresh and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE samples. Results showed that 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplification was possible from all tissue samples evaluated, including avian, reptile, and FFPE samples and most swab samples. A single swine rectal swab, which showed sufficient DNA quantity and the demonstrated lack of PCR inhibitors, nonetheless was negative by 18S qPCR. Such a sample specifically illustrates the improvement of determination of sample integrity afforded by inclusion of 18S rRNA gene qPCR analysis in addition to spectrophotometric analysis and the use of internal controls for PCR inhibition. Other possible applications for the described 18S rRNA qPCR are preselection of optimal tissue specimens for studies or preliminary screening of archived samples prior to acceptance for biobanking projects.

  20. Systematic analysis and evolution of 5S ribosomal DNA in metazoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierna, J; Wehner, S; Höner zu Siederdissen, C; Martínez-Lage, A; Marz, M

    2013-11-01

    Several studies on 5S ribosomal DNA (5S rDNA) have been focused on a subset of the following features in mostly one organism: number of copies, pseudogenes, secondary structure, promoter and terminator characteristics, genomic arrangements, types of non-transcribed spacers and evolution. In this work, we systematically analyzed 5S rDNA sequence diversity in available metazoan genomes, and showed organism-specific and evolutionary-conserved features. Putatively functional sequences (12,766) from 97 organisms allowed us to identify general features of this multigene family in animals. Interestingly, we show that each mammal species has a highly conserved (housekeeping) 5S rRNA type and many variable ones. The genomic organization of 5S rDNA is still under debate. Here, we report the occurrence of several paralog 5S rRNA sequences in 58 of the examined species, and a flexible genome organization of 5S rDNA in animals. We found heterogeneous 5S rDNA clusters in several species, supporting the hypothesis of an exchange of 5S rDNA from one locus to another. A rather high degree of variation of upstream, internal and downstream putative regulatory regions appears to characterize metazoan 5S rDNA. We systematically studied the internal promoters and described three different types of termination signals, as well as variable distances between the coding region and the typical termination signal. Finally, we present a statistical method for detection of linkage among noncoding RNA (ncRNA) gene families. This method showed no evolutionary-conserved linkage among 5S rDNAs and any other ncRNA genes within Metazoa, even though we found 5S rDNA to be linked to various ncRNAs in several clades.

  1. Ribosomal DNA sequence heterogeneity reflects intraspecies phylogenies and predicts genome structure in two contrasting yeast species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Claire; James, Stephen A; Davey, Robert P; Dicks, Jo; Roberts, Ian N

    2014-07-01

    The ribosomal RNA encapsulates a wealth of evolutionary information, including genetic variation that can be used to discriminate between organisms at a wide range of taxonomic levels. For example, the prokaryotic 16S rDNA sequence is very widely used both in phylogenetic studies and as a marker in metagenomic surveys and the internal transcribed spacer region, frequently used in plant phylogenetics, is now recognized as a fungal DNA barcode. However, this widespread use does not escape criticism, principally due to issues such as difficulties in classification of paralogous versus orthologous rDNA units and intragenomic variation, both of which may be significant barriers to accurate phylogenetic inference. We recently analyzed data sets from the Saccharomyces Genome Resequencing Project, characterizing rDNA sequence variation within multiple strains of the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its nearest wild relative Saccharomyces paradoxus in unprecedented detail. Notably, both species possess single locus rDNA systems. Here, we use these new variation datasets to assess whether a more detailed characterization of the rDNA locus can alleviate the second of these phylogenetic issues, sequence heterogeneity, while controlling for the first. We demonstrate that a strong phylogenetic signal exists within both datasets and illustrate how they can be used, with existing methodology, to estimate intraspecies phylogenies of yeast strains consistent with those derived from whole-genome approaches. We also describe the use of partial Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, a type of sequence variation found only in repetitive genomic regions, in identifying key evolutionary features such as genome hybridization events and show their consistency with whole-genome Structure analyses. We conclude that our approach can transform rDNA sequence heterogeneity from a problem to a useful source of evolutionary information, enabling the estimation of highly accurate phylogenies of

  2. Detection of Ribosomal DNA Sequence Polymorphisms in the Protist Plasmodiophora brassicae for the Identification of Geographical Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawnak Laila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot is a soil-borne disease caused by the protist Plasmodiophora brassicae (P. brassicae. It is one of the most economically important diseases of Brassica rapa and other cruciferous crops as it can cause remarkable yield reductions. Understanding P. brassicae genetics, and developing efficient molecular markers, is essential for effective detection of harmful races of this pathogen. Samples from 11 Korean field populations of P. brassicae (geographic isolates, collected from nine different locations in South Korea, were used in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from the clubroot-infected samples to sequence the ribosomal DNA. Primers and probes for P. brassicae were designed using a ribosomal DNA gene sequence from a Japanese strain available in GenBank (accession number AB526843; isolate NGY. The nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA sequence of P. brassicae, comprising 6932 base pairs (bp, was cloned and sequenced and found to include the small subunits (SSUs and a large subunit (LSU, internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2, and a 5.8s. Sequence variation was observed in both the SSU and LSU. Four markers showed useful differences in high-resolution melting analysis to identify nucleotide polymorphisms including single- nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, oligonucleotide polymorphisms, and insertions/deletions (InDels. A combination of three markers was able to distinguish the geographical isolates into two groups.

  3. D1/D2 domain of large-subunit ribosomal DNA for differentiation of Orpinomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, Sumit S; Kumar, Sanjay; Mudgil, Priti; Singh, Rameshwar; Puniya, Anil K

    2011-09-01

    This study presents the suitability of D1/D2 domain of large-subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) for differentiation of Orpinomyces joyonii and Orpinomyces intercalaris based on PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). A variation of G/T in O. intercalaris created an additional restriction site for AluI, which was used as an RFLP marker. The results demonstrate adequate heterogeneity in the LSU rDNA for species-level differentiation.

  4. The NBS1-Treacle complex controls ribosomal RNA transcription in response to DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Dorthe H; Hari, Flurina; Clapperton, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome breakage elicits transient silencing of ribosomal RNA synthesis, but the mechanisms involved remained elusive. Here we discover an in trans signalling mechanism that triggers pan-nuclear silencing of rRNA transcription in response to DNA damage. This is associated with transient...... recruitment of the Nijmegen breakage syndrome protein 1 (NBS1), a central regulator of DNA damage responses, into the nucleoli. We further identify TCOF1 (also known as Treacle), a nucleolar factor implicated in ribosome biogenesis and mutated in Treacher Collins syndrome, as an interaction partner of NBS1...

  5. Ribosomal PCR and DNA sequencing for detection and identification of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristine Helander; Dargis, Rimtas; Christensen, Jens Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    -haemolytic streptococci, especially within the mitis group. The data show that ribosomal PCR with subsequent DNA sequencing of the PCR product is a most valuable supplement to culture for identifying bacterial agents of both acute and prolonged infections. However, some bacteria, including non-haemolytic streptococci...

  6. Absence of ribosomal DNA amplification in the meroistic (telotrophic) ovary of the large milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    In the typical meroistic insect ovary, the oocyte nucleus synthesizes little if any RNA. Nurse cells or trophocytes actively synthesize ribosomes which are transported to and accumulated by the oocyte. In the telotrophic ovary a morphological separation exists, the nurse cells being localized at the apical end of each ovariole and communicating with the ooocytes via nutritive cords. In order to determine whether the genes coding for ribosomal RNA (rRNA) are amplified in the telotrophic ovary of the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, the percentages of the genome coding for ribosomal RNA in somatic cells, spermatogenic cells, ovarian follicles, and nurse cells were compared. The oocytes and most of the nurse cells of O. fasciatus are uninucleolate. DNA hybridizing with ribosomal RNA is localized in a satellite DNA, the density of which is 1.712 g/cm(-3). The density of main-band DNA is 1.694 g/cm(-3). The ribosomal DNA satellite accounts for approximately 0.2% of the DNA in somatic and gametogenic tissues of both males and females. RNA-DNA hybridization analysis demonstrates that approximately 0.03% of the DNA in somatic tissues, testis, ovarian follicles, and isolated nurse cells hybridizes with ribosomal RNA. The fact that the percentage of DNA hybridizing with rRNA is the same in somatic and in male and female gametogenic tissues indicates that amplification of ribosomal DNA does not occur in nurse cells and that if it occurs in oocytes, it represents less than a 50- fold increase in ribosomal DNA. An increase in total genome DNA accounted by polyploidization appears to provide for increasing the amount of ribosomal DNA in the nurse cells. PMID:1158969

  7. Close sequence identity between ribosomal DNA episomes of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The restriction map of the E. dispar rDNA circle showed close simi- larity to EhR1 .... for 30 cycles in a DNA Thermal cycler (MJ Research,. USA). 3. .... by asterisk. The gaps show the variation between E. dispar and E. histolytica sequences.

  8. Molecular characterization of Fasciola gigantica from Mauritania based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Nabil; Farjallah, Sarra; Salem, Mohamed; Lamine, Dia Mamadou; Merella, Paolo; Said, Khaled; Ben Slimane, Badreddine

    2011-10-01

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea) is considered the most important helminth infection of ruminants in tropical countries, causing considerable socioeconomic problems. From Africa, F. gigantica has been previously characterized from Burkina Faso, Senegal, Kenya, Zambia and Mali, while F. hepatica has been reported from Morocco and Tunisia, and both species have been observed from Ethiopia and Egypt on the basis of morphometric differences, while the use of molecular markers is necessary to distinguish exactly between species. Samples identified morphologically as F. gigantica (n=60) from sheep and cattle from different geographical localities of Mauritania were genetically characterized by sequences of the first (ITS-1), the 5.8S, and second (ITS-2) Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes and the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase I (COI) gene. Comparison of the sequences of the Mauritanian samples with sequences of Fasciola spp. from GenBank confirmed that all samples belong to the species F. gigantica. The nucleotide sequencing of ITS rDNA of F. gigantica showed no nucleotide variation in the ITS-1, 5.8S, and ITS-2 rDNA sequences among all samples examined and those from Burkina Faso, Kenya, Egypt and Iran. The phylogenetic trees based on the ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences showed a close relationship of the Mauritanian samples with isolates of F. gigantica from different localities of Africa and Asia. The COI genotypes of the Mauritanian specimens of F. gigantica had a high level of diversity, and they belonged to the F. gigantica phylogenically distinguishable clade. The present study is the first molecular characterization of F. gigantica in sheep and cattle from Mauritania, allowing a reliable approach for the genetic differentiation of Fasciola spp. and providing basis for further studies on liver flukes in the African countries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All

  9. PCR Amplification of Ribosomal DNA for Species Identification in the Plant Pathogen Genus Phytophthora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristaino, Jean B.; Madritch, Michael; Trout, Carol L.; Parra, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a PCR procedure to amplify DNA for quick identification of the economically important species from each of the six taxonomic groups in the plant pathogen genus Phytophthora. This procedure involves amplification of the 5.8S ribosomal DNA gene and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) with the ITS primers ITS 5 and ITS 4. Restriction digests of the amplified DNA products were conducted with the restriction enzymes RsaI, MspI, and HaeIII. Restriction fragment patterns were similar after digestions with RsaI for the following species: P. capsici and P. citricola; P. infestans, P. cactorum, and P. mirabilis; P. fragariae, P. cinnamomi, and P. megasperma from peach; P. palmivora, P. citrophthora, P. erythroseptica, and P. cryptogea; and P. megasperma from raspberry and P. sojae. Restriction digests with MspI separated P. capsici from P. citricola and separated P. cactorum from P. infestans and P. mirabilis. Restriction digests with HaeIII separated P. citrophthora from P. cryptogea, P. cinnamomi from P. fragariae and P. megasperma on peach, P. palmivora from P. citrophthora, and P. megasperma on raspberry from P. sojae. P. infestans and P. mirabilis digests were identical and P. cryptogea and P. erythroseptica digests were identical with all restriction enzymes tested. A unique DNA sequence from the ITS region I in P. capsici was used to develop a primer called PCAP. The PCAP primer was used in PCRs with ITS 1 and amplified only isolates of P. capsici, P. citricola, and P. citrophthora and not 13 other species in the genus. Restriction digests with MspI separated P. capsici from the other two species. PCR was superior to traditional isolation methods for detection of P. capsici in infected bell pepper tissue in field samples. The techniques described will provide a powerful tool for identification of the major species in the genus Phytophthora. PMID:9501434

  10. [Structural organization of 5S ribosomal DNA of Rosa rugosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynkevych, Iu O; Volkov, R A

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify molecular organization of the genomic region encoding 5S rRNA in diploid species Rosa rugosa several 5S rDNA repeated units were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed that only one length variant of 5S rDNA repeated units, which contains intact promoter elements in the intergenic spacer region (IGS) and appears to be transcriptionally active is present in the genome. Additionally, a limited number of 5S rDNA pseudogenes lacking a portion of coding sequence and the complete IGS was detected. A high level of sequence similarity (from 93.7 to 97.5%) between the IGS of major 5S rDNA variants of East Asian R. rugosa and North American R. nitida was found indicating comparatively recent divergence of these species.

  11. Identification of Nematodirus species (Nematoda: Molineidae) from wild ruminants in Italy using ribosomal DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, R B; Rossi, L; Zhu, X

    1999-11-01

    The sequence of the second internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA was determined for four species of Nematodirus (Nematodirus rupicaprae, Nematodirus oiratianus, Nematodirus davtiani alpinus and Nematodirus europaeus) from roe deer or alpine chamois. The second internal transcribed spacer of the four species varied in length from 228 to 236 bp, and the G + C contents ranged from 41 to 44%. While no intraspecific sequence variation was detected among multiple samples representing three of the taxa, sequence differences of 5.9-9.7% were detected among the four species, Nematodirus davtiani alpinus and N. rupicaprae were genetically most similar (94.1%), followed by N. oiratianus, N. europaeus and N. rupicaprae (91.1-91.5%), whereas N. oiratianus was genetically most different from N. davtiani alpinus. The interspecific sequence differences were exploited for the delineation of the four species by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (using two enzymes) and single-strand conformation polymorphism. The results have implications for diagnosis, epidemiology and for studying the systematics of the Nematodirinae.

  12. Diversitas Genetik Anopheles balabacensis, Baisas di Berbagai Daerah Indonesia Berdasarkan Sekuen Gen ITS 2 DNA Ribosom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiarti Widiarti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMalaria control is remain a challenge although various attempts have been conducted. One of the issues in controlling the vectors is the presence of species complex. The species complex is an example of genetic diversity. Anopheles balabacensis, Baisas reported as complex species in various countries, but has not been widely reported in Indonesia. In order to enhance malaria control, it is important to understand the vectors and its bioecology. The aim of the study were a. to identify An. balabacensis, Baisas suspected as species complex based on ribosomal DNA the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 gene sequences, b. to understand the genetic diversity of An. balabacensis, Baisas collected from endemic and non endemic regions distincted by geographical distance, c. to understand the genetic relationships (taxonomi distance among An. balabacensis, Baisas from difference regions in Indonesia through reconstructing the phylogenetic trees. The results showed that An. balabacensis, Baisas in Indonesia is identified as sympatric and allopatrik complex species. There were differences which was far enough in the genetic relationships among An. balabacensis populations collected from Pusuk Lestari in the area of Meninting Health Center, West Lombok, NTB. This differences were identified as sympatric complex. In addition, base on the relationship among An. leucosphyrus group, An balabacensis, Baisas collected from Berjoko Nunukan Regency showed that the species quite far compare to An. balabacensis, Baisas originally from Central Java and Lombok NTB.Keywords : An. balabacensis, genetic variation, the second Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS2.AbstrakPenanggulangan malaria masih banyak menemui kendala walaupun berbagai upaya telah dilakukan. Salah satu kendala yang menyulitkan dalam pengendalian vektor adalah adanya spesies kompleks pada populasi nyamuk vektor. Spesies kompleks merupakan contoh diversitas genetik. Anopheles balabacensis

  13. Extrachromosomal circles of satellite repeats and 5S ribosomal DNA in human cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Sarit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extrachomosomal circular DNA (eccDNA is ubiquitous in eukaryotic organisms and was detected in every organism tested, including in humans. A two-dimensional gel electrophoresis facilitates the detection of eccDNA in preparations of genomic DNA. Using this technique we have previously demonstrated that most of eccDNA consists of exact multiples of chromosomal tandemly repeated DNA, including both coding genes and satellite DNA. Results Here we report the occurrence of eccDNA in every tested human cell line. It has heterogeneous mass ranging from less than 2 kb to over 20 kb. We describe eccDNA homologous to human alpha satellite and the SstI mega satellite. Moreover, we show, for the first time, circular multimers of the human 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA, similar to previous findings in Drosophila and plants. We further demonstrate structures that correspond to intermediates of rolling circle replication, which emerge from the circular multimers of 5S rDNA and SstI satellite. Conclusions These findings, and previous reports, support the general notion that every chromosomal tandem repeat is prone to generate eccDNA in eukryoric organisms including humans. They suggest the possible involvement of eccDNA in the length variability observed in arrays of tandem repeats. The implications of eccDNA on genome biology may include mechanisms of centromere evolution, concerted evolution and homogenization of tandem repeats and genomic plasticity.

  14. cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and overexpression of ribosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... basic machinery of protein synthesis and regulation, but also in various ... The genomic DNA was isolated from Giant Panda muscle tissue according to the ... for 45 s, 72°C for 2 min in the first cycle and the anneal temperature deceased 0.2°C ..... edition, Cold Spring Harbor aboratory Press. Cold Spring ...

  15. Non-canonical ribosomal DNA segments in the human genome, and nucleoli functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriyanova, Natalia S; Netchvolodov, Kirill K; Sadova, Anastasia A; Cherepanova, Marina D; Ryskov, Alexei P

    2015-11-10

    Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in the human genome is represented by tandem repeats of 43 kb nucleotide sequences that form nucleoli organizers (NORs) on each of five pairs of acrocentric chromosomes. RDNA-similar segments of different lengths are also present on (NOR)(-) chromosomes. Many of these segments contain nucleotide substitutions, supplementary microsatellite clusters, and extended deletions. Recently, it was shown that, in addition to ribosome biogenesis, nucleoli exhibit additional functions, such as cell-cycle regulation and response to stresses. In particular, several stress-inducible loci located in the ribosomal intergenic spacer (rIGS) produce stimuli-specific noncoding nucleolus RNAs. By mapping the 5'/3' ends of the rIGS segments scattered throughout (NOR)(-) chromosomes, we discovered that the bonds in the rIGS that were most often susceptible to disruption in the rIGS were adjacent to, or overlapped with stimuli-specific inducible loci. This suggests the interconnection of the two phenomena - nucleoli functioning and the scattering of rDNA-like sequences on (NOR)(-) chromosomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sequence of a cloned cDNA encoding human ribosomal protein S11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lott, J B; Mackie, G A

    1988-02-11

    The authors have isolated a cloned cDNA that encodes human ribosomal protein (rp) S11 by screening a human fibroblast cDNA library with a labelled 204 bp DNA fragment encompassing residues 212-416 of pRS11, a rat rp Sll cDNA clone. The human rp S11 cloned cDNA consists of 15 residues of the 5' leader, the entire coding sequence and all 51 residues of the 3' untranslated region. The predicted amino acid sequence of 158 residues is identical to rat rpS11. The nucleotide sequence in the coding region differs, however, from that in rat in the first position in two codons and in the third position in 44 codons.

  17. The occurrence of Toxocara malaysiensis in cats in China, confirmed by sequence-based analyses of ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Wei; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Gasser, Robin B; Lin, Rui-Qing; Sani, Rehana A; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Jacobs, Dennis E

    2006-10-01

    Non-isotopic polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequence analyses of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were utilized to genetically characterise ascaridoids from dogs and cats from China by comparison with those from other countries. The study showed that Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, and Toxascaris leonina from China were genetically the same as those from other geographical origins. Specimens from cats from Guangzhou, China, which were morphologically consistent with Toxocara malaysiensis, were the same genetically as those from Malaysia, with the exception of a polymorphism in the ITS-2 but no unequivocal sequence difference. This is the first report of T. malaysiensis in cats outside of Malaysia (from where it was originally described), supporting the proposal that this species has a broader geographical distribution. The molecular approach employed provides a powerful tool for elucidating the biology, epidemiology, and zoonotic significance of T. malaysiensis.

  18. Differences in a ribosomal DNA sequence of Strongylus species allows identification of single eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A J; Gasser, R B; Chilton, N B

    1995-03-01

    In the current study, molecular techniques were evaluated for the species identification of individual strongyle eggs. Adult worms of Strongylus edentatus, S. equinus and S. vulgaris were collected at necropsy from horses from Australia and the U.S.A. Genomic DNA was isolated and a ribosomal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) amplified and sequenced using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. The length of the ITS-2 sequence of S. edentatus, S. equinus and S. vulgaris ranged between 217 and 235 nucleotides. Extensive sequence analysis demonstrated a low degree (0-0.9%) of intraspecific variation in the ITS-2 for the Strongylus species examined, whereas the levels of interspecific differences (13-29%) were significantly greater. Interspecific differences in the ITS-2 sequences allowed unequivocal species identification of single worms and eggs using PCR-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism. These results demonstrate the potential of the ribosomal spacers as genetic markers for species identification of single strongyle eggs from horse faeces.

  19. Ribosomal RNA Genes Contribute to the Formation of Pseudogenes and Junk DNA in the Human Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robicheau, Brent M; Susko, Edward; Harrigan, Amye M; Snyder, Marlene

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 35% of the human genome can be identified as sequence devoid of a selected-effect function, and not derived from transposable elements or repeated sequences. We provide evidence supporting a known origin for a fraction of this sequence. We show that: 1) highly degraded, but near full length, ribosomal DNA (rDNA) units, including both 45S and Intergenic Spacer (IGS), can be found at multiple sites in the human genome on chromosomes without rDNA arrays, 2) that these rDNA sequences have a propensity for being centromere proximal, and 3) that sequence at all human functional rDNA array ends is divergent from canonical rDNA to the point that it is pseudogenic. We also show that small sequence strings of rDNA (from 45S + IGS) can be found distributed throughout the genome and are identifiable as an "rDNA-like signal", representing 0.26% of the q-arm of HSA21 and ∼2% of the total sequence of other regions tested. The size of sequence strings found in the rDNA-like signal intergrade into the size of sequence strings that make up the full-length degrading rDNA units found scattered throughout the genome. We conclude that the displaced and degrading rDNA sequences are likely of a similar origin but represent different stages in their evolution towards random sequence. Collectively, our data suggests that over vast evolutionary time, rDNA arrays contribute to the production of junk DNA. The concept that the production of rDNA pseudogenes is a by-product of concerted evolution represents a previously under-appreciated process; we demonstrate here its importance. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. [Identification of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae based on PCR targeting ribosomal DNA ITS regions and COX1 gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-Li; Shen, Ji-Qing; Jiang, Zhi-Hua; Yang, Yi-Chao; Li, Hong-Mei; Chen, Ying-Dan; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-06-01

    To identify Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae using PCR targeting ribosomal DNA ITS region and COX1 gene. Pseudorasbora parva were collected from Hengxian County of Guangxi at the end of May 2013. Single metacercaria of C. sinensis and other trematodes were separated from muscle tissue of P. parva by digestion method. Primers targeting ribosomal DNA ITS region and COX1 gene of C. sinensis were designed for PCR and the universal primers were used as control. The sensitivity and specificity of the PCR detection were analyzed. C. sinensis metacercariae at different stages were identified by PCR. DNA from single C. sinensis metacercaria was detected by PCR targeting ribosomal DNA ITS region and COX1 gene. The specific amplicans have sizes of 437/549, 156/249 and 195/166 bp, respectively. The ratio of the two positive numbers in PCR with universal primers and specific primers targeting C. sinensis ribosomal DNA ITS1 and ITS2 regions was 0.905 and 0.952, respectively. The target gene fragments were amplified by PCR using COX1 gene-specific primers. The PCR with specific primers did not show any non-specific amplification. However, the PCR with universal primers targeting ribosomal DNA ITS regions performed serious non-specific amplification. C. sinensis metacercariae at different stages are identified by morphological observation and PCR method. Species-specific primers targeting ribosomal DNA ITS region show higher sensitivity and specificity than the universal primers. PCR targeting COX1 gene shows similar sensitivity and specificity to PCR with specific primers targeting ribosomal DNA ITS regions.

  1. Variability of chloroplast DNA and nuclear ribosomal DNA in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its wild relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregene, M A; Vargas, J; Ikea, J; Angel, F; Tohme, J; Asiedu, R A; Akoroda, M O; Roca, W M

    1994-11-01

    Chloroplast DNA (cp) and nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) variation was investigated in 45 accessions of cultivated and wild Manihot species. Ten independent mutations, 8 point mutations and 2 length mutations were identified, using eight restriction enzymes and 12 heterologous cpDNA probes from mungbean. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis defined nine distinct chloroplast types, three of which were found among the cultivated accessions and six among the wild species. Cladistic analysis of the cpDNA data using parsimony yielded a hypothetical phylogeny of lineages among the cpDNAs of cassava and its wild relatives that is congruent with morphological evolutionary differentiation in the genus. The results of our survey of cpDNA, together with rDNA restriction site change at the intergenic spacer region and rDNA repeat unit length variation (using rDNA cloned fragments from taro as probe), suggest that cassava might have arisen from the domestication of wild tuberous accessions of some Manihot species, followed by intensive selection. M. esculenta subspp flabellifolia is probably a wild progenitor. Introgressive hybridization with wild forms and pressures to adapt to the widely varying climates and topography in which cassava is found might have enhanced the crop's present day variability.

  2. A nuclear ribosomal DNA pseudogene in triatomines opens a new research field of fundamental and applied implications in Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angeles Zuriaga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A pseudogene, designated as "ps(5.8S+ITS-2", paralogous to the 5.8S gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2 of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA, has been recently found in many triatomine species distributed throughout North America, Central America and northern South America. Among characteristics used as criteria for pseudogene verification, secondary structures and free energy are highlighted, showing a lower fit between minimum free energy, partition function and centroid structures, although in given cases the fit only appeared to be slightly lower. The unique characteristics of "ps(5.8S+ITS-2" as a processed or retrotransposed pseudogenic unit of the ghost type are reviewed, with emphasis on its potential functionality compared to the functionality of genes and spacers of the normal rDNA operon. Besides the technical problem of the risk for erroneous sequence results, the usefulness of "ps(5.8S+ITS-2" for specimen classification, phylogenetic analyses and systematic/taxonomic studies should be highlighted, based on consistence and retention index values, which in pseudogenic sequence trees were higher than in functional sequence trees. Additionally, intraindividual, interpopulational and interspecific differences in pseudogene amount and the fact that it is a pseudogene in the nuclear rDNA suggests a potential relationships with fitness, behaviour and adaptability of triatomine vectors and consequently its potential utility in Chagas disease epidemiology and control.

  3. Unexpected Diagnosis of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis by 16S and D2 Large-Subunit Ribosomal DNA PCR and Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Yasmin Collin; Kvich, Lasse Andersson; Eickhardt-Dalbøge, Steffen Robert

    2015-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes severe opportunistic infections. Here, we report an unexpected diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis. T. gondii was diagnosed by 16S and D2 large-subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing of a cerebral biopsy specimen and confirmed by T. gondii...

  4. Molecular phylogeny of Acer monspessulanum L. subspecies from Iran inferred using the ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANIF KHADEMI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Khademi H, Mehregan I, Assadi M, Nejadsatari T, Zarre S. 2015. Molecular phylogeny of Acer monspessulanum L. subspecies from Iran inferred using the ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Biodiversitas 17: 16-23. This study was carried out on the Acer monspessulanum complex growing wild in Iran. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequences for 75 samples representing five different subspecies of Acer monspessulanum were analyzed. Beside this, 86 previously published ITS sequences from GenBank were used to test the monophyly of the complex worldwide. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using Bayesian inference and maximum parsimony. The results indicate that most samples of A. monspessulanum species from Iran were part of a monophyletic clade with 8 samples of A. ibericum from Georgia, A. hyrcanum from Iran and one of A. sempervirens from Greece (PP= 1; BS= 79%. Our results indicate that use of morphological characteristics coupled with molecular data will be most effective.

  5. Ribosomal DNA variation in finger millet and wild species of Eleusine (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilu, K W; Johnson, J L

    1992-04-01

    Finger millet is an important cereal crop in the semi-arid regions of Africa and India. The crop belongs to the grass genus Eleusine, which includes nine annual and perennial species native to Africa except for the New World species E. tristachya. Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) variation in finger millet and related wild species was used to provide information on the origin of the genomes of this tetraploid crop and point out genetic relationships of the crop to other species in the genus. The restriction endonucleases used revealed a lack of variability in the rDNA spacer region in domesticated finger millet. All the rDNA variants of the crop were found in the proposed direct tetraploid ancestor, E. coracana subsp. africana. Wild and domesticated finger millet displayed the phenotypes found in diploid E. indica. Diploid Eleusine tristachya showed some similarity to the crop in some restriction sites. The remaining species were quite distinct in rDNA fragment patterns. The study supports the direct origin of finger millet from subspecies africana shows E. indica to be one of the genome donors of the crop, and demonstrates that none of the other species examined could have donated the second genome of the crop. The rDNA data raise the possibility that wild and domesticated finger millet could have originated as infraspecific polyploid hybrids from different varieties of E. indica.

  6. Strongylus asini (Nematoda, Strongyloidea): genetic relationships with other Strongylus species determined by ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, G C; Jacobs, D E; Krecek, R C; Gasser, R B; Chilton, N B

    1996-12-01

    Genomic DNA was isolated from adult Strongylus asini collected from zebra. The second ribosomal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) was amplified and sequenced using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based techniques. The DNA sequence was compared with previously published data for 3 related Strongylus species. A PCR-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism method allowed the 4 species to be differentiated unequivocally. The ITS-2 sequence of S. asini was found to be more similar to those of S. edentatus (87.1%) and S. equinus (95.3%) than to that of S vulgaris (73.9%). This result confirms that S. Asini and S vulgaris represent separate species and supports the retention of the 4 species within 1 genus.

  7. Genotyping of Giardia lamblia isolates from humans in China and Korea using ribosomal DNA Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, T S; Park, S J; Hwang, U W; Yang, H W; Lee, K W; Min, D Y; Rim, H J; Wang, Y; Zheng, F

    2000-08-01

    Genetic characterization of a total of 15 Giardia lamblia isolates, 8 from Anhui Province, China (all from purified cysts) and 7 from Seoul, Korea (2 from axenic cultures and 5 from purified cysts), was performed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of a 295-bp region near the 5' end of the small subunit ribosomal DNA (eukaryotic 16S rDNA). Phylogenetic analyses were subsequently conducted using sequence data obtained in this study, as well as sequences published from other Giardia isolates. The maximum parsimony method revealed that G. lamblia isolates from humans in China and Korea are divided into 2 major lineages, assemblages A and B. All 7 Korean isolates were grouped into assemblage A, whereas 4 Chinese isolates were grouped into assemblage A and 4 into assemblage B. Two Giardia microti isolates and 2 dog-derived Giardia isolates also grouped into assemblage B, whereas Giardia ardeae and Giardia muris were unique.

  8. The D1-D2 region of the large subunit ribosomal DNA as barcode for ciliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeck, T; Przybos, E; Dunthorn, M

    2014-05-01

    Ciliates are a major evolutionary lineage within the alveolates, which are distributed in nearly all habitats on our planet and are an essential component for ecosystem function, processes and stability. Accurate identification of these unicellular eukaryotes through, for example, microscopy or mating type reactions is reserved to few specialists. To satisfy the demand for a DNA barcode for ciliates, which meets the standard criteria for DNA barcodes defined by the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL), we here evaluated the D1-D2 region of the ribosomal DNA large subunit (LSU-rDNA). Primer universality for the phylum Ciliophora was tested in silico with available database sequences as well as in the laboratory with 73 ciliate species, which represented nine of 12 ciliate classes. Primers tested in this study were successful for all tested classes. To test the ability of the D1-D2 region to resolve conspecific and congeneric sequence divergence, 63 Paramecium strains were sampled from 24 mating species. The average conspecific D1-D2 variation was 0.18%, whereas congeneric sequence divergence averaged 4.83%. In pairwise genetic distance analyses, we identified a D1-D2 sequence divergence of DNA amplification of single cells and voucher deposition. In conclusion, the presented data pinpoint the D1-D2 region as an excellent candidate for an official CBOL barcode for ciliated protists. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Hypervariability of ribosomal DNA at multiple chromosomal sites in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, L; Reed, K M; Phillips, R B

    1995-06-01

    Variation in the intergenic spacer (IGS) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was examined. Digestion of genomic DNA with restriction enzymes showed that almost every individual had a unique combination of length variants with most of this variation occurring within rather than between populations. Sequence analysis of a 2.3 kilobase (kb) EcoRI-DraI fragment spanning the 3' end of the 28S coding region and approximately 1.8 kb of the IGS revealed two blocks of repetitive DNA. Putative transcriptional termination sites were found approximately 220 bases (b) downstream from the end of the 28S coding region. Comparison of the 2.3-kb fragments with two longer (3.1 kb) fragments showed that the major difference in length resulted from variation in the number of short (89 b) repeats located 3' to the putative terminator. Repeat units within a single nucleolus organizer region (NOR) appeared relatively homogeneous and genetic analysis found variants to be stably inherited. A comparison of the number of spacer-length variants with the number of NORs found that the number of length variants per individual was always less than the number of NORs. Examination of spacer variants in five populations showed that populations with more NORs had more spacer variants, indicating that variants are present at different rDNA sites on nonhomologous chromosomes.

  10. D1/D2 Domain of Large-Subunit Ribosomal DNA for Differentiation of Orpinomyces spp.▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, Sumit S.; Kumar, Sanjay; Mudgil, Priti; Singh, Rameshwar; Puniya, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the suitability of D1/D2 domain of large-subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) for differentiation of Orpinomyces joyonii and Orpinomyces intercalaris based on PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). A variation of G/T in O. intercalaris created an additional restriction site for AluI, which was used as an RFLP marker. The results demonstrate adequate heterogeneity in the LSU rDNA for species-level differentiation. PMID:21784906

  11. Clinical identification of bacteria in human chronic wound infections: culturing vs. 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhoads Daniel D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic wounds affect millions of people and cost billions of dollars in the United States each year. These wounds harbor polymicrobial biofilm communities, which can be difficult to elucidate using culturing methods. Clinical molecular microbiological methods are increasingly being employed to investigate the microbiota of chronic infections, including wounds, as part of standard patient care. However, molecular testing is more sensitive than culturing, which results in markedly different results being reported to clinicians. This study compares the results of aerobic culturing and molecular testing (culture-free 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing, and it examines the relative abundance score that is generated by the molecular test and the usefulness of the relative abundance score in predicting the likelihood that the same organism would be detected by culture. Methods Parallel samples from 51 chronic wounds were studied using aerobic culturing and 16S DNA sequencing for the identification of bacteria. Results One hundred forty-five (145 unique genera were identified using molecular methods, and 68 of these genera were aerotolerant. Fourteen (14 unique genera were identified using aerobic culture methods. One-third (31/92 of the cultures were determined to be Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis with higher relative abundance scores were more likely to be detected by culture as demonstrated with regression modeling. Conclusion Discordance between molecular and culture testing is often observed. However, culture-free 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing and its relative abundance score can provide clinicians with insight into which bacteria are most abundant in a sample and which are most likely to be detected by culture.

  12. Dynamic distribution patterns of ribosomal DNA and chromosomal evolution in Paphiopedilum, a lady's slipper orchid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Victor A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paphiopedilum is a horticulturally and ecologically important genus of ca. 80 species of lady's slipper orchids native to Southeast Asia. These plants have long been of interest regarding their chromosomal evolution, which involves a progressive aneuploid series based on either fission or fusion of centromeres. Chromosome number is positively correlated with genome size, so rearrangement processes must include either insertion or deletion of DNA segments. We have conducted Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH studies using 5S and 25S ribosomal DNA (rDNA probes to survey for rearrangements, duplications, and phylogenetically-correlated variation within Paphiopedilum. We further studied sequence variation of the non-transcribed spacers of 5S rDNA (5S-NTS to examine their complex duplication history, including the possibility that concerted evolutionary forces may homogenize diversity. Results 5S and 25S rDNA loci among Paphiopedilum species, representing all key phylogenetic lineages, exhibit a considerable diversity that correlates well with recognized evolutionary groups. 25S rDNA signals range from 2 (representing 1 locus to 9, the latter representing hemizygosity. 5S loci display extensive structural variation, and show from 2 specific signals to many, both major and minor and highly dispersed. The dispersed signals mainly occur at centromeric and subtelomeric positions, which are hotspots for chromosomal breakpoints. Phylogenetic analysis of cloned 5S rDNA non-transcribed spacer (5S-NTS sequences showed evidence for both ancient and recent post-speciation duplication events, as well as interlocus and intralocus diversity. Conclusions Paphiopedilum species display many chromosomal rearrangements - for example, duplications, translocations, and inversions - but only weak concerted evolutionary forces among highly duplicated 5S arrays, which suggests that double-strand break repair processes are dynamic and ongoing. These

  13. Evolutional dynamics of 45S and 5S ribosomal DNA in ancient allohexaploid Atropa belladonna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Roman A; Panchuk, Irina I; Borisjuk, Nikolai V; Hosiawa-Baranska, Marta; Maluszynska, Jolanta; Hemleben, Vera

    2017-01-23

    Polyploid hybrids represent a rich natural resource to study molecular evolution of plant genes and genomes. Here, we applied a combination of karyological and molecular methods to investigate chromosomal structure, molecular organization and evolution of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in nightshade, Atropa belladonna (fam. Solanaceae), one of the oldest known allohexaploids among flowering plants. Because of their abundance and specific molecular organization (evolutionarily conserved coding regions linked to variable intergenic spacers, IGS), 45S and 5S rDNA are widely used in plant taxonomic and evolutionary studies. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequencing of A. belladonna 45S rDNA repeats revealed a general structure characteristic of other Solanaceae species, and a very high sequence similarity of two length variants, with the only difference in number of short IGS subrepeats. These results combined with the detection of three pairs of 45S rDNA loci on separate chromosomes, presumably inherited from both tetraploid and diploid ancestor species, example intensive sequence homogenization that led to substitution/elimination of rDNA repeats of one parent. Chromosome silver-staining revealed that only four out of six 45S rDNA sites are frequently transcriptionally active, demonstrating nucleolar dominance. For 5S rDNA, three size variants of repeats were detected, with the major class represented by repeats containing all functional IGS elements required for transcription, the intermediate size repeats containing partially deleted IGS sequences, and the short 5S repeats containing severe defects both in the IGS and coding sequences. While shorter variants demonstrate increased rate of based substitution, probably in their transition into pseudogenes, the functional 5S rDNA variants are nearly identical at the sequence level, pointing to their origin from a single parental species. Localization of the 5S rDNA genes on two chromosome pairs further supports uniparental

  14. Identification and phylogeny of some species of the genera Sporidiobolus and Rhodotorula using analysis of the 5.8s rDNA gene and two ribosomal internal transcribed spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtari M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the problems encountered in routine morphological and physiological procedures that are used in yeast identification, DNA-based methods have recently been developed. In the present study, l66 yeast strains were isolated from several apple and citrus cultivars. After analysis by basic morphological methods, the ITS1 and ITS2 regions of the isolates were amplified separately, and the isolates were grouped based on fragment size polymorphism (FSP of the amplicons. By comparing the electrophoretic patterns of the PCR products with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, species were identified as Rhodotorula. For precise and final identification, the ITS-PCR products were subjected to sequencing followed by Blast analysis. As a result, eight isolates were identified as belonging to the Rhodotorula genus, of which five were identified as R. mucilaginosa and three as R. glutinis, and one as a Sporidiobolus. We conclude that the method PCR-FSP, in combination with other approaches, is useful for the identification of yeast species.

  15. Novel extraction strategy of ribosomal RNA and genomic DNA from cheese for PCR-based investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaïti, Catherine; Parayre, Sandrine; Irlinger, Françoise

    2006-03-15

    Cheese microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, constitute a complex ecosystem that plays a central role in cheeses ripening. The molecular study of cheese microbial diversity and activity is essential but the extraction of high quality nucleic acid may be problematic: the cheese samples are characterised by a strong buffering capacity which negatively influenced the yield of the extracted rRNA. The objective of this study is to develop an effective method for the direct and simultaneous isolation of yeast and bacterial ribosomal RNA and genomic DNA from the same cheese samples. DNA isolation was based on a protocol used for nucleic acids isolation from anaerobic digestor, without preliminary washing step with the combined use of the action of chaotropic agent (acid guanidinium thiocyanate), detergents (SDS, N-lauroylsarcosine), chelating agent (EDTA) and a mechanical method (bead beating system). The DNA purification was carried out by two washing steps of phenol-chloroform. RNA was isolated successfully after the second acid extraction step by recovering it from the phenolic phase of the first acid extraction. The novel method yielded pure preparation of undegraded RNA accessible for reverse transcription-PCR. The extraction protocol of genomic DNA and rRNA was applicable to complex ecosystem of different cheese matrices.

  16. Distinct roles for the IIId2 sub-domain in pestivirus and picornavirus internal ribosome entry sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willcocks, Margaret M.; Zaini, Salmah; Chamond, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Viral internal ribosomes entry site (IRES) elements coordinate the recruitment of the host translation machinery to direct the initiation of viral protein synthesis. Within hepatitis C virus (HCV)-like IRES elements, the sub-domain IIId(1) is crucial for recruiting the 40S ribosomal subunit...

  17. Alpha-momorcharin: a ribosome-inactivating protein from Momordica charantia, possessing DNA cleavage properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuzhen; Zheng, Yinzhen; Yan, Junjie; Zhu, Zhixuan; Wu, Zhihua; Ding, Yi

    2013-11-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) function to inhibit protein synthesis through the removal of specific adenine residues from eukaryotic ribosomal RNA and rending the 60S subunit unable to bind elongation factor 2. They have received much attention in biological and biomedical research due to their unique activities toward tumor cells, as well as the important roles in plant defense. Alpha-momorcharin (α-MC), a member of the type I family of RIPs, is rich in the seeds of Momordica charantia L. Previous studies demonstrated that α-MC is an effective antifungal and antibacterial protein. In this study, a detailed analysis of the DNase-like activity of α-MC was conducted. Results showed that the DNase-like activity toward plasmid DNA was time-dependent, temperature-related, and pH-stable. Moreover, a requirement for divalent metal ions in the catalytic domain of α-MC was confirmed. Additionally, Tyr(93) was found to be a critical residue for the DNase-like activity, while Tyr(134), Glu(183), Arg(186), and Trp(215) were activity-related residues. This study on the chemico-physical properties and mechanism of action of α-MC will improve its utilization in scientific research, as well as its potential industrial uses. These results may also assist in the characterization and elucidation of the DNase-like enzymatic properties of other RIPs.

  18. Are ribosomal DNA clusters rearrangement hotspots? A case study in the genus Mus (Rodentia, Muridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douzery Emmanuel JP

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in comparative genomics have considerably improved our knowledge of the evolution of mammalian karyotype architecture. One of the breakthroughs was the preferential localization of evolutionary breakpoints in regions enriched in repetitive sequences (segmental duplications, telomeres and centromeres. In this context, we investigated the contribution of ribosomal genes to genome reshuffling since they are generally located in pericentromeric or subtelomeric regions, and form repeat clusters on different chromosomes. The target model was the genus Mus which exhibits a high rate of karyotypic change, a large fraction of which involves centromeres. Results The chromosomal distribution of rDNA clusters was determined by in situ hybridization of mouse probes in 19 species. Using a molecular-based reference tree, the phylogenetic distribution of clusters within the genus was reconstructed, and the temporal association between rDNA clusters, breakpoints and centromeres was tested by maximum likelihood analyses. Our results highlighted the following features of rDNA cluster dynamics in the genus Mus: i rDNA clusters showed extensive diversity in number between species and an almost exclusive pericentromeric location, ii a strong association between rDNA sites and centromeres was retrieved which may be related to their shared constraint of concerted evolution, iii 24% of the observed breakpoints mapped near an rDNA cluster, and iv a substantial rate of rDNA cluster change (insertion, deletion also occurred in the absence of chromosomal rearrangements. Conclusions This study on the dynamics of rDNA clusters within the genus Mus has revealed a strong evolutionary relationship between rDNA clusters and centromeres. Both of these genomic structures coincide with breakpoints in the genus Mus, suggesting that the accumulation of a large number of repeats in the centromeric region may contribute to the high level of chromosome

  19. Conservative fragments in bacterial 16S rRNA genes and primer design for 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons in metagenomic studies

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplicons have been widely used in the classification of uncultured bacteria inhabiting environmental niches. Primers targeting conservative regions of the rDNAs are used to generate amplicons of variant regions

  20. Diversification in insular plants: Inferring the phylogenetic relationship in Aeonium (Crassulaceae) using ITS sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, T.H.; Frydenberg, J.

    1999-01-01

    The ITS regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA were sequenced in 37 species of the genus Aeonium. A phylogeny obtained through the use of parsimony agrees to some extent with the sectional division of the genus and confirms the position of two newly described species. It also suggests the potential imp...

  1. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Enterobius vermicularis and development of an 18S ribosomal DNA-targeted diagnostic PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelck, Ulrike E; Bialek, Ralf; Weiss, Michael

    2011-04-01

    We genetically characterized pinworms obtained from 37 children from different regions of Germany and established new species-specific molecular diagnostic tools. No ribosomal DNA diversity was found; the phylogenetic position of Enterobius vermicularis within the Oxyurida order and its close relationship to the Ascaridida and Spirurida orders was confirmed.

  2. Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Enterobius vermicularis and Development of an 18S Ribosomal DNA-Targeted Diagnostic PCR▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelck, Ulrike E.; Bialek, Ralf; Weiß, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We genetically characterized pinworms obtained from 37 children from different regions of Germany and established new species-specific molecular diagnostic tools. No ribosomal DNA diversity was found; the phylogenetic position of Enterobius vermicularis within the Oxyurida order and its close relationship to the Ascaridida and Spirurida orders was confirmed. PMID:21248085

  3. Identification of Candida species by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of intergenic spacer regions of ribosomal DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, D W; Wilson, M J; Lewis, M A; Potts, A J

    1995-01-01

    The PCR was used to amplify a targeted region of the ribosomal DNA from 84 Candida isolates. Unique product sizes were obtained for Candida guilliermondii, Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata, and Candida pseudotropicalis. Isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida stellatoidea, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei could be identified following restriction digestion of the PCR products.

  4. Ribosomal DNA, heterochromatin, and correlation with genome size in diploid and polyploid North American endemic sagebrushes (Artemisia, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia Garcia; Teresa Garnatje; Jaume Pellicer; E. Durant McArthur; Sonja Siljak-Yakovlev; Joan Valles

    2009-01-01

    Subgenus Tridentatae (Artemisia, Asteraceae) can be considered a polyploid complex. Both polyploidy and hybridization have been documented in the Tridentatae. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and fluorochrome banding were used to detect and analyze ribosomal DNA changes linked to polyploidization in this group by studying four diploidpolyploid species pairs. In...

  5. Testing the potential of a ribosomal 16S marker for DNA metabarcoding of insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Elbrecht

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome c oxidase I (COI is a powerful marker for DNA barcoding of animals, with good taxonomic resolution and a large reference database. However, when used for DNA metabarcoding, estimation of taxa abundances and species detection are limited due to primer bias caused by highly variable primer binding sites across the COI gene. Therefore, we explored the ability of the 16S ribosomal DNA gene as an alternative metabarcoding marker for species level assessments. Ten bulk samples, each containing equal amounts of tissue from 52 freshwater invertebrate taxa, were sequenced with the Illumina NextSeq 500 system. The 16S primers amplified three more insect species than the Folmer COI primers and amplified more equally, probably due to decreased primer bias. Estimation of biomass might be less biased with 16S than with COI, although variation in read abundances of two orders of magnitudes is still observed. According to these results, the marker choice depends on the scientific question. If the goal is to obtain a taxonomic identification at the species level, then COI is more appropriate due to established reference databases and known taxonomic resolution of this marker, knowing that a greater proportion of insects will be missed using COI Folmer primers. If the goal is to obtain a more comprehensive survey the 16S marker, which requires building a local reference database, or optimised degenerated COI primers could be more appropriate.

  6. Molecular Characterization and Analysis of 16S Ribosomal DNA in Some Isolates of Demodex folicullorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshparvar, Afrooz; Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Mirjalali, Hamed; Hajjaran, Homa; Mobedi, Iraj; Naddaf, Saeed Reza; Shidfar, Mohammadreza; Sadat Makki, Mahsa

    2017-01-01

    Demodicosis is one of the most prevalent skin diseases resulting from infestation by Demodex mites. This parasite usually inhabits in follicular infundibulum or sebaceous duct and transmits through close contact with an infested host. This study was carried from September 2014 to January 2016 at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. DNA extraction and amplification of 16S ribosomal RNA was performed on four isolates, already obtained from four different patients and identified morphologically though clearing with 10% Potassium hydroxide (KOH) and microscopical examination. Amplified fragments from the isolates were compared with GeneBank database and phylogenetic analysis was carried out using MEGA6 software. A 390 bp fragment of 16S rDNA was obtained in all isolates and analysis of generated sequences showed high similarity with those submitted to GenBank, previously. Intra-species similarity and distance also showed 99.983% and 0.017, respectively, for the studied isolates. Multiple alignments of the isolates showed Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in 16S rRNA fragment. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all 4 isolates clustered with other D. folliculorum, recovered from GenBank database. Our accession numbers KF875587 and KF875589 showed more similarity together in comparison with two other studied isolates. Mitochondrial 16S rDNA is one of the most suitable molecular barcodes for identification D. folliculorum and this fragment can use for intra-species characterization of the most human-infected mites.

  7. Molecular Characterization and Analysis of 16S Ribosomal DNA in some Isolates of Demodex folliculorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrooz DANESHPARVAR

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demodicosis is one of the most prevalent skin diseases resulting from infestation by Demodex mites. This parasite usually inhabits in follicular infundibulum or sebaceous duct transmitted through close contact with an infested host.Methods: This study was carried from September 2014 to January 2016 at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. DNA extraction and amplification of 16S ribosomal RNA was performed on four isolates, obtained from four patients and identified morphologically through clearing with 10% Potassium hydroxide (KOH and microscopical examination. Amplified fragments from the isolates were compared with GenBank database and phylogenetic analysis was carried out using MEGA6 software.Results: A 390 bp fragment of 16S rDNA was obtained in all isolates and analysis of generated sequences showed high similarity with those submitted to GenBank, previously. Intra-species similarity and distance also showed 99.983% and 0.017, respectively, for the studied isolates. Multiple alignments of the isolates showed Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in 16S rRNA fragment. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all 4 isolates clustered with other D. folliculorum, recovered from GenBank database. Our accession numbers KF875587 and KF875589 showed more similarity together in comparison with two other studied isolates. Conclusion: Mitochondrial 16S rDNA is one of the most suitable molecular barcodes for identification D. folliculorum and this fragment can use for intra-species characterization of the most human-infected mites.

  8. Advantages and Limitations of Ribosomal RNA PCR and DNA Sequencing for Identification of Bacteria in Cardiac Valves of Danish Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, Michael; Bangsborg, Jette; Kjerulf, Anne

    2013-01-01

    of direct molecular identification should also address weaknesses, their relevance in the given setting, and possible improvements. In this study cardiac valves from 56 Danish patients referred for surgery for infective endocarditis were analysed by microscopy and culture as well as by PCR targeting part...... of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene followed by DNA sequencing of the PCR product. PCR and DNA sequencing identified significant bacteria in 49 samples from 43 patients, including five out of 13 culture-negative cases. No rare, exotic, or intracellular bacteria were identified. There was a general agreement between...... bacterial identity obtained by ribosomal PCR and DNA sequencing from the valves and bacterial isolates from blood culture. However, DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene did not discriminate well among non-haemolytic streptococci, especially within the Streptococcus mitis group. Ribosomal PCR with subsequent...

  9. Phylogenetic Diversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Associated with Paddy Rice Silage as Determined by 16S Ribosomal DNA Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ennahar, Saïd; Cai, Yimin; Fujita, Yasuhito

    2003-01-01

    A total of 161 low-G+C-content gram-positive bacteria isolated from whole-crop paddy rice silage were classified and subjected to phenotypic and genetic analyses. Based on morphological and biochemical characters, these presumptive lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolates were divided into 10 groups that included members of the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, and Weissella. Analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was used to confirm the presence of the ...

  10. Variation in Ribosomal DNA among Isolates of the Mycorrhizal Fungus Cenococcum Geophilum FR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobuglio, Katherine Frances

    1990-01-01

    Cenococcum geophilum Fr., a cosmopolitan mycorrhizal fungus, is well-known for its extremely wide host and habitat range. The ecological diversity of C. geophilum sharply contrasts its present taxonomic status as a monotypic form -genus. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was used to assess the degree of genetic variation among 72 isolates of C. geophilum. The probe used in this study was the rDNA repeat cloned from C. geophilum isolate A145 (pCG15). Length of the rDNA repeat was approximately 9 kb. The rDNA clone was mapped for 5 restriction endonucleases. Hybridization with cloned Saccharomyces cerevisiae rDNA (pSR118, and pSR125 containing the 18S, and 5.8-25S rRNA genes respectively), and alignment of restriction endonuclease sites conserved in the rDNA genes of other fungi, were used to position the corresponding rDNAs of C. geophilum. Southern hybridizations with EcoRI, HindIII, XhoI, and PstI digested DNAs indicated extensive variation among the C. geophilum isolates, greater than has been previously reported to occur within a fungal species. Most of the rDNA polymorphisms occurred in the IGS region. Restriction endonuclease site and length polymorphisms were also observed in the 5.8S-26S genic regions. Sixteen size categories of length mutations, 6 restriction endonuclease site additions, and 4 restriction endonuclease site deletions were determined using isolate A145 as a reference. The rDNA repeat length among the isolates varied from approximately 8.5 to 10.2 kb. RFLPs were also observed in the mitochondrial (mt) 24S rRNA gene and flanking regions of HindIII digested DNAs of C. geophilum isolates representing both geographically distinct and similar origins. Among the C. geophilum isolates analyzed there were fewer RFLPs in mt-DNA than in nuclear rDNA. EcoRI rDNA phenotypes between C. geophilum and Elaphomyces anthracinus, its proposed teleomorph or sexual state, did not correspond. In addition, the four

  11. Molecular discrimination of lactobacilli used as starter and probiotic cultures by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, D; Sirois, S; Vincent, D

    2001-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and L. casei related taxa which are widely used as starter or probiotic cultures can be identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). The genetic discrimination of the related species belonging to these groups was first obtained by PCR amplifications by using group-specific or species-specific 16S rDNA primers. The numerical analysis of the ARDRA patterns obtained by using CfoI, HinfI, Tru9I, and ScrFI was an efficient typing tool for identification of species of the L. acidophilus and L. casei complex. ARDRA by using CfoI was a reliable method for differentiation of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis. Finally, strains ATCC 393 and ATCC 15820 exhibited unique ARDRA patterns with CfoI and Tru9I restriction enzymes as compared with the other strains of L. casei, L. paracasei, and L. rhamnosus.

  12. Hirudinella ventricosa (Pallas, 1774) Baird, 1853 represents a species complex based on ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Dana M; Curran, Stephen S; Pulis, Eric E; Provaznik, Jennifer M; Franks, James S

    2013-10-01

    Digeneans in the genus Hirudinella de Blainville, 1828 (Hirudinellidae) from three species of pelagic fishes, Acanthocybium solandri (Cuvier), Makaira nigricans Lacépède and Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre), and one benthic fish, Mulloidichthys martinicus (Cuvier), from the Gulf of Mexico are investigated using comparison of ribosomal DNA. Four species are identified based on molecular differences: Hirudinella ventricosa (Pallas, 1774) Baird, 1853 from A. solandri, Hirudinella ahi Yamaguti, 1970 from T. albacares, and two unidentified but distinct species of Hirudinella, herein referred to as Hirudinella sp. A (from both M. nigricans and M. martinicus) and Hirudinella sp. B from M. nigricans. Additionally, H. ahi, based tentatively on morphological identification, is reported from Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus). This represents the first record of a hirudinellid from M. martinicus and the first record of H. ahi from T. thynnus. A phylogeny of some Hemiurata Skrjabin & Guschanskaja, 1954 using partial fragments of the 28S rDNA sequences is consistent with earlier phylogenies and the position of the Hirudinellidae Dollfus, 1932 is well-supported as a derived group most closely related to the Syncoeliidae Looss, 1899.

  13. Plant rDNA database: ribosomal DNA loci information goes online

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garcia, S.; Garnatje, T.; Kovařík, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 4 (2012), s. 389-394 ISSN 0009-5915 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0208; GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : rDNA loci * FISH * database Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.340, year: 2012

  14. Cloning and restriction enzyme mapping of ribosomal DNA of Giardia duodenalis, Giardia ardeae and Giardia muris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, H; Campbell, S R; Erlandsen, S L; Jarroll, E L

    1991-06-01

    In an attempt to study Giardia at the DNA sequence level, the rRNA genes of three species, Giardia duodenalis, Giardia ardeae and Giardia muris were cloned and restriction enzyme maps were constructed. The rDNA repeats of these Giardia show completely different restriction enzyme recognition patterns. The size of the rDNA repeat ranges from approximately 5.6 kb in G. duodenalis to 7.6 kb in both G. muris and G. ardeae. These size differences are mainly attributable to the variation in length of the spacer. Minor differences exist among these Giardia in the sizes of their small subunit rRNA and the internal transcribed spacer between small and large subunit rRNA. The genetic maps were constructed by sequence analysis of the DNA around the 5' and 3' ends of the mature rRNA genes and between the rRNA covering the 5.8S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer. Comparison of the 5.8S rDNA and 3' end of large subunit rDNA from these three Giardia species showed considerable sequence variation, but the rDNA sequences of G. duodenalis and G. ardeae appear more closely related to each other than to G. muris.

  15. [Sequence of the ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA(nrDNA) in Xinjiang wild Dianthus and its phylogenetic relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Cai, You-Ming; Zhuge, Qiang; Zou, Hui-Yu; Huang, Min-Ren

    2002-06-01

    Xinjiang is a center of distribution and differentiation of genus Dianthus in China, and has a great deal of species resources. The sequences of ITS region (including ITS-1, 5.8S rDNA and ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA from 8 species of genus Dianthus wildly distributed in Xinjiang were determined by direct sequencing of PCR products. The result showed that the size of the ITS of Dianthus is from 617 to 621 bp, and the length variation is only 4 bp. There are very high homogeneous (97.6%-99.8%) sequences between species, and about 80% homogeneous sequences between genus Dianthus and outgroup. The sequences of ITS in genus Dianthus are relatively conservative. In general, there are more conversion than transition in the variation sites among genus Dianthus. The conversion rates are relatively high, and the ratios of conversion/transition are 1.0-3.0. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences the species of Dianthus in China would be divided into three sections. There is a distant relationship between sect. Barbulatum Williams and sect. Dianthus and between sect. Barbulatum Williams and sect. Fimbriatum Williams, and there is a close relationship between sect. Dianthus and sect. Fimbriatum Williams. From the phylogenetic tree of ITS it was found that the origin of sect. Dianthusis is earlier than that of sect. Fimbriatum Williams and sect. Barbulatum Williams.

  16. Identification of forensically important Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species using the second ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leigh A; Wallman, James F; Dowton, Mark

    2008-05-20

    The identification of forensically important blowflies of the genus Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) may be hampered by their close morphological similarities, especially as immatures. In contrast to most previous studies, the utility of a nuclear rather than mitochondrial genetic marker was investigated to solve this problem. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was amplified and sequenced from all nine Chrysomya species known from Australia. Difficulties encountered with direct sequencing of ITS2 for Chrysomya flavifrons necessitated cloning prior to sequencing for this species, which revealed a low level (0-0.23%) of intraindividual variation. Five restriction enzymes (DraI, BsaXI, BciVI, AseI and HinfI) were identified that were able to differentiate most members of the genus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The PCR-RFLP analysis revealed characteristic restriction profiles for all species except the closely related species pairs Chrysomya latifrons+Chrysomya semimetallica and Chrysomya incisuralis+Chrysomya rufifacies. Ch. incisuralis and Ch. rufifacies were able to be separated using the size differences resulting from amplification of the entire ITS region. The lack of intraspecific ITS2 sequence variation among eight Ch. incisuralis specimens was verified by the identical restriction profiles generated from these specimens. A DNA-based approach, such as PCR-RFLP, has the capacity to be useful for the identification of forensic entomological evidence in cases where morphological characters are unreliable.

  17. Restless 5S: the re-arrangement(s) and evolution of the nuclear ribosomal DNA in land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke, Susann; Costa, Andrea; Muñoz, Jesùs; Quandt, Dietmar

    2011-11-01

    Among eukaryotes two types of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) organization have been observed. Either all components, i.e. the small ribosomal subunit, 5.8S, large ribosomal subunit, and 5S occur tandemly arranged or the 5S rDNA forms a separate cluster of its own. Generalizations based on data derived from just a few model organisms have led to a superimposition of structural and evolutionary traits to the entire plant kingdom asserting that plants generally possess separate arrays. This study reveals that plant nrDNA organization into separate arrays is not a distinctive feature, but rather assignable almost solely to seed plants. We show that early diverging land plants and presumably streptophyte algae share a co-localization of all rRNA genes within one repeat unit. This raises the possibility that the state of rDNA gene co-localization had occurred in their common ancestor. Separate rDNA arrays were identified for all basal seed plants and water ferns, implying at least two independent 5S rDNA transposition events during land plant evolution. Screening for 5S derived Cassandra transposable elements which might have played a role during the transposition events, indicated that this retrotransposon is absent in early diverging vascular plants including early fern lineages. Thus, Cassandra can be rejected as a primary mechanism for 5S rDNA transposition in water ferns. However, the evolution of Cassandra and other eukaryotic 5S derived elements might have been a side effect of the 5S rDNA cluster formation. Structural analysis of the intergenic spacers of the ribosomal clusters revealed that transposition events partially affect spacer regions and suggests a slightly different transcription regulation of 5S rDNA in early land plants. 5S rDNA upstream regulatory elements are highly divergent or absent from the LSU-5S spacers of most early divergent land plant lineages. Several putative scenarios and mechanisms involved in the concerted relocation of hundreds of 5S

  18. A Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Phylogeny of Acer Inferred with Maximum Likelihood, Splits Graphs, and Motif Analysis of 606 Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Guido W.; Renner, Susanne S.; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Hemleben, Vera

    2007-01-01

    The multi-copy internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA is widely used to infer phylogenetic relationships among closely related taxa. Here we use maximum likelihood (ML) and splits graph analyses to extract phylogenetic information from ~ 600 mostly cloned ITS sequences, representing 81 species and subspecies of Acer, and both species of its sister Dipteronia. Additional analyses compared sequence motifs in Acer and several hundred Anacardiaceae, Burseraceae, Meliaceae, Rutaceae, and Sapindaceae ITS sequences in GenBank. We also assessed the effects of using smaller data sets of consensus sequences with ambiguity coding (accounting for within-species variation) instead of the full (partly redundant) original sequences. Neighbor-nets and bipartition networks were used to visualize conflict among character state patterns. Species clusters observed in the trees and networks largely agree with morphology-based classifications; of de Jong’s (1994) 16 sections, nine are supported in neighbor-net and bipartition networks, and ten by sequence motifs and the ML tree; of his 19 series, 14 are supported in networks, motifs, and the ML tree. Most nodes had higher bootstrap support with matrices of 105 or 40 consensus sequences than with the original matrix. Within-taxon ITS divergence did not differ between diploid and polyploid Acer, and there was little evidence of differentiated parental ITS haplotypes, suggesting that concerted evolution in Acer acts rapidly. PMID:19455198

  19. A Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Phylogeny of Acer Inferred with Maximum Likelihood, Splits Graphs, and Motif Analysis of 606 Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido W. Grimm

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The multi-copy internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA is widely used to infer phylogenetic relationships among closely related taxa. Here we use maximum likelihood (ML and splits graph analyses to extract phylogenetic information from ~ 600 mostly cloned ITS sequences, representing 81 species and subspecies of Acer, and both species of its sister Dipteronia. Additional analyses compared sequence motifs in Acer and several hundred Anacardiaceae, Burseraceae, Meliaceae, Rutaceae, and Sapindaceae ITS sequences in GenBank. We also assessed the effects of using smaller data sets of consensus sequences with ambiguity coding (accounting for within-species variation instead of the full (partly redundant original sequences. Neighbor-nets and bipartition networks were used to visualize conflict among character state patterns. Species clusters observed in the trees and networks largely agree with morphology-based classifications; of de Jong’s (1994 16 sections, nine are supported in neighbor-net and bipartition networks, and ten by sequence motifs and the ML tree; of his 19 series, 14 are supported in networks, motifs, and the ML tree. Most nodes had higher bootstrap support with matrices of 105 or 40 consensus sequences than with the original matrix. Within-taxon ITS divergence did not differ between diploid and polyploid Acer, and there was little evidence of differentiated parental ITS haplotypes, suggesting that concerted evolution in Acer acts rapidly.

  20. Global functional analysis of nucleophosmin in Taxol response, cancer, chromatin regulation, and ribosomal DNA transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstralh, Daniel T.; Conti, Brian J.; Moore, Chris B.; Brickey, W. June; Taxman, Debra J.; Ting, Jenny P.-Y.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of lung cancer response to chemotherapeutic agents showed the accumulation of a Taxol-induced protein that reacted with an anti-phospho-MEK1/2 antibody. Mass spectroscopy identified the protein as nucleophosmin/B23 (NPM), a multifunctional protein with diverse roles: ribosome biosynthesis, p53 regulation, nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling, and centrosome duplication. Our work demonstrates that following cellular exposure to mitosis-arresting agents, NPM is phosphorylated and its chromatographic property is altered, suggesting changes in function during mitosis. To determine the functional relevance of NPM, its expression in tumor cells was reduced by siRNA. Cells with reduced NPM were treated with Taxol followed by microarray profiling accompanied by gene/protein pathway analyses. These studies demonstrate several expected and unexpected consequences of NPM depletion. The predominant downstream effectors of NPM are genes involved in cell proliferation, cancer, and the cell cycle. In congruence with its role in cancer, NPM is over-expressed in primary malignant lung cancer tissues. We also demonstrate a role for NPM in the expression of genes encoding SET (TAF1β) and the histone methylase SET8. Additionally, we show that NPM is required for a previously unobserved G2/M upregulation of TAF1A, which encodes the rDNA transcription factor TAF I 48. These results demonstrate multi-faceted functions of NPM that can affect cancer cells

  1. 16S/18S ribosomal DNA clone library analysis of rumen microbial diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.G.; Kiyoshi Tajima; Aminov, R.I.

    2005-01-01

    The rumen contains a complex ecosystem where billions of bacteria, archaea, protozoa and fungi reside. This diverse microbiota is well adapted to live in the rumen and play an important role in the digestion of feed and nutrient supply to the host in the form of microbial protein and volatile fatty acids. It is estimated that the rumen microbial population consists of about 10 6 protozoa/ml, 10 3 -10 7 fungi/ml, 10 10 bacteria/ml, and 10 9 methanogens/ml. To better understand the complex relationships in the rumen, it is necessary to gain an insight into the diversity of the rumen microbes and how the quantity and composition of rumen micro-organisms are altered by a number of different host factors such as age, genetics and diet. In the past, the diversity of micro-organisms from the digestive tracts of domesticated ruminants has been identified by classical microbiological techniques. However, given the fastidious growth requirements of rumen micro-organisms, it is reasonable to concede that the culture-dependent methods may select against some species, or taxonomic groups, leading researchers to underestimate the microbial diversity that is actually present in the rumen. In fact, it has been speculated that 90% of micro-organisms in nature have escaped traditional cultivation methods. Therefore, a major challenge in microbial ecology has been to assess the diversity and structure of natural microbial communities. The field of molecular biology has advanced with many innovative technological breakthroughs. The ability to extract and to isolate high-molecular weight DNA from rumen digesta, PCR amplify genes from specific microbial groups and obtain gene sequence data is now a routine event. The small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene, called 16S in prokaryotes and 18S in eukaryotes, is the most widely used molecular marker to presumptively identify morphologically indistinguishable species, to infer their phylogenetic relationships, and to elucidate microbial

  2. The D3-D5 region of large subunit ribosomal DNA provides good resolution of German limnic and terrestrial nematode communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, Janina; Hohberg, Karin; Helder, Hans; Ristau, Kai; Traunspurger, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Reliable and well-developed DNA barcode databases are indispensable for the identification of microscopic life. However, effectiveness of molecular barcoding in identifying terrestrial specimens, and nematodes in particular, has received little attention. In this study, ca 600 ribosomal large

  3. Neurospora ribosomal DNA sequences are indistinguishable within cell types but distinguishable among heterothallic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, C.; Dutta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    High molecular nuclear DNAs were isolated from three developmental cell types of N. crassa: conidia, mycelia and germinated conidia, and from mycelial cells of two other heterothallic species, N. intermedia and N. sitophila. These nuclear DNAs were treated with several restriction enzymes: EcoR1, Bam H1, Hind III, Hinc II, Bgl II, Sma I and Pst 1. All seven restriction enzymes were tested on 0.7% agarose gels. EcoR1, Hind III, Pst 1, and Hinc II showed band differences among the species, but not among the cell types. Southern blot transfers of restricted DNA gels were then hybridized with 32 P-labelled pMF2 rDNAs (probe). This later DNA was prepared from N. crassa rDNA cloned into pBR322 plasmid, obtained from Dr. Robert Metzenberg of the University of Wisconsin. Autoradiograms of these hybrids between southern blots and probe DNA revealed similar rDNA band patterns confirming the observations on restriction gels. In the case of EcoR1 restriction analysis there were differences in fragments on 0.7% agarose gel, but after hybridization of southern blots no differences in band patterns were seen in autoradiograms. This raises the question whether the background bands were all of rDNA sequences. These studies are being continued using ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequences of N. crassa rDNAs cloned in pBR322 plasmid

  4. A Portrait of Ribosomal DNA Contacts with Hi-C Reveals 5S and 45S rDNA Anchoring Points in the Folded Human Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shoukai; Lemos, Bernardo

    2016-12-31

    Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) account for >60% of all RNAs in eukaryotic cells and are encoded in the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) arrays. The rRNAs are produced from two sets of loci: the 5S rDNA array resides exclusively on human chromosome 1, whereas the 45S rDNA array resides on the short arm of five human acrocentric chromosomes. The 45S rDNA gives origin to the nucleolus, the nuclear organelle that is the site of ribosome biogenesis. Intriguingly, 5S and 45S rDNA arrays exhibit correlated copy number variation in lymphoblastoid cells (LCLs). Here we examined the genomic architecture and repeat content of the 5S and 45S rDNA arrays in multiple human genome assemblies (including PacBio MHAP assembly) and ascertained contacts between the rDNA arrays and the rest of the genome using Hi-C datasets from two human cell lines (erythroleukemia K562 and lymphoblastoid cells). Our analyses revealed that 5S and 45S arrays each have thousands of contacts in the folded genome, with rDNA-associated regions and genes dispersed across all chromosomes. The rDNA contact map displayed conserved and disparate features between two cell lines, and pointed to specific chromosomes, genomic regions, and genes with evidence of spatial proximity to the rDNA arrays; the data also showed a lack of direct physical interaction between the 5S and 45S rDNA arrays. Finally, the analysis identified an intriguing organization in the 5S array with Alu and 5S elements adjacent to one another and organized in opposite orientation along the array. Portraits of genome folding centered on the ribosomal DNA array could help understand the emergence of concerted variation, the control of 5S and 45S expression, as well as provide insights into an organelle that contributes to the spatial localization of human chromosomes during interphase. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. An unusual internal ribosomal entry site of inverted symmetry directs expression of a potato leafroll polerovirus replication-associated protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaag, Hannah Miriam; Kawchuk, Lawrence; Rohde, Wolfgang; Fischer, Rainer; Emans, Neil; Prüfer, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    Potato leafroll polerovirus (PLRV) genomic RNA acts as a polycistronic mRNA for the production of proteins P0, P1, and P2 translated from the 5′-proximal half of the genome. Within the P1 coding region we identified a 5-kDa replication-associated protein 1 (Rap1) essential for viral multiplication. An internal ribosome entry site (IRES) with unusual structure and location was identified that regulates Rap1 translation. Core structural elements for internal ribosome entry include a conserved AUG codon and a downstream GGAGAGAGAGG motif with inverted symmetry. Reporter gene expression in potato protoplasts confirmed the internal ribosome entry function. Unlike known IRES motifs, the PLRV IRES is located completely within the coding region of Rap1 at the center of the PLRV genome. PMID:12835413

  6. IRESPred: Web Server for Prediction of Cellular and Viral Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolekar, Pandurang; Pataskar, Abhijeet; Kulkarni-Kale, Urmila; Pal, Jayanta; Kulkarni, Abhijeet

    2016-01-01

    Cellular mRNAs are predominantly translated in a cap-dependent manner. However, some viral and a subset of cellular mRNAs initiate their translation in a cap-independent manner. This requires presence of a structured RNA element, known as, Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) in their 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs). Experimental demonstration of IRES in UTR remains a challenging task. Computational prediction of IRES merely based on sequence and structure conservation is also difficult, particularly for cellular IRES. A web server, IRESPred is developed for prediction of both viral and cellular IRES using Support Vector Machine (SVM). The predictive model was built using 35 features that are based on sequence and structural properties of UTRs and the probabilities of interactions between UTR and small subunit ribosomal proteins (SSRPs). The model was found to have 75.51% accuracy, 75.75% sensitivity, 75.25% specificity, 75.75% precision and Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.51 in blind testing. IRESPred was found to perform better than the only available viral IRES prediction server, VIPS. The IRESPred server is freely available at http://bioinfo.net.in/IRESPred/. PMID:27264539

  7. Internal ribosomal entry site-mediated translation is important for rhythmic PERIOD1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Ha Lee

    Full Text Available The mouse PERIOD1 (mPER1 plays an important role in the maintenance of circadian rhythm. Translation of mPer1 is directed by both a cap-dependent process and cap-independent translation mediated by an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES in the 5' untranslated region (UTR. Here, we compared mPer1 IRES activity with other cellular IRESs. We also found critical region in mPer1 5'UTR for heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein Q (HNRNPQ binding. Deletion of HNRNPQ binding region markedly decreased IRES activity and disrupted rhythmicity. A mathematical model also suggests that rhythmic IRES-dependent translation is a key process in mPER1 oscillation. The IRES-mediated translation of mPer1 will help define the post-transcriptional regulation of the core clock genes.

  8. Molecular characterization of Fasciola spp. from the endemic area of northern Iran based on nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Nabil; Halajian, Ali; Farjallah, Sarra; Merella, Paolo; Said, Khaled; Ben Slimane, Badreddine

    2011-07-01

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola spp. (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea) is considered as the most important helminth infection of ruminants in tropical countries, causing considerable socioeconomic problems. In the endemic regions of the North of Iran, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica have been previously characterized on the basis of morphometric differences, but the use of molecular markers is necessary to distinguish exactly between species and intermediate forms. Samples from buffaloes and goats from different localities of northern Iran were identified morphologically and then genetically characterized by sequences of the first (ITS-1) and second (ITS-2) Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Comparison of the ITS of the northern Iranian samples with sequences of Fasciola spp. from GenBank showed that the examined specimens had sequences identical to those of the most frequent haplotypes of F. hepatica (n=25, 48.1%) and F. gigantica (n=20, 38.45%), which differed from each other in different variable nucleotide positions of ITS region sequences, and their intermediate forms (n=7, 13.45%), which had nucleotides overlapped between the two Fasciola species in all the positions. The ITS sequences from populations of Fasciola isolates in buffaloes and goats had experienced introgression/hybridization as previously reported in isolates from other ruminants and humans. Based on ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences, flukes are scattered in pure F. hepatica, F. gigantica and intermediate Fasciola clades, revealing that multiple genotypes of Fasciola are able to infect goats and buffaloes in North of Iran. Furthermore, the phylogenetic trees based upon the ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences showed a close relationship of the Iranian samples with isolates of F. hepatica and F. gigantica from different localities of Africa and Asia. In the present study, the intergenic transcribed spacers ITS-1 and ITS-2 showed to be reliable approaches for the genetic

  9. A La autoantigen homologue is required for the internal ribosome entry site mediated translation of giardiavirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Garlapati

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Translation of Giardiavirus (GLV mRNA is initiated at an internal ribosome entry site (IRES in the viral transcript. The IRES localizes to a downstream portion of 5' untranslated region (UTR and a part of the early downstream coding region of the transcript. Recent studies indicated that the IRES does not require a pre-initiation complex to initiate translation but may directly recruit the small ribosome subunit with the help of a number of trans-activating protein factors. A La autoantigen homologue in the viral host Giardia lamblia, GlLa, was proposed as one of the potential trans-activating factors based on its specific binding to GLV-IRES in vitro. In this study, we further elucidated the functional role of GlLa in GLV-IRES mediated translation in Giardia by knocking down GlLa with antisense morpholino oligo, which resulted in a reduction of GLV-IRES activity by 40%. An over-expression of GlLa in Giardia moderately stimulated GLV-IRES activity by 20%. A yeast inhibitory RNA (IRNA, known to bind mammalian and yeast La autoantigen and inhibit Poliovirus and Hepatitis C virus IRES activities in vitro and in vivo, was also found to bind to GlLa protein in vitro and inhibited GLV-IRES function in vivo. The C-terminal domain of La autoantigen interferes with the dimerization of La and inhibits its function. An over-expression of the C-terminal domain (200-348aa of GlLa in Giardia showed a dominant-negative effect on GLV-IRES activity, suggesting a potential inhibition of GlLa dimerization. HA tagged GlLa protein was detected mainly in the cytoplasm of Giardia, thus supporting a primary role of GlLa in translation initiation in Giardiavirus.

  10. Virtual Ribosome - a comprehensive DNA translation tool with support for integration of sequence feature annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernersson, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    of alternative start codons. ( ii) Integration of sequences feature annotation - in particular, native support for working with files containing intron/ exon structure annotation. The software is available for both download and online use at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/VirtualRibosome/....

  11. Depletion of ribosomal protein L37 occurs in response to DNA damage and activates p53 through the L11/MDM2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Susana; Serrano, Manuel

    2010-10-01

    Perturbation of ribosomal biogenesis has recently emerged as a relevant p53-activating pathway. This pathway can be initiated by depletion of certain ribosomal proteins, which is followed by the binding and inhibition of MDM2 by a different subset of ribosomal proteins that includes L11. Here, we report that depletion of L37 leads to cell cycle arrest in a L11- and p53-dependent manner. DNA damage can initiate ribosomal stress, although little is known about the mechanisms involved. We have found that some genotoxic insults, namely, UV light and cisplatin, lead to proteasomal degradation of L37 in the nucleoplasm and to the ensuing L11-dependent stabilization of p53. Moreover, ectopic L37 overexpression can attenuate the DNA damage response mediated by p53. These results support the concept that DNA damage-induced proteasomal degradation of L37 constitutes a mechanistic link between DNA damage and the ribosomal stress pathway, and is a relevant contributing signaling pathway for the activation of p53 in response to DNA damage.

  12. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP)-based mutation scanning approaches to fingerprint sequence variation in ribosomal DNA of ascaridoid nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X Q; Gasser, R B

    1998-06-01

    In this study, we assessed single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP)-based approaches for their capacity to fingerprint sequence variation in ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of ascaridoid nematodes of veterinary and/or human health significance. The second internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-2) of rDNA was utilised as the target region because it is known to provide species-specific markers for this group of parasites. ITS-2 was amplified by PCR from genomic DNA derived from individual parasites and subjected to analysis. Direct SSCP analysis of amplicons from seven taxa (Toxocara vitulorum, Toxocara cati, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Baylisascaris procyonis, Ascaris suum and Parascaris equorum) showed that the single-strand (ss) ITS-2 patterns produced allowed their unequivocal identification to species. While no variation in SSCP patterns was detected in the ITS-2 within four species for which multiple samples were available, the method allowed the direct display of four distinct sequence types of ITS-2 among individual worms of T. cati. Comparison of SSCP/sequencing with the methods of dideoxy fingerprinting (ddF) and restriction endonuclease fingerprinting (REF) revealed that also ddF allowed the definition of the four sequence types, whereas REF displayed three of four. The findings indicate the usefulness of the SSCP-based approaches for the identification of ascaridoid nematodes to species, the direct display of sequence variation in rDNA and the detection of population variation. The ability to fingerprint microheterogeneity in ITS-2 rDNA using such approaches also has implications for studying fundamental aspects relating to mutational change in rDNA.

  13. Intragenomic polymorphisms among high-copy loci: a genus-wide study of nuclear ribosomal DNA in Asclepias (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitemier, Kevin; Straub, Shannon C K; Fishbein, Mark; Liston, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Despite knowledge that concerted evolution of high-copy loci is often imperfect, studies that investigate the extent of intragenomic polymorphisms and comparisons across a large number of species are rarely made. We present a bioinformatic pipeline for characterizing polymorphisms within an individual among copies of a high-copy locus. Results are presented for nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) across the milkweed genus, Asclepias. The 18S-26S portion of the nrDNA cistron of Asclepias syriaca served as a reference for assembly of the region from 124 samples representing 90 species of Asclepias. Reads were mapped back to each individual's consensus and at each position reads differing from the consensus were tallied using a custom perl script. Low frequency polymorphisms existed in all individuals (mean = 5.8%). Most nrDNA positions (91%) were polymorphic in at least one individual, with polymorphic sites being less frequent in subunit regions and loops. Highly polymorphic sites existed in each individual, with highest abundance in the "noncoding" ITS regions. Phylogenetic signal was present in the distribution of intragenomic polymorphisms across the genus. Intragenomic polymorphisms in nrDNA are common in Asclepias, being found at higher frequency than any other study to date. The high and variable frequency of polymorphisms across species highlights concerns that phylogenetic applications of nrDNA may be error-prone. The new analytical approach provided here is applicable to other taxa and other high-copy regions characterized by low coverage genome sequencing (genome skimming).

  14. The IGS-ETS in Bacillus (Insecta Phasmida: molecular characterization and the relevance of sex in ribosomal DNA evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passamonti Marco

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA encoding for ribosomal RNA (rDNA is arranged in tandemly-repeated subunits, each containing ribosomal genes and non-coding spacers. Because tandemly-repeated, rDNA evolves under a balanced influence of selection and "concerted evolution", which homogenizes rDNA variants over the genome (through genomic turnover mechanisms and the population (through sexuality. Results In this paper we analyzed the IGS-ETS of the automictic parthenogen Bacillus atticus and the bisexual B. grandii, two closely related stick-insect species. Both species share the same IGS-ETS structure and sequence, including a peculiar head-to-tail array of putative transcription enhancers, here named Bag530. Sequence variability of both IGS-ETS and Bag530 evidenced a neat geographic and subspecific clustering in B. grandii, while B. atticus shows a little but evident geographic structure. This was an unexpected result, since the parthenogen B. atticus should lack sequence fixation through sexuality. In B. atticus a new variant might spread in a given geographic area through colonization by an all-female clone, but we cannot discard the hypothesis that B. atticus was actually a bisexual taxon in that area at the time the new variant appeared. Moreover, a gene conversion event between two Bag530 variants of B. grandii benazzii and B. grandii maretimi suggested that rRNA might evolve according to the so-called "library hypothesis" model, through differential amplification of rDNA variants in different taxa. Conclusion On the whole, Bacillus rDNA evolution appears to be under a complex array of interacting mechanisms: homogenization may be achieved through genomic turnover that stabilizes DNA-binding protein interactions but, simultaneously, new sequence variants can be adopted, either by direct appearance of newly mutated repeats, or by competition among repeats, so that both DNA-binding proteins and repeat variants drive each other's evolution. All this

  15. Comparative analysis of chromosomal localization of ribosomal and telomeric DNA markers in three species of Pyrgomorphidae grasshoppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya G. Buleu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The karyotypes of three species of Pyrgomorphidae grasshoppers were studied: Zonocerus elegans (Thunberg, 1815, Pyrgomorpha guentheri (Burr, 1899 and Atractomorpha lata (Mochulsky, 1866. Data on karyotypes of P. guentheri and Z. elegans are reported here for the first time. All species have karyotypes consisting of 19 acrocentric chromosomes in males and 20 acrocentric chromosomes in females (2n♂=19, NF=19; 2n♀=20, NF=20 and X0/XX sex determination system. A comparative analysis of the localization of C-heterochromatin, clusters of ribosomal DNA, and telomere repeats revealed inter-species diversity in these cytogenetic markers. These differences indicate that the karyotype divergence in the species studied is not associated with structural chromosome rearrangements, but with the evolution of repeated DNA sequences.

  16. Ribosomal DNA sequence analysis of different geographically distributed Aloe Vera plants: Comparison with clonally regenerated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, A.; Sato, Y.; Miwa, Y.; Kabbash, A.; Moustafa, S.; Shimomura, K.; El-Bassuony, A.

    2006-01-01

    A comparison of the sequences in an internally transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 region of rDNA between clonally regenerated A.vera and same species in Japan, USA and Egypt revealed the presence of two types of nucleotide sequences, 252 and 254 bps. Based on the findings in the ITS 1 region, A.vera having 252 and 254 bps clearly showed a stable sequence similarity, suggesting high conversation of the base peak sequence in the ITS 1 region. However, frequent base substitutions in the 252 bps samples leaves that came from callus tissue and micropropagated plants were observed around the regions of nucleotide positions 66, 99 and 199-201. The minor deviation in clonally regenerated A.vera may be due to the stage of regeneration and cell specification in cases of the callus tissue. In the present study, the base peak sequence of the Its 1 region of rDNA was adopted as a molecular marker for differentiating A.vera plants from geographically distributed and clonally regenerated A.vera plants and it was suggested that the base peak substitutions in the ITS 1 region may arise from the different nutritional and environmental factors in cultivation and plant growth stages. (author)

  17. DNA damage induced by radionuclide internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Fengmei; Zhao Jingyong; Hong Chengjiao; Lao Qinhua; Wang Liuyi; Yang Shuqin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the DNA damage of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) in rats exposed to radionuclide internal irradiation. Methods: The radionuclides were injected into the rats and single cell get electrophoresis (SCGE) was performed to detect the length of DNA migration in the rat PBMC. Results: DNA migration in the rat PBMC increased with accumulative dose or dose-rate. It showed good relationship of dose vs. response and of dose-rate vs. response, both relationship could be described as linear models. Conclusion: Radionuclide internal irradiation could cause DNA damage in rat PBMC. (authors)

  18. Physical mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA in three species of Agave (Asparagales, Asparagaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel Gomez-Rodriguez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Agave Linnaeus, 1753 is endemic of America and is considered one of the most important crops in Mexico due to its key role in the country’s economy. Cytogenetic analysis was carried out in A. tequilana Weber, 1902 ‘Azul’, A. cupreata Trelease et Berger, 1915 and A. angustifolia Haworth, 1812. The analysis showed that in all species the diploid chromosome number was 2n = 60, with bimodal karyotypes composed of five pairs of large chromosomes and 25 pairs of small chromosomes. Furthermore, different karyotypical formulae as well as a secondary constriction in a large chromosome pair were found in all species. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH was used for physical mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA. All species analyzed showed that 5S rDNA was located in both arms of a small chromosome pair, while 18S rDNA was associated with the secondary constriction of a large chromosome pair. Data of FISH analysis provides new information about the position and number of rDNA loci and helps for detection of hybrids in breeding programs as well as evolutionary studies.

  19. Physical mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA in three species of Agave (Asparagales, Asparagaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Rodriguez, Victor Manuel; Rodriguez-Garay, Benjamin; Palomino, Guadalupe; Martínez, Javier; Barba-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Agave Linnaeus, 1753 is endemic of America and is considered one of the most important crops in Mexico due to its key role in the country's economy. Cytogenetic analysis was carried out in Agave tequilana Weber, 1902 'Azul', Agave cupreata Trelease et Berger, 1915 and Agave angustifolia Haworth, 1812. The analysis showed that in all species the diploid chromosome number was 2n = 60, with bimodal karyotypes composed of five pairs of large chromosomes and 25 pairs of small chromosomes. Furthermore, different karyotypical formulae as well as a secondary constriction in a large chromosome pair were found in all species. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for physical mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). All species analyzed showed that 5S rDNA was located in both arms of a small chromosome pair, while 18S rDNA was associated with the secondary constriction of a large chromosome pair. Data of FISH analysis provides new information about the position and number of rDNA loci and helps for detection of hybrids in breeding programs as well as evolutionary studies.

  20. Intraspecific differentiation of Paramecium novaurelia strains (Ciliophora, Protozoa) inferred from phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarcz, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Paramecium novaurelia Beale and Schneller, 1954, was first found in Scotland and is known to occur mainly in Europe, where it is the most common species of the P. aurelia complex. In recent years, two non-European localities have been described: Turkey and the United States of America. This article presents the analysis of intraspecific variability among 25 strains of P. novaurelia with the application of ribosomal and mitochondrial loci (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, 5' large subunit rDNA (5'LSU rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) mtDNA). The mean distance observed for all of the studied P. novaurelia sequence pairs was p=0.008/0.016/0.092 (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2/5'LSU rDNA/COI). Phylogenetic trees (NJ/MP/BI) based on a comparison of all of the analysed sequences show that the studied strains of P. novaurelia form a distinct clade, separate from the P. caudatum outgroup, and are divided into two clusters (A and B) and two branches (C and D). The occurrence of substantial genetic differentiation within P. novaurelia, confirmed by the analysed DNA fragments, indicates a rapid evolution of particular species within the Paramecium genus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Ribosomal DNA transcription in the dorsal raphe nucleus is increased in residual but not in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżanowska, Marta; Steiner, Johann; Brisch, Ralf; Mawrin, Christian; Busse, Stefan; Braun, Katharina; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Bogerts, Bernhard; Gos, Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    The central serotonergic system is implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, where the imbalance between dopamine, serotonin and glutamate plays a key pathophysiological role. The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is the main source of serotonergic innervation of forebrain limbic structures disturbed in schizophrenia patients. The study was carried out on paraffin-embedded brains from 17 (8 paranoid and 9 residual) schizophrenia patients and 28 matched controls without mental disorders. The transcriptional activity of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in DRN neurons was evaluated by the AgNOR silver-staining method. An increased rDNA transcriptional activity was found in schizophrenia patients in the cumulative analysis of all DRN subnuclei (t test, P = 0.02). Further subgroup analysis revealed that it was an effect specific for residual schizophrenia versus paranoid schizophrenia or control groups (ANOVA, P = 0.002). This effect was confounded neither by suicide nor by antipsychotic medication. Our findings suggest that increased activity of rDNA in DRN neurons is a distinct phenomenon in schizophrenia, particularly in residual patients. An activation of the rDNA transcription in DRN neurons may represent a compensatory mechanism to overcome the previously described prefrontal serotonergic hypofunction in this diagnostic subgroup.

  2. Diversity of ribosomal 16S DNA- and RNA-based bacterial community in an office building drinking water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkinen, J; Jayaprakash, B; Santo Domingo, J W; Keinänen-Toivola, M M; Ryu, H; Pitkänen, T

    2016-06-01

    Next-generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) was used to characterize water and biofilm microbiome collected from a drinking water distribution system of an office building after its first year of operation. The total bacterial community (rDNA) and active bacterial members (rRNA) sequencing databases were generated by Illumina MiSeq PE250 platform. As estimated by Chao1 index, species richness in cold water system was lower (180-260) in biofilms (Sphingomonas spp., Methylobacterium spp., Limnohabitans spp., Rhizobiales order) than in waters (250-580), (also Methylotenera spp.) (P = 0·005, n = 20). Similarly species richness (Chao1) was slightly higher (210-580) in rDNA libraries compared to rRNA libraries (150-400; P = 0·054, n = 24). Active Mycobacterium spp. was found in cross-linked polyethylene (PEX), but not in corresponding copper pipeline biofilm. Nonpathogenic Legionella spp. was found in rDNA libraries but not in rRNA libraries. Microbial communities differed between water and biofilms, between cold and hot water systems, locations in the building and between water rRNA and rDNA libraries, as shown by clear clusters in principal component analysis (PcoA). By using the rRNA method, we found that not all bacterial community members were active (e.g. Legionella spp.), whereas other members showed increased activity in some locations; for example, Pseudomonas spp. in hot water circulations' biofilm and order Rhizobiales and Limnohabitans spp. in stagnated locations' water and biofilm. rRNA-based methods may be better than rDNA-based methods for evaluating human health implications as rRNA methods can be used to describe the active bacterial fraction. This study indicates that copper as a pipeline material might have an adverse impact on the occurrence of Mycobacterium spp. The activity of Legionella spp. maybe questionable when detected solely by using DNA-based methods. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  3. Emergence of Tetracycline Resistance in Helicobacter pylori: Multiple Mutational Changes in 16S Ribosomal DNA and Other Genetic Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailidiene, Daiva; Bertoli, M. Teresita; Miciuleviciene, Jolanta; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K.; Dailide, Giedrius; Pascasio, Mario Alberto; Kupcinskas, Limas; Berg, Douglas E.

    2002-01-01

    Tetracycline is useful in combination therapies against the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. We found 6 tetracycline-resistant (Tetr) strains among 159 clinical isolates (from El Salvador, Lithuania, and India) and obtained the following four results: (i) 5 of 6 Tetr isolates contained one or two nucleotide substitutions in one part of the primary tetracycline binding site in 16S rRNA (AGA965-967 [Escherichia coli coordinates] changed to gGA, AGc, guA, or gGc [lowercase letters are used to represent the base changes]), whereas the sixth (isolate Ind75) retained AGA965-967; (ii) PCR products containing mutant 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) alleles transformed recipient strains to Tetr phenotypes, but transformants containing alleles with single substitutions (gGA and AGc) were less resistant than their Tetr parents; (iii) each of 10 Tetr mutants of reference strain 26695 (in which mutations were induced with metronidazole, a mutagenic anti-H. pylori agent) contained the normal AGA965-967 sequence; and (iv) transformant derivatives of Ind75 and of one of the Tetr 26695 mutants that had acquired mutant rDNA alleles were resistant to tetracycline at levels higher than those to which either parent strain was resistant. Thus, tetracycline resistance in H. pylori results from an accumulation of changes that may affect tetracycline-ribosome affinity and/or other functions (perhaps porins or efflux pumps). We suggest that the rarity of tetracycline resistance among clinical isolates reflects this need for multiple mutations and perhaps also the deleterious effects of such mutations on fitness. Formally equivalent mutations with small but additive effects are postulated to contribute importantly to traits such as host specificity and virulence and to H. pylori's great genetic diversity. PMID:12435699

  4. cDNA Cloning, expression and characterization of an allergenic 60s ribosomal protein of almond (prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhassani, Mohsen; Roux, Kenneth H

    2009-06-01

    Tree nuts, including almond (prunus dulcis) are a source of food allergens often associated with life-threatening allergic reactions in susceptible individuals. Although the proteins in almonds have been biochemically characterized, relatively little has been reported regarding the identity of the allergens involved in almond sensitivity. The present study was undertaken to identify the allergens of the almond by cDNA library approach. cDNA library of almond seeds was constructed in Uni-Zap XR lamda vector and expressed in E. coli XL-1 blue. Plaques were immunoscreened with pooled sera of allergic patients. The cDNA clone reacting significantly with specific IgE antibodies was selected and subcloned and subsequently expressed in E. coli. The amino acids deducted from PCR product of clone showed homology to 60s acidic ribosomal protein of almond. The expressed protein was 11,450 Dalton without leader sequence. Immunoreactivity of the recombinant 60s ribosomal protein (r60sRP) was evaluated with dot blot analysis using pooled and individual sera of allergic patients. The data showed that r60sRP and almond extract (as positive control) possess the ability to bind the IgE antibodies. The results showed that expressed protein is an almond allergen.Whether this r60sRP represents a major allergen of almond needs to be further studied which requires a large number of sera from the almond atopic patients and also need to determine the IgE-reactive frequencies of each individual allergen.

  5. TALE nickase mediates high efficient targeted transgene integration at the human multi-copy ribosomal DNA locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong; Gao, Tieli; Wang, Xiaolin; Hu, Youjin; Hu, Xuyun; Hu, Zhiqing; Pang, Jialun; Li, Zhuo; Xue, Jinfeng; Feng, Mai; Wu, Lingqian; Liang, Desheng

    2014-03-28

    Although targeted gene addition could be stimulated strikingly by a DNA double strand break (DSB) created by either zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) or TALE nucleases (TALENs), the DSBs are really mutagenic and toxic to human cells. As a compromised solution, DNA single-strand break (SSB) or nick has been reported to mediate high efficient gene addition but with marked reduction of random mutagenesis. We previously demonstrated effective targeted gene addition at the human multicopy ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus, a genomic safe harbor for the transgene with therapeutic potential. To improve the transgene integration efficiency by using TALENs while lowering the cytotoxicity of DSBs, we created both TALENs and TALE nickases (TALENickases) targeting this multicopy locus. A targeting vector which could integrate a GFP cassette at the rDNA locus was constructed and co-transfected with TALENs or TALENickases. Although the fraction of GFP positive cells using TALENs was greater than that using TALENickases during the first few days after transfection, it reduced to a level less than that using TALENickases after continuous culture. Our findings showed that the TALENickases were more effective than their TALEN counterparts at the multi-copy rDNA locus, though earlier studies using ZFNs and ZFNickases targeting the single-copy loci showed the reverse. Besides, TALENickases mediated the targeted integration of a 5.4 kb fragment at a frequency of up to 0.62% in HT1080 cells after drug selection, suggesting their potential application in targeted gene modification not being limited at the rDNA locus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cytogenetic Analysis of Populus trichocarpa - Ribosomal DNA, Telomere Repeat Sequence, and Marker-selected BACs

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.N. lslam-Faridi; C.D. Nelson; S.P. DiFazio; L.E. Gunter; G.A. Tuskan

    2009-01-01

    The 185-285 rDNA and 55 rDNA loci in Populus trichocarpa were localized using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Two 185-285 rDNA sites and one 55 rDNA site were identified and located at the ends of 3 different chromosomes. FISH signals from the Arabidopsis-type telomere repeat sequence were observed at the distal ends of each chromosome. Six BAC clones...

  7. Distinct roles for the IIId2 sub-domain in pestivirus and picornavirus internal ribosome entry sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcocks, Margaret M; Zaini, Salmah; Chamond, Nathalie; Ulryck, Nathalie; Allouche, Delphine; Rajagopalan, Noemie; Davids, Nana A; Fahnøe, Ulrik; Hadsbjerg, Johanne; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Roberts, Lisa O; Sargueil, Bruno; Belsham, Graham J; Locker, Nicolas

    2017-12-15

    Viral internal ribosomes entry site (IRES) elements coordinate the recruitment of the host translation machinery to direct the initiation of viral protein synthesis. Within hepatitis C virus (HCV)-like IRES elements, the sub-domain IIId(1) is crucial for recruiting the 40S ribosomal subunit. However, some HCV-like IRES elements possess an additional sub-domain, termed IIId2, whose function remains unclear. Herein, we show that IIId2 sub-domains from divergent viruses have different functions. The IIId2 sub-domain present in Seneca valley virus (SVV), a picornavirus, is dispensable for IRES activity, while the IIId2 sub-domains of two pestiviruses, classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and border disease virus (BDV), are required for 80S ribosomes assembly and IRES activity. Unlike in SVV, the deletion of IIId2 from the CSFV and BDV IRES elements impairs initiation of translation by inhibiting the assembly of 80S ribosomes. Consequently, this negatively affects the replication of CSFV and BDV. Finally, we show that the SVV IIId2 sub-domain is required for efficient viral RNA synthesis and growth of SVV, but not for IRES function. This study sheds light on the molecular evolution of viruses by clearly demonstrating that conserved RNA structures, within distantly related RNA viruses, have acquired different roles in the virus life cycles. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Single Cell Analysis Linking Ribosomal (r)DNA and rRNA Copy Numbers to Cell Size and Growth Rate Provides Insights into Molecular Protistan Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Rao; Gong, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Ribosomal (r)RNA and rDNA have been golden molecular markers in microbial ecology. However, it remains poorly understood how ribotype copy number (CN)-based characteristics are linked with diversity, abundance, and activity of protist populations and communities observed at organismal levels. Here, we applied a single-cell approach to quantify ribotype CNs in two ciliate species reared at different temperatures. We found that in actively growing cells, the per-cell rDNA and rRNA CNs scaled with cell volume (CV) to 0.44 and 0.58 powers, respectively. The modeled rDNA and rRNA concentrations thus appear to be much higher in smaller than in larger cells. The observed rRNA:rDNA ratio scaled with CV 0.14 . The maximum growth rate could be well predicted by a combination of per-cell ribotype CN and temperature. Our empirical data and modeling on single-cell ribotype scaling are in agreement with both the metabolic theory of ecology and the growth rate hypothesis, providing a quantitative framework for linking cellular rDNA and rRNA CNs with body size, growth (activity), and biomass stoichiometry. This study also demonstrates that the expression rate of rRNA genes is constrained by cell size, and favors biomass rather than abundance-based interpretation of quantitative ribotype data in population and community ecology of protists. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Protistologists.

  9. Gene conversion of ribosomal DNA in Nicotiana tabacum is associated with undermethylated, decondensed and probably active gene units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K Y; Kovarik, A; Matýăsek, R; Bezdĕk, M; Lichtenstein, C P; Leitch, A R

    2000-06-01

    We examined the structure, intranuclear distribution and activity of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in Nicotiana sylvestris (2n = 2x = 24) and N. tomentosiformis (2n = 2x = 24) and compared these with patterns in N. tabacum (tobacco, 2n = 4x = 48). We also examined a long-established N. tabacum culture, TBY-2. Nicotiana tabacum is an allotetraploid thought to be derived from ancestors of N. sylvestris (S-genome donor) and N. tomentosiformis (T-genome donor). Nicotiana sylvestris has three rDNA loci, one locus each on chromosomes 10, 11, and 12. In root-tip meristematic interphase cells, the site on chromosome 12 remains condensed and inactive, while the sites on chromosomes 10 and 11 show activity at the proximal end of the locus only. Nicotiana tomentosiformis has one major locus on chromosome 3 showing activity and a minor, inactive locus on chromosome 11. In N. tabacum cv. 095-55, there are four rDNA loci on T3, S10, S11/t and S12 (S11/t carries a small T-genome translocation). The locus on S12 remains condensed and inactive in root-tip meristematic cells while the others show activity, including decondensation at interphase and secondary constrictions at metaphase. Nicotiana tabacum DNA digested with methylcytosine-sensitive enzymes revealed a hybridisation pattern for rDNA that resembled that of N. tomentosiformis and not N. sylvestris. The data indicate that active, undermethylated genes are of the N. tomentosiformis type. Since S-genome chromosomes of N. tabacum show rDNA expression, the result indicates rDNA gene conversion of the active rDNA units on these chromosomes. Gene conversion in N. tabacum is consistent with the results of previous work. However, using primers specific for the S-genome rDNA intergenic sequences (IGS) in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) show that rDNA gene conversion has not gone to completion in N. tabacum. Furthermore, using methylation-insensitive restriction enzymes we demonstrate that about 8% of the rDNA units remain of the N

  10. Intragenomic polymorphisms among high-copy loci: a genus-wide study of nuclear ribosomal DNA in Asclepias (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Weitemier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite knowledge that concerted evolution of high-copy loci is often imperfect, studies that investigate the extent of intragenomic polymorphisms and comparisons across a large number of species are rarely made. We present a bioinformatic pipeline for characterizing polymorphisms within an individual among copies of a high-copy locus. Results are presented for nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA across the milkweed genus, Asclepias. The 18S-26S portion of the nrDNA cistron of Asclepias syriaca served as a reference for assembly of the region from 124 samples representing 90 species of Asclepias. Reads were mapped back to each individual’s consensus and at each position reads differing from the consensus were tallied using a custom perl script. Low frequency polymorphisms existed in all individuals (mean = 5.8%. Most nrDNA positions (91% were polymorphic in at least one individual, with polymorphic sites being less frequent in subunit regions and loops. Highly polymorphic sites existed in each individual, with highest abundance in the “noncoding” ITS regions. Phylogenetic signal was present in the distribution of intragenomic polymorphisms across the genus. Intragenomic polymorphisms in nrDNA are common in Asclepias, being found at higher frequency than any other study to date. The high and variable frequency of polymorphisms across species highlights concerns that phylogenetic applications of nrDNA may be error-prone. The new analytical approach provided here is applicable to other taxa and other high-copy regions characterized by low coverage genome sequencing (genome skimming.

  11. 16S Ribosomal DNA Characterization of Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Isolated from Banana (Musa spp.) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães Cruz, Leonardo; Maltempi de Souza, Emanuel; Weber, Olmar Baler; Baldani, José Ivo; Döbereiner, Johanna; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from banana (Musa spp.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril) were characterized by amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Herbaspirillum seropedicae, Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans, Burkholderia brasilensis, and Burkholderia tropicalis were identified. Eight other types were placed in close proximity to these genera and other alpha and beta Proteobacteria. PMID:11319127

  12. Characterization of Biomphalaria orbignyi, Biomphalaria peregrina and Biomphalaria oligoza by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion of the internal transcribed spacer region of the RNA ribosomal gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spatz Linus

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The correct identification of Biomphalaria oligoza, B. orbignyi and B. peregrina species is difficult due to the morphological similarities among them. B. peregrina is widely distributed in South America and is considered a potential intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. We have reported the use of the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA for the molecular identification of these snails. The snails were obtained from different localities of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. The restriction patterns obtained with MvaI enzyme presented the best profile to identify the three species. The profiles obtained with all enzymes were used to estimate genetic similarities among B. oligoza, B. peregrina and B. orbignyi. This is also the first report of B. orbignyi in Uruguay.

  13. The first determination of Trichuris sp. from roe deer by amplification and sequenation of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 segment of ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaba, O; Rylková, K; Vadlejch, J; Petrtýl, M; Scháňková, S; Brožová, A; Jankovská, I; Jebavý, L; Langrová, I

    2013-03-01

    Trichuris nematodes were isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). At first, nematodes were determined using morphological and biometrical methods. Subsequently genomic DNA was isolated and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 segment from ribosomal DNA (RNA) was amplified and sequenced using PCR techniques. With u sing morphological and biometrical methods, female nematodes were identified as Trichuris globulosa, and the only male was identified as Trichuris ovis. The females were classified into four morphotypes. However, analysis of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of specimens did not confirm this classification. Moreover, the female individuals morphologically determined as T. globulosa were molecularly identified as Trichuris discolor. In the case of the only male molecular analysis match the result of the molecular identification. Furthermore, a comparative phylogenetic study was carried out with the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences of the Trichuris species from various hosts. A comparison of biometric information from T. discolor individuals from this study was also conducted.

  14. From DNA to proteins via the ribosome: Structural insights into the workings of the translation machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agirrezabala Xabier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Understanding protein synthesis in bacteria and humans is important for understanding the origin of many human diseases and devising treatments for them. Over the past decade, the field of structural biology has made significant advances in the visualisation of the molecular machinery involved in protein synthesis. It is now possible to discern, at least in outline, the way that interlocking ribosomal components and factors adapt their conformations throughout this process. The determination of structures in various functional contexts, along with the application of kinetic and fluorescent resonance energy transfer approaches to the problem, has given researchers the frame of reference for what remains as the greatest challenge: the complete dynamic portrait of protein synthesis in the cell.

  15. Ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer sequence in foxtail millet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. and its characterization and application to typing of foxtail millet landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Kenji; Ichitani, Katsuyuki; Taura, Satoru; Sato, Muneharu; Kawase, Makoto

    2005-02-01

    We determined the sequence of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) intergenic spacer (IGS) of foxtail millet isolated in our previous study, and identified subrepeats in the polymorphic region. We also developed a PCR-based method for identifying rDNA types based on sequence information and assessed 153 accessions of foxtail millet. Results were congruent with our previous works. This study provides new findings regarding the geographical distribution of rDNA variants. This new method facilitates analyses of numerous foxtail millet accessions. It is helpful for typing of foxtail millet germplasms and elucidating the evolution of this millet.

  16. Ribosomal DNA-binding proteins in the nucleolus of Physarum polycephalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham-Lorence, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    In Physarum polycephalum, the nucleoli are extra chromosomal structures containing 200 to 400 copies of a linear 60 kilobase palindromic rDNA molecule. These rDNA molecules are organized into minichromosomes which apparently are held within a nucleolar protein matrix. To obtained evidence for attachment of the rDNA to such a matrix, both intact and lithium diiodosalicylate/NaCl-extracted nucleoli were digested for various lengths of time with micrococcal nuclease, so that portions of the rDNA molecules not attached within the nucleolar structure would be released. Nucleolar DNA-binding proteins were determined by blotting electrophoretically separated proteins from SDS-polyacrylamide gels onto nitrocellulose paper and probing them with radiolabeled DNA. In addition to the histones and lexosome proteins, eight DNA-binding proteins were identified having molecular weights of 25, 38, 47, 53, 55, 67, and 70 kD, with the 47, 53, 67, and 70 kD proteins requiring Ca 2+ for binding

  17. Fine resolution mapping of double-strand break sites for human ribosomal DNA units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard J. Pope

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA breakage arises during a variety of biological processes, including transcription, replication and genome rearrangements. In the context of disease, extensive fragmentation of DNA has been described in cancer cells and during early stages of neurodegeneration (Stephens et al., 2011 Stephens et al. (2011 [5]; Blondet et al., 2001 Blondet et al. (2001 [1]. Stults et al. (2009 Stults et al. (2009 [6] reported that human rDNA gene clusters are hotspots for recombination and that rDNA restructuring is among the most common chromosomal alterations in adult solid tumours. As such, analysis of rDNA regions is likely to have significant prognostic and predictive value, clinically. Tchurikov et al. (2015a, 2016 Tchurikov et al. (2015a, 2016 [7,9] have made major advances in this direction, reporting that sites of human genome double-strand breaks (DSBs occur frequently at sites in rDNA that are tightly linked with active transcription - the authors used a RAFT (rapid amplification of forum termini protocol that selects for blunt-ended sites. They reported the relative frequency of these rDNA DSBs within defined co-ordinate ‘windows’ of varying size and made these data (as well as the relevant ‘raw’ sequencing information available to the public (Tchurikov et al., 2015b. Assay designs targeting rDNA DSB hotspots will benefit greatly from the publication of break sites at greater resolution. Here, we re-analyse public RAFT data and make available rDNA DSB co-ordinates to the single-nucleotide level.

  18. Developmentally Regulated Ribosomal rDNA Genes in Plasmodium vivax: Biological Implications and Practical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-10

    technological advances, especially DNA polymerase chain reaction (peR), molecular cloning and rapid nuc1eotide sequencing. These advances have allowed...containing 0.15% saponin and set on ice for 2· minutes. After washing and centrifugation twice, as described above, the pellets were dissolved in...incubated at 370C for 60 minutes. DNA was further processed by standard procedures [Maniatis et al., 1982]. Briefly, the lysed sample was extracted

  19. Ribosomal DNA, tri- and bi-partite pericentromeres in the permanent translocation heterozygote Rhoeo spathacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golczyk, Hieronim; Hasterok, Robert; Szklarczyk, Marek

    2010-12-01

    High- and low-stringency FISH and base-specific fluorescence were performed on the permanent translocation heterozygote Rhoeo spathacea (2n = 12). Our results indicate that 45S rDNA arrays, rDNA-related sequences and other GC-rich DNA fraction(s) are located within the pericentromeric regions of all twelve chromosomes, usually colocalizing with the chromomycin A(3)-positive bands. Homogenization of the pericentromeric regions appears to result from the concerted spread of GC-rich sequences, with differential amplification likely. We found new 5S rDNA patterns, which suggest a variability in the breakpoints and in the consequent chromosome reorganizations. It was found that the large 5S rDNA locus residing on each of the 8E and 9E arms consisted of two smaller loci. On each of the two chromosome arms 3b and 4b, in addition to the major subtelomeric 5S rDNA locus, a new minor locus was found interstitially about 40% along the arm length. The arrangement of cytotogenetic landmarks and chromosome arm measurements are discussed with regard to genome repatterning in Rhoeo.

  20. Phylogenetic diversity of lactic acid bacteria associated with paddy rice silage as determined by 16S ribosomal DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennahar, Saïd; Cai, Yimin; Fujita, Yasuhito

    2003-01-01

    A total of 161 low-G+C-content gram-positive bacteria isolated from whole-crop paddy rice silage were classified and subjected to phenotypic and genetic analyses. Based on morphological and biochemical characters, these presumptive lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolates were divided into 10 groups that included members of the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, and WEISSELLA: Analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was used to confirm the presence of the predominant groups indicated by phenotypic analysis and to determine the phylogenetic affiliation of representative strains. The virtually complete 16S rRNA gene was PCR amplified and sequenced. The sequences from the various LAB isolates showed high degrees of similarity to those of the GenBank reference strains (between 98.7 and 99.8%). Phylogenetic trees based on the 16S rDNA sequence displayed high consistency, with nodes supported by high bootstrap values. With the exception of one species, the genetic data was in agreement with the phenotypic identification. The prevalent LAB, predominantly homofermentative (66%), consisted of Lactobacillus plantarum (24%), Lactococcus lactis (22%), Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (20%), Pediococcus acidilactici (11%), Lactobacillus brevis (11%), Enterococcus faecalis (7%), Weissella kimchii (3%), and Pediococcus pentosaceus (2%). The present study, the first to fully document rice-associated LAB, showed a very diverse community of LAB with a relatively high number of species involved in the fermentation process of paddy rice silage. The comprehensive 16S rDNA-based approach to describing LAB community structure was valuable in revealing the large diversity of bacteria inhabiting paddy rice silage and enabling the future design of appropriate inoculants aimed at improving its fermentation quality.

  1. Extensive polymorphism and chromosomal characteristics of ribosomal DNA in the characid fish Triportheus venezuelensis (Characiformes, Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Nirchio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype and chromosomal characteristics of the characid fish Triportheus venezuelensis were investigated using differential staining techniques (C-banding, Ag-NOR staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH with an 18S rDNA probe. The diploid chromosome number (2n = 52, karyotype composition and sex chromosome determination system of the ZZ/ZW type were the same as previously described in other species of the genus Triportheus. However, extensive variation regarding nucleolus organizer regions (NOR different from other species was observed. 18S rDNA sequences were distributed on nine chromosome pairs, but the number of chromosomes with Ag-NORs was usually lower, reaching a maximum of four chromosomes. When sequential staining experiments were performed, it was demonstrated that: 1. active NORs usually corresponded to segments with 18S rDNA genes identified in FISH experiments; 2. several 18S rDNA sequences were not silver-stained, suggesting that they do not correspond to active NORs; and 3. some chromosomes with silver-stained regions did not display any 18S rDNA signals. These findings characterize an extensive polymorphism associated with the NOR-bearing chromosomes of T. venezuelensis and emphasize the importance of combining traditional and molecular techniques in chromosome studies.

  2. cDNA, genomic cloning and sequence analysis of ribosomal protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... cDNA and the genomic sequence of RPS4X were cloned successfully from ... S4 genes plays a role in Turner syndrome; however, this ..... Project of Educational Committee of Sichuan Province ... Molecular biology of the cell.

  3. Involvement of DNA topoisomerase I in transcription of human ribosomal RNA genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Wang, J.C.; Liu, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    Treatment of HeLa cells with a DNA topoisomerase I-specific inhibitor, camptothecin, results in rapid cessation of the synthesis of the 45S rRNA precursor. The inhibition of rRNA synthesis is reversible following drug removal and correlates with the presence of camptothecin-trapped topoisomerase I-DNA abortive complexes, which can be detected as topoisomerase I-linked DNA breaks upon lysis with sodium dodecyl sulfate. These breaks were found to be concentrated within the transcribed region of human rRNA genes. No such sites can be detected in the inactive human rRNA genes in mouse-human hybrid cells, suggesting a preferential association of topoisomerase I with actively transcribed genes. The distribution of RNA polymerase molecules along the transcription unit of human rRNA genes in camptothecin-treated HeLa cells, as assayed by nuclear run-on transcription, shows a graded decrease of the RNA polymerase density toward the 3' end of the transcription unit; the density is minimally affected near the 5' start of the transcription unit. These results suggest that DNA topoisomerase I is normally involved in the elongation step of transcription, especially when the transcripts are long, and that camptothecin interferes with this role

  4. Revealing pancrustacean relationships: Phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal protein genes places Collembola (springtails in a monophyletic Hexapoda and reinforces the discrepancy between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariën J

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, several new hypotheses on phylogenetic relations among arthropods have been proposed on the basis of DNA sequences. One of the challenged hypotheses is the monophyly of hexapods. This discussion originated from analyses based on mitochondrial DNA datasets that, due to an unusual positioning of Collembola, suggested that the hexapod body plan evolved at least twice. Here, we re-evaluate the position of Collembola using ribosomal protein gene sequences. Results In total 48 ribosomal proteins were obtained for the collembolan Folsomia candida. These 48 sequences were aligned with sequence data on 35 other ecdysozoans. Each ribosomal protein gene was available for 25% to 86% of the taxa. However, the total sequence information was unequally distributed over the taxa and ranged between 4% and 100%. A concatenated dataset was constructed (5034 inferred amino acids in length, of which ~66% of the positions were filled. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions, using Maximum Likelihood, Maximum Parsimony, and Bayesian methods, resulted in a topology that supports monophyly of Hexapoda. Conclusion Although ribosomal proteins in general may not evolve independently, they once more appear highly valuable for phylogenetic reconstruction. Our analyses clearly suggest that Hexapoda is monophyletic. This underpins the inconsistency between nuclear and mitochondrial datasets when analyzing pancrustacean relationships. Caution is needed when applying mitochondrial markers in deep phylogeny.

  5. Revealing pancrustacean relationships: phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal protein genes places Collembola (springtails) in a monophyletic Hexapoda and reinforces the discrepancy between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, M J T N; Roelofs, D; Mariën, J; van Straalen, N M

    2008-03-12

    In recent years, several new hypotheses on phylogenetic relations among arthropods have been proposed on the basis of DNA sequences. One of the challenged hypotheses is the monophyly of hexapods. This discussion originated from analyses based on mitochondrial DNA datasets that, due to an unusual positioning of Collembola, suggested that the hexapod body plan evolved at least twice. Here, we re-evaluate the position of Collembola using ribosomal protein gene sequences. In total 48 ribosomal proteins were obtained for the collembolan Folsomia candida. These 48 sequences were aligned with sequence data on 35 other ecdysozoans. Each ribosomal protein gene was available for 25% to 86% of the taxa. However, the total sequence information was unequally distributed over the taxa and ranged between 4% and 100%. A concatenated dataset was constructed (5034 inferred amino acids in length), of which ~66% of the positions were filled. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions, using Maximum Likelihood, Maximum Parsimony, and Bayesian methods, resulted in a topology that supports monophyly of Hexapoda. Although ribosomal proteins in general may not evolve independently, they once more appear highly valuable for phylogenetic reconstruction. Our analyses clearly suggest that Hexapoda is monophyletic. This underpins the inconsistency between nuclear and mitochondrial datasets when analyzing pancrustacean relationships. Caution is needed when applying mitochondrial markers in deep phylogeny.

  6. Enhancement of internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation and replication of hepatitis C virus by PD98059

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Takayuki; Hijikata, Makoto; Shimotohno, Kunitada

    2005-01-01

    Translation initiation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) occurs in an internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent manner. We found that HCV IRES-dependent protein synthesis is enhanced by PD98059, an inhibitor of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway, while cellular cap-dependent translation was relatively unaffected by the compound. Treatment of cells with PD98059 allowed for robust HCV replication following cellular incubation with HCV-positive serum. Though the molecular mechanism underlying IRES enhancement remains elusive, PD98059 is a potent accelerator of HCV RNA replication

  7. Ribosomal DNA in diploid and polyploid Setaria (Poaceae) species: number and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nani, Thaís Furtado; Cenzi, Gisele; Pereira, Daniele Lais; Davide, Lisete Chamma; Techio, Vânia Helena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Setaria Beauvois, 1812 is a genus of economically important forage species, including Setaria italica (Linnaeus, 1753) Beauvois, 1812 and Setaria viridis (Linnaeus, 1753) Beauvois, 1812, closely related species and considered as model systems for studies of C4 plants. However, complications and uncertainties related to taxonomy of other species of the genus are frequent due to the existence of numerous synonyms for the same species or multiple species with the same name, and overlapping of morphological characteristics. Cytogenetic studies in Setaria can be useful for taxonomic and evolutionary studies as well as for applications in breeding. Thus, this study is aimed at locating 45S and 5S rDNA sites through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in Setaria italica, Setaria viridis and Setaria sphacelata (Schumacher, 1827) Stapf, Hubbard, Moss, 1929 cultivars (cvs.) Narok and Nandi. Setaria italica and Setaria viridis have 18 chromosomes with karyotype formulas 6m + 3sm and 9m, respectively. The location of 45S and 5S rDNA for these species was in different chromosome pairs among the evaluated species. Setaria viridis presented a more symmetrical karyotype, strengthening the ancestral relationship with Setaria italica. Setaria sphacelata cvs. Narok and Nandi have 36 chromosomes, and karyotype formulas 11m+7sm and 16m+2sm, respectively. The 45S rDNA signals for both cultivars were also observed in distinct chromosome pairs; however chromosomes bearing 5S rDNA are conserved. Karyotypic variations found among the studied species are evidence of chromosomal rearrangements. PMID:26753080

  8. Characterization of three different clusters of 18S-26S ribosomal DNA genes in the sea urchin P. lividus: Genetic and epigenetic regulation synchronous to 5S rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellavia, Daniele; Dimarco, Eufrosina; Caradonna, Fabio

    2016-04-15

    We previously reported the characterization 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clusters in the common sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and demonstrated the presence of DNA methylation-dependent silencing of embryo specific 5S rDNA cluster in adult tissue. In this work, we show genetic and epigenetic characterization of 18S-26S rDNA clusters in this specie. The results indicate the presence of three different 18S-26S rDNA clusters with different Non-Transcribed Spacer (NTS) regions that have different chromosomal localizations. Moreover, we show that the two largest clusters are hyper-methylated in the promoter-containing NTS regions in adult tissues, as in the 5S rDNA. These findings demonstrate an analogous epigenetic regulation in small and large rDNA clusters and support the logical synchronism in building ribosomes. In fact, all the ribosomal RNA genes must be synchronously and equally transcribed to perform their unique final product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular phylogeny and radiation time of erysiphales inferred from the nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Y.; Sato, Y.; Takamatsu, S.

    2000-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of Erysiphales within Ascomycota were inferred from the newly determined sequences of the 18S rDNA and partial sequences of the 28S rDNA including the D1 and D2 regions of 10 Erysiphales taxa. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Erysiphales form a distinct clade among ascomycetous fungi suggesting that the Erysiphales diverged from a single ancestral taxon. The Myxotrichaceae of the Onygenales was distantly related to the other onygenalean families and was the sister group to the Erysiphales calde, with which it combined to form a clade. The Erysiphales/Myxotrichaceae clade was also closely related to some discomycetous fungi (Leotiales, Cyttariales and Thelebolaceae) including taxa that form cleistothecial ascomata. The present molecular analyses as well as previously reported morphological observations suggest the possible existence of a novel evolutionary pathway from cleistothecial discomycetous fungi to Erysiphales and Myxotrichaceae. However, since most of these fungi, except for the Erysiphales, are saprophytic on dung and/or plant materials, the questions of how and why an obligate biotroph like the Erysiphales radiated from the saprophytic fungi remain to be addressed. We also estimated the radiation time of the Erysiphales using the 18S rDNA sequences and the two molecular clockes that have been previously reported. The calculation showed that the Erysiphales split from the Myxotrichaceae 190–127 myr ago. Since the radiation time of the Erysiphales does not exceed 230 myr ago, even when allowance is made for the uncertainty of the molecular clocks, it is possible to consider that the Erysiphales evolved after the radiation of angiosperms. The results of our calculation also showed that the first radiation within the Erysiphales (138–92 myr ago) coincided with the date of a major diversification of angiosperms (130–90 myr ago). These results may support our early assumption that the radiation of the Erysiphales

  10. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus citrus based on the nuclear ribosomal dna its region sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.L.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Citrus (Aurantioideae, Rutaceae) is the sole source of the citrus fruits of commerce showing high economic values. In this study, the taxonomy and phylogeny of Citrus species is evaluated using sequence analysis of the ITS region of nrDNA. This study is based on 26 plants materials belonging to 22 Citrus species having wild, domesticated, and cultivated species. Through DNA alignment of the ITS sequence, ITS1 and ITS2 regions showed relatively high variations of sequence length and nucleotide among these Citrus species. According to previous six-tribe discrimination theory by Swingle and Reece, the grouping in our ITS phylogenetic tree reconstructed by ITS sequences was not related to tribe discrimination but species discrimination. However, the molecular analysis could provide more information on citrus taxonomy. Combined with ITS sequences of other subgenera in then true citrus fruit tree group, the ITS phylogenetic tree indicated subgenera Citrus was monophyletic and nearer to Fortunella, Poncirus, and Clymenia compared to Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Abundant sequence variations of the ITS region shown in this study would help species identification and tribe differentiation of the genus Citrus. (author)

  11. PFR²: a curated database of planktonic foraminifera 18S ribosomal DNA as a resource for studies of plankton ecology, biogeography and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morard, Raphaël; Darling, Kate F; Mahé, Frédéric; Audic, Stéphane; Ujiié, Yurika; Weiner, Agnes K M; André, Aurore; Seears, Heidi A; Wade, Christopher M; Quillévéré, Frédéric; Douady, Christophe J; Escarguel, Gilles; de Garidel-Thoron, Thibault; Siccha, Michael; Kucera, Michal; de Vargas, Colomban

    2015-11-01

    Planktonic foraminifera (Rhizaria) are ubiquitous marine pelagic protists producing calcareous shells with conspicuous morphology. They play an important role in the marine carbon cycle, and their exceptional fossil record serves as the basis for biochronostratigraphy and past climate reconstructions. A major worldwide sampling effort over the last two decades has resulted in the establishment of multiple large collections of cryopreserved individual planktonic foraminifera samples. Thousands of 18S rDNA partial sequences have been generated, representing all major known morphological taxa across their worldwide oceanic range. This comprehensive data coverage provides an opportunity to assess patterns of molecular ecology and evolution in a holistic way for an entire group of planktonic protists. We combined all available published and unpublished genetic data to build PFR(2), the Planktonic foraminifera Ribosomal Reference database. The first version of the database includes 3322 reference 18S rDNA sequences belonging to 32 of the 47 known morphospecies of extant planktonic foraminifera, collected from 460 oceanic stations. All sequences have been rigorously taxonomically curated using a six-rank annotation system fully resolved to the morphological species level and linked to a series of metadata. The PFR(2) website, available at http://pfr2.sb-roscoff.fr, allows downloading the entire database or specific sections, as well as the identification of new planktonic foraminiferal sequences. Its novel, fully documented curation process integrates advances in morphological and molecular taxonomy. It allows for an increase in its taxonomic resolution and assures that integrity is maintained by including a complete contingency tracking of annotations and assuring that the annotations remain internally consistent. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and overexpression of ribosomal protein S25 gene (RPS25) from the Giant Panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yan-Zhe; Hou, Wan-Ru; Hou, Yi-Ling; Du, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Tian; Peng, Zheng-Song

    2009-11-01

    RPS25 is a component of the 40S small ribosomal subunit encoded by RPS25 gene, which is specific to eukaryotes. Studies in reference to RPS25 gene from animals were handful. The Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), known as a "living fossil", are increasingly concerned by the world community. Studies on RPS25 of the Giant Panda could provide scientific data for inquiring into the hereditary traits of the gene and formulating the protective strategy for the Giant Panda. The cDNA of the RPS25 cloned from Giant Panda is 436 bp in size, containing an open reading frame of 378 bp encoding 125 amino acids. The length of the genomic sequence is 1,992 bp, which was found to possess four exons and three introns. Alignment analysis indicated that the nucleotide sequence of the coding sequence shows a high homology to those of Homo sapiens, Bos taurus, Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus as determined by Blast analysis, 92.6, 94.4, 89.2 and 91.5%, respectively. Primary structure analysis revealed that the molecular weight of the putative RPS25 protein is 13.7421 kDa with a theoretical pI 10.12. Topology prediction showed there is one N-glycosylation site, one cAMP and cGMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site, two Protein kinase C phosphorylation sites and one Tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site in the RPS25 protein of the Giant Panda. The RPS25 gene was overexpressed in E. coli BL21 and Western Blotting of the RPS25 protein was also done. The results indicated that the RPS25 gene can be really expressed in E. coli and the RPS25 protein fusioned with the N-terminally his-tagged form gave rise to the accumulation of an expected 17.4 kDa polypeptide. The cDNA and the genomic sequence of RPS25 were cloned successfully for the first time from the Giant Panda using RT-PCR technology and Touchdown-PCR, respectively, which were both sequenced and analyzed preliminarily; then the cDNA of the RPS25 gene was overexpressed in E. coli BL21 and immunoblotted, which is the first

  13. A ribosome without RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold S Bernhardt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It was Francis Crick who first asked why the ribosome contains so much RNA, and discussed the implications of this for the direct flow of genetic information from DNA to protein. Remarkable advances in our understanding of the ribosome and protein synthesis, including the recent publication of two mammalian mitochondrial ribosome structures, have shed new light on this intriguing aspect of evolution in molecular biology. We examine here whether RNA is indispensable for coded protein synthesis, or whether an all-protein ‘ribosome’ (or ‘synthosome’ might be possible, with a protein enzyme catalyzing peptide synthesis, and release factor-like protein adaptors able to read a message composed of deoxyribonucleotides. We also compare the RNA world hypothesis with the alternative ‘proteins first’ hypothesis in terms of their different understandings of the evolution of the ribosome, and whether this might have been preceded by an ancestral form of nonribosomal peptide synthesis catalyzed by protein enzymes.

  14. Molecular systematics of Indian Alysicarpus (Fabaceae) based on analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Akram; Subramaniam, Shweta; Geeta, R; Pandey, Arun K

    2017-06-01

    Alysicarpus Necker ex Desvaux (Fabaceae, Desmodieae) consists of ~30 species that are distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of theworld. In India, the genus is represented by ca. 18 species, ofwhich seven are endemic. Sequences of the nuclear Internal transcribed spacer from38 accessions representing 16 Indian specieswere subjected to phylogenetic analyses. The ITS sequence data strongly support the monophyly of the genus Alysicarpus. Analyses revealed four major well-supported clades within Alysicarpus. Ancestral state reconstructions were done for two morphological characters, namely calyx length in relation to pod (macrocalyx and microcalyx) and pod surface ornamentation (transversely rugose and nonrugose). The present study is the first report on molecular systematics of Indian Alysicarpus.

  15. Condensin suppresses recombination and regulates double-strand break processing at the repetitive ribosomal DNA array to ensure proper chromosome segregation during meiosis in budding yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Jin, Hui; Yu, Hong-Guo

    2014-01-01

    During meiosis, homologues are linked by crossover, which is required for bipolar chromosome orientation before chromosome segregation at anaphase I. The repetitive ribosomal DNA (rDNA) array, however, undergoes little or no meiotic recombination. Hyperrecombination can cause chromosome missegregation and rDNA copy number instability. We report here that condensin, a conserved protein complex required for chromosome organization, regulates double-strand break (DSB) formation and repair at the rDNA gene cluster during meiosis in budding yeast. Condensin is highly enriched at the rDNA region during prophase I, released at the prophase I/metaphase I transition, and reassociates with rDNA before anaphase I onset. We show that condensin plays a dual role in maintaining rDNA stability: it suppresses the formation of Spo11-mediated rDNA breaks, and it promotes DSB processing to ensure proper chromosome segregation. Condensin is unnecessary for the export of rDNA breaks outside the nucleolus but required for timely repair of meiotic DSBs. Our work reveals that condensin coordinates meiotic recombination with chromosome segregation at the repetitive rDNA sequence, thereby maintaining genome integrity. PMID:25103240

  16. Interplay of ribosomal DNA loci in nucleolar dominance: dominant NORs are up-regulated by chromatin dynamics in the wheat-rye system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chromatin organizational and topological plasticity, and its functions in gene expression regulation, have been strongly revealed by the analysis of nucleolar dominance in hybrids and polyploids where one parental set of ribosomal RNA (rDNA genes that are clustered in nucleolar organizing regions (NORs, is rendered silent by epigenetic pathways and heterochromatization. However, information on the behaviour of dominant NORs is very sparse and needed for an integrative knowledge of differential gene transcription levels and chromatin specific domain interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using molecular and cytological approaches in a wheat-rye addition line (wheat genome plus the rye nucleolar chromosome pair 1R, we investigated transcriptional activity and chromatin topology of the wheat dominant NORs in a nucleolar dominance situation. Herein we report dominant NORs up-regulation in the addition line through quantitative real-time PCR and silver-staining technique. Accompanying this modification in wheat rDNA trascription level, we also disclose that perinucleolar knobs of ribosomal chromatin are almost transcriptionally silent due to the residual detection of BrUTP incorporation in these domains, contrary to the marked labelling of intranucleolar condensed rDNA. Further, by comparative confocal analysis of nuclei probed to wheat and rye NORs, we found that in the wheat-rye addition line there is a significant decrease in the number of wheat-origin perinucleolar rDNA knobs, corresponding to a diminution of the rDNA heterochromatic fraction of the dominant (wheat NORs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that inter-specific interactions leading to wheat-origin NOR dominance results not only on the silencing of rye origin NOR loci, but dominant NORs are also modified in their transcriptional activity and interphase organization. The results show a cross-talk between wheat and rye NORs, mediated by ribosomal chromatin

  17. Nuclear pores and perinuclear expression sites of var and ribosomal DNA genes correspond to physically distinct regions in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizetti, Julien; Martins, Rafael Miyazawa; Guadagnini, Stéphanie; Claes, Aurélie; Scherf, Artur

    2013-05-01

    The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum modifies the erythrocyte it infects by exporting variant proteins to the host cell surface. The var gene family that codes for a large, variant adhesive surface protein called P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) plays a particular role in this process, which is linked to pathogenesis and immune evasion. A single member of this gene family is highly transcribed while the other 59 members remain silenced. Importantly, var gene transcription occurs at a spatially restricted, but yet undefined, perinuclear site that is distinct from repressed var gene clusters. To advance our understanding of monoallelic expression, we investigated whether nuclear pores associate with the var gene expression site. To this end, we studied the nuclear pore organization during the asexual blood stage using a specific antibody directed against a subunit of the nuclear pore, P. falciparum Nup116 (PfNup116). Ring and schizont stage parasites showed highly polarized nuclear pore foci, whereas in trophozoite stage nuclear pores redistributed over the entire nuclear surface. Colocalization studies of var transcripts and anti-PfNup116 antibodies showed clear dissociation between nuclear pores and the var gene expression site in ring stage. Similar results were obtained for another differentially transcribed perinuclear gene family, the ribosomal DNA units. Furthermore, we show that in the poised state, the var gene locus is not physically linked to nuclear pores. Our results indicate that P. falciparum does form compartments of high transcriptional activity at the nuclear periphery which are, unlike the case in yeast, devoid of nuclear pores.

  18. The ribosome biogenesis factor Nol11 is required for optimal rDNA transcription and craniofacial development in Xenopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N Griffin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of ribosomes is ubiquitous and fundamental to life. As such, it is surprising that defects in ribosome biogenesis underlie a growing number of symptomatically distinct inherited disorders, collectively called ribosomopathies. We previously determined that the nucleolar protein, NOL11, is essential for optimal pre-rRNA transcription and processing in human tissue culture cells. However, the role of NOL11 in the development of a multicellular organism remains unknown. Here, we reveal a critical function for NOL11 in vertebrate ribosome biogenesis and craniofacial development. Nol11 is strongly expressed in the developing cranial neural crest (CNC of both amphibians and mammals, and knockdown of Xenopus nol11 results in impaired pre-rRNA transcription and processing, increased apoptosis, and abnormal development of the craniofacial cartilages. Inhibition of p53 rescues this skeletal phenotype, but not the underlying ribosome biogenesis defect, demonstrating an evolutionarily conserved control mechanism through which ribosome-impaired craniofacial cells are removed. Excessive activation of this mechanism impairs craniofacial development. Together, our findings reveal a novel requirement for Nol11 in craniofacial development, present the first frog model of a ribosomopathy, and provide further insight into the clinically important relationship between specific ribosome biogenesis proteins and craniofacial cell survival.

  19. A phylogenetic study of ubiquinone-7 species of the genus Candida based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequence divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Nakase, Takashi

    2002-02-01

    To clarify phylogenetic relationships among ubiquinone 7 (Q7)-forming species of the genus Candida, we analyzed the nearly complete sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA genes (18S rDNAs) from fifty strains (including 46 type strains) of Candida species, and from 8 type strains of species/varieties of the genera Issatchenkia, Pichia and Saturnispora. Q7-forming Candida species were divided into three major groups (Group I, II, and III) and were phylogenetically distant from a group that includes the type species of the genus Candida. Group I included four clusters with basal branches that were weakly supported. The first cluster comprised C. vartiovaarae, C. maritima, C. utilis, C. freyschussii, C. odintsovae, C. melinii, C. quercuum, Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus, and W. mucosa. The second cluster comprised C. norvegica, C. montana, C. stellimalicola, C. solani, C. berthetii, and C. dendrica. Williopsis pratensis, W. californica, Pichia opuntiae and 2 related species, P. amethionina (two varieties), and P. caribaea were also included in this cluster. The third cluster comprised C. pelliculosa (anamorph of P. anomala), C. nitrativorans, and C. silvicultrix. The fourth cluster comprised C. wickerhamii and C. peltata, which were placed in the P. holstii - C. ernobii clade with Q8-containing species. Group II comprised C. pignaliae, C. nemodendra, C. methanolovescens, C. maris, C. sonorensis, C. pini, C. llanquihuensis, C. cariosilignicola, C. ovalis, C. succiphila (including its two synonyms), C. methanosorbosa, C. nitratophila, C. nanaspora, C. boidinii (including its two synonyms), W. salicorniae, and P. methanolica. Group III was composed of four clusters with strong bootstrap support. The first cluster comprised C. valida (anamorph of P. membranifaciens), C. ethanolica, C. pseudolambica, C. citrea, C. inconspicua, C. norvegensis, C. rugopelliculosa, and C. lambica. Three species and two varieties of the genus Issatchenkia were also included in this cluster. The

  20. Identification of Fasciola flukes in Thailand based on their spermatogenesis and nuclear ribosomal DNA, and their intraspecific relationships based on mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichanasak, Pannigan; Ichikawa, Madoka; Sobhon, Prasert; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed 147 Fasciola flukes obtained from cattle in Thailand based on their spermatogenetic ability, and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and mitochondrial nicotiamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) genes as molecular markers. One hundred twenty-eight flukes, which had abundant sperm in their seminal vesicles (spermic) and showed the PCR-RFLP pattern of F. gigantica in the ITS1, were accurately identified as F. gigantica. The other 19 flukes that had no sperm in their seminal vesicles were aspermic Fasciola sp. with the RFLP patterns identical to that of F. gigantica. Twenty-nine ND1 haplotypes (Fg-ND1-Thai 2-30) were distinguished in the 128 F. gigantica flukes and were divided into haplotypes unique to Thailand and those common to other countries, suggesting the possibility that ancestral haplotypes were introduced into Thailand. Three haplotypes (Fg-ND1-Thai 7, 9 and 27) appeared to be the major haplotypes found in F. gigantica from Thailand. Only one haplotype (Fg-ND1-Thai 1) was found in the 19 aspermic Fasciola sp. flukes obtained from geographical regions, and the nucleotide sequence of Fg-ND1-Thai 1 was identical to that of the aspermic Fasciola sp. from Japan, Korea, China, Vietnam and Myanmar, suggesting that they were descendants with a common provenance and expanded to these countries in the relatively recent past. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER (ITS), AN IDEAL DNA BARCODE FOR SPECIES DISCRIMINATION IN CRAWFURDIA WALL. (GENTIANACEAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dequan; Jiang, Bei; Duan, Lizhen; Zhou, Nong

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a technique used to identify species based on species-specific differences in short regions of their DNA. It is widely used in species discrimination of medicinal plants and traditional medicines. In the present study, four potential DNA barcodes, namely rbcL , matK , trnH-psbA and ITS (nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer) were adopted for species discrimination in Crawfurdia Wall (Genetiaceae). Identification ability of these DNA barcodes and combinations were evaluated using three classic methods (Distance, Blast and Tree-Building). As a result, ITS, trnH-psbA and rbcL regions showed great universality for a success rate of 100%; whereas matK was disappointing for which only 65% samples gained useful DNA sequences. ITS region, which could clearly and effectively identify the five species in Crawfurdia , performed very well in this study. On the contrary, trnH-psbA and rbcL performed poorly in discrimination among these species. ITS marker was an ideal DNA barcode in Crawfurdia and it should be incorporated into one of the core barcodes for seed plants.

  2. ITSoneDB: a comprehensive collection of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Monica; Fosso, Bruno; Licciulli, Flavio; Balech, Bachir; Larini, Ilaria; Grillo, Giorgio; De Caro, Giorgio; Liuni, Sabino; Pesole, Graziano

    2018-01-04

    A holistic understanding of environmental communities is the new challenge of metagenomics. Accordingly, the amplicon-based or metabarcoding approach, largely applied to investigate bacterial microbiomes, is moving to the eukaryotic world too. Indeed, the analysis of metabarcoding data may provide a comprehensive assessment of both bacterial and eukaryotic composition in a variety of environments, including human body. In this respect, whereas hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA are the de facto standard barcode for bacteria, the Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) of ribosomal RNA gene cluster has shown a high potential in discriminating eukaryotes at deep taxonomic levels. As metabarcoding data analysis rely on the availability of a well-curated barcode reference resource, a comprehensive collection of ITS1 sequences supplied with robust taxonomies, is highly needed. To address this issue, we created ITSoneDB (available at http://itsonedb.cloud.ba.infn.it/) which in its current version hosts 985 240 ITS1 sequences spanning over 134 000 eukaryotic species. Each ITS1 is mapped on the NCBI reference taxonomy with its start and end positions precisely annotated. ITSoneDB has been developed in agreement to the FAIR guidelines by enabling the users to query and download its content through a simple web-interface and access relevant metadata by cross-linking to European Nucleotide Archive. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. A Sequence-Specific Interaction between the Saccharomyces cerevisiae rRNA Gene Repeats and a Locus Encoding an RNA Polymerase I Subunit Affects Ribosomal DNA Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyani, Inswasti; Cridge, Andrew G.; Engelke, David R.; Ganley, Austen R. D.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial organization of eukaryotic genomes is linked to their functions. However, how individual features of the global spatial structure contribute to nuclear function remains largely unknown. We previously identified a high-frequency interchromosomal interaction within the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome that occurs between the intergenic spacer of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeats and the intergenic sequence between the locus encoding the second largest RNA polymerase I subunit and a lysine tRNA gene [i.e., RPA135-tK(CUU)P]. Here, we used quantitative chromosome conformation capture in combination with replacement mapping to identify a 75-bp sequence within the RPA135-tK(CUU)P intergenic region that is involved in the interaction. We demonstrate that the RPA135-IGS1 interaction is dependent on the rDNA copy number and the Msn2 protein. Surprisingly, we found that the interaction does not govern RPA135 transcription. Instead, replacement of a 605-bp region within the RPA135-tK(CUU)P intergenic region results in a reduction in the RPA135-IGS1 interaction level and fluctuations in rDNA copy number. We conclude that the chromosomal interaction that occurs between the RPA135-tK(CUU)P and rDNA IGS1 loci stabilizes rDNA repeat number and contributes to the maintenance of nucleolar stability. Our results provide evidence that the DNA loci involved in chromosomal interactions are composite elements, sections of which function in stabilizing the interaction or mediating a functional outcome. PMID:25421713

  4. Variation in the number of nucleoli and incomplete homogenization of 18S ribosomal DNA sequences in leaf cells of the cultivated Oriental ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelomina, Galina N; Rozhkovan, Konstantin V; Voronova, Anastasia N; Burundukova, Olga L; Muzarok, Tamara I; Zhuravlev, Yuri N

    2016-04-01

    Wild ginseng, Panax ginseng Meyer, is an endangered species of medicinal plants. In the present study, we analyzed variations within the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) cluster to gain insight into the genetic diversity of the Oriental ginseng, P. ginseng, at artificial plant cultivation. The roots of wild P. ginseng plants were sampled from a nonprotected natural population of the Russian Far East. The slides were prepared from leaf tissues using the squash technique for cytogenetic analysis. The 18S rDNA sequences were cloned and sequenced. The distribution of nucleotide diversity, recombination events, and interspecific phylogenies for the total 18S rDNA sequence data set was also examined. In mesophyll cells, mononucleolar nuclei were estimated to be dominant (75.7%), while the remaining nuclei contained two to four nucleoli. Among the analyzed 18S rDNA clones, 20% were identical to the 18S rDNA sequence of P. ginseng from Japan, and other clones differed in one to six substitutions. The nucleotide polymorphism was more expressed at the positions 440-640 bp, and distributed in variable regions, expansion segments, and conservative elements of core structure. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed conspecificity of ginseng plants cultivated in different regions, with two fixed mutations between P. ginseng and other species. This study identified the evidences of the intragenomic nucleotide polymorphism in the 18S rDNA sequences of P. ginseng. These data suggest that, in cultivated plants, the observed genome instability may influence the synthesis of biologically active compounds, which are widely used in traditional medicine.

  5. ATM-dependent E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus is an indicator of ribosomal stress in early response to DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ya-Qiong; An, Guo-Shun; Ni, Ju-Hua; Li, Shu-Yan; Jia, Hong-Ti

    2014-01-01

    The nucleolus plays a major role in ribosome biogenesis. Most genotoxic agents disrupt nucleolar structure and function, which results in the stabilization/activation of p53, inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Likewise, transcription factor E2F1 as a DNA damage responsive protein also plays roles in cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, or apoptosis in response to DNA damage through transcriptional response and protein-protein interaction. Furthermore, E2F1 is known to be involved in regulating rRNA transcription. However, how E2F1 displays in coordinating DNA damage and nucleolar stress is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that ATM-dependent E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus is a characteristic feature of nucleolar stress in early response to DNA damage. We found that at the early stage of DNA damage, E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus was an ATM-dependent and a common event in p53-suficient and -deficient cells. Increased nucleolar E2F1 was sequestered by the nucleolar protein p14ARF, which repressed E2F1-dependent rRNA transcription initiation, and was coupled with S phase. Our data indicate that early accumulation of E2F1 in the nucleolus is an indicator for nucleolar stress and a component of ATM pathway, which presumably buffers elevation of E2F1 in the nucleoplasm and coordinates the diversifying mechanisms of E2F1 acts in cell cycle progression and apoptosis in early response to DNA damage.

  6. Bacterial community composition in different sediments from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: a comparison of four 16S ribosomal DNA clone libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Bertilsson, Stefan; Tselepides, Anastasios; Stephanou, Euripides G

    2005-10-01

    The regional variability of sediment bacterial community composition and diversity was studied by comparative analysis of four large 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clone libraries from sediments in different regions of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Thermaikos Gulf, Cretan Sea, and South lonian Sea). Amplified rDNA restriction analysis of 664 clones from the libraries indicate that the rDNA richness and evenness was high: for example, a near-1:1 relationship among screened clones and number of unique restriction patterns when up to 190 clones were screened for each library. Phylogenetic analysis of 207 bacterial 16S rDNA sequences from the sediment libraries demonstrated that Gamma-, Delta-, and Alphaproteobacteria, Holophaga/Acidobacteria, Planctomycetales, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Verrucomicrobia were represented in all four libraries. A few clones also grouped with the Betaproteobacteria, Nitrospirae, Spirochaetales, Chlamydiae, Firmicutes, and candidate division OPl 1. The abundance of sequences affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria was higher in libraries from shallow sediments in the Thermaikos Gulf (30 m) and the Cretan Sea (100 m) compared to the deeper South Ionian station (2790 m). Most sequences in the four sediment libraries clustered with uncultured 16S rDNA phylotypes from marine habitats, and many of the closest matches were clones from hydrocarbon seeps, benzene-mineralizing consortia, sulfate reducers, sulk oxidizers, and ammonia oxidizers. LIBSHUFF statistics of 16S rDNA gene sequences from the four libraries revealed major differences, indicating either a very high richness in the sediment bacterial communities or considerable variability in bacterial community composition among regions, or both.

  7. The efficacy of 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing in the diagnosis of bacteria from blood, bone and synovial fluid samples of children with musculoskeletal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashavya, S; Gross, I; Michael-Gayego, A; Simanovsky, N; Lamdan, R

    2018-04-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are among the most common bacterial infections in children leading to hospitalization, invasive procedures and prolonged antibiotic administration. Blood, synovial and sometimes tissue cultures are essential for the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal infections; 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing is a novel diagnostic tool for the detection of bacteria.While the yield of 16S rDNA sequencing in synovial fluid was previously assessed, data regarding the efficacy of this method from blood samples or partially treated children with suspected musculoskeletal infections is lacking.In this study we assessed the yield of 16S rDNA sequencing in blood, bone and synovial samples of children with musculoskeletal infections. Blood, synovial and bone samples were collected from children with suspected musculoskeletal infections and analyzed for the presence of 16S rDNA, the results were then compared with the benchmark microbial cultures. During the study period, 41 children (18 boys and 23 girls) with suspected acute musculoskeletal infection were enrolled. A positive blood culture was found in 6/31 cases (19.4%) with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus being the most commonly isolated bacterium. No significant 16S rDNA detection in blood samples was recorded.Synovial fluid culture was positive in 6/28 samples (21%), Kingella kingae being the most common pathogen. When using the 16S rDNA sequencing method, the rate of positive results in synovial fluid was higher with bacterial detection in 12/23 (52%) samples. The 16S rDNA sequencing method was also able to identify pathogens in samples taken from partially treated children where cultures were negative with 16S rDNA detection in 5/5 samples. Although 16S rDNA sequencing may increase the yield of bacterial detection in synovial samples of patients with musculoskeletal infections, there is no benefit from applying this method on blood samples. The 16S rDNA sequencing method may be

  8. Sequencing of whole plastid genomes and nuclear ribosomal DNA of Diospyros species (Ebenaceae) endemic to New Caledonia: many species, little divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Barbara; Paun, Ovidiu; Munzinger, Jérôme; Chase, Mark W; Samuel, Rosabelle

    2016-06-01

    Some plant groups, especially on islands, have been shaped by strong ancestral bottlenecks and rapid, recent radiation of phenotypic characters. Single molecular markers are often not informative enough for phylogenetic reconstruction in such plant groups. Whole plastid genomes and nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) are viewed by many researchers as sources of information for phylogenetic reconstruction of groups in which expected levels of divergence in standard markers are low. Here we evaluate the usefulness of these data types to resolve phylogenetic relationships among closely related Diospyros species. Twenty-two closely related Diospyros species from New Caledonia were investigated using whole plastid genomes and nrDNA data from low-coverage next-generation sequencing (NGS). Phylogenetic trees were inferred using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference on separate plastid and nrDNA and combined matrices. The plastid and nrDNA sequences were, singly and together, unable to provide well supported phylogenetic relationships among the closely related New Caledonian Diospyros species. In the nrDNA, a 6-fold greater percentage of parsimony-informative characters compared with plastid DNA was found, but the total number of informative sites was greater for the much larger plastid DNA genomes. Combining the plastid and nuclear data improved resolution. Plastid results showed a trend towards geographical clustering of accessions rather than following taxonomic species. In plant groups in which multiple plastid markers are not sufficiently informative, an investigation at the level of the entire plastid genome may also not be sufficient for detailed phylogenetic reconstruction. Sequencing of complete plastid genomes and nrDNA repeats seems to clarify some relationships among the New Caledonian Diospyros species, but the higher percentage of parsimony-informative characters in nrDNA compared with plastid DNA did not help to resolve the phylogenetic tree

  9. Nuclear internal transcribed spacer-1 as a sensitive genetic marker for environmental DNA studies in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Toshifumi; Uchii, Kimiko; Takahara, Teruhiko; Kitayoshi, Takumi; Tsuji, Satsuki; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Doi, Hideyuki

    2017-03-01

    The recently developed environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis has been used to estimate the distribution of aquatic vertebrates by using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a genetic marker. However, mtDNA markers have certain drawbacks such as variable copy number and maternal inheritance. In this study, we investigated the potential of using nuclear DNA (ncDNA) as a more reliable genetic marker for eDNA analysis by using common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We measured the copy numbers of cytochrome b (CytB) gene region of mtDNA and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of ribosomal DNA of ncDNA in various carp tissues and then compared the detectability of these markers in eDNA samples. In the DNA extracted from the brain and gill tissues and intestinal contents, CytB was detected at 95.1 ± 10.7 (mean ± 1 standard error), 29.7 ± 1.59 and 24.0 ± 4.33 copies per cell, respectively, and ITS1 was detected at 1760 ± 343, 2880 ± 503 and 1910 ± 352 copies per cell, respectively. In the eDNA samples from mesocosm, pond and lake water, the copy numbers of ITS1 were about 160, 300 and 150 times higher than those of CytB, respectively. The minimum volume of pond water required for quantification was 33 and 100 mL for ITS1 and CytB, respectively. These results suggested that ITS1 is a more sensitive genetic marker for eDNA studies of C. carpio. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Stenostomum cf. leucops (Platyhelminthes in Thailand: a surface observation using scanning electron microscopy and phylogenetic analysis based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arin Ngamniyom

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The genus Stenostomum contains small turbellaria that are widely distributed in freshwater environments worldwide. However, there are only rare reports or studies of this genus from Thailand. Therefore, the objective of this study was to report S. cf. leucops in Thailand collected from Pathum Thani Province. The worm morphology and surface topography using scanning electron microscopy were determined. Moreover, the phylogenetic tree of S. cf. leucops was analysed with 17 flatworms based on the 18S ribosomal DNA sequences. The phylogenetic relationship shared a common ancestry of Catenulida species, and S. cf. leucops displayed a monophyletic pattern within Stenostomum spp. The results of the morphological and molecular data are discussed. These results may increase the knowledge of freshwater microturbellarians in Thailand.

  11. Phylogenetic relationships of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) inferred from 28S ribosomal DNA: insights into the evolution of bioluminescence in Elateridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagegami-Oba, Reiko; Oba, Yuichi; Ohira, Hitoo

    2007-02-01

    Although the taxonomy of click beetles (family Elateridae) has been studied extensively, inconsistencies remain. We examine here the relationships between species of Elateridae based on partial sequences of nuclear 28S ribosomal DNA. Specimens were collected primarily from Japan, while luminous click beetles were also sampled from Central and South America to investigate the origins of bioluminescence in Elateridae. Neighbor-joining, maximum-parsimony, and maximum-likelihood analyses produced a consistent basal topology with high statistical support that is partially congruent with the results of previous investigations based on the morphological characteristics of larvae and adults. The most parsimonious reconstruction of the "luminous" and "nonluminous" states, based on the present molecular phylogeny, indicates that the ancestral state of Elateridae was nonluminous. This suggests that the bioluminescence in click beetle evolved independent of that of other luminous beetles, such as Lampyridae, despite their common mechanisms of bioluminescence.

  12. cDNA Cloning, Overexpression, Purification and Pharmacologic Evaluation for Anticancer Activity of Ribosomal Protein L23A Gene (RPL23A from the Giant Panda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Nan Zhang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available RPL23A gene encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 60S subunit. The protein belongs to the L23P family of ribosomal proteins, which is located in the cytoplasm. The purpose of this paper was to explore the structure and anti-cancer function of ribosomal protein L23A (RPL23A gene of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca. The cDNA of RPL23A was cloned successfully from the Giant Panda using RT-PCR technology. We constructed a recombinant expression vector containing RPL23A cDNA and over-expressed it in Escherichia coli using pET28a plasmids. The expression product obtained was purified by using Ni chelating affinity chromatography. Recombinant protein of RPL23A obtained from the experiment acted on Hep-2 cells and human HepG-2 cells, then the growth inhibitory effect of these cells was observed by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. The result indicated that the length of the fragment cloned is 506 bp, and it contains an open-reading frame (ORF of 471 bp encoding 156 amino acids. Primary structure analysis revealed that the molecular weight of the putative RPL23A protein is 17.719 kDa with a theoretical pI 11.16. The molecular weight of the recombinant protein RPL23A is 21.265 kDa with a theoretical pI 10.57. The RPL23A gene can be really expressed in E. coli and the RPL23A protein, fusioned with the N-terminally His-tagged protein, gave rise to the accumulation of an expected 22 KDa polypeptide. The data showed that the recombinant protein RPL23A had a time- and dose-dependency on the cell growth inhibition rate. The data also indicated that the effect at low concentrations was better than at high concentrations on Hep-2 cells, and that the concentration of 0.185 μg/mL had the best rate of growth inhibition of 36.31%. All results of the experiment revealed that the recombinant protein RPL23A exhibited anti-cancer function on the Hep-2 cells. The study provides a scientific basis and aids

  13. HDP2: a ribosomal DNA (NTS-ETS) sequence as a target for species-specific molecular diagnosis of intestinal taeniasis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, María D; Gonzalez, Luis M; Hurtado, Carolina; Motta, Yamileth Monje; Domínguez-Hidalgo, Cristina; Merino, Francisco Jesús; Perteguer, María J; Gárate, Teresa

    2018-02-27

    Taenia solium, T. asiatica and T. saginata tapeworms cause human taeniasis and are the origin of porcine and bovine cysticercosis. Furthermore, T. solium eggs can cause human cysticercosis, with neurocysticercosis being the most serious form of the disease. These helminth infections are neglected tropical diseases and are endemic in several countries in the Americas, Asia and Africa. As a result of globalization, migration in particular, the infections have been extending to non-endemic territories. Species-specific diagnosis of taeniasis is subject to drawbacks that could be resolved using molecular approaches. In the present study, conventional and real-time amplification protocols (cPCR and qPCR) based on the T. saginata HDP2 sequence were applied in the differential diagnosis of taeniasis (T. saginata, T. solium) in both fecal samples and proglottids expelled by patients. The HDP2 homolog in T. solium was cloned and characterized. Semi-nested cPCR and qPCR (Sn-HDP2 cPCR and Sn-HDP2 qPCR) amplified T. saginata and T. solium DNA, with an analytical sensitivity of 40 and 400 fg, respectively, and identically in both protocols. Eighteen taeniasis patients were diagnosed directly with T. saginata or T. solium, either from proglottids or fecal samples with/without eggs (detected using microscopy), based on the optimized Sn-HDP2 qPCR. After cloning, the T. solium HDP2 homolog sequence was confirmed to be a ribosomal sequence. The HDP2 fragment corresponded to a non-transcribed sequence/external transcribed repeat (NTS/ETS) of ribosomal DNA. Compared with the T. saginata HDP2 homolog, the T solium HDP2 sequence lacked the first 900 nt at the 5' end and showed nucleotide substitutions and small deletions. Sn-HDP2 cPCR and Sn-HDP2 qPCR were set up for the diagnosis of human taeniasis, using proglottids and fecal samples from affected patients. The new Sn-HDP2 qPCR protocol was the best option, as it directly differentiated T. saginata from T. solium. The diagnosis of

  14. Conservative fragments in bacterial 16S rRNA genes and primer design for 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons in metagenomic studies

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong

    2009-10-09

    Bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplicons have been widely used in the classification of uncultured bacteria inhabiting environmental niches. Primers targeting conservative regions of the rDNAs are used to generate amplicons of variant regions that are informative in taxonomic assignment. One problem is that the percentage coverage and application scope of the primers used in previous studies are largely unknown. In this study, conservative fragments of available rDNA sequences were first mined and then used to search for candidate primers within the fragments by measuring the coverage rate defined as the percentage of bacterial sequences containing the target. Thirty predicted primers with a high coverage rate (>90%) were identified, which were basically located in the same conservative regions as known primers in previous reports, whereas 30% of the known primers were associated with a coverage rate of <90%. The application scope of the primers was also examined by calculating the percentages of failed detections in bacterial phyla. Primers A519-539, E969- 983, E1063-1081, U515 and E517, are highly recommended because of their high coverage in almost all phyla. As expected, the three predominant phyla, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes and Proteobacteria, are best covered by the predicted primers. The primers recommended in this report shall facilitate a comprehensive and reliable survey of bacterial diversity in metagenomic studies. © 2009 Wang, Qian.

  15. Import of desired nucleic acid sequences using addressing motif of mitochondrial ribosomal 5S-rRNA for fluorescent in vivo hybridization of mitochondrial DNA and RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenka, Jaroslav; Alán, Lukáš; Jabůrek, Martin; Ježek, Petr

    2014-04-01

    Based on the matrix-addressing sequence of mitochondrial ribosomal 5S-rRNA (termed MAM), which is naturally imported into mitochondria, we have constructed an import system for in vivo targeting of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or mt-mRNA, in order to provide fluorescence hybridization of the desired sequences. Thus DNA oligonucleotides were constructed, containing the 5'-flanked T7 RNA polymerase promoter. After in vitro transcription and fluorescent labeling with Alexa Fluor(®) 488 or 647 dye, we obtained the fluorescent "L-ND5 probe" containing MAM and exemplar cargo, i.e., annealing sequence to a short portion of ND5 mRNA and to the light-strand mtDNA complementary to the heavy strand nd5 mt gene (5'-end 21 base pair sequence). For mitochondrial in vivo fluorescent hybridization, HepG2 cells were treated with dequalinium micelles, containing the fluorescent probes, bringing the probes proximally to the mitochondrial outer membrane and to the natural import system. A verification of import into the mitochondrial matrix of cultured HepG2 cells was provided by confocal microscopy colocalizations. Transfections using lipofectamine or probes without 5S-rRNA addressing MAM sequence or with MAM only were ineffective. Alternatively, the same DNA oligonucleotides with 5'-CACC overhang (substituting T7 promoter) were transcribed from the tetracycline-inducible pENTRH1/TO vector in human embryonic kidney T-REx®-293 cells, while mitochondrial matrix localization after import of the resulting unlabeled RNA was detected by PCR. The MAM-containing probe was then enriched by three-order of magnitude over the natural ND5 mRNA in the mitochondrial matrix. In conclusion, we present a proof-of-principle for mitochondrial in vivo hybridization and mitochondrial nucleic acid import.

  16. In situ DNA-RNA hybridization using in vitro 125I-labeled ribosomal RNA of higher plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Seiichi; Kikuchi, Tadatoshi; Ishida, M.R.; Tanaka, Ryuso.

    1975-01-01

    In situ hybridization using 125 I-labeled ribosomal RNA was applied to plant cells. Cytoplasmic 25 s rRNA, which was eluted from acrylamide gels after electrophoretic separation, was labeled in vitro with carrier-free 125 I and hybridized with the interphase nuclei in root tips of Vicia faba. In most of the preparations, the nucleoli were more heavily labeled than the other regions within nuclei, and several types of grain distribution were observed on the nucleoli. From these results, it was confirmed that in situ hybridization using 125 I-labeled rRNA can be used very effectively to detect the annealing sites of different molecular species of rRNA within the nuclei of plant cells, for which it is not as easy to obtain high specific radioactive rRNA in vivo as it is in the case of cultured animal cells. (auth.)

  17. Stimulation of ribosomal RNA gene promoter by transcription factor Sp1 involves active DNA demethylation by Gadd45-NER pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Pallavi; Pandey, Vijaya; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-08-01

    The well-studied Pol II transcription factor Sp1 has not been investigated for its regulatory role in rDNA transcription. Here, we show that Sp1 bound to specific sites on rDNA and localized into the nucleoli during the G1 phase of cell cycle to activate rDNA transcription. It facilitated the recruitment of Pol I pre-initiation complex and impeded the binding of nucleolar remodeling complex (NoRC) to rDNA resulting in the formation of euchromatin active state. More importantly, Sp1 also orchestrated the site-specific binding of Gadd45a-nucleotide excision repair (NER) complex resulting in active demethylation and transcriptional activation of rDNA. Interestingly, knockdown of Sp1 impaired rDNA transcription due to reduced engagement of the Gadd45a-NER complex and hypermethylation of rDNA. Thus, the present study unveils a novel role of Sp1 in rDNA transcription involving promoter demethylation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parson, W; Gusmão, L; Hares, D R

    2014-01-01

    The DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG) regularly publishes guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the question of human identification. Previous recommendations published in 2000 addressed the analysis and interpretat......The DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG) regularly publishes guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the question of human identification. Previous recommendations published in 2000 addressed the analysis...... and interpretation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in forensic casework. While the foundations set forth in the earlier recommendations still apply, new approaches to the quality control, alignment and nomenclature of mitochondrial sequences, as well as the establishment of mtDNA reference population databases, have...... been developed. Here, we describe these developments and discuss their application to both mtDNA casework and mtDNA reference population databasing applications. While the generation of mtDNA for forensic casework has always been guided by specific standards, it is now well-established that data...

  19. Nuclear Protein Sam68 Interacts with the Enterovirus 71 Internal Ribosome Entry Site and Positively Regulates Viral Protein Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Song, Lei; Cong, Haolong; Tien, Po

    2015-10-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) recruits various cellular factors to assist in the replication and translation of its genome. Identification of the host factors involved in the EV71 life cycle not only will enable a better understanding of the infection mechanism but also has the potential to be of use in the development of antiviral therapeutics. In this study, we demonstrated that the cellular factor 68-kDa Src-associated protein in mitosis (Sam68) acts as an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) trans-acting factor (ITAF) that binds specifically to the EV71 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). Interaction sites in both the viral IRES (stem-loops IV and V) and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K homology (KH) domain of Sam68 protein were further mapped using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and biotin RNA pulldown assay. More importantly, dual-luciferase (firefly) reporter analysis suggested that overexpression of Sam68 positively regulated IRES-dependent translation of virus proteins. In contrast, both IRES activity and viral protein translation significantly decreased in Sam68 knockdown cells compared with the negative-control cells treated with short hairpin RNA (shRNA). However, downregulation of Sam68 did not have a significant inhibitory effect on the accumulation of the EV71 genome. Moreover, Sam68 was redistributed from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and interacts with cellular factors, such as poly(rC)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2) and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), during EV71 infection. The cytoplasmic relocalization of Sam68 in EV71-infected cells may be involved in the enhancement of EV71 IRES-mediated translation. Since Sam68 is known to be a RNA-binding protein, these results provide direct evidence that Sam68 is a novel ITAF that interacts with EV71 IRES and positively regulates viral protein translation. The nuclear protein Sam68 is found as an additional new host factor that interacts with the EV71 IRES during infection and could potentially

  20. Variation in ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences demonstrates the existence of intraspecific groups in Paramecium multimicronucleatum (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarcz, Sebastian; Potekhin, Alexey; Rautian, Maria; Przyboś, Ewa

    2012-05-01

    This is the first phylogenetic study of the intraspecific variability within Paramecium multimicronucleatum with the application of two-loci analysis (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-5'LSU rDNA and COI mtDNA) carried out on numerous strains originated from different continents. The species has been shown to have a complex structure of several sibling species within taxonomic species. Our analysis revealed the existence of 10 haplotypes for the rDNA fragment and 15 haplotypes for the COI fragment in the studied material. The mean distance for all of the studied P. multimicronucleatum sequence pairs was p=0.025/0.082 (rDNA/COI). Despite the greater variation of the COI fragment, the COI-derived tree topology is similar to the tree topology constructed on the basis of the rDNA fragment. P. multimicronucleatum strains are divided into three main clades. The tree based on COI fragment analysis presents a greater resolution of the studied P. multimicronucleatum strains. Our results indicate that the strains of P. multimicronucleatum that appear in different clades on the trees could belong to different syngens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of a variable number of ribosomal DNA loci by fluorescent in situ hybridization in Populus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, E A; Faivre-Rampant, P; Schneider, C; Darmency, M A

    1996-10-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to related Populus species (2n = 19) in order to detect rDNA loci. An interspecific variability in the number of hybridization sites was revealed using as probe an homologous 25S clone from Populus deltoides. The application of image analysis methods to measure fluorescence intensity of the hybridization signals has enabled us to characterize major and minor loci in the 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA. We identified one pair of such rDNA clusters in Populus alba; two pairs, one major and one minor, in both Populus nigra and P. deltoides; and three pairs in Populus balsamifera, (two major and one minor) and Populus euroamericana (one major and two minor). FISH results are in agreement with those based on RFLP analysis. The pBG13 probe containing 5S sequence from flax detected two separate clusters corresponding to the two size classes of units that coexist within 5S rDNA of most Populus species. Key words : Populus spp., fluorescent in situ hybridization, FISH, rDNA variability, image analysis.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Fasciola Samples Using Sequences of Second Internal Transcribed Spacer-rDNA in Different Geographical Localities of Sistan and Balouchestan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Shahbakhsh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Fasciola trematodes are the most common liver flukes, living in a range of animals with global distribution and resulting in profound economic loss and public health challenges. Previous studies have indicated that the sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2 of ribosomal DNA (rDNA provide reliable genetic markers for molecular systemic studies of Fasciola. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to characterize Fasciola samples from different geographical regions of Sistan and Balouchestan province using sequences of second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2 of ribosomal DNA (rDNA. Materials and Methods: Twenty adult trematodes were collected from the livers of slaughtered infected cattle. Total genomic DNA was extracted and ITS-2 rDNA targets were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. All samples were sequenced and investigated using the ClustalW2 sequence alignment tool and MEGA software. The sequences of some Iranian and non-Iranian isolates were used for comparison, in order to evaluate the variation in sequence homology between geographically different trematode populations. Results: The results of comparing the ITS-2 sequences with the BLAST GenBank database showed one type of sequence for F. hepatica and three different types of sequences for F. gigantica in the specimens. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that Fasciola samples from cattle in two geographical locations in Sistan and Balouchestan province represented no genetic diversity in F. hepatica and high genetic variation in F. gigantica.

  3. Structural Features of the Seneca Valley Virus Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) Element: a Picornavirus with a Pestivirus-Like IRES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willcocks, Margaret M.; Locker, Nicolas; Gomwalk, Zarmwa

    2011-01-01

    The RNA genome of Seneca Valley virus (SVV), a recently identified picornavirus, contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element which has structural and functional similarity to that from classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and hepatitis C virus, members of the FLAVIVIRIDAE: The SVV IRES...... has an absolute requirement for the presence of a short region of virus-coding sequence to allow it to function either in cells or in rabbit reticulocyte lysate. The IRES activity does not require the translation initiation factor eIF4A or intact eIF4G. The predicted secondary structure indicates...

  4. A quantitative PCR approach for determining the ribosomal DNA copy number in the genome of Agave tequila Weber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rubio-Piña

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Results show that the proposed method a can correctly detect the rDNA copy number, b could be used as species-specific markers and c might help in understanding the genetic diversity, genome organization and evolution of this species.

  5. A reassessment of phylogenetic relationships within the phaeophyceae based on RUBISCO large subunit and ribosomal DNA sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draisma, S.G A; Prud'homme van Reine, W.F; Stam, W.T.; Olsen, J.L.

    To better assess the current state of phaeophycean phylogeny, we compiled all currently available rbcL, 18S, and 26S rDNA sequences from the EMBL/GenBank database and added 21 new rbcL sequences of our own. We then developed three new alignments designed to maximize taxon sampling while minimizing

  6. Data partitions, Bayesian analysis and phylogeny of the zygomycetous fungal family Mortierellaceae, inferred from nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Petkovits

    Full Text Available Although the fungal order Mortierellales constitutes one of the largest classical groups of Zygomycota, its phylogeny is poorly understood and no modern taxonomic revision is currently available. In the present study, 90 type and reference strains were used to infer a comprehensive phylogeny of Mortierellales from the sequence data of the complete ITS region and the LSU and SSU genes with a special attention to the monophyly of the genus Mortierella. Out of 15 alternative partitioning strategies compared on the basis of Bayes factors, the one with the highest number of partitions was found optimal (with mixture models yielding the best likelihood and tree length values, implying a higher complexity of evolutionary patterns in the ribosomal genes than generally recognized. Modeling the ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2, loci separately improved model fit significantly as compared to treating all as one and the same partition. Further, within-partition mixture models suggests that not only the SSU, LSU and ITS regions evolve under qualitatively and/or quantitatively different constraints, but that significant heterogeneity can be found within these loci also. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genus Mortierella is paraphyletic with respect to the genera Dissophora, Gamsiella and Lobosporangium and the resulting phylogeny contradict previous, morphology-based sectional classification of Mortierella. Based on tree structure and phenotypic traits, we recognize 12 major clades, for which we attempt to summarize phenotypic similarities. M. longicollis is closely related to the outgroup taxon Rhizopus oryzae, suggesting that it belongs to the Mucorales. Our results demonstrate that traits used in previous classifications of the Mortierellales are highly homoplastic and that the Mortierellales is in a need of a reclassification, where new, phylogenetically informative phenotypic traits should be identified, with molecular phylogenies playing a decisive role.

  7. A Sequence-Independent, Unstructured Internal Ribosome Entry Site Is Responsible for Internal Expression of the Coat Protein of Turnip Crinkle Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jared; Johnson, Philip; Saleem, Huma; Simon, Anne E

    2017-04-15

    To maximize the coding potential of viral genomes, internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) can be used to bypass the traditional requirement of a 5' cap and some/all of the associated translation initiation factors. Although viral IRES typically contain higher-order RNA structure, an unstructured sequence of about 84 nucleotides (nt) immediately upstream of the Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) coat protein (CP) open reading frame (ORF) has been found to promote internal expression of the CP from the genomic RNA (gRNA) both in vitro and in vivo An absence of extensive RNA structure was predicted using RNA folding algorithms and confirmed by selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) RNA structure probing. Analysis of the IRES region in vitro by use of both the TCV gRNA and reporter constructs did not reveal any sequence-specific elements but rather suggested that an overall lack of structure was an important feature for IRES activity. The CP IRES is A-rich, independent of orientation, and strongly conserved among viruses in the same genus. The IRES was dependent on eIF4G, but not eIF4E, for activity. Low levels of CP accumulated in vivo in the absence of detectable TCV subgenomic RNAs, strongly suggesting that the IRES was active in the gRNA in vivo Since the TCV CP also serves as the viral silencing suppressor, early translation of the CP from the viral gRNA is likely important for countering host defenses. Cellular mRNA IRES also lack extensive RNA structures or sequence conservation, suggesting that this viral IRES and cellular IRES may have similar strategies for internal translation initiation. IMPORTANCE Cap-independent translation is a common strategy among positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses for bypassing the host cell requirement of a 5' cap structure. Viral IRES, in general, contain extensive secondary structure that is critical for activity. In contrast, we demonstrate that a region of viral RNA devoid of extensive secondary

  8. Bacterial DNA of Ocean and Land on the Surface of the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebennikova, Tatiana

    A.V. Syroeshkin2, T.V. Grebennikova1, E.V. Shubralova3, V.A. Shuvalov3, O.S. Tsygankov4, V.B. Lapshin2 1D. I. Ivanovsky Virology Institute, Moscow, Russia 2 Academician E. K. Fedorov Institute of Applied Geophysics, Moscow, Russia 3S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation «Energia» Korolev, Russia 4Central Research Institute of Machine Building, Korolev, Russia Existence of biological molecules as markers of microorganisms in the space environment has always attracted attention of researchers. There is great attention to the search for extraterrestrial life forms [Nicholson W.L. 2009, Kawaguchi Y. et al 2013], and as well as the coping mechanisms of living organisms in the interplanetary space [Hotchin J. et al 1965, Baranov V.M. 2009, Horneck G. et al 2010]. Experiments on American and Japanese segments of the International Space Station (ISS) over the different nature of resistance during prolonged stay in space were conducted [Scalzi G et al 2012, Wassmann M. et al 2012]. As a result of these experiments confirmed the possibility of preserving the viability of organisms in an open space for a long time. Consequence, became interested in the transfer of living matter from the stratosphere to near-Earth space [Smith D.J. 2013]. We hypothesized that viable forms, or at least, intact DNA can be transferred to the orbit of the ISS with the ascending branch of the global electric circuit. Samples of cosmic dust collected from the surface of the window of the ISS during the exit of an astronaut in space. Samples (washes with material of tampons and tampons) which were in vacuo, were analyzed for the presence of bacterial DNA by nested PCR using primers specific DNA genus Mycobacterium, the DNA of the strain of the genus Bacillus anthracis and DNA encoding the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA after transportation of the samples to Earth. The results of amplification, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed the presence in samples of cosmic dust DNA

  9. Repeated reunions and splits feature the highly dynamic evolution of 5S and 35S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in the Asteraceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sònia; Panero, José L; Siroky, Jiri; Kovarik, Ales

    2010-08-16

    In flowering plants and animals the most common ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) organisation is that in which 35S (encoding 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA) and 5S genes are physically separated occupying different chromosomal loci. However, recent observations established that both genes have been unified to a single 35S-5S unit in the genus Artemisia (Asteraceae), a genomic arrangement typical of primitive eukaryotes such as yeast, among others. Here we aim to reveal the origin, distribution and mechanisms leading to the linked organisation of rDNA in the Asteraceae by analysing unit structure (PCR, Southern blot, sequencing), gene copy number (quantitative PCR) and chromosomal position (FISH) of 5S and 35S rRNA genes in approximately 200 species representing the family diversity and other closely related groups. Dominant linked rDNA genotype was found within three large groups in subfamily Asteroideae: tribe Anthemideae (93% of the studied cases), tribe Gnaphalieae (100%) and in the "Heliantheae alliance" (23%). The remaining five tribes of the Asteroideae displayed canonical non linked arrangement of rDNA, as did the other groups in the Asteraceae. Nevertheless, low copy linked genes were identified among several species that amplified unlinked units. The conserved position of functional 5S insertions downstream from the 26S gene suggests a unique, perhaps retrotransposon-mediated integration event at the base of subfamily Asteroideae. Further evolution likely involved divergence of 26S-5S intergenic spacers, amplification and homogenisation of units across the chromosomes and concomitant elimination of unlinked arrays. However, the opposite trend, from linked towards unlinked arrangement was also surmised in few species indicating possible reversibility of these processes. Our results indicate that nearly 25% of Asteraceae species may have evolved unusual linked arrangement of rRNA genes. Thus, in plants, fundamental changes in intrinsic structure of rDNA units, their copy

  10. Phylogenetic relationships within the cyst-forming nematodes (Nematoda, Heteroderidae) based on analysis of sequences from the ITS regions of ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotin, S A; Vierstraete, A; De Ley, P; Rowe, J; Waeyenberge, L; Moens, M; Vanfleteren, J R

    2001-10-01

    The ITS1, ITS2, and 5.8S gene sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA from 40 taxa of the family Heteroderidae (including the genera Afenestrata, Cactodera, Heterodera, Globodera, Punctodera, Meloidodera, Cryphodera, and Thecavermiculatus) were sequenced and analyzed. The ITS regions displayed high levels of sequence divergence within Heteroderinae and compared to outgroup taxa. Unlike recent findings in root knot nematodes, ITS sequence polymorphism does not appear to complicate phylogenetic analysis of cyst nematodes. Phylogenetic analyses with maximum-parsimony, minimum-evolution, and maximum-likelihood methods were performed with a range of computer alignments, including elision and culled alignments. All multiple alignments and phylogenetic methods yielded similar basic structure for phylogenetic relationships of Heteroderidae. The cyst-forming nematodes are represented by six main clades corresponding to morphological characters and host specialization, with certain clades assuming different positions depending on alignment procedure and/or method of phylogenetic inference. Hypotheses of monophyly of Punctoderinae and Heteroderinae are, respectively, strongly and moderately supported by the ITS data across most alignments. Close relationships were revealed between the Avenae and the Sacchari groups and between the Humuli group and the species H. salixophila within Heteroderinae. The Goettingiana group occupies a basal position within this subfamily. The validity of the genera Afenestrata and Bidera was tested and is discussed based on molecular data. We conclude that ITS sequence data are appropriate for studies of relationships within the different species groups and less so for recovery of more ancient speciations within Heteroderidae. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  11. Phylogeny of the Celastraceae inferred from 26S nuclear ribosomal DNA, phytochrome B, rbcL, atpB, and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, M P; Savolainen, V; Clevinger, C C; Archer, R H; Davis, J I

    2001-06-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within Celastraceae (spindle-tree family) were inferred from nucleotide sequence characters from the 5' end of 26S nuclear ribosomal DNA (including expansion segments D1-D3; 84 species sampled), phytochrome B (58 species), rbcL (31 species), atpB (23 species), and morphology (94 species). Among taxa of questionable affinity, Forsellesia is a member of Crossosomataceae, and Goupia is excluded from Celastraceae. However, Brexia, Canotia, Lepuropetalon, Parnassia, Siphonodon, and Stackhousiaceae are supported as members of Celastraceae. Gymnosporia and Tricerma are distinct from Maytenus, Cassine is supported as distinct from Elaeodendron, and Dicarpellum is distinct from Salacia. Catha, Maytenus, and Pristimera are not resolved as natural genera. Hippocrateaceae (including Plagiopteron and Lophopetalum) are a clade nested within a paraphyletic Celastraceae. These data also suggest that the Loesener's classification of Celastraceae sensu stricto and Hallé's classification of Hippocrateaceae are artificial. The diversification of the fruit and aril within Celastraceae appears to be complex, with multiple origins of most fruit and aril forms. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  12. A new genus of athecate interstitial dinoflagellates, Togula gen. nov., previously encompassed within Amphidinium sensu lato: Inferred from light and electron microscopy and phylogenetic analyses of partial large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mårten Flø; Murray, Shauna; Daugbjerg, Niels

    2004-01-01

    was not closely related to other genera included in the molecular phylogenetic analyses, but formed a highly supported clade in Bayesian analysis together with the six small-sized strains. The six strains also formed a highly supported clade, consisting of two closely related, albeit distinct, clades. Light......The recent emendation of Amphidinium (Dinophyceae), which now only consists of species with minute left-deflected epicone, has left more than 100 species without a clear generic affiliation. In the present study, a strain identified as one of the species with a divergent epicone type, Amphidinium...... subunit ribosomal DNA as well as in size and shape. Based on morphological similarity and partial large subunit ribosomal DNA evidence, we erect the new genus, Togula gen. nov. with the emended type species Togula britannica (Herdman) comb. nov. Based on differences in division pattern and partial large...

  13. Differentiation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and ribosomal intergenic regions, and development of a species specific oligonucleotide for in situ detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fussing, Vivian; Paster, Bruce J.; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    1998-01-01

    . The larger RIS's were different between the 3 species tested. The sequence of the 16S ribosomal gene was determined for 8 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. These sequences showed only minor base differences, indicating a close genetic relatedness of these serotypes within the species. An oligonucleotide DNA...... probe designed from the 16S rRNA gene sequence of A. pleuropneumoniae was specific for all strains of the target species and did not cross react with A. lignieresii, the closest known relative of A. pleuropneumoniae. This species-specific DNA probe labeled with fluorescein was used for in situ......The aims of this study were to characterize and determine intraspecies and interspecies relatedness of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to Actinobacillus lignieresii and Actinobacillus suis by sequence analysis of the ribosomal operon and to find a species-specific area for in situ detection of A...

  14. Ribo HRM--detection of inter- and intra-species polymorphisms within ribosomal DNA by high resolution melting analysis supported by application of artificial allelic standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masny, Aleksander; Jagiełło, Agata; Płucienniczak, Grażyna; Golab, Elzbieta

    2012-09-01

    Ribo HRM, a single-tube PCR and high resolution melting (HRM) assay for detection of polymorphisms in the large subunit ribosomal DNA expansion segment V, was developed on a Trichinella model. Four Trichinella species: T. spiralis (isolates ISS3 and ISS160), T. nativa (isolates ISS10 and ISS70), T. britovi (isolates ISS2 and ISS392) and T. pseudospiralis (isolates ISS13 and ISS1348) were genotyped. Cloned allelic variants of the expansion segment V were used as standards to prepare reference HRM curves characteristic for single sequences and mixtures of several cloned sequences imitating allelic composition detected in Trichinella isolates. Using the primer pair Tsr1 and Trich1bi, it was possible to amplify a fragment of the ESV and detect PCR products obtained from the genomic DNA of pools of larvae belonging to the four investigated species: T. pseudospiralis, T. spiralis, T. britovi and T. nativa, in a single tube Real-Time PCR reaction. Differences in the shape of the HRM curves of Trichinella isolates suggested the presence of differences between examined isolates of T. nativa, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis species. No differences were observed between T. spiralis isolates. The presence of polymorphisms within the amplified ESV sequence fragment of T. nativa T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis was confirmed by sequencing of the cloned PCR products. Novel sequences were discovered and deposited in GenBank (GenBank IDs: JN971020-JN971027, JN120902.1, JN120903.1, JN120904.1, JN120906.1, JN120905.1). Screening the ESV region of Trichinella for polymorphism is possible using the genotyping assay Ribo HRM at the current state of its development. The Ribo HRM assay could be useful in phylogenetic studies of the Trichinella genus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. DNA commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P; Brenner, C H; Buckleton, J S

    2006-01-01

    The DNA commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG) was convened at the 21st congress of the International Society for Forensic Genetics held between 13 and 17 September in the Azores, Portugal. The purpose of the group was to agree on guidelines to encourage best practice...... a consensus from experts but to be practical we do not claim to have conveyed a clear vision in every respect in this difficult subject. For this reason, we propose to allow a period of time for feedback and reflection by the scientific community. Then the DNA commission will meet again to consider further...

  16. Monocistronic mRNAs containing defective hepatitis C virus-like picornavirus internal ribosome entry site elements in their 5 ' untranslated regions are efficiently translated in cells by a cap-dependent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Nielsen, Inge; Normann, Preben

    2008-01-01

    The initiation of protein synthesis on mRNAs within eukaryotic cells is achieved either by a 5' cap-dependent mechanism or through internal initiation directed by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Picornavirus IRES elements, located in the 59 untranslated region (5'UTR), contain extensive s...

  17. Veronica: Chemical characters for the support of phylogenetic relationships based on nuclear ribosomal and plastid DNA sequence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albach, Dirk C.; Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Özgökce, Fevzi

    2005-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed many relationships in Veronica (Plantaginaceae) never anticipated before. However, phytochemical characters show good congruence with DNA-based analyses. We have analysed a combined data set of 49 species and subspecies derived from the nuclear...... are monophyletic sister groups with the annual species consecutive sisters to them. All species of Veronica that contain cornoside are found in this subgenus, although some species seem to have secondarily lost the ability to produce this compound. Subgenera Pocilla and Pentasepalae are well supported sister...... species in the genus analysed to date to contain melittoside and globularifolin. Subgenus Pentasepalae appears to be a clade of diverse lineages from southwestern Asia and a single European clade. Species shown to have 6-hydroxyflavones do not form a monophyletic group. Subgenus Pseudolysimachium seems...

  18. Identification of nucleosome assembly protein 1 (NAP1) as an interacting partner of plant ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) and a positive regulator of rDNA transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Ora [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunghan [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Plant Science, Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute, Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yun-jeong [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo-Young [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Hee-Jong, E-mail: heejkoh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Plant Science, Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute, Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Choong-Ill, E-mail: ccheon@sookmyung.ac.kr [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-18

    The ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) is a downstream component of the signaling mediated by the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase that acts as a central regulator of the key metabolic processes, such as protein translation and ribosome biogenesis, in response to various environmental cues. In our previous study, we identified a novel role of plant RPS6, which negatively regulates rDNA transcription, forming a complex with a plant-specific histone deacetylase, AtHD2B. Here we report that the Arabidopsis RPS6 interacts additionally with a histone chaperone, nucleosome assembly protein 1(AtNAP1;1). The interaction does not appear to preclude the association of RPS6 with AtHD2B, as the AtNAP1 was also able to interact with AtHD2B as well as with an RPS6-AtHD2B fusion protein in the BiFC assay and pulldown experiment. Similar to a positive effect of the ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (AtS6K1) on rDNA transcription observed in this study, overexpression or down regulation of the AtNAP1;1 resulted in concomitant increase and decrease, respectively, in rDNA transcription suggesting a positive regulatory role played by AtNAP1 in plant rDNA transcription, possibly through derepression of the negative effect of the RPS6-AtHD2B complex. - Highlights: • Nucleosome assembly protein 1 (AtNAP1) interacts with RPS6 as well as with AtHD2B. • rDNA transcription is regulated S6K1. • Overexpression or down regulation of AtNAP1 results in concomitant increase or decrease in rDNA transcription.

  19. DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coble, M. D.; Buckleton, J.; Butler, J M

    2016-01-01

    , requirements for the range of samples to be tested, Standard Operating Procedure development, and internal laboratory training and education. To ensure that all laboratories have access to a wide range of samples for validation and training purposes the ISFG DNA commission encourages collaborative studies...

  20. Ribosomal DNA sequence divergence and group I introns within the Leucostoma species L. cinctum, L. persoonii, and L. parapersoonii sp. nov., ascomycetes that cause Cytospora canker of fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Gerard C; Surve-Iyer, Rupa S; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2002-01-01

    Leucostoma species that are the causal agents of Cytospora canker of stone and pome fruit trees were studied in detail. DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer regions and the 5.8S of the nuclear ribosomal DNA operon (ITS rDNA) supplied sufficient characters to assess the phylogenetic relationships among species of Leucostoma, Valsa, Valsella, and related anamorphs in Cytospora. Parsimony analysis of the aligned sequence divided Cytospora isolates from fruit trees into clades that generally agreed with the morphological species concepts, and with some of the phenetic groupings (PG 1-6) identified previously by isozyme analysis and cultural characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis inferred that isolates of L. persoonii formed two well-resolved clades distinct from isolates of L. cinctum. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS rDNA, isozyme analysis, and cultural characteristics supported the inference that L. persoonii groups PG 2 and PG 3 were populations of a new species apparently more genetically different from L. persoonii PG 1 than from isolates representative of L. massariana, L. niveum, L. translucens, and Valsella melastoma. The new species, L. parapersoonii, was described. A diverse collection of isolates of L. cinctum, L. persoonii, and L. parapersoonii were examined for genetic variation using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the ITS rDNA and the five prime end of the large subunit of the rDNA (LSU rDNA). HinfI and HpaII endonucleases were each useful in dividing the Leucostoma isolates into RFLP profiles corresponding to the isozyme phenetic groups, PG 1-6. RFLP analysis was more effective than isozyme analysis in uncovering variation among isolates of L. persoonii PG 1, but less effective within L. cinctum populations. Isolates representative of seven of the L. persoonii formae speciales proposed by G. Défago in 1935 were found to be genetically diverse isolates of PG 1. Two large insertions, 415 and 309 nucleotides long, in

  1. DNA-based approaches to identify forest fungi in Pacific Islands: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna E. Case; Sara M. Ashiglar; Phil G. Cannon; Ernesto P. Militante; Edwin R. Tadiosa; Mutya Quintos-Manalo; Nelson M. Pampolina; John W. Hanna; Fred E. Brooks; Amy L. Ross-Davis; Mee-Sook Kim; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2013-01-01

    DNA-based diagnostics have been successfully used to characterize diverse forest fungi (e.g., Hoff et al. 2004, Kim et al. 2006, Glaeser & Lindner 2011). DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) has proved especially useful (Sonnenberg et al. 2007, Seifert 2009, Schoch et al. 2012) for...

  2. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) variation in the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Andean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Bruce D.; Steck, Gary J.; Norrbom, Allen L.; Rodriguez, Erick J.; Srivastava, Pratibha; Alvarado, Norma Nolazco; Colque, Fredy; Landa, Erick Yábar; Sánchez, Juan José Lagrava; Quisberth, Elizabeth; Peñaranda, Emilio Arévalo; Clavijo, P. A. Rodriguez; Alvarez-Baca, Jeniffer K.; Zapata, Tito Guevara; Ponce, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was sequenced for Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) originating from 85 collections from the northern and central Andean countries of South America including Argentina (Tucumán), Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The ITS1 regions of additional specimens (17 collections) from Central America (México, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panamá), Brazil, Caribbean Colombia, and coastal Venezuela were sequenced and together with published sequences (Paraguay) provided context for interpretation. A total of six ITS1 sequence variants were recognized in the Andean region comprising four groups. Type I predominates in the southernmost range of Anastrepha fraterculus. Type II predominates in its northernmost range. In the central and northern Andes, the geographic distributions overlap and interdigitate with a strong elevational effect. A discussion of relationships between observed ITS1 types and morphometric types is included. PMID:26798259

  3. Identification of planorbids from Venezuela by polymerase chain reaction amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism of internal transcriber spacer of the RNA ribosomal gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldeira Roberta L

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Snails of the genus Biomphalaria from Venezuela were subjected to morphological assessment as well as polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis. Morphological identification was carried out by comparison of characters of the shell and the male and female reproductive apparatus. The PCR-RFLP involved amplification of the internal spacer region ITS1 and ITS2 of the RNA ribosomal gene and subsequent digestion of this fragment by the restriction enzymes DdeI, MnlI, HaeIII and MspI. The planorbids were compared with snails of the same species and others reported from Venezuela and present in Brazil, Cuba and Mexico. All the enzymes showed a specific profile for each species, that of DdeI being the clearest. The snails were identified as B. glabrata, B. prona and B. kuhniana.

  4. Short communication: Evaluation of the microbiota of kefir samples using metagenetic analysis targeting the 16S and 26S ribosomal DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsak, N; Taminiau, B; Leclercq, M; Nezer, C; Crevecoeur, S; Ferauche, C; Detry, E; Delcenserie, V; Daube, G

    2015-06-01

    Milk kefir is produced by fermenting milk in the presence of kefir grains. This beverage has several benefits for human health. The aim of this experiment was to analyze 5 kefir grains (and their products) using a targeted metagenetic approach. Of the 5 kefir grains analyzed, 1 was purchased in a supermarket, 2 were provided by the Ministry of Agriculture (Namur, Belgium), and 2 were provided by individuals. The metagenetic approach targeted the V1-V3 fragment of the 16S ribosomal (r)DNA for the grains and the resulting beverages at 2 levels of grain incorporation (5 and 10%) to identify the bacterial species population. In contrast, the 26S rDNA pyrosequencing was performed only on kefir grains with the aim of assessing the yeast populations. In parallel, pH measurements were performed on the kefir obtained from the kefir grains using 2 incorporation rates. Regarding the bacterial population, 16S pyrosequencing revealed the presence of 20 main bacterial species, with a dominance of the following: Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Gluconobacter frateurii, Lactobacillus kefiri, Acetobacter orientalis, and Acetobacter lovaniensis. An important difference was noticed between the kefir samples: kefir grain purchased from a supermarket (sample E) harbored a much higher proportion of several operational taxonomic units of Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. This sample of grain was macroscopically different from the others in terms of size, apparent cohesion of the grains, structure, and texture, probably associated with a lower level of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens. The kefir (at an incorporation rate of 5%) produced from this sample of grain was characterized by a lower pH value (4.5) than the others. The other 4 samples of kefir (5%) had pH values above 5. Comparing the kefir grain and the kefir, an increase in the population of Gluconobacter in grain sample B was observed. This was also the case for Acetobacter orientalis

  5. DNA-methylation dependent regulation of embryo-specific 5S ribosomal DNA cluster transcription in adult tissues of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellavia, Daniele; Dimarco, Eufrosina; Naselli, Flores; Caradonna, Fabio

    2013-10-01

    We have previously reported a molecular and cytogenetic characterization of three different 5S rDNA clusters in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and recently, demonstrated the presence of high heterogeneity in functional 5S rRNA. In this paper, we show some important distinctive data on 5S rRNA transcription for this organism. Using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, we demonstrate the existence of two classes of 5S rRNA, one which is embryo-specific and encoded by the smallest (700 bp) cluster and the other which is expressed at every stage and encoded by longer clusters (900 and 950 bp). We also demonstrate that the embryo-specific class of 5S rRNA is expressed in oocytes and embryonic stages and is silenced in adult tissue and that this phenomenon appears to be due exclusively to DNA methylation, as indicated by sensitivity to 5-azacytidine, unlike Xenopus where this mechanism is necessary but not sufficient to maintain the silenced status. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinz, M; Carracedo, A; Mayr, W R

    2006-01-01

    The ISFG membership consists of scientists and medical professionals specialized in using genetic testing for kinship analysis and the individualization of biological material. This expertise makes the forensic geneticist a resource of advice to international and national organizations dealing...... discussion between scientists and pathologists that had been involved in the International Center in Khao Lak, Thailand, revealed the need for the scientific community to be better prepared to answer the local authorities' questions by formulating generally acceptable scientific standards for the most...... efficient use of DNA-based victim identification methods. These recommendations, as well as the many cited references, are intended to provide guidance on establishing preparedness for the forensic genetics laboratory, on collecting and storing ante-mortem and post-mortem samples suitable for DNA analysis...

  7. Phylogenetic relationship of the genus Gilbertella and related genera within the order Mucorales based on 5.8 S ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, T; Acs, Klára; Nyilasi, Ildikó; Nagy, Erzsébet; Vágvölgyi, Cs

    2003-01-01

    The complete ITS (internal transcribed spacer) region coding the ITS1, the ITS2 and the 5.8S rDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from two strains of Gilbertella persicaria, six strains in the Mucoraceae (Mucor piriformis, M. rouxii, M. circinelloides, Rhizomucor miehei, R. pusillus and R. tauricus) and four strains representing three species of the Choanephoraceae (Blakeslea trispora, Choanephora infundibulifera and Poitrasia circinans). Sequences of the amplified DNA fragments were determined and analysed. G. persicaria belongs to the monogeneric family (Gilbertellaceae), however, originally it was described as Choanephora persicaria. The goal of this study was to reveal the phylogenetic relationship among fungi belonging to Gilbertellaceae, Choanephoraceae and Mucoraceae. Our results support that the "intermediate" position of this family is between Choanephoraceae and Mucoraceae.

  8. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzeneva, Inna B.; Kostuyk, Svetlana V.; Ershova, Elizaveta S.; Skorodumova, Elena N.; Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V.; Volkova, Irina V.; Stepanova, Elena V.; Porokhovnik, Lev N.; Veiko, Natalia N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat is resistant to double-strand breaks in the environment of a raised endonuclease activity. • Hybridization-based techniques are preferable for the analysis of damaged and/or oxidized genomic fragments, rather than the qRT-PCR method. • A chronic exposure to the low-dose IR induces an elevation of the rDNA content in the human circulating cfDNA as compared to cellular DNA. • An exposure to IR entails a decrease of the level of the human circulating satellite III (1q12) as compared to cellular DNA (RsatIII index). • The RrDNA/RsatIII ratio is a potential marker of a chronic IR individual exposure. - Abstract: A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N = 88) and tritium β-radiation (N = 88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the

  9. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeneva, Inna B., E-mail: inna.korzeneva@molgen.vniief.ru [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190 Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Kostuyk, Svetlana V. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Ershova, Elizaveta S. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); V. A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow, 107031 (Russian Federation); Skorodumova, Elena N.; Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V.; Volkova, Irina V.; Stepanova, Elena V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190 Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Porokhovnik, Lev N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Veiko, Natalia N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); V. A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow, 107031 (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • A transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat is resistant to double-strand breaks in the environment of a raised endonuclease activity. • Hybridization-based techniques are preferable for the analysis of damaged and/or oxidized genomic fragments, rather than the qRT-PCR method. • A chronic exposure to the low-dose IR induces an elevation of the rDNA content in the human circulating cfDNA as compared to cellular DNA. • An exposure to IR entails a decrease of the level of the human circulating satellite III (1q12) as compared to cellular DNA (RsatIII index). • The RrDNA/RsatIII ratio is a potential marker of a chronic IR individual exposure. - Abstract: A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N = 88) and tritium β-radiation (N = 88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the

  10. Accumulation of single-strand breaks doses not result in double-strand DNA breaks: peculiarity of transcribing fragment of human ribosomal operon that allows its detection in biological fluids at the death of various cells in organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejko, N.N.; Spitkovskij, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    The evidences of stability of the human ribosomal gene in the transcribing range (TR-rDNA) to fragmentation are presented in two groups of experiments: 1) in the case of availability of the fragments in the cells of sectional corpse material (necrosis and apoptosis) and by pathologies accompanied by the cells death through the apoptosis or necrosis mechanism; 2) in the model experiments, wherein the separated genomes DNA is subjected to the impact of nucleases initiating single-strand breaks (SB), or chemical introduction with a subsequent comparative analysis of stability to fragmentation of various DNA sequences including TR-rDNA. The DNA solutions were subjected to γ-radiation with the dose rate of 4.8 Gy/min. It is shown that in spite of the great number of the SBs the TR-rDNA is characterized by increased stability to fragmentation, which makes it possible to propose this DNA fragment for application as a cell death marker in biological fluids [ru

  11. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Elizaveta S; Skorodumova, Elena N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Volkova, Irina V; Stepanova, Elena V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N=88) and tritium β-radiation (N=88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the circulating cfDNA as compared with the cfDNA of non-exposed people (N=109). Such index that simultaneously displays both the increase of rDNA content and decrease of satellite III content in the cfDNA (RrDNA/RsatIII) can be recommended as a marker of chronic processes in the body that involve the elevated cell death rate and/or increased blood plasma endonuclease activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of an Internal Ribosome Entry Segment in the 5′ Region of the Mouse VL30 Retrotransposon and Its Use in the Development of Retroviral Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Lastra, Marcelo; Ulrici, Sandrine; Gabus, Caroline; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    1999-01-01

    Mouse virus-like 30S RNAs (VL30m) constitute a family of retrotransposons, present at 100 to 200 copies, dispersed in the mouse genome. They display little sequence homology to Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV), do not encode virus-like proteins, and have not been implicated in retroviral carcinogenesis. However, VL30 RNAs are efficiently packaged into MLV particles that are propagated in cell culture. In this study, we addressed whether the 5′ region of VL30m could replace the 5′ leader of MoMLV functionally in a recombinant vector construct. Our data confirm that the putative packaging sequence of VL30 is located within the 5′ region (nucleotides 362 to 1149 with respect to the cap structure) and that it can replace the packaging sequence of MoMLV. We also show that VL30m contains an internal ribosome entry segment (IRES) in the 5′ region, as do MoMLV, Friend murine leukemia virus, Harvey murine sarcoma virus, and avian reticuloendotheliosis virus type A. Our data show that both the packaging and IRES functions of the 5′ region of VL30m RNA can be efficiently used to develop retrotransposon-based vectors. PMID:10482590

  13. Identification of an internal ribosome entry segment in the 5' region of the mouse VL30 retrotransposon and its use in the development of retroviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Lastra, M; Ulrici, S; Gabus, C; Darlix, J L

    1999-10-01

    Mouse virus-like 30S RNAs (VL30m) constitute a family of retrotransposons, present at 100 to 200 copies, dispersed in the mouse genome. They display little sequence homology to Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV), do not encode virus-like proteins, and have not been implicated in retroviral carcinogenesis. However, VL30 RNAs are efficiently packaged into MLV particles that are propagated in cell culture. In this study, we addressed whether the 5' region of VL30m could replace the 5' leader of MoMLV functionally in a recombinant vector construct. Our data confirm that the putative packaging sequence of VL30 is located within the 5' region (nucleotides 362 to 1149 with respect to the cap structure) and that it can replace the packaging sequence of MoMLV. We also show that VL30m contains an internal ribosome entry segment (IRES) in the 5' region, as do MoMLV, Friend murine leukemia virus, Harvey murine sarcoma virus, and avian reticuloendotheliosis virus type A. Our data show that both the packaging and IRES functions of the 5' region of VL30m RNA can be efficiently used to develop retrotransposon-based vectors.

  14. HuR and Ago2 Bind the Internal Ribosome Entry Site of Enterovirus 71 and Promote Virus Translation and Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yi Lin

    Full Text Available EV71 (enterovirus 71 RNA contains an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES that directs cap-independent initiation of translation. IRES-dependent translation requires the host's translation initiation factors and IRES-associated trans-acting factors (ITAFs. We reported recently that mRNA decay factor AUF1 is a negative-acting ITAF that binds IRES stem-loop II. We also reported that the small RNA-processing enzyme Dicer produces at least four small RNAs (vsRNAs from the EV71 IRES. One of these, vsRNA1, derived from IRES stem-loop II, reduces IRES activity and virus replication. Since its mechanism of action is unknown, we hypothesized that it might control association of ITAFs with the IRES. Here, we identified the mRNA stability factor HuR and the RISC subunit Argonaute 2 (Ago2 as two ITAFs that bind stem-loop II. In contrast to AUF1, HuR and Ago2 promote EV71 IRES activity and virus replication. In vitro RNA-binding assays revealed that vsRNA1 can alter association of Ago2, HuR, and AUF1 with stem-loop II. This presents a possible mechanism by which vsRNA1 could control viral translation and replication.

  15. DNA hybridization kinetics: zippering, internal displacement and sequence dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouldridge, Thomas E; Sulc, Petr; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P K; Louis, Ard A

    2013-10-01

    Although the thermodynamics of DNA hybridization is generally well established, the kinetics of this classic transition is less well understood. Providing such understanding has new urgency because DNA nanotechnology often depends critically on binding rates. Here, we explore DNA oligomer hybridization kinetics using a coarse-grained model. Strand association proceeds through a complex set of intermediate states, with successful binding events initiated by a few metastable base-pairing interactions, followed by zippering of the remaining bonds. But despite reasonably strong interstrand interactions, initial contacts frequently dissociate because typical configurations in which they form differ from typical states of similar enthalpy in the double-stranded equilibrium ensemble. Initial contacts must be stabilized by two or three base pairs before full zippering is likely, resulting in negative effective activation enthalpies. Non-Arrhenius behavior arises because the number of base pairs required for nucleation increases with temperature. In addition, we observe two alternative pathways-pseudoknot and inchworm internal displacement-through which misaligned duplexes can rearrange to form duplexes. These pathways accelerate hybridization. Our results explain why experimentally observed association rates of GC-rich oligomers are higher than rates of AT- rich equivalents, and more generally demonstrate how association rates can be modulated by sequence choice.

  16. Phylogenetic position of the yeast-like symbiotes of Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae based on 18S ribosomal DNA partial sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M Xet-Mull

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Tagosodes orizicolus Muir (Homoptera: Delphacidae, the endemic delphacid species of tropical America carries yeast-like symbiotes (YLS in the abdominal fat bodies and the ovarial tissues, like other rice planthoppers of Asia. These YLS are obligate symbiotes, which are transmitted transovarially, and maintain a mutualistic relationship with the insect host. This characteristic has made in vitro culture and classification of YLS rather difficult using conventional methods. Nevertheless, microorganisms of similar characteristics have been successfully classified by using molecular taxonomy. In the present work, the YLS of Tagosodes orizicolus(YLSTo were purified on Percoll® gradients, and specific segments of 18S rDNA were amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced. Sequences were aligned by means of the CLUSTAL V (DNASTAR program; phylogenetic trees were constructed with the Phylogeny Inference Package (PHYLIP, showing that YLSTo belong to the fungi class Pyrenomycetes, phylum Ascomycota. Similarities between 98% and 100% were observed among YLS of the rice delphacids Tagosodes orizicolus, Nilaparvata lugens, Laodelphax striatellus and Sogatella furcifera, and between 89.8% and 90.8% when comparing the above to YLS of the aphid Hamiltonaphis styraci. These comparisons revealed that delphacid YLS are a highly conserved monophyletic group within the Pyrenomycetes and are closely related to Hypomyces chrysospermus. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 777-785. Epub 2004 Dic 15.Tagosodes orizicolus Muir (Homoptera: Delphacidae es una especie endémica de América tropical que al igual que otros saltahojas de Asia, tiene simbiontes levaduriformes (YLS, por sus siglas en Inglés en los cuerpos grasos del abdomen y en los tejidos de los ovarios. Los YLS son simbiontes obligados que se transmiten transovarialmente y que mantienen relaciones mutualística con el insecto hospedero. Esta característica ha hecho muy difícil su cultivo in vitro y por ende su clasificaci

  17. An internal ribosome entry site directs translation of the 3'-gene from Pelargonium flower break virus genomic RNA: implications for infectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Fernández-Miragall

    Full Text Available Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV, genus Carmovirus has a single-stranded positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA which contains five ORFs. The two 5'-proximal ORFs encode the replicases, two internal ORFs encode movement proteins, and the 3'-proximal ORF encodes a polypeptide (p37 which plays a dual role as capsid protein and as suppressor of RNA silencing. Like other members of family Tombusviridae, carmoviruses express ORFs that are not 5'-proximal from subgenomic RNAs. However, in one case, corresponding to Hisbiscus chlorotic ringspot virus, it has been reported that the 3'-proximal gene can be translated from the gRNA through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES. Here we show that PFBV also holds an IRES that mediates production of p37 from the gRNA, raising the question of whether this translation strategy may be conserved in the genus. The PFBV IRES was functional both in vitro and in vivo and either in the viral context or when inserted into synthetic bicistronic constructs. Through deletion and mutagenesis studies we have found that the IRES is contained within a 80 nt segment and have identified some structural traits that influence IRES function. Interestingly, mutations that diminish IRES activity strongly reduced the infectivity of the virus while the progress of the infection was favoured by mutations potentiating such activity. These results support the biological significance of the IRES-driven p37 translation and suggest that production of the silencing suppressor from the gRNA might allow the virus to early counteract the defence response of the host, thus facilitating pathogen multiplication and spread.

  18. An internal ribosome entry site directs translation of the 3'-gene from Pelargonium flower break virus genomic RNA: implications for infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Miragall, Olga; Hernández, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV, genus Carmovirus) has a single-stranded positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) which contains five ORFs. The two 5'-proximal ORFs encode the replicases, two internal ORFs encode movement proteins, and the 3'-proximal ORF encodes a polypeptide (p37) which plays a dual role as capsid protein and as suppressor of RNA silencing. Like other members of family Tombusviridae, carmoviruses express ORFs that are not 5'-proximal from subgenomic RNAs. However, in one case, corresponding to Hisbiscus chlorotic ringspot virus, it has been reported that the 3'-proximal gene can be translated from the gRNA through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Here we show that PFBV also holds an IRES that mediates production of p37 from the gRNA, raising the question of whether this translation strategy may be conserved in the genus. The PFBV IRES was functional both in vitro and in vivo and either in the viral context or when inserted into synthetic bicistronic constructs. Through deletion and mutagenesis studies we have found that the IRES is contained within a 80 nt segment and have identified some structural traits that influence IRES function. Interestingly, mutations that diminish IRES activity strongly reduced the infectivity of the virus while the progress of the infection was favoured by mutations potentiating such activity. These results support the biological significance of the IRES-driven p37 translation and suggest that production of the silencing suppressor from the gRNA might allow the virus to early counteract the defence response of the host, thus facilitating pathogen multiplication and spread.

  19. Characterization of an internal ribosomal entry segment within the 5' leader of avian reticuloendotheliosis virus type A RNA and development of novel MLV-REV-based retroviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Lastra, M; Gabus, C; Darlix, J L

    1997-11-01

    The murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related type C viruses constitute a major class of retroviruses that includes numerous endogenous and exogenous mammalian viruses and the related avian spleen necrosis virus (SNV). The MLV-related viruses possess a long and multifunctional 5' untranslated leader involved in key steps of the viral life cycle--splicing, translation, RNA dimerization, encapsidation, and reverse transcription. Recent studies have shown that the 5' leader of Friend murine leukemia virus and Moloney murine leukemia virus can direct cap independent translation of gag precursor proteins (Berlioz et al., 1995; Vagner et al., 1995b). These data, together with structural homology studies (Koning et al., 1992), prompted us to undertake a search for new internal ribosome entry segment (IRES) of retroviral origin. Here we describe an IRES element within the 5' leader of avian reticuloendotheliosis virus type A (REV-A) genomic RNA. Data show that the REV-A 5' IRES element maps downstream of the packaging/dimerization (E/DLS) sequence (Watanabe and Temin, 1982; Darlix et al., 1992) and the minimal IRES sequence appears to be within a 129 nt fragment (nucleotides 452-580) of the 5' leader, immediately upstream of the gag AUG codon. The REV-A IRES has been successfully utilized in the construction of novel high titer MLV-based retroviral vectors, containing one or more IRES elements of retroviral origin. These retroviral constructs, which represent a starting point for the design of novel vectors suitable for gene therapy, are also of interest as a model system of internal translation initiation and its possible regulation during development, cancer, or virus infection.

  20. Emerging functions of ribosomal proteins in gene-specific transcription and translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem, Mikael S.

    2009-01-01

    Ribosomal proteins have remained highly conserved during evolution presumably reflecting often critical functions in ribosome biogenesis or mature ribosome function. In addition, several ribosomal proteins possess distinct extra-ribosomal functions in apoptosis, DNA repair and transcription. An increasing number of ribosomal proteins have been shown to modulate the trans-activation function of important regulatory proteins such as NF-κB, p53, c-Myc and nuclear receptors. Furthermore, a subset of ribosomal proteins can bind directly to untranslated regions of mRNA resulting in transcript-specific translational control outside of the ribosome itself. Collectively, these findings suggest that ribosomal proteins may have a wider functional repertoire within the cell than previously thought. The future challenge is to identify and validate these novel functions in the background of an often essential primary function in ribosome biogenesis and cell growth.

  1. Mode of transgene expression after fusion to early or late viral genes of a conditionally replicating adenovirus via an optimized internal ribosome entry site in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Angel A.; Wang Minghui; Suzuki, Kaori; Uil, Taco G.; Krasnykh, Victor; Curiel, David T.; Nettelbeck, Dirk M.

    2004-01-01

    The expression of therapeutic genes by oncolytic viruses is a promising strategy to improve viral oncolysis, to augment gene transfer compared with a nonreplicating adenoviral vector, or to combine virotherapy and gene therapy. Both the mode of transgene expression and the locale of transgene insertion into the virus genome critically determine the efficacy of this approach. We report here on the properties of oncolytic adenoviruses which contain the luciferase cDNA fused via an optimized internal ribosome entry site (IRES) to the immediate early adenoviral gene E1A (AdΔE1AIL), the early gene E2B (AdΔE2BIL), or the late fiber gene (AdΔfiberIL). These viruses showed distinct kinetics of transgene expression and luciferase activity. Early after infection, luciferase activities were lower for these viruses, especially for AdΔE2BIL, compared with nonreplicating AdTL, which contained the luciferase gene expressed from the strong CMV promoter. However, 6 days after infection, luciferase activities were approximately four (AdΔE1AIL) to six (AdΔfiberIL) orders of magnitude higher than for AdTL, reflecting virus replication and efficient transgene expression. Similar results were obtained in vivo after intratumoral injection of AdΔE2BIL, AdΔfiberIL, and AdTL. AdΔfiberIL and the parental virus, Ad5-Δ24, resulted in similar cytotoxicity, but AdΔE2BIL and AdΔE1AIL were slightly attenuated. Disruption of the expression of neighboring viral genes by insertion of the transgene was minimal for AdΔE2BIL and AdΔfiberIL, but substantial for AdΔE1AIL. Our observations suggest that insertion of IRES-transgene cassettes into viral transcription units is an attractive strategy for the development of armed oncolytic adenoviruses with defined kinetics and strength of transgene expression

  2. Ribosomal studies on the 70S ribosome of E.coli by means of neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, N.

    1997-01-01

    Ribosomes are ribonucleo-protein complexes, which catalyse proteinbiosynthesis in all living organisms. Currently, most of the structural models of the prokaryotic 70S ribosome rely on electron microscopy and describe mainly the outer shape of the particle. Neutron scattering can provide information on the internal structure of the ribosome. Parts of the structure can be contrasted for neutrons by means of an isotopic exchange of the naturally occurring hydrogen ( 1 H) for deuterium ( 2 H), allowing direct measurements in situ. Specifically deuterium-labeled ribosomes (E. coli) were prepared and analysed with neutron scattering. The biochemical methods were established and combined to a generally applicable preparation system. This allows labeling of all ribosomal components in any combination. A systematic analysis of the protein and RNA phases resulted in the development of a new model for the 70S ribosome. This model describes not only the outer shape of the particle, but displays also an experimentally determined internal protein-RNA distribution and the border of subunits for the first time (four-phase model; resolution: 50A). Models of the 70S ribosome from other studies were evaluated and ranked according to consistency with the measured scattering data. Applying a new neutron scattering technique of particular sensitivity, the proton-spin contrast-variation, single proteins could be measured and localized. The positions of the proteins S6 and S10 were determined, providing the first coordinates of protein mass centers within the 70S ribosome. (orig.) [de

  3. Gyrodiniellum shiwhaense n. gen., n. sp., a new planktonic heterotrophic dinoflagellate from the coastal waters of western Korea: morphology and ribosomal DNA gene sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam Seon; Jeong, Hae Jin; Moestrup, Ojvind; Park, Tae Gyu

    2011-01-01

    The heterotrophic dinoflagellate Gyrodiniellum shiwhaense n. gen., n. sp. is described from live cells and from cells prepared for light, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. Also, sequences of the small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) of rDNA have been analyzed. The episome is conical, while the hyposome is ellipsoid. Cells are covered with polygonal amphiesmal vesicles arranged in 16 horizontal rows. Unlike other Gyrodinium-like dinoflagellates, the apical end of the cell shows a loop-shaped row of five elongate amphiesmal vesicles. The cingulum is displaced by 0.3-0.5 × cell length. Cells that were feeding on the dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae Hulburt were 9.1-21.6 μm long and 6.6-15.7 μm wide. Cells of G. shiwhaense contain nematocysts, trichocysts, a peduncle, and pusule systems, but they lack chloroplasts. The SSU rDNA sequence is >3% different from that of the six most closely related species: Warnowia sp. (FJ947040), Lepidodinium viride Watanabe, Suda, Inouye, Sawaguchi & Chihara, Gymnodinium aureolum (Hulburt) Hansen, Gymnodinium catenatum Graham, Nematodinium sp. (FJ947039), and Gymnodinium sp. MUCC284 (AF022196), while the LSU rDNA is 11-12% different from that of Warnowia sp., G. aureolum, and Nematodinium sp. (FJ947041). The phylogenetic trees show that the species belongs in the Gymnodinium sensu stricto clade. However, in contrast to Gymnodinium spp., cells lack nuclear envelope chambers and a nuclear fibrous connective. Unlike Polykrikos spp., cells of which possess a taeniocyst-nematocyst complex, G. shiwhaense has nematocysts but lacks taeniocysts. It differs from Paragymnodinium shiwhaense Kang, Jeong, Moestrup & Shin by possessing nematocysts with stylets and filaments. Gyrodiniellum shiwhaense n. gen., n. sp. furthermore lacks ocelloids, in contrast to Warnowia spp., Nematodinium spp., and Proterythropsis spp. Based on morphological and molecular data, we suggest that the taxon represents a new species within a

  4. Intragenomic sequence variation at the ITS1 - ITS2 region and at the 18S and 28S nuclear ribosomal DNA genes of the New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae: mollusca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Marshal S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis was conducted on two populations of the invasive non-native New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), one from a freshwater ecosystem in Devil's Lake (Oregon, USA) and the other from an ecosystem of higher salinity in the Columbia River estuary (Hammond Harbor, Oregon, USA). To elucidate potential genetic differences between the two populations, three segments of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), the ITS1-ITS2 regions and the 18S and 28S rDNA genes were cloned and sequenced. Variant sequences within each individual were found in all three rDNA segments. Folding models were utilized for secondary structure analysis and results indicated that there were many sequences which contained structure-altering polymorphisms, which suggests they could be nonfunctional pseudogenes. In addition, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) was used for hierarchical analysis of genetic variance to estimate variation within and among populations and within individuals. AMOVA revealed significant variation in the ITS region between the populations and among clones within individuals, while in the 5.8S rDNA significant variation was revealed among individuals within the two populations. High levels of intragenomic variation were found in the ITS regions, which are known to be highly variable in many organisms. More interestingly, intragenomic variation was also found in the 18S and 28S rDNA, which has rarely been observed in animals and is so far unreported in Mollusca. We postulate that in these P. antipodarum populations the effects of concerted evolution are diminished due to the fact that not all of the rDNA genes in their polyploid genome should be essential for sustaining cellular function. This could lead to a lessening of selection pressures, allowing mutations to accumulate in some copies, changing them into variant sequences.                   

  5. Establishment and Application of a High Throughput Screening System Targeting the Interaction between HCV Internal Ribosome Entry Site and Human Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuying Zhu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are intracellular obligate parasites and the host cellular machinery is usually recruited for their replication. Human eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3 could be directly recruited by the hepatitis C virus (HCV internal ribosome entry site (IRES to promote the translation of viral proteins. In this study, we establish a fluorescence polarization (FP based high throughput screening (HTS system targeting the interaction between HCV IRES and eIF3. By screening a total of 894 compounds with this HTS system, two compounds (Mucl39526 and NP39 are found to disturb the interaction between HCV IRES and eIF3. And these two compounds are further demonstrated to inhibit the HCV IRES-dependent translation in vitro. Thus, this HTS system is functional to screen the potential HCV replication inhibitors targeting human eIF3, which is helpful to overcome the problem of viral resistance. Surprisingly, one compound HP-3, a kind of oxytocin antagonist, is discovered to significantly enhance the interaction between HCV IRES and eIF3 by this HTS system. HP-3 is demonstrated to directly interact with HCV IRES and promote the HCV IRES-dependent translation both in vitro and in vivo, which strongly suggests that HP-3 has potentials to promote HCV replication. Therefore, this HTS system is also useful to screen the potential HCV replication enhancers, which is meaningful for understanding the viral replication and screening novel antiviral drugs. To our knowledge, this is the first HTS system targeting the interaction between eIF3 and HCV IRES, which could be applied to screen both potential HCV replication inhibitors and enhancers.

  6. Potential Natural Products for Alzheimer’s Disease: Targeted Search Using the Internal Ribosome Entry Site of Tau and Amyloid-β Precursor Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Chieh Tasi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein (APP and the hyperphosphorylation of the tau protein are vital in the understanding of the cause of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. As a consequence, regulation of the expression of both APP and tau proteins is one important approach in combating AD. The APP and tau proteins can be targeted at the levels of transcription, translation and protein structural integrity. This paper reports the utilization of a bi-cistronic vector containing either APP or tau internal ribosome entry site (IRES elements flanked by β-galactosidase gene (cap-dependent and secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP (cap-independent to discern the mechanism of action of memantine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist. Results indicate that memantine could reduce the activity of both the APP and tau IRES at a concentration of ~10 μM (monitored by SEAP activity without interfering with the cap-dependent translation as monitored by the β-galactosidase assay. Western blot analysis of the tau protein in neuroblastoma (N2A and rat hippocampal cells confirmed the halting of the expression of the tau proteins. We also employed this approach to identify a preparation named NB34, extracts of Boussingaultia baselloides (madeira-vine fermented with Lactobacillus spp., which can function similarly to memantine in both IRES of APP and Tau. The water maze test demonstrated that NB34 could improve the spatial memory of a high fat diet induced neurodegeneration in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE−/− mice. These results revealed that the bi-cistronic vector provided a simple, and effective platform in screening and establishing the mechanistic action of potential compounds for the treatment and management of AD.

  7. Reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in dermatomycete genus Trichophyton Malmsten 1848 based on ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region, partial 28S rRNA and beta-tubulin genes sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pchelin, Ivan M; Zlatogursky, Vasily V; Rudneva, Mariya V; Chilina, Galina A; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Lavnikevich, Dmitry M; Vasilyeva, Natalya V; Taraskina, Anastasia E

    2016-09-01

    Trichophyton spp. are important causative agents of superficial mycoses. The phylogeny of the genus and accurate strain identification, based on the ribosomal ITS region sequencing, are still under development. The present work is aimed at (i) inferring the genus phylogeny from partial ITS, LSU and BT2 sequences (ii) description of ribosomal ITS region polymorphism in 15 strains of Trichophyton interdigitale. We performed DNA sequence-based species identification and phylogenetic analysis on 48 strains belonging to the genus Trichophyton. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred by maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods on concatenated ITS, LSU and BT2 sequences. Ribosomal ITS region polymorphisms were assessed directly on the alignment. By phylogenetic reconstruction, we reveal major anthropophilic and zoophilic species clusters in the genus Trichophyton. We describe several sequences of the ITS region of T. interdigitale, which do not fit in the traditional polymorphism scheme and propose emendations in this scheme for discrimination between ITS sequence types in T. interdigitale. The new polymorphism scheme will allow inclusion of a wider spectrum of isolates while retaining its explanatory power. This scheme was also found to be partially congruent with NTS typing technique. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Development and evaluation of a 16S ribosomal DNA array-based approach for describing complex microbial communities in ready-to-eat vegetable salads packed in a modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudi, Knut; Flateland, Signe L; Hanssen, Jon Fredrik; Bengtsson, Gunnar; Nissen, Hilde

    2002-03-01

    There is a clear need for new approaches in the field of microbial community analyses, since the methods used can be severely biased. We have developed a DNA array-based method that targets 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), enabling the direct detection and quantification of microorganisms from complex communities without cultivation. The approach is based on the construction of specific probes from the 16S rDNA sequence data retrieved directly from the communities. The specificity of the assay is obtained through a combination of DNA array hybridization and enzymatic labeling of the constructed probes. Cultivation-dependent assays (enrichment and plating) and cultivation-independent assays (direct fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) were used as reference methods in the development and evaluation of the method. The description of microbial communities in ready-to-eat vegetable salads in a modified atmosphere was used as the experimental model. Comparisons were made with respect to the effect of storage at different temperatures for up to 12 days and with respect to the geographic origin of the crisphead lettuce (Spanish or Norwegian), the main salad component. The conclusion drawn from the method comparison was that the DNA array-based method gave an accurate description of the microbial communities. Pseudomonas spp. dominated both of the salad batches, containing either Norwegian or Spanish lettuce, before storage and after storage at 4 degrees C. The Pseudomonas population also dominated the batch containing Norwegian lettuce after storage at 10 degrees C. On the contrary, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria dominated the microbial community of the batch containing Spanish lettuce after storage at 10 degrees C. In that batch, the Enterobacteriaceae also were abundant after storage at 4 degrees C as well as before storage. The practical implications of these results are that microbial communities in ready-to-eat vegetable salads can be

  9. International congress on DNA damage and repair: Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This document contains the abstracts of 105 papers presented at the Congress. Topics covered include the Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair system, DNA repair in malignant transformations, defective DNA repair, and gene regulation. (TEM)

  10. International congress on DNA damage and repair: Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This document contains the abstracts of 105 papers presented at the Congress. Topics covered include the Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair system, DNA repair in malignant transformations, defective DNA repair, and gene regulation

  11. Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS), an ideal DNA barcode for species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: DNA barcoding is a technique used to identify species based on species-specific differences in short regions of their DNA. It is widely used in species discrimination of medicinal plants and traditional medicines. Materials and Methods: In the present study, four potential DNA barcodes, namely rbcL, matK, ...

  12. Systematic relationships among Lutzomyia sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Peru and Colombia based on the analysis of 12S and 28S ribosomal DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beati, Lorenza; Cáceres, Abraham G; Lee, Jamie A; Munstermann, Leonard E

    2004-02-01

    Lutzomyia spp. are New World phlebotomine sand flies, many of which are involved in the transmission of human diseases, such as leishmaniases and bartonellosis. The systematic classification of the approximately 400 species in the genus has been based on morphological characters, but the relationships within the genus are still very much in question. We have inferred phylogenies of 32 species of phlebotomine sand flies belonging to seven sub-genera and two species groups, by using fragments of the mitochondrial small subunit (12SrRNA) and of the nuclear large subunit (28SrRNA) ribosomal gene sequences. The subgenus Helcocyrtomyia and the Verrucarum species group, prominent representatives of the Peruvian sand fly fauna, were represented by 11 and 7 species, respectively. Although based on a limited number of taxa, the resulting phylogenies, based on 837 characters, provide an initial phylogenetic backbone for the progressive reconstruction of infrageneric relationships within Lutzomyia.

  13. Revealing pancrustacean relationships: Phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal protein genes places Collembola (springtails) in a monophyletic Hexapoda and reinforces the discrepancy between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, M.J.T.N.; Roelofs, D.; Mariën, A.G.H.; van Straalen, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background. In recent years, several new hypotheses on phylogenetic relations among arthropods have been proposed on the basis of DNA sequences. One of the challenged hypotheses is the monophyly of hexapods. This discussion originated from analyses based on mitochondrial DNA datasets that, due to an

  14. Revealing pancrustacean relationships : phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal protein genes places Collembola (springtails) in a monophyletic Hexapoda and reinforces the discrepancy between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, M J T N; Roelofs, D; Mariën, J; van Straalen, N M

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, several new hypotheses on phylogenetic relations among arthropods have been proposed on the basis of DNA sequences. One of the challenged hypotheses is the monophyly of hexapods. This discussion originated from analyses based on mitochondrial DNA datasets that, due to an

  15. A distinct group of hepacivirus/pestivirus-like internal ribosomal entry sites in members of diverse picornavirus genera: evidence for modular exchange of functional noncoding RNA elements by recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellen, Christopher U T; de Breyne, Sylvain

    2007-06-01

    The 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) of the RNA genomes of Flaviviridae of the Hepacivirus and Pestivirus genera contain internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs) that are unrelated to the two principal classes of IRESs of Picornaviridae. The mechanism of translation initiation on hepacivirus/pestivirus (HP) IRESs, which involves factor-independent binding to ribosomal 40S subunits, also differs fundamentally from initiation on these picornavirus IRESs. Ribosomal binding to HP IRESs requires conserved sequences that form a pseudoknot and the adjacent IIId and IIIe domains; analogous elements do not occur in the two principal groups of picornavirus IRESs. Here, comparative sequence analysis was used to identify a subset of picornaviruses from multiple genera that contain 5' UTR sequences with significant similarities to HP IRESs. They are avian encephalomyelitis virus, duck hepatitis virus 1, duck picornavirus, porcine teschovirus, porcine enterovirus 8, Seneca Valley virus, and simian picornavirus. Their 5' UTRs are predicted to form several structures, in some of which the peripheral elements differ from the corresponding HP IRES elements but in which the core pseudoknot, domain IIId, and domain IIIe elements are all closely related. These findings suggest that HP-like IRESs have been exchanged between unrelated virus families by recombination and support the hypothesis that RNA viruses consist of modular coding and noncoding elements that can exchange and evolve independently.

  16. A Distinct Group of Hepacivirus/Pestivirus-Like Internal Ribosomal Entry Sites in Members of Diverse Picornavirus Genera: Evidence for Modular Exchange of Functional Noncoding RNA Elements by Recombination▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellen, Christopher U. T.; de Breyne, Sylvain

    2007-01-01

    The 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of the RNA genomes of Flaviviridae of the Hepacivirus and Pestivirus genera contain internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs) that are unrelated to the two principal classes of IRESs of Picornaviridae. The mechanism of translation initiation on hepacivirus/pestivirus (HP) IRESs, which involves factor-independent binding to ribosomal 40S subunits, also differs fundamentally from initiation on these picornavirus IRESs. Ribosomal binding to HP IRESs requires conserved sequences that form a pseudoknot and the adjacent IIId and IIIe domains; analogous elements do not occur in the two principal groups of picornavirus IRESs. Here, comparative sequence analysis was used to identify a subset of picornaviruses from multiple genera that contain 5′ UTR sequences with significant similarities to HP IRESs. They are avian encephalomyelitis virus, duck hepatitis virus 1, duck picornavirus, porcine teschovirus, porcine enterovirus 8, Seneca Valley virus, and simian picornavirus. Their 5′ UTRs are predicted to form several structures, in some of which the peripheral elements differ from the corresponding HP IRES elements but in which the core pseudoknot, domain IIId, and domain IIIe elements are all closely related. These findings suggest that HP-like IRESs have been exchanged between unrelated virus families by recombination and support the hypothesis that RNA viruses consist of modular coding and noncoding elements that can exchange and evolve independently. PMID:17392358

  17. Determination of Trichuris skrjabini by sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 segment of the ribosomal DNA: comparative molecular study of different species of trichurids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillas, C; Oliveros, R; de Rojas, M; Guevara, D C

    2004-06-01

    Adults of Trichuris skrjahini have been isolated from the cecum of caprine hosts (Capra hircus), Trichuris ovis and Trichuris globulosa from Ovis aries (sheep) and C. hircus (goats), and Trichuris leporis from Lepus europaeus (rabbits) in Spain. Genomic DNA was isolated and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 segment from the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was amplified and sequenced by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. The ITS1 of T. skrjabini, T. ovis, T. globulosa, and T. leporis was 495, 757, 757, and 536 nucleotides in length, respectively, and had G + C contents of 59.6, 58.7, 58.7, and 60.8%, respectively. Intraindividual variation was detected in the ITSI sequences of the 4 species. Furthermore, the 5.8S sequences of T. skrjabini, T. ovis, T. globulosa, and T. leporis were compared. A total of 157, 152, 153, and 157 nucleotides in length was observed in the 5.8S sequences of these 4 species, respectively. There were no sequence differences of ITS1 and 5.8S products between T. ovis and T. globulosa. Nevertheless, clear differences were detected between the ITS1 sequences of T. skrjabini, T. ovis, T. leporis, Trichuris muris, and T. arvicolae. The ITS2 fragment from the rDNA of T. skrjabini was sequenced. A comparative study of the ITS2 sequence of T. skrjabini with the previously published ITS2 sequence data of T. ovis, T. leporis, T. muris, and T. arvicolae suggested that the combined use of sequence data from both spacers would be useful in the molecular characterization of trichurid parasites.

  18. The ribosomal protein Rpl22 controls ribosome composition by directly repressing expression of its own paralog, Rpl22l1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique N O'Leary

    Full Text Available Most yeast ribosomal protein genes are duplicated and their characterization has led to hypotheses regarding the existence of specialized ribosomes with different subunit composition or specifically-tailored functions. In yeast, ribosomal protein genes are generally duplicated and evidence has emerged that paralogs might have specific roles. Unlike yeast, most mammalian ribosomal proteins are thought to be encoded by a single gene copy, raising the possibility that heterogenous populations of ribosomes are unique to yeast. Here, we examine the roles of the mammalian Rpl22, finding that Rpl22(-/- mice have only subtle phenotypes with no significant translation defects. We find that in the Rpl22(-/- mouse there is a compensatory increase in Rpl22-like1 (Rpl22l1 expression and incorporation into ribosomes. Consistent with the hypothesis that either ribosomal protein can support translation, knockdown of Rpl22l1 impairs growth of cells lacking Rpl22. Mechanistically, Rpl22 regulates Rpl22l1 directly by binding to an internal hairpin structure and repressing its expression. We propose that ribosome specificity may exist in mammals, providing evidence that one ribosomal protein can influence composition of the ribosome by regulating its own paralog.

  19. The study of genomic DNA adsorption and subsequent interactions using total internal reflection ellipsometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabok, Alexei; Tsargorodskaya, Anna; Davis, Frank; Higson, Séamus P J

    2007-10-31

    The adsorption of genomic DNA and subsequent interactions between adsorbed and solvated DNA was studied using a novel sensitive optical method of total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE), which combines spectroscopic ellipsometry with surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Single strands of DNA of two species of fish (herring and salmon) were electrostatically adsorbed on top of polyethylenimine films deposited upon gold coated glass slides. The ellipsometric spectra were recorded and data fitting utilized to extract optical parameters (thickness and refractive index) of adsorbed DNA layers. The further adsorption of single stranded DNA from an identical source, i.e. herring ss-DNA on herring ss-DNA or salmon ss-DNA on salmon ss-DNA, on the surface was observed to give rise to substantial film thickness increases at the surface of about 20-21 nm. Conversely adsorption of DNA from alternate species, i.e. salmon ss-DNA on herring ss-DNA or herring ss-DNA on salmon ss-DNA, yielded much smaller changes in thickness of 3-5 nm. AFM studies of the surface roughness of adsorbed layers were in line with the TIRE data.

  20. Phylogenetic study of six species of Anopheles mosquitoes in Peninsular Malaysia based on inter-transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, Jia-Siang; Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Amir, Amirah; Braima, Kamil A; Jeffery, John; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah M; Fong, Mun-Yik; Lau, Yee-Ling

    2014-07-03

    Molecular techniques are invaluable for investigation on the biodiversity of Anopheles mosquitoes. This study aimed at investigating the spatial-genetic variations among Anopheles mosquitoes from different areas of Peninsular Malaysia, as well as deciphering evolutionary relationships of the local Anopheles mosquitoes with the mosquitoes from neighbouring countries using the anopheline ITS2 rDNA gene. Mosquitoes were collected, identified, dissected to check infection status, and DNA extraction was performed for PCR with primers targeting the ITS2 rDNA region. Sequencing was done and phylogenetic tree was constructed to study the evolutionary relationship among Anopheles mosquitoes within Peninsular Malaysia, as well as across the Asian region. A total of 133 Anopheles mosquitoes consisting of six different species were collected from eight different locations across Peninsular Malaysia. Of these, 65 ITS2 rDNA sequences were obtained. The ITS2 rDNA amplicons of the studied species were of different sizes. One collected species, Anopheles sinensis, shows two distinct pools of population in Peninsular Malaysia, suggesting evolvement of geographic race or allopatric speciation. Anopheles mosquitoes from Peninsular Malaysia show close evolutionary relationship with the Asian anophelines. Nevertheless, genetic differences due to geographical segregation can be seen. Meanwhile, some Anopheles mosquitoes in Peninsular Malaysia show vicariance, exemplified by the emergence of distinct cluster of An. sinensis population.

  1. Phylogenetic study of six species of Anopheles mosquitoes in Peninsular Malaysia based on inter-transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Molecular techniques are invaluable for investigation on the biodiversity of Anopheles mosquitoes. This study aimed at investigating the spatial-genetic variations among Anopheles mosquitoes from different areas of Peninsular Malaysia, as well as deciphering evolutionary relationships of the local Anopheles mosquitoes with the mosquitoes from neighbouring countries using the anopheline ITS2 rDNA gene. Methods Mosquitoes were collected, identified, dissected to check infection status, and DNA extraction was performed for PCR with primers targeting the ITS2 rDNA region. Sequencing was done and phylogenetic tree was constructed to study the evolutionary relationship among Anopheles mosquitoes within Peninsular Malaysia, as well as across the Asian region. Results A total of 133 Anopheles mosquitoes consisting of six different species were collected from eight different locations across Peninsular Malaysia. Of these, 65 ITS2 rDNA sequences were obtained. The ITS2 rDNA amplicons of the studied species were of different sizes. One collected species, Anopheles sinensis, shows two distinct pools of population in Peninsular Malaysia, suggesting evolvement of geographic race or allopatric speciation. Conclusion Anopheles mosquitoes from Peninsular Malaysia show close evolutionary relationship with the Asian anophelines. Nevertheless, genetic differences due to geographical segregation can be seen. Meanwhile, some Anopheles mosquitoes in Peninsular Malaysia show vicariance, exemplified by the emergence of distinct cluster of An. sinensis population. PMID:24993022

  2. Yeast linker histone Hho1p is required for efficient RNA polymerase I processivity and transcriptional silencing at the ribosomal DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Anat; Eyal, Miri; Hershkovits, Gitit; Salmon-Divon, Mali; Klutstein, Michael; Katcoff, Don Jay

    2008-01-01

    Nucleosome core particles in eukaryotes are linked by a stretch of DNA that is usually associated with a linker histone. Here, we show in yeast, that the presence of yeast linker histone Hho1p represses expression of a pol II transcribed gene (MET15) embedded in the rDNA. In vivo deletions of Hho1p sequences showed that the second globular domain is sufficient for that repression, whereas the presence of the N terminus is required for its derepression. In contrast, a run-on assay confirmed by...

  3. 8-Methoxypsoralen DNA interstrand cross-linking of the ribosomal RNA genes in Tetrahymena thermophila. Distribution, repair and effect on rRNA synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fengquin, X; Nielsen, Henrik; Zhen, W

    1993-01-01

    between three domains (terminal spacer, transcribed region and central spacer) as defined by restriction enzyme analysis (BamHI and ClaI). It is furthermore shown that a dosage resulting in approximately one cross-link per rDNA molecule (21 kbp, two genes) is sufficient to block RNA synthesis. Finally......, it is shown that the cross-links in the rDNA molecules are repaired at equal rate in all three domains within 24 h and that RNA synthesis is partly restored during this repair period. The majority of the cells also go through one to two cell divisions in this period but do not survive....

  4. Development and evaluation of a novel fast broad-range 16S ribosomal DNA PCR and sequencing assay for diagnosis of bacterial infective endocarditis: multi-year experience in a large Canadian healthcare zone and a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert J H; Chow, Barbara; Pillai, Dylan; Church, Deirdre

    2016-04-12

    The study aimed to explore the sensitivity and specificity of a novel fast 16S rDNA PCR and sequencing assay for the improved diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with suspected native or prosthetic heart valve (HV) infection over a multi-year period at our cardiovascular center. Sixty-eight patients were prospectively enrolled who underwent HV replacement for suspected or confirmed IE between February 1, 2009 and September 1, 2014. Patient demographics, medical co-morbidities, Duke's criteria, culture results, and antibiotic therapy were collected by detailed chart reviews. Dual-priming oligonucleotide primers targeted to 500 bps of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene were used to perform fast broad-range 16S rDNA PCR and Sanger sequencing on ribosomal DNA extracted from HV tissues. The performance/diagnostic efficiency of the molecular test was evaluated against blood cultures and Gram stain and culture of HV tissue in patients' with definite IE according to Duke's criteria. Fifty patients (73.5%) had definite IE and another 8 (11.8%) had possible IE according to Duke's criteria. Cardiac surgery was delayed an average of 15.4 days from the time of the patient's last positive blood culture, and appropriate antibiotic therapy was given in the pre-operative period. While 44/50 (88%) patients had a positive blood culture, HV tissue culture was only positive in 23 (46%) of them. Molecular testing of all HV tissues had sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV of 92, 77.8, 77.8 and 92% compared to 44, 100, 39.1 and 100% respectively for culture for diagnosis of definite IE. For prosthetic HV tissue, 16S rDNA PCR had sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 83% compared to 35 and 100% respectively for culture. A literature review showed that the diagnostic accuracy of our novel fast broad-range 16S rDNA PCR assay was similar or better than that of previously published studies. This novel fast broad-range 16S rDNA PCR/sequencing test had superior sensitivity

  5. Repeated reunions and splits feature the highly dynamic evolution of 5S and 35S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in the Asteraceae family

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garcia, S.; Panero, J.L.; Široký, Jiří; Kovařík, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 176 (2010), s. 1-18 ISSN 1471-2229 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : organization of rDNA unit * intergenic spacer * Asteraceae Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.085, year: 2010

  6. Characterization of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae strains by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Friis, N.F.; Ahrens, Peter

    2002-01-01

    , were investigated by analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms of the Bgl II and Mfe I restriction sites and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of a Bss HII digest of chromosomal DNA. Both methods allowed unambiguous differentiation of the analysed strains and showed similar discriminatory...

  7. Description of a New Planktonic Mixotrophic Dinoflagellate Paragymnodinium shiwhaense n. gen., n. sp from the Coastal Waters off Western Korea: Morphology, Pigments, and Ribosomal DNA Gene Sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Nam Seon; Jeong, Hae Jin; Moestrup, Øjvind

    2010-01-01

    The mixotrophic dinoflagellate Paragymnodinium shiwhaense n. gen., n. sp. is described from living cells and from cells prepared by light, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, sequences of the small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA and photosynthetic...... extension-like furrow. The cingulum is as wide as 0.2-0.3 x cell length and displaced by 0.2-0.3 x cell length. Cell length and width of live cells fed Amphidinium carterae were 8.4-19.3 and 6.1-16.0 mu m, respectively. Paragymnodinium shiwhaense does not have a nuclear envelope chamber nor a nuclear...... fibrous connective (NFC). Cells contain chloroplasts, nematocysts, trichocysts, and peduncle, though eyespots, pyrenoids, and pusules are absent. The main accessory pigment is peridinin. The sequence of the SSU rDNA of this dinoflagellate (GenBank AM408889) is 4% different from that of Gymnodinium...

  8. rRNA:mRNA pairing alters the length and the symmetry of mRNA-protected fragments in ribosome profiling experiments

    OpenAIRE

    O?Connor, Patrick B. F.; Li, Gene-Wei; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Atkins, John F.; Baranov, Pavel V.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Ribosome profiling is a new technique that allows monitoring locations of translating ribosomes on mRNA at a whole transcriptome level. A recent ribosome profiling study demonstrated that internal Shine?Dalgarno (SD) sequences have a major global effect on translation rates in bacteria: ribosomes pause at SD sites in mRNA. Therefore, it is important to understand how SD sites effect mRNA movement through the ribosome and generation of ribosome footprints. Results: Here, we provide...

  9. Karyotypes, male meiosis and comparative FISH mapping of 18S ribosomal DNA and telomeric (TTAGGn repeat in eight species of true bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snejana Grozeva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Eight species belonging to five true bug families were analyzed using DAPI/CMA3-staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with telomeric (TTAGGn and 18S rDNA probes. Standard chromosomal complements are reported for the first time for Deraeocoris rutilus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838 (2n=30+2m+XY and D. ruber (Linnaeus, 1758 (2n=30+2m+XY from the family Miridae. Using FISH, the location of a 18S rDNA cluster was detected in these species and in five more species: Megaloceroea recticornis (Geoffroy, 1785 (2n=30+XY from the Miridae; Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius, 1787 (2n=14+2m+XY from the Lygaeidae s.l.; Pyrrhocoris apterus (Linnaeus, 1758 (2n=22+X from the Pyrrhocoridae; Eurydema oleracea (Linnaeus, 1758 (2n=12+XY and Graphosoma lineatum (Linnaeus, 1758 (2n=12+XY from the Pentatomidae. The species were found to differ with respect to location of a 18S rRNA gene cluster which resides on autosomes in O. lavaterae and P. apterus, whereas it locates on sex chromosomes in other five species. The 18S rDNA location provides the first physical landmark of the genomes of the species studied. The insect consensus telomeric pentanucleotide (TTAGGn was demonstrated to be absent in all the species studied in this respect, D. rutilus, M. recticornis, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Cimicidae, E. oleracea, and G. lineatum, supporting the hypothesis that this motif was lost in early evolution of the Heteroptera and secondarily replaced with another motif (yet unknown or the alternative telomerase-independent mechanisms of telomere maintenance. Dot-blot hybridization analysis of the genomic DNA from C. lectularius, Nabis sp. and O. lavaterae with (TTAGGn and six other telomeric probes likewise provided a negative result.

  10. Comparison of sequencing the D2 region of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (MicroSEQ®) versus the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions using two public databases for identification of common and uncommon clinically relevant fungal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbefeville, S; Harris, A; Ferrieri, P

    2017-09-01

    Fungal infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Rapid and accurate identification of fungi is essential to guide accurately targeted antifungal therapy. With the advent of molecular methods, clinical laboratories can use new technologies to supplement traditional phenotypic identification of fungi. The aims of the study were to evaluate the sole commercially available MicroSEQ® D2 LSU rDNA Fungal Identification Kit compared to the in-house developed internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions assay in identifying moulds, using two well-known online public databases to analyze sequenced data. 85 common and uncommon clinically relevant fungi isolated from clinical specimens were sequenced for the D2 region of the large subunit (LSU) of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene with the MicroSEQ® Kit and the ITS regions with the in house developed assay. The generated sequenced data were analyzed with the online GenBank and MycoBank public databases. The D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene identified 89.4% or 92.9% of the 85 isolates to the genus level and the full ITS region (f-ITS) 96.5% or 100%, using GenBank or MycoBank, respectively, when compared to the consensus ID. When comparing species-level designations to the consensus ID, D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene aligned with 44.7% (38/85) or 52.9% (45/85) of these isolates in GenBank or MycoBank, respectively. By comparison, f-ITS possessed greater specificity, followed by ITS1, then ITS2 regions using GenBank or MycoBank. Using GenBank or MycoBank, D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene outperformed phenotypic based ID at the genus level. Comparing rates of ID between D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and the ITS regions in GenBank or MycoBank at the species level against the consensus ID, f-ITS and ITS2 exceeded performance of the D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene, but ITS1 had similar performance to the D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene using MycoBank. Our results indicated that the MicroSEQ® D2 LSU rDNA

  11. Assessment of precision and concordance of quantitative mitochondrial DNA assays: a collaborative international quality assurance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammond, Emma L.; Sayer, David; Nolan, David; Walker, Ulrich A.; Ronde, Anthony de; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Cote, Helene C. F.; Gahan, Michelle E.; Cherry, Catherine L.; Wesselingh, Steven L.; Reiss, Peter; Mallal, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Background: A number of international research groups have developed DNA quantitation assays in order to investigate the role of mitochondrial DNA depletion in anti-retroviral therapy-induced toxicities. Objectives: A collaborative study was undertaken to evaluate intra-assay precision and between

  12. Ribosomal Antibiotics: Contemporary Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Auerbach-Nevo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Most ribosomal antibiotics obstruct distinct ribosomal functions. In selected cases, in addition to paralyzing vital ribosomal tasks, some ribosomal antibiotics are involved in cellular regulation. Owing to the global rapid increase in the appearance of multi-drug resistance in pathogenic bacterial strains, and to the extremely slow progress in developing new antibiotics worldwide, it seems that, in addition to the traditional attempts at improving current antibiotics and the intensive screening for additional natural compounds, this field should undergo substantial conceptual revision. Here, we highlight several contemporary issues, including challenging the common preference of broad-range antibiotics; the marginal attention to alterations in the microbiome population resulting from antibiotics usage, and the insufficient awareness of ecological and environmental aspects of antibiotics usage. We also highlight recent advances in the identification of species-specific structural motifs that may be exploited for the design and the creation of novel, environmental friendly, degradable, antibiotic types, with a better distinction between pathogens and useful bacterial species in the microbiome. Thus, these studies are leading towards the design of “pathogen-specific antibiotics,” in contrast to the current preference of broad range antibiotics, partially because it requires significant efforts in speeding up the discovery of the unique species motifs as well as the clinical pathogen identification.

  13. Expanding the ribosomal universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinman, Jonathan D; Kinzy, Terri Goss

    2009-12-09

    In this issue of Structure, Taylor et al. (2009) present the most complete model of an eukaryotic ribosome to date. This achievement represents a critical milestone along the path to structurally defining the unique aspects of the eukaryotic protein synthetic machinery.

  14. Chapter 2: Genetic Variability in Nuclear Ribosomal and Chloroplast DNA in Utah (Juniperus Osteosperma) and Western (J. Occidentalis) Juniper (Cupressaceae): Evidence for Interspecific Gene Flow1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, Randall G.; Tausch, Robin J.; Nowak, Robert S.

    1998-02-14

    Early studies of evolutionary change in chloroplast DNA indicated limited variability within species. This finding has been attributed to relatively low rates of sequence evolution and has been maintained as justification for the lack of intraspecific sampling in studies examining, relationships at the species level and above. However, documentation of intraspecific variation in cpDNA has become increasingly common and has been attributed in many cases to ''chloroplast capture'' following genetic exchange across species boundaries. Rleseberg and Wendel (1993) list 37 cases of proposed hybridization in plants that include intraspecific variation in cpDNA, 24 (65%) of which they considered to be probable instances of introgression. Rieseberg (1995) suspected that a review of the literature at that time would reveal over 100 cases of intraspecific variation in CPDNA that could be attributed to hybridization and introgression. That intraspecific variation in cpDNA is potentially indicative of hybridization is founded on the expectation that slowly evolving loci or genomes will produce greater molecular variation between than within species. In cases where a species is polymorphic for CPDNA and at least one of the molecular variants is diagnostic for a second species, interspecific hybridization is a plausible explanation. Incongruence between relationships suggested by cpDNA variation and those supported by other types of data (e.g., morphology or molecular data from an additional locus) provides additional support for introgression. One aspect of hybridization in both animals and plants that has become increasingly evident is incongruence in the phylogenetic and geographic distribution of cytoplasmic and nuclear markers. In most cases cytoplasmic introgression appears to be more pervasive than nuclear exchange. This discordance appears attributable to several factors including differences in the mutation rate, number of effective alleles, and modes

  15. Characterization of primary biogenic aerosol particles in urban, rural, and high-alpine air by DNA sequence and restriction fragment analysis of ribosomal RNA genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Després

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the applicability of DNA analyses for the characterization of primary biogenic aerosol (PBA particles in the atmosphere. Samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and total suspended particulates (TSP have been collected on different types of filter materials at urban, rural, and high-alpine locations along an altitude transect in the south of Germany (Munich, Hohenpeissenberg, Mt. Zugspitze.

    From filter segments loaded with about one milligram of air particulate matter, DNA could be extracted and DNA sequences could be determined for bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. Sequence analyses were used to determine the identity of biological organisms, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses (T-RFLP were applied to estimate diversities and relative abundances of bacteria. Investigations of blank and background samples showed that filter materials have to be decontaminated prior to use, and that the sampling and handling procedures have to be carefully controlled to avoid artifacts in the analyses.

    Mass fractions of DNA in PM2.5 were found to be around 0.05% in urban, rural, and high-alpine aerosols. The average concentration of DNA determined for urban air was on the order of ~7 ng m−3, indicating that human adults may inhale about one microgram of DNA per day (corresponding to ~108 haploid bacterial genomes or ~105 haploid human genomes, respectively.

    Most of the bacterial sequences found in PM2.5 were from Proteobacteria (42 and some from Actinobacteria (10 and Firmicutes (1. The fungal sequences were characteristic for Ascomycota (3 and Basidiomycota (1, which are known to actively discharge spores into the atmosphere. The plant sequences could be attributed to green plants (2 and moss spores (2, while animal DNA was found only for one unicellular eukaryote (protist.

  16. Evidence for nuclear internalization of exogenous DNA into mammalian sperm cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francolini, M.; Lavitrano, M.; Lamia, C.L.; French, D.; Frati, L.; Cotelli, F.; Spadafora, C.

    1993-01-01

    Mature sperm cells have the spontaneous capacity to take up exogenous DNA. Such DNA specifically interacts with the subacrosomal segment of the sperm head corresponding to the nuclear area. Part of the sperm-bound foreign DNA is further internalized into nuclei. Using end-labelled plasmid DNA we have found that 15-22% of the total sperm bound DNA is associated with nuclei as determined on isolated nuclei. On the basis of autoradiographic analysis, nuclear permeability to exogenous DNA seems to be a wide phenomenon involving the majority of the sperm nuclei. In fact, the foreign DNA, incubated with sperm cells for different lengths of time, is found in 45% (10 min) to 65% (2 hr) of the sperm nuclei. Ultrastructural autoradiography on thin sections of mammalian spermatozoa, preincubated with end-labelled plasmid DNA, shows that the exogenous DNA is internalized into the nucleus. This conclusion is further supported by ultrastructural autoradiographic analysis on thin sections of nuclei isolated from spermatozoa preincubated with end-labelled DNA

  17. Description of a new planktonic mixotrophic dinoflagellate Paragymnodinium shiwhaense n. gen., n. sp. from the coastal waters off Western Korea: morphology, pigments, and ribosomal DNA gene sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam Seon; Jeong, Hae Jin; Moestrup, Øjvind; Shin, Woongghi; Nam, Seung Won; Park, Jae Yeon; De Salas, Miguel F; Kim, Ki Woo; Noh, Jae Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The mixotrophic dinoflagellate Paragymnodinium shiwhaense n. gen., n. sp. is described from living cells and from cells prepared by light, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, sequences of the small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA and photosynthetic pigments are reported. The episome is conical, while the hyposome is hemispherical. Cells are covered with polygonal amphiesmal vesicles arranged in 16 rows and containing a very thin plate-like component. There is neither an apical groove nor apical line of narrow plates. Instead, there is a sulcal extension-like furrow. The cingulum is as wide as 0.2-0.3 x cell length and displaced by 0.2-0.3 x cell length. Cell length and width of live cells fed Amphidinium carterae were 8.4-19.3 and 6.1-16.0 microm, respectively. Paragymnodinium shiwhaense does not have a nuclear envelope chamber nor a nuclear fibrous connective (NFC). Cells contain chloroplasts, nematocysts, trichocysts, and peduncle, though eyespots, pyrenoids, and pusules are absent. The main accessory pigment is peridinin. The sequence of the SSU rDNA of this dinoflagellate (GenBank AM408889) is 4% different from that of Gymnodinium aureolum, Lepidodinium viride, and Gymnodinium catenatum, the three closest species, while the LSU rDNA was 17-18% different from that of G. catenatum, Lepidodinium chlorophorum, and Gymnodinium nolleri. The phylogenetic trees show that this dinoflagellate belongs within the Gymnodinium sensu stricto clade. However, in contrast to Gymnodinium spp., cells lack nuclear envelope chambers, NFC, and an apical groove. Unlike Polykrikos spp., which have a taeniocyst-nematocyst complex, P. shiwhaense has nematocysts without taeniocysts. In addition, P. shiwhaense does not have ocelloids in contrast to Warnowia spp. and Nematodinium spp. Therefore, based on morphological and molecular analyses, we suggest that this taxon is a new species, also within a new genus.

  18. Cytomolecular analysis of ribosomal DNA evolution in a natural allotetraploid Brachypodium hybridum and its putative ancestors – dissecting complex repetitive structure of intergenic spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Borowska-Zuchowska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nucleolar dominance is an epigenetic phenomenon associated with nuclear 35S rRNA genes and consists in selective suppression of gene loci inherited from one of the progenitors in the allopolyploid. Our understanding of the exact mechanisms that determine this process is still fragmentary, especially in case of the grass species. This study aimed to shed some light on the molecular basis of this genome-specific inactivation of 35S rDNA loci in an allotetraploid Brachypodium hybridum (2n=30, which arose from the interspecific hybridization between two diploid ancestors that were very similar to modern B. distachyon (2n=10 and B. stacei (2n=20. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization with 25S rDNA and chromosome-specific BAC clones as probes we revealed that the nucleolar dominance is present not only in meristematic root-tip cells but also in differentiated cell fraction of B. hybridum. Additionally, the intergenic spacers (IGSs from both of the putative ancestors and the allotetraploid were sequenced and analyzed. The presumptive transcription initiation sites, spacer promoters and repeated elements were identified within the IGSs. Two different length variants, 2.3 kb and 3.5 kb, of IGSs were identified in B. distachyon and B. stacei, respectively, however only the IGS that had originated from B. distachyon-like ancestor was present in the allotetraploid. The amplification pattern of B. hybridum IGSs suggests that some genetic changes occurred in inactive B. stacei-like rDNA loci during the evolution of the allotetraploid. We hypothesize that their preferential silencing is an effect of structural changes in the sequence rather than just the result of the sole inactivation at the epigenetic level.

  19. Cis-regulatory RNA elements that regulate specialized ribosome activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shifeng; Barna, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that the ribosome itself can play a highly regulatory role in the specialized translation of specific subpools of mRNAs, in particular at the level of ribosomal proteins (RP). However, the mechanism(s) by which this selection takes place has remained poorly understood. In our recent study, we discovered a combination of unique RNA elements in the 5'UTRs of mRNAs that allows for such control by the ribosome. These mRNAs contain a Translation Inhibitory Element (TIE) that inhibits general cap-dependent translation, and an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) that relies on a specific RP for activation. The unique combination of an inhibitor of general translation and an activator of specialized translation is key to ribosome-mediated control of gene expression. Here we discuss how these RNA regulatory elements provide a new level of control to protein expression and their implications for gene expression, organismal development and evolution.

  20. Transcriptional activation of ribosomal RNA genes during compensatory renal hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellette, A.J.; Moonka, R.; Zelenetz, A.; Malt, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The overall rate of rDNA transcription increases by 50% during the first 24 hours of compensatory renal hypertrophy in the mouse. To study mechanisms of ribosome accumulation after uninephrectomy, transcription rates were measured in isolated kidneys by transcriptional runoff. 32 P-labeled nascent transcripts were hybridized to blots containing linearized, denatured cloned rDNA, and hybridization was quantitated autoradiographically and by direct counting. Overall transcriptional activity of rDNA was increased by 30% above control levels at 6 hrs after nephrectomy and by 50% at 12, 18, and 24 hrs after operation. Hybridizing RNA was insensitive to inhibiby alpha-amanitin, and no hybridization was detected to vector DNA. Thus, accelerated rDNA transcription is one regulatory element in the accretion of ribosomes in renal growth, and the regulatory event is an early event. Mechanisms of activation may include enhanced transcription of active genes or induction of inactive DNA

  1. DNA damage in internal organs after cutaneous exposure to sulphur mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batal, Mohamed; Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Wartelle, Julien; Bérard, Izabel; Douki, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that attacks mainly skin, eye and lungs. Due to its lipophilic properties, SM is also able to diffuse through the skin and reach internal organs. DNA represents one of the most critical molecular targets of this powerful alkylating agent which modifies DNA structure by forming monoadducts and biadducts. These DNA lesions are involved in the acute toxicity of SM as well as its long-term carcinogenicity. In the present work we studied the formation and persistence of guanine and adenine monoadducts and guanine biadducts in the DNA of brain, lungs, kidneys, spleen, and liver of SKH-1 mice cutaneously exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM. SM-DNA adducts were detected in all studied organs, except in liver at the two lowest doses. Brain and lungs were the organs with the highest level of SM-DNA adducts, followed by kidney, spleen and liver. Monitoring the level of adducts for three weeks after cutaneous exposure showed that the lifetime of adducts were not the same in all organs, lungs being the organ with the longest persistence. Diffusion from skin to internal organs was much more efficient at the highest compared to the lowest dose investigated as the result of the loss of the skin barrier function. These data provide novel information on the distribution of SM in tissues following cutaneous exposures and indicate that brain is an important target. - Highlights: • Sulphur mustard reaches internal organs after skin exposure • Adducts are detected in the DNA of internal organs • Brain is the organ with the highest level of DNA damage • The barrier function of skin is lost at high dose of sulphur mustard • DNA adducts persist in organs for 2 or 3 weeks

  2. DNA damage in internal organs after cutaneous exposure to sulphur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batal, Mohamed [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche, BP87, F-38702 La Tronche Cedex (France); Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Wartelle, Julien [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche, BP87, F-38702 La Tronche Cedex (France); Bérard, Izabel [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Douki, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.douki@cea.fr [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that attacks mainly skin, eye and lungs. Due to its lipophilic properties, SM is also able to diffuse through the skin and reach internal organs. DNA represents one of the most critical molecular targets of this powerful alkylating agent which modifies DNA structure by forming monoadducts and biadducts. These DNA lesions are involved in the acute toxicity of SM as well as its long-term carcinogenicity. In the present work we studied the formation and persistence of guanine and adenine monoadducts and guanine biadducts in the DNA of brain, lungs, kidneys, spleen, and liver of SKH-1 mice cutaneously exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM. SM-DNA adducts were detected in all studied organs, except in liver at the two lowest doses. Brain and lungs were the organs with the highest level of SM-DNA adducts, followed by kidney, spleen and liver. Monitoring the level of adducts for three weeks after cutaneous exposure showed that the lifetime of adducts were not the same in all organs, lungs being the organ with the longest persistence. Diffusion from skin to internal organs was much more efficient at the highest compared to the lowest dose investigated as the result of the loss of the skin barrier function. These data provide novel information on the distribution of SM in tissues following cutaneous exposures and indicate that brain is an important target. - Highlights: • Sulphur mustard reaches internal organs after skin exposure • Adducts are detected in the DNA of internal organs • Brain is the organ with the highest level of DNA damage • The barrier function of skin is lost at high dose of sulphur mustard • DNA adducts persist in organs for 2 or 3 weeks.

  3. Genetic Characterization of Fasciola Isolates from West Azerbaijan Province Iran Based on ITS1 and ITS2 Sequence of Ribosomal DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    GALAVANI, Hossein; GHOLIZADEH, Saber; HAZRATI TAPPEH, Khosrow

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fascioliasis, caused by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica, has medical and economic importance in the world. Molecular approaches comparing traditional methods using for identification and characterization of Fasciola spp. are precise and reliable. The aims of current study were molecular characterization of Fasciola spp. in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran and then comparative analysis of them using GenBank sequences. Methods: A total number of 580 isolates were collected from different hosts in five cities of West Azerbaijan Province, in 2014 from 90 slaughtered cattle (n=50) and sheep (n=40). After morphological identification and DNA extraction, designing specific primer were used to amplification of ITS1, 5.8s and ITS2 regions, 50 samples were conducted to sequence, randomly. Result: Using morphometric characters 99.14% and 0.86% of isolates identified as F. hepatica and F. gigantica, respectively. PCR amplification of 1081 bp fragment and sequencing result showed 100% similarity with F. hepatica in ITS1 (428 bp), 5.8s (158 bp), and ITS2 (366 bp) regions. Sequence comparison among current study sequences and GenBank data showed 98% identity with 11 nucleotide mismatches. However, in phylogenetic tree F. hepatica sequences of West Azerbaijan Province, Iran, were in a close relationship with Iranian, Asian, and African isolates. Conclusions: Only F. hepatica species is distributed among sheep and cattle in West Azerbaijan Province Iran. However, 5 and 6 bp variation in ITS1 and ITS2 regions, respectively, is not enough to separate of Fasciola spp. Therefore, more studies are essential for designing new molecular markers to correct species identification. PMID:27095969

  4. Phylogenetic relationships of the Gomphales based on nuc-25S-rDNA, mit-12S-rDNA, and mit-atp6-DNA combined sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admir J. Giachini; Kentaro Hosaka; Eduardo Nouhra; Joseph Spatafora; James M. Trappe

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Geastrales, Gomphales, Hysterangiales, and Phallales were estimated via combined sequences: nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (nuc-25S-rDNA), mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNA (mit-12S-rDNA), and mitochondrial atp6 DNA (mit-atp6-DNA). Eighty-one taxa comprising 19 genera and 58 species...

  5. In vitro degradation of ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, G; Rivas, A

    1976-12-01

    The cytoplasmic ribosomes from Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris are found to be of two types taking into consideration their stability "in vitro". In the group of unstable ribosomes the large subunit is degraded. The other group apparently does not suffer any degradation under the conditions described. However the RNAs extracted from both types of ribosomes are degraded during sucrose density gradients. The degradation of the largest RNA species has been reported previously, but no comment has been made about the stability of the ribosome itself.

  6. Yeast ribosomal proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaka, E.; Kobata, K.

    1978-01-01

    The cytoplasmic 80s ribosomal proteins from the cells of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were analyzed by SDS two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Seventyfour proteins were identified and consecutively numbered from 1 to 74. Upon oxidation of the 80s proteins with performic acid, ten proteins (no. 15, 20, 35, 40, 44, 46, 49, 51, 54 and 55) were dislocated on the gel without change of the total number of protein spots. Five proteins (no. 8, 14, 16, 36 and 74) were phosphorylated in vivo as seen in 32 P-labelling experiments. The large and small subunits separated in low magnesium medium were analyzed by the above gel electrophoresis. At least forty-five and twenty-eight proteins were assumed to be in the large and small subunits, respectively. All proteins found in the 80s ribosomes, except for no. 3, were detected in either subunit without appearance of new spots. The acidic protein no. 3 seems to be lost during subunit dissociation. (orig.) [de

  7. Isolation and characterization of an RIP (ribosome-inactivating protein)-like protein from tobacco with dual enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neelam; Park, Sang-Wook; Vepachedu, Ramarao; Barbieri, Luigi; Ciani, Marialibera; Stirpe, Fiorenzo; Savary, Brett J; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2004-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are N-glycosidases that remove a specific adenine from the sarcin/ricin loop of the large rRNA, thus arresting protein synthesis at the translocation step. In the present study, a protein termed tobacco RIP (TRIP) was isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves and purified using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography in combination with yeast ribosome depurination assays. TRIP has a molecular mass of 26 kD as evidenced by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and showed strong N-glycosidase activity as manifested by the depurination of yeast rRNA. Purified TRIP showed immunoreactivity with antibodies of RIPs from Mirabilis expansa. TRIP released fewer amounts of adenine residues from ribosomal (Artemia sp. and rat ribosomes) and non-ribosomal substrates (herring sperm DNA, rRNA, and tRNA) compared with other RIPs. TRIP inhibited translation in wheat (Triticum aestivum) germ more efficiently than in rabbit reticulocytes, showing an IC50 at 30 ng in the former system. Antimicrobial assays using highly purified TRIP (50 microg mL(-1)) conducted against various fungi and bacterial pathogens showed the strongest inhibitory activity against Trichoderma reesei and Pseudomonas solancearum. A 15-amino acid internal polypeptide sequence of TRIP was identical with the internal sequences of the iron-superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) from wild tobacco (Nicotiana plumbaginifolia), Arabidopsis, and potato (Solanum tuberosum). Purified TRIP showed SOD activity, and Escherichia coli Fe-SOD was observed to have RIP activity too. Thus, TRIP may be considered a dual activity enzyme showing RIP-like activity and Fe-SOD characteristics.

  8. Replication and meiotic transmission of yeast ribosomal RNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, B J; Zakian, V A; Fangman, W L

    1980-11-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has approximately 120 genes for the ribosomal RNAs (rDNA) which are organized in tandem within chromosomal DNA. These multiple-copy genes are homogeneous in sequence but can undergo changes in copy number and topology. To determine if these changes reflect unusual features of rDNA metabolism, we have examined both the replication of rDNA in the mitotic cell cycle and the inheritance of rDNA during meiosis. The results indicate that rDNA behaves identically to chromosomal DNA: each rDNA unit is replicated once during the S phase of each cell cycle and each unit is conserved through meiosis. Therefore, the flexibility in copy number and topology of rDNA does not arise from the selective replication of units in each S phase nor by the selective inheritance of units in meiosis.

  9. Selection of antigenic markers on a GFP-Cκ fusion scaffold with high sensitivity by eukaryotic ribosome display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongmin; Barankiewicz, Teresa J.; He Mingyue; Taussig, Michael J.; Chen, Swey-Shen

    2007-01-01

    Ribosome display is a cell-free system permitting gene selection through the physical association of genetic material (mRNA) and its phenotypic (protein) product. While often used to select single-chain antibodies from large libraries by panning against immobilized antigens, we have adapted ribosome display for use in the 'reverse' format in order to select high affinity antigenic determinants against solid-phase antibody. To create an antigenic scaffold, DNA encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was fused to a light chain constant domain (Cκ) with stop codon deleted, and with 5' signals (T7 promoter, Kozak) enabling coupled transcription/translation in a eukaryotic cell-free system. Epitopes on either GFP (5') or Cκ (3') were selected by anti-GFP or anti-Cκ antibodies, respectively, coupled to magnetic beads. After selection, mRNA was amplified directly from protein-ribosome-mRNA (PRM) complexes by in situ PCR followed by internal amplification and reassembly PCR. As little as 10 fg of the 1 kb DNA construct, i.e. approximately 7500 molecules, could be recovered following a single round of interaction with solid-phase anti-GFP antibody. This platform is highly specific and sensitive for the antigen-antibody interaction and may permit selection and reshaping of high affinity antigenic variants of scaffold proteins

  10. Selection of antigenic markers on a GFP-C{kappa} fusion scaffold with high sensitivity by eukaryotic ribosome display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongmin, Yang [Institute of Genetics, San Diego, CA 92121-2233 (United States); IgE Therapeutics, Inc., San Diego, CA 92121-2233 (United States); Barankiewicz, Teresa J [Institute of Genetics, San Diego, CA 92121-2233 (United States); IgE Therapeutics, Inc., San Diego, CA 92121-2233 (United States); Mingyue, He [Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB2 4AT (United Kingdom); Taussig, Michael J [Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB2 4AT (United Kingdom); Chen, Swey-Shen [Institute of Genetics, San Diego, CA 92121-2233 (United States) and IgE Therapeutics, Inc., San Diego, CA 92121-2233 (United States)

    2007-07-27

    Ribosome display is a cell-free system permitting gene selection through the physical association of genetic material (mRNA) and its phenotypic (protein) product. While often used to select single-chain antibodies from large libraries by panning against immobilized antigens, we have adapted ribosome display for use in the 'reverse' format in order to select high affinity antigenic determinants against solid-phase antibody. To create an antigenic scaffold, DNA encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was fused to a light chain constant domain (C{kappa}) with stop codon deleted, and with 5' signals (T7 promoter, Kozak) enabling coupled transcription/translation in a eukaryotic cell-free system. Epitopes on either GFP (5') or C{kappa} (3') were selected by anti-GFP or anti-C{kappa} antibodies, respectively, coupled to magnetic beads. After selection, mRNA was amplified directly from protein-ribosome-mRNA (PRM) complexes by in situ PCR followed by internal amplification and reassembly PCR. As little as 10 fg of the 1 kb DNA construct, i.e. approximately 7500 molecules, could be recovered following a single round of interaction with solid-phase anti-GFP antibody. This platform is highly specific and sensitive for the antigen-antibody interaction and may permit selection and reshaping of high affinity antigenic variants of scaffold proteins.

  11. Relationships between 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer DNA and genomic DNA similarities in the taxonomy of phototrophic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, K; Hisada, T; Takata, K; Hiraishi, A

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of microbial species is essential task in microbiology and biotechnology. In prokaryotic systematics, genomic DNA-DNA hybridization is the ultimate tool to determine genetic relationships among bacterial strains at the species level. However, a practical problem in this assay is that the experimental procedure is laborious and time-consuming. In recent years, information on the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has been used to classify bacterial strains at the species and intraspecies levels. It is unclear how much information on the ITS region can reflect the genome that contain it. In this study, therefore, we evaluate the quantitative relationship between ITS DNA and entire genomic DNA similarities. For this, we determined ITS sequences of several species of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria belonging to the order Rhizobiales, and compared with DNA-DNA relatedness among these species. There was a high correlation between the two genetic markers. Based on the regression analysis of this relationship, 70% DNA-DNA relatedness corresponded to 92% ITS sequence similarity. This suggests the usefulness of the ITS sequence similarity as a criterion for determining the genospecies of the phototrophic bacteria. To avoid the effects of polymorphism bias of ITS on similarities, PCR products from all loci of ITS were used directly as genetic probes for comparison. The results of ITS DNA-DNA hybridization coincided well with those of genomic DNA-DNA relatedness. These collective data indicate that the whole ITS DNA-DNA similarity can be used as an alternative to genomic DNA-DNA similarity.

  12. Isolamento e caracterização parcial de sequências homólogas a genes ribossomais (rDNA em Blastocladiella emersonii - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2037 Isolation and partial characterization of homologous sequences of ribosomal genes (rDNA in Blastocladiella emersonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Correa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A definição e a caracterização de regiões de origens de replicação nos eucariotos superiores são ainda controversas. A iniciação da replicação é sítio-específica em alguns sistemas e, em outros, parece estar contida em regiões extensas. Regiões rDNA são modelos atrativos para o estudo de origens de replicação pela sua organização in tandem, reduzindo a área de estudo para o espaço restrito que codifica uma unidade de transcrição. Neste trabalho nós isolamos e caracterizamos parcialmente um clone que contém uma sequência ribossomal do fungo aquático Blastocladiella emersonii, Be97M20. Southern blots mostraram diversos sítios para enzimas de restrição Eco RI, HindIII e SalI. Northern blot de RNA total hibridado contra uma sonda feita com Be97M20 confirmou a sua homologia com o gene ribossomal 18S. A caracterização detalhada, incluindo o mapeamento de restrição completo, subclonagem, sequenciamento e análise em géis bidimensionais proverão informações adicionais importantes sobre a estrutura e dinâmica desta regiãoThe definition and the characterization of replication origins regions in higher eukaryotes are still controversial. The initiation of the replication is site-specific in some systems but seems to occur in large regions in others. Because of its in tandem organization, reducing the area to the restricted space that codifies an unit of transcription, rDNA regions are attractive models to study replication origins. In this work we isolated and started to characterize a clone that contains a ribosomal sequence from the aquatic fungus B. emersonii, Be97M20. Southern blots showed several sites for the restrition enzymes Eco RI, HindIII and SalI. A northern blot of total RNA, hybridized against a probe made from Be97M20, confirmed its homology with the ribosomal 18S gene. The detailed characterization, including complete restriction map, subcloning, sequence and analysis on bidimensional gels will

  13. Diversity of 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS reveals phylogenetic relationships in Burkholderia pseudomallei and its near-neighbors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Liguori

    Full Text Available Length polymorphisms within the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS have been described as stable genetic markers for studying bacterial phylogenetics. In this study, we used these genetic markers to investigate phylogenetic relationships in Burkholderia pseudomallei and its near-relative species. B. pseudomallei is known as one of the most genetically recombined bacterial species. In silico analysis of multiple B. pseudomallei genomes revealed approximately four homologous rRNA operons and ITS length polymorphisms therein. We characterized ITS distribution using PCR and analyzed via a high-throughput capillary electrophoresis in 1,191 B. pseudomallei strains. Three major ITS types were identified, two of which were commonly found in most B. pseudomallei strains from the endemic areas, whereas the third one was significantly correlated with worldwide sporadic strains. Interestingly, mixtures of the two common ITS types were observed within the same strains, and at a greater incidence in Thailand than Australia suggesting that genetic recombination causes the ITS variation within species, with greater recombination frequency in Thailand. In addition, the B. mallei ITS type was common to B. pseudomallei, providing further support that B. mallei is a clone of B. pseudomallei. Other B. pseudomallei near-neighbors possessed unique and monomorphic ITS types. Our data shed light on evolutionary patterns of B. pseudomallei and its near relative species.

  14. Structural and functional organization of ribosomal genes within the mammalian cell nucleolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzini, Massimo; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; O'Donohue, Marie-Françoise; Ploton, Dominique; Thiry, Marc

    2006-02-01

    Data on the in situ structural-functional organization of ribosomal genes in the mammalian cell nucleolus are reviewed here. Major findings on chromatin structure in situ come from investigations carried out using the Feulgen-like osmium ammine reaction as a highly specific electron-opaque DNA tracer. Intranucleolar chromatin shows three different levels of organization: compact clumps, fibers ranging from 11 to 30 nm, and loose agglomerates of extended DNA filaments. Both clumps and fibers of chromatin exhibit a nucleosomal organization that is lacking in the loose agglomerates of extended DNA filaments. In fact, these filaments constantly show a thickness of 2-3 nm, the same as a DNA double-helix molecule. The loose agglomerates of DNA filaments are located in the fibrillar centers, the interphase counterpart of metaphase NORs, therefore being constituted by ribosomal DNA. The extended, non-nucleosomal configuration of this rDNA has been shown to be independent of transcriptional activity and characterizes ribosome genes that are either transcribed or transcriptionally silent. Data reviewed are consistent with a model of control for ribosome gene activity that is not mediated by changes in chromatin structure. The presence of rDNA in mammalian cells always structurally ready for transcription might facilitate a more rapid adjustment of the ribosome production in response to the metabolic needs of the cell.

  15. In vitro molecular machine learning algorithm via symmetric internal loops of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Baek, Christina; Chun, Hyosun; Ryu, Je-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Woo; Deaton, Russell; Zhang, Byoung-Tak

    2017-08-01

    Programmable biomolecules, such as DNA strands, deoxyribozymes, and restriction enzymes, have been used to solve computational problems, construct large-scale logic circuits, and program simple molecular games. Although studies have shown the potential of molecular computing, the capability of computational learning with DNA molecules, i.e., molecular machine learning, has yet to be experimentally verified. Here, we present a novel molecular learning in vitro model in which symmetric internal loops of double-stranded DNA are exploited to measure the differences between training instances, thus enabling the molecules to learn from small errors. The model was evaluated on a data set of twenty dialogue sentences obtained from the television shows Friends and Prison Break. The wet DNA-computing experiments confirmed that the molecular learning machine was able to generalize the dialogue patterns of each show and successfully identify the show from which the sentences originated. The molecular machine learning model described here opens the way for solving machine learning problems in computer science and biology using in vitro molecular computing with the data encoded in DNA molecules. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Heterogeneous Ribosomes Preferentially Translate Distinct Subpools of mRNAs Genome-wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhen; Fujii, Kotaro; Kovary, Kyle M; Genuth, Naomi R; Röst, Hannes L; Teruel, Mary N; Barna, Maria

    2017-07-06

    Emerging studies have linked the ribosome to more selective control of gene regulation. However, an outstanding question is whether ribosome heterogeneity at the level of core ribosomal proteins (RPs) exists and enables ribosomes to preferentially translate specific mRNAs genome-wide. Here, we measured the absolute abundance of RPs in translating ribosomes and profiled transcripts that are enriched or depleted from select subsets of ribosomes within embryonic stem cells. We find that heterogeneity in RP composition endows ribosomes with differential selectivity for translating subpools of transcripts, including those controlling metabolism, cell cycle, and development. As an example, mRNAs enriched in binding to RPL10A/uL1-containing ribosomes are shown to require RPL10A/uL1 for their efficient translation. Within several of these transcripts, this level of regulation is mediated, at least in part, by internal ribosome entry sites. Together, these results reveal a critical functional link between ribosome heterogeneity and the post-transcriptional circuitry of gene expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuron-Like Networks Between Ribosomal Proteins Within the Ribosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirot, Olivier; Timsit, Youri

    2016-05-01

    From brain to the World Wide Web, information-processing networks share common scale invariant properties. Here, we reveal the existence of neural-like networks at a molecular scale within the ribosome. We show that with their extensions, ribosomal proteins form complex assortative interaction networks through which they communicate through tiny interfaces. The analysis of the crystal structures of 50S eubacterial particles reveals that most of these interfaces involve key phylogenetically conserved residues. The systematic observation of interactions between basic and aromatic amino acids at the interfaces and along the extension provides new structural insights that may contribute to decipher the molecular mechanisms of signal transmission within or between the ribosomal proteins. Similar to neurons interacting through “molecular synapses”, ribosomal proteins form a network that suggest an analogy with a simple molecular brain in which the “sensory-proteins” innervate the functional ribosomal sites, while the “inter-proteins” interconnect them into circuits suitable to process the information flow that circulates during protein synthesis. It is likely that these circuits have evolved to coordinate both the complex macromolecular motions and the binding of the multiple factors during translation. This opens new perspectives on nanoscale information transfer and processing.

  18. DNA barcoding of western North American taxa: Leymus (Poaceae) and Lepidium (Brassicaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine Mae Culumber

    2007-01-01

    My objective was to determine if polymorphic information from the 18S-5.8S-26S nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer regions and the trnK-psbA, trnK-rps16 chloroplast DNA spacer regions is sufficient 1) to identify a plant specimen to the species level, and 2) to establish the phylogenetic relationship between species. The first study examined the...

  19. Hierarchical recruitment of ribosomal proteins and assembly factors remodels nucleolar pre-60S ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedka, Stephanie; Micic, Jelena; Wilson, Daniel; Brown, Hailey; Diorio-Toth, Luke; Woolford, John L

    2018-04-24

    Ribosome biogenesis involves numerous preribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA) processing events to remove internal and external transcribed spacer sequences, ultimately yielding three mature rRNAs. Removal of the internal transcribed spacer 2 spacer RNA is the final step in large subunit pre-rRNA processing and begins with endonucleolytic cleavage at the C 2 site of 27SB pre-rRNA. C 2 cleavage requires the hierarchical recruitment of 11 ribosomal proteins and 14 ribosome assembly factors. However, the function of these proteins in C 2 cleavage remained unclear. In this study, we have performed a detailed analysis of the effects of depleting proteins required for C 2 cleavage and interpreted these results using cryo-electron microscopy structures of assembling 60S subunits. This work revealed that these proteins are required for remodeling of several neighborhoods, including two major functional centers of the 60S subunit, suggesting that these remodeling events form a checkpoint leading to C 2 cleavage. Interestingly, when C 2 cleavage is directly blocked by depleting or inactivating the C 2 endonuclease, assembly progresses through all other subsequent steps. © 2018 Biedka et al.

  20. DNA internal standard for the quantitative determination of hallucinogenic plants in plant mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Pino; Bertea, Cinzia M; Temporale, Giovanni; Maffei, Massimo E

    2007-12-01

    Here, we show a new, simple, and rapid SYBR Green-based Real-Time PCR assay for the quantification of hallucinogenic plants in plant mixtures. As a test plant, Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva-M., a perennial herb belonging to the Lamiaceae family able to induce hallucinations, changes in perception, or other psychologically induced changes with similar potency as LSD, was used. The method was tested on seven mixtures 100/0%, 80/20%, 60/40%, 40/60%, 20/80%, 10/90%, 0/100% (w/w) S. divinorum versus a non-hallucinogenic plant, Salvia officinalis. Total DNA was extracted from samples and quantified by Real-Time PCR. Arabidopsis thaliana genomic DNA was added, as internal standard, at the beginning of each extraction. A new formula for the interpretation of Real-Time PCR data, based on the relative quantification of DNA extracted from mixture versus a reference DNA extracted from a known amount of pure S. divinorum, was developed. The results of this work show an almost perfect correspondence between Real-Time PCR-calculated weight and the weight estimated by an analytical weighted method, proving the effectiveness of this method for the quantitative analysis of a given species in a plant mixture.

  1. Employing 454 amplicon pyrosequencing to reveal intragenomic divergence in the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region in fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Lindner; Tor Carlsen; Henrik Nilsson; Marie Davey; Trond Schumacher; Havard. Kauserud

    2013-01-01

    The rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has been accepted as a DNA barcoding marker for fungi and is widely used in phylogenetic studies; however, intragenomic ITS variability has been observed in a broad range of taxa, including prokaryotes, plants, animals, and fungi, and this variability has the potential to inflate species richness estimates in molecular...

  2. DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics: recommendations on forensic analysis using Y-chromosome STRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P; Brenner, C; Brinkmann, B

    2001-01-01

    During the past few years, the DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics has published a series of documents providing guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the problems of human identification. This latest report addresses...

  3. DNA commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics: recommendations on forensic analysis using Y-chromosome STRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P; Brenner, C; Brinkmann, B

    2001-01-01

    During the past few years the DNA commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics has published a series of documents providing guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the problems of human identification. This latest report addresses...

  4. DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics: recommendations on forensic analysis using Y-chromosome short tandem repeats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P.; Brenner, C.; Brinkmann, B.

    2001-01-01

    During the past few years the DNA commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics has published a series of documents providing guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the problems of human identification. This latest report addresses a relat...

  5. Translational control of human acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 mRNA is mediated by an internal ribosome entry site in response to ER stress, serum deprivation or hypoxia mimetic CoCl2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Fabrizio; Testini, Mariangela; Tocci, Romina; Gnoni, Gabriele V; Siculella, Luisa

    2018-04-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) is a cytosolic enzyme catalyzing the rate limiting step in de novo fatty acid biosynthesis. There is mounting evidence showing that ACC1 is susceptible to dysregulation and that it is over-expressed in liver diseases associated with lipid accumulation and in several cancers. In the present study, ACC1 regulation at the translational level is reported. Using several experimental approaches, the presence of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) has been established in the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of the ACC1 mRNA. Transfection experiments with the ACC1 5' UTR inserted in a dicistronic reporter vector show a remarkable increase in the downstream cistron translation, through a cap-independent mechanism. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress condition and the related unfolded protein response (UPR), triggered by treatment with thapsigargin and tunicamycin, cause an increase of the cap-independent translation of ACC1 mRNA in HepG2 cells, despite the overall reduction in global protein synthesis. Other stress conditions, such as serum starvation and incubation with hypoxia mimetic agent CoCl 2 , up-regulate ACC1 expression in HepG2 cells at the translational level. Overall, these findings indicate that the presence of an IRES in the ACC1 5' UTR allows ACC1 mRNA translation in conditions that are inhibitory to cap-dependent translation. A potential involvement of the cap-independent translation of ACC1 in several pathologies, such as obesity and cancer, has been discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Phanerochaete inferred from the internal transcribed spacer region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorus H. de Koker; Karen K. Nakasone; Jacques Haarhof; Harold H. Burdsall; Bernard J.H. Janse

    2003-01-01

    Phanerochaete is a genus of resupinate homobasidiomycetes that are saprophytic on woody debris and logs. Morphological studies in the past indicated that Phanerochaete is a heterogeneous assemblage of species. In this study the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA was used to test the monophyly of the genus Phanerochaete and to infer...

  7. Architecture of the E.coli 70S ribosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkhardt, N.; Diedrich, G.; Nierhaus, K.H.

    1997-01-01

    The 70S ribosome from E.coli was analysed by neutron scattering focusing on the shape and the internal protein-RNA-distribution of the complex. Measurements on selectively deuterated 70S particles and free 30S and 50S subunits applying conventional contrast variation and proton-spin contrast...

  8. A novel mini-DNA barcoding assay to identify processed fins from internationally protected shark species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Andrew T; Abercrombie, Debra L; Eng, Rowena; Feldheim, Kevin; Chapman, Demian D

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need to identify shark products in trade, in part due to the recent listing of five commercially important species on the Appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES; porbeagle, Lamna nasus, oceanic whitetip, Carcharhinus longimanus scalloped hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini, smooth hammerhead, S. zygaena and great hammerhead S. mokarran) in addition to three species listed in the early part of this century (whale, Rhincodon typus, basking, Cetorhinus maximus, and white, Carcharodon carcharias). Shark fins are traded internationally to supply the Asian dried seafood market, in which they are used to make the luxury dish shark fin soup. Shark fins usually enter international trade with their skin still intact and can be identified using morphological characters or standard DNA-barcoding approaches. Once they reach Asia and are traded in this region the skin is removed and they are treated with chemicals that eliminate many key diagnostic characters and degrade their DNA ("processed fins"). Here, we present a validated mini-barcode assay based on partial sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I gene that can reliably identify the processed fins of seven of the eight CITES listed shark species. We also demonstrate that the assay can even frequently identify the species or genus of origin of shark fin soup (31 out of 50 samples).

  9. A novel mini-DNA barcoding assay to identify processed fins from internationally protected shark species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Fields

    Full Text Available There is a growing need to identify shark products in trade, in part due to the recent listing of five commercially important species on the Appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES; porbeagle, Lamna nasus, oceanic whitetip, Carcharhinus longimanus scalloped hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini, smooth hammerhead, S. zygaena and great hammerhead S. mokarran in addition to three species listed in the early part of this century (whale, Rhincodon typus, basking, Cetorhinus maximus, and white, Carcharodon carcharias. Shark fins are traded internationally to supply the Asian dried seafood market, in which they are used to make the luxury dish shark fin soup. Shark fins usually enter international trade with their skin still intact and can be identified using morphological characters or standard DNA-barcoding approaches. Once they reach Asia and are traded in this region the skin is removed and they are treated with chemicals that eliminate many key diagnostic characters and degrade their DNA ("processed fins". Here, we present a validated mini-barcode assay based on partial sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I gene that can reliably identify the processed fins of seven of the eight CITES listed shark species. We also demonstrate that the assay can even frequently identify the species or genus of origin of shark fin soup (31 out of 50 samples.

  10. Internal validation of STRmix™ for the interpretation of single source and mixed DNA profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Tamyra R; Just, Rebecca S; Kehl, Susannah C; Willis, Leah E; Buckleton, John S; Bright, Jo-Anne; Taylor, Duncan A; Onorato, Anthony J

    2017-07-01

    The interpretation of DNA evidence can entail analysis of challenging STR typing results. Genotypes inferred from low quality or quantity specimens, or mixed DNA samples originating from multiple contributors, can result in weak or inconclusive match probabilities when a binary interpretation method and necessary thresholds (such as a stochastic threshold) are employed. Probabilistic genotyping approaches, such as fully continuous methods that incorporate empirically determined biological parameter models, enable usage of more of the profile information and reduce subjectivity in interpretation. As a result, software-based probabilistic analyses tend to produce more consistent and more informative results regarding potential contributors to DNA evidence. Studies to assess and internally validate the probabilistic genotyping software STRmix™ for casework usage at the Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory were conducted using lab-specific parameters and more than 300 single-source and mixed contributor profiles. Simulated forensic specimens, including constructed mixtures that included DNA from two to five donors across a broad range of template amounts and contributor proportions, were used to examine the sensitivity and specificity of the system via more than 60,000 tests comparing hundreds of known contributors and non-contributors to the specimens. Conditioned analyses, concurrent interpretation of amplification replicates, and application of an incorrect contributor number were also performed to further investigate software performance and probe the limitations of the system. In addition, the results from manual and probabilistic interpretation of both prepared and evidentiary mixtures were compared. The findings support that STRmix™ is sufficiently robust for implementation in forensic laboratories, offering numerous advantages over historical methods of DNA profile analysis and greater statistical power for the estimation of evidentiary weight, and

  11. Ribosomal protein S14 transcripts are edited in Oenothera mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, W; Unseld, M; Wissinger, B; Brennicke, A

    1990-01-01

    The gene encoding ribosomal protein S14 (rps14) in Oenothera mitochondria is located upstream of the cytochrome b gene (cob). Sequence analysis of independently derived cDNA clones covering the entire rps14 coding region shows two nucleotides edited from the genomic DNA to the mRNA derived sequences by C to U modifications. A third editing event occurs four nucleotides upstream of the AUG initiation codon and improves a potential ribosome binding site. A CGG codon specifying arginine in a position conserved in evolution between chloroplasts and E. coli as a UGG tryptophan codon is not edited in any of the cDNAs analysed. An inverted repeat 3' of an unidentified open reading frame is located upstream of the rps14 gene. The inverted repeat sequence is highly conserved at analogous regions in other Oenothera mitochondrial loci. Images PMID:2326162

  12. Utilización del patrón de restricción del DNA codificante para el RNA Ribosomal de la subunidad pequeña para la caracterización de Apicomplexa

    OpenAIRE

    López Adelaida; Carvajal Humberto; Royero Nelson

    1996-01-01

    Los Apicomplexos constituyen un phylum de protozoarios que se caracterizan por ser parásitos obligados de una gran variedad de huéspedes vertebrados e invertebrados. Hoy en día hay fuertes polémicas en tomo a su clasificación taxonómica, sus relaciones filogenéticas, y los patrones de coevolución con sus hospederos. El gen que codifica para el ARN ribosomal de la subunidad pequeña (ARN-SURp) se utiliza como marcador molecular para resolver estas inquietudes. A partir del ADN de las especies d...

  13. Genetic analyses of ribosomal loci of Anopheles minimus species from north east India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, P; Khan, S A; Topno, R; Chowdhury, P; Baishya, M; Prakash, A; Bhattacharyya, D R; Mahanta, J

    2013-09-01

    Anopheles minimus is one of the major vectors for transmission of malaria disease in north eastern (NE) region of India. The minimus species complex of Minimus subgroup of Myzomyia series of anophelines were studied in malaria affected states--Assam and Arunachal Pradesh (AP) of NE India. Ribosomal DNA markers--second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and third domain (D3) of 28S gene were used to characterize An. minimus species. Sequence homogeneity was observed in D3 sequences of An.minimus specimens throughout both the states. However, a transversion in ITS2 sequence of single specimen collected from Assam-Meghalaya border areas illustrates possibility of intra population polymorphism in ITS2 sequence within the geographical region.

  14. A robust internal control for high-precision DNA methylation analyses by droplet digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharo, Heidi D; Andresen, Kim; Berg, Kaja C G; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Jeanmougin, Marine; Lind, Guro E

    2018-01-01

    Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) allows absolute quantification of nucleic acids and has potential for improved non-invasive detection of DNA methylation. For increased precision of the methylation analysis, we aimed to develop a robust internal control for use in methylation-specific ddPCR. Two control design approaches were tested: (a) targeting a genomic region shared across members of a gene family and (b) combining multiple assays targeting different pericentromeric loci on different chromosomes. Through analyses of 34 colorectal cancer cell lines, the performance of the control assay candidates was optimized and evaluated, both individually and in various combinations, using the QX200™ droplet digital PCR platform (Bio-Rad). The best-performing control was tested in combination with assays targeting methylated CDO1 , SEPT9 , and VIM . A 4Plex panel consisting of EPHA3 , KBTBD4 , PLEKHF1 , and SYT10 was identified as the best-performing control. The use of the 4Plex for normalization reduced the variability in methylation values, corrected for differences in template amount, and diminished the effect of chromosomal aberrations. Positive Droplet Calling (PoDCall), an R-based algorithm for standardized threshold determination, was developed, ensuring consistency of the ddPCR results. Implementation of a robust internal control, i.e., the 4Plex, and an algorithm for automated threshold determination, PoDCall, in methylation-specific ddPCR increase the precision of DNA methylation analysis.

  15. The primary structure of L37--a rat ribosomal protein with a zinc finger-like motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y L; Paz, V; Olvera, J; Wool, I G

    1993-04-30

    The amino acid sequence of the rat 60S ribosomal subunit protein L37 was deduced from the sequence of nucleotides in a recombinant cDNA. Ribosomal protein L37 has 96 amino acids, the NH2-terminal methionine is removed after translation of the mRNA, and has a molecular weight of 10,939. Ribosomal protein L37 has a single zinc finger-like motif of the C2-C2 type. Hybridization of the cDNA to digests of nuclear DNA suggests that there are 13 or 14 copies of the L37 gene. The mRNA for the protein is about 500 nucleotides in length. Rat L37 is related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein YL35 and to Caenorhabditis elegans L37. We have identified in the data base a DNA sequence that encodes the chicken homolog of rat L37.

  16. 5S ribosomal RNA database Y2K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, M; Barciszewska, M Z; Barciszewski, J; Erdmann, V A

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the updated version (Y2K) of the database of ribosomal 5S ribonucleic acids (5S rRNA) and their genes (5S rDNA), http://rose.man/poznan.pl/5SData/index.html. This edition of the database contains 1985primary structures of 5S rRNA and 5S rDNA. They include 60 archaebacterial, 470 eubacterial, 63 plastid, nine mitochondrial and 1383 eukaryotic sequences. The nucleotide sequences of the 5S rRNAs or 5S rDNAs are divided according to the taxonomic position of the source organisms.

  17. Structure of Ribosomal Silencing Factor Bound to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojun; Sun, Qingan; Jiang, Cai; Yang, Kailu; Hung, Li-Wei; Zhang, Junjie; Sacchettini, James C

    2015-10-06

    The ribosomal silencing factor RsfS slows cell growth by inhibiting protein synthesis during periods of diminished nutrient availability. The crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) RsfS, together with the cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structure of the large subunit 50S of Mtb ribosome, reveals how inhibition of protein synthesis by RsfS occurs. RsfS binds to the 50S at L14, which, when occupied, blocks the association of the small subunit 30S. Although Mtb RsfS is a dimer in solution, only a single subunit binds to 50S. The overlap between the dimer interface and the L14 binding interface confirms that the RsfS dimer must first dissociate to a monomer in order to bind to L14. RsfS interacts primarily through electrostatic and hydrogen bonding to L14. The EM structure shows extended rRNA density that it is not found in the Escherichia coli ribosome, the most striking of these being the extended RNA helix of H54a. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High-resolution microscopy of active ribosomal genes and key members of the rRNA processing machinery inside nucleolus-like bodies of fully-grown mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishova, Kseniya V; Khodarovich, Yuriy M; Lavrentyeva, Elena A; Zatsepina, Olga V

    2015-10-01

    Nucleolus-like bodies (NLBs) of fully-grown (germinal vesicle, GV) mammalian oocytes are traditionally considered as morphologically distinct entities, which, unlike normal nucleoli, contain transcribed ribosomal genes (rDNA) solely at their surface. In the current study, we for the first time showed that active ribosomal genes are present not only on the surface but also inside NLBs of the NSN-type oocytes. The "internal" rRNA synthesis was evidenced by cytoplasmic microinjections of BrUTP as precursor and by fluorescence in situ hybridization with a probe to the short-lived 5'ETS segment of the 47S pre-rRNA. We further showed that in the NLB mass of NSN-oocytes, distribution of active rDNA, RNA polymerase I (UBF) and rRNA processing (fibrillarin) protein factors, U3 snoRNA, pre-rRNAs and 18S/28S rRNAs is remarkably similar to that in somatic nucleoli capable to make pre-ribosomes. Overall, these observations support the occurrence of rDNA transcription, rRNA processing and pre-ribosome assembly in the NSN-type NLBs and so that their functional similarity to normal nucleoli. Unlike the NSN-type NLBs, the NLBs of more mature SN-oocytes do not contain transcribed rRNA genes, U3 snoRNA, pre-rRNAs, 18S and 28S rRNAs. These results favor the idea that in a process of transformation of NSN-oocytes to SN-oocytes, NLBs cease to produce pre-ribosomes and, moreover, lose their rRNAs. We also concluded that a denaturing fixative 70% ethanol used in the study to fix oocytes could be more appropriate for light microscopy analysis of nucleolar RNAs and proteins in mammalian fully-grown oocytes than a commonly used cross-linking aldehyde fixative, formalin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 5S rRNA and ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongadze, G M

    2011-12-01

    5S rRNA is an integral component of the ribosome of all living organisms. It is known that the ribosome without 5S rRNA is functionally inactive. However, the question about the specific role of this RNA in functioning of the translation apparatus is still open. This review presents a brief history of the discovery of 5S rRNA and studies of its origin and localization in the ribosome. The previously expressed hypotheses about the role of this RNA in the functioning of the ribosome are discussed considering the unique location of 5S rRNA in the ribosome and its intermolecular contacts. Based on analysis of the current data on ribosome structure and its functional complexes, the role of 5S rRNA as an intermediary between ribosome functional domains is discussed.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of subgenus vigna species using nuclear ribosomal RNA ITS: evidence of hybridization among Vigna unguiculata subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaykumar, Archana; Saini, Ajay; Jawali, Narendra

    2010-01-01

    Molecular phylogeny among species belonging to subgenus Vigna (genus Vigna) was inferred based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of 18S-5.8S-26S ribosomal RNA gene unit. Analysis showed a total of 356 polymorphic sites of which approximately 80% were parsimony informative. Phylogenetic reconstruction by neighbor joining and maximum parsimony methods placed the 57 Vigna accessions (belonging to 15 species) into 5 major clades. Five species viz. Vigna heterophylla, Vigna pubigera, Vigna parkeri, Vigna laurentii, and Vigna gracilis whose position in the subgenus was previously not known were placed in the section Vigna. A single accession (Vigna unguiculata ssp. tenuis, NI 1637) harbored 2 intragenomic ITS variants, indicative of 2 different types of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeat units. ITS variant type-I was close to ITS from V. unguiculata ssp. pubescens, whereas type-II was close to V. unguiculata ssp. tenuis. Transcript analysis clearly demonstrates that in accession NI 1637, rDNA repeat units with only type-II ITS variants are transcriptionally active. Evidence from sequence analysis (of 5.8S, ITS1, and ITS2) and secondary structure analysis (of ITS1 and ITS2) indicates that the type-I ITS variant probably does not belong to the pseudogenic rDNA repeat units. The results from phylogenetic and transcript analysis suggest that the rDNA units with the type-I ITS may have introgressed as a result of hybridization (between ssp. tenuis and ssp. pubescens); however, it has been epigenetically silenced. The results also demonstrate differential evolution of ITS sequence among wild and cultivated forms of V. unguiculata.

  1. Yeast eIF4B binds to the head of the 40S ribosomal subunit and promotes mRNA recruitment through its N-terminal and internal repeat domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sarah E; Zhou, Fujun; Mitchell, Sarah F; Larson, Victoria S; Valasek, Leos; Hinnebusch, Alan G; Lorsch, Jon R

    2013-02-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF)4B stimulates recruitment of mRNA to the 43S ribosomal pre-initiation complex (PIC). Yeast eIF4B (yeIF4B), shown previously to bind single-stranded (ss) RNA, consists of an N-terminal domain (NTD), predicted to be unstructured in solution; an RNA-recognition motif (RRM); an unusual domain comprised of seven imperfect repeats of 26 amino acids; and a C-terminal domain. Although the mechanism of yeIF4B action has remained obscure, most models have suggested central roles for its RRM and ssRNA-binding activity. We have dissected the functions of yeIF4B's domains and show that the RRM and its ssRNA-binding activity are dispensable in vitro and in vivo. Instead, our data indicate that the 7-repeats and NTD are the most critical domains, which mediate binding of yeIF4B to the head of the 40S ribosomal subunit via interaction with Rps20. This interaction induces structural changes in the ribosome's mRNA entry channel that could facilitate mRNA loading. We also show that yeIF4B strongly promotes productive interaction of eIF4A with the 43S•mRNA PIC in a manner required for efficient mRNA recruitment.

  2. Forensic botany II, DNA barcode for land plants: Which markers after the international agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, G; Corradini, B; Ferrari, F; Santunione, A L; Palazzoli, F; Alu', M

    2015-03-01

    The ambitious idea of using a short piece of DNA for large-scale species identification (DNA barcoding) is already a powerful tool for scientists and the application of this standard technique seems promising in a range of fields including forensic genetics. While DNA barcoding enjoyed a remarkable success for animal identification through cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) analysis, the attempts to identify a single barcode for plants remained a vain hope for a longtime. From the beginning, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) showed a lack of agreement on a core plant barcode, reflecting the diversity of viewpoints. Different research groups advocated various markers with divergent set of criteria until the recent publication by the CBOL-Plant Working Group. After a four-year effort, in 2009 the International Team concluded to agree on standard markers promoting a multilocus solution (rbcL and matK), with 70-75% of discrimination to the species level. In 2009 our group firstly proposed the broad application of DNA barcoding principles as a tool for identification of trace botanical evidence through the analysis of two chloroplast loci (trnH-psbA and trnL-trnF) in plant species belonging to local flora. Difficulties and drawbacks that were encountered included a poor coverage of species in specific databases and the lack of authenticated reference sequences for the selected markers. Successful preliminary results were obtained providing an approach to progressively identify unknown plant specimens to a given taxonomic rank, usable by any non-specialist botanist or in case of a shortage of taxonomic expertise. Now we considered mandatory to update and to compare our previous findings with the new selected plastid markers (matK+rbcL), taking into account forensic requirements. Features of all the four loci (the two previously analyzed trnH-psbA+trnL-trnF and matK+rbcL) were compared singly and in multilocus solutions to assess the most suitable combination for

  3. International study to evaluate PCR methods for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in blood samples from Chagas disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro G Schijman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A century after its discovery, Chagas disease still represents a major neglected tropical threat. Accurate diagnostics tools as well as surrogate markers of parasitological response to treatment are research priorities in the field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR methods in detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA by an external quality evaluation. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: An international collaborative study was launched by expert PCR laboratories from 16 countries. Currently used strategies were challenged against serial dilutions of purified DNA from stocks representing T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTU I, IV and VI (set A, human blood spiked with parasite cells (set B and Guanidine Hidrochloride-EDTA blood samples from 32 seropositive and 10 seronegative patients from Southern Cone countries (set C. Forty eight PCR tests were reported for set A and 44 for sets B and C; 28 targeted minicircle DNA (kDNA, 13 satellite DNA (Sat-DNA and the remainder low copy number sequences. In set A, commercial master mixes and Sat-DNA Real Time PCR showed better specificity, but kDNA-PCR was more sensitive to detect DTU I DNA. In set B, commercial DNA extraction kits presented better specificity than solvent extraction protocols. Sat-DNA PCR tests had higher specificity, with sensitivities of 0.05-0.5 parasites/mL whereas specific kDNA tests detected 5.10(-3 par/mL. Sixteen specific and coherent methods had a Good Performance in both sets A and B (10 fg/µl of DNA from all stocks, 5 par/mL spiked blood. The median values of sensitivities, specificities and accuracies obtained in testing the Set C samples with the 16 tests determined to be good performing by analyzing Sets A and B samples varied considerably. Out of them, four methods depicted the best performing parameters in all three sets of samples, detecting at least 10 fg/µl for each DNA stock, 0.5 par/mL and a sensitivity between 83.3-94.4%, specificity of 85

  4. Comparison of the Sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions and PbGP43 Genes of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from Patients and Armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebeler-Barbosa, Flavia; Morais, Flavia V.; Montenegro, Mario R.; Kuramae, Eiko E.; Montes, Beatriz; McEwen, Juan G.; Bagagli, Eduardo; Puccia, Rosana

    2003-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates from 10 nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) were comparable with 19 clinical isolates by sequence analysis of the PbGP43 gene and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 and by random amplified polymorphic DNA. In this original ITS study, eight isolates differed by one or three sites among five total substitution sites. PMID:14662970

  5. Genetic diversity of Entamoeba: Novel ribosomal lineages from cockroaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Kawano

    Full Text Available Our current taxonomic perspective on Entamoeba is largely based on small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes (SSU rDNA from Entamoeba species identified in vertebrate hosts with minor exceptions such as E. moshkovskii from sewage water and E. marina from marine sediment. Other Entamoeba species have also been morphologically identified and described from non-vertebrate species such as insects; however, their genetic diversity remains unknown. In order to further disclose the diversity of the genus, we investigated Entamoeba spp. in the intestines of three cockroach species: Periplaneta americana, Blaptica dubia, and Gromphadorhina oblongonota. We obtained 134 Entamoeba SSU rDNA sequences from 186 cockroaches by direct nested PCR using the DNA extracts of intestines from cockroaches, followed by scrutinized BLASTn screening and phylogenetic analyses. All the sequences identified in this study were distinct from those reported from known Entamoeba species, and considered as novel Entamoeba ribosomal lineages. Furthermore, they were positioned at the base of the clade of known Entamoeba species and displayed remarkable degree of genetic diversity comprising nine major groups in the three cockroach species. This is the first report of the diversity of SSU rDNA sequences from Entamoeba in non-vertebrate host species, and should help to understand the genetic diversity of the genus Entamoeba.

  6. Control of ribosome formation in rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Diabetes of 9 days duration produced a 17% diminution in the rate of total protein synthesis in rat hearts perfused as Langendorff preparations supplied with glucose, plasma levels of amino acids, and 400 μU/ml insulin. This reduction was attributable to a decrease in efficiency of protein synthesis and total RNA content. Total messenger RNA content decreased in diabetic hearts in proportion to the reduction in total RNA. Diabetes also resulted in diminished ribosome content as reflected by the induction in total RNA. Ribosome production was investigated by monitoring incorporation of [ 3 H]phenylalanine into the proteins of cytoplasmic ribosomes. Rates of ribosome formation in diabetic hearts were as fast as control rates in the presence of insulin, and were faster than control rates in the absence of the hormone. These results indicated that ribosome content fell in diabetic hearts despite unchanged or faster rates of ribosome formation

  7. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantification of 6-thioguanine in DNA using endogenous guanine as internal standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jack Hummeland; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Nersting, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    was estimated at 63% (RSD 26%), which is corrected for by the internal standard resulting in stable quantification. The TG levels found were above the LOQ in 18 out of 18 childhood leukemia patients on 6-mercaptopurine/methotrexate maintenance therapy (median 377, range 45-1190 fmol/μg DNA) with intra...

  8. Droplet digital PCR-based EGFR mutation detection with an internal quality control index to determine the quality of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Su; Choi, Hyun-Jeung; Kim, Jin Ju; Kim, M Sun; Lee, In-Seon; Byun, Bohyun; Jia, Lina; Oh, Myung Ryurl; Moon, Youngho; Park, Sarah; Choi, Joon-Seok; Chae, Seoung Wan; Nam, Byung-Ho; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jihun; Min, Byung Soh; Lee, Jae Seok; Won, Jae-Kyung; Cho, Soo Youn; Choi, Yoon-La; Shin, Young Kee

    2018-01-11

    In clinical translational research and molecular in vitro diagnostics, a major challenge in the detection of genetic mutations is overcoming artefactual results caused by the low-quality of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET)-derived DNA (FFPET-DNA). Here, we propose the use of an 'internal quality control (iQC) index' as a criterion for judging the minimum quality of DNA for PCR-based analyses. In a pre-clinical study comparing the results from droplet digital PCR-based EGFR mutation test (ddEGFR test) and qPCR-based EGFR mutation test (cobas EGFR test), iQC index ≥ 0.5 (iQC copies ≥ 500, using 3.3 ng of FFPET-DNA [1,000 genome equivalents]) was established, indicating that more than half of the input DNA was amplifiable. Using this criterion, we conducted a retrospective comparative clinical study of the ddEGFR and cobas EGFR tests for the detection of EGFR mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) FFPET-DNA samples. Compared with the cobas EGFR test, the ddEGFR test exhibited superior analytical performance and equivalent or higher clinical performance. Furthermore, iQC index is a reliable indicator of the quality of FFPET-DNA and could be used to prevent incorrect diagnoses arising from low-quality samples.

  9. Ribosomal protein methyltransferases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadid, Qais; White, Jonelle; Clarke, Steven

    2016-02-12

    A significant percentage of the methyltransferasome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes is devoted to methylation of the translational machinery. Methylation of the RNA components of the translational machinery has been studied extensively and is important for structure stability, ribosome biogenesis, and translational fidelity. However, the functional effects of ribosomal protein methylation by their cognate methyltransferases are still largely unknown. Previous work has shown that the ribosomal protein Rpl3 methyltransferase, histidine protein methyltransferase 1 (Hpm1), is important for ribosome biogenesis and translation elongation fidelity. In this study, yeast strains deficient in each of the ten ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae were examined for potential defects in ribosome biogenesis and translation. Like Hpm1-deficient cells, loss of four of the nine other ribosomal protein methyltransferases resulted in defects in ribosomal subunit synthesis. All of the mutant strains exhibited resistance to the ribosome inhibitors anisomycin and/or cycloheximide in plate assays, but not in liquid culture. Translational fidelity assays measuring stop codon readthrough, amino acid misincorporation, and programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting, revealed that eight of the ten enzymes are important for translation elongation fidelity and the remaining two are necessary for translation termination efficiency. Altogether, these results demonstrate that ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae play important roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cisplatin Targeting of Bacterial Ribosomal RNA Hairpins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayani N. P. Dedduwa-Mudalige

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin is a clinically important chemotherapeutic agent known to target purine bases in nucleic acids. In addition to major deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA intrastrand cross-links, cisplatin also forms stable adducts with many types of ribonucleic acid (RNA including siRNA, spliceosomal RNAs, tRNA, and rRNA. All of these RNAs play vital roles in the cell, such as catalysis of protein synthesis by rRNA, and therefore serve as potential drug targets. This work focused on platination of two highly conserved RNA hairpins from E. coli ribosomes, namely pseudouridine-modified helix 69 from 23S rRNA and the 790 loop of helix 24 from 16S rRNA. RNase T1 probing, MALDI mass spectrometry, and dimethyl sulfate mapping revealed platination at GpG sites. Chemical probing results also showed platination-induced RNA structural changes. These findings reveal solvent and structural accessibility of sites within bacterial RNA secondary structures that are functionally significant and therefore viable targets for cisplatin as well as other classes of small molecules. Identifying target preferences at the nucleotide level, as well as determining cisplatin-induced RNA conformational changes, is important for the design of more potent drug molecules. Furthermore, the knowledge gained through studies of RNA-targeting by cisplatin is applicable to a broad range of organisms from bacteria to human.

  11. Intracellular Delivery of a Planar DNA Origami Structure by the Transferrin-Receptor Internalization Pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffert, David Henning; Okholm, Anders Hauge; Sørensen, Rasmus Schøler

    2016-01-01

    DNA origami provides rapid access to easily functionalized, nanometer-sized structures making it an intriguing platform for the development of defined drug delivery and sensor systems. Low cellular uptake of DNA nanostructures is a major obstacle in the development of DNA-based delivery platforms....... Herein, significant strong increase in cellular uptake in an established cancer cell line by modifying a planar DNA origami structure with the iron transport protein transferrin (Tf) is demonstrated. A variable number of Tf molecules are coupled to the origami structure using a DNA-directed, site...... on the origami surface....

  12. Trapping the ribosome to control gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Daniel; Ban, Nenad

    2007-09-21

    Protein synthesis is often regulated by structured mRNAs that interact with ribosomes. In this issue of Cell, Marzi et al. (2007) provide insights into the autoregulation of protein S15 by visualizing the folded repressor mRNA on the ribosome stalled in the preinitiation state. These results have implications for our understanding of the mechanism of translation initiation in general.

  13. Acrolein preferentially damages nucleolus eliciting ribosomal stress and apoptosis in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Chen, Tzu-Ying; Weng, Ching-Wen; Yang, Chun-Hsiang; Tang, Moon-Shong

    2016-12-06

    Acrolein (Acr) is a potent cytotoxic and DNA damaging agent which is ubiquitous in the environment and abundant in tobacco smoke. Acr is also an active cytotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide. The mechanisms via which Acr exerts its anti-cancer activity and cytotoxicity are not clear. In this study, we found that Acr induces cytotoxicity and cell death in human cancer cells with different activities of p53. Acr preferentially binds nucleolar ribosomal DNA (rDNA) to form Acr-deoxyguanosine adducts, and induces oxidative damage to both rDNA and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Acr triggers ribosomal stress responses, inhibits rRNA synthesis, reduces RNA polymerase I binding to the promoter of rRNA gene, disrupts nucleolar integrity, and impairs ribosome biogenesis and polysome formation. Acr causes an increase in MDM2 levels and phosphorylation of MDM2 in A549 and HeLa cells which are p53 active and p53 inactive, respectively. It enhances the binding of ribosomal protein RPL11 to MDM2 and reduces the binding of p53 and E2F-1 to MDM2 resulting in stabilization/activation of p53 in A549 cells and degradation of E2F-1 in A549 and HeLa cells. We propose that Acr induces ribosomal stress which leads to activation of MDM2 and RPL11-MDM2 binding, consequently, activates p53 and enhances E2F-1 degradation, and that taken together these two processes induce apoptosis and cell death.

  14. Differential Stoichiometry among Core Ribosomal Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Slavov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the regulation and structure of ribosomes is essential to understanding protein synthesis and its dysregulation in disease. While ribosomes are believed to have a fixed stoichiometry among their core ribosomal proteins (RPs, some experiments suggest a more variable composition. Testing such variability requires direct and precise quantification of RPs. We used mass spectrometry to directly quantify RPs across monosomes and polysomes of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC and budding yeast. Our data show that the stoichiometry among core RPs in wild-type yeast cells and ESC depends both on the growth conditions and on the number of ribosomes bound per mRNA. Furthermore, we find that the fitness of cells with a deleted RP-gene is inversely proportional to the enrichment of the corresponding RP in polysomes. Together, our findings support the existence of ribosomes with distinct protein composition and physiological function.

  15. Diverse Regulators of Human Ribosome Biogenesis Discovered by Changes in Nucleolar Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine I. Farley-Barnes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome biogenesis is a highly regulated, essential cellular process. Although studies in yeast have established some of the biological principles of ribosome biogenesis, many of the intricacies of its regulation in higher eukaryotes remain unknown. To understand how ribosome biogenesis is globally integrated in human cells, we conducted a genome-wide siRNA screen for regulators of nucleolar number. We found 139 proteins whose depletion changed the number of nucleoli per nucleus from 2–3 to only 1 in human MCF10A cells. Follow-up analyses on 20 hits found many (90% to be essential for the nucleolar functions of rDNA transcription (7, pre-ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA processing (16, and/or global protein synthesis (14. This genome-wide analysis exploits the relationship between nucleolar number and function to discover diverse cellular pathways that regulate the making of ribosomes and paves the way for further exploration of the links between ribosome biogenesis and human disease.

  16. Ribosomal and hematopoietic defects in induced pluripotent stem cells derived from Diamond Blackfan anemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garçon, Loïc; Ge, Jingping; Manjunath, Shwetha H; Mills, Jason A; Apicella, Marisa; Parikh, Shefali; Sullivan, Lisa M; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Gadue, Paul; French, Deborah L; Mason, Philip J; Bessler, Monica; Weiss, Mitchell J

    2013-08-08

    Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital disorder with erythroid (Ery) hypoplasia and tissue morphogenic abnormalities. Most DBA cases are caused by heterozygous null mutations in genes encoding ribosomal proteins. Understanding how haploinsufficiency of these ubiquitous proteins causes DBA is hampered by limited availability of tissues from affected patients. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts of DBA patients carrying mutations in RPS19 and RPL5. Compared with controls, DBA fibroblasts formed iPSCs inefficiently, although we obtained 1 stable clone from each fibroblast line. RPS19-mutated iPSCs exhibited defects in 40S (small) ribosomal subunit assembly and production of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Upon induced differentiation, the mutant clone exhibited globally impaired hematopoiesis, with the Ery lineage affected most profoundly. RPL5-mutated iPSCs exhibited defective 60S (large) ribosomal subunit assembly, accumulation of 12S pre-rRNA, and impaired erythropoiesis. In both mutant iPSC lines, genetic correction of ribosomal protein deficiency via complementary DNA transfer into the "safe harbor" AAVS1 locus alleviated abnormalities in ribosome biogenesis and hematopoiesis. Our studies show that pathological features of DBA are recapitulated by iPSCs, provide a renewable source of cells to model various tissue defects, and demonstrate proof of principle for genetic correction strategies in patient stem cells.

  17. Sequence analysis and over-expression of ribosomal protein S28 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RPS28 is a component of the 40S small ribosomal subunit encoded by RPS28 gene, which is specific to eukaryotes. The cDNA and the genomic sequence of RPS28 were cloned successfully from the Giant Panda using RT-PCR technology and Touchdown-PCR, respectively. Both sequences were analyzed preliminarily ...

  18. Data on internal cDNA amplification and color changes of the proteins derived from Pacific white leg shrimp shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Pan; Shoichiro, Ishizaki; Yuji, Nagashima; Jialong, Gao; Shugo, Watabe

    2018-02-01

    In this article, we report original data on the designation of the primers for full-length cDNA amplification and the internal cDNA amplification of red color-related pigment-binding protein derived from shrimp shell. Data on the color shifts of different soluble proteins under 100 °C 10 min heat treatment and the effects of heating temperatures (from 30 to 100 °C) on the color changes of crude water-soluble proteins are also included in this report. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the article "Isolation and cDNA cloning of a novel red color-related pigment-binding protein derived from the shell of shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei " (Chuang et al., 2017) [1].

  19. Data on internal cDNA amplification and color changes of the proteins derived from Pacific white leg shrimp shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Chuang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we report original data on the designation of the primers for full-length cDNA amplification and the internal cDNA amplification of red color-related pigment-binding protein derived from shrimp shell. Data on the color shifts of different soluble proteins under 100 °C 10 min heat treatment and the effects of heating temperatures (from 30 to 100 °C on the color changes of crude water-soluble proteins are also included in this report. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the article “Isolation and cDNA cloning of a novel red color-related pigment-binding protein derived from the shell of shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei” (Chuang et al., 2017 [1].

  20. Relationship between internal dosimetry and DNA double strand breaks in lymphocytes after radionuclide therapy; Zusammenhang zwischen physikalischer Dosimetrie und DNA Doppelstrangbruechen in Lymphozyten nach Radionuklidtherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberlein, Uta

    2015-09-30

    In radionuclide therapy radiopharmaceuticals are administered mostly systemically. Primarily, beta-emitters are used because of their short range in tissue. As a result the radiopharmaceutical distributes within the human body and accumulates in organs and target structures. Thus, the body is irradiated internally, in contrast to external irradiation in radiotherapy. The pattern of the activity distribution within the human body is determined by the physical and chemical properties of the radiopharmaceutical. Furthermore, the amount of activity and its accumulation in organs or tissues is essential for the calculation of the absorbed dose which defines the energy deposited in the body by ionizing radiation. During internal or external irradiation, patients are exposed to ionizing radiation which does not only destroy the malignant cells but also damages healthy tissue and cells. This is mainly caused by direct and indirect interaction of the radiation with the DNA which damages the DNA structure. Most frequently, there are single strand breaks and base damages. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are rare; nevertheless, they are the most critical lesions for cells as repairing the damage is difficult. Unrepaired or misrepaired DNA could cause mutations, chromosomal aberrations or lead to cell death. The formation of a DNA DSB in nuclear chromatin results in the rapid phosphorylation of the histone H2 variant H2AX, then called gamma-H2AX. Furthermore, DSBs also recruit the damage sensor 53BP1 to the chromatin surrounding the DSBs, which leads to 53BP1 and gamma-H2AX co-localization in the chromatin surrounding a DSB. By immunofluorescence staining with gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 antibodies those biomarkers can be addressed by microscopically visible DNA damage protein foci, this is also known as the DNA damage focus assay. With progression of DSB repair, gamma-H2AX and 53BP1 foci disappear. It is assumed that one focus corresponds to one DSB. Therefore, the number of foci per

  1. Intracellular Delivery of a Planar DNA Origami Structure by the Transferrin-Receptor Internalization Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffert, David H; Okholm, Anders H; Sørensen, Rasmus S; Nielsen, Jesper S; Tørring, Thomas; Rosen, Christian B; Kodal, Anne Louise B; Mortensen, Michael R; Gothelf, Kurt V; Kjems, Jørgen

    2016-05-01

    DNA origami provides rapid access to easily functionalized, nanometer-sized structures making it an intriguing platform for the development of defined drug delivery and sensor systems. Low cellular uptake of DNA nanostructures is a major obstacle in the development of DNA-based delivery platforms. Herein, significant strong increase in cellular uptake in an established cancer cell line by modifying a planar DNA origami structure with the iron transport protein transferrin (Tf) is demonstrated. A variable number of Tf molecules are coupled to the origami structure using a DNA-directed, site-selective labeling technique to retain ligand functionality. A combination of confocal fluorescence microscopy and quantitative (qPCR) techniques shows up to 22-fold increased cytoplasmic uptake compared to unmodified structures and with an efficiency that correlates to the number of transferrin molecules on the origami surface. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Development and utility of an internal threshold control (ITC real-time PCR assay for exogenous DNA detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyi Ni

    Full Text Available Sensitive and specific tests for detecting exogenous DNA molecules are useful for infectious disease diagnosis, gene therapy clinical trial safety, and gene doping surveillance. Taqman real-time PCR using specific sequence probes provides an effective approach to accurately and quantitatively detect exogenous DNA. However, one of the major challenges in these analyses is to eliminate false positive signals caused by either non-targeted exogenous or endogenous DNA sequences, or false negative signals caused by impurities that inhibit PCR. Although multiplex Taqman PCR assays have been applied to address these problems by adding extra primer-probe sets targeted to endogenous DNA sequences, the differences between targets can lead to different detection efficiencies. To avoid these complications, a Taqman PCR-based approach that incorporates an internal threshold control (ITC has been developed. In this single reaction format, the target sequence and ITC template are co-amplified by the same primers, but are detected by different probes each with a unique fluorescent dye. Sample DNA, a prescribed number of ITC template molecules set near the limit of sensitivity, a single pair of primers, target probe and ITC probe are added to one reaction. Fluorescence emission signals are obtained simultaneously to determine the cycle thresholds (Ct for amplification of the target and ITC sequences. The comparison of the target Ct with the ITC Ct indicates if a sample is a true positive for the target (i.e. Ct less than or equal to the ITC Ct or negative (i.e. Ct greater than the ITC Ct. The utility of this approach was demonstrated in a nonhuman primate model of rAAV vector mediated gene doping in vivo and in human genomic DNA spiked with plasmid DNA.

  3. Properties of internalization factors contributing to the uptake of extracellular DNA into tumor-initiating stem cells of mouse Krebs-2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgova, Evgeniya V; Potter, Ekaterina A; Proskurina, Anastasiya S; Minkevich, Alexandra M; Chernych, Elena R; Ostanin, Alexandr A; Efremov, Yaroslav R; Bayborodin, Sergey I; Nikolin, Valeriy P; Popova, Nelly A; Kolchanov, Nikolay A; Bogachev, Sergey S

    2016-05-25

    Previously, we demonstrated that poorly differentiated cells of various origins, including tumor-initiating stem cells present in the ascites form of mouse cancer cell line Krebs-2, are capable of naturally internalizing both linear double-stranded DNA and circular plasmid DNA. The method of co-incubating Krebs-2 cells with extracellular plasmid DNA (pUC19) or TAMRA-5'-dUTP-labeled polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product was used. It was found that internalized plasmid DNA isolated from Krebs-2 can be transformed into competent Escherichia coli cells. Thus, the internalization processes taking place in the Krebs-2 cell subpopulation have been analyzed and compared, as assayed by E. coli colony formation assay (plasmid DNA) and cytofluorescence (TAMRA-DNA). We showed that extracellular DNA both in the form of plasmid DNA and a PCR product is internalized by the same subpopulation of Krebs-2 cells. We found that the saturation threshold for Krebs-2 ascites cells is 0.5 μg DNA/10(6) cells. Supercoiled plasmid DNA, human high-molecular weight DNA, and 500 bp PCR fragments are internalized into the Krebs-2 tumor-initiating stem cells via distinct, non-competing internalization pathways. Under our experimental conditions, each cell may harbor 340-2600 copies of intact plasmid material, or up to 3.097 ± 0.044×10(6) plasmid copies (intact or not), as detected by quantitative PCR. The internalization dynamics of extracellular DNA, copy number of the plasmids taken up by the cells, and competition between different types of double-stranded DNA upon internalization into tumor-initiating stem cells of mouse ascites Krebs-2 have been comprehensively analyzed. Investigation of the extracellular DNA internalization into tumor-initiating stem cells is an important part of understanding their properties and possible destruction mechanisms. For example, a TAMRA-labeled DNA probe may serve as an instrument to develop a target for the therapy of cancer, aiming at elimination of

  4. Internal Light Source-Driven Photoelectrochemical 3D-rGO/Cellulose Device Based on Cascade DNA Amplification Strategy Integrating Target Analog Chain and DNA Mimic Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Feifei; Liang, Linlin; Zhang, Yan; Li, Li; Ren, Na; Yan, Mei; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a chemiluminescence-driven collapsible greeting card-like photoelectrochemical lab-on-paper device (GPECD) with hollow channel was demonstrated, in which target-triggering cascade DNA amplification strategy was ingeniously introduced. The GPECD had the functions of reagents storage and signal collection, and the change of configuration could control fluidic path, reaction time and alterations in electrical connectivity. In addition, three-dimentional reduced graphene oxide affixed Au flower was in situ grown on paper cellulose fiber for achieving excellent conductivity and biocompatibility. The cascade DNA amplification strategy referred to the cyclic formation of target analog chain and its trigger action to hybridization chain reaction (HCR), leading to the formation of numerous hemin/G-quadruplex DNA mimic enzyme with the presence of hemin. Subjected to the catalysis of hemin/G-quadruplex, the strong chemiluminiscence of luminol-H 2 O 2 system was obtained, which then was used as internal light source to excite photoactive materials realizing the simplification of instrument. In this analyzing process, thrombin served as proof-of-concept, and the concentration of target was converted into the DNA signal output by the specific recognition of aptamer-protein and target analog chain recycling. The target analog chain was produced in quantity with the presence of target, which further triggered abundant HCR and introduced hemin/G-quadruplex into the system. The photocurrent signal was obtained after the nitrogen-doped carbon dots sensitized ZnO was stimulated by chemiluminescence. The proposed GPECD exhibited excellent specificity and sensitivity toward thrombin with a detection limit of 16.7 fM. This judiciously engineered GPECD paved a luciferous way for detecting other protein with trace amounts in bioanalysis and clinical biomedicine.

  5. Detection of urea-induced internal denaturation of dsDNA using solid-state nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Alon; Kuhn, Heiko; Frank-Kamenetskii, Maxim; Meller, Amit

    2010-11-17

    The ability to detect and measure dsDNA thermal fluctuations is of immense importance in understanding the underlying mechanisms responsible for transcription and replication regulation. We describe here the ability of solid-state nanopores to detect sub-nanometer changes in DNA structure as a result of chemically enhanced thermal fluctuations. In this study, we investigate the subtle changes in the mean effective diameter of a dsDNA molecule with 3-5 nm solid-state nanopores as a function of urea concentration and the DNA's AT content. Our studies reveal an increase in the mean effective diameter of a DNA molecule of approximately 0.6 nm at 8.7 M urea. In agreement with the mechanism of DNA local denaturation, we observe a sigmoid dependence of these effects on urea concentration. We find that the translocation times in urea are markedly slower than would be expected if the dynamics were governed primarily by viscous effects. Furthermore, we find that the sensitivity of the nanopore is sufficient to statistically differentiate between DNA molecules of nearly identical lengths differing only in sequence and AT content when placed in 3.5 M urea. Our results demonstrate that nanopores can detect subtle structural changes and are thus a valuable tool for detecting differences in biomolecules' environment.

  6. Detection of urea-induced internal denaturation of dsDNA using solid-state nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, Alon; Kuhn, Heiko; Frank-Kamenetskii, Maxim; Meller, Amit

    2010-01-01

    The ability to detect and measure dsDNA thermal fluctuations is of immense importance in understanding the underlying mechanisms responsible for transcription and replication regulation. We describe here the ability of solid-state nanopores to detect sub-nanometer changes in DNA structure as a result of chemically enhanced thermal fluctuations. In this study, we investigate the subtle changes in the mean effective diameter of a dsDNA molecule with 3-5 nm solid-state nanopores as a function of urea concentration and the DNA's AT content. Our studies reveal an increase in the mean effective diameter of a DNA molecule of approximately 0.6 nm at 8.7 M urea. In agreement with the mechanism of DNA local denaturation, we observe a sigmoid dependence of these effects on urea concentration. We find that the translocation times in urea are markedly slower than would be expected if the dynamics were governed primarily by viscous effects. Furthermore, we find that the sensitivity of the nanopore is sufficient to statistically differentiate between DNA molecules of nearly identical lengths differing only in sequence and AT content when placed in 3.5 M urea. Our results demonstrate that nanopores can detect subtle structural changes and are thus a valuable tool for detecting differences in biomolecules' environment.

  7. A ribosomal RNA gene intergenic spacer based PCR and DGGE fingerprinting method for the analysis of specific rhizobial communities in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Oliveira, VM; Manfio, GP; Coutinho, HLD; Keijzer-Wolters, AC; van Elsas, JD

    A direct molecular method for assessing the diversity of specific populations of rhizobia in soil, based on nested PCR amplification of 16S-23S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) intergenic spacer (IGS) sequences, was developed. Initial generic amplification of bacterial rDNA IGS sequences from soil DNA was

  8. A ribosomal RNA gene intergenic spacer based PCR and DGGE fingerprinting method for the analysis of specific rhizobial communities in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, de V.M.; Manfio, G.P.; Coutinho, H.L.D.; Keijzer-Wolters, A.C.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2006-01-01

    A direct molecular method for assessing the diversity of specific populations of rhizobia in soil, based on nested PCR amplification of 16S-23S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) intergenic spacer (IGS) sequences, was developed. Initial generic amplification of bacterial rDNA IGS sequences from soil DNA was

  9. Visualization through Magnetic Resonance Imaging of DNA Internalized Following “In Vivo” Electroporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta Geninatti Crich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to visualize plasmid DNA entrapment in muscle cells undergoing an “in vivo” electroporation treatment was investigated on BALB/c mice using a 7-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scanner using the paramagnetic Gd–DOTA–spd complex as imaging reporter. Gd–DOTA–spd bears a tripositively charged spermidine residue that yields a strong binding affinity toward the negatively charged DNA chain (6.4 kb, Ka = 2.2 × 103 M−1 for approximately 2500 ± 500 binding sites. Cellular colocalization of Gd-DOTA-spd and plasmid DNA has been validated by histological analysis of excised treated muscle. In vivo MRI visualization of Gd-DOTA-spd distribution provides an excellent route to access the cellular entrapment of plasmid DNA upon applying an electroporation pulse.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulation of ribosome jam

    KAUST Repository

    Matsumoto, Shigenori; Takagi, Fumiko; Shimada, Takashi; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2011-01-01

    We propose a coarse-grained molecular dynamics model of ribosome molecules to study the dependence of translation process on environmental parameters. We found the model exhibits traffic jam property, which is consistent with an ASEP model. We

  11. Ribosome evolution: Emergence of peptide synthesis machinery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    suggested the dynamic movement of ribosomal proteins. The L2 protein (a .... Such kinds of interactions are important in elucidating the evolution of RNA .... Tamura K 2009 Molecular handedness of life: significance of RNA aminoacylation.

  12. Is The Ribosome Targeted By Adaptive Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez Fernandez, Alicia; Molin, Søren; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: RNA polymerase and ribosomes, composing the macromolecular synthesis machinery (MMSM), carry out the central processes of transcription and translation, but are usually seen as mechanical elements with no regulatory function. Extensive investigations of gene regulation and the high ...

  13. Using mitochondrial and ribosomal DNA sequences to test the taxonomic validity of Clinostomum complanatum Rudolphi, 1814 in fish-eating birds and freshwater fishes in Mexico, with the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno-Uribe, Ana L; Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos D; García-Varela, Martín; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce

    2013-08-01

    The taxonomic history and species composition of the genus Clinostomum has been unstable. Two species, Clinostomum complanatum Rudolphi, 1814 and Clinostomum marginatum Rudolphi, 1819, have been particularly problematic and its validity has been disputed for nearly 200 years. In this paper, we have made use of an integrative taxonomy approach, and we used, in first instance, DNA sequences of two genes (cox1 and ITS) to test the validity of C. complanatum, a species apparently widely distributed in Mexico and to link the metacercariae and adult forms of the recognized species of Clinostomum. Combining molecular data with morphology, host association, and geographical distribution, we searched for the potential existence of undescribed species. A new species of Clinostomum is described based on adults found in the mouthy cavity of three species of fish-eating birds as well as in metacercariae found in freshwater and estuarine fishes. A few morphological characteristics distinguish the new species from other congeners even though reciprocal monophyly in a phylogenetic tree based on maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analysis, genetic divergence, and a multivariate analysis of variance and a principal component analysis of 18 morphometric traits for adults and metacercariae demonstrates the validity of the new species. Based on our results, it seems that C. complanatum is not currently distributed in Mexico, although this requires further verification with a more thoroughful sampling in other areas of the country, but it is plausible to support the hypothesis that C. marginatum is the American form, as previously suggested by other authors.

  14. Synthetic peptides and ribosomal proteins as substrate for 60S ribosomal protein kinase from yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grankowski, N; Gasior, E; Issinger, O G

    1993-01-01

    Kinetic studies on the 60S protein kinase were conducted with synthetic peptides and ribosomal proteins as substrate. Peptide RRREEESDDD proved to be the best synthetic substrate for this enzyme. The peptide has a sequence of amino acids which most closely resembles the structure of potential...... phosphorylation sites in natural substrates, i.e., acidic ribosomal proteins. The superiority of certain kinetic parameters for 60S kinase obtained with the native whole 80S ribosomes over those of the isolated fraction of acidic ribosomal proteins indicates that the affinity of 60S kinase to the specific protein...

  15. The Paramecium germline genome provides a niche for intragenic parasitic DNA: evolutionary dynamics of internal eliminated sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaiz, Olivier; Mathy, Nathalie; Baudry, Céline; Malinsky, Sophie; Aury, Jean-Marc; Denby Wilkes, Cyril; Garnier, Olivier; Labadie, Karine; Lauderdale, Benjamin E; Le Mouël, Anne; Marmignon, Antoine; Nowacki, Mariusz; Poulain, Julie; Prajer, Malgorzata; Wincker, Patrick; Meyer, Eric; Duharcourt, Sandra; Duret, Laurent; Bétermier, Mireille; Sperling, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Insertions of parasitic DNA within coding sequences are usually deleterious and are generally counter-selected during evolution. Thanks to nuclear dimorphism, ciliates provide unique models to study the fate of such insertions. Their germline genome undergoes extensive rearrangements during development of a new somatic macronucleus from the germline micronucleus following sexual events. In Paramecium, these rearrangements include precise excision of unique-copy Internal Eliminated Sequences (IES) from the somatic DNA, requiring the activity of a domesticated piggyBac transposase, PiggyMac. We have sequenced Paramecium tetraurelia germline DNA, establishing a genome-wide catalogue of -45,000 IESs, in order to gain insight into their evolutionary origin and excision mechanism. We obtained direct evidence that PiggyMac is required for excision of all IESs. Homology with known P. tetraurelia Tc1/mariner transposons, described here, indicates that at least a fraction of IESs derive from these elements. Most IES insertions occurred before a recent whole-genome duplication that preceded diversification of the P. aurelia species complex, but IES invasion of the Paramecium genome appears to be an ongoing process. Once inserted, IESs decay rapidly by accumulation of deletions and point substitutions. Over 90% of the IESs are shorter than 150 bp and present a remarkable size distribution with a -10 bp periodicity, corresponding to the helical repeat of double-stranded DNA and suggesting DNA loop formation during assembly of a transpososome-like excision complex. IESs are equally frequent within and between coding sequences; however, excision is not 100% efficient and there is selective pressure against IES insertions, in particular within highly expressed genes. We discuss the possibility that ancient domestication of a piggyBac transposase favored subsequent propagation of transposons throughout the germline by allowing insertions in coding sequences, a fraction of the

  16. The Paramecium germline genome provides a niche for intragenic parasitic DNA: evolutionary dynamics of internal eliminated sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Arnaiz

    Full Text Available Insertions of parasitic DNA within coding sequences are usually deleterious and are generally counter-selected during evolution. Thanks to nuclear dimorphism, ciliates provide unique models to study the fate of such insertions. Their germline genome undergoes extensive rearrangements during development of a new somatic macronucleus from the germline micronucleus following sexual events. In Paramecium, these rearrangements include precise excision of unique-copy Internal Eliminated Sequences (IES from the somatic DNA, requiring the activity of a domesticated piggyBac transposase, PiggyMac. We have sequenced Paramecium tetraurelia germline DNA, establishing a genome-wide catalogue of -45,000 IESs, in order to gain insight into their evolutionary origin and excision mechanism. We obtained direct evidence that PiggyMac is required for excision of all IESs. Homology with known P. tetraurelia Tc1/mariner transposons, described here, indicates that at least a fraction of IESs derive from these elements. Most IES insertions occurred before a recent whole-genome duplication that preceded diversification of the P. aurelia species complex, but IES invasion of the Paramecium genome appears to be an ongoing process. Once inserted, IESs decay rapidly by accumulation of deletions and point substitutions. Over 90% of the IESs are shorter than 150 bp and present a remarkable size distribution with a -10 bp periodicity, corresponding to the helical repeat of double-stranded DNA and suggesting DNA loop formation during assembly of a transpososome-like excision complex. IESs are equally frequent within and between coding sequences; however, excision is not 100% efficient and there is selective pressure against IES insertions, in particular within highly expressed genes. We discuss the possibility that ancient domestication of a piggyBac transposase favored subsequent propagation of transposons throughout the germline by allowing insertions in coding sequences, a

  17. Crystallization of ribosomes from Thermus thermophilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpova, E.A.; Serdyuk, I.N.; Tarkhovskii, Yu.S.; Orlova, E.V.; Borovyagin, V.L.

    1987-01-01

    An understanding of the molecular bases of the process of protein biosynthesis on the ribosome requires a knowledge of its structure with high three-dimensional resolution involving the method of x-ray crystallographic analysis. The authors report on the production of crystals of the 70S ribosomes from a new source - the highly thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus. Ribosomes for crystallization were obtained from Th. thermophilus strain HB8 by two washings in buffer with high ionic strength. The ribosome preparation was investigated for homogeneity by the method of high-speed sedimentation in a buffer containing 15 mM MgCl 2 , 50 mM NH 4 Cl, and 10 MM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5. Analysis showed that the preparation if homogeneous. The same preparation was investigated for intactness of ribosomal RNA by the method of gel electrophoresis in 2.75% acrylamide 0.5% agarose gel in a buffer containing 30 mM Tris, 30 mM NaH 2 PO 4 , 10 mM EDTA, 1-2% SDS, and 6 M urea. Analysis showed that the preparation possesses intact 16S and 23S RNA. The latter did not degrade, at least in a week of exposure of the ribosomes in buffer solution at 5 0 C. The ribosome preparation had no appreciable RNase activity, which was verified by incubating 4.5 micrograms of ribosomes with 3 micrograms of 14 C-labeled 16S rRna (50 0 C, 90 min) in a buffer containing 10 mM MgCl 2 , 100 mM NH 4 Cl, and 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH/sub 20 0 / 7.5. The incubated nonhydrolyzed RNA was precipitated with 5% trichloroacetic acid and applied on a GF/C filter. The radioactivity was determined in a toluene scintillator on an LS-100C counter

  18. Evidence for rRNA 2'-O-methylation plasticity: Control of intrinsic translational capabilities of human ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erales, Jenny; Marchand, Virginie; Panthu, Baptiste; Gillot, Sandra; Belin, Stéphane; Ghayad, Sandra E; Garcia, Maxime; Laforêts, Florian; Marcel, Virginie; Baudin-Baillieu, Agnès; Bertin, Pierre; Couté, Yohann; Adrait, Annie; Meyer, Mélanie; Therizols, Gabriel; Yusupov, Marat; Namy, Olivier; Ohlmann, Théophile; Motorin, Yuri; Catez, Frédéric; Diaz, Jean-Jacques

    2017-12-05

    Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) are main effectors of messenger RNA (mRNA) decoding, peptide-bond formation, and ribosome dynamics during translation. Ribose 2'-O-methylation (2'-O-Me) is the most abundant rRNA chemical modification, and displays a complex pattern in rRNA. 2'-O-Me was shown to be essential for accurate and efficient protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. However, whether rRNA 2'-O-Me is an adjustable feature of the human ribosome and a means of regulating ribosome function remains to be determined. Here we challenged rRNA 2'-O-Me globally by inhibiting the rRNA methyl-transferase fibrillarin in human cells. Using RiboMethSeq, a nonbiased quantitative mapping of 2'-O-Me, we identified a repertoire of 2'-O-Me sites subjected to variation and demonstrate that functional domains of ribosomes are targets of 2'-O-Me plasticity. Using the cricket paralysis virus internal ribosome entry site element, coupled to in vitro translation, we show that the intrinsic capability of ribosomes to translate mRNAs is modulated through a 2'-O-Me pattern and not by nonribosomal actors of the translational machinery. Our data establish rRNA 2'-O-Me plasticity as a mechanism providing functional specificity to human ribosomes.

  19. Ribosomal studies on the 70S ribosome of E.coli by means of neutron scattering; Strukturuntersuchungen am 70S-Ribosom von E.coli unter Anwendung von Neutronenstreuung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhardt, N. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    1997-12-31

    Ribosomes are ribonucleo-protein complexes, which catalyse proteinbiosynthesis in all living organisms. Currently, most of the structural models of the prokaryotic 70S ribosome rely on electron microscopy and describe mainly the outer shape of the particle. Neutron scattering can provide information on the internal structure of the ribosome. Parts of the structure can be contrasted for neutrons by means of an isotopic exchange of the naturally occurring hydrogen ({sup 1}H) for deuterium ({sup 2}H), allowing direct measurements in situ. Specifically deuterium-labeled ribosomes (E. coli) were prepared and analysed with neutron scattering. The biochemical methods were established and combined to a generally applicable preparation system. This allows labeling of all ribosomal components in any combination. A systematic analysis of the protein and RNA phases resulted in the development of a new model for the 70S ribosome. This model describes not only the outer shape of the particle, but displays also an experimentally determined internal protein-RNA distribution and the border of subunits for the first time (four-phase model; resolution: 50A). Models of the 70S ribosome from other studies were evaluated and ranked according to consistency with the measured scattering data. Applying a new neutron scattering technique of particular sensitivity, the proton-spin contrast-variation, single proteins could be measured and localized. The positions of the proteins S6 and S10 were determined, providing the first coordinates of protein mass centers within the 70S ribosome. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ribosomen sind Ribonukleinsaeure-Protein Komplexe, die in allen lebenden Organismen die Proteinbiosynthese katalysieren. Strukturmodelle fuer das prokaryontische 70S-Ribosom beruhen derzeit vorwiegend auf elektronenmikroskopischen Untersuchungen und beschreiben im wesentlichen die aeussere Oberflaeche des Partikels. Informationen ueber die innere Struktur des Ribosoms koennen Messungen mit

  20. Ribosomal studies on the 70S ribosome of E.coli by means of neutron scattering; Strukturuntersuchungen am 70S-Ribosom von E.coli unter Anwendung von Neutronenstreuung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhardt, N [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    1998-12-31

    Ribosomes are ribonucleo-protein complexes, which catalyse proteinbiosynthesis in all living organisms. Currently, most of the structural models of the prokaryotic 70S ribosome rely on electron microscopy and describe mainly the outer shape of the particle. Neutron scattering can provide information on the internal structure of the ribosome. Parts of the structure can be contrasted for neutrons by means of an isotopic exchange of the naturally occurring hydrogen ({sup 1}H) for deuterium ({sup 2}H), allowing direct measurements in situ. Specifically deuterium-labeled ribosomes (E. coli) were prepared and analysed with neutron scattering. The biochemical methods were established and combined to a generally applicable preparation system. This allows labeling of all ribosomal components in any combination. A systematic analysis of the protein and RNA phases resulted in the development of a new model for the 70S ribosome. This model describes not only the outer shape of the particle, but displays also an experimentally determined internal protein-RNA distribution and the border of subunits for the first time (four-phase model; resolution: 50A). Models of the 70S ribosome from other studies were evaluated and ranked according to consistency with the measured scattering data. Applying a new neutron scattering technique of particular sensitivity, the proton-spin contrast-variation, single proteins could be measured and localized. The positions of the proteins S6 and S10 were determined, providing the first coordinates of protein mass centers within the 70S ribosome. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ribosomen sind Ribonukleinsaeure-Protein Komplexe, die in allen lebenden Organismen die Proteinbiosynthese katalysieren. Strukturmodelle fuer das prokaryontische 70S-Ribosom beruhen derzeit vorwiegend auf elektronenmikroskopischen Untersuchungen und beschreiben im wesentlichen die aeussere Oberflaeche des Partikels. Informationen ueber die innere Struktur des Ribosoms koennen Messungen mit

  1. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine protects thyroid cells against DNA damage induced by external and internal irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashige, Tomomi; Shimamura, Mika; Nagayama, Yuji

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated the effect of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) on the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA double strand breaks (DSB) and micronuclei (MN) induced by internal and external irradiation using a rat thyroid cell line PCCL3. In internal irradiation experiments, ROS and DSB levels increased immediately after 131 I addition and then gradually declined, resulting in very high levels of MN at 24 and 48 h. NAC administration both pre- and also post- 131 I addition suppressed ROS, DSB and MN. In external irradiation experiments with a low dose (0.5 Gy), ROS and DSB increased shortly and could be prevented by NAC administration pre-, but not post-irradiation. In contrast, external irradiation with a high dose (5 Gy) increased ROS and DSB in a bimodal way: ROS and DSB levels increased immediately after irradiation, quickly returned to the basal levels and gradually rose again after >24 h. The second phase was in parallel with an increase in 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. The number of MN induced by the second wave of ROS/DSB elevations was much higher than that by the first peak. In this situation, NAC administered pre- and post-irradiation comparably suppressed MN induced by a delayed ROS elevation. In conclusion, a prolonged ROS increase during internal irradiation and a delayed ROS increase after external irradiation with a high dose caused serious DNA damage, which were efficiently prevented by NAC. Thus, NAC administration even both after internal or external irradiation prevents ROS increase and eventual DNA damage.

  2. Change of conformation and internal dynamics of supercoiled DNA upon binding of Escherichia coli single-strand binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langowski, J.; Benight, A.S.; Fujimoto, B.S.; Schurr, J.M.; Schomburg, U.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of Escherichia coli single-strand binding (SSB) protein on the conformation and internal dynamics of pBR322 and pUC8 supercoiled DNAs has been investigated by using dynamic light scattering at 632.8 and 351.1 nm and time-resolved fluorescence polarization anisotropy of intercalated ethidium. SSB protein binds to both DNAs up to a stoichiometry that is sufficient to almost completely relax the superhelical turns. Upon saturation binding, the translational diffusion coefficients (D 0 ) of both DNAs decrease by approximately 20%. Apparent diffusion coefficients (D/sub app/) obtained from dynamic light scattering display the well-known increase with K 2 (K = scattering vector), leveling off toward a plateau value (D/sub plat/) at high K 2 . For both DNAs, the difference D/sub plat/ - D 0 increases upon relaxation of supercoils by SSB protein, which indicates a corresponding enhancement of the subunit mobilities in internal motions. Fluorescence polarization anisotropy measurements on free and complexed pBR322 DNA indicate a (predominantly) uniform torsional rigidity for the saturated DNA/SSB protein complex that is significantly reduced compared to the free DNA. These observations are all consistent with the notion that binding of SSB protein is accompanied by a gradual loss of supercoils and saturates when the superhelical twist is largely removed

  3. Primary structures of ribosomal proteins from the archaebacterium Halobacterium marismortui and the eubacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, E; Scholzen, T; Krömer, W; Hatakeyama, T; Kimura, M

    1991-06-01

    Approximately 40 ribosomal proteins from each Halobacterium marismortui and Bacillus stearothermophilus have been sequenced either by direct protein sequence analysis or by DNA sequence analysis of the appropriate genes. The comparison of the amino acid sequences from the archaebacterium H marismortui with the available ribosomal proteins from the eubacterial and eukaryotic kingdoms revealed four different groups of proteins: 24 proteins are related to both eubacterial as well as eukaryotic proteins. Eleven proteins are exclusively related to eukaryotic counterparts. For three proteins only eubacterial relatives-and for another three proteins no counterpart-could be found. The similarities of the halobacterial ribosomal proteins are in general somewhat higher to their eukaryotic than to their eubacterial counterparts. The comparison of B stearothermophilus proteins with their E coli homologues showed that the proteins evolved at different rates. Some proteins are highly conserved with 64-76% identity, others are poorly conserved with only 25-34% identical amino acid residues.

  4. Cross-linking of streptomycin to the 16S ribosomal RNA of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravel, M.; Melancon, P.; Barkier-Gingras, L.

    1987-01-01

    [ 3 H]Dihydrostreptomycin was cross-linked to the 30S ribosomal subunit from Escherichia coli with the bifunctional reagent nitrogen mustard. The cross-linking primarily involved the 16S RNA. To localize the site of cross-linking of streptomycin to the 16S RNA, the authors hybridized RNA labeled with streptomycin to restriction fragments of the 16S RNA gene. Labeled RNA hybridized to DNA fragments corresponding to bases 892-917 and bases 1394-1415. These two segments of the ribosomal RNA must by juxtaposed in the ribosome, since there is a single binding site for streptomycin. This region has been implicated both in the decoding site and in the binding of initiation factor IF-3, indicating its functional importance

  5. Proceedings of the international advisory committee on 'biomolecular dynamics instrument DNA' and the workshop on 'biomolecular dynamics backscattering spectrometers'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Masatoshi; Aizawa, Kazuya; Nakajima, Kenji; Shibata, Kaoru; Takahashi, Nobuaki

    2008-08-01

    A workshop entitled 'Biomolecular Dynamics Backscattering Spectrometers' was held on February 27th - 29th, 2008 at J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency. This workshop was planned to be held for aiming to realize an innovative neutron backscattering instrument, namely DNA, in the MLF and thus four leading scientists in the field of neutron backscattering instruments were invited as the International Advisory Committee (IAC member: Dr. Dan Neumann (Chair); Prof. Ferenc Mezei; Dr. Hannu Mutka; Dr. Philip Tregenna-Piggott) for DNA from institutes in the United States, France and Switzerland, where backscattering instruments are in-service. It was therefore held in the form of lecture anterior and then in the form of the committee posterior. This report includes the executive summary of the IAC and materials of the presentations in the IAC and the workshop. (author)

  6. DNA decontamination methods for internal quality management in clinical PCR laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingping; Wu, Jianyong; Zhang, Zhihui; Cheng, Chen

    2018-03-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, one of the most commonly applied methods in diagnostic and molecular biology, has a frustrating downside: the occurrence of false-positive signals due to contamination. In previous research, various DNA decontamination methods have been developed to overcome this limitation. Unfortunately, the use of random or poorly focused sampling methods for monitoring air and/or object surfaces leads to the incomplete elimination during decontamination procedures. We herein attempted to develop a novel DNA decontamination method (environmental surveillance, including surface and air sampling) and quality management program for clinical molecular diagnostic laboratories (or clinical PCR laboratories). Here, we performed a step-by-step evaluation of current DNA decontamination methods and developed an effective procedure for assessing the presence of decontaminating DNA via PCR analysis. Performing targeted environmental surveillance by sampling, which reached optimal performance over 2 weeks, and the decontamination process had been verified as reliable. Additionally, the process was validated to not affect PCR amplification efficiency based on a comparative study. In this study, effective guidelines for DNA decontamination were developed. The method employed ensured that surface DNA contamination could be effectively identified and eliminated. Furthermore, our study highlighted the importance of overall quality assurance and good clinical laboratory practices for preventing contamination, which are key factors for compliance with regulatory or accreditation requirements. Taken together, we provided the evidence that the presented scheme ranged from troubleshooting to the elimination of surface contamination, could serve as critical foundation for developing regular environmental surveillance guidelines for PCR laboratories. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Biological significance of 5S rRNA import into human mitochondria: role of ribosomal protein MRP-L18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Alexandre; Entelis, Nina; Martin, Robert P.; Tarassov, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    5S rRNA is an essential component of ribosomes of all living organisms, the only known exceptions being mitochondrial ribosomes of fungi, animals, and some protists. An intriguing situation distinguishes mammalian cells: Although the mitochondrial genome contains no 5S rRNA genes, abundant import of the nuclear DNA-encoded 5S rRNA into mitochondria was reported. Neither the detailed mechanism of this pathway nor its rationale was clarified to date. In this study, we describe an elegant molecular conveyor composed of a previously identified human 5S rRNA import factor, rhodanese, and mitochondrial ribosomal protein L18, thanks to which 5S rRNA molecules can be specifically withdrawn from the cytosolic pool and redirected to mitochondria, bypassing the classic nucleolar reimport pathway. Inside mitochondria, the cytosolic 5S rRNA is shown to be associated with mitochondrial ribosomes. PMID:21685364

  8. U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of initiatives are underway in the United States in response to the 2009 critique of forensic science by a National Academy of Sciences committee. This article provides a broad review of activities including efforts of the White House National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on Forensic Science and a partnership between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to create the National Commission on Forensic Science and the Organization of Scientific Area Committees. These initiatives are seeking to improve policies and practices of forensic science. Efforts to fund research activities and aid technology transition and training in forensic science are also covered. The second portion of the article reviews standards in place or in development around the world for forensic DNA. Documentary standards are used to help define written procedures to perform testing. Physical standards serve as reference materials for calibration and traceability purposes when testing is performed. Both documentary and physical standards enable reliable data comparison, and standard data formats and common markers or testing regions are crucial for effective data sharing. Core DNA markers provide a common framework and currency for constructing DNA databases with compatible data. Recent developments in expanding core DNA markers in Europe and the United States are discussed. PMID:26164236

  9. U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John M

    2015-09-01

    A number of initiatives are underway in the United States in response to the 2009 critique of forensic science by a National Academy of Sciences committee. This article provides a broad review of activities including efforts of the White House National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on Forensic Science and a partnership between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to create the National Commission on Forensic Science and the Organization of Scientific Area Committees. These initiatives are seeking to improve policies and practices of forensic science. Efforts to fund research activities and aid technology transition and training in forensic science are also covered. The second portion of the article reviews standards in place or in development around the world for forensic DNA. Documentary standards are used to help define written procedures to perform testing. Physical standards serve as reference materials for calibration and traceability purposes when testing is performed. Both documentary and physical standards enable reliable data comparison, and standard data formats and common markers or testing regions are crucial for effective data sharing. Core DNA markers provide a common framework and currency for constructing DNA databases with compatible data. Recent developments in expanding core DNA markers in Europe and the United States are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. The ribosome can prevent aggregation of partially folded protein intermediates: studies using the Escherichia coli ribosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bani Kumar Pathak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular chaperones that support de novo folding of proteins under non stress condition are classified as chaperone 'foldases' that are distinct from chaperone' holdases' that provide high affinity binding platform for unfolded proteins and prevent their aggregation specifically under stress conditions. Ribosome, the cellular protein synthesis machine can act as a foldase chaperone that can bind unfolded proteins and release them in folding competent state. The peptidyl transferase center (PTC located in the domain V of the 23S rRNA of Escherichia coli ribosome (bDV RNA is the chaperoning center of the ribosome. It has been proposed that via specific interactions between the RNA and refolding proteins, the chaperone provides information for the correct folding of unfolded polypeptide chains. RESULTS: We demonstrate using Escherichia coli ribosome and variants of its domain V RNA that the ribosome can bind to partially folded intermediates of bovine carbonic anhydrase II (BCAII and lysozyme and suppress aggregation during their refolding. Using mutants of domain V RNA we demonstrate that the time for which the chaperone retains the bound protein is an important factor in determining its ability to suppress aggregation and/or support reactivation of protein. CONCLUSION: The ribosome can behave like a 'holdase' chaperone and has the ability to bind and hold back partially folded intermediate states of proteins from participating in the aggregation process. Since the ribosome is an essential organelle that is present in large numbers in all living cells, this ability of the ribosome provides an energetically inexpensive way to suppress cellular aggregation. Further, this ability of the ribosome might also be crucial in the context that the ribosome is one of the first chaperones to be encountered by a large nascent polypeptide chains that have a tendency to form partially folded intermediates immediately following their synthesis.

  11. Identification of Giardia species and Giardia duodenalis assemblages by sequence analysis of the 5.8S rDNA gene and internal transcribed spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciò, Simone M; Beck, Relja; Almeida, Andre; Bajer, Anna; Pozio, Edoardo

    2010-05-01

    PCR assays have been developed mainly to assist investigations into the epidemiology of Giardia duodenalis, the only species in the Giardia genus having zoonotic potential. However, a reliable identification of all species is of practical importance, particularly when water samples and samples from wild animals are investigated. The aim of the present work was to genotype Giardia species and G. duodenalis assemblages using as a target the region spanning the 5.8S gene and the 2 flanking internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal gene. Primers were designed to match strongly conserved regions in the 3' end of the small subunit and in the 5' end of the large subunit ribosomal genes. The corresponding region (about 310 bp) was amplified from 49 isolates of both human and animal origin, representing all G. duodenalis assemblages as well as G. muris and G. microti. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed that G. ardeae, G. muris, G. microti as well as the 7 G. duodenalis assemblages can be easily distinguished. Since the major subgroups within the zoonotic assemblages A and B can be identified by sequence analysis, this assay is also informative for molecular epidemiological studies.

  12. Conformation and dynamics of nucleotides in bulges and symmetric internal loops in duplex DNA studied by EPR and fluorescence spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cekan, Pavol; Sigurdsson, Snorri Th.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bulges and loops were studied by both EPR and fluorescence spectroscopies using the probe Ç/Ç f . ► One-base bulge was in a temperature-dependent equilibrium between looped-out and stacked states. ► Bases in two- and three-base bulges were stacked at all temperatures, resulting in DNA bending. ► Bases were stacked in symmetrical two- to five-base internal loops, according to EPR data. ► Unexpectedly high fluorescence for the smaller loops indicated local structural perturbations. -- Abstract: The dynamics and conformation of base bulges and internal loops in duplex DNA were studied using the bifunctional spectroscopic probe Ç, which becomes fluorescent (Ç f ) upon reduction of the nitroxide functional group, along with EPR and fluorescence spectroscopies. A one-base bulge was in a conformational equilibrium between looped-out and stacked states, the former favored at higher temperature and the latter at lower temperature. Stacking of bulge bases was favored in two- and three-base bulges, independent of temperature, resulting in DNA bending as evidenced by increased fluorescence of Ç f . EPR spectra of Ç-labeled three-, four- and five-base symmetrical interior DNA bulges at 20 °C showed low mobility, indicating that the spin-label was stacked within the loop. The spin-label mobility at 37 °C increased as the loops became larger. A considerable variation in fluorescence between different loops was observed, as well as a temperature-dependence within constructs. Fluorescence unexpectedly increased as the size of the loop decreased at 2 °C. Fluorescence of the smallest loops, where a single T·T mismatch was located between the stem region and the probe, was even larger than for the single strand, indicating a considerable local structural deformation of these loops from regular B-DNA. These results show the value of combining EPR and fluorescence spectroscopy to study non-helical regions of nucleic acids.

  13. Detection and Quantification of Ribosome Inhibition by Aminoglycoside Antibiotics in Living Bacteria Using an Orthogonal Ribosome-Controlled Fluorescent Reporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shijie; Zhu, Xuechen; Melançon, Charles E

    2016-01-15

    The ribosome is the quintessential antibacterial drug target, with many structurally and mechanistically distinct classes of antibacterial agents acting by inhibiting ribosome function. Detecting and quantifying ribosome inhibition by small molecules and investigating their binding modes and mechanisms of action are critical to antibacterial drug discovery and development efforts. To develop a ribosome inhibition assay that is operationally simple, yet provides direct information on the drug target and the mechanism of action, we have developed engineered E. coli strains harboring an orthogonal ribosome-controlled green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter that produce fluorescent signal when the orthogonal ribosome is inhibited. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate that these strains, when coexpressing homogeneous populations of aminoglycoside resistant ribosomes, act as sensitive and quantitative detectors of ribosome inhibition by a set of 12 structurally diverse aminoglycoside antibiotics. We suggest that this strategy can be extended to quantifying ribosome inhibition by other drug classes.

  14. Relationship between organization and function of ribosomal genes in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpen, G.H.

    1987-01-01

    In most eukaryotic organisms, the genes that encode the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNAs (rDNA genes) are tandemly repeated, and are located in constitutive heterochromatin and/or centromeric or telomeric regions. P-element mediated transformation was used to investigate the relationship between rDNA organization and function in Drosophila melanogaster. Tritiated-uridine incorporation under heat shock conditions and in situ hybridization to rRNA were used to demonstrate that a single rDNA gene inserted into euchromatin can be transcribed at a high rate, in polytene nuclei. P-element-mediated transformation of a single Drosophila rDNA gene was also utilized to investigate the ability of ribosomal DNA to organize a nucleolus. Cytological approaches demonstrated that structures resembling the endogenous nucleoli were preferentially associated with four different sites of rDNA insertion, in polytene nuclei. These mini-nucleoli also contained components specific to the nucleolus, as shown by in situ hybridization to rRNA and indirect immunofluorescence with an antibody that binds to Drosophila nucleoli. The transformed genes were able to partially rescue mutant phenotypes due to a deficiency of rDNA, indicating that the mini-nucleoli were functional

  15. Ribosome stalling regulates IRES-mediated translation in eukaryotes, a parallel to prokaryotic attenuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, James; Yaman, Ibrahim; Huang, Charles; Liu, Haiyan; Lopez, Alex B.; Komar, Anton A.; Caprara, Mark G.; Merrick, William C.; Snider, Martin D.; Kaufman, Randal J.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Hatzoglou, Maria

    2005-01-01

    It was previously shown that the mRNA for the cat-1 Arg/Lys transporter is translated from an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that is regulated by cellular stress. Amino acid starvation stimulated cat-1 translation via a mechanism that requires translation of an ORF in the mRNA leader and

  16. RINT-1 interacts with MSP58 within nucleoli and plays a role in ribosomal gene transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chuan-Pin; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Lee, Yi-Chao; Lee, Kuen-Haur; Chiang, Chi-Wu; Wang, Ju-Ming; Hsu, Che-Chia

    2016-01-01

    The nucleolus is the cellular site of ribosomal (r)DNA transcription and ribosome biogenesis. The 58-kDa microspherule protein (MSP58) is a nucleolar protein involved in rDNA transcription and cell proliferation. However, regulation of MSP58-mediated rDNA transcription remains unknown. Using a yeast two-hybrid system with MSP58 as bait, we isolated complementary (c)DNA encoding Rad50-interacting protein 1 (RINT-1), as a MSP58-binding protein. RINT-1 was implicated in the cell cycle checkpoint, membrane trafficking, Golgi apparatus and centrosome dynamic integrity, and telomere length control. Both in vitro and in vivo interaction assays showed that MSP58 directly interacts with RINT-1. Interestingly, microscopic studies revealed the co-localization of MSP58, RINT-1, and the upstream binding factor (UBF), a rRNA transcription factor, in the nucleolus. We showed that ectopic expression of MSP58 or RINT-1 resulted in decreased rRNA expression and rDNA promoter activity, whereas knockdown of MSP58 or RINT-1 by siRNA exerted the opposite effect. Coexpression of MSP58 and RINT-1 robustly decreased rRNA synthesis compared to overexpression of either protein alone, whereas depletion of RINT-1 from MSP58-transfected cells enhanced rRNA synthesis. We also found that MSP58, RINT-1, and the UBF were associated with the rDNA promoter using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Because aberrant ribosome biogenesis contributes to neoplastic transformation, our results revealed a novel protein complex involved in the regulation of rRNA gene expression, suggesting a role for MSP58 and RINT-1 in cancer development. - Highlights: • RINT-1 is a novel MSP58-interacting protein. • RINT-1 is a nucleolar protein that suppresses ribosomal RNA gene transcription. • RINT-1 and MSP58 cooperate to suppress ribosomal RNA gene transcription. • RINT-1, MSP58, and UBF form a complex on the rDNA promoter.

  17. (Fabaceae) based on analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-28

    Oct 28, 2016 ... The 50% majority rule consensus trees resulting from the two searches are similar ... picta following the work of Bailey and Doyle (1997). ... confirming their distinctness, the latter being a new species to science (Gholami and.

  18. Sugar Cane Genome Numbers Assumption by Ribosomal DNA FISH Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thumjamras, S.; Jong, de H.; Iamtham, S.; Prammanee, S.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional cytological method is limited for polyploidy plant genome study, especially sugar cane chromosomes that show unstable numbers of each cultivar. Molecular cytogenetic as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques were used in this study. A basic chromosome number of sugar cane

  19. Phylogenetic utility of ribosomal genes for reconstructing the phylogeny of five Chinese satyrine tribes (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsheng Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Satyrinae is one of twelve subfamilies of the butterfly family Nymphalidae, which currently includes nine tribes. However, phylogenetic relationships among them remain largely unresolved, though different researches have been conducted based on both morphological and molecular data. However, ribosomal genes have never been used in tribe level phylogenetic analyses of Satyrinae. In this study we investigate for the first time the phylogenetic relationships among the tribes Elymniini, Amathusiini, Zetherini and Melanitini which are indicated to be a monophyletic group, and the Satyrini, using two ribosomal genes (28s rDNA and 16s rDNA and four protein-coding genes (EF-1α, COI, COII and Cytb. We mainly aim to assess the phylogenetic informativeness of the ribosomal genes as well as clarify the relationships among different tribes. Our results show the two ribosomal genes generally have the same high phylogenetic informativeness compared with EF-1α; and we infer the 28s rDNA would show better informativeness if the 28s rDNA sequence data for each sampling taxon are obtained in this study. The placement of the monotypic genus Callarge Leech in Zetherini is confirmed for the first time based on molecular evidence. In addition, our maximum likelihood (ML and Bayesian inference (BI trees consistently show that the involved Satyrinae including the Amathusiini is monophyletic with high support values. Although the relationships among the five tribes are identical among ML and BI analyses and are mostly strongly-supported in BI analysis, those in ML analysis are lowly- or moderately- supported. Therefore, the relationships among the related five tribes recovered herein need further verification based on more sampling taxa.

  20. Reversible Modulation of DNA-Based Hydrogel Shapes by Internal Stress Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuwei; Kahn, Jason S; Guo, Weiwei; Huang, Fujian; Fadeev, Michael; Harries, Daniel; Willner, Itamar

    2016-12-14

    We present the assembly of asymmetric two-layer hybrid DNA-based hydrogels revealing stimuli-triggered reversibly modulated shape transitions. Asymmetric, linear hydrogels that include layer-selective switchable stimuli-responsive elements that control the hydrogel stiffness are designed. Trigger-induced stress in one of the layers results in the bending of the linear hybrid structure, thereby minimizing the elastic free energy of the systems. The removal of the stress by a counter-trigger restores the original linear bilayer hydrogel. The stiffness of the DNA hydrogel layers is controlled by thermal, pH (i-motif), K + ion/crown ether (G-quadruplexes), chemical (pH-doped polyaniline), or biocatalytic (glucose oxidase/urease) triggers. A theoretical model relating the experimental bending radius of curvatures of the hydrogels with the Young's moduli and geometrical parameters of the hydrogels is provided. Promising applications of shape-regulated stimuli-responsive asymmetric hydrogels include their use as valves, actuators, sensors, and drug delivery devices.

  1. DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG): an update of the recommendations on the use of Y-STRs in forensic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gusmão, L; Butler, John M; Carracedo, Angel

    2006-01-01

    The DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG) regularly publishes guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the problems of human identification. A previous recommendation published in 2001 has already addressed Y-chromosome po......The DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG) regularly publishes guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the problems of human identification. A previous recommendation published in 2001 has already addressed Y......-chromosome polymorphisms, with particular emphasis on short tandem repeats (STRs). Since then, the use of Y-STRs has become very popular, and a numerous new loci have been introduced. The current recommendations address important aspects to clarify problems regarding the nomenclature, the definition of loci and alleles...

  2. DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG): an update of the recommendations on the use of Y-STRs in forensic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gusmão, L; Butler, J M; Carracedo, A

    2006-01-01

    The DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG) regularly publishes guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the problems of human identification. A previous recommendation published in 2001 has already addressed Y-chromosome po......The DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG) regularly publishes guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the problems of human identification. A previous recommendation published in 2001 has already addressed Y......-chromosome polymorphisms, with particular emphasis on short tandem repeats (STRs). Since then, the use of Y-STRs has become very popular, and numerous new loci have been introduced. The current recommendations address important aspects to clarify problems regarding the nomenclature, the definition of loci and alleles...

  3. Remodeling of ribosomal genes in somatic cells by Xenopus egg extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrup, Olga, E-mail: osvarcova@gmail.com [Institute of Basic Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Stem Cell Epigenetics Laboratory, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Norwegian Center for Stem Cell Research, Oslo (Norway); Hyttel, Poul; Klaerke, Dan A. [Institute of Basic Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Collas, Philippe, E-mail: philc@medisin.uio.no [Stem Cell Epigenetics Laboratory, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Norwegian Center for Stem Cell Research, Oslo (Norway)

    2011-09-02

    Highlights: {yields} Xenopus egg extract remodels nuclei and alter cell growth characteristics. {yields} Ribosomal genes are reprogrammed within 6 h after extract exposure. {yields} rDNA reprogramming involves promoter targeting of SNF2H remodeling complex. {yields} Xenopus egg extract does not initiate stress-related response in somatic cells. {yields} Aza-cytidine elicits a stress-induced response in reprogrammed cells. -- Abstract: Extracts from Xenopus eggs can reprogram gene expression in somatic nuclei, however little is known about the earliest processes associated with the switch in the transcriptional program. We show here that an early reprogramming event is the remodeling of ribosomal chromatin and gene expression. This occurs within hours of extract treatment and is distinct from a stress response. Egg extract elicits remodeling of the nuclear envelope, chromatin and nucleolus. Nucleolar remodeling involves a rapid and stable decrease in ribosomal gene transcription, and promoter targeting of the nucleolar remodeling complex component SNF2H without affecting occupancy of the transcription factor UBF and the stress silencers SUV39H1 and SIRT1. During this process, nucleolar localization of UBF and SIRT1 is not altered. On contrary, azacytidine pre-treatment has an adverse effect on rDNA remodeling induced by extract and elicits a stress-type nuclear response. Thus, an early event of Xenopus egg extract-mediated nuclear reprogramming is the remodeling of ribosomal genes involving nucleolar remodeling complex. Condition-specific and rapid silencing of ribosomal genes may serve as a sensitive marker for evaluation of various reprogramming methods.

  4. Effect of primary and secondary radicals on chain breaks in ribosomal RNA in E. coli ribosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.; Bishop, J.

    1984-01-01

    It has been shown previously that, in dilute aerated solutions, ribosomes are inactivated by OH radicals and by secondary radicals produced from added alcohols (Singh and Vadasz 1983 a). In de-aerated solutions, both radicalH and e - sub(aq) also inactivate ribosomes (Singh and Vadasz 1983 b). The results of these studies and other on different systems (Adams et al. 1973, Aldrich and Cundall 1969, Dewey and Stein 1970, Masuda et al. 1971, Nabben et al. 1982, 1983, Samuni et al. 1980, Singh and Singh 1982) have shown that damage to biological systems occurs by diverse mechanisms. One of these mechanisms involves chain breaks in RNA (Pollard and Weller 1967). The purpose of this study was to determine which of the primary and secondary radicals cause chain breaks in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) within the ribosomes. (author)

  5. A dynamic ribosomal biogenesis response is not required for IGF-1-mediated hypertrophy of human primary myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, Hannah; Timmons, James A; Atherton, Philip J

    2017-12-01

    Increased ribosomal DNA transcription has been proposed to limit muscle protein synthesis, making ribosome biogenesis central to skeletal muscle hypertrophy. We examined the relationship between ribosomal RNA (rRNA) production and IGF-1-mediated myotube hypertrophy in vitro Primary skeletal myotubes were treated with IGF-1 (50 ng/ml) with or without 0.5 µM CX-5461 (CX), an inhibitor of RNA polymerase I. Myotube diameter, total protein, and RNA and DNA levels were measured along with markers of RNA polymerase I regulatory factors and regulators of protein synthesis. CX treatment reduced 45S pre-rRNA expression (-64 ± 5% vs. IGF-1; P IGF-1; P IGF-1-treated myotubes. IGF-1-mediated increases in myotube diameter (1.27 ± 0.09-fold, P IGF-1 treatment did not prevent early increases in AKT (+203 ± 39% vs. CX; P IGF-1, myotube diameter and protein accretion were sustained. Thus, while ribosome biogenesis represents a potential site for the regulation of skeletal muscle protein synthesis and muscle mass, it does not appear to be a prerequisite for IGF-1-induced myotube hypertrophy in vitro. -Crossland, H., Timmons, J. A., Atherton, P. J. A dynamic ribosomal biogenesis response is not required for IGF-1-mediated hypertrophy of human primary myotubes. © The Author(s).

  6. Proceedings of the 2nd international advisory committee on biomolecular dynamics instrument DNA in MLF at J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Masatoshi; Aizawa, Kazuya; Nakajima, Kenji; Shibata, Kaoru; Takahashi, Nobuaki

    2009-07-01

    The 2nd International Advisory Committee on the 'Biomolecular Dynamics Backscattering Spectrometer DNA' was held on November 12th - 13th, 2008 at J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency. This IAC has been organized for aiming to realize an innovative neutron backscattering instrument in the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) at the J-PARC and therefore four leading scientists in the field of neutron backscattering instruments has been selected as the member (Dr. Dan Neumann (Chair); Prof. Ferenc Mezei; Dr. Hannu Mutka; Dr. Philip Tregenna-Piggott), and the 1st IAC had been held on February 27th - 29th, 2008. This report includes the executive summary and materials of the presentations in the 2nd IAC. (author)

  7. 78 FR 22269 - International Conference on Harmonisation; Draft Guidance on M7 Assessment and Control of DNA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance entitled ``M7 Assessment and Control of DNA Reactive (Mutagenic) Impurities in Pharmaceuticals to Limit Potential Carcinogenic Risk.'' The draft guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The draft guidance emphasizes considerations of both safety and quality risk management in establishing levels of mutagenic impurities that are expected to pose negligible carcinogenic risk. It outlines recommendations for assessment and control of mutagenic impurities that reside or are reasonably expected to reside in a final drug substance or product, taking into consideration the intended conditions of human use. The draft guidance is intended to provide guidance for new drug substances and new drug products during their clinical development and subsequent applications for marketing.

  8. Defective replication initiation results in locus specific chromosome breakage and a ribosomal RNA deficiency in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C Sanchez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A form of dwarfism known as Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS is caused by recessive mutations in one of six different genes (ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDC6, CDT1, and MCM5. These genes encode components of the pre-replication complex, which assembles at origins of replication prior to S phase. Also, variants in two additional replication initiation genes have joined the list of causative mutations for MGS (Geminin and CDC45. The identity of the causative MGS genetic variants strongly suggests that some aspect of replication is amiss in MGS patients; however, little evidence has been obtained regarding what aspect of chromosome replication is faulty. Since the site of one of the missense mutations in the human ORC4 alleles is conserved between humans and yeast, we sought to determine in what way this single amino acid change affects the process of chromosome replication, by introducing the comparable mutation into yeast (orc4Y232C. We find that yeast cells with the orc4Y232C allele have a prolonged S-phase, due to compromised replication initiation at the ribosomal DNA (rDNA locus located on chromosome XII. The inability to initiate replication at the rDNA locus results in chromosome breakage and a severely reduced rDNA copy number in the survivors, presumably helping to ensure complete replication of chromosome XII. Although reducing rDNA copy number may help ensure complete chromosome replication, orc4Y232C cells struggle to meet the high demand for ribosomal RNA synthesis. This finding provides additional evidence linking two essential cellular pathways-DNA replication and ribosome biogenesis.

  9. Defective replication initiation results in locus specific chromosome breakage and a ribosomal RNA deficiency in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Joseph C; Kwan, Elizabeth X; Pohl, Thomas J; Amemiya, Haley M; Raghuraman, M K; Brewer, Bonita J

    2017-10-01

    A form of dwarfism known as Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is caused by recessive mutations in one of six different genes (ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDC6, CDT1, and MCM5). These genes encode components of the pre-replication complex, which assembles at origins of replication prior to S phase. Also, variants in two additional replication initiation genes have joined the list of causative mutations for MGS (Geminin and CDC45). The identity of the causative MGS genetic variants strongly suggests that some aspect of replication is amiss in MGS patients; however, little evidence has been obtained regarding what aspect of chromosome replication is faulty. Since the site of one of the missense mutations in the human ORC4 alleles is conserved between humans and yeast, we sought to determine in what way this single amino acid change affects the process of chromosome replication, by introducing the comparable mutation into yeast (orc4Y232C). We find that yeast cells with the orc4Y232C allele have a prolonged S-phase, due to compromised replication initiation at the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus located on chromosome XII. The inability to initiate replication at the rDNA locus results in chromosome breakage and a severely reduced rDNA copy number in the survivors, presumably helping to ensure complete replication of chromosome XII. Although reducing rDNA copy number may help ensure complete chromosome replication, orc4Y232C cells struggle to meet the high demand for ribosomal RNA synthesis. This finding provides additional evidence linking two essential cellular pathways-DNA replication and ribosome biogenesis.

  10. RINT-1 interacts with MSP58 within nucleoli and plays a role in ribosomal gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan-Pin; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Lee, Yi-Chao; Lee, Kuen-Haur; Chiang, Chi-Wu; Wang, Ju-Ming; Hsu, Che-Chia; Chang, Wen-Chang; Lin, Ding-Yen

    2016-09-16

    The nucleolus is the cellular site of ribosomal (r)DNA transcription and ribosome biogenesis. The 58-kDa microspherule protein (MSP58) is a nucleolar protein involved in rDNA transcription and cell proliferation. However, regulation of MSP58-mediated rDNA transcription remains unknown. Using a yeast two-hybrid system with MSP58 as bait, we isolated complementary (c)DNA encoding Rad50-interacting protein 1 (RINT-1), as a MSP58-binding protein. RINT-1 was implicated in the cell cycle checkpoint, membrane trafficking, Golgi apparatus and centrosome dynamic integrity, and telomere length control. Both in vitro and in vivo interaction assays showed that MSP58 directly interacts with RINT-1. Interestingly, microscopic studies revealed the co-localization of MSP58, RINT-1, and the upstream binding factor (UBF), a rRNA transcription factor, in the nucleolus. We showed that ectopic expression of MSP58 or RINT-1 resulted in decreased rRNA expression and rDNA promoter activity, whereas knockdown of MSP58 or RINT-1 by siRNA exerted the opposite effect. Coexpression of MSP58 and RINT-1 robustly decreased rRNA synthesis compared to overexpression of either protein alone, whereas depletion of RINT-1 from MSP58-transfected cells enhanced rRNA synthesis. We also found that MSP58, RINT-1, and the UBF were associated with the rDNA promoter using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Because aberrant ribosome biogenesis contributes to neoplastic transformation, our results revealed a novel protein complex involved in the regulation of rRNA gene expression, suggesting a role for MSP58 and RINT-1 in cancer development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of spontaneously mutated human DNA as competitive internal standard for nucleic acid quantification by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnicka, L.; Diaz, A.; Varga, J.; Jimenez, S.A.; Christiano, A.; Uitto, J.

    1995-01-01

    Quantification of gene expression is of increasing interest in many medical sciences. Methods based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) are timesaving and require only very small amounts of RNA. A limiting factor, however, is the significant fluctuation in the efficacy of reverse transcription as well in the polymerase chain reactions. Various external and internal standards have been suggested for correcting these fluctuations. We describe a novel way of creating an internal standard for assessing the expression of type VII collagen in human cells. The total RNA of a patient with hereditary 'epidermilysis bulosa dystrophica' associated with a homozygous T to A point mutation in type VII collagen gene was reverse transcribed and a 382bp fragment of type VII collagen cDNA containing the mutation was amplified. The mutated cDNA, unlike normal type VII collagen cDNA could be cleaved by 'Ear I' endonuclease into 244bp and 138bp fragments. Semiquantitative PCR was performed with the mutated cDNA as internal standard and the studied cDNA sample in the same tube in the presence of α 32 P-labelled dCTP. The reaction was followed by 'Ear I' digestion, electrophoresis on a polyacrylamide gel and exposure to a X-ray film. In conclusion, we describe a timesaving method for creating internal standards for semiquantitative RT-PCR. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs

  12. Evolutionary dynamics of a conserved sequence motif in the ribosomal genes of the ciliate Paramecium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Michael

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In protozoa, the identification of preserved motifs by comparative genomics is often impeded by difficulties to generate reliable alignments for non-coding sequences. Moreover, the evolutionary dynamics of regulatory elements in 3' untranslated regions (both in protozoa and metazoa remains a virtually unexplored issue. Results By screening Paramecium tetraurelia's 3' untranslated regions for 8-mers that were previously found to be preserved in mammalian 3' UTRs, we detect and characterize a motif that is distinctly conserved in the ribosomal genes of this ciliate. The motif appears to be conserved across Paramecium aurelia species but is absent from the ribosomal genes of four additional non-Paramecium species surveyed, including another ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Motif-free ribosomal genes retain fewer paralogs in the genome and appear to be lost more rapidly relative to motif-containing genes. Features associated with the discovered preserved motif are consistent with this 8-mer playing a role in post-transcriptional regulation. Conclusions Our observations 1 shed light on the evolution of a putative regulatory motif across large phylogenetic distances; 2 are expected to facilitate the understanding of the modulation of ribosomal genes expression in Paramecium; and 3 reveal a largely unexplored--and presumably not restricted to Paramecium--association between the presence/absence of a DNA motif and the evolutionary fate of its host genes.

  13. Evolutionary dynamics of a conserved sequence motif in the ribosomal genes of the ciliate Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Francesco; Lynch, Michael

    2010-05-04

    In protozoa, the identification of preserved motifs by comparative genomics is often impeded by difficulties to generate reliable alignments for non-coding sequences. Moreover, the evolutionary dynamics of regulatory elements in 3' untranslated regions (both in protozoa and metazoa) remains a virtually unexplored issue. By screening Paramecium tetraurelia's 3' untranslated regions for 8-mers that were previously found to be preserved in mammalian 3' UTRs, we detect and characterize a motif that is distinctly conserved in the ribosomal genes of this ciliate. The motif appears to be conserved across Paramecium aurelia species but is absent from the ribosomal genes of four additional non-Paramecium species surveyed, including another ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Motif-free ribosomal genes retain fewer paralogs in the genome and appear to be lost more rapidly relative to motif-containing genes. Features associated with the discovered preserved motif are consistent with this 8-mer playing a role in post-transcriptional regulation. Our observations 1) shed light on the evolution of a putative regulatory motif across large phylogenetic distances; 2) are expected to facilitate the understanding of the modulation of ribosomal genes expression in Paramecium; and 3) reveal a largely unexplored--and presumably not restricted to Paramecium--association between the presence/absence of a DNA motif and the evolutionary fate of its host genes.

  14. GTPases and the origin of the ribosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Temple F

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is an attempt to trace the evolution of the ribosome through the evolution of the universal P-loop GTPases that are involved with the ribosome in translation and with the attachment of the ribosome to the membrane. The GTPases involved in translation in Bacteria/Archaea are the elongation factors EFTu/EF1, the initiation factors IF2/aeIF5b + aeIF2, and the elongation factors EFG/EF2. All of these GTPases also contain the OB fold also found in the non GTPase IF1 involved in initiation. The GTPase involved in the signal recognition particle in most Bacteria and Archaea is SRP54. Results 1 The Elongation Factors of the Archaea based on structural considerations of the domains have the following evolutionary path: EF1→ aeIF2 → EF2. The evolution of the aeIF5b was a later event; 2 the Elongation Factors of the Bacteria based on the topological considerations of the GTPase domain have a similar evolutionary path: EFTu→ IF→2→EFG. These evolutionary sequences reflect the evolution of the LSU followed by the SSU to form the ribosome; 3 the OB-fold IF1 is a mimic of an ancient tRNA minihelix. Conclusion The evolution of translational GTPases of both the Archaea and Bacteria point to the evolution of the ribosome. The elongation factors, EFTu/EF1, began as a Ras-like GTPase bringing the activated minihelix tRNA to the Large Subunit Unit. The initiation factors and elongation factor would then have evolved from the EFTu/EF1 as the small subunit was added to the evolving ribosome. The SRP has an SRP54 GTPase and a specific RNA fold in its RNA component similar to the PTC. We consider the SRP to be a remnant of an ancient form of an LSU bound to a membrane. Reviewers This article was reviewed by George Fox, Leonid Mirny and Chris Sander.

  15. The case for launch of an international DNA based birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The global health agenda beyond 2015 will inevitably need to broaden its focus from mortality reduction to the social determinants of deaths, growing inequities among children and mothers, and ensuring the sustainability of the progress made against the infectious diseases. New research tools, including technologies that enable high-throughput genetic and ‘-omics’ research, could be deployed for better understanding of the aetiology of maternal and child health problems. The research needed to address those challenges will require conceptually different studies than those used in the past. It should be guided by stringent ethical frameworks related to the emerging collections of biological specimens and other health related information. We will aim to establish an international birth cohort which should assist low- and middle-income countries to use emerging genomic research technologies to address the main problems in maternal and child health, which are still major contributors to the burden of disease globally.

  16. Continuing global improvement in human papillomavirus DNA genotyping services: The 2013 and 2014 HPV LabNet international proficiency studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Carina; Forslund, Ola; Wallin, Keng-Ling; Dillner, Joakim

    2018-04-01

    Accurate and internationally comparable human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA detection and typing services are essential for HPV vaccine research and surveillance. This study assessed the proficiency of different HPV typing services offered routinely in laboratories worldwide. The HPV Laboratory Network (LabNet) has designed international proficiency panels that can be regularly issued. The HPV genotyping proficiency panels of 2013 and 2014 contained 43 and 41 coded samples, respectively, composed of purified plasmids of sixteen HPV types (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68a and 68b) and 3 extraction controls. Proficient typing was defined as detection in both single and multiple infections of 50 International Units of HPV 16 and HPV 18 and 500 genome equivalents for the other 14 HPV types, with at least 97% specificity. Ninety-six laboratories submitted 136 datasets in 2013 and 121 laboratories submitted 148 datasets in 2014. Thirty-four different HPV genotyping assays were used, notably Linear Array, HPV Direct Flow-chip, GenoFlow HPV array, Anyplex HPV 28, Inno-LiPa, and PGMY-CHUV assays. A trend towards increased sensitivity and specificity was observed. In 2013, 59 data sets (44%) were 100% proficient compared to 86 data sets (59%) in 2014. This is a definite improvement compared to the first proficiency panel, issued in 2008, when only 19 data sets (26%) were fully proficient. The regularly issued global proficiency program has documented an ongoing worldwide improvement in comparability and reliability of HPV genotyping services. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Expanding the Entamoeba Universe: New Hosts Yield Novel Ribosomal Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Alison S; Busby, Eloise J; Levy, Abigail D; Komm, Natasha; Clark, C Graham

    2016-01-01

    Removing the requirement for cell culture has led to a substantial increase in the number of lineages of Entamoeba recognized as distinct. Surveying the range of potential host species for this parasite genus has barely been started and it is clear that additional sampling of the same host in different locations often identifies additional diversity. In this study, using small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, we identify four new lineages of Entamoeba, including the first report of Entamoeba from an elephant, and extend the host range of some previously described lineages. In addition, examination of microbiome data from a number of host animals suggests that substantial Entamoeba diversity remains to be uncovered. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  18. Analysis of oxidative DNA damage, Part II: Synthesis of the internal standard 8-[18O]hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanns RCA; Zomer G; Stavenuiter JFC; Westra G; Visser T; van de Werken G

    1993-01-01

    In the project 'Oxidative DNA Damage' the first aim is to develop a mass spectrometric method for the quantification of 8-hydroxy-2'- deoxyguanosine (oh8dG). The required precision of the method requires the application of a labeled analogue as an internal standard. This report

  19. Ribosomal history reveals origins of modern protein synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith Harish

    Full Text Available The origin and evolution of the ribosome is central to our understanding of the cellular world. Most hypotheses posit that the ribosome originated in the peptidyl transferase center of the large ribosomal subunit. However, these proposals do not link protein synthesis to RNA recognition and do not use a phylogenetic comparative framework to study ribosomal evolution. Here we infer evolution of the structural components of the ribosome. Phylogenetic methods widely used in morphometrics are applied directly to RNA structures of thousands of molecules and to a census of protein structures in hundreds of genomes. We find that components of the small subunit involved in ribosomal processivity evolved earlier than the catalytic peptidyl transferase center responsible for protein synthesis. Remarkably, subunit RNA and proteins coevolved, starting with interactions between the oldest proteins (S12 and S17 and the oldest substructure (the ribosomal ratchet in the small subunit and ending with the rise of a modern multi-subunit ribosome. Ancestral ribonucleoprotein components show similarities to in vitro evolved RNA replicase ribozymes and protein structures in extant replication machinery. Our study therefore provides important clues about the chicken-or-egg dilemma associated with the central dogma of molecular biology by showing that ribosomal history is driven by the gradual structural accretion of protein and RNA structures. Most importantly, results suggest that functionally important and conserved regions of the ribosome were recruited and could be relics of an ancient ribonucleoprotein world.

  20. Mitochondrial genome evolution in Alismatales: Size reduction and extensive loss of ribosomal protein genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gitte; Cuenca, Argelia; Zervas, Athanasios

    2017-01-01

    The order Alismatales is a hotspot for evolution of plant mitochondrial genomes characterized by remarkable differences in genome size, substitution rates, RNA editing, retrotranscription, gene loss and intron loss. Here we have sequenced the complete mitogenomes of Zostera marina and Stratiotes...... aloides, which together with previously sequenced mitogenomes from Butomus and Spirodela, provide new evolutionary evidence of genome size reduction, gene loss and transfer to the nucleus. The Zostera mitogenome includes a large portion of DNA transferred from the plastome, yet it is the smallest known...... mitogenome from a non-parasitic plant. Using a broad sample of the Alismatales, the evolutionary history of ribosomal protein gene loss is analyzed. In Zostera almost all ribosomal protein genes are lost from the mitogenome, but only some can be found in the nucleus....

  1. Phosphorylation of acidic ribosomal proteins from rabbit reticulocytes by a ribosome-associated casein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G

    1977-01-01

    Two acidic proteins from 80-S ribosomes were isolated and purified to homogeneity. The purified acidic proteins could be phosphorylated by casein kinase using [gamma-32P]ATP and [gamma-32P]GTP as a phosphoryl donor. The proteins became phosphorylated in situ, too. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacryl......Two acidic proteins from 80-S ribosomes were isolated and purified to homogeneity. The purified acidic proteins could be phosphorylated by casein kinase using [gamma-32P]ATP and [gamma-32P]GTP as a phosphoryl donor. The proteins became phosphorylated in situ, too. Sodium dodecyl sulfate...

  2. Efficiency of ITS Sequences for DNA Barcoding in Passiflora (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Câmara Giudicelli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding is a technique for discriminating and identifying species using short, variable, and standardized DNA regions. Here, we tested for the first time the performance of plastid and nuclear regions as DNA barcodes in Passiflora. This genus is a largely variable, with more than 900 species of high ecological, commercial, and ornamental importance. We analyzed 1034 accessions of 222 species representing the four subgenera of Passiflora and evaluated the effectiveness of five plastid regions and three nuclear datasets currently employed as DNA barcodes in plants using barcoding gap, applied similarity-, and tree-based methods. The plastid regions were able to identify less than 45% of species, whereas the nuclear datasets were efficient for more than 50% using “best match” and “best close match” methods of TaxonDNA software. All subgenera presented higher interspecific pairwise distances and did not fully overlap with the intraspecific distance, and similarity-based methods showed better results than tree-based methods. The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 region presented a higher discrimination power than the other datasets and also showed other desirable characteristics as a DNA barcode for this genus. Therefore, we suggest that this region should be used as a starting point to identify Passiflora species.

  3. DNA types of aspermic Fasciola species in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Madoka; Iwata, Noriyuki; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2010-10-01

    In order to reveal DNA types of aspermic Fasciola forms in Japan, Fasciola specimens obtained from eight prefectures that had not been previously reported were analyzed for DNA of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) gene. Five combinations in DNA types of both ITS1 and ND1 were revealed from the results of this study and previous studies. The DNA type Fsp2, which is identical to that of F. gigantica in both ITS1 and ND1, was the most predominant in Japan, followed by Fsp1, which is the same DNA type as that of F. hepatica. Fasciola forms with Fsp1 mainly occurred in the northern region of Japan and those with Fsp2 were mainly in the western region. The founder effect related to migration of definitive host and susceptibility of intermediate host snail might play an important role in both geographical distribution and frequency of DNA types in Japanese Fasciola specimens.

  4. Myb-binding protein 1a (Mybbp1a) regulates levels and processing of pre-ribosomal RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstatter, Julia; Hölzel, Michael; Rohrmoser, Michaela; Schermelleh, Lothar; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Keough, Rebecca; Gonda, Thomas J; Imhof, Axel; Eick, Dirk; Längst, Gernot; Németh, Attila

    2012-07-13

    Ribosomal RNA gene transcription, co-transcriptional processing, and ribosome biogenesis are highly coordinated processes that are tightly regulated during cell growth. In this study we discovered that Mybbp1a is associated with both the RNA polymerase I complex and the ribosome biogenesis machinery. Using a reporter assay that uncouples transcription and RNA processing, we show that Mybbp1a represses rRNA gene transcription. In addition, overexpression of the protein reduces RNA polymerase I loading on endogenous rRNA genes as revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. Accordingly, depletion of Mybbp1a results in an accumulation of the rRNA precursor in vivo but surprisingly also causes growth arrest of the cells. This effect can be explained by the observation that the modulation of Mybbp1a protein levels results in defects in pre-rRNA processing within the cell. Therefore, the protein may play a dual role in the rRNA metabolism, potentially linking and coordinating ribosomal DNA transcription and pre-rRNA processing to allow for the efficient synthesis of ribosomes.

  5. Architecture of the large subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greber, Basil J; Boehringer, Daniel; Leitner, Alexander; Bieri, Philipp; Voigts-Hoffmann, Felix; Erzberger, Jan P; Leibundgut, Marc; Aebersold, Ruedi; Ban, Nenad

    2014-01-23

    Mitochondrial ribosomes synthesize a number of highly hydrophobic proteins encoded on the genome of mitochondria, the organelles in eukaryotic cells that are responsible for energy conversion by oxidative phosphorylation. The ribosomes in mammalian mitochondria have undergone massive structural changes throughout their evolution, including ribosomal RNA shortening and acquisition of mitochondria-specific ribosomal proteins. Here we present the three-dimensional structure of the 39S large subunit of the porcine mitochondrial ribosome determined by cryo-electron microscopy at 4.9 Å resolution. The structure, combined with data from chemical crosslinking and mass spectrometry experiments, reveals the unique features of the 39S subunit at near-atomic resolution and provides detailed insight into the architecture of the polypeptide exit site. This region of the mitochondrial ribosome has been considerably remodelled compared to its bacterial counterpart, providing a specialized platform for the synthesis and membrane insertion of the highly hydrophobic protein components of the respiratory chain.

  6. Molecular Identification of Isolated Fungi from Unopened Containers of Greek Yogurt by DNA Sequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacer Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad M. Sulaiman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In our previous study, we described the development of an internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 sequencing method, and used this protocol in species-identification of isolated fungi collected from the manufacturing areas of a compounding company known to have caused the multistate fungal meningitis outbreak in the United States. In this follow-up study, we have analyzed the unopened vials of Greek yogurt from the recalled batch to determine the possible cause of microbial contamination in the product. A total of 15 unopened vials of Greek yogurt belonging to the recalled batch were examined for the detection of fungi in these samples known to cause foodborne illness following conventional microbiological protocols. Fungi were isolated from all of the 15 Greek yogurt samples analyzed. The isolated fungi were genetically typed by DNA sequencing of PCR-amplified ITS1 region of rRNA gene. Analysis of data confirmed all of the isolated fungal isolates from the Greek yogurt to be Rhizomucor variabilis. The generated ITS1 sequences matched 100% with the published sequences available in GenBank. In addition, these yogurt samples were also tested for the presence of five types of bacteria (Salmonella, Listeria, Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Escherichia coli causing foodborne disease in humans, and found negative for all of them.

  7. Rif1 Binding and Control of Chromosome-Internal DNA Replication Origins Is Limited by Telomere Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Lukas; Lezaja, Aleksandra; Zhang, Xu; Lemmens, Laure; Shyian, Maksym; Albert, Benjamin; Follonier, Cindy; Nunes, Jose Manuel; Lopes, Massimo; Shore, David; Mattarocci, Stefano

    2018-04-24

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomere-binding protein Rif1 plays an evolutionarily conserved role in control of DNA replication timing by promoting PP1-dependent dephosphorylation of replication initiation factors. However, ScRif1 binding outside of telomeres has never been detected, and it has thus been unclear whether Rif1 acts directly on the replication origins that it controls. Here, we show that, in unperturbed yeast cells, Rif1 primarily regulates late-replicating origins within 100 kb of a telomere. Using the chromatin endogenous cleavage ChEC-seq technique, we robustly detect Rif1 at late-replicating origins that we show are targets of its inhibitory action. Interestingly, abrogation of Rif1 telomere association by mutation of its Rap1-binding module increases Rif1 binding and origin inhibition elsewhere in the genome. Our results indicate that Rif1 inhibits replication initiation by interacting directly with origins and suggest that Rap1-dependent sequestration of Rif1 increases its effective concentration near telomeres, while limiting its action at chromosome-internal sites. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Placeholder factors in ribosome biogenesis: please, pave my way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Espinar-Marchena

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of cytoplasmic eukaryotic ribosomes is an extraordinarily energy-demanding cellular activity that occurs progressively from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm. In the nucleolus, precursor rRNAs associate with a myriad of trans-acting factors and some ribosomal proteins to form pre-ribosomal particles. These factors include snoRNPs, nucleases, ATPases, GTPases, RNA helicases, and a vast list of proteins with no predicted enzymatic activity. Their coordinate activity orchestrates in a spatiotemporal manner the modification and processing of precursor rRNAs, the rearrangement reactions required for the formation of productive RNA folding intermediates, the ordered assembly of the ribosomal proteins, and the export of pre-ribosomal particles to the cytoplasm; thus, providing speed, directionality and accuracy to the overall process of formation of translation-competent ribosomes. Here, we review a particular class of trans-acting factors known as “placeholders”. Placeholder factors temporarily bind selected ribosomal sites until these have achieved a structural context that is appropriate for exchanging the placeholder with another site-specific binding factor. By this strategy, placeholders sterically prevent premature recruitment of subsequently binding factors, premature formation of structures, avoid possible folding traps, and act as molecular clocks that supervise the correct progression of pre-ribosomal particles into functional ribosomal subunits. We summarize the current understanding of those factors that delay the assembly of distinct ribosomal proteins or subsequently bind key sites in pre-ribosomal particles. We also discuss recurrent examples of RNA-protein and protein-protein mimicry between rRNAs and/or factors, which have clear functional implications for the ribosome biogenesis pathway.

  9. The architecture of mammalian ribosomal protein promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Robert P

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian ribosomes contain 79 different proteins encoded by widely scattered single copy genes. Coordinate expression of these genes at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels is required to ensure a roughly equimolar accumulation of ribosomal proteins. To date, detailed studies of only a very few ribosomal protein (rp promoters have been made. To elucidate the general features of rp promoter architecture, I made a detailed sequence comparison of the promoter regions of the entire set of orthologous human and mouse rp genes. Results A striking evolutionarily conserved feature of most rp genes is the separation by an intron of the sequences involved in transcriptional and translational regulation from the sequences with protein encoding function. Another conserved feature is the polypyrimidine initiator, which conforms to the consensus (Y2C+1TY(T2(Y3. At least 60 % of the rp promoters contain a largely conserved TATA box or A/T-rich motif, which should theoretically have TBP-binding capability. A remarkably high proportion of the promoters contain conserved binding sites for transcription factors that were previously implicated in rp gene expression, namely upstream GABP and Sp1 sites and downstream YY1 sites. Over 80 % of human and mouse rp genes contain a transposable element residue within 900 bp of 5' flanking sequence; very little sequence identity between human and mouse orthologues was evident more than 200 bp upstream of the transcriptional start point. Conclusions This analysis has provided some valuable insights into the general architecture of mammalian rp promoters and has identified parameters that might coordinately regulate the transcriptional activity of certain subsets of rp genes.

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Duplex Real-Time PCR Assay With a Novel Internal Standard for Precise Quantification of Plasma DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Pan, Shiyang; Xie, Erfu; Gao, Li; Xu, Huaguo; Xia, Wenying; Xu, Ting; Huang, Peijun

    2017-01-01

    Circulating levels of cell-free DNA increase in many pathologic conditions. However, notable discrepancies in the quantitative analysis of cell-free DNA from a large number of laboratories have become a considerable pitfall, hampering its clinical application. We designed a novel recombinant DNA fragment that could be applied as an internal standard in a newly developed and validated duplex real-time PCR assay for the quantitative analysis of total cell-free plasma DNA, which was tested in 5,442 healthy adults and 200 trauma patients. Compared with two traditional methods, this novel assay showed a lower detection limit of 0.1 ng/mL, lower intra- and inter-assay CVs, and higher accuracy in the recovery test. The median plasma DNA concentration of healthy males (20.3 ng/mL, n=3,092) was significantly higher than that of healthy females (16.1 ng/mL, n=2,350) (Mann-Whitney two-sample rank sum test, PDNA concentration were 0-45.8 ng/mL and 0-52.5 ng/mL for healthy females and males, respectively. The plasma DNA concentrations of the majority of trauma patients (96%) were higher than the upper normal cutoff values and were closely related to the corresponding injury severity scores (R²=0.916, PDNA, showing promising application in clinical diagnosis.

  11. Molecular dynamics simulation of ribosome jam

    KAUST Repository

    Matsumoto, Shigenori

    2011-09-01

    We propose a coarse-grained molecular dynamics model of ribosome molecules to study the dependence of translation process on environmental parameters. We found the model exhibits traffic jam property, which is consistent with an ASEP model. We estimated the influence of the temperature and concentration of molecules on the hopping probability used in the ASEP model. Our model can also treat environmental effects on the translation process that cannot be explained by such cellular automaton models. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ribosomal RNA: a key to phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G. J.; Woese, C. R.

    1993-01-01

    As molecular phylogeny increasingly shapes our understanding of organismal relationships, no molecule has been applied to more questions than have ribosomal RNAs. We review this role of the rRNAs and some of the insights that have been gained from them. We also offer some of the practical considerations in extracting the phylogenetic information from the sequences. Finally, we stress the importance of comparing results from multiple molecules, both as a method for testing the overall reliability of the organismal phylogeny and as a method for more broadly exploring the history of the genome.

  13. Neutron Scattering and the 30 S Ribosomal Subunit of E. Coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P. B.; Engelman, D. M.; Langer, J. A.; Ramakrishnan, V. R.; Schindler, D. G.; Schoenborn, B. P.; Sillers, I. Y.; Yabuki, S.

    1982-06-01

    This paper reviews the progress made in the study of the internal organization of the 30 S ribosomal subunit of E. coli by neutron scattering since 1975. A map of that particle showing the position of 14 of the subunit's 21 proteins is presented, and the methods currently used for collecting and analyzing such data are discussed. Also discussed is the possibility of extending the interpretation of neutron mapping data beyond the limits practical today.

  14. Neutron scattering and the 30 S ribosomal subunit of E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, P.B.; Engelman, D.M.; Langer, J.A.; Ramakrishnan, V.R.; Schindler, D.G.; Schoenborn, B.P.; Sillers, I.Y.; Yabuki, S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress made in the study of the internal organization of the 30 S ribosomal subunit of E. coli by neutron scattering since 1975. A map of that particle showing the position of 14 of the subunit's 21 proteins is presented, and the methods currently used for collecting and analyzing such data are discussed. Also discussed is the possibility of extending the interpretation of neutron mapping data beyond the limits practical today. 30 references, 5 figures

  15. The potential role of ribosomal protein S5 on cell cycle arrest and initiation of murine erythroleukemia cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matragkou, Christina N; Papachristou, Eleni T; Tezias, Sotirios S; Tsiftsoglou, Asterios S; Choli-Papadopoulou, Theodora; Vizirianakis, Ioannis S

    2008-07-01

    Evidence now exists to indicate that some ribosomal proteins besides being structural components of the ribosomal subunits are involved in the regulation of cell differentiation and apoptosis. As we have shown earlier, initiation of erythroid differentiation of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells is associated with transcriptional inactivation of genes encoding ribosomal RNAs and ribosomal proteins S5 (RPS5) and L35a. In this study, we extended these observations and investigated whether transfection of MEL cells with RPS5 cDNA affects the onset of initiation of erythroid maturation and their entrance in cell cycle arrest. Stably transfected MEL cloned cells (MEL-C14 and MEL-C56) were established and assessed for their capacity to produce RPS5 RNA transcript and its translated product. The impact of RPS5 cDNA transfection on the RPS5 gene expression patterns and the accumulation of RPS5 protein in inducible transfected MEL cells were correlated with their ability to: (a) initiate differentiation, (b) enter cell cycle arrest at G(1)/G(0) phase, and (c) modulate the level of cyclin-dependent kinases CDK2, CDK4, and CDK6. The data presented indicate that deregulation of RPS5 gene expression (constitutive expression) affects RPS5 protein level and delays both the onset of initiation of erythroid maturation and entrance in cell cycle arrest in inducer-treated MEL cells. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. In Profile: Models of Ribosome Biogenesis Defects and Regulation of Protein Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, P.B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomes are the mediators of protein synthesis in the cell and therefore crucial to proper cell function. In addition, ribosomes are highly abundant, with ribosomal RNA making up 80% of the RNA in the cell. A large amount of resources go into maintaining this pool of ribosomes, so ribosome

  17. A computational investigation on the connection between dynamics properties of ribosomal proteins and ribosome assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Burton

    Full Text Available Assembly of the ribosome from its protein and RNA constituents has been studied extensively over the past 50 years, and experimental evidence suggests that prokaryotic ribosomal proteins undergo conformational changes during assembly. However, to date, no studies have attempted to elucidate these conformational changes. The present work utilizes computational methods to analyze protein dynamics and to investigate the linkage between dynamics and binding of these proteins during the assembly of the ribosome. Ribosomal proteins are known to be positively charged and we find the percentage of positive residues in r-proteins to be about twice that of the average protein: Lys+Arg is 18.7% for E. coli and 21.2% for T. thermophilus. Also, positive residues constitute a large proportion of RNA contacting residues: 39% for E. coli and 46% for T. thermophilus. This affirms the known importance of charge-charge interactions in the assembly of the ribosome. We studied the dynamics of three primary proteins from E. coli and T. thermophilus 30S subunits that bind early in the assembly (S15, S17, and S20 with atomic molecular dynamic simulations, followed by a study of all r-proteins using elastic network models. Molecular dynamics simulations show that solvent-exposed proteins (S15 and S17 tend to adopt more stable solution conformations than an RNA-embedded protein (S20. We also find protein residues that contact the 16S rRNA are generally more mobile in comparison with the other residues. This is because there is a larger proportion of contacting residues located in flexible loop regions. By the use of elastic network models, which are computationally more efficient, we show that this trend holds for most of the 30S r-proteins.

  18. Defining the bacteroides ribosomal binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Udo; Horn, Nikki; Carding, Simon R

    2013-03-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract, in particular the colon, hosts a vast number of commensal microorganisms. Representatives of the genus Bacteroides are among the most abundant bacterial species in the human colon. Bacteroidetes diverged from the common line of eubacterial descent before other eubacterial groups. As a result, they employ unique transcription initiation signals and, because of this uniqueness, they require specific genetic tools. Although some tools exist, they are not optimal for studying the roles and functions of these bacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract. Focusing on translation initiation signals in Bacteroides, we created a series of expression vectors allowing for different levels of protein expression in this genus, and we describe the use of pepI from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis as a novel reporter gene for Bacteroides. Furthermore, we report the identification of the 3' end of the 16S rRNA of Bacteroides ovatus and analyze in detail its ribosomal binding site, thus defining a core region necessary for efficient translation, which we have incorporated into the design of our expression vectors. Based on the sequence logo information from the 5' untranslated region of other Bacteroidales ribosomal protein genes, we conclude that our findings are relevant to all members of this order.

  19. Inhibition of ribosomal RNA synthesis in yeast by ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, K; Kiefer, J [Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Strahlenzentrum

    1984-12-01

    Synthesis of ribosomal RNA(r-RNA) was measured for 1 h after exposure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ..gamma..-rays, X-rays or ..cap alpha.. particles. ..gamma..- or X-ray induced transcription inhibition was always found to decrease exponentially with dose. D/sub 0/ values of 2150 or 1950 Gy were determined in wild-type cells, corresponding to a mean energy of about 60 eV per r-RNA gene. The finding of differential sensitivities of the two high molecular-weight r-RNA species which are cotranscribed from r-DNA is compatible with the existence of a transcription terminating mechanism. Cells from a mutant strain (rad-9), radiation sensitive to colony forming ability, showed an approximately equal sensitivity for transcription inhibition compared to the wild-type (D/sub 0/ (2095) = 2400 Gy). Inactivation of r-RNA synthesis in cells exposed to ..cap alpha..-particles at room-temperature showed a decreased sensitivity with higher particle fluences ('resistant tail'). This phenomenon was drastically reduced if the temperature during irradiation was lowered to 4/sup 0/C and completely abolished when dried cells were used. An inactivation cross-section for ..cap alpha..-particle induced transcription inhibition of about 0.02 ..mu..m/sup 2/ can be derived from the experimental data.

  20. Mechanism of recycling of post-termination ribosomal complexes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    all pathway of ribosome recycling in eubacteria with especial reference to the important role of the initiation factor ... [Seshadri A and Varshney U 2006 Mechanism of recycling of post-termination ribosomal complexes in eubacteria: a new role of initiation factor 3 .... RRF binding results in a remarkable conformational change.

  1. Proto-ribosome: a theoretical approach based on RNA relics

    OpenAIRE

    Demongeot, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    We describe in this paper, based on already published articles, a contribution to the theory postulating the existence of a proto-ribosome, which could have appeared early at the origin of life and we discuss the interest of this notion in an evolutionary perspective, taking into account the existence of possible RNA relics of this proto-ribosome.

  2. On the intracellular trafficking of mouse S5 ribosomal protein from cytoplasm to nucleoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matragkou, Ch; Papachristou, H; Karetsou, Z; Papadopoulos, G; Papamarcaki, T; Vizirianakis, I S; Tsiftsoglou, A S; Choli-Papadopoulou, T

    2009-10-09

    The non-ribosomal functions of mammalian ribosomal proteins have recently attracted worldwide attention. The mouse ribosomal protein S5 (rpS5) derived from ribosomal material is an assembled non-phosphorylated protein. The free form of rpS5 protein, however, undergoes phosphorylation. In this study, we have (a) investigated the potential role of phosphorylation in rpS5 protein transport into the nucleus and then into nucleoli and (b) determined which of the domains of rpS5 are involved in this intracellular trafficking. In vitro PCR mutagenesis of mouse rpS5 cDNA, complemented by subsequent cloning and expression of rpS5 truncated recombinant forms, produced in fusion with green fluorescent protein, permitted the investigation of rpS5 intracellular trafficking in HeLa cells using confocal microscopy complemented by Western blot analysis. Our results indicate the following: (a) rpS5 protein enters the nucleus via the region 38-50 aa that forms a random coil as revealed by molecular dynamic simulation. (b) Immunoprecipitation of rpS5 with casein kinase II and immobilized metal affinity chromatography analysis complemented by in vitro kinase assay revealed that phosphorylation of rpS5 seems to be indispensable for its transport from nucleus to nucleoli; upon entering the nucleus, Thr-133 phosphorylation triggers Ser-24 phosphorylation by casein kinase II, thus promoting entrance of rpS5 into the nucleoli. Another important role of rpS5 N-terminal region is proposed to be the regulation of protein's cellular level. The repetitively co-appearance of a satellite C-terminal band below the entire rpS5 at the late stationary phase, and not at the early logarithmic phase, of cell growth suggests a specific degradation balancing probably the unassembled ribosomal protein molecules with those that are efficiently assembled to ribosomal subunits. Overall, these data provide new insights on the structural and functional domains within the rpS5 molecule that contribute to its

  3. Chromosomal divergence and evolutionary inferences in Rhodniini based on the chromosomal location of ribosomal genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Pita

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridisation to determine the chromosomal location of 45S rDNA clusters in 10 species of the tribe Rhodniini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae. The results showed striking inter and intraspecific variability, with the location of the rDNA clusters restricted to sex chromosomes with two patterns: either on one (X chromosome or both sex chromosomes (X and Y chromosomes. This variation occurs within a genus that has an unchanging diploid chromosome number (2n = 22, including 20 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes and a similar chromosome size and genomic DNA content, reflecting a genome dynamic not revealed by these chromosome traits. The rDNA variation in closely related species and the intraspecific polymorphism in Rhodnius ecuadoriensis suggested that the chromosomal position of rDNA clusters might be a useful marker to identify recently diverged species or populations. We discuss the ancestral position of ribosomal genes in the tribe Rhodniini and the possible mechanisms involved in the variation of the rDNA clusters, including the loss of rDNA loci on the Y chromosome, transposition and ectopic pairing. The last two processes involve chromosomal exchanges between both sex chromosomes, in contrast to the widely accepted idea that the achiasmatic sex chromosomes of Heteroptera do not interchange sequences.

  4. Replicative age induces mitotic recombination in the ribosomal RNA gene cluster of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek L Lindstrom

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Somatic mutations contribute to the development of age-associated disease. In earlier work, we found that, at high frequency, aging Saccharomyces cerevisiae diploid cells produce daughters without mitochondrial DNA, leading to loss of respiration competence and increased loss of heterozygosity (LOH in the nuclear genome. Here we used the recently developed Mother Enrichment Program to ask whether aging cells that maintain the ability to produce respiration-competent daughters also experience increased genomic instability. We discovered that this population exhibits a distinct genomic instability phenotype that primarily affects the repeated ribosomal RNA gene array (rDNA array. As diploid cells passed their median replicative life span, recombination rates between rDNA arrays on homologous chromosomes progressively increased, resulting in mutational events that generated LOH at >300 contiguous open reading frames on the right arm of chromosome XII. We show that, while these recombination events were dependent on the replication fork block protein Fob1, the aging process that underlies this phenotype is Fob1-independent. Furthermore, we provide evidence that this aging process is not driven by mechanisms that modulate rDNA recombination in young cells, including loss of cohesion within the rDNA array or loss of Sir2 function. Instead, we suggest that the age-associated increase in rDNA recombination is a response to increasing DNA replication stress generated in aging cells.

  5. Ribosomal RNA gene sequences confirm that protistan endoparasite of larval cod Gadus morhua is Ichthyodinium sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Alf; Meyer, Stefan; Overton, Julia Lynne

    2010-01-01

    An enigmatic protistan endoparasite found in eggs and larvae of cod Gadus morhua and turbot Psetta maxima was isolated from Baltic cod larvae, and DNA was extracted for sequencing of the parasite's small Subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. The endoparasite has previously been suggested...... to be related to Ichthyodinium chabelardi, a dinoflagellate-like protist that parasitizes yolk sacs of embryos and larvae of a variety of fish species. Comparison of a 1535 bp long fragment of the SSU rRNA gene of the cod endoparasite showed absolute identify with I. chabelardi, demonstrating that the 2...

  6. The Complete Structure of the Mycobacterium smegmatis 70S Ribosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jendrik Hentschel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ribosome carries out the synthesis of proteins in every living cell. It consequently represents a frontline target in anti-microbial therapy. Tuberculosis ranks among the leading causes of death worldwide, due in large part to the combination of difficult-to-treat latency and antibiotic resistance. Here, we present the 3.3-Å cryo-EM structure of the 70S ribosome of Mycobacterium smegmatis, a close relative to the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure reveals two additional ribosomal proteins and localizes them to the vicinity of drug-target sites in both the catalytic center and the decoding site of the ribosome. Furthermore, we visualized actinobacterium-specific rRNA and protein expansions that extensively remodel the ribosomal surface with implications for polysome organization. Our results provide a foundation for understanding the idiosyncrasies of mycobacterial translation and reveal atomic details of the structure that will facilitate the design of anti-tubercular therapeutics.

  7. Macrolide antibiotic interaction and resistance on the bacterial ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlsgaard, Jacob; Douthwaite, Stephen

    2003-02-01

    Our understanding of the fine structure of many antibiotic target sites has reached a new level of enlightenment in the last couple of years due to the advent, by X-ray crystallography, of high-resolution structures of the bacterial ribosome. Many classes of clinically useful antibiotics bind to the ribosome to inhibit bacterial protein synthesis. Macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B (MLSB) antibiotics form one of the largest groups, and bind to the same site on the 50S ribosomal subunit. Here, we review the molecular details of the ribosomal MLSB site to put into perspective the main points from a wealth of biochemical and genetic data that have been collected over several decades. The information is now available to understand, at atomic resolution, how macrolide antibiotics interact with their ribosomal target, how the target is altered to confer resistance, and in which directions we need to look if we are to rationally design better drugs to overcome the extant resistance mechanisms.

  8. Species identification of tephritids across a broad taxonomic range using ribosomal D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, Karen F; Cameron, Charlotte M.

    2000-01-01

    chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Development of this technique has continued to 'package' it for routine quarantine use. Here we present an overview of the improved method and summarise its capability as a diagnostic tool

  9. Control of Ribosome Synthesis in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Søren; Meyenburg, K. von; Måløe, O.

    1977-01-01

    The rate of ribosome synthesis and accumulation in Escherichia coli during the transition after an energy source shift-down was analyzed. The shift was imposed on cultures of stringent and relaxed strains growing in glucose minimal medium by the addition of the glucose analogue {alpha...... and to estimate the transcription time for the rRNA operon under different conditions. In steady states of growth with growth rates ranging from 0.75 to 2.3 doublings/h, as well as during the transition after a shift-down, the transcription time of the rRNA operon was constant. The rate of synthesis of r......RNA correlated during this transition – in contrast to the rate of accumulation (M. T. Hansen et al., J. Bacteriol. 122: 585-591, 1975) – with the ppGpp pool in the same way as has been observed during partial amino acid starvation....

  10. Seventeen copies of the human 37 kDa laminin receptor precursor/p40 ribosome-associated protein gene are processed pseudogenes arisen from retropositional events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackers, P; Clausse, N; Fernandez, M

    1996-01-01

    A cDNA coding for a 37 kDa polypeptide has been identified in several species as both the potential precursor of the 67 kDa laminin receptor (37LRP) and a putative ribosome-associated protein (p40). Interestingly, increased expression of this polypeptide (37LRP/p40) is consistently observed...

  11. De novo design and engineering of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhüyük, Kenan A. J.; Fleischhacker, Florian; Linck, Annabell; Wesche, Frank; Tietze, Andreas; Niesert, Claus-Peter; Bode, Helge B.

    2018-03-01

    Peptides derived from non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) represent an important class of pharmaceutically relevant drugs. Methods to generate novel non-ribosomal peptides or to modify peptide natural products in an easy and predictable way are therefore of great interest. However, although the overall modular structure of NRPSs suggests the possibility of adjusting domain specificity and selectivity, only a few examples have been reported and these usually show a severe drop in production titre. Here we report a new strategy for the modification of NRPSs that uses defined exchange units (XUs) and not modules as functional units. XUs are fused at specific positions that connect the condensation and adenylation domains and respect the original specificity of the downstream module to enable the production of the desired peptides. We also present the use of internal condensation domains as an alternative to other peptide-chain-releasing domains for the production of cyclic peptides.

  12. A Deconvolution Protocol for ChIP-Seq Reveals Analogous Enhancer Structures on the Mouse and Human Ribosomal RNA Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Clement Mars

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of Chromatin Immunoprecipitation and Massively Parallel Sequencing, or ChIP-Seq, has greatly advanced our genome-wide understanding of chromatin and enhancer structures. However, its resolution at any given genetic locus is limited by several factors. In applying ChIP-Seq to the study of the ribosomal RNA genes, we found that a major limitation to resolution was imposed by the underlying variability in sequence coverage that very often dominates the protein–DNA interaction profiles. Here, we describe a simple numerical deconvolution approach that, in large part, corrects for this variability, and significantly improves both the resolution and quantitation of protein–DNA interaction maps deduced from ChIP-Seq data. This approach has allowed us to determine the in vivo organization of the RNA polymerase I preinitiation complexes that form at the promoters and enhancers of the mouse (Mus musculus and human (Homo sapiens ribosomal RNA genes, and to reveal a phased binding of the HMG-box factor UBF across the rDNA. The data identify and map a “Spacer Promoter” and associated stalled polymerase in the intergenic spacer of the human ribosomal RNA genes, and reveal a very similar enhancer structure to that found in rodents and lower vertebrates.

  13. Is ITS-2 rDNA suitable marker for genetic characterization of Sarcoptes mites from different wild animals in different geographic areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasaad, S; Soglia, D; Spalenza, V; Maione, S; Soriguer, R C; Pérez, J M; Rasero, R; Degiorgis, M P Ryser; Nimmervoll, H; Zhu, X Q; Rossi, L

    2009-02-05

    The present study examined the relationship among individual Sarcoptes scabiei mites from 13 wild mammalian populations belonging to nine species in four European countries using the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) as genetic marker. The ITS-2 plus primer flanking 5.8S and 28S rDNA (ITS-2+) was amplified from individual mites by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the amplicons were sequenced directly. A total of 148 ITS-2+ sequences of 404bp in length were obtained and 67 variable sites were identified (16.59%). UPGMA analyses did not show any geographical or host-specific clustering, and a similar outcome was obtained using population pairwise Fst statistics. These results demonstrated that ITS-2 rDNA does not appear to be suitable for examining genetic diversity among mite populations.

  14. Introducing a true internal standard for the Comet assay to minimize intra- and inter-experiment variability in measures of DNA damage and repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainol, Murizal; Stoute, Julia; Almeida, Gabriela M.; Rapp, Alexander; Bowman, Karen J.; Jones, George D. D.

    2009-01-01

    The Comet assay (CA) is a sensitive/simple measure of genotoxicity. However, many features of CA contribute variability. To minimize these, we have introduced internal standard materials consisting of ‘reference’ cells which have their DNA substituted with BrdU. Using a fluorescent anti-BrdU antibody, plus an additional barrier filter, comets derived from these cells could be readily distinguished from the ‘test’-cell comets, present in the same gel. In experiments to evaluate the reference cell comets as external and internal standards, the reference and test cells were present in separate gels on the same slide or mixed together in the same gel, respectively, before their co-exposure to X-irradiation. Using the reference cell comets as internal standards led to substantial reductions in the coefficient of variation (CoV) for intra- and inter-experimental measures of comet formation and DNA damage repair; only minor reductions in CoV were noted when the reference and test cell comets were in separate gels. These studies indicate that differences between individual gels appreciably contribute to CA variation. Further studies using the reference cells as internal standards allowed greater significance to be obtained between groups of replicate samples. Ultimately, we anticipate that development will deliver robust quality assurance materials for CA. PMID:19828597

  15. A comparative study of ribosomal proteins: linkage between amino acid distribution and ribosomal assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, Brittany Burton; Wang, Yongmei; Nakazato, Takuya

    2013-01-01

    Assembly of the ribosome from its protein and RNA constituents must occur quickly and efficiently in order to synthesize the proteins necessary for all cellular activity. Since the early 1960’s, certain characteristics of possible assembly pathways have been elucidated, yet the mechanisms that govern the precise recognition events remain unclear. We utilize a comparative analysis to investigate the amino acid composition of ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) with respect to their role in the assembly process. We compared small subunit (30S) r-protein sequences to those of other housekeeping proteins from 560 bacterial species and searched for correlations between r-protein amino acid content and factors such as assembly binding order, environmental growth temperature, protein size, and contact with ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in the 30S complex. We find r-proteins have a significantly high percent of positive residues, which are highly represented at rRNA contact sites. An inverse correlation between the percent of positive residues and r-protein size was identified and is mainly due to the content of Lysine residues, rather than Arginine. Nearly all r-proteins carry a net positive charge, but no statistical correlation between the net charge and the binding order was detected. Thermophilic (high-temperature) r-proteins contain increased Arginine, Isoleucine, and Tyrosine, and decreased Serine and Threonine compared to mesophilic (lower-temperature), reflecting a known distinction between thermophiles and mesophiles, possibly to account for protein thermostability. However, this difference in amino acid content does not extend to rRNA contact sites, as the proportions of thermophilic and mesophilic contact residues are not significantly different. Given the significantly higher level of positively charged residues in r-proteins and at contact sites, we conclude that ribosome assembly relies heavily on an electrostatic component of interaction. However, the binding order of

  16. On the control of ribosomal protein biosynthesis in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, J.; Marvaldi, J.; Coeroli, C.; Cozzone, A.; Marchis-Mouren, G.

    1977-01-01

    The rate of individual ribosomal protein synthesis relative to total protein synthesis has been determined in Escherichia coli rel + and rel - cells, under valyl-tRNA deprivation. These strains have a temperature-sensitive valyl-tRNA synthetase. Starvation was obtained following transfer of the cells to non-permissive temperature. Ribosomal proteins were obtained by treatment of either total lysates of freeze-thawed lysozyme spheroplasts or ammonium sulphate precipitate of ribosomes, with acetic acid. Differential labelling of the ribosomal proteins was observed in both strains: proteins from the rel + strain appear more labelled than those from the rel - strain, the rate of labelling of individual proteins being about the same in both strains. Moreover ribosomal proteins were found as stable during starvation as total protein. It is thus concluded that in starving cells individual ribosomal proteins are not synthesized at equal rates. This indicates that the synthesis of ribosomal proteins is not only under the control of the rel gene

  17. Post-transcriptional regulation of ribosome biogenesis in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle C. Kos-Braun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most microorganisms are exposed to the constantly and often rapidly changing environment. As such they evolved mechanisms to balance their metabolism and energy expenditure with the resources available to them. When resources become scarce or conditions turn out to be unfavourable for growth, cells reduce their metabolism and energy usage to survive. One of the major energy consuming processes in the cell is ribosome biogenesis. Unsurprisingly, cells encountering adverse conditions immediately shut down production of new ribosomes. It is well established that nutrient depletion leads to a rapid repression of transcription of the genes encoding ribosomal proteins, ribosome biogenesis factors as well as ribosomal RNA (rRNA. However, if pre-rRNA processing and ribosome assembly are regulated post-transcriptionally remains largely unclear. We have recently uncovered that the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae rapidly switches between two alternative pre-rRNA processing pathways depending on the environmental conditions. Our findings reveal a new level of complexity in the regulation of ribosome biogenesis.

  18. The Unexplored Mechanisms and Regulatory Functions of Ribosomal Translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Jose Luis

    In every cell, protein synthesis is carried out by the ribosome, a complex macromolecular RNA-protein assembly. Decades of structural and kinetic studies have increased our understanding of ribosome initiation, decoding, translocation and termination. Yet, the underlying mechanism of these fundamental processes has yet to be fully delineated. Hence, the molecular basis of regulation remains obscure. Here, single-molecule fluorescence methods are applied to decipher the mechanism and regulatory roles of the multi-step process of directional substrate translocation on the ribosome that accompanies every round of protein synthesis. In Chapter 1, single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) is introduced as a tool for studying bacterial ribosome translocation. Chapter 2 details the experimental methods. In Chapter 3, the elongation factor G(EF-G)-catalyzed movement of substrates through the ribosome is examined from several perspectives or signals reporting on various degrees of freedom of ribosome dynamics. Two ribosomal states interconvert in the presence of EF-G(GDP), displaying novel head domain motions, until relocking takes place. In Chapter 4, in order to test if the mentioned fluctuations leading to relocking are correlated to the engagement of the P-site by the peptidyl-tRNA, the translocation of miscoded tRNAs is studied. Severe defects in the relocking stages of translocation reveal the correlation between this new stage of translocation and P-site tRNA engagement.

  19. DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics: Recommendations on the validation of software programs performing biostatistical calculations for forensic genetics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, M D; Buckleton, J; Butler, J M; Egeland, T; Fimmers, R; Gill, P; Gusmão, L; Guttman, B; Krawczak, M; Morling, N; Parson, W; Pinto, N; Schneider, P M; Sherry, S T; Willuweit, S; Prinz, M

    2016-11-01

    The use of biostatistical software programs to assist in data interpretation and calculate likelihood ratios is essential to forensic geneticists and part of the daily case work flow for both kinship and DNA identification laboratories. Previous recommendations issued by the DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) covered the application of bio-statistical evaluations for STR typing results in identification and kinship cases, and this is now being expanded to provide best practices regarding validation and verification of the software required for these calculations. With larger multiplexes, more complex mixtures, and increasing requests for extended family testing, laboratories are relying more than ever on specific software solutions and sufficient validation, training and extensive documentation are of upmost importance. Here, we present recommendations for the minimum requirements to validate bio-statistical software to be used in forensic genetics. We distinguish between developmental validation and the responsibilities of the software developer or provider, and the internal validation studies to be performed by the end user. Recommendations for the software provider address, for example, the documentation of the underlying models used by the software, validation data expectations, version control, implementation and training support, as well as continuity and user notifications. For the internal validations the recommendations include: creating a validation plan, requirements for the range of samples to be tested, Standard Operating Procedure development, and internal laboratory training and education. To ensure that all laboratories have access to a wide range of samples for validation and training purposes the ISFG DNA commission encourages collaborative studies and public repositories of STR typing results. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Extensive 5.8S nrDNA polymorphism in Mammillaria (Cactaceae) with special reference to the identification of pseudogenic internal transcribed spacer regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpke, Doerte; Peterson, Angela

    2008-05-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2) represents the most widely applied nuclear marker in eukaryotic phylogenetics. Although this region has been assumed to evolve in concert, the number of investigations revealing high degrees of intra-individual polymorphism connected with the presence of pseudogenes has risen. The 5.8S rDNA is the most important diagnostic marker for functionality of the ITS region. In Mammillaria, intra-individual 5.8S rDNA polymorphisms of up to 36% and up to nine different types have been found. Twenty-eight of 30 cloned genomic Mammillaria sequences were identified as putative pseudogenes. For the identification of pseudogenic ITS regions, in addition to formal tests based on substitution rates, we attempted to focus on functional features of the 5.8S rDNA (5.8S motif, secondary structure). The importance of functional data for the identification of pseudogenes is outlined and discussed. The identification of pseudogenes is essential, because they may cause erroneous phylogenies and taxonomic problems.

  1. Translational Control Protein 80 Stimulates IRES-Mediated Translation of p53 mRNA in Response to DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Jo Halaby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of the p53 tumor suppressor increases following DNA damage. This increase and subsequent activation of p53 are essential for the protection of normal cells against tumorigenesis. We previously discovered an internal ribosome entry site (IRES that is located at the 5′-untranslated region (UTR of p53 mRNA and found that the IRES activity increases following DNA damage. However, the mechanism underlying IRES-mediated p53 translation in response to DNA damage is still poorly understood. In this study, we discovered that translational control protein 80 (TCP80 has increased binding to the p53 mRNA in vivo following DNA damage. Overexpression of TCP80 also leads to increased p53 IRES activity in response to DNA damage. TCP80 has increased association with RNA helicase A (RHA following DNA damage and overexpression of TCP80, along with RHA, leads to enhanced expression of p53. Moreover, we found that MCF-7 breast cancer cells with decreased expression of TCP80 and RHA exhibit defective p53 induction following DNA damage and diminished expression of its downstream target PUMA, a proapoptotic protein. Taken together, our discovery of the function of TCP80 and RHA in regulating p53 IRES and p53 induction following DNA damage provides a better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate IRES-mediated p53 translation in response to genotoxic stress.

  2. Genomic DNA extraction and barcoding of endophytic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Patricia L; Hennell, James R; Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2012-01-01

    Endophytes live inter- and/or intracellularly inside healthy aboveground tissues of plants without causing disease. Endophytic fungi are found in virtually every vascular plant species examined. The origins of this symbiotic relationship between endophytes go back to the emergence of vascular plants. Endophytic fungi receive nutrition and protection from their hosts while the plants benefit from the production of fungal secondary metabolites, which enhance the host plants' resistance to herbivores, pathogens, and various abiotic stresses. Endophytic fungi have attracted increased interest as potential sources of secondary metabolites with agricultural, industrial, and medicinal use. This chapter provides detailed protocols for isolation of genomic DNA from fungal endophytes and its use in polymerase chain reaction-based amplification of the internal transcribed spacer region between the conserved flanking regions of the small and large subunit of ribosomal RNA for barcoding purposes.

  3. Altered Machinery of Protein Synthesis in Alzheimer's: From the Nucleolus to the Ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortega, Karina; Garcia-Esparcia, Paula; Gil, Laura; Lucas, José J; Ferrer, Isidre

    2016-09-01

    Ribosomes and protein synthesis have been reported to be altered in the cerebral cortex at advanced stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Modifications in the hippocampus with disease progression have not been assessed. Sixty-seven cases including middle-aged (MA) and AD stages I-VI were analyzed. Nucleolar chaperones nucleolin, nucleophosmin and nucleoplasmin 3, and upstream binding transcription factor RNA polymerase I gene (UBTF) mRNAs are abnormally regulated and their protein levels reduced in AD. Histone modifications dimethylated histone H3K9 (H3K9me2) and acetylated histone H3K12 (H3K12ac) are decreased in CA1. Nuclear tau declines in CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG), and practically disappears in neurons with neurofibrillary tangles. Subunit 28 ribosomal RNA (28S rRNA) expression is altered in CA1 and DG in AD. Several genes encoding ribosomal proteins are abnormally regulated and protein levels of translation initiation factors eIF2α, eIF3η and eIF5, and elongation factor eEF2, are altered in the CA1 region in AD. These findings show alterations in the protein synthesis machinery in AD involving the nucleolus, nucleus and ribosomes in the hippocampus in AD some of them starting at first stages (I-II) preceding neuron loss. These changes may lie behind reduced numbers of dendritic branches and reduced synapses of CA1 and DG neurons which cause hippocampal atrophy. © 2015 International Society of Neuropathology.

  4. Activity-based in vitro selection of T4 DNA ligase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fumio; Funabashi, Hisakage; Mie, Masayasu; Endo, Yaeta; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Aizawa, Masuo; Kobatake, Eiry

    2005-01-01

    Recent in vitro methodologies for selection and directed evolution of proteins have concentrated not only on proteins with affinity such as single-chain antibody but also on enzymes. We developed a display technology for selection of T4 DNA ligase on ribosome because an in vitro selection method for DNA ligase had never been developed. The 3' end of mRNA encoding the gene of active or inactive T4 DNA ligase-spacer peptide fusion protein was hybridized to dsDNA fragments with cohesive ends, the substrate of T4 DNA ligase. After in vitro translation of the mRNA-dsDNA complex in a rabbit reticulocyte system, a mRNA-dsDNA-ribosome-ligase complex was produced. T4 DNA ligase enzyme displayed on a ribosome, through addition of a spacer peptide, is able to react with dsDNA in the complex. The complex expressing active ligase was biotinylated by ligation with another biotinylated dsDNA probe and selected with streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. We effectively selected active T4 DNA ligase from a small amount of protein. The gene of the active T4 DNA ligase was enriched 40 times from a mixture of active and inactive genes using this selection strategy. This ribosomal display strategy may have high potential to be useful for selection of other enzymes associated with DNA

  5. Ribosome slowed by mutation to streptomycin resistance. [Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galas, D J; Branscomb, E W

    1976-08-12

    The effect of mutation to streptomycin resistance on the speed of polypeptide elongation in Escherichia coli was investigated. Translation speed was determined by measuring the time required for the first newly synthesized ..beta..-galactosidase molecules to appear after induction of the lactose operon. The results showed that ribosome speed is not a fixed parameter inherent to the protein synthetic apparatus, but a variable determined by the kinetics of translation and ultimately by the structure of the ribosome. (HLW)

  6. Defective ribosome assembly in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chi C; Traynor, David; Basse, Nicolas; Kay, Robert R; Warren, Alan J

    2011-10-20

    Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS), a recessive leukemia predisposition disorder characterized by bone marrow failure, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, skeletal abnormalities and poor growth, is caused by mutations in the highly conserved SBDS gene. Here, we test the hypothesis that defective ribosome biogenesis underlies the pathogenesis of SDS. We create conditional mutants in the essential SBDS ortholog of the ancient eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum using temperature-sensitive, self-splicing inteins, showing that mutant cells fail to grow at the restrictive temperature because ribosomal subunit joining is markedly impaired. Remarkably, wild type human SBDS complements the growth and ribosome assembly defects in mutant Dictyostelium cells, but disease-associated human SBDS variants are defective. SBDS directly interacts with the GTPase elongation factor-like 1 (EFL1) on nascent 60S subunits in vivo and together they catalyze eviction of the ribosome antiassociation factor eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (eIF6), a prerequisite for the translational activation of ribosomes. Importantly, lymphoblasts from SDS patients harbor a striking defect in ribosomal subunit joining whose magnitude is inversely proportional to the level of SBDS protein. These findings in Dictyostelium and SDS patient cells provide compelling support for the hypothesis that SDS is a ribosomopathy caused by corruption of an essential cytoplasmic step in 60S subunit maturation.

  7. Epigenetic up-regulation of ribosome biogenesis and more aggressive phenotype triggered by the lack of the histone demethylase JHDM1B in mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbiati, Alice; Penzo, Marianna; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Onofrillo, Carmine; Guerrieri, Ania Naila; Garagnani, Paolo; Franceschi, Claudio; Treré, Davide; Montanaro, Lorenzo

    2017-06-06

    The alterations of ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis play a direct role in the development of tumors. The accessibility and transcription of ribosomal genes is controlled at several levels, with their epigenetic regulation being one of the most important. Here we explored the JmjC domain-containing histone demethylase 1B (JHDM1B) function in the epigenetic control of rDNA transcription. Since JHDM1B is a negative regulator of gene transcription, we focused on the effects induced by JHDM1B knock-down (KD). We studied the consequences of stable inducible JHDM1B silencing in cell lines derived from transformed and untransformed mammary epithelial cells. In these cellular models, prolonged JHDM1B downregulation triggered a surge of 45S pre-rRNA transcription and processing, associated with a re-modulation of the H3K36me2 levels at rDNA loci and with changes in DNA methylation of specific CpG sites in rDNA genes. We also found that after JHDM1B KD, cells showed a higher ribosome content: which were engaged in mRNA translation. JHDM1B KD and the consequent stimulation of ribosomes biogenesis conferred more aggressive features to the tested cellular models, which acquired a greater clonogenic, staminal and invasive potential. Taken together, these data indicate that the reduction of JHDM1B leads to a more aggressive cellular phenotype in mammary gland cells, by virtue of its negative regulatory activity on ribosome biogenesis.

  8. The 5S rDNA in two Abracris grasshoppers (Ommatolampidinae: Acrididae): molecular and chromosomal organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Danilo; Palacios-Gimenez, Octavio Manuel; Martí, Dardo Andrea; Mariguela, Tatiane Casagrande; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti

    2016-08-01

    The 5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences are subject of dynamic evolution at chromosomal and molecular levels, evolving through concerted and/or birth-and-death fashion. Among grasshoppers, the chromosomal location for this sequence was established for some species, but little molecular information was obtained to infer evolutionary patterns. Here, we integrated data from chromosomal and nucleotide sequence analysis for 5S rDNA in two Abracris species aiming to identify evolutionary dynamics. For both species, two arrays were identified, a larger sequence (named type-I) that consisted of the entire 5S rDNA gene plus NTS (non-transcribed spacer) and a smaller (named type-II) with truncated 5S rDNA gene plus short NTS that was considered a pseudogene. For type-I sequences, the gene corresponding region contained the internal control region and poly-T motif and the NTS presented partial transposable elements. Between the species, nucleotide differences for type-I were noticed, while type-II was identical, suggesting pseudogenization in a common ancestor. At chromosomal point to view, the type-II was placed in one bivalent, while type-I occurred in multiple copies in distinct chromosomes. In Abracris, the evolution of 5S rDNA was apparently influenced by the chromosomal distribution of clusters (single or multiple location), resulting in a mixed mechanism integrating concerted and birth-and-death evolution depending on the unit.

  9. Clinorotation influences rDNA and NopA100 localization in nucleoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, M. A.; González-Camacho, F.; Rodríguez-Vilariño, V.; Kordyum, E. L.; Medina, F. J.

    The nucleolus is the transcription site of rRNA genes as well as the site of processing and initial packaging of their transcripts. The plant nucleolin homologue NopA100 is involved in the regulation of r-chromatin condensation/expansion and rDNA transcription as well as in rRNA processing. We have investigated with immunogold electron microscopy the location of nucleolar DNA and NopA100 in cress root meristematic cells grown under slow horizontal clinorotation, reproducing an important feature of microgravity, namely the absence of an orienting action of a gravity vector, compared to control conditions. We demonstrate redistribution of both rDNA and NopA100 in nucleolar subcomponents induced by clinorotation. Ribosomal DNA concentrated predominantly in fibrillar centers in the form of condensed r-chromatin inclusions and internal non condensed fibrils, redistributing from the dense fibrillar component and the transition zone between fibrillar centers and the dense fibrillar component, recognized as the loci of rDNA transcription. The content of NopA100 was much higher in the inner space of fibrillar centers and reduced in the dense fibrillar component as compared to the control. Based on these data, an effect of slow horizontal clinorotation in lowering the level of rDNA transcription as well as rRNA processing is suggested.

  10. Unraveling systematic inventory of Echinops (Asteraceae) with special reference to nrDNA ITS sequence-based molecular typing of Echinops abuzinadianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M A; Al-Hemaid, F M; Lee, J; Hatamleh, A A; Gyulai, G; Rahman, M O

    2015-10-02

    The present study explored the systematic inventory of Echinops L. (Asteraceae) of Saudi Arabia, with special reference to the molecular typing of Echinops abuzinadianus Chaudhary, an endemic species to Saudi Arabia, based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. A sequence similarity search using BLAST and a phylogenetic analysis of the ITS sequence of E. abuzinadianus revealed a high level of sequence similarity with E. glaberrimus DC. (section Ritropsis). The novel primary sequence and the secondary structure of ITS2 of E. abuzinadianus could potentially be used for molecular genotyping.

  11. Identification, characterization and structure analysis of a type I ribosome-inactivating protein from Sapium sebiferum (Euphorbiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ying [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering and Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, Anhui (China); College of Food and Bioengineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023, Henan (China); Mao, Yingji [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering and Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, Anhui (China); Jin, Shan; Hou, Jinyan; Du, Hua [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering and Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); Yang, Minglei, E-mail: yml888@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering and Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); Wu, Lifang, E-mail: lfwu@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering and Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, Anhui (China)

    2015-08-07

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are N-glycosidases (EC3.2.2.22) that universally inactivate the ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein biosynthesis. In this study, a novel type I RIPs named SEBIN was identified in Sapium sebiferum. Nuclear acid depurine experiment showed that SEBIN had rRNA N-Glycosidase activity. Further experiment indicated that SEBIN significantly inhibited Caenorhabditis elegans development as well as resulted in worm cell apoptosis. This is the first report to evaluate RIPs toxicity using C. elegans. We proposed that SEBIN may impaire C. elegans reproduction in a DNA-damage manner besides traditional protein synthesis inhibition approach. The predicted 3D structure was modeled using threading and ab initio modeling, and the r-RNA binding residue of SEBIN was identified through the protein-ligand docking approach. It showed the amino acid residues, Glu195, Asn81, Ala82, Tyr83, Glu164, Ser163, Ile159 and Arg167, played critical roles in catalytic process. Our results provided the theoretical foundation of structure–function relationships between enzymatic properties, toxicity and structural characterization of SEBIN. - Graphical abstract: Superposition of main chains of ricin (cyan) and SEBIN (brown), and adenine binding site residues of SEBIN. - Highlights: • A Ribosome-inactivating proteins gene (SEBIN) was isolated from Sapium sebiferum. • SEBIN had DNase activity besides widely reported ribosome inactivation via N-glycosidases activity. • SEBIN significantly inhibited Caenorhabditis elegans development in vivo. • SEBIN may impaire C. elegans reproduction in a DNA-damage manner with the aid of mutant strains hus-1 and clk-2. • The possible active sites between SEBIN and the adenine of rRNA were predicted.

  12. Identification, characterization and structure analysis of a type I ribosome-inactivating protein from Sapium sebiferum (Euphorbiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ying; Mao, Yingji; Jin, Shan; Hou, Jinyan; Du, Hua; Yang, Minglei; Wu, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are N-glycosidases (EC3.2.2.22) that universally inactivate the ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein biosynthesis. In this study, a novel type I RIPs named SEBIN was identified in Sapium sebiferum. Nuclear acid depurine experiment showed that SEBIN had rRNA N-Glycosidase activity. Further experiment indicated that SEBIN significantly inhibited Caenorhabditis elegans development as well as resulted in worm cell apoptosis. This is the first report to evaluate RIPs toxicity using C. elegans. We proposed that SEBIN may impaire C. elegans reproduction in a DNA-damage manner besides traditional protein synthesis inhibition approach. The predicted 3D structure was modeled using threading and ab initio modeling, and the r-RNA binding residue of SEBIN was identified through the protein-ligand docking approach. It showed the amino acid residues, Glu195, Asn81, Ala82, Tyr83, Glu164, Ser163, Ile159 and Arg167, played critical roles in catalytic process. Our results provided the theoretical foundation of structure–function relationships between enzymatic properties, toxicity and structural characterization of SEBIN. - Graphical abstract: Superposition of main chains of ricin (cyan) and SEBIN (brown), and adenine binding site residues of SEBIN. - Highlights: • A Ribosome-inactivating proteins gene (SEBIN) was isolated from Sapium sebiferum. • SEBIN had DNase activity besides widely reported ribosome inactivation via N-glycosidases activity. • SEBIN significantly inhibited Caenorhabditis elegans development in vivo. • SEBIN may impaire C. elegans reproduction in a DNA-damage manner with the aid of mutant strains hus-1 and clk-2. • The possible active sites between SEBIN and the adenine of rRNA were predicted

  13. Effect of sodium fluoride on the amount of polyribosomes, single ribosomes and ribosomal subunits in a cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sameshima, M; Ito, K; Iwabuchi, M

    1972-01-01

    In the slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum, when the rate of protein synthesis was decreased by NaF, free 80-S ribosomes accumulated at the expense of polyribosomes, while 60-S and 40-S ribosomal subunits remained almost constant. The same level of ribosomal subunits was also maintained in cells after incubation with cycloheximide or at the stationary phase of growth.

  14. Elevated expression of ribosomal protein genes L37, RPP-1, and S2 in the presence of mutant p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loging, W T; Reisman, D

    1999-11-01

    The wild-type p53 protein is a DNA-binding transcription factor that activates genes such as p21, MDM2, GADD45, and Bax that are required for the regulation of cell cycle progression or apoptosis in response to DNA damage. Mutant forms of p53, which are transforming oncogenes and are expressed at high levels in tumor cells, generally have a reduced binding affinity for the consensus DNA sequence. Interestingly, some p53 mutants that are no longer effective at binding to the consensus DNA sequence and transactivating promoters containing this target site have acquired the ability to transform cells in culture, in part through their ability to transactivate promoters of a number of genes that are not targets of the wild-type protein. Certain p53 mutants are therefore considered to be gain-of-function mutants and appear to be promoting proliferation or transforming cells through their ability to alter the expression of novel sets of genes. Our goal is to identify genes that have altered expression in the presence of a specific mutant p53 (Arg to Trp mutation at codon 248) protein. Through examining differential gene expression in cells devoid of p53 expression and in cells that express high levels of mutant p53 protein, we have identified three ribosomal protein genes that have elevated expression in response to mutant p53. Consistent with these findings, the overexpression of a number of ribosomal protein genes in human tumors and evidence for their contribution to oncogenic transformation have been reported previously, although the mechanism leading to this overexpression has remained elusive. We show results that indicate that expression of these specific ribosomal protein genes is increased in the presence of the R248W p53 mutant, which provides a mechanism for their overexpression in human tumors.

  15. Cryo-EM structure of Hepatitis C virus IRES bound to the human ribosome at 3.9-Å resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, Nick; Boehringer, Daniel; Leibundgut, Marc; van den Heuvel, Joop; Ban, Nenad

    2015-07-08

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a widespread human pathogen, is dependent on a highly structured 5'-untranslated region of its mRNA, referred to as internal ribosome entry site (IRES), for the translation of all of its proteins. The HCV IRES initiates translation by directly binding to the small ribosomal subunit (40S), circumventing the need for many eukaryotic translation initiation factors required for mRNA scanning. Here we present the cryo-EM structure of the human 40S ribosomal subunit in complex with the HCV IRES at 3.9 Å resolution, determined by focused refinement of an 80S ribosome-HCV IRES complex. The structure reveals the molecular details of the interactions between the IRES and the 40S, showing that expansion segment 7 (ES7) of the 18S rRNA acts as a central anchor point for the HCV IRES. The structural data rationalizes previous biochemical and genetic evidence regarding the initiation mechanism of the HCV and other related IRESs.

  16. Lactococcus lactis expressing either Staphylococcus aureus fibronectin-binding protein A or Listeria monocytogenes internalin A can efficiently internalize and deliver DNA in human epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocentin, Silvia; Guimarães, Valeria; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Langella, Philippe; Chatel, Jean-Marc; Lefèvre, François

    2009-07-01

    Lactococci are noninvasive bacteria frequently used as protein delivery vectors and, more recently, as in vitro and in vivo DNA delivery vehicles. We previously showed that a functional eukaryotic enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) expression plasmid vector was delivered in epithelial cells by Lactococcus lactis producing Listeria monocytogenes internalin A (L. lactis InlA(+)), but this strategy is limited in vivo to transgenic mice and guinea pigs. In this study, we compare the internalization ability of L. lactis InlA(+) and L. lactis producing either the fibronectin-binding protein A of Staphylococcus aureus (L. lactis FnBPA(+)) or its fibronectin binding domains C and D (L. lactis CD(+)). L. lactis FnBPA(+) and L. lactis InlA(+) showed comparable internalization rates in Caco-2 cells, while the internalization rate observed with L. lactis CD(+) was lower. As visualized by conventional and confocal fluorescence microscopy, large clusters of L. lactis FnBPA(+), L. lactis CD(+), and L. lactis InlA(+) were present in the cytoplasm of Caco-2 cells after internalization. Moreover, the internalization rates of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and of an NCFM mutant strain with the gene coding for the fibronectin-binding protein (fbpA) inactivated were also evaluated in Caco-2 cells. Similar low internalization rates were observed for both wild-type L. acidophilus NCFM and the fbpA mutant, suggesting that commensal fibronectin binding proteins have a role in adhesion but not in invasion. L. lactis FnBPA(+), L. lactis CD(+), and L. lactis InlA(+) were then used to deliver a eukaryotic eGFP expression plasmid in Caco-2 cells: flow cytometry analysis showed that the highest percentage of green fluorescent Caco-2 cells was observed after coculture with either L. lactis FnBPA(+) or L. lactis InlA(+). Analysis of the in vivo efficiency of these invasive recombinant strains is currently in progress to validate their potential as DNA vaccine delivery vehicles.

  17. Developmental and internal validation of a novel 13 loci STR multiplex method for Cannabis sativa DNA profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Rachel; Birck, Matthew; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

    2017-05-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) is a plant cultivated and trafficked worldwide as a source of fiber (hemp), medicine, and intoxicant. The development of a validated method using molecular techniques such as short tandem repeats (STRs) could serve as an intelligence tool to link multiple cases by means of genetic individualization or association of cannabis samples. For this purpose, a 13 loci STR multiplex method was developed, optimized, and validated according to relevant ISFG and SWGDAM guidelines. The STR multiplex consists of 13 previously described C. sativa STR loci: ANUCS501, 9269, 4910, 5159, ANUCS305, 9043, B05, 1528, 3735, CS1, D02, C11, and H06. A sequenced allelic ladder consisting of 56 alleles was designed to accurately genotype 101 C. sativa samples from three seizures provided by a U.S. Customs and Border Protection crime lab. Using an optimal range of DNA (0.5-1.0ng), validation studies revealed well-balanced electropherograms (inter-locus balance range: 0.500-1.296), relatively balanced heterozygous peaks (mean peak height ratio of 0.83 across all loci) with minimal artifacts and stutter ratio (mean stutter of 0.021 across all loci). This multi-locus system is relatively sensitive (0.13ng of template DNA) with a combined power of discrimination of 1 in 55 million. The 13 STR panel was found to be species specific for C. sativa; however, non-specific peaks were produced with Humulus lupulus. The results of this research demonstrate the robustness and applicability of this 13 loci STR system for forensic DNA profiling of marijuana samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Promoter scanning of the human COX-2 gene with 8-ring polyamides: unexpected weakening of polyamide-DNA binding and selectivity by replacing an internal N-Me-pyrrole with β-alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkin, James K; Aston, Karl; Ramos, Joseph P; Koeller, Kevin J; Nanjunda, Rupesh; He, Gaofei; Dupureur, Cynthia M; David Wilson, W

    2013-02-01

    Rules for polyamide-DNA recognition have proved invaluable for the design of sequence-selective DNA binding agents in cell-free systems. However, these rules are not fully transferrable to predicting activity in cells, tissues or animals, and additional refinements to our understanding of DNA recognition would help biomedical studies. Similar complexities are encountered when using internal β-alanines as polyamide building blocks in place of N-methylpyrrole; β-alanines were introduced in polyamide designs to maintain good hydrogen bonding registry with the target DNA, especially for long polyamides or those with several GC bp (P.B. Dervan, A.R. Urbach, Essays Contemp. Chem. (2001) 327-339). Thus, to clarify important subtleties of molecular recognition, we studied the effects of replacing a single pyrrole with β-alanine in 8-ring polyamides designed against the Ets-1 transcription factor. Replacement of a single internal N-methylpyrrole with β-alanine to generate a β/Im pairing in two 8-ring polyamides causes a decrease in DNA binding affinity by two orders of magnitude and decreases DNA binding selectivity, contrary to expectations based on the literature. Measurements were made by fluorescence spectroscopy, quantitative DNA footprinting and surface plasmon resonance, with these vastly different techniques showing excellent agreement. Furthermore, results were validated for a range of DNA substrates from small hairpins to long dsDNA sequences. Docking studies helped show that β-alanine does not make efficient hydrophobic contacts with the rest of the polyamide or nearby DNA, in contrast to pyrrole. These results help refine design principles and expectations for polyamide-DNA recognition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Ribosome. The complete structure of the 55S mammalian mitochondrial ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greber, Basil J; Bieri, Philipp; Leibundgut, Marc; Leitner, Alexander; Aebersold, Ruedi; Boehringer, Daniel; Ban, Nenad

    2015-04-17

    Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) synthesize mitochondrially encoded membrane proteins that are critical for mitochondrial function. Here we present the complete atomic structure of the porcine 55S mitoribosome at 3.8 angstrom resolution by cryo-electron microscopy and chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry. The structure of the 28S subunit in the complex was resolved at 3.6 angstrom resolution by focused alignment, which allowed building of a detailed atomic structure including all of its 15 mitoribosomal-specific proteins. The structure reveals the intersubunit contacts in the 55S mitoribosome, the molecular architecture of the mitoribosomal messenger RNA (mRNA) binding channel and its interaction with transfer RNAs, and provides insight into the highly specialized mechanism of mRNA recruitment to the 28S subunit. Furthermore, the structure contributes to a mechanistic understanding of aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  1. The Complete Structure of the Mycobacterium smegmatis 70S Ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Jendrik; Burnside, Chloe; Mignot, Ingrid; Leibundgut, Marc; Boehringer, Daniel; Ban, Nenad

    2017-07-05

    The ribosome carries out the synthesis of proteins in every living cell. It consequently represents a frontline target in anti-microbial therapy. Tuberculosis ranks among the leading causes of death worldwide, due in large part to the combination of difficult-to-treat latency and antibiotic resistance. Here, we present the 3.3-Å cryo-EM structure of the 70S ribosome of Mycobacterium smegmatis, a close relative to the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure reveals two additional ribosomal proteins and localizes them to the vicinity of drug-target sites in both the catalytic center and the decoding site of the ribosome. Furthermore, we visualized actinobacterium-specific rRNA and protein expansions that extensively remodel the ribosomal surface with implications for polysome organization. Our results provide a foundation for understanding the idiosyncrasies of mycobacterial translation and reveal atomic details of the structure that will facilitate the design of anti-tubercular therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ribosomes slide on lysine-encoding homopolymeric A stretches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutmou, Kristin S; Schuller, Anthony P; Brunelle, Julie L; Radhakrishnan, Aditya; Djuranovic, Sergej; Green, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Protein output from synonymous codons is thought to be equivalent if appropriate tRNAs are sufficiently abundant. Here we show that mRNAs encoding iterated lysine codons, AAA or AAG, differentially impact protein synthesis: insertion of iterated AAA codons into an ORF diminishes protein expression more than insertion of synonymous AAG codons. Kinetic studies in E. coli reveal that differential protein production results from pausing on consecutive AAA-lysines followed by ribosome sliding on homopolymeric A sequence. Translation in a cell-free expression system demonstrates that diminished output from AAA-codon-containing reporters results from premature translation termination on out of frame stop codons following ribosome sliding. In eukaryotes, these premature termination events target the mRNAs for Nonsense-Mediated-Decay (NMD). The finding that ribosomes slide on homopolymeric A sequences explains bioinformatic analyses indicating that consecutive AAA codons are under-represented in gene-coding sequences. Ribosome ‘sliding’ represents an unexpected type of ribosome movement possible during translation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05534.001 PMID:25695637

  3. The Phosphorylation of Ribosomal Protein in Lemna minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewavas, A.

    1973-01-01

    Sterile cultures of Lemna minor have been labeled with 32P1, and the ribosomal proteins have been examined for radioactivity. In relatively short term labeling a radioactive protein was found which ran as a single component in both urea/acetic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate gel electrophoresis. Acid hydrolysis of the labeled protein permitted the isolation of serine phosphate. After labeling to equilibrium with 32P1, calculation indicated only 0.6 to 0.75 atom of this protein phosphorus per ribosome. The phosphorylated protein is found in both polysomes and “derived” monomers and appears to be located in the ribosomal small subunit. Its apparent molecular weight is 42,000. Addition of growth-inhibiting concentrations of abscisic acid does not alter the apparent degree of labeling of this protein in 5 hours, but after 24 hours of treatment the total protein phosphorus was reduced from 0.75 atom of phosphorus per ribosome to 0.36 atom of phosphorus per ribosome. PMID:16658405

  4. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  5. Expedited quantification of mutant ribosomal RNA by binary deoxyribozyme (BiDz) sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimova, Yulia V; Yakovchuk, Petro; Dedkova, Larisa M; Hecht, Sidney M; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M

    2015-10-01

    Mutations in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) have traditionally been detected by the primer extension assay, which is a tedious and multistage procedure. Here, we describe a simple and straightforward fluorescence assay based on binary deoxyribozyme (BiDz) sensors. The assay uses two short DNA oligonucleotides that hybridize specifically to adjacent fragments of rRNA, one of which contains a mutation site. This hybridization results in the formation of a deoxyribozyme catalytic core that produces the fluorescent signal and amplifies it due to multiple rounds of catalytic action. This assay enables us to expedite semi-quantification of mutant rRNA content in cell cultures starting from whole cells, which provides information useful for optimization of culture preparation prior to ribosome isolation. The method requires less than a microliter of a standard Escherichia coli cell culture and decreases analysis time from several days (for primer extension assay) to 1.5 h with hands-on time of ∼10 min. It is sensitive to single-nucleotide mutations. The new assay simplifies the preliminary analysis of RNA samples and cells in molecular biology and cloning experiments and is promising in other applications where fast detection/quantification of specific RNA is required. © 2015 Gerasimova et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  6. Replication and Transcription of Eukaryotic DNA in Esherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John F.; Cohen, Stanley N.; Chang, Annie C. Y.; Boyer, Herbert W.; Goodman, Howard M.; Helling, Robert B.

    1974-01-01

    Fragments of amplified Xenopus laevis DNA, coding for 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA and generated by EcoRI restriction endonuclease, have been linked in vitro to the bacterial plasmid pSC101; and the recombinant molecular species have been introduced into E. coli by transformation. These recombinant plasmids, containing both eukaryotic and prokaryotic DNA, replicate stably in E. coli. RNA isolated from E. coli minicells harboring the plasmids hybridizes to amplified X. laevis rDNA. Images PMID:4600264

  7. Label-Free Quantitation of Ribosomal Proteins from Bacillus subtilis for Antibiotic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäkermann, Sina; Prochnow, Pascal; Bandow, Julia E

    2017-01-01

    Current research is focusing on ribosome heterogeneity as a response to changing environmental conditions and stresses, such as antibiotic stress. Altered stoichiometry and composition of ribosomal proteins as well as association of additional protein factors are mechanisms for shaping the protein expression profile or hibernating ribosomes. Here, we present a method for the isolation of ribosomes to analyze antibiotic-induced changes in the composition of ribosomes in Bacillus subtilis or other bacteria. Ribosomes and associated proteins are isolated by ultracentrifugation and proteins are identified and quantified using label-free mass spectrometry.

  8. Cryo-EM structure of the archaeal 50S ribosomal subunit in complex with initiation factor 6 and implications for ribosome evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greber, Basil J; Boehringer, Daniel; Godinic-Mikulcic, Vlatka

    2012-01-01

    additional components of the translation machinery with eukaryotes that are absent in bacteria. One of these translation factors is initiation factor 6 (IF6), which associates with the large ribosomal subunit. We have reconstructed the 50S ribosomal subunit from the archaeon Methanothermobacter...... between this archaeal ribosome and eukaryotic ribosomes but are mostly absent in bacteria and in some archaeal lineages. Furthermore, the structure reveals that, in spite of highly divergent evolutionary trajectories of the ribosomal particle and the acquisition of novel functions of IF6 in eukaryotes......, the molecular binding of IF6 on the ribosome is conserved between eukaryotes and archaea. The structure also provides a snapshot of the reductive evolution of the archaeal ribosome and offers new insights into the evolution of the translation system in archaea....

  9. Interaction of tRNA with Eukaryotic Ribosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Graifer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of currently available data concerning interactions of tRNAs with the eukaryotic ribosome at various stages of translation. These data include the results obtained by means of cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography applied to various model ribosomal complexes, site-directed cross-linking with the use of tRNA derivatives bearing chemically or photochemically reactive groups in the CCA-terminal fragment and chemical probing of 28S rRNA in the region of the peptidyl transferase center. Similarities and differences in the interactions of tRNAs with prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes are discussed with concomitant consideration of the extent of resemblance between molecular mechanisms of translation in eukaryotes and bacteria.

  10. 5SRNAdb: an information resource for 5S ribosomal RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Maciej; Zielezinski, Andrzej; Barciszewski, Jan; Erdmann, Volker A; Karlowski, Wojciech M

    2016-01-04

    Ribosomal 5S RNA (5S rRNA) is the ubiquitous RNA component found in the large subunit of ribosomes in all known organisms. Due to its small size, abundance and evolutionary conservation 5S rRNA for many years now is used as a model molecule in studies on RNA structure, RNA-protein interactions and molecular phylogeny. 5SRNAdb (http://combio.pl/5srnadb/) is the first database that provides a high quality reference set of ribosomal 5S RNAs (5S rRNA) across three domains of life. Here, we give an overview of new developments in the database and associated web tools since 2002, including updates to database content, curation processes and user web interfaces. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Structural basis for precursor protein-directed ribosomal peptide macrocyclization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kunhua; Condurso, Heather L.; Li, Gengnan; Ding, Yousong; Bruner, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Macrocyclization is a common feature of natural product biosynthetic pathways including the diverse family of ribosomal peptides. Microviridins are architecturally complex cyanobacterial ribosomal peptides whose members target proteases with potent reversible inhibition. The product structure is constructed by three macrocyclizations catalyzed sequentially by two members of the ATP-grasp family, a unique strategy for ribosomal peptide macrocyclization. Here, we describe the detailed structural basis for the enzyme-catalyzed macrocyclizations in the microviridin J pathway of Microcystis aeruginosa. The macrocyclases, MdnC and MdnB, interact with a conserved α-helix of the precursor peptide using a novel precursor peptide recognition mechanism. The results provide insight into the unique protein/protein interactions key to the chemistry, suggest an origin of the natural combinatorial synthesis of microviridin peptides and provide a framework for future engineering efforts to generate designed compounds. PMID:27669417

  12. Structural basis for precursor protein-directed ribosomal peptide macrocyclization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kunhua; Condurso, Heather L; Li, Gengnan; Ding, Yousong; Bruner, Steven D

    2016-11-01

    Macrocyclization is a common feature of natural product biosynthetic pathways including the diverse family of ribosomal peptides. Microviridins are architecturally complex cyanobacterial ribosomal peptides that target proteases with potent reversible inhibition. The product structure is constructed via three macrocyclizations catalyzed sequentially by two members of the ATP-grasp family, a unique strategy for ribosomal peptide macrocyclization. Here we describe in detail the structural basis for the enzyme-catalyzed macrocyclizations in the microviridin J pathway of Microcystis aeruginosa. The macrocyclases MdnC and MdnB interact with a conserved α-helix of the precursor peptide using a novel precursor-peptide recognition mechanism. The results provide insight into the unique protein-protein interactions that are key to the chemistry, suggest an origin for the natural combinatorial synthesis of microviridin peptides, and provide a framework for future engineering efforts to generate designed compounds.

  13. GENETIC POLYMORPHISM IN GYMNODINIUM GALATHEANUM CHLOROPLAST DNA SEQUENCES AND DEVELOPMENT OF A MOLECULAR DETECTION ASSAY. (R827084)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear and chloroplast-encoded small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences were obtainedfrom several strains of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium galatheanum. Phylogenetic analyses andcomparison of sequences indicate that the chloroplast sequences show a higher degree of se...

  14. New population and phylogenetic features of the internal variation within mitochondrial DNA macro-haplogroup R0.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Alvarez-Iglesias

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: R0 embraces the most common mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA lineage in West Eurasia, namely, haplogroup H (approximately 40%. R0 sub-lineages are badly defined in the control region and therefore, the analysis of diagnostic coding region polymorphisms is needed in order to gain resolution in population and medical studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sequenced the first hypervariable segment (HVS-I of 518 individuals from different North Iberian regions. The mtDNAs belonging to R0 (approximately 57% were further genotyped for a set of 71 coding region SNPs characterizing major and minor branches of R0. We found that the North Iberian Peninsula shows moderate levels of population stratification; for instance, haplogroup V reaches the highest frequency in Cantabria (north-central Iberia, but lower in Galicia (northwest Iberia and Catalonia (northeast Iberia. When compared to other European and Middle East populations, haplogroups H1, H3 and H5a show frequency peaks in the Franco-Cantabrian region, declining from West towards the East and South Europe. In addition, we have characterized, by way of complete genome sequencing, a new autochthonous clade of haplogroup H in the Basque country, named H2a5. Its coalescence age, 15.6+/-8 thousand years ago (kya, dates to the period immediately after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In contrast to other H lineages that experienced re-expansion outside the Franco-Cantabrian refuge after the LGM (e.g. H1 and H3, H2a5 most likely remained confined to this area till present days.

  15. Protein-protein interactions within late pre-40S ribosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody G Campbell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome assembly in eukaryotic organisms requires more than 200 assembly factors to facilitate and coordinate rRNA transcription, processing, and folding with the binding of the ribosomal proteins. Many of these assembly factors bind and dissociate at defined times giving rise to discrete assembly intermediates, some of which have been partially characterized with regards to their protein and RNA composition. Here, we have analyzed the protein-protein interactions between the seven assembly factors bound to late cytoplasmic pre-40S ribosomes using recombinant proteins in binding assays. Our data show that these factors form two modules: one comprising Enp1 and the export adaptor Ltv1 near the beak structure, and the second comprising the kinase Rio2, the nuclease Nob1, and a regulatory RNA binding protein Dim2/Pno1 on the front of the head. The GTPase-like Tsr1 and the universally conserved methylase Dim1 are also peripherally connected to this second module. Additionally, in an effort to further define the locations for these essential proteins, we have analyzed the interactions between these assembly factors and six ribosomal proteins: Rps0, Rps3, Rps5, Rps14, Rps15 and Rps29. Together, these results and previous RNA-protein crosslinking data allow us to propose a model for the binding sites of these seven assembly factors. Furthermore, our data show that the essential kinase Rio2 is located at the center of the pre-ribosomal particle and interacts, directly or indirectly, with every other assembly factor, as well as three ribosomal proteins required for cytoplasmic 40S maturation. These data suggest that Rio2 could play a central role in regulating cytoplasmic maturation steps.

  16. A streamlined ribosome profiling protocol for the characterization of microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latif, Haythem; Szubin, Richard; Tan, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome profiling is a powerful tool for characterizing in vivo protein translation at the genome scale, with multiple applications ranging from detailed molecular mechanisms to systems-level predictive modeling. Though highly effective, this intricate technique has yet to become widely used...... in the microbial research community. Here we present a streamlined ribosome profiling protocol with reduced barriers to entry for microbial characterization studies. Our approach provides simplified alternatives during harvest, lysis, and recovery of monosomes and also eliminates several time-consuming steps...

  17. Interaction of pleuromutilin derivatives with the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, K. S.; Hansen, L. K.; Jakobsen, L.

    2006-01-01

    Tiamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic that is used in veterinary medicine. The recently published crystal structure of a tiamulin-50S ribosomal subunit complex provides detailed information about how this drug targets the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome. To promote rational design...... mutant strain is resistant to tiamulin and pleuromutilin, but not valnemulin, implying that valnemulin is better able to withstand an altered rRNA binding surface around the mutilin core. This is likely due to additional interactions made between the valnemulin side chain extension and the rRNA binding...

  18. Validation of the ITS2 region as a novel DNA barcode for identifying medicinal plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shilin; Yao, Hui; Han, Jianping; Liu, Chang; Song, Jingyuan; Shi, Linchun; Zhu, Yingjie; Ma, Xinye; Gao, Ting; Pang, Xiaohui; Luo, Kun; Li, Ying; Li, Xiwen; Jia, Xiaocheng; Lin, Yulin; Leon, Christine

    2010-01-07

    The plant working group of the Consortium for the Barcode of Life recommended the two-locus combination of rbcL+matK as the plant barcode, yet the combination was shown to successfully discriminate among 907 samples from 550 species at the species level with a probability of 72%. The group admits that the two-locus barcode is far from perfect due to the low identification rate, and the search is not over. Here, we compared seven candidate DNA barcodes (psbA-trnH, matK, rbcL, rpoC1, ycf5, ITS2, and ITS) from medicinal plant species. Our ranking criteria included PCR amplification efficiency, differential intra- and inter-specific divergences, and the DNA barcoding gap. Our data suggest that the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA represents the most suitable region for DNA barcoding applications. Furthermore, we tested the discrimination ability of ITS2 in more than 6600 plant samples belonging to 4800 species from 753 distinct genera and found that the rate of successful identification with the ITS2 was 92.7% at the species level. The ITS2 region can be potentially used as a standard DNA barcode to identify medicinal plants and their closely related species. We also propose that ITS2 can serve as a novel universal barcode for the identification of a broader range of plant taxa.

  19. Detection of sodium azide-induced mutagenicity in the regenerated shoots of artemisia annual L., using internal transcribed spacer (its) sequences of nrDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Qurainy, F.; Al-Hemaidi, F.M.; Khan, S.; Ali, M.A.; Tarroum, M.; Ashraf, M.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium azide (NaN/sub 3/) is a well known chemical mutagen which can effectively cause point mutation in plant genome. The mutagenicity by this potential mutagen was assessed in the regenerated mutant shoots of Artemisia annua using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of n rDNA. Insertions and/or deletions were detected in n rDNA-ITS sequences of all mutant shoots and compared with control ones using the ClustalX program. The regenerated shoots TS1 and TS2 had deleted bases, whereas TS3, TS4 and TS5 had insertions, because NaN/sub 3/ replaced the cytosine (C) by thymine (T) (C - T) (shoots; TS1 and TS4) and thymine (T) replaced by guanine (G) (T - G) (shoot; TS5), respectively. Artemisinin content was also measured in the regenerated six-week-old shoots of A. annua. All regenerated shoots had enhanced level of this compound as compared to that in the controls, being highest in the regenerated shoot TS3. (author)

  20. Charge Segregation and Low Hydrophobicity Are Key Features of Ribosomal Proteins from Different Organisms*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyukina, Daria V.; Jennaro, Theodore S.; Cavagnero, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomes are large and highly charged macromolecular complexes consisting of RNA and proteins. Here, we address the electrostatic and nonpolar properties of ribosomal proteins that are important for ribosome assembly and interaction with other cellular components and may influence protein folding on the ribosome. We examined 50 S ribosomal subunits from 10 species and found a clear distinction between the net charge of ribosomal proteins from halophilic and non-halophilic organisms. We found that ∼67% ribosomal proteins from halophiles are negatively charged, whereas only up to ∼15% of ribosomal proteins from non-halophiles share this property. Conversely, hydrophobicity tends to be lower for ribosomal proteins from halophiles than for the corresponding proteins from non-halophiles. Importantly, the surface electrostatic potential of ribosomal proteins from all organisms, especially halophiles, has distinct positive and negative regions across all the examined species. Positively and negatively charged residues of ribosomal proteins tend to be clustered in buried and solvent-exposed regions, respectively. Hence, the majority of ribosomal proteins is characterized by a significant degree of intramolecular charge segregation, regardless of the organism of origin. This key property enables the ribosome to accommodate proteins within its complex scaffold regardless of their overall net charge. PMID:24398678

  1. Introducing W.A.T.E.R.S.: a workflow for the alignment, taxonomy, and ecology of ribosomal sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Amber L; Riddle, Sean; McPhillips, Timothy; Ludäscher, Bertram; Eisen, Jonathan A

    2010-06-12

    For more than two decades microbiologists have used a highly conserved microbial gene as a phylogenetic marker for bacteria and archaea. The small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene, also known as 16 S rRNA, is encoded by ribosomal DNA, 16 S rDNA, and has provided a powerful comparative tool to microbial ecologists. Over time, the microbial ecology field has matured from small-scale studies in a select number of environments to massive collections of sequence data that are paired with dozens of corresponding collection variables. As the complexity of data and tool sets have grown, the need for flexible automation and maintenance of the core processes of 16 S rDNA sequence analysis has increased correspondingly. We present WATERS, an integrated approach for 16 S rDNA analysis that bundles a suite of publicly available 16 S rDNA analysis software tools into a single software package. The "toolkit" includes sequence alignment, chimera removal, OTU determination, taxonomy assignment, phylogentic tree construction as well as a host of ecological analysis and visualization tools. WATERS employs a flexible, collection-oriented 'workflow' approach using the open-source Kepler system as a platform. By packaging available software tools into a single automated workflow, WATERS simplifies 16 S rDNA analyses, especially for those without specialized bioinformatics, programming expertise. In addition, WATERS, like some of the newer comprehensive rRNA analysis tools, allows researchers to minimize the time dedicated to carrying out tedious informatics steps and to focus their attention instead on the biological interpretation of the results. One advantage of WATERS over other comprehensive tools is that the use of the Kepler workflow system facilitates result interpretation and reproducibility via a data provenance sub-system. Furthermore, new "actors" can be added to the workflow as desired and we see WATERS as an initial seed for a sizeable and growing repository of interoperable

  2. Cell cycle, differentiation and tissue-independent expression of ribosomal protein L37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, S; Bird, R C

    1995-09-15

    A unique human cDNA (hG1.16) that encodes a mRNA of 450 nucleotides was isolated from a subtractive library derived from HeLa cells. The relative expression level of hG1.16 during different cell-cycle phases was determined by Northern-blot analysis of cells synchronized by double-thymidine block and serum deprivation/refeeding. hG1.16 was constitutively expressed during all phases of the cell cycle, including the quiescent phase when even most constitutively expressed genes experience some suppression of expression. The expression level of hG1.16 did not change during terminal differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes, during which cells become permanently post-mitotic. Examination of other tissues revealed that the relative expression level of hG1.16 was constitutive in all embryonic mouse tissues examined, including brain, eye, heart, kidney, liver, lung and skeletal muscle. This was unusual in that expression was not down-modulated during differentiation and did not vary appreciably between tissue types. Analysis by inter-species Northern-blot analysis revealed that hG1.16 was highly conserved among all vertebrates studied (from fish to humans but not in insects). DNA sequence analysis of hG1.16 revealed a high level of similarity to rat ribosomal protein L37, identifying hG1.16 as a new member of this multigene family. The deduced amino acid sequence of hG1.16 was identical to rat ribosomal protein L37 that contained 97 amino acids, many of which are highly positively charged (15 arginine and 14 lysine residues with a predicted M(r) of 11,065). hG1.16 protein has a single C2-C2 zinc-finger-like motif which is also present in rat ribosomal protein L37. Using primers designed from the sequence of hG1.16, unique bovine and rat cDNAs were also isolated by 5'-rapid-amplification of cDNA ends. DNA sequences of bovine and rat G1.16, clones were 92.8% and 92.2% similar to human G1.16 while the deduced amino acid sequences derived from bovine and rat cDNAs each differed

  3. Integrating ribosomal promoter vectors that offer a choice of constitutive expression profiles in Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysa, Radika; Tran, Khoa D; Ullman, Buddy; Yates, Phillip A

    2015-12-01

    We have designed a novel series of integrating ribosomal RNA promoter vectors with five incrementally different constitutive expression profiles, covering a 250-fold range. Differential expression was achieved by placing different combinations of synthetic or leishmanial DNA sequences upstream and downstream of the transgene coding sequence in order to modulate pre-mRNA processing efficiency and mRNA stability, respectively. All of the vectors have extensive multiple cloning sites, and versions are available for producing N- or C- terminal GFP fusions at each of the possible relative expression levels. In addition, the modular configuration of the vectors allows drug resistance cassettes and other components to be readily exchanged. In toto, these vectors should be useful additions to the toolkit available for molecular and genetic studies of Leishmania donovani. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimisation of automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis for the estimation of microbial diversity in fynbos soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Jacobs

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA has become a commonly used molecular technique for the study of microbial populations in environmental samples. The reproducibility and accuracy of ARISA, with and without the polymerase chain reaction (PCR are important aspects that influence the results and effectiveness of these techniques. We used the primer set ITS4/ITS5 for ARISA to assess the fungal community composition of two sites situated in the Sand Fynbos. The primer set proved to deliver reproducible ARISA profiles of the fungal community composition with little variation observed between ARISA-PCRs. Variation that occurred in a sample due to repeated DNA extraction is expected for ecological studies. This reproducibility made ARISA a useful tool for the assessment and comparison of diversity in ecological samples. In this paper, we also offered particular suggestions concerning the binning strategy for the analysis of ARISA profiles.

  5. Histone and ribosomal RNA repetitive gene clusters of the boll weevil are linked in a tandem array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrdanz, R; Heilmann, L; Senechal, P; Sears, S; Evenson, P

    2010-08-01

    Histones are the major protein component of chromatin structure. The histone family is made up of a quintet of proteins, four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 & H4) and the linker histones (H1). Spacers are found between the coding regions. Among insects this quintet of genes is usually clustered and the clusters are tandemly repeated. Ribosomal DNA contains a cluster of the rRNA sequences 18S, 5.8S and 28S. The rRNA genes are separated by the spacers ITS1, ITS2 and IGS. This cluster is also tandemly repeated. We found that the ribosomal RNA repeat unit of at least two species of Anthonomine weevils, Anthonomus grandis and Anthonomus texanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is interspersed with a block containing the histone gene quintet. The histone genes are situated between the rRNA 18S and 28S genes in what is known as the intergenic spacer region (IGS). The complete reiterated Anthonomus grandis histone-ribosomal sequence is 16,248 bp.

  6. Human ribosomal protein L37 has motifs predicting serine/threonine phosphorylation and a zinc-finger domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, G F; Staniunas, R J; Puder, M; Steele, G D; Chen, L B

    1994-08-02

    Ribosomal protein L37 mRNA is overexpressed in colon cancer. The nucleotide sequences of human L37 from several tumor and normal, colon and liver cDNA sources were determined to be identical. L37 mRNA was approximately 375 nucleotides long encoding 97 amino acids with M(r) = 11,070, pI = 12.6, multiple potential serine/threonine phosphorylation sites and a zinc-finger domain. The human sequence is compared to other species.

  7. The mitochondrial gene encoding ribosomal protein S12 has been translocated to the nuclear genome in Oenothera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, L; Brennicke, A; Schuster, W

    1992-01-01

    The Oenothera mitochondrial genome contains only a gene fragment for ribosomal protein S12 (rps12), while other plants encode a functional gene in the mitochondrion. The complete Oenothera rps12 gene is located in the nucleus. The transit sequence necessary to target this protein to the mitochondrion is encoded by a 5'-extension of the open reading frame. Comparison of the amino acid sequence encoded by the nuclear gene with the polypeptides encoded by edited mitochondrial cDNA and genomic sequences of other plants suggests that gene transfer between mitochondrion and nucleus started from edited mitochondrial RNA molecules. Mechanisms and requirements of gene transfer and activation are discussed. Images PMID:1454526

  8. Internalization of Staphylococcus aureus in Lymphocytes Induces Oxidative Stress and DNA Fragmentation: Possible Ameliorative Role of Nanoconjugated Vancomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently isolated pathogen causing bloodstream infections, skin and soft tissue infections and pneumonia. Lymphocyte is an important immune cell. The aim of the present paper was to test the ameliorative role of nanoconjugated vancomycin against Vancomycin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (VSSA and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA infection-induced oxidative stress in lymphocytes. VSSA and VRSA infections were developed in Swiss mice by intraperitoneal injection of 5×106 CFU/mL bacterial solutions. Nanoconjugated vancomycin was adminstrated to VSSA- and VRSA-infected mice at its effective dose for 10 days. Vancomycin was adminstrated to VSSA- and VRSA-infected mice at a similar dose, respectively, for 10 days. Vancomycin and nanoconjugated vancomycin were adminstrated to normal mice at their effective doses for 10 days. The result of this study reveals that in vivo VSSA and VRSA infection significantly increases the level of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, oxidized glutathione level, nitrite generation, nitrite release, and DNA damage and decreases the level of reduced glutathione, antioxidant enzyme status, and glutathione-dependent enzymes as compared to control group, which were increased or decreased significantly near to normal in nanoconjugated vancomycin-treated group. These findings suggest the potential use and beneficial role of nanoconjugated vancomycin against VSSA and VRSA infection-induced oxidative stress in lymphocytes.

  9. Reconsidering the generation time hypothesis based on nuclear ribosomal ITS sequence comparisons in annual and perennial angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiz-Palacios Omar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in plant annual/perennial habit are hypothesized to cause a generation time effect on divergence rates. Previous studies that compared rates of divergence for internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS2 sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA in angiosperms have reached contradictory conclusions about whether differences in generation times (or other life history features are associated with divergence rate heterogeneity. We compared annual/perennial ITS divergence rates using published sequence data, employing sampling criteria to control for possible artifacts that might obscure any actual rate variation caused by annual/perennial differences. Results Relative rate tests employing ITS sequences from 16 phylogenetically-independent annual/perennial species pairs rejected rate homogeneity in only a few comparisons, with annuals more frequently exhibiting faster substitution rates. Treating branch length differences categorically (annual faster or perennial faster regardless of magnitude with a sign test often indicated an excess of annuals with faster substitution rates. Annuals showed an approximately 1.6-fold rate acceleration in nucleotide substitution models for ITS. Relative rates of three nuclear loci and two chloroplast regions for the annual Arabidopsis thaliana compared with two closely related Arabidopsis perennials indicated that divergence was faster for the annual. In contrast, A. thaliana ITS divergence rates were sometimes faster and sometimes slower than the perennial. In simulations, divergence rate differences of at least 3.5-fold were required to reject rate constancy in > 80 % of replicates using a nucleotide substitution model observed for the combination of ITS1 and ITS2. Simulations also showed that categorical treatment of branch length differences detected rate heterogeneity > 80% of the time with a 1.5-fold or greater rate difference. Conclusion Although rate homogeneity was not rejected

  10. Cryo-EM Structure of the Archaeal 50S Ribosomal Subunit in Complex with Initiation Factor 6 and Implications for Ribosome Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greber, Basil J.; Boehringer, Daniel; Godinic-Mikulcic, Vlatka; Crnkovic, Ana; Ibba, Michael; Weygand-Durasevic, Ivana; Ban, Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Translation of mRNA into proteins by the ribosome is universally conserved in all cellular life. The composition and complexity of the translation machinery differ markedly between the three domains of life. Organisms from the domain Archaea show an intermediate level of complexity, sharing several additional components of the translation machinery with eukaryotes that are absent in bacteria. One of these translation factors is initiation factor 6 (IF6), which associates with the large ribosomal subunit. We have reconstructed the 50S ribosomal subunit from the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus in complex with archaeal IF6 at 6.6 Å resolution using cryo-electron microscopy (EM). The structure provides detailed architectural insights into the 50S ribosomal subunit from a methanogenic archaeon through identification of the rRNA expansion segments and ribosomal proteins that are shared between this archaeal ribosome and eukaryotic ribosomes but are mostly absent in bacteria and in some archaeal lineages. Furthermore, the structure reveals that, in spite of highly divergent evolutionary trajectories of the ribosomal particle and the acquisition of novel functions of IF6 in eukaryotes, the molecular binding of IF6 on the ribosome is conserved between eukaryotes and archaea. The structure also provides a snapshot of the reductive evolution of the archaeal ribosome and offers new insights into the evolution of the translation system in archaea. PMID:22306461

  11. Chromosomal organization of the ribosomal RNA genes in the genus Chironomus (Diptera, Chironomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Gunderina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal localization of ribosomal RNA coding genes has been studied by using FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization in 21 species from the genus Chironomus Meigen, 1803. Analysis of the data has shown intra- and interspecific variation in number and location of 5.8S rDNA hybridization sites in 17 species from the subgenus Chironomus and 4 species from the subgenus Camptochironomus Kieffer, 1914. In the majority of studied species the location of rDNA sites coincided with the sites where active NORs (nucleolus organizer regions were found. The number of hybridization sites in karyotypes of studied chironomids varied from 1 to 6. More than half of the species possessed only one NOR (12 out of 21. Two rDNA hybridization sites were found in karyotypes of five species, three – in two species, and five and six sites – in one species each. NORs were found in all chromosomal arms of species from the subgenus Chironomus with one of them always located on arm G. On the other hand, no hybridization sites were found on arm G in four studied species from the subgenus Camptochironomus. Two species from the subgenus Chironomus – Ch. balatonicus Devai, Wuelker & Scholl, 1983 and Ch. “annularius” sensu Strenzke, 1959 – showed intraspecific variability in the number of hybridization signals. Possible mechanisms of origin of variability in number and location of rRNA genes in the karyotypes of species from the genus Chironomus are discussed.

  12. The Arabidopsis gene DIG6 encodes a large 60S subunit nuclear export GTPase 1 that is involved in ribosome biogenesis and affects multiple auxin-regulated development processes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Huayan

    2015-08-13

    The circularly permuted GTPase large subunit GTPase 1 (LSG1) is involved in the maturation step of the 60S ribosome and is essential for cell viability in yeast. Here, an Arabidopsis mutant dig6 (drought inhibited growth of lateral roots) was isolated. The mutant exhibited multiple auxin-related phenotypes, which included reduced lateral root number, altered leaf veins, and shorter roots. Genetic mapping combined with next-generation DNA sequencing identified that the mutation occurred in AtLSG1-2. This gene was highly expressed in regions of auxin accumulation. Ribosome profiling revealed that a loss of function of AtLSG1-2 led to decreased levels of monosomes, further demonstrating its role in ribosome biogenesis. Quantitative proteomics showed that the expression of certain proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis was differentially regulated, indicating that ribosome biogenesis processes were impaired in the mutant. Further investigations showed that an AtLSG1-2 deficiency caused the alteration of auxin distribution, response, and transport in plants. It is concluded that AtLSG1-2 is integral to ribosome biogenesis, consequently affecting auxin homeostasis and plant development.

  13. The Arabidopsis gene DIG6 encodes a large 60S subunit nuclear export GTPase 1 that is involved in ribosome biogenesis and affects multiple auxin-regulated development processes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Huayan; Lü , Shiyou; Li, Ruixi; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Huoming; Cui, Peng; Ding, Feng; Liu, Pei; Wang, Guangchao; Xia, Yiji; Running, Mark P.; Xiong, Liming

    2015-01-01

    The circularly permuted GTPase large subunit GTPase 1 (LSG1) is involved in the maturation step of the 60S ribosome and is essential for cell viability in yeast. Here, an Arabidopsis mutant dig6 (drought inhibited growth of lateral roots) was isolated. The mutant exhibited multiple auxin-related phenotypes, which included reduced lateral root number, altered leaf veins, and shorter roots. Genetic mapping combined with next-generation DNA sequencing identified that the mutation occurred in AtLSG1-2. This gene was highly expressed in regions of auxin accumulation. Ribosome profiling revealed that a loss of function of AtLSG1-2 led to decreased levels of monosomes, further demonstrating its role in ribosome biogenesis. Quantitative proteomics showed that the expression of certain proteins involved in ribosome biogenesis was differentially regulated, indicating that ribosome biogenesis processes were impaired in the mutant. Further investigations showed that an AtLSG1-2 deficiency caused the alteration of auxin distribution, response, and transport in plants. It is concluded that AtLSG1-2 is integral to ribosome biogenesis, consequently affecting auxin homeostasis and plant development.

  14. The ribosome-associated complex antagonizes prion formation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Alvaro J; Castanzo, Dominic T; Delany, Sean P; Selechnik, Daniel M; van Ooy, Alex; Cameron, Dale M

    2015-01-01

    The number of known fungal proteins capable of switching between alternative stable conformations is steadily increasing, suggesting that a prion-like mechanism may be broadly utilized as a means to propagate altered cellular states. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which cells regulate prion formation and toxicity we examined the role of the yeast ribosome-associated complex (RAC) in modulating both the formation of the [PSI(+)] prion - an alternative conformer of Sup35 protein - and the toxicity of aggregation-prone polypeptides. The Hsp40 RAC chaperone Zuo1 anchors the RAC to ribosomes and stimulates the ATPase activity of the Hsp70 chaperone Ssb. We found that cells lacking Zuo1 are sensitive to over-expression of some aggregation-prone proteins, including the Sup35 prion domain, suggesting that co-translational protein misfolding increases in Δzuo1 strains. Consistent with this finding, Δzuo1 cells exhibit higher frequencies of spontaneous and induced prion formation. Cells expressing mutant forms of Zuo1 lacking either a C-terminal charged region required for ribosome association, or the J-domain responsible for Ssb ATPase stimulation, exhibit similarly high frequencies of prion formation. Our findings are consistent with a role for the RAC in chaperoning nascent Sup35 to regulate folding of the N-terminal prion domain as it emerges from the ribosome.

  15. Expression of a ribosome inactivating protein (curcin 2) in Jatropha ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    mechanisms employed by a number of higher-plant species involve defensive ... of RIPs in the same plant species. ..... Lam C J, Ryals J A, Ward E R and Dixon R A 1992 Emerging ... against insect pests and diseases of plants: ribosome in-.

  16. Protein folding on the ribosome studied using NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waudby, Christopher A.; Launay, Hélène; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John

    2013-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the investigation of protein folding and misfolding, providing a characterization of molecular structure, dynamics and exchange processes, across a very wide range of timescales and with near atomic resolution. In recent years NMR methods have also been developed to study protein folding as it might occur within the cell, in a de novo manner, by observing the folding of nascent polypeptides in the process of emerging from the ribosome during synthesis. Despite the 2.3 MDa molecular weight of the bacterial 70S ribosome, many nascent polypeptides, and some ribosomal proteins, have sufficient local flexibility that sharp resonances may be observed in solution-state NMR spectra. In providing information on dynamic regions of the structure, NMR spectroscopy is therefore highly complementary to alternative methods such as X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy, which have successfully characterized the rigid core of the ribosome particle. However, the low working concentrations and limited sample stability associated with ribosome–nascent chain complexes means that such studies still present significant technical challenges to the NMR spectroscopist. This review will discuss the progress that has been made in this area, surveying all NMR studies that have been published to date, and with a particular focus on strategies for improving experimental sensitivity. PMID:24083462

  17. Structure based hypothesis of a mitochondrial ribosome rescue mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huynen Martijn A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background mtRF1 is a vertebrate mitochondrial protein with an unknown function that arose from a duplication of the mitochondrial release factor mtRF1a. To elucidate the function of mtRF1, we determined the positions that are conserved among mtRF1 sequences but that are different in their mtRF1a paralogs. We subsequently modeled the 3D structure of mtRF1a and mtRF1 bound to the ribosome, highlighting the structural implications of these differences to derive a hypothesis for the function of mtRF1. Results Our model predicts, in agreement with the experimental data, that the 3D structure of mtRF1a allows it to recognize the stop codons UAA and UAG in the A-site of the ribosome. In contrast, we show that mtRF1 likely can only bind the ribosome when the A-site is devoid of mRNA. Furthermore, while mtRF1a will adopt its catalytic conformation, in which it functions as a peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase in the ribosome, only upon binding of a stop codon in the A-site, mtRF1 appears specifically adapted to assume this extended, peptidyl-tRNA hydrolyzing conformation in the absence of mRNA in the A-site. Conclusions We predict that mtRF1 specifically recognizes ribosomes with an empty A-site and is able to function as a peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase in those situations. Stalled ribosomes with empty A-sites that still contain a tRNA bound to a peptide chain can result from the translation of truncated, stop-codon less mRNAs. We hypothesize that mtRF1 recycles such stalled ribosomes, performing a function that is analogous to that of tmRNA in bacteria. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Eugene Koonin, Prof. Knud H. Nierhaus (nominated by Dr. Sarah Teichmann and Dr. Shamil Sunyaev.

  18. Regulation of rDNA stability by sumoylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert-Boulet, Nadine; Lisby, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Repair of DNA lesions by homologous recombination relies on the copying of genetic information from an intact homologous sequence. However, many eukaryotic genomes contain repetitive sequences such as the ribosomal gene locus (rDNA), which poses a risk for illegitimate recombination. Therefore, t......6 complex and sumoylation of Rad52, which directs DNA double-strand breaks in the rDNA to relocalize from within the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm before association with the recombination machinery. The relocalization before repair is important for maintaining rDNA stability. The focus...

  19. Differential antibiotic sensitivity determined by the large ribosomal subunit in thermophilic archaea.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggero, D; Londei, P

    1996-01-01

    Hybrid ribosomes obtained by mixing the ribosomal subunits of the extremely thermophilic archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus and Desulfurococcus mobilis were tested for their sensitivity to selected antibiotics. It is shown that structural differences in the large ribosomal subunits determine qualitatively and quantitatively the patterns of response to alpha-sarcin and paromomycin in these species.

  20. ABC-F Proteins Mediate Antibiotic Resistance through Ribosomal Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Liam K R; Edwards, Thomas A; O'Neill, Alex J

    2016-03-22

    Members of the ABC-F subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins mediate resistance to a broad array of clinically important antibiotic classes that target the ribosome of Gram-positive pathogens. The mechanism by which these proteins act has been a subject of long-standing controversy, with two competing hypotheses each having gained considerable support: antibiotic efflux versus ribosomal protection. Here, we report on studies employing a combination of bacteriological and biochemical techniques to unravel the mechanism of resistance of these proteins, and provide several lines of evidence that together offer clear support to the ribosomal protection hypothesis. Of particular note, we show that addition of purified ABC-F proteins to anin vitrotranslation assay prompts dose-dependent rescue of translation, and demonstrate that such proteins are capable of displacing antibiotic from the ribosomein vitro To our knowledge, these experiments constitute the first direct evidence that ABC-F proteins mediate antibiotic resistance through ribosomal protection.IMPORTANCEAntimicrobial resistance ranks among the greatest threats currently facing human health. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which microorganisms resist the effect of antibiotics is central to understanding the biology of this phenomenon and has the potential to inform the development of new drugs capable of blocking or circumventing resistance. Members of the ABC-F family, which includelsa(A),msr(A),optr(A), andvga(A), collectively yield resistance to a broader range of clinically significant antibiotic classes than any other family of resistance determinants, although their mechanism of action has been controversial since their discovery 25 years ago. Here we present the first direct evidence that proteins of the ABC-F family act to protect the bacterial ribosome from antibiotic-mediated inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Sharkey et al.

  1. Studies on the catalytic rate constant of ribosomal peptidyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synetos, D; Coutsogeorgopoulos, C

    1987-02-20

    A detailed kinetic analysis of a model reaction for the ribosomal peptidyltransferase is described, using fMet-tRNA or Ac-Phe-tRNA as the peptidyl donor and puromycin as the acceptor. The initiation complex (fMet-tRNA X AUG X 70 S ribosome) or (Ac-Phe-tRNA X poly(U) X 70 S ribosome) (complex C) is isolated and then reacted with excess puromycin (S) to give fMet-puromycin or Ac-Phe-puromycin. This reaction (puromycin reaction) is first order at all concentrations of S tested. An important asset of this kinetic analysis is the fact that the relationship between the first order rate constant kobs and [S] shows hyperbolic saturation and that the value of kobs at saturating [S] is a measure of the catalytic rate constant (k cat) of peptidyltransferase in the puromycin reaction. With fMet-tRNA as the donor, this kcat of peptidyltransferase is 8.3 min-1 when the 0.5 M NH4Cl ribosomal wash is present, compared to 3.8 min-1 in its absence. The kcat of peptidyltransferase is 2.0 min-1 when Ac-Phe-tRNA replaces fMet-tRNA in the presence of the ribosomal wash and decreases to 0.8 min-1 in its absence. This kinetic procedure is the best method available for evaluating changes in the activity of peptidyltransferase in vitro. The results suggest that peptidyltransferase is subjected to activation by the binding of fMet-tRNA to the 70 S initiation complex.

  2. Mapping of the 18S and 5S ribosomal RNA genes in Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Teleostei, Characidae from the upper Paraná river basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Fernandes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH was undertaken in order to determinate the chromosomal distribution pattern of 18S and 5S ribosomal DNAs (rDNA in four populations of the characid fish Astyanax altiparanae from the upper Paraná river basin, Brazil. The 18S rDNA probe FISH revealed numerical and positional variations among specimens from the Keçaba stream compared to specimens of the other populations studied. In contrast to the variable 18S rDNA distribution pattern, highly stable chromosomal positioning of the 5S rDNA sites was observed in the four A. altiparanae populations. Divergence in the distribution pattern of 18S and 5S rDNA sites is also discussed.

  3. Is there a channel in the ribosome for nascent peptide. Labellimg of translating ribosomes with atomar tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, V A; Kammer, A A; Spirin, A S

    1987-01-01

    The method of tritium bombardment was applied to investigate exposure of growing peptide on the surface of ribsome E.coli. Distribution of radioactivity by fractions is presented. Tritium inclusion in all the aminoacid residues of heteropeptide testifies to its exposure on the surface of the ribosome.

  4. Alkaline Extraction of DNA from Pathogenic Fungi for PCR-RFLP Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Masaru; Mishima, Shinobu; Matsuyama, Nobuaki; 松元, 賢; 松山, 宣明

    1997-01-01

    For the preparation of DNA samples from fungal mycelia alkaline extraction method was applied and assessed its usefulness for PCR-RFLP analysis. Using alkaline treatment protocols, 18S ribosomal DNAs (rDNA) derived from fungal genomic DNA of Pyricularia oryzae, P. zingiberi, Rhizoctonia solani and R. oryzae were PCR-amplified and digested with Hha I, Msp I and Hae ill. RFLP analysis with HhaI showed the divergent polymorphism between genus Pyricularia and Rhizoctonia. The alkaline DNA extract...

  5. An exit cavity was crucial to the polymerase activity of the early ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, George E; Tran, Quyen; Yonath, Ada

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of an RNA entity capable of synthesizing peptides was a key prebiotic development. It is hypothesized that a precursor of the modern ribosomal exit tunnel was associated with this RNA entity (e.g., "protoribosome" or "bonding entity") from the earliest time and played an essential role. Various compounds that can bind and activate a