Sample records for ribeira belt se

  1. A new interpretation for the interference zone between the southern Brasília belt and the central Ribeira belt, SE Brazil (United States)

    Trouw, Rudolph A. J.; Peternel, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Andre; Heilbron, Mônica; Vinagre, Rodrigo; Duffles, Patrícia; Trouw, Camilo C.; Fontainha, Marcos; Kussama, Hugo H.


    In southeastern Brazil, the Neoproterozoic NNW-SSE trending southern Brasília belt is apparently truncated by the ENE-WSW central Ribeira belt. Different interpretations in the literature of the transition between these two belts motivated detailed mapping and additional age dating along the contact zone. The result is a new interpretation presented in this paper. The southern Brasília belt resulted from E-W collision between the active margin of the Paranapanema paleocontinent, on the western side, now forming the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe, with the passive margin of the São Francisco paleocontinent on the eastern side. The collision produced an east vergent nappe stack, the Andrelândia Nappe System, along the suture. At its southern extreme the Brasília belt was thought to be cut off by a shear zone, the "Rio Jaguari mylonites", at the contact with the Embu terrane, pertaining to the Central Ribeira belt. Our detailed mapping revealed that the transition between the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe (Brasília belt) and the Embu terrane (Ribeira belt) is not a fault but rather a gradational transition that does not strictly coincide with the Rio Jaguari mylonites. A typical Cordilleran type magmatic arc batholith of the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe with an age of ca. 640 Ma intrudes biotite schists of the Embu terrane and the age of zircon grains from three samples of metasedimentary rocks, one to the south, one to the north and one along the mylonite zone, show a similar pattern of derivation from a Rhyacian source area with rims of 670-600 Ma interpreted as metamorphic overgrowth. We dated by LA-MC-ICPMS laser ablation (U-Pb) zircon grains from a calc-alkaline granite, the Serra do Quebra-Cangalha Batholith, located within the Embu terrane at a distance of about 40 km south of the contact with the Socorro Nappe, yielding an age of 680 ± 13 Ma. This age indicates that the Embu terrane was part of the upper plate (Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe) by this time. Detailed mapping

  2. Structural evolution and U-Pb SHRIMP zircon ages of the Neoproterozoic Maria da Fé shear zone, central Ribeira Belt - SE Brazil (United States)

    Zuquim, M. P. S.; Trouw, R. A. J.; Trouw, C. C.; Tohver, E.


    The Maria da Fé Shear Zone (MFSZ) is a sinistral strike-slip kilometric-scale structure developed in the late Neoproterozoic during the assembly of Gondwana. The MFSZ development is related to the NW-SE collision between the São Francisco Paleocontinent and the Rio Negro Magmatic Arc, which formed the Ribeira Belt. This paper describes the shear zone in detail, concluding that the orientation and age are consistent with NW-SE shortening during the afore mentioned collision. A U-Pb SHRIMP Concordia age of 586.9 ± 8.7 Ma is reported from zircon grains of a granitic dyke that crystallised synkinematically to the main tectonic activity of the shear zone. Another group of zircon grains from the same sample generated an upper intercept age of 2083 ± 43 Ma anchored in the younger Concordia age. These zircon grains are interpreted as relict grains of the basement from which the granite dyke was generated by partial melting. The temperature during mylonitization in the MFSZ was estimated in the range from 450 to 600 °C, based on microstructures in quartz and feldspar. An earlier collision in the same region, between 640 and 610 Ma, led to an extensive nappe-stack with tectonic transport to ENE, integrating the southern Brasilia Belt. One of the thrust zones between these nappes in the studied area is the Cristina Shear Zone with mylonites that were generated under upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions. Brittle-ductile E-W metric-scale shear zones are superimposed on the MFSZ, which were active in similar, but probably slightly cooler, metamorphic conditions (≈500 °C).

  3. Superposition of structures in the interference zone between the southern Brasília belt and the central Ribeira belt in the region SW of Itajubá (MG, SE Brazil

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    Rodrigo Vinagre

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The study area is localized in the Socorro nappe, part of the southern Brasília belt, with a minor part in the Embu terrane, part of the central Ribeira belt. Three phases of deformation were detected, Dn-1, Dn and Dn+1. Sn-1 seems to be generally transposed into Sn, but in the northwestern part it is well preserved, dipping about 60º to W and SW, with a stretching and/or mineral lineation plunging down dip. The main foliation in most of the area is Sn, dipping about 70º to SSE. Dn folds are tight to isoclinal, with axes that plunge about 40º to SW. Quartz-feldspathic segregation veins are folded by Dn. The structures related to Dn-1 and Dn are cut and modified by four important shear zones ascribed to deformation phase Dn+1. Two samples of a granite that is elongated along the Caxambu shear zone, and also cut by it, were dated. One yielded a crystallization age of 575 ± 5 Ma, and the other one, from the shear zone, an age of 567 ± 8 Ma, interpreted either as representing the age of movement along the Caxambu shear zone, or as metamorphic growth.

  4. Vertical displacement during late-collisional escape tectonics (Brasiliano Orogeny) in the Ribeira Belt, São Paulo State, Brazil (United States)

    Hackspacher, P. C.; Godoy, A. M.


    During the Brasiliano-Pan-African Orogeny, West Gondwana formed by collisional processes around the São Francisco-Congo Craton. The Ribeira belt, in southeastern Brazil, resulted from northwestward collision (650-600 Ma), followed by large-scale northeast-southwest dextral strike-slip shear movements related to late-collisional escape tectonics ( ca 600 Ma). In São Paulo State, three groups, also interpreted as terranes, are recognised in the Ribeira Belt, the Embu, Itapira and São Roque Groups. The Embu and Itapira Groups are formed of sillimanite-gneisses, schists and migmatites intruded by Neoproterozoic calc-alkaline granitoids, all thrusted northwestward. The São Roque Group is composed of metasediments and metavolcanics in greenschist-facies. Its deformation indicates a transpressional regime associated with tectonic escape. Sub-alkaline granites were emplaced in shallow levels during this regime. Microstructural studies along the Itu, Moreiras and Taxaquara Shear Zones demonstrate the coexistence of horizontal and vertical displacement components during the transpressional regime. The vertical component is regarded as responsible for the lateral juxtaposition of different crustal levels.

  5. Sources of granite magmatism in the Embu Terrane (Ribeira Belt, Brazil): Neoproterozoic crust recycling constrained by elemental and isotope (Sr-Nd-Pb) geochemistry (United States)

    Alves, Adriana; Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; Campos Neto, Mario da Costa


    Whole rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry and in situ K-feldspar Pb isotope geochemistry were used to identify the sources involved in the genesis of Neoproterozoic granites from the Embu Terrane, Ribeira Belt, SE Brazil. Granite magmatism spanned over 200 Ma (810-580 Ma), and is dominated by crust-derived relatively low-T (850-750 °C, zircon saturation) biotite granites to biotite-muscovite granites. Two Cryogenian plutons show the least negative εNdt (-8 to -10) and highest mg# (30-40) of the whole set. Their compositions are strongly contrasted, implying distinct sources for the peraluminous (ASI ∼ 1.2) ∼660 Ma Serra do Quebra-Cangalha batholith (metasedimentary rocks from relatively young upper crust with high Rb/Sr and low Th/U) and the metaluminous (ASI = 0.96-1.00) ∼ 630 Ma Santa Catarina Granite. Although not typical, the geochemical signature of these granites may reflect a continental margin arc environment, and they could be products of a prolonged period of oceanic plate consumption started at ∼810 Ma. The predominant Ediacaran (595-580 Ma) plutons have a spread of compositions from biotite granites with SiO2 as low as ∼65% (e.g., Itapeti, Mauá, Sabaúna and Lagoinha granites) to fractionated muscovite granites (Mogi das Cruzes, Santa Branca and Guacuri granites; up to ∼75% SiO2). εNdT are characteristically negative (-12 to -18), with corresponding Nd TDM indicating sources with Paleoproterozoic mean crustal ages (2.0-2.5 Ga). The Guacuri and Santa Branca muscovite granites have the more negative εNdt, highest 87Sr/86Srt (0.714-0.717) and lowest 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb, consistent with an old metasedimentary source with low time-integrated Rb/Sr. However, a positive Nd-Sr isotope correlation is suggested by data from the other granites, and would be consistent with mixing between an older source predominant in the Mauá granite and a younger, high Rb/Sr source that is more abundant in the Lagoinha granite sample. The

  6. 40Ar/39Ar ages (600-570 Ma of the Serra do Azeite transtensional shear zone: evidence for syncontractional extension in the Cajati area, southern Ribeira belt

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    Rômulo Machado


    Full Text Available This paper presents 40Ar/39Ar ages of the rocks from the Serra do Azeite transtensional shear zone in the southern part of the Ribeira belt, between the States of São Paulo and Paraná, and also discusses the regional correlations and the tectonic implications for other parts of the belt. The geochronological data suggest that transtensional deformation was active between 600 and 580 Ma (hornblende and muscovite apparent ages, respectively. This time span is considerably older than previous proposals for the period of activity of these structures (520-480 Ma in the northern segment of this belt and in the Araçuaí belt. Kinematic analysis of the dated mylonites shows extensional structures with top-down movement to ESE compatible with structures found in other tectonic segments in the eastern portion of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero and in the Rio Doce Valley region. Our ages are situated in the same time interval defined for the alkaline magmatism of the Serra do Mar suite. We suggest that the regional tectonic framework was developed during continental-scale extension. This process has been coeval with convergent strain in the adjacent Neoproterozoic shear zones of the Apiaí/Ribeira and Araçuaí belts, which make up significant segments of these belts. The available data show that these structures may not be simply related to post-orogenic gravitational collapse, but must involve a more complex process probably related to dynamic balance between crustal thickening and thinning during tectonic convergence, basin formation and exhumation processes.Este trabalho apresenta idades 40Ar/39Ar de rochas da Zona de Cisalhamento Transtrativa Sinistral da Serra do Azeite, situada na parte sul do cinturão Ribeira, entre os Estados de São Paulo e Paraná, bem como discute a correlação regional e as implicações tectônicas com outras partes do cinturão. Os dados geocronológicos sugerem que a deformação extensional foi ativa entre 600 e 580 Ma

  7. The Ilha Anchieta Quartz Monzonite: the southernmost expression of ca. 500 Ma post-collisional magmatism in the Ribeira Belt

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    José M. Azevedo Sobrinho


    Full Text Available The Ilha Anchieta Quartz Monzonite (IAQM occupies most of the homonymous island in the coast of the state of São Paulo, and is intrusive into foliated rocks of the ~565 Ma Ubatuba Charnockite. The main petrographic variety is a porphyritic biotite-hornblende quartz monzonite with 2-4 cm tabular microcline megacrysts set in a medium-grained groundmass and magmatic foliation. Outcrop-scale structures indicate cumulative processes (modal and grain-size magmatic banding and interaction with basic magmas (mafic microgranular enclaves. Lithogeochemical data indicates that the main variety is intermediate to acid (S1O2 = 63-67%, alkali-calcic, metaluminous and magnesian (mg# ~30, showing moderate Sr (300-400 ppm and Ba (~1500 ppm contents and relatively high HFSE (Nb = 40 ppm; Zr = 550-700 ppm. The older charnockites are more silicic (S1O2 = 71-78%, ferroan(mg# = 12-16, and have very low Sr (13-80 ppm contents, resulting in Ba/Sr ratios remarkably higher than the IAQM (10 versus 4. LA-MC-ICPMS U-Pb zircon dating of the IAQM yielded 499.7 ± 5.9 Ma. This is the youngest magmatic age identified so far in the crystalline basement of the state of São Paulo, and indicates that the pluton is the southernmost expression of the post-collisional "G5" magmatism in the Ribeira Belt.O Quartzo Monzonito Ilha Anchieta (QMIA ocupa a maior parte da ilha homônima na região costeira do Estado de São Paulo, e é intrusivo em rochas foliadas do Charnockito Ubatuba (~565 Ma. A principal variedade petrográfica é um biotitahornblenda quartzo monzonito porfirítico com foliação magmática e megacristais tabulares de microclínio com 2-4 cm em matriz de granulação média. Estruturas em afloramento indicam processos cumuláticos (bandamento modal e granulométrico e interação com magmas básicos (enclaves microgranulares máficos. Dados geoquímicos indicam que a variedade principal é intermediária a ácida (SiO2 = 63-67%, tem caráter

  8. Geophysical perspective on the structural interference zone along the Neoproterozoic Brasília and Ribeira fold belts in West Gondwana

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    João Gabriel Motta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Brasília and Ribeira fold belts have been established in south-southwestern São Francisco Craton during the Brasiliano-Pan African orogeny (0.9-0.5 Ga - Tonian to Cambrian, and played an important role in West Gondwana continent assembly. The region is given by a complex regional fold and thrust belt superposed by shearing during the orogeny late times, with superposing stress fields forming a structural interference zone. These thrust sheets encompasses assemblies from lower- to upper-crust from different major tectonic blocks (Paranapanema, São Francisco, and newly created metamorphic rocks. Re-evaluation of ground gravity datasets in a geologically constrained approach including seismology (CRUST1 model and magnetic data (EMAG2 model unveiled details on the deep- crust settings, and the overall geometry of the structural interference zone. The Simple Bouguer Anomaly map shows heterogeneous density distribution in the area, highlighting the presence of high-density, high metamorphic grade rocks along the Alterosa suture zone in the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe, lying amid a series of metasedimentary thrust scales in a regional nappe system with important verticalization along regional shear zones. Forward gravity modeling favors interpretations of structural interference up North into Guaxupé Nappe. Comparison to geotectonic models shows similarities with modern accretionary belts, renewing the discussion.

  9. Unraveling the tectonic evolution of a Neoproterozoic-Cambrian active margin in the Ribeira Orogen (Se Brazil): U-Pb and Lu-Hf provenance data

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    Fernandes, Gabriel Lamounier de F. [Servico Geologico do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (DRM-RJ), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Schmitt, Renata; Bongiolo, Everton M.; Mendes, Julio [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Basei, Miguel S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)


    Full text: The Neoproterozoic-Ordovician Central Ribeira Orogen, in SE Brazil, presents two contrasting tectonic domains in its southern portion: (a) The Arc Domain constituted of Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic magmatic rocks and low P-high T metamorphic para (Sao Fidelis Group) - and ortho- derived units (in Oriental Terrane); and (b) The Basement Domain, constituted of a Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic medium P-high T metamorphic para (Palmital-Buzios Succession)- and ortho-derived units (in Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain). Our work focuses on paraderived rocks sequences from both domains. The provenance analysis using U-Pb and Lu-Hf in zircon grains is presented here as an effective tool to unravel the paleogeography and nature of the pre-collisional sedimentary basins. We performed 505 analyses (U-Pb) on detrital zircon grains and some metamorphic overgrowths from six paragneiss samples. Besides, 141 analyses (Lu-Hf) in six samples only on the detrital zircon grains domains. All samples present a main peak from Neoproterozoic sources (750-570 Ma) and the other minor peak in the Stenian/Tonian periods (1200-850Ma), this indicate an orogenic contribution for this basin. Scarce register from the Mesoproterozoic and two peaks in the Archean/Paleoproterozoic (2.6 and 1.9 Ga) are recognized as a contribution from an ancient continent. The Lu-Hf data reveals a juvenile source for the detrital zircon grains from Buzios Succession while Palmital and Sao Fidelis Group units show a main crustal signature for their detrital zircon population. Based on the U-Pb and Lu-Hf data presented here, plus petrological data, geological correlations, and compilation of data from literature, we propose a tectonic model for the origin of para-derived rocks from the eastern part of the Ribeira Orogen. Starting with an extensional environment of ca. 600 Ma in a back-arc basin (Buzios succession deposition) and continuing as an active margin between 570 and 550 Ma in the fore-arc and prism

  10. Sr and Nd isotopic signature of the high-K calc-alkaline magmatism of the central Ribeira belt: the Sao Pedro Granite in Lumiar, RJ; Assinatura isotopica de Sr e Nd do magmatismo calcio-alcalino de alto-K na Faixa Ribeira central: o exemplo do Granito Sao Pedro em Lumiar, RJ

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    Mendes, Julio Cezar; Medeiros, Silvia Regina de; Chaves, Eduardo Amorim, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (RJ) (Brazil)


    In the central-northern Ribeira belt there are many granitic to granodioritic bodies showing varied shape and size, characterizing a late- to post-collisional Ca-alkaline, cordilleran I-type province. The Sao Pedro Granite occurs in the mountain region of Rio de Janeiro State as small post-collisional bodies. It presents isotropic fabric, equigranular to seriate inequigranular texture, as well as local concentration of allanite, which gives discrete composition and texture variation to the rock. The granite has a high-K calcalkaline to alkali-calcic character and weakly peraluminous nature. Despite its short geochemical variation, high Ba, Zr and Th contents besides low concentrations of MgO and CaO are noticeable. High REE contents are associated with fractionated REE patterns showing strong negative Eu anomalies. A crustal origin for the granite can be assumed by its very negative and positive .Nd and .Sr values, respectively, as well as by 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios ranging from 0,718 to 0,740. TDM ages point to paleoproterozoic source, which agrees with geological time of intensive crust generation. (author)

  11. Geologic evolution of the Paraiba do Sul complex, in the central part of the Ribeira belt, based on the geochemistry and U-Pb geochronology studies; Evolucao geologica do complexo Paraiba do Sul, no segmento central da faixa Ribeira, com base em estudos de geoquimica e geocronologia U-Pb

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    Valladares, Claudia Sayao


    Aiming the definition of the Complexo Paraiba do Sul evolution, the work presents a geochronological approach by the U-Pb method, considered appropriate to study polideformed terrains. The minerals used to the U-Pb dating (zircon, titanite and monazite) provides information about the ages of rock generation and the successive geological events the rocks were submitted. The U-Pb geochronological approach is pioneer in the investigated area and two questions referent to the Complexo Paraiba do Sul evolution in the central part of the Ribeira belt, were the aim of this approach. The first of them refers to the crystallization epoch and the gneisses metamorphism, interpreted here like orthogneisses, called Unidade Quirino of the Complexo Paraiba do Sul. The second refers to the metamorphism ages and meta sedimentary unit deformation. Looking for the contribution to the Complexo Paraiba do Sul evolution understanding, this work presents the data based on the geologic map of this area, comprising part of the Folha Volta Redonda (1:50.000), including petrographic, structural and microtectonic studies. It also presents and discusses the results of: 17 U-Pb analysis in zircon and titanite of the Complexo Paraiba do Sul orthogneisses collection; 24 geochemical analysis of major, minor, trace elements and ETR of the same collection; an U-Pb analysis in titanite of the Unidade Sao Joao, 5 U-Pb analysis in titanites and/or monazites of granites and granitoids; 12 geochemical analysis including major, minor and trace elements and ETR, in granites and sills of leucogranites. Finally, the data achieved were integrated with the objective to elaborate an evolutive view of the Complexo Paraiba do Sul 157 refs., 54 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. Evidence of mingling between contrasting magmas in a deep plutonic environment: the example of Várzea Alegre, in the Ribeira Mobile Belt, Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Full Text Available At the end of the geotectonic cycle that shaped the northern segment of the Ribeira Mobile Belt (Upper Proterozoic to Paleozoic age, a late to post-collisional set of plutonic complexes, consisting of a wide range of lithotypes, intruded all metamorphic units. The Várzea Alegre Intrusive Complex is a post-collisional complex. The younger intrusion consists of an inversely zoned multistage structure envolved by a large early emplaced ring of megaporphyritic charnoenderbitic rocks. The combination of field, petrographic and geochemical data reveals the presence of at least two different series of igneous rocks. The first originated from the partial melting of the mantle. This was previously enriched in incompatible elements, low and intermediate REE and some HFS-elements. A second enrichment in LREE and incompatible elements in this series was due to the mingling with a crustal granitic magma. This mingling process changed the composition of the original tholeiitic magma towards a medium-K calc-alkalic magma to produce a suite of basic to intermediate rock types. The granitic magma from the second high-K, calc-alkalic suite originated from the partial melting of the continental crust, but with strong influence of mantle-derived melts.No final do ciclo tectônico que originou o segmento norte do Cinturão Móvel Ribeira (de idade Proterozóica Superior a Paleozóica, uma série de complexos plutônicos tardi- a pós-colisionais, consistindo de larga gama de litotipos, intrudiu todas as unidades metamórficas. O Complexo Intrusivo de Várzea Alegre é um desses complexos pós-colisionais. A intrusão mais jovem consiste de uma estrutura de multiplos estágios, envolvida por um largo anel de rochas charnoenderbíiticas megaporfirícas de posicionmento anterior. A combinação de dados de campo, petrográficos e geoquímicos revela a presença de pelo menos duas séries distintas de rochas ígneas. A primeira foi originada por fusão parcial do manto

  13. Monazite ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology in the LAGIR laboratory, Rio de Janeiro State University: protocols and first applications to the assembly of Gondwana supercontinent in SE-Brazil

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    Aguair Neto, Carla Cristiane; Valeriano, Claudio M.; Heilbron, Monica; Lobato, Marcela, E-mail: [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Geologia. Lab. de Geocronologia e Isotopos Radiogenicos; Passarelli, Claudia R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias


    The chemical and spectrometric procedures of the U-Pb geochronology method on monazites, recently installed in the LAGIR laboratory, are described in detail. In addition, preliminary results on monazite samples from the Brasilia and Ribeira belts are reported and discussed in the context of the regional geology. Several experiments for calibration of ion exchange chromatographic columns with the AG-1x8 resin, were performed with HCl, using dissolved natural monazite samples. The Pb blanks of reagents are ∼ 0.5 pg/g in acids and ∼1 pg/g in H{sub 2}O. The total Pb blanks in chemical procedures were below 22 pg. Preliminary results are presented from three case studies related to Brasiliano orogenic belts of SE-Brazil, which correlate very well with previous age determinations from literature: two sub-concordant grains from an Araxa Group quartzite (southern Brasilia belt) define a concordia age of 602.6 ±1.4 Ma; a -0.8% discordant grain from a quartzite of the Sao Fidelis Group (Costeiro Domain, central Ribeira belt) yielded a concordia age of 535.3 ± 2.4 Ma; two 0.4 % and 1.3 % discordant monazite grains from the post-collisional Itaoca Granite (Costeiro Domain, central Ribeira belt) define a concordia age of 476.4 ± 1.8 Ma. (author)

  14. Origin of high photoluminescence efficiencies in CdSe quantum belts. (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Wayman, Virginia L; Gibbons, Patrick C; Loomis, Richard A; Buhro, William E


    CdSe quantum belts (QBs) having lengths of 0.5-1.5 microm and thicknesses of 1.5-2.0 nm exhibit high photoluminescence (PL) efficiencies of approximately 30%. Epifluorescence studies establish the PL spectra to be uniform along single QBs, and nearly the same from QB to QB. Photogenerated excitons are shown to be effectively delocalized over the entire QBs by position-selective excitation. Decoration of the QBs with gold nanoparticles indicates a low density of surface-trap sites, located primarily on the thin belt edges. The high PL efficiencies and effective exciton delocalization are attributed to the minimization of defective {1100} edge surface area or edge-top/bottom (face) line junctions in QBs relative to quantum wires having roughly isotropic cross sections, for which very low PL quantum efficiencies have been reported. The results suggest that trap sites can be minimized in pseudo-one-dimensional nanocrystals, such that the facile transport of energy and charge along their long axes becomes possible.

  15. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Ribeira do Iguape river, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

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    Castro, Francisco J.V. de; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail:, E-mail: [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELTA - Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail:, E-mail: [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELAI - Setor de Quimica Inorganica


    The watershed region of the Ribeira do Iguape River and the estuarine complex of the Paranagua-Iguape- Cananeia and the various river basins located between this region and the Atlantic Ocean, is known as the Ribeira Valley. The Ribeira do Iguape River runs a total length of approximately 470 km, being the main source of fresh water in the Estuarine Complex of the Iguape-Cananeia-Paranagua (Lagamar). The Ribeira do Iguape River is the last major river in the State of Sao Paulo that has not been altered by dams. During virtually the entire 20th century, the region of the Ribeira Valley was the scene of constant environmental degradation resulting from the intense exploration and refining of lead, zinc and silver ores that were processed in the mines of the region, in a rudimentary way and without any control over environmental impacts. Since 1996, all such activities ceased, however, leaving behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities. This study aims to investigate the presence and concentration levels of metals and semi-metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the sediment and water of aquatic systems of Ribeira do Iguape River and its tributaries, for an environmental assessment and monitoring of the region. The determination of these elements was carried out by GF AAS technique for water samples and ICP OES for the sediment samples. This study also assessed the occurrence of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb and Yb) by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Validation of both methodologies, according to precision and accuracy, was done by reference material analyses. The results obtained for As, Cd and Pb were compared to the Canadian Environmental oriented values (TEL and PEL). The results obtained for multielemental analyses in the sediment samples were compared to UCC values (Upper Continental Crust). (author)

  16. O consumo de vitamina A em Ribeira, São Paulo (Brasil The consumption of vitamin A in Ribeira, S. Paulo (Brazil

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    Avany Maria Xavier Bon


    Full Text Available Foi evidenciado o problema da baixa adequação de vitamina A, em localidade considerada grande produtora de alimento rico nesse nutriente, a cidade de Ribeira (S. Paulo, Brasil , produtora de mamão (Carica Papaya L.. A análise dos dados evidencia que esse alimento, que poderia contribuir para cobrir as necessidades recomendadas de vitamina A, foi consumido em quantidades ínfimas. Atribuiu-se esse fato, à falta de conhecimento por parte da população local, do valor nutritivo dos alimentos ricos em vitamina A. Recomenda-se o desenvolvimento de campanhas de educação alimentar.It was focused the problem of low adequacy of vitamin A, in an area considered as a great producer of foodstuff rich in this nutrient, the city of Ribeira, S. Paulo (Brazil, that is a large scale producer of Papaya (Carica papaya L. The analysis of the data, pointed out that this foodstuff that would amply cover the recommended necessities of Vitamin A, was consumed in insignificant quantities. This fact was attributed to a lack of knowledge of the local population on the nutritive value of foodstuff rich in vitamin A. Consequently it was recommended, the development of food education programs, in the mentioned town.

  17. Caracterização da piscicultura na região do Vale do Ribeira - SP Characterization of fish farming in the Ribeira Valley region - SP

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    Daniela Castellani


    Full Text Available Este trabalho buscou caracterizar a piscicultura na Região do Vale do Ribeira quanto aos sistemas de manejo. Estudaram-se quarenta e duas pisciculturas sendo que, destas, 36 praticam o sistema semi-intensivo e seis o sistema intensivo, com os seguintes objetivos: engorda de peixes, produção de alevinos e pesque-pagues. Foram listadas 41 espécies de peixes cultivadas. Apenas 6 espécies são nativas da Bacia do Rio Ribeira de Iguape: lambari (Astyanax sp Linneaus, 1758, traíra (Hoplias malabaricus Bloch, 1794, robalo (Centropomus ssp Cuvier e Valenciennes, 1928, jundiá (Rhamdia quelen Quoy e Gaimard, 1824, cascudo (Hypostomus sp Marschall, 1873 e cará (Geophagus brasiliensis Quoy e Gaimard, 1824. Em 95% das pisciculturas foram verificadas fugas de peixes exóticos e alóctones dos cultivos. A tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus Linneaus, 1758 foi a espécie mais freqüente em escapes, e também é a segunda mais cultivada pelos piscicultores, perdendo somente para o pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus Halmberg, 1887. Foi possível verificar mediante o cálculo da conversão alimentar, que há um desperdício anual de cerca de 32% da ração utilizada nos cultivos pesquisados. A piscicultura encontra-se em plena expansão nesta região, e já representa a atividade agropecuária mais importante após a bananicultura.The aim of this work was to characterize the fish farming in the Ribeira de Iguape Basin, southern São Paulo State (Brazil, in relation to the management systems. Forty two farms were studied. A semi-intensive system is used by 36 farmers, while an intensive system is used only by 6 studied farmers. Their objectives were raising fish, juvenile fish production and sportive fishery. Forty one fish species were found to be cultivated, but only six were native species from Ribeira Valley: lambari (Astyanax sp Linneaus, 1758, traíra (Hoplias malabaricus Bloch, 1794, robalo (Centropomus ssp Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1928, jundi

  18. Freqüência domiciliar e endofilia de mosquitos Culicidae no Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brasil Developing domiciliarity of Ribeira Valley mosquitoes, S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini


    Full Text Available Apresentam-se os resultados obtidos na coleta dos culicídeos nos ecótopos, domiciliar e peridomiciliar, de duas localidades do Vale do Ribeira, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, onde o ambiente se apresenta acentuadamente alterado pelas atividades agropecuárias. Em se tratando de comunidades tropicamente relacionadas, os índices de diversidade e o quociente de similaridade podem fornecer esclarecimentos sobre a relação entre os recursos alimentares e sua distribuição, considerados como importantes na avaliação de possível endofilia. Os dados obtidos sugerem a possível existência de comportamento endófilo em evolução, por parte de Ae. scapularis, Cx. ribeirensis e Cx. sacchettae. Todavia as evidências indicam a influência exercida pela presença de hospedeiros domésticos de grande porte e do comportamento humano nos ambientes domiciliar e alterado. Conclui-se pela possível existência de variações desse comportamento nas três citadas espécies.Results of mosquito collections in two Ribeira Valley localities are presented. These places represents environments highly modified by agrarian and cattle raising activities. The collections were made by the aspiration method, in the search for resting mosquitoes, in all the domiciliary and peridomiciliary compounds, in the early morning. The use of the diversity index and similarity quotient on communities such as these that are tropically related gives some insight into resources and their distribution. So they are considered of great value for the endophily studies. Data obtained suggest that there is some degree of endophilic evolution in Ae. scapularis, Cx. ribeirensis and Cx. sacchettae. This behavior is subject to the influence of some extrinsic factors such as the density of cattle or other large domestic animals, and human behaviour in the management of the environment.

  19. Trepça Ore Belt and Stan Terg mine – Geological overview and interpretation, Kosovo (SE Europe

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    Sylejman Hyseni


    Full Text Available The Trepça Belt of Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization is located within the NNW-SSE trending Vardar zone. The Beltextends for over 80 km, and supported five mines during the period 1930-2008. It contains a number of the otherPb-Zn occurrences too. The replacement and vein type mineralization is hosted primarily by Mesozoic carbonates,but also occasionally by amphibolites, and displays a clear structural control. Mineralization is spatially and geneticallyrelated to Neogene andesite-dacite extrusives and sub-volcanic intrusives. Only Stan Terg mine is presentedin this paper.

  20. Hipovitaminose A e anemia ferropriva em gestantes de duas comunidades do Vale do Ribeira (Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Vitamin A deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women of two communities of the Ribeira River Valley (State of S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Maria José Roncada


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar deficiências de vitamina A e de ferro em mulheres grávidas, a nível de comunidade, estudou-se 60 gestantes, residentes na zona urbana de Apiaí e Ribeira (Estado de São Paulo, através de inquérito bioquímico, realizando-se dosagens séricas de beta-caroteno, vitamina A, hemoglobina, ferro sérico e capacidade de ligação de ferro, bem como determinação do hematócrito. Os resultados foram comentados e apontaram não haver hipovitaminose A nesta amostra, apesar de haver grande proporção de resultados de caroteno sérico considerados não-normais. Houve maior prevalência de anemia entre gestantes de Ribeira. A comparação dos resultados obtidos entre as gestantes com respectivos grupos-testemunha, apontou freqüência maior de casos considerados não-normais entre as primeiras, em todos os coeficientes levantados.The present study was carried out on sixty pregnant women residing in the urban area of the cities of Apiaí and Ribeira, State of S. Paulo. Samples were taken from each subject in order to study blood levels of beta-carotene, vitamin A, hemoglobin, serum iron and iron binding capacity as well as packed cell volume, with the objective of studying vitamin A and iron deficiency. The results showed that vitamin A deficiency was absent although a large proportion of carotene levels was abnormal. Regarding anemia, prevalence was higher in Ribeira residents. Refering all results to a control group, it was found that frequency was higher in the sample subjects.

  1. Caracterização do impacte das descargas da ETAR de Proença-a-Nova na ribeira da Pracana


    Oliveira, Nuno Pimenta


    Dissertação apresentada à Escola Superior de Tecnologia do Instituto Politécnico de Castelo Branco para cumprimento dos requisitos necessários à obtenção do grau de Mestre em Infra-Estruturas de Construção Civil. A Ribeira da Pracana é um importante afluente do Rio Ocreza. O Rio Ocreza, localizado no centro de Portugal tem origem numa importante serra chamada Serra da Gardunha. Inicia-se a 1160 metros de altitude e estende-se por 80 km até desaguar no Rio Tejo. Contempla várias ...

  2. Evaluation of baseline ground-water conditions in the Mosteiros, Ribeira Paul, and Ribeira Fajã Basins, Republic of Cape Verde, West Africa, 2005-06 (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Earle, John D.; Cederberg, Jay R.; Messer, Mickey M.; Jorgensen, Brent E.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Moura, Miguel A.; Querido, Arrigo; Spencer,; Osorio, Tatiana


    This report documents current (2005-06) baseline ground-water conditions in three basins within the West African Republic of Cape Verde (Mosteiros on Fogo, Ribeira Paul on Santo Antão, and Ribeira Fajã on São Nicolau) based on existing data and additional data collected during this study. Ground-water conditions (indicators) include ground-water levels, ground-water recharge altitude, ground-water discharge amounts, ground-water age (residence time), and ground-water quality. These indicators are needed to evaluate (1) long-term changes in ground-water resources or water quality caused by planned ground-water development associated with agricultural projects in these basins, and (2) the feasibility of artificial recharge as a mitigation strategy to offset the potentially declining water levels associated with increased ground-water development.Ground-water levels in all three basins vary from less than a few meters to more than 170 meters below land surface. Continuous recorder and electric tape measurements at three monitoring wells (one per basin) showed variations between August 2005 and June 2006 of as much as 1.8 meters. Few historical water-level data were available for the Mosteiros or Ribeira Paul Basins. Historical records from Ribeira Fajã indicate very large ground-water declines during the 1980s and early 1990s, associated with dewatering of the Galleria Fajã tunnel. More-recent data indicate that ground-water levels in Ribeira Fajã have reached a new equilibrium, remaining fairly constant since the late 1990s.Because of the scarcity of observation wells within each basin, water-level data were combined with other techniques to evaluate ground-water conditions. These techniques include the quantification of ground-water discharge (well withdrawals, spring discharge, seepage to springs, and gallery drainage), field water-quality measurements, and the use of environmental tracers to evaluate sources of aquifer recharge, flow paths, and ground

  3. Preferências alimentares de mosquitos Culicidae no Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brasil Feeding preferences of Culicidae mosquitoes in the Ribeira Valley, S.Paulo State, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini


    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados obtidos na identificação do sangue ingerido por culicídeos ingurgitados coletados em vários ambientes rurais de cinco localidades do Vale do Ribeira, Estado de São Paulo (Brasil. O maior rendimento, que representou a quase totalidade dos espécimens coletados, foi obtido mediante o emprego da aspiração e das redes manuais. Foi possível identificar a origem de 1.444 repastos sangüíneos. Os Aedes apresentaram predominância de positividade para mamíferos. Ae. scapularis mostrou preferência por hospedeiros de grande porte representados por bovinos e eqüinos. Ae. serratus alimentou-se também em aves. Com exceção da elevada antropofilia de Cx. quinquefasciatus, os demais representantes de Cx. (Culex revelaram-se apreciavelmente ornitófilos. Em conjunto, Cx. (Melanoconion mostrou o mais amplo espectro de hematofagia, que incluiu anfíbio, ave, mamíferos e réptil. Cx. ribeirensis e Cx. sacchettae apresentaram resultados que sugerem alguma preferência por mamíferos. A antropofilia distribuiu-se por várias espécies destacando-se Ae. scapularis, Cx. sacchettae e Cx. ribeirensis que a apresentaram nas coletas efetuadas no intradomicílio. A influência da densidade de hospedeiros no ambiente modificado fez-se sentir em relação à primeira dessas três espécies, para as quais as evidências obtidas sugerem que estejam evoluindo no sentido da domiciliação.Results of blood-meal identification for mosquitoes collected in 5 different Ribeira Valley (S.Paulo State, Brazil environments are presented. Precipitin tests identified the sources of 1444 blood-meals. Aedes mosquitoes fed chiefly on mammals. Ae. scapularis showed a preference for cattle and horses. Ae. serratus also obtained meals from avian hosts. Leaving aside the anthropophilic Cx.quinquefasciatus, the other Culex (Culex mosquitoes showed feeding pattern directed to avian hosts. On the whole Culex (Melanoconion showed a largely eclectic

  4. Le Bassin de Ribeira Seca de Santiago, Cap Vert: une gestion basée sur l´approche GIRE

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    Januário da Rocha Nascimento


    Full Text Available Dans cet article, l´auteur caractérise l´eau et l´agriculture des îles du Cap Vert et analyse les défis del´eau après la construction du barrage de Poilao dans la Vallée de Ribeira Seca, sur l´île de Santiago,en se servant de l´approche GIRE (Gestion Intégrée des Ressources en Eau. Au niveau de la législation,il s´avère nécessaire de proposer de nouvelles lois, décrets et règlements qui soient en accord avecnotre réalité, en opposition à un important lot d´instruments juridiques inapplicables, obsolètes et decompréhension difficile. La construction du barrage de Poilão a produit des impacts environnementaux,socio-économiques et sur l´irrigation. Il s´agit de trouver un modèle de gestion qui s´adapte à la réalitédu Cap Vert et de l´île de Santiago, regroupant tous les partenaires pour une gestion durable de lavallée de Ribeira Seca et qui puisse servir d´exemple aux futurs barrages à construire.In this article, the author characterizes the water and agriculture of the islands of Cape Verde andanalyzes the challenges in the water after the dam construction Poilao in the Valley of Ribeira Seca,on the island of Santiago, using the IWRM (Integrated Water Resources Management approach. Interms of legislation, it is necessary to propose new laws, decrees and regulations that are consistentwith our reality, as opposed to a large batch of inapplicable legal instruments obsolete and difficult tounderstand. The construction of the dam has produced Poilão environmental, socio-economic impactsand irrigation. It is to find a model that fits the reality of Cape Verde and Santiago Island, involvingall partners for the sustainable management of the valley of Ribeira Seca and that can serve as anexample to future to build dams.

  5. Technology management for the installation of a food irradiator in the Ribeira Valley; Gestao tecnologica para instalacao de um irradiador de alimentos no Vale do Ribeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghobril, Carlos Nabil


    This thesis presents a research focused on technology management applied to technical and economic viability study for the installation of a multi propose irradiator in Vale do Ribeira. First, the work presents the regional characteristics that shows Vale do Ribeira as the less economically developed region of Sao Paulo state. On the other side, it shows the emergence of irradiation techniques applied to the food industry, with accepted and recommended results by international authorities. Technology management, from the conceptual basis here presented, links regional environment reality to available technical knowledge, in search of regional development. The methodology was composed by the use of bibliographical, qualitative and quantitative research, and the analysis was supported by the use of statistical techniques and economic viability analysis. The present research concludes that there is technical and economic viability of the venture here analyzed, although it should be recommended more studies about banana irradiation and about Brazilian consumer acceptance to irradiated food products. (author)

  6. Evolução holocénica do troço terminal do estuário da ribeira do Ludo


    Prudêncio, Margarida


    Dissertação de mest., Biologia e Geologia (Educação), Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Univ. do Algarve, 2011 Foram efectuadas 6 sondagens ao longo da Ribeira do Ludo e realizou-se a análise textural das amostras recolhidas. Nas sondagens L3 e L6 identificaram-se as paleoassociações de foraminíferos bentónicos e foram aplicados parâmetros estatísticos como densidade faunística; abundância, dominância e constância de espécies; razão Aglutinados/Calcários; razão Planctónicos/Bentónicos; d...

  7. Avaliação de cultivares de mandioca de mesa no Vale do Ribeira (SP Evaluation of cassava cultivars in the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    José Osmar Lorenzi


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho é o resultado final de avaliação dos melhores clones de mandioca de mesa, selecionados no Vale do Ribeira (SP, a partir de uma base genética de 306 cultivares procedentes do banco de germoplasma do Instituto Agronômico. Foram desenvolvidos três ensaios de competição, em blocos ao acaso com doze tratamentos (cultivares e quatro repetições, na Estação Experimental de Pariquera-Açu, nos anos agrícolas 1989/90, 1990/91 e 1991/92. Os resultados mais relevantes mostraram que: (a quanto à produção de raízes, os cultivares tiveram comportamento diferenciado em relação aos diferentes anos agrícolas. Apesar dessa interação, o 'IAC 576-70' (34,3 t/ha mostrou-se, em média, mais produtivo que os demais, não diferindo do 'IAC 289-70' e do 'SRT 1140-Vassourinha Amarela'. O cultivar SRT 120-Santa, de origem local e utilizado como testemunha, produziu 17,8 t/ha, em média; (b a análise dos dados para tempo de cozimento não mostrou significância para a interação cultivar x ano. 0 cultivar local foi o que apresentou o menor tempo de cozimento, em média, 26 minutos após colocação em água fervente.The present paper reports a final evaluation of the best cassava clones for table, selected in the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil, from a genetic basis of 306 cultivars of the germoplasm bank of the Agronomic Institute. Three experiments were carried out at the Pariquera-Açu Experimental Station, during the 1989/90, 1990/91 and 1991/92 seasons under a randomized design with 12 treatments (cultivars and four replications. The most relevant results, were: (a the cultivars had different root yields in relation to years. However, the cultivar IAC 576-70 was the most productive, with a yield of 34.3 t/ha in average, meanwhile the cultivar used as test plant showed an average yield of 17.8 t/ha; (b the results of the cooking tests were not significant for the relationship cultivar x year interaction. The local

  8. Phenology and morphological diversity of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas landraces of the Vale do Ribeira Fenologia e diversidade morfológica de etnovariedades de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas do Vale do Ribeira

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    Elizabeth Ann Veasey


    Full Text Available The phenotypic diversity of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas landraces was assessed using morphological traits, verifying how this diversity is distributed among the households and settlements of the Vale do Ribeira, Brazil. A total of 74 accessions, involving 53 landraces, collected from 30 households distributed among 18 settlements that practice traditional agriculture in the municipalities of Iguape, Ilha Comprida, and Cananeia, as well as four commercial varieties acquired in markets of Iguape and Piracicaba, were evaluated under an ex situ experimental condition in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Nine phenological and floral descriptors, nine morphological vegetative aerial descriptors and five storage root traits were recorded. The 14 aerial vegetative and root descriptors were evaluated as binary data, totaling 74 attributes. Cluster analyses were made using the Jaccard similarity index and the UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean agglomerative method. Binary data was also submitted to a variance analysis (AMOVA. No defined groups were observed, indicating that the diversity of the landraces is not structured in space, but considerable morphological variation was found in this area (Jaccard similarity index varying from 0.12 to 1.0. Most of the variability occurred within households (64.4%, followed by the distribution among households within settlements (27.1% and among settlements (8.4%. Thus, the traditional agriculturists of Vale do Ribeira maintain a high morphological diversity for sweet potato within their households, which can be assumed to be produced by the outcrossing mating system of this species and somatic mutation events, as well as the exchange system at local and regional levels.Avaliou-se a diversidade fenotípica de etnovariedades de batata-doce através de descritores morfológicos, visando verificar como esta diversidade está distribuída em nível de roças e comunidades do Vale do Ribeira, SP, Brasil

  9. Metal Distribution in Sediments from the Ribeira Bay, Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

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    Cardoso André G. A.


    Full Text Available Investigation of metal distribution in preserved areas is highly relevant due to the present-day lack of reliable databases against which to assess contamination. 23 samples of surface sediments from the Ribeira Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, were analyzed by ICP/AES for Ti, Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Sr, La, V, Y, Ni, Cu, Cr, Mn and Zn. Hg concentrations were determined by CVAAS. With respect to Al, metals were classified as strongly correlated, correlated, inversely correlated and non-correlated. Cluster analysis of the concentration data confirmed this, except for Hg. Cluster analysis of the sampling sites produced three groups, on the basis of grainsize, continental input, and marine input. Climatic and hydrodynamic factors, as well as soil characteristics, are important controls of the metal distribution in this region. The Ribeira Bay has a natural background metal content, when compared with average shales and with other impacted and non-impacted regions.

  10. Segmentación del mercado de un destino turístico de interior. El caso de A Ribeira Sacra (Ourense

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    Roberto Carballo Meiriño


    Full Text Available A Ribeira Sacra es un destino turístico que engloba municipios de las dos provincias interiores de Galicia. En este entorno espacial se desarrolla una investigación para describir el perfil de los visitantes e identificar diferentes segmentos de consumidores basados en sus motivaciones turísticas, describiéndose variables que definan a cada grupo. La heterogeneidad detectada en los motivos que argumentan los visitantes pone de relieve que la oferta turística y las estrategias de comunicación deben orientarse hacia aquellos segmentos de consumidores que más valoren los atractivos que constituyen ventajas diferenciales de la zona: fundamentalmente los aspectos naturales y patrimoniales en el territorio analizado. Las conclusiones pretenden contribuir a mejorar la estrategia de comercialización y promoción de este destino turístico para cada uno de los segmentos detectados.

  11. Observações sobre atividade de mosquitos Culicidae em mata primitiva da encosta no Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brasil Observations on mosquito activity in primitive highland rain forest in the Ribeira Valley, S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini


    Full Text Available Relatam-se observações sobre o ciclo diário de atividade culicídea em ambiente primitivo da floresta perenifólia higrófila da encosta, do Sistema da Serra do Mar, no Vale do Ribeira, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Com periodicidade bimensal, e no período de dois anos, foram levadas a efeito coletas de vinte e cinco horas ininterruptas com o emprego de isca humana, bem como a utilização de armadilhas tipo Shannon operadas dentro e fora do ambiente florestal. Os resultados evidenciaram acentuada dominancia de An. cruzii, que se manteve durante todos os meses do ano mesmo naqueles de menor atividade culicídea. A influência crepuscular evidenciou-se pela nítida ocorrência de picos endocrepusculares para An. cruzii e An. bellator, seguidos imediatamente por outros, de menor intensidade, caracterizando assim ritmo que se propõe chamar de paracrepuscular. Ambas essas espécies de Kerteszia apresentaram atividade contínua para a isca humana, no período das 24 horas. Cx. sacchettae mostrou-se nitidamente noturna e com ritmo eocrepuscular. Ae. serratus e Ps. ferox revelaram-se essencialmente diurnos, com certa tendência ao ritmo paracrepuscular porém, até onde foi possível observar, de maneira incompleta e limitado ao crepúsculo matutino. A atividade ininterrupta, aliada à densidade e dominância de An. cruzii reafirma sua importância epidemiológica e a torna uma das feições que caracteriza o ambiente primitivo supracitado.With fortnightly rhythm, 25-hour catches of Culicidae mosquitoes were carried out, at ground level, with human bait, in a primitive rain forest in a highland relief area of the Ribeira Valley region, S. Paulo, Brazil. Besides this, regular simultaneous catches employing Shannon traps were made within and outside the forest environment. Results obtained are presented and discussed. An. cruzii proved a highly dominant species and An. bellator also showed ininterrupted daily activity, increasing at night. They

  12. Molecular belts. (United States)

    Evans, Paul J; Jasti, Ramesh


    Rigid hydrocarbon macrocycles with radially-oriented π-systems and continuous conjugation have attracted great interest in recent years. These molecular belts have novel optoelectronic properties and host-guest behavior. Certain belts may also ultimately lead to a rational synthesis of carbon nanotubes. The high strain associated with the nonplanar, conjugated backbones requires the development of new synthetic methods, and clever synthetic design. Herein we describe the synthetic history and properties of these structurally simple but synthetically challenging molecules.


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    Emerson Galvani, Nádia Gilma Beserra de Lima


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se neste trabalho a radiação solar incidente em manguezal na Ilha dos Papagaioslocalizada no rio Ribeira de Iguape no litoral sul do estado de São Paulo. Instalou-se uma torremeteorológica com 10m de altura e junto a esta duas estações meteorológicas sendo uma fixadaa acima do dossel de mangue e outra abaixo do dossel. Utilizou-se dados de radiação solarmonitorado em uma plataforma de coleta de dados (PCD pertencente ao INPE/CPTECinstalada a 10 km do local. O período de medidas compreende entre os dias 1 de janeiro a 31 dedezembro de 2008. Os resultados indicam uma transmissividade do dossel (td média anual de27,3%. Os valores de td oscilaram entre um mínimo nos meses de outono/inverno com 16,5% aum valor máximo na primavera/verão de 44,2%. A curva anual da td apresenta curva inversa àcurva de declinação solar. Os modelos de regressão linear apresentaram elevada correlaçãosendo possível estimar os valores de radiação solar, e suas relações abaixo e acima do dossel, nomanguezal a partir daqueles monitorados em estação meteorológica oficial dispensando emfuturo próximo a manutenção desta estação.

  14. Mid-Late Triassic metamorphic event for Changhai meta-sedimentary rocks from the SE Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt, North China Craton: Evidence from monazite U-Th-Pb and muscovite Ar-Ar dating (United States)

    Liu, Fulai; Wang, Fang; Liou, J. G.; Meng, En; Liu, Jianhui; Yang, Hong; Xiao, Lingling; Cai, Jia; Shi, Jianrong


    The precise constraints on the timing of metamorphism of the Changhai metamorphic complex is of great importance considering the prolonged controversial issue of the north margin and the extension of the Sulu-Dabie HP-UHP Belt. While the monazite U-Th-Pb and muscovite 40Ar/39Ar techniques are widely accepted as two of the most powerful dating tools for revealing the thermal histories of medium-low grade metamorphic rocks and precisely constraining the timing of metamorphism. The Changhai metamorphic complex at the SE Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt, North China Craton consists of a variety of pelitic schist and Grt-Ky-bearing paragneiss, and minor quartzite and marble. Analyses of mineral inclusions and back-scattered electric (BSE) images of monazites, combined with LA-ICP-MS U-Th-Pb ages for monazites and 40Ar/39Ar ages for muscovites, provide evidence of the origin and metamorphic age of the Changhai metamorphic complex. Monazites separates from various Grt-Mus schists and Grt-Ky-St-Mus paragneisses exhibit homogeneous BSE images from cores to rims, and contain inclusion assemblages of Grt + Mus + Qtz ± Ctd ± Ky in schist, and Grt + Ky + St + Mus + Pl + Kfs + Qtz inclusions in paragneiss. These inclusion assemblages are very similar to matrix minerals of host rocks, indicating they are metamorphic rather than inherited or detrital in origin. LA-ICP-MS U-Th-Pb dating reveals that monazites of schist and paragneiss have consistent 206Pb/238U ages ranging from 228.1 ± 3.8 to 218.2 ± 3.7 Ma. In contrast, muscovites from various schists show slightly older 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 236.1 ± 1.5 to 230.2 ± 1.2 Ma. These geochronological and petrological data conclude that the pelitic sediments have experienced a metamorphic event at the Mid-Late Triassic (236.1-218.2 Ma) rather than the Paleoproterozoic (1950-1850 Ma), commonly regarded as the Precambrian basement for the Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt. Hence, the Changhai metamorphic complex should be considered as a discrete

  15. Ribeira do Iguape basin water quality assessment for drinking water supply; Avaliacao da qualidade da agua na bacia hidrografica do Ribeira de Iguape com vistas ao abastecimento publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrim, Marycel Elena Barboza


    Ribeira do Iguape Basin, located in the Southeast region of Sao Paulo state, is the largest remaining area of Mata Atlantica which biodiversity as rich as Amazon forest , where the readiness of water versus demand is extremely positive. With sparse population density and economy almost dependent on banana agriculture, the region is still well preserved. To water supply SABESP (Sao Paulo State Basic Sanitation Company). Ribeira do Iguape Businesses Unit - RR, uses different types of water supplies. In the present work, in order to ascertain water quality for human consumption, major and minor elements were evaluated in various types of water supply (surface and groundwater's as well as the drinking water supplied). Forty three producing systems were monitored: 18 points of surface waters and treated distributed water, 10 points of groundwater and 15 points of surface water in preserved areas, analyzing 30 elements. Bottom sediments (fraction < 63 {mu}m) were also evaluated. The sampling period covered dry and wet seasons from March 2002 to February 2003. The descriptive analysis showed that Al, Fe and Mn, exceeding CONAMA 357 quality guideline. A comparison of the elemental concentrations with the Brazilian Drinking Water Legislation (Portaria 518/04) showed that with the exception of some violations, the levels of all the elements investigated were below the Brazilian Legislation maximum allowed concentrations. This study examined the relationship between the type of water supply and the quality of water used, showed different characteristics on Ca, Fe, Mn concentration. In bottom sediments (fraction <63 {mu}m), Al, Fe and Mg largest concentrations were found. Pb and Zn presents concentrations up to 142,0 {mu}g.g{sup -1} and 172 {mu}g.g{sup -1}, respectively. Data revealed that trace elements concentration in the sediment were below PEL (Probable Effect Level - probable level of adverse effect to the biological community), exception for Pb in Sete Barras and

  16. Great Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carsten S.; Kristensen, Per S.; Erichsen, Lars


    This paper describes aspects of the soil investigations and geotechnical evaluations for the foundation design of the 6.6 km long Great Belt West Bridge. The gravity foundations rest predominantly on glacial tills and pre-quaternary limestone. Special investigations for assessment of the soil...

  17. Energy and quality of life: a case study in HPP Tijuco Alto, Ribeira, SP; Energia e qualidade de vida: estudo de caso da Uhe Tijuco Alto no Municipio de Ribeira, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, Andre Luiz da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (BRazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], email:; Seixas, Sonia Regina da Cal [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NEPAM/UNICAMP), SP (BRazil). Nucleo de Estudos e Pesquisas Ambientais], email:


    This paper deals with a critical and reflexive that the issue involving the possibility of construction and operation of Hydroelectric Power (HEP) Tijuco Alto, the upper course of the Ribeira Valley between Sao Paulo and Parana, in the Vale do Ribeira. This project will directly affect the towns of Ribeira-SP, Itapirapua Paulista-SP, Cerro Azul-PR, Dr. Ulysses-PR and Adrianopolis-PR. Thus, we defined the main objective of the research examines the quality of life in the city of Ribeira-SP, at the possibility of deployment of the dam. Thus, field research was conducted in the city and interviews with residents, where it was possible to observe, among other things the precarious economic conditions, social, urban and cultural community. Another aspect noted was the fact that most respondents to position themselves for the construction of the HPP Tijuco Alto, citing primarily the need for local development and increased job opportunities. Those opposing the plant, highlighted environmental issues, mainly, reasons related to loss of peace and security site. Regardless of those who are for or against, a technical opinion issued by IBAMA in 2008 points to the likely deployment of the HPP Tijuco Alto. (author)

  18. Assessing Rainfall Erosivity with Artificial Neural Networks for the Ribeira Valley, Brazil

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    Reginald B. Silva


    Full Text Available Soil loss is one of the main causes of pauperization and alteration of agricultural soil properties. Various empirical models (e.g., USLE are used to predict soil losses from climate variables which in general have to be derived from spatial interpolation of point measurements. Alternatively, Artificial Neural Networks may be used as a powerful option to obtain site-specific climate data from independent factors. This study aimed to develop an artificial neural network to estimate rainfall erosivity in the Ribeira Valley and Coastal region of the State of São Paulo. In the development of the Artificial Neural Networks the input variables were latitude, longitude, and annual rainfall and a mathematical equation of the activation function for use in the study area as the output variable. It was found among other things that the Artificial Neural Networks can be used in the interpolation of rainfall erosivity values for the Ribeira Valley and Coastal region of the State of São Paulo to a satisfactory degree of precision in the estimation of erosion. The equation performance has been demonstrated by comparison with the mathematical equation of the activation function adjusted to the specific conditions of the study area.

  19. Etnoecologia e etnobotânica da palmeira juçara (Euterpe edulis Martius em comunidades quilombolas do Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo Ethnoecology and ethnobotany of the juçara palm (Euterpe edulis Martius in "quilombola" communities of the Ribeira River Valley, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Moreira Barroso


    Full Text Available As comunidades quilombolas são consideradas comunidades negras rurais formadas por descendentes de africanos escravizados. No Vale do Ribeira, uma das regiões mais pobres do estado de São Paulo, estas comunidades vivem da agricultura de subsistência e principalmente da coleta do palmito juçara para complemento da renda familiar. A palmeira juçara possui importante papel ecológico e econômico para a Floresta Atlântica e para as comunidades rurais locais. O objetivo geral deste trabalho foi investigar aspectos etnoecológicos e etnobotânicos da palmeira juçara (Euterpe edulis Martius em comunidades quilombolas do Vale do Ribeira, SP. A investigação se deu em sete comunidades quilombolas através da aplicação de 25 entrevistas semi-estruturadas e da realização de uma oficina de identificação dos animais consumidores de frutos da palmeira. Também foram realizadas coletas e identificação de visitantes florais. Os quilombolas entrevistados demonstraram um detalhado conhecimento ecológico local sobre a palmeira juçara, principalmente a relação da biodiversidade animal associada à espécie. Neste trabalho a etnoecologia e a etnobotânica mostram-se ferramentas importantes no levantamento participativo do conhecimento ecológico local do E. edulis que pode ser considerado no manejo e na conservação da espécie na Floresta Atlântica."Quilombola" communities are distributed all over Brazil. They are composed of the descendents of African slaves. In the Ribeira River Valley, one of the poorest regions in São Paulo state, they practice subsistence agriculture and extract plant resources from the environment, especially the juçara palm (Euterpe edulis Martius, a species that contributes to "quilombola" income. The juçara palm has special ecological and economic importance for "quilombolas". The main aim of this study was to investigate ethnobotanical and ethnoecological aspects of the juçara palm in "quilombola" communities

  20. The Maua granitic massif, Central Ribeira Belt, Sao Paulo, Brazil: petrography, geochemistry and U-Pb dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipov, Marcelo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Minas]. E-mail:; Janasi, Valdecir de Assis [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail:


    The Maua granitic massif is an elongated body dominated by a porphyritic biotite monzogranite which grades, in its southwestern extremity, to lighter equi granular granite and greisenized (tourmaline)-biotite-muscovite leuco granite. Abundant enclaves can be divided in three types: grey micro granular enclaves, with rounded shapes and igneous textures, are compositionally similar to the enclosing porphyritic granites; dark, rounded, micaceous enclaves have high K/Na, and may correspond to highly assimilated meta sedimentary xenoliths; and angulous gneiss xenoliths seem to be fragments of an unexposed type of country rock. The primitive magmas that formed the massif were Zr, P and LREE-saturated, and became progressively enriched in U, Cs, Y, HREE, F and possibly Ta. Geochemical data show that most of the observed compositional variation can be a reflection of crystal fractionation at the level of emplacement. However, other processes such as magma mixing, contamination and post-magmatic alteration seem to respond for local chemical variations. U-Pb monazite dating point to a crystallization age of 588 {+-} 2 Ma which is ca. 20 myr. younger than those of nearby crust-derived syn-orogenic granites. (author)

  1. Laterally bendable belt conveyor (United States)

    Peterson, William J.


    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  2. Metamorphic belts of Anatolia (United States)

    Oberhänsli, Roland; Prouteau, Amaury; Candan, Osman; Bousquet, Romain


    Investigating metamorphic rocks from high-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) belts that formed during the closure of several oceanic branches, building up the present Anatolia continental micro-plate gives insight to the palaeogeography of the Neotethys Ocean in Anatolia. Two coherent HP/LT metamorphic belts, the Tavşanlı Zone (distal Gondwana margin) and the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (proximal Gondwana margin), parallel their non-metamorphosed equivalent (the Tauride Carbonate Platform) from the Aegean coast in NW Anatolia to southern Central Anatolia. P-T conditions and timing of metamorphism in the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (>70?-65 Ma; 0.8-1.2 GPa/330-420°C) contrast those published for the overlying Tavşanlı Zone (88-78 Ma; 2.4 GPa/500 °C). These belts trace the southern Neotethys suture connecting the Vardar suture in the Hellenides to the Inner Tauride suture along the southern border of the Kirşehir Complex in Central Anatolia. Eastwards, these belts are capped by the Oligo-Miocene Sivas Basin. Another HP/LT metamorphic belt, in the Alanya and Bitlis regions, outlines the southern flank of the Tauride Carbonate Platform. In the Alanya Nappes, south of the Taurides, eclogites and blueschists yielded metamorphic ages around 82-80 Ma (zircon U-Pb and phengite Ar-Ar data). The Alanya-Bitlis HP belt testifies an additional suture not comparable to the northerly Tavşanlı and Ören-Afyon belts, thus implying an additional oceanic branch of the Neotethys. The most likely eastern lateral continuation of this HP belt is the Bitlis Massif, in SE Turkey. There, eclogites (1.9-2.4 GPa/480-540°C) occur within calc-arenitic meta-sediments and in gneisses of the metamorphic (Barrovian-type) basement. Zircon U-Pb ages revealed 84.4-82.4 Ma for peak metamorphism. Carpholite-bearing HP/LT metasediments representing the stratigraphic cover of the Bitlis Massif underwent 0.8-1.2 GPa/340-400°C at 79-74 Ma (Ar-Ar on white mica). These conditions compares to the Tav

  3. Seat belt reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Seat belts are an effective way of reducing the number or road deaths and severe road injuries in crashes. Seat belt reminders warn car drivers and passengers if the seat belt is not fastened. This can be done by a visual signal or an acoustic signal or by a combination of the two. Seat belt

  4. A aptidão física e o nível socioeconómico dos jovens com idades dos 15 aos 17 anos no concelho de Ribeira de Pena: flexibilidade


    Ferreira, Jacinto Manuel de Freitas


    Dissertação de Mestrado em Ensino da Educação Física nos Ensinos Básicos e Secundário O Estágio Pedagógico apresentou-se como um momento marcante no desenvolvimento das minhas competências profissionais associadas ao ensino da Educação Física. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste relatório é de relatar, descrever essa experiencia educativa através de uma reflexão crítica e fundamentada. O meu Estagio Pedagógico decorreu no Agrupamento de Escolas de Ribeira de Pena, num Núcleo de ...

  5. Presença ausente e ausência presente do Estado na produção do espaço para o turismo no Vale do Ribeira paulista Présence absente et absence présente de l’État dans la production de l’espace touristique dans la vallée du Ribeira, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Todesco


    Full Text Available A região do Vale do Ribeira, situada no sul do Estado de São Paulo, detém 20% dos remanescentes florestais de Mata Atlântica do Brasil e apresenta os menores índices de desenvolvimento humano do estado de maior densidade técnico-científico-informacional e de capital do país. A atual configuração socioespacial dessa região é produto de um processo histórico marcado pela ação e inação do Estado, o qual desempenha seu papel na produção do espaço de forma diferenciada conforme o movimento da história. Ao analisar as políticas públicas de desenvolvimento regional direcionadas ao Vale, dos anos 60 até o início dos anos 80, nota-se a forma centralizada e ineficiente da ação do Estado, sem o envolvimento da sociedade civil no processo de produção de suas políticas, período que denominamos de “presença ausente do Estado no Vale do Ribeira”. A partir da década de 80, um conjunto de fatores leva a região a se deparar com novos problemas e desafios. A redemocratização política, o avanço do neoliberalismo, a crescente preocupação com as chamadas questões ambientais, o aumento do número de organizações do terceiro setor e a descentralização da produção de políticas públicas desencadeiam uma nova forma de o Estado desempenhar seu papel na produção do espaço. Neste contexto, é nítida a mudança de foco das ações estatais direcionadas ao Vale do Ribeira, influenciada, sobretudo, pelas ONGs ambientalistas, que passam a atuar ativamente na arena política. A partir de então, inicia-se o discurso, pronunciado pelos órgãos públicos e ONGs, de que o ecoturismo é uma alternativa para o Vale, capaz de conciliar conservação ambiental e desenvolvimento social. Entretanto, o Estado passa a delegar às organizações do terceiro setor a incumbência de planejar o desenvolvimento regional do Vale do Ribeira, tornando-se o ente financiador dos projetos. Esta nova face do Estado faz com que o

  6. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria from musts and wines of three consecutive vintages of Ribeira Sacra. (United States)

    Mesas, J M; Rodríguez, M C; Alegre, M T


    This study was designed to isolate and characterize the lactic acid microbiota of the musts and wines of a young denomination of origin area, Ribeira Sacra in north-west Spain. Over three consecutive years (2007, 2008 and 2009), we examined musts and wines from four cellars in different zones of the region. Through biochemical and genetic tests, 459 isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were identified as the following species: Lactobacillus alvei (0·7%), Lactobacillus brevis (1·7%), Lactobacillus frumenti (0·9%), Lactobacillus kunkeei (12%), Lactobacillus plantarum (6·5%), Lactobacillus pentosus (0·9%), Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (3%), Leuconostoc citreum (0·7%), Leuconostoc fructosum (synon. Lactobacillus fructosum) (3·7%), Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides (2·8%), Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (0·2%), Oenococcus oeni (59%), Pediococcus parvulus (7%) and Weisella paramesenteroides (synon. Leuconostoc paramesenteroides) (0·9%). Of these species, O. oeni was the main one responsible for malolactic fermentation (MLF) in all cellars and years with the exception of Lact. plantarum, predominant in 2007, in one cellar, and Lact. brevis, Lact. frumenti and Ped. parvulus coexisting with O. oeni in one cellar in 2009. Different strains (84) of LAB species (14) were identified by biochemical techniques (API strips, the presence of plasmids, enzyme activities and MLF performance) and molecular techniques (PCR). All assays were carried out with every one of the 459 isolates. To select candidates for use as culture starters, we assessed malolactic, β-glucosidase and tannase activities, the presence of genes involved in biogenic amine production and plasmid content. A high diversity of LAB is present in the grape musts of Ribeira Sacra but few species are responsible for MLF; however, different strains of such species are involved in the process. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of Lact. frumenti thriving in wine. Information on LAB

  7. Identification of enteropathogens from buffalo calves with and without diarrhoea in the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Márcio Garcia Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Foram avaliados semanalmente, por um período de seis semanas, os exames parasitológicos de amostras fecais, diarréicas e não-diarréicas, de 106 bezerros búfalos, com 3 a 45 dias de idade, provenientes do Vale do Ribeira-SP. Para os exames bacteriológicos e virológicos, foram colhidas amostras fecais de todos os búfalos diarréicos, e igual amostragem de animais sem diarréia. Amostras de sangue foram colhidas dos búfalos neonatos, entre o terceiro e décimo dias de idade, para determinação dos níveis de imunoglobulina G (IgG. Nos exames parasitológicos, verificou-se a maior ocorrência de Eimeria spp, Strongyloides papillosus e Toxocara vitulorum. Dentre os agentes bacterianos, observou-se maior freqüência da Escherichia coli (E. coli, Enterobacter cloacae e Klebsiella pneumoniae (isolados ou em associação. Detectou-se a enterotoxina STa em 5 das 34 amostras de E. coli isoladas de búfalos com diarréia. A norfloxacina, cloranfenicol e gentamicina foram os antimicrobianos mais efetivos frente aos microrganismos isolados. Nenhuma das amostras apresentou bandeamento característico para rotavírus, a partir da técnica de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida. Não foi constatada nos animais examinados a associação entre a ocorrência de diarréia e baixos níveis de IgG sérica.

  8. Lap belts and three-point belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.


    Results of the swov-accident investigation prove that if there are any differences in the effectiveness of lap belts and three-point belts, these are so small that they cannot form a basis for giving preference to one type over the other. Furthermore, in spite of the results of this investigation

  9. Synaptic ribbon. Conveyor belt or safety belt? (United States)

    Parsons, T D; Sterling, P


    The synaptic ribbon in neurons that release transmitter via graded potentials has been considered as a conveyor belt that actively moves vesicles toward their release sites. But evidence has accumulated to the contrary, and it now seems plausible that the ribbon serves instead as a safety belt to tether vesicles stably in mutual contact and thus facilitate multivesicular release by compound exocytosis.

  10. Ecologia Política da comida e nutrição em duas comunidades quilombolas do Vale do Ribeira (Estado de São Paulo, Brasil)


    Vânia Luísa Spressola Prado


    Quilombolas são descendentes de escravos africanos. Os quilombolas do Ribeira estão estabelecidos em áreas remotas ao longo da Bacia do Rio Ribeira de Iguape (sul do Brasil), cobertas pela vegetação da Mata Atlântica, um dos hotspots de biodiversidade do mundo. Desde os primórdios da ocupação (século XVIII), os quilombolas tem sido historicamente dependentes do cultivo de arroz, milho, mandioca e feijão pelo sistema de corte-e-queima. No entanto, desde a década de 1970, seus estilos de vida v...

  11. Food models and productive arrangements in the Vale do Ribeira Paranaense: a study on the principles of food sovereignty

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    Rubia Carla Formighieri Giordani


    Full Text Available The relationship between food production and the social organization of geographic space are fundamental for the understanding of feeding practices in rural areas. This article presents a case study on the food sovereignty between family farmers of the Vale do Ribeira in the State of Parana. The study showed that the organizational aspects and economic rural property interfere in the definition of the models of food intake. The changes in agricultural production, the reduction of area planted and the little variety were responsible for the decline in consumption of vegetables, milk and meat. It was even noted some alimentary monotony on foods with emphasis on fruits, vegetables, roots, and cereals.

  12. Belt Aligning Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko Vadim


    parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  13. Belt Aligning Revisited (United States)

    Yurchenko, Vadim


    The misalignment causes the greatest damage to the conveyor belt. As a result of the interaction of the moving belt with the stationary parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  14. Belt drive construction improvement

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    I.Yu. Khomenko


    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  15. Resultados do inquérito alimentar realizado nas cidades de Apiaí, Ribeira e Barra do Chapéu (São Paulo, Brasil The results of the nutrition survey carried out in the towns of Apiaí, Ribeira and Barra do Chapéu (S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryland Miguel


    Full Text Available Foram apresentados os resultados do inquérito alimentar realizado na região do Vale do Ribeira, nas cidades de Apiaí, Ribeira e Barra do Chapéu (São Paulo, Brasil, em amostra constituída por 154 famílias, totalizando 939 indivíduos. O método utilizado para o levantamento foi o de pesagem "um dia sete dias". A análise dos dados evidenciou que em Apiaí as adequações médias de proteína, ferro e niacina foram as únicas que ultrapassaram os 100% dos valores recomendados, enquanto que, na cidade de Barra do Chapéu este fato ocorreu em relação à ferro, niacina e vitamina B1. Com referência à cidade de Ribeira, apenas niacina atingiu uma adequação de 100%, sendo que os demais nutrientes apresentaram resultados inferiores.There were presented the results of the nutrition survey carried out in the Region of Vale do Ribeira covering the towns of Apiaí, Ribeira and the Village of Barra do Chapéu (Apiaí (S. Paulo, Brazil. The sample was made up of 154 families, corresponding to 939 persons. Data was gathered through the "one day-seven days" method. Analysing the data it was noticed that the recommended values where reached in Apiaí only for protein, niacin and iron, in Barra do Chapéu, for iron, niacin, and thiamin and in Ribeira, only for niacin.

  16. Preferências alimentares e domiciliação de mosquitos Culicidae no Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brasil, com especial referência a Aedes scapularis e a Culex (Melanoconion Feeding preferences and domiciliation of Culicidae mosquitoes in the Ribeira Valley, S. Paulo State, Brazil, with particular reference to Aedes scapularis and Culex (Melanoconion

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini


    Full Text Available Apresentam-se novos dados sobre a identificação do sangue ingerido por culicídeos ingurgitados e coletados em quatro localidades do Vale do Ribeira, Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, no período de fevereiro a novembro de 1986, e que já tinham sido sede de observações anteriores. São fornecidos dados sobre a distribuição de algumas espécies relacionadas ao tipo de ambiente. Focalizam-se Ae. scapularis e representantes de Culex (Melanoconion, principalmente Cx. ribeirensis e Cx. sacchettae. Foi possível a identificação de 651 repastos sangüíneos. Confirmou-se a preferência de Ae. scapularis por mamíferos de grande porte representados por bovinos, eqüinos e o próprio homem, tendo reagido a todos os anti-soros testados, com exceção do correspondente a animais de sangue frio representados por anfíbio. Cx. ribeirensis revelou resultados que sugerem possível preferência por mamíferos. As duas espécies supracitadas mostram tendência nítida para adaptação ao ambiente modificado pelo homem e capacidade de evolução de seus hábitos de possível domiciliação. Quanto aos outros culicídeos, as coletas de An. bellator, An. cruzii e Cq. chrysonotum limitaram-se à isca humana que a segunda dessas espécies rendeu 31,6% do total de fêmeas capturadas.New results on blood-meal identification and the environmental distribution of mosquitoes collected in four different Ribeira Valley (S. Paulo State, Brazil environments, during the period February to November 1986, are presented. Sources of 651 blood-meals were identified. The preference of Ae. scapularis for large mammals, chiefly cattle, horse and even man, was confirmed. Data suggests that a similar behavioral pattern is presented by Cx. ribeirensis. Both mosquitoes seem to be strongly attracted by peridomiciliar blood sources represented by domestic animals sheltered in that environment. Nevertheless, the female of Ae. scapularis females may use the extradomiciliary environment

  17. Avaliação agronômica de genótipos de bananeiras em condições subtropicais, Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo - Brasil

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    Edson Shigueaki Nomura


    Full Text Available Existe grande número de cultivares de bananeira no Brasil, porém quando se consideram aspectos como preferência dos consumidores, produtividade, tolerância às pragas e doenças, porte adequado e resistência à seca e ao frio, restam poucas com potencial agronômico para serem usadas comercialmente. Objetivando avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo de genótipos de bananeiras nas condições edafoclimáticas do Vale do Ribeira (Brasil, foram testados os seguintes materiais, separados em dois grupos genômicos: AAAA (Bucaneiro, FHIA 02 e FHIA 17; e AAAB, sendo este subdividido de acordo com a genitora utilizada no melhoramento: Prata (BRS Garantida, FHIA 18, BRS FHIA Maravilha, BRS Platina e PA94-01; Pacovan (BRS Japira, BRS Pacovan Ken, PV79-34, PV94-01 e BRS Vitória; e Yangambi n.2 (BRS Tropical, BRS Princesa e YB42-03. As cultivares Grande Naine (AAA, Pacovan (AAB, Prata-anã (AAB e Yangambi ou Caipira (AAA apresentam desenvolvimento e produção semelhantes aos genótipos avaliados, portanto foram utilizadas como padrão comparativo. Durante dois ciclos, foram avaliadas as seguintes características de desenvolvimento: altura, diâmetro do pseudocaule, número de folhas ativas (florescimento e colheita, intervalo entre plantio e florescimento, e entre plantio e colheita (dias. Calcularam-se os intervalos de confiança (média ± erro-padrão nos diferentes grupos e tipos de banana. Diante dos resultados obtidos conclui-se que os genótipos do grupo AAAB e genitora 'Pacovan' não são adequados para o cultivo na região devido ao porte alto das plantas, e os genótipos de bananeiras que possuem potencial de cultivo na região do Vale do Ribeira são: grupo AAAA (FHIA 02 e FHIA 17; grupo AAAB: genitora 'Prata' (FHIA 18, BRS Garantida e PA94-01 e genitora 'Yangambi n.2' (BRS Tropical, BRS Princesa e Yangambi.

  18. Accumulation and biomass partition and nutrients per tropical ornamental plants grown in Ribeira Valley region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro José Grava de Godoy


    Full Text Available For many ornamental plants there are no fertilization tables in Brazil and growers use, inappropriately, the same fertilizing for different species of ornamental plants. A first step is to know the nutrient uptake by these plants. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration and to characterize the accumulation of nutrients of the main tropical ornamental plants grown in the Ribeira Valley region, São Paulo state, Brazil: Clusia fluminensis, Dracaena marginata, Dypsis lutescens, Gardenia jasminoides, Ixora coccinea, Ligustrum sinense, Murraya paniculata, Podocarpus macrophyllus, Rhapis excelsa e Viburnum prunifolium. The plants were donated by local farmers and after sorting, these were divided into roots, stems and leaves, and, subsequently, washed, dried and was determined their concentration of nutrients. The experimental design was randomized using four repetitions and the species of ornamental plants were considered as treatments. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and compared by Scott-Knott test (5%. For the macronutrient, the greater accumulation of N was in Podocarpus macrophyllus. The Clusia fluminensis tree had the highest calcium and magnesium accumulations. The largest amounts of P and S were accumulated in Rhapis excelsa and Podocarpus macrophyllus. The greatest accumulation of K was in Rhapis excelsa, Dracaena marginata, Podocarpus macrophyllus, Murraya paniculata and Ixora coccinea. Smaller amounts of macronutrients were accumulated in Dypsis lutescens and Viburnum prunifolium. As for the macronutrients, the largest accumulation of Cu was observed in broad leaf Rhapis excelsa. Clusia fluminensis tree and Dracaena marginata accumulated the largest amounts of Mn. Regarding the Zn, Rhapis excelsa, Dracaena marginata and Ligustrum sinense were plants with higher accumulation. Smaller amounts of B were accumulated in Viburnum prunifolium, Dracaena marginata and Dypsis lutescens. Ligustrum sinense

  19. Detecção de contaminantes em espécie bioindicadora (Corbicula fluminea - Rio Ribeira de Iguape - SP Dectection of contaminants in a bioindicator species (Corbicula fluminea - Ribeira de Iguape River, Sao Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Guimarães


    Full Text Available The study assessed heavy metal concentrations in the tissue samples of Corbiculafluminea, by ICP-OES. In the tissues, average levels of 23.99 µg/g of Cu, 144.21 µg/g of Zn, 0.71 µg/g of Cd, 7.10 µg/g of Cr and 2.41 µg/g of Pb were detected ahowing that this last value is high and above the ANVISA reference (2.00 µg/g for fish and other products. The results suggest that natural processes occuring in the Ribeira de Iguape River are not sufficient for purification so that metals remain in the water and can accumulate in the trophic chain.

  20. {sup 222} Rn exposure assessment in the caves of Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR); Avaliacao da exposicao ao {sup 222} Rn nas cavernas do Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberigi, Simone


    In the present work, radon concentrations in six caves of PETAR - Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (High Ribeira River Touristic State Park) were carried out with Makrofol E solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and used to assess the annual effective dose received by regional tour guides. The park has four visitation centers: Santana, Ouro Grosso, Caboclos e Casa de Pedra and receives nearly 40,000 people annually. The caves evaluated were Couto, Agua Suja, Laje Branca, Morro Preto and Santana, from Santana center and Alambari de Baixo from Ouro Grosso center, for being the most frequently visited caves. The exposure period of the SSNTD was, at least, three months, over a period of 26 months, from October 2003 to November 2005.The {sup 222}Rn concentrations lay in a range from 153 Bq.m{sup -3} to 6607 Bq.m{sup -3} and we observed that, in general, for chilly weather, the radon levels decrease. The annual effective dose, considering the most realistic scenario, with geometric mean concentrations, an equilibrium factor of 0.5 and annual exposure time for each cave, varied from 0.2 mSv.a{sup -1} for the Couto cave, strongly ventilated, to 4.0 mSv.a{sup -1} for the Santana cave, the most frequently visited and no external communication. For the worst scenario, with arithmetic mean concentrations, equilibrium factor 1 and annual exposure time for all caves, the annual effective dose was 16.1 mSv.a{sup -1}. All assessed effective doses received by the tour guides are bellow 20 mSv.a{sup -1} suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP 60, 1990). (author)

  1. Maturation and growth curves of Macrobrachium Carcinus (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae from Ribeira de Iguape River, southern Brazil

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    Wagner C Valenti


    Full Text Available In this paper, female Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 maturation curve, weight/length relationship, length and weight growth curves were studied. Prawns were captured, by traps, in Ribeira de Iguape river (24ºS and 47ºW, southern Brazil. There were used 207 females. It was observed that M. carcinus presents several spawnings during its life cycle and reproductive period goes on, at least till six years old. Weight/length relationship can be represented for the equation W = 8.73 E-3 L3.28. Expressions obtained for length and weight growth curves are Lt = 21 .0 (1-e-0493t and Wt= 190 (1-e-0493t3.28. respectively. A symptotic maximum length and asymptotic maximum weight are nearly attained at six and eight years old, respectively.

  2. Contributions of hydrogeophysics to the hydrogeological conceptual model of the Albufeira-Ribeira de Quarteira coastal aquifer in Algarve, Portugal (United States)

    Francés, Alain P.; Ramalho, Elsa C.; Fernandes, Judite; Groen, Michel; Hugman, Rui; Khalil, Mohamed A.; De Plaen, Joel; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.


    Geoelectrical and electromagnetic (time and frequency domains) hydrogeophysical methods were applied and jointly interpreted together with auxiliary information such as regional piezometric maps, borehole lithological logs and offshore data. The objective was to retrieve the structure and geometry of the Albufeira-Ribeira de Quarteira coastal aquifer system (Algarve, Portugal) and to upgrade the current hydrogeological conceptual model. The results allowed for the detection of the freshwater-saltwater interface along the coastline and identification of the water-bearing layers and aquitards and their hydraulic relationships. An explanation for the location of the inter- and subtidal fresh groundwater discharge is also presented and a new modeling unit is proposed for groundwater flow modeling. Limitations of the used hydrogeophysical methods are indicated and recommendations are made for follow-up studies.

  3. Estudos sorológicos para pesquisa de anticorpos de arbovírus em população humana da região do Vale do Ribeira: III - inquérito em coabitantes com casos de encefalite por Flavivirus Rocio Serological studies for research of arbovirus antibodies in human population of the Ribeira Valley: III - survey among persons cohabiting with encephalitis cases by Flavivirus Rocio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Busch Iversson


    Full Text Available Foi realizado inquérito sorológico para pesquisa de anticorpos de 17 arbovírus existentes no país, em coabitantes com doentes de encefalite por Rocio, residentes em zona urbana da região do Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo (Brasil, onde ocorreu recentemente uma extensa epidemia dessa moléstia. Não se verificou maior prevalência de anticorpos IH para vírus Rocio nessas pessoas quando comparadas com indivíduos que não coabitavam com doentes de encefalite. Foram observados e discutidos alguns aspectos já verificados em outros grupos populacionais estudados anteriormente: maior prevalência de anticorpos IH de arbovírus em homens, particularmente pescadores; aumento dessa prevalência com a idade e presença de pessoa com antecedente de encefalite que apresentou, exclusivamente anticorpos neutralizantes para o Alphavirus EEL, o qual até agora não tem sido responsabilizado por moléstia na região. Encontrou-se baixa proporção de indivíduos com anticorpos para Rocio e Flavivirus em geral, fato este estranhável considerando a recente epidemia.A serological survey for hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies to 17 arbovirus was carried out in households with cases of Rocio encephalitis, in the urban zone of four cities of the Ribeira Valley, Brazil, where an epidemic of Rocio encephalitis occurred recently. Among those households the prevalence of Rocio antibodies was not higher than in households without cases of encephalitis. Some facts, which were reported before, were again observed: a large prevalence of antibodies in men, particulary fishermen, an increase of antibodies with age and the presence of one past case of encephalitis that presented only neutralizing antibodies against EEE. That Alphavirus has never been responsible for human disease in the area. There is also a very small proportion of people with Rocio and Flavivirus antibodies which, in view of the recent epidemic, was surprising.

  4. Kuiper Belt Objects (United States)

    Jewitt, David

    The region of the solar system immediately beyond Neptune's orbit is densely populated with small bodies. This region, known as the Kuiper Belt, consists of objects that may predate Neptune, the orbits of which provide a fossil record of processes operative in the young solar system. The Kuiper Belt contains some of the Solar System's most primitive, least thermally processed matter. It is probably the source of the short-period comets and Centaurs, and may also supply collisionally generated interplanetary dust. I discuss the properties of the Kuiper Belt and provide an overview of the outstanding scientific issues.

  5. Conveyor belt service machine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ... in. and thicker that could reduce the time, cost and injury potential inherent in extending and retracting mine wide section belt conveyors while eliminating the need to use additional machinery in accomplishing such moves...

  6. Chemical characterization of bottom sediments from Ribeira de Iguape river, Parana and Sao Paulo states, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Francisco J.V.; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo(ELTA/CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN-CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. por Ativacao Neutronica


    During several decades the Alto Vale of Ribeira region (SP-PR) suffered under lead mining activities in the region. Although in 1996 all such activities ceased, the mining activities left behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities mainly in the hydrographic basin of Ribeira de Iguape river. In the present study the chemical characterization of bottom sediments was undertaken and the concentration of the major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb, Yb and Sc) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were determined. The validation of the analytical methodology was performed by means of certified reference materials analyses and Z-score criterion was used. Eight points were sampled at the Ribeira de Iguape river and its majorities from Adrianopolis (Pr) (site 01) to Registro (SP) (site 08). Granulometric analyses and textural classification were undertaken in the sediment samples. The results obtained by using INAA were compared to UCC (Upper Continental Crust) reference values. The environmental tools of Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geochemical Index (GI) were used to assess the degree of metal contamination in the sediment samples. Samples from site 5 (Betari river - Iporanga, SP) presented high values for As, Sb and Zn and greater IGeo (3.1 - 5.5) and EF (>7.0) values for these elements classifying this point as highly polluted for these elements as well as a strong anthropogenic contribution. Site 7 (Ribeira river - Eldorado, SP) was considered moderately polluted for As, Br and Sb. The high concentration levels of some metals and metalloids reflect the contribution of mining activities from the past in the region. From the results it can be seen that although mining activities no longer exist since 1996, the deleterious effects in the environment are still present and strong. (author)

  7. Radiation Belt Dynamics (United States)


    Distributions Recent analysis of Van Allen Probes observations has forced a reevaluation of models and our understanding of the inner electron radiation belt ...challenge” studies of four chosen recent events well-observed by the Van Allen Probes satellites, with participation by the radiation belt, recently augmented by observations made by the currently orbiting NASA Van Allen Probes satellites, has revealed unexpected behavior and

  8. Galactic Radiation Belts. (United States)


    was formulated by Ortwein et al. 13for analysis of the Jovian radio emission. These authors de- rived their results for an arbitrary dipole-axis...galactic radio sources with the Jovian radiation-belt source, 17suggests a=. intriguing similarity. The related questions of why galactic radiation belts...Space Sciences Laboratory: Atmospheric and ionospheric physics, radiation from the atmosphere, densfty and composition of the upper atmosphere, aurorae

  9. Belt conveyor apparatus (United States)

    Oakley, David J.; Bogart, Rex L.


    A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

  10. Cheias e escassez de água no Alto Alentejo. O exemplo da Bacia Vertente da Ribeira de Tera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Ramos


    Full Text Available FLOODS AND DRYNESS IN ALENTEJO. THE CASE OF THE DRAINAGE BASIN OF RIBEIRA DE TERA (PORTUGAL - The drainage basin of Ribeira de Tera belongs to the Hydrographic Basin of the River Tagus, and it is located in one of the driest areas of Portugal: Alentejo.The geological formations of the drainage basin have a very reduced permeability, resulting in drastically worsening of the consequences of low and irregular rainfall. The drainage basin is much affected by the dryness, since the rainfall is absent during more than 3/4 of the days of the year and, for more than half of the years (58%, the precipitation does not even reach 700 mm/year. Every stream of the drainage basin is therefore temporary, including its main channel, which stays dry an average of 133 days/year.The early 70's mark a change in the stream's behaviour. The fluvial discharges have been decreasing, and the drought continues throughout the Autumn. The number of flood days is decreasing distinctly, but the flood's magnitude has increased, due to the decrease of floods with low peak flows. These changes in the fluvial regime are directly connected with the precipitation decrease trend and with the construction of dozens of small-sized dams in an attempt to retain the water for irrigation and for the cattle. These small-sized dams are empty by the end of the Summer and they retain the water from the small Autumn floods.The carbonated metamorphic formations occupy 4% of the area of the drainage basin. They constitute its aquifer reservoir. These rocks, together with the volcanic metamorphic ones, supply 65% of the springs of the drainage basin. This aquifer is exposed to great anthropic pressure, not only because it supplies several human activities which develop around the most important population nucleus of the drainage basin (City of Estremoz, but also because it supports one of the rare industries in the region: the marble extraction.From the environemental point of view, the

  11. The geomechanical characterization of the rocky mass foundation of the Tijuco Alto hydroelectric power plant, Ribeira River, Sao Paulo/Parana States, Brazil; Caracterizacao geomecanica do Macico de Fundacao da UHE Tijuco Alto (Rio Ribeira - SP/PR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Amarilis Lucia Casteli de


    This work has as its main objective the geomechanical characterization on the future rocky mass foundation of the Tijuco Alto dam, sited at the Ribeira river, in the cities of Ribeirao, Sao Paulo state and Adrianopolis, Parana state, Brazil, owned by the Companhia Brasileira de Aluminio (Brazilian company of Aluminium). To reach that target, field studies were made to qualify the geotechnical parameters of the rocky mass, in the axis area open galleries. It was also used in situ deformability and stress test results performed in those galleries, that were reinterpreted for a better adaptation of the mass values. The knowledge of the mass inherent characteristics together with the laboratories test results, allowed for the geomechanical classification applications in several different gallery sectors. The geomechanical data obtained allowed through mathematical expressions, to reach the rocky mass values correlations of interest to the work (deformability and strength), that could be compared to the in situ test results. That analysis permitted, besides the classification critical system evaluation, the geomechanical characterization of the rocky mass, focusing its ability to the dam arch construction. (author)


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    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivou-se avaliar o desenvolvimento e a produção de bananeira da cultivar Grande Naine submetidos a diferentes sistemas de manejo para a convivência com a Sigatoka-negra no Vale do Ribeira-SP (Brasil. Utilizou-se de mudas de ‘Grande Naine’ micropropagadas e conduzidas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (sistemas de manejo: plantio intercalado; fungicida; desfolha+plantio intercalado; desfolha+fungicida; testemunha e subdividida no tempo (dois ciclos de produção, com oito repetições, considerando uma planta por repetição. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: altura da planta, diâmetro do pseudocaule, número de folhas ativas no florescimento e na colheita, massa fresca dos frutos comercializáveis, produtividade, número de pencas, número total de frutos, massa fresca total e por frutos da 2ª penca, comprimento e diâmetro de frutos da 2ª penca. Os dados foram submetidos a análises de variâncias, pelo teste F; e as médias, quando significativas, foram submetidas ao teste de Tukey (5 % de probabilidade. Conclui-se que as aplicações de fungicidas foram eficientes para o controle da Sigatoka-negra, com melhores resultados no desenvolvimento, na produção e na qualidade dos frutos da cultivar Grande Naine, porém sem apresentar diferenças quando associados com a desfolha. O plantio intercalado afetou negativamente em todos os parâmetro de desenvolvimento e produção da cultivar Grande Naine.

  13. Isolation of Leptospira santarosai, serovar guaricura from buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis in Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcellos Silvio A.


    Full Text Available In April 1998 urine samples from adult female buffaloes were collected in a farm located in Registro, Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo State, Brazil. The urine samples obtained after furosemide injection were immediately transported to the laboratory in liquid modified EMJH medium and seeded, by the serial dilution technique, into Fletcher's or modified EMJH-0.2% agar, both of them with 5-fluorouracil 100mg/mL. The intraperitoneoum inoculation of 0.5 mL was also performed with each urine sample in young, adult hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. All samples seeded directly in culture medium were contaminated. The hamsters did not show any sign of disease and were killed at the 21st post inoculation day. At this time kidney cultures of these animals were performed and from one of them, one leptospira strain (M04-98 was isolated, identified as belonging to serogroup Sejroe by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT with a panel of 36 rabbit sera against serovars representative for the pathogenic serogroups. Subsequently, MAT was carried out with antisera against the 19 reference strains of serogroup Sejroe, revealing a close relationship with serovar guaricura. Afterwards the MAT was done with a panel of 18 monoclonal antibodies representative for serovars of serogroup Sejroe. The histogram closely resembled that of serovar guaricura. So Cross Agglutination Absorption Test (CAAT was carried out with the buffalo isolate and serovar guaricura, supporting the relationship between the buffalo isolate and serovar guaricura.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    negative anomalies of Nb and Ti relative to adjacent elements in multi-element spidergrams. ... that Fe-rich tholeiites associated with rare ..... metabasalts from the Southern Musoma –Mara greenstone belt … 78. *Zimbabwe. *Canada. Simba Sirori Mg-rich metabasalts. Komatiite. Kom. Basalt. Komatiite Kom Basalt. Pb. 7. 5.

  15. The empty primordial asteroid belt. (United States)

    Raymond, Sean N; Izidoro, Andre


    The asteroid belt contains less than a thousandth of Earth's mass and is radially segregated, with S-types dominating the inner belt and C-types the outer belt. It is generally assumed that the belt formed with far more mass and was later strongly depleted. We show that the present-day asteroid belt is consistent with having formed empty, without any planetesimals between Mars and Jupiter's present-day orbits. This is consistent with models in which drifting dust is concentrated into an isolated annulus of terrestrial planetesimals. Gravitational scattering during terrestrial planet formation causes radial spreading, transporting planetesimals from inside 1 to 1.5 astronomical units out to the belt. Several times the total current mass in S-types is implanted, with a preference for the inner main belt. C-types are implanted from the outside, as the giant planets' gas accretion destabilizes nearby planetesimals and injects a fraction into the asteroid belt, preferentially in the outer main belt. These implantation mechanisms are simple by-products of terrestrial and giant planet formation. The asteroid belt may thus represent a repository for planetary leftovers that accreted across the solar system but not in the belt itself.

  16. Estudos sorológicos para pesquisa de anticorpos de arbovírus em população humana da região do Vale do Ribeira: IV - inquérito em escolares residentes no município de Iguape, SP (Brasil A serological study for research into arbovirus antibodies in the human population in the Ribeira Valley: IV - survey among school-children in Iguape County (S. Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Busch Iversson


    Full Text Available Relatam-se os resultados de inquérito sorológico para pesquisa de anticorpos de 17 arbovírus em 337 escolares de 6 a 14 anos de idade, residentes em quatro áreas, com diferentes características ecológicas, situadas no município de Iguape, Vale do Ribeira, do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil: 1 - zona urbana da cidade de Iguape; 2 - Rocio, bairro periférico com características rurais; 3 - zona de cultura extensiva de banana, na planície litorânea; 4 - zona de mata primitiva na região pré-serrana. Observou-se, em 8,31% dos investigados, a presença de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinação de arbovírus dos grupos antigênicos A, B, C, Bunyamwera, Simbu e Anopheles A. Evidenciou-se diferença significante na proporção dos soros positivos entre escolares residentes nas zonas de bananal e de mata (19,05% e 16,67% e moradores na zona urbana e no bairro do Rocio (1,89% e 3,81%. Crianças sempre residentes na zona urbana de Iguape, sem hábito de freqüência a ambiente silvestre, apresentaram anticorpos neutralizantes para os vírus Caraparu e Rocio, sugerindo transmissão urbana desses agentes. Não há indícios sorológicos de infecções recentes causadas pelo flavivírus Rocio.A serological survey for research on antibodies of 17 arbovirus was carried out among 337 school-children from 6 to 14 years old, living in four ecologically different areas of Iguape County, Ribeira Valley, S. Paulo State, Brazil: 1 - urban zone of Iguape; 2 - Rocio, a peripheric city district of rural characteristics; 3 - zone of extensive banana plantation on the coastal plain; 4 - forested area close to the northern mountain range. It was observed that 8.31% of the children presented HI antibodies to arbovirus of groups A, B, C, Bunyamwera, Simbu or Anopheles A. There was a significant difference between the proportion of positive sera in banana plantation and forest dwellers (19.05% and 16.67% and those from the central urban zone and Rocio district (1

  17. Deconstructing the conveyor belt. (United States)

    Lozier, M Susan


    For the past several decades, oceanographers have embraced the dominant paradigm that the ocean's meridional overturning circulation operates like a conveyor belt, transporting cold waters equatorward at depth and warm waters poleward at the surface. Within this paradigm, the conveyor, driven by changes in deepwater production at high latitudes, moves deep waters and their attendant properties continuously along western boundary currents and returns surface waters unimpeded to deepwater formation sites. A number of studies conducted over the past few years have challenged this paradigm by revealing the vital role of the ocean's eddy and wind fields in establishing the structure and variability of the ocean's overturning. Here, we review those studies and discuss how they have collectively changed our view of the simple conveyor-belt model.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    nearly flat (La/SmCN = 0.71 – 1.08) and light REE enriched (La/SmCN = 2.89). They also show negative anomalies of ..... Jahrb. B72: 109-229. Borg G and Krogh T 1999 Isotopic age data of single zircons from the Archaean. Sukumalnd Greenstone belt, Tanzania. J. Afr. Earth Sci. 29: 301-312. Borg G and Shackleton RM ...

  19. Lamellar assembly of cadmium selenide nanoclusters into quantum belts. (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Wang, Fudong; Wang, Yuanyuan; Gibbons, Patrick C; Buhro, William E


    Here, we elucidate a double-lamellar-template pathway for the formation of CdSe quantum belts. The lamellar templates form initially by dissolution of the CdX(2) precursors in the n-octylamine solvent. Exposure of the precursor templates to selenourea at room temperature ultimately affords (CdSe)(13) nanoclusters entrained within the double-lamellar templates. Upon heating, the nanoclusters are transformed to CdSe quantum belts having widths, lengths, and thicknesses that are predetermined by the dimensions within the templates. This template synthesis is responsible for the excellent optical properties exhibited by the quantum belts. We propose that the templated-growth pathway is responsible for the formation of the various flat, colloidal nanocrystals recently discovered, including nanoribbons, nanoplatelets, nanosheets, and nanodisks.

  20. Phytoplankton density and trophic state of Canha and Pariquera-Açu rivers, Ribeira de Iguape hydrographic basin, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Calijuri


    Full Text Available Regarding the lack of studies about lotic eutrophication, mainly for tropical rivers, this research aimed to assess the density of phytoplanktonic community of two tropical rivers located in Ribeira do Iguape Watershed (São Paulo state, Brazil, Canha and Pariquera-Açu Rivers, based on sampling campaigns in January and April, 2007. These results were compared to the mTSI (mean Trophic State Index values. This index was originally developed for lentic aquatic systems and its calculus depends on total phosphorous, orthophosphate and chlorophyll-a concentrations in water samples. Comparing mTSI values in all sampling stations with the phytoplankton quantitative results, it was possible to verify that mTSI may overestimate the trophic state of lotic ecosystems, since the phosphorus species that integrate its calculus contributed to an improper augmentation on mTSI, which were incompatible with the real associated biological response. Thus, for April sampling, although mTSI values were higher, in general, phytoplankton density were lower (minimum of 83 indmL-1 for Canha River and of 66 indmL-1 for Pariquera-Açu River. In this case, the high total phosphorous concentrations by themselves were not enough to promote proportional phytoplanktonic growth, which was probably limited by other factors, like water temperature, suspended solids concentration, river discharge and zooplanktonic predation. In January, on the other hand, mTSI values were lower, but total phytoplankton density was higher. For this sampling, the lower orthophosphate concentrations in water pointed phytoplankton assimilation of this nutrient.

  1. Soil and water conservation strategies and impact on sustainable livelihood in Cape Verde - Case study of Ribeira Seca watershed (United States)

    Baptista, I.; Ferreira, A. D.; Tavares, J.; Querido, A. L. E.; Reis, A. E. A.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C.; Varela, A.


    Cape Verde, located off the coast of Senegal in western Africa, is a volcanic archipelago where a combination of human, climatic, geomorphologic and pedologic factors has led to extensive degradation of the soils. Like other Sahelian countries, Cape Verde has suffered the effects of desertification through the years, threatening the livelihood of the islands population and its fragile environment. In fact, the steep slopes in the ore agricultural islands, together with semi-arid and arid environments, characterized by an irregular and poorly distributed rainy season, with high intensity rainfall events, make dryland production a challenge. To survive in these fragile conditions, the stabilization of the farming systems and the maintenance of sustainable yields have become absolute priorities, making the islands an erosion control laboratory. Soil and water conservation strategies have been a centerpiece of the government's agricultural policies for the last half century. Aiming to maintain the soil in place and the water inside the soil, the successive governments of Cape Verde have implemented a number of soil and water conservation techniques, the most common ones being terraces, half moons, live barriers, contour rock walls, contour furrows and microcatchments, check dams and reforestation with drought resistant species. The soil and water conservation techniques implemented have contributed to the improvement of the economical and environmental conditions of the treated landscape, making crop production possible, consequently, improving the livelihood of the people living on the islands. In this paper, we survey the existing soil and water conservation techniques, analyze their impact on the livelihood condition of the population through a thorough literature review and field monitoring using a semi-quantitative methodology and evaluate their effectiveness and impact on crop yield in the Ribeira Seca watershed. A brief discussion is given on the cost and

  2. Mudanças em indicadores de saúde infantil em um município com agentes comunitários: o caso de Itapirapuã Paulista, Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraci A. Cesar

    Full Text Available Doze agentes comunitários de saúde (ACS foram treinados para diagnosticar e iniciar tratamento de diarréia e infeção respiratória no domicílio, monitorar crescimento, incentivar imunização básica e orientar a introdução de alimentos à dieta entre menores de cinco anos no Município de Itapirapuã Paulista, Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brasil. Esses cuidados eram oferecidos através de visitas domiciliares a todas crianças nessa faixa etária, residentes na área de abrangência do ACS. Ao longo de três anos, foram visitadas semanalmente, em média, 409 (396-417 crianças. Nesse período, a taxa de hospitalização entre menores de cinco anos foi drasticamente reduzida, e a utilização de soro reidratante oral e a cobertura vacinal básica sensivelmente aumentadas. A prevalência de déficit altura/idade e incidência de baixo peso ao nascer praticamente não se modificaram. Os indicadores de saúde infantil nesse município, foram sistematicamente melhores que os indicadores de um município tomado como controle. É bastante provável que os ACS tenham contribuído para essas melhorias. No entanto, há que considerar o fato de os indicadores de saúde infantil estarem melhorando no Brasil, e que este é um programa de pequena escala implementado em um área com elevados índices de morbimortalidade infantil e baixa oferta de cuidados em saúde.

  3. Mudanças em indicadores de saúde infantil em um município com agentes comunitários: o caso de Itapirapuã Paulista, Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Juraci A.


    Full Text Available Doze agentes comunitários de saúde (ACS foram treinados para diagnosticar e iniciar tratamento de diarréia e infeção respiratória no domicílio, monitorar crescimento, incentivar imunização básica e orientar a introdução de alimentos à dieta entre menores de cinco anos no Município de Itapirapuã Paulista, Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brasil. Esses cuidados eram oferecidos através de visitas domiciliares a todas crianças nessa faixa etária, residentes na área de abrangência do ACS. Ao longo de três anos, foram visitadas semanalmente, em média, 409 (396-417 crianças. Nesse período, a taxa de hospitalização entre menores de cinco anos foi drasticamente reduzida, e a utilização de soro reidratante oral e a cobertura vacinal básica sensivelmente aumentadas. A prevalência de déficit altura/idade e incidência de baixo peso ao nascer praticamente não se modificaram. Os indicadores de saúde infantil nesse município, foram sistematicamente melhores que os indicadores de um município tomado como controle. É bastante provável que os ACS tenham contribuído para essas melhorias. No entanto, há que considerar o fato de os indicadores de saúde infantil estarem melhorando no Brasil, e que este é um programa de pequena escala implementado em um área com elevados índices de morbimortalidade infantil e baixa oferta de cuidados em saúde.

  4. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N


    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  5. Caves of Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR), SP, Brazil: a study of indoor radon levels and impact of seasonal temperature and humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberigi, Simone; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Radon is always present in the open atmosphere, but is found in higher concentrations in the confined atmospheres of underground workplaces like natural caves, where tour guide workers are exposed to this radionuclide. Radon concentrations in 11 galleries of the most visited caves of PETAR, Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (High Ribeira River Turistic State Park), were determined in order to evaluate the radon exposure to the tourist guides, as prolonged exposure to high levels increases the risk of developing lung cancer and leukaemia and may also have others harmful effects. Radon survey from October 2003 to November 2005, carried out with Makrofol E tracks detectors, showed radon average levels varying from 153 +- 44 Bq.m{sup -3} to 6358 +- 1619 Bq.m{sup -3}. Beside the caves ventilation, in order to establish a relationship between radon levels and temperature and humidity, the results were evaluated together with temperature and humidity data covering the 25 months study, showing that radon concentrations inside the caves are strongly related with seasonal temperature variations but humidity. (author)

  6. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall not be applied while belts are in...

  7. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe


    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  8. Mudanças em indicadores de saúde infantil em um município com agentes comunitários: o caso de Itapirapuã Paulista, Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brasil Changes in child health indicators in a municipality with community health workers: the case of Itapirapuã Paulista, Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraci A. Cesar


    Full Text Available Doze agentes comunitários de saúde (ACS foram treinados para diagnosticar e iniciar tratamento de diarréia e infeção respiratória no domicílio, monitorar crescimento, incentivar imunização básica e orientar a introdução de alimentos à dieta entre menores de cinco anos no Município de Itapirapuã Paulista, Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brasil. Esses cuidados eram oferecidos através de visitas domiciliares a todas crianças nessa faixa etária, residentes na área de abrangência do ACS. Ao longo de três anos, foram visitadas semanalmente, em média, 409 (396-417 crianças. Nesse período, a taxa de hospitalização entre menores de cinco anos foi drasticamente reduzida, e a utilização de soro reidratante oral e a cobertura vacinal básica sensivelmente aumentadas. A prevalência de déficit altura/idade e incidência de baixo peso ao nascer praticamente não se modificaram. Os indicadores de saúde infantil nesse município, foram sistematicamente melhores que os indicadores de um município tomado como controle. É bastante provável que os ACS tenham contribuído para essas melhorias. No entanto, há que considerar o fato de os indicadores de saúde infantil estarem melhorando no Brasil, e que este é um programa de pequena escala implementado em um área com elevados índices de morbimortalidade infantil e baixa oferta de cuidados em saúde.Twelve community health workers (CHWs were trained to offer basic health care for children under five years of age through household visits in Itapirapuã Paulista, a municipality in Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo State, Brazil. Their tasks included diagnosis, initial treatment, and management of diarrhea and acute respiratory diseases at the household level, growth monitoring, incentives to complete basic immunization, and counseling on infant food supplementation. An average of 409 (396-417 children were visited weekly by CHWs in their homes over the course of three years. In this period



    Krawiec, Piotr; Marlewski, Adam


    During design of the envelope of a noncircular belt pulley one should take into account several conditions resulting from kinematics and geometry of the uneven-running strand transmission. Design of proper values of pitches for a belt pulley, which enable good cooperation between the belt pulley and the belt, should be carefully done. In available Polish literature and catalogues offered by belt manufacturers, one can find only detailed dimensions of belts with a trapezoidal profile. Informat...

  10. Geography of the asteroid belt (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.


    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  11. Structural appraisal of the Gadag schist belt from gravity investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    : the high density Gadag schist belt is characterized by a gravity high and occurs in two discontinuous segments — the main N-S trending segment, and its thinner NW-SE trending extension, the two separated by a NE-SW trending deep ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Débora Assis Moura


    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objetivo verificar el comportamiento de las prostitutas en relación a la prevención de enfermedades de transmisión sexual y del Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida-SIDA, así como investigar cómo se previenen de esas enfermedades. Se trata de una investigación exploratoria, con enfoque cualitativo, llevada a cabo en la Asociación de las Prostitutas en Ceará, Brazil, en septiembre de 2008, a través de una encuesta con 25 prostitutas. El análisis de los datos se hizo según el análisis de contenido, después de ser agrupados en cuatro categorías: conocimiento sobre las enfermedades de transmisión sexual/SIDA; convivencia con la(s enfermedad(es; prevención de la enfermedad de transmisión sexual/SIDA; y el uso de drogas. Se concluyó que las prostitutas no usan preservativos en todas las relaciones sexuales, por lo tanto, las enfermedades de transmisión sexual representan una realidad; la desinformación sobre la(s enfermedad(es es notable; el consumo de drogas lícitas e ilícitas es frecuente entre ellas, factor que las expone a situaciones más vulnerables con relación al VIH/SIDA.

  13. Evaluation of the static belt fit provided by belt-positioning booster seats. (United States)

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Sherwood, Christopher P; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A


    Belt-positioning booster seats are recommended for children who use vehicle seat belts as primary restraints but who are too small to obtain good belt fit. Previous research has shown that belt-positioning boosters reduce injury risk, but the belt fit produced by the wide range of boosters in the US market has not previously been assessed. The present study describes the development of a method for quantifying static belt fit with a Hybrid-III 6-year-old test dummy. The measurement method was applied in a laboratory seat mockup to 31 boosters (10 in both backless and highback modes) across a range of belt geometries obtained from in-vehicle measurements. Belt fit varied widely across boosters. Backless boosters generally produced better lap belt fit than highback boosters, largely because adding the back component moved the dummy forward with respect to the lap belt routing guides. However, highback boosters produced more consistent shoulder belt fit because of the presence of belt routing guides near the shoulder. Some boosters performed well on both lap belt and shoulder belt fit. Lap belt fit in dedicated boosters was generally better than in combination restraints that also can be used with an integrated harness. Results demonstrate that certain booster design features produce better belt fit across a wide range of belt geometries. Lap belt guides that hold the belt down, rather than up, and shoulder belt guides integrated into the booster backrest provided better belt fit.

  14. Evaluación de los cambios en la línea de la costa en la hoz del río Ribeira de Iguape/desembocadura lagunar de la Barra do Icapara (litoral sur de São Paulo - Brasil usando imágenes Landsat MSS, TM E ETM+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Shinji Kawakubo


    Full Text Available Se utilizaron imágenes multitemporales generadas por los sensores MSS, TM e ETM+ para la evaluación de los cambios morfológicos relacionados con la línea de costa en la desembocadura del río Ribeira de Iguape/desembocadura lagunar de la Barra do Icapara, litoral sur del Estado de São Paulo (Brasil. Se crearon imágenes fracción representando las proporciones del suelo, sombra/agua limpia y vegetación para cada conjunto de datos por medio de un modelo linear de mezcla espectral (MLME relacionándolas con las formas erosivas y de deposición. Las imágenes fracción fueron clasificadas usando una técnica de segmentación por crecimiento de regiones y clasificación supervisada por regiones. La comparación de las clasificaciones (1976, 1980, 1993 y 2000 posibilitó evaluar la dinámica de los procesos que actúan en esa región. Los resultados mostraron que los procesos erosivos y de deposición son extremamente dinámicos y las entidades geomórficas son susceptibles a los cambios en un cuarto intervalo de tiempo.

  15. Population variation of HLA genes in rural communities in Brazil, the Quilombos from the Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo - Brazil. (United States)

    Nunes, Kelly; Piovezan, Bruno; Torres, Margareth A; Pontes, Gerlândia N; Kimura, Lilian; Carnavalli, Juliana E P; Mingroni Netto, Regina Célia; Moraes, Maria Elisa; Meyer, Diogo


    In the present study, we characterized the allelic and haplotypic profile of the genes HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 (PCR-SBT) in a population sample of 144 highly admixed individuals, coming from rural communities in Brazil (Quilombos from Vale do Ribeira, in the State of São Paulo). Furthermore, we identified three individuals with a new null allele in the HLA-C gene (HLA-C(∗)02:105N), associated with the haplotype HLA-A(∗)80: 01∼B(∗)18: 01:01G∼DRB1(∗) 07:01. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chaos on the conveyor belt


    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán


    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by spring to an external static point, and due to the dragging effect of the belt the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can only be achieved by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a functio...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marinović


    Full Text Available Belt conveyor transport, although one of the most economical mining transport system, introduce many problems to mantain the continuity of the operation. Every stop causes economical loses. Optimal operation require correct tension of the belt, correct belt position and velocity and faultless rolls, which are together input conditions for automation. Detection and position selection of the faults are essential for safety to eliminate fire hazard and for efficient maintenance. Detection and location of idler roll faults are still open problem and up to now not solved successfully (the paper is published in Croatian.

  18. Eco-epidemiological survey of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Ribeira Valley River, Paraná State, Brazil. (United States)

    de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Luz, Ennio; Telles, Flávio Queiroz; Pandey, Ashok; Biseto, Alceu; Dinaiski, Marlene; Sbalqueiro, Ives; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz


    Leishmaniasis is endemic since last century in Adrianópolis Municipality, Ribeira Valley and is a serious public health. A study carried out during 1993-2003 on epidemiological surveys conducted in rural communities showed 339 new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) detected from four municipalities (Adrianópolis, Cerro Azul, Doutor Ulysses and Rio Branco do Sul). A larger prevalence of cutaneous lesions was observed in rural workers (36%), women with domestic activities (18%), and younger students (31%). Multiple lesions were noticed in 53% of patients, but only one case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis was reported. Twenty stocks were isolated from patients with characteristics lesions and were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis using multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) and Random Amplified DNA (RAPD). In Phlebotominae survey, five species were obtained. Lutzomyia intermedia sl. represented 97.5% in peridomiciliar area and 100% in domicile. A canine serological survey made (Indirect Immunofluorescence Antibody Test, IFAT and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay, ELISA) in six rural county of Adrianópolis Municipality during 1998-1999 showed that 15.1% (24/159) of dogs were sera reactive. No lesions were observed in dogs and no parasite was isolated from lymph node aspirates and biopsies. In wild reservoirs study, only seven animals (Cricetidae, Desmodus sp. and edentates) were captured, but no parasites were found in culture from deep organs. The paper presents results of our 10 years study on cutaneous leishmaniasis survey in the Ribeira River Valley, East Region of Paraná State, Brazil. Environment changes in this region are also discussed.

  19. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All other...

  1. Chaos on the conveyor belt (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán


    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five).

  2. Chaos on the conveyor belt. (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán


    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five).

  3. Pilot tests of a seat belt gearshift delay on the belt use of commercial fleet drivers. (United States)


    the seat belt was buckled. Participants, commercial drivers from the United States and Canada who did not consistently wear their seat belts, could avoid the delay by fastening their seat belts. Unbelted participants experienced a delay of either a c...

  4. Estudo da evolução da ocupação do solo na paisagem de Ribeira de Pena entre 1970 e 2006. Possíveis causas e perspectivas futuras


    Sequeira, Ana Catarina Teixeira Romão


    Mestrado em Arquitectura Paisagista - Instituto Superior de Agronomia This thesis aims to study the landscape changes that occurred between 1970 and 2006 in the municipality of Ribeira de Pena, in northern Portugal. For such, it was resorted the comparison of fixed points in the Land Use Letter, the National Forest Inventory (IFN) of 1970 and the 5th IFN of 2006. Throughout the study period, the various land uses analyzed undergone some changes regarding their location according to hyps...

  5. Structural framework of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt, Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehr, M.; Cosgrove, J.W. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Royal School of Mines


    Data gleaned from the literature on the Zagros have been compiled and used in conjunction with new interpretations to provide a better picture of the structures, sedimentation history and deformation of this hydrocarbon rich Mountain Belt. The belt parallel Mountain Front, the N-S trending Kazerun, lzeh and E-W trending Bala Rud Fault Zones are defined as the master structural elements of the Belt. These fault zones divide the Zagros basin into zones with different stratigraphic successions and different rheological profiles. This resulted in different structural styles developing along the belt during the subsequent collision. The Kazerun and lzeh Fault Zones acted as the depositional system transition zone between the Lurestan and Fars regions in Jurassic-Cretaceous time and partly controlled the distribution of the Kazhdumi Formation (one of the major source rocks). By the end of the Cretaceous the NW-SE trending Mountain Front Fault divided the present Folded Belt of the Zagros into a major foreland basin to the southwest, and a piggyback basin to the northeast. Activity along other major (transfer) fault zones including the lzeh, Kazerun and Bala Rud Fault zones occurred at this time and controlled the sedimentation and subsidence of the Dezful Embayment the main target region for hydrocarbon exploration. These fault zones controlled the thickness of the Asmari Formation (one of the main reservoirs) and also the considerable thickness and facies changes of the Gachsaran Formation (the major seal to the Asmari Formation). The present morphology of the mountain belt is interpreted as being mainly related to the pinning of the Mountain Front Fault to the northwest of the Dezful Embayment and to the north of the Strait of Hormuz. (author)

  6. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... on or after January 1, 1965, and before July 1, 1971, must be equipped with a Type 1 or Type 2 seat...

  7. French experience in seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassarre, S. & Page, Y.


    This paper concerns the French experience in seat belt use. As well as the seat belt regulations, the strategies employed to reinforce the wearing of seat belts by using information and encouragement campaigns and checks by the police and gendarmerie are described here along with their timetables

  8. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  9. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section... belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in the area administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at all...

  10. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch or...

  11. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety belt...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to personnel...

  13. Kuiper belts around nearby stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, R.; Liseau, R.; Brandeker, A.; Olofsson, G.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Risacher, C.; Rodmann, J.; Augereau, J-C.; Bergman, P.; Eiroa, C.; Fridlund, M.; Thebault, P.; White, G. J.


    Context. The existence of dusty debris disks around a large fraction of solar type main-sequence stars, inferred from excess far-IR and submillimetre emission compared to that expected from stellar photospheres, suggests that leftover planetesimal belts analogous to the asteroid-and comet reservoirs

  14. Seat Belts: 1949-1956 (United States)


    The study assesses the impact of the consumer misconceptions, the lack of a seat belt standard, corporate attitudes towards safety, and the role of safety advocates. In addition, the study assesses the validity of the oft-stated hypothesis "safety do...

  15. Soil and Water Conservation Strategies in Cape Verde (Cabo Verde in Portuguese and Their Impacts on Livelihoods: An Overview from the Ribeira Seca Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaurinda Baptista


    Full Text Available Severe land degradation has strongly affected both people’s livelihood and the environment in Cape Verde (Cabo Verde in Portuguese, a natural resource poor country. Despite the enormous investment in soil and water conservation measures (SWC or SLM, which are visible throughout the landscape, and the recognition of their benefits, their biophysical and socioeconomic impacts have been poorly assessed and scientifically documented. This paper contributes to filling this gap, by bringing together insights from literature and policy review, field survey and participatory assessment in the Ribeira Seca Watershed through a concerted approach devised by the DESIRE project (the “Desire approach”. Specifically, we analyze government strategies towards building resilience against the harsh conditions, analyze the state of land degradation and its drivers, survey and map the existing SWC measures, and assess their effectiveness against land degradation, on crop yield and people’s livelihood. We infer that the relative success of Cape Verde in tackling desertification and rural poverty owes to an integrated governance strategy that comprises raising awareness, institutional framework development, financial resource allocation, capacity building, and active participation of rural communities. We recommend that specific, scientific-based monitoring and assessment studies be carried out on the biophysical and socioeconomic impact of SLM and that the “Desire approach” be scaled-up to other watersheds in the country.

  16. Blood feeding patterns of Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera, Psychodidae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area of the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Marassa


    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to identify the blood feeding sources of Nyssomyia intermedia (Ny. intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Ny. neivai, which are Leishmania vectors and the predominant sandfly species in the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods Specimens were captured monthly between February 2001 and December 2003 on a smallholding and a small farm situated in the Serra district in the Iporanga municipality. The blood meals of 988 engorged females were tested using the avidin-biotin immunoenzymatic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Seven blood meal sources were investigated: human, dog, chicken, bovine, pig, horse and rat. Results The results showed that among the females that fed on one or more blood sources, the respective percentages for Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, respectively, were as follows: human (23% and 36.8%, pig (47.4% and 26.4%, chicken (25.7% and 36.8% and dog (3.9% and 0%, and the differences in the blood sources between the two species were statistically significant (p = 0.043. Conclusions Both species had predominant reactivity for one or two blood sources, and few showed reactivity indicating three or four sources. Many different combinations were observed among the females that showed reactivity for more than one source, which indicated their opportunistic habits and eclecticism regarding anthropic environmental conditions.

  17. The house and the garden: socio-economy, demography and agriculture in Quilombola populations of the Ribeira Valley, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Novaes Pedroso Júnior


    Full Text Available This study aims to characterize the socioeconomic and demographic profile of nine Quilombola populations in the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, and to identify the main factors responsible for the recent changes in their subsistence system. Since the first assemblages of runway and abandoned slaves in the 18th. century, the relations established by these populations with nearby towns and regional market have gone through periods of expansion and retraction, adapting and adjusting to new socioeconomic and political changes. In the last five decades, the impact of external factors on the local subsistence patterns appears to have had a significant increase. Our results show that restrictions imposed by environmental laws, conflict over land, the construction of a major road in the region, the growing insertion into a market economy, and the intervention of governmental and non-governmental development agencies are the main factors behind the changes observed in the subsistence system and, consequently, in the socioeconomic organization of these populations.

  18. Phytoplankton density and trophic state of Canha and Pariquera-Açu rivers, Ribeira de Iguape hydrographic basin, SP, Brazil (pt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Gasparini Fernandes Cunha, Patrícia Bortoletto de Falco, Maria do Carmo Calijuri


    Full Text Available Regarding the lack of studies about lotic eutrophication, mainly for tropical rivers, thisresearch aimed to assess the density of phytoplanktonic community of two tropical riverslocated in Ribeira do Iguape Watershed (São Paulo state, Brazil, Canha and Pariquera-AçuRivers, based on sampling campaigns in January and April, 2007. These results werecompared to the mTSI (mean Trophic State Index values. This index was originallydeveloped for lentic aquatic systems and its calculus depends on total phosphorous,orthophosphate and chlorophyll-a concentrations in water samples. Comparing mTSI valuesin all sampling stations with the phytoplankton quantitative results, it was possible to verifythat mTSI may overestimate the trophic state of lotic ecosystems, since the phosphorusspecies that integrate its calculus contributed to an improper augmentation on mTSI, whichwere incompatible with the real associated biological response. Thus, for April sampling,although mTSI values were higher, in general, phytoplankton density were lower (minimumof 83 indmL-1 for Canha River and of 66 indmL-1 for Pariquera-Açu River. In this case, thehigh total phosphorous concentrations by themselves were not enough to promoteproportional phytoplanktonic growth, which was probably limited by other factors, like watertemperature, suspended solids concentration, river discharge and zooplanktonic predation. InJanuary, on the other hand, mTSI values were lower, but total phytoplankton density washigher. For this sampling, the lower orthophosphate concentrations in water pointedphytoplankton assimilation of this nutrient.

  19. The tectonic significance of the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain in the SE Brazilian margin: a Paleoproterozoic through Cretaceous saga of a reworked continental margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Silva Schmitt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain is composed of a Paleoproterozoic basement tectonically interleaved with Neoproterozoic supracrustal rocks (Buzios-Palmital successions. It is in contact with the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Ribeira Orogen along the SE Brazilian coast. The basement was part of at least three continental margins: (a 1.97 Ga; (b 0.59 - 0.53 Ga; (c 0.14 Ga to today. It consists of continental magmatic arc rocks of 1.99 to 1.94 Ga. Zircon cores show a 2.5 - 2.6 Ga inheritance from the ancient margin of the Congo Craton. During the Ediacaran, this domain was thinned and intruded by tholeiitic mafic dykes during the development of an oceanic basin at ca. 0.59 Ma. After the tectonic inversion, these basin deposits reached high P-T metamorphic conditions, by subduction of the oceanic lithosphere, and were later exhumed as nappes over the basement. The Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain collided with the arc domain of the Ribeira Orogen at ca. 0.54 Ga. It is not an exotic block, but the eastern transition between this orogen and the Congo Craton. Almost 400 m.y. later, the South Atlantic rift zone followed roughly this suture, not coincidently. It shows how the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain was reactivated as a continental margin in successive extensional and convergent events through geological time.

  20. Ring current and radiation belts (United States)

    Williams, D. J.


    Studies performed during 1983-1986 on the ring current, the injection boundary model, and the radiation belts are discussed. The results of these studies yielded the first observations on the composition and charge state of the ring current throughout the ring-current energy range, and strong observational support for an injection-boundary model accounting for the origins of radiation-belt particles, the ring current, and substorm particles observed at R less than about 7 earth radii. In addition, the results have demonstrated that the detection of energetic neutral atoms generated by charge-exchange interactions between the ring current and the hydrogen geocorona can provide global images of the earth's ring current and its spatial and temporal evolution.

  1. U-Pb and K-Ar Geochronological Constraints on the Tectonothermal Evolution of the Precambrian Terranes of the SE São Paulo State, Brazil (United States)

    Passarelli, C. R.; Wemmer, K.; Siga, O.; Basei, M. A.


    The Ribeira belt, the major tectonic unit of the Mantiqueira Province, southeastern Brazil, records the interface between the Congo-São Francisco, Kalahari, La Plata cratons and the Paranapanema cratonic block. The belt is made up of many terrains of different nature, and was generated and affected by the tectonomagmatic episodes of the Brasiliano orogenic cycle, the South American equivalent of the Pan- African Orogeny. Aiming at the characterization of the thermal history of Pre-Cambrian terranes of the southeastern of São Paulo state, specific geochronological studies were carried out on mylonitic and granitic rocks. This sector of Ribeira Belt consists of four major tectonic domains limited by significant shear zones, associated with Neoproterozoic events. The Embu Domain, north of the Cubatão Shear Zone (CSZ), is composed of metasedimentary rocks, and peraluminous granites, that yielded U-Pb ages of ca.790 Ma, 620 Ma and 600 Ma. Gneiss-migmatite rocks (640-620 Ma) and intrusive granites (580 Ma) predominate in the Mongaguá Domain, which is limited by Cubatão and Itariri shear zones. The Registro Domain, between Cubatão - Itariri Shear System (CISS) and the Serrinha Shear Zone (SSZ), is formed by metasediments and granitic rocks with migmatitic features represents a Paleoproterozoic terrane (1.9-2.2 Ga) strongly deformed during the Neoproterozoic (750-580 Ma). Rocks of the Iguape Domain, limited to the north by the SSZ, include granites (ca. 600 Ma) and low grade metasediments. The Itariri and Cubatão mylonites occur as high- and low-temperature varieties, formed in amphibolite and greenschist facies conditions, respectively, and the Serrinha mylonites developed under amphibolite facies. U-Pb zircon and monazite geochronological evidence indicates a short time interval at the end of Neoproterozoic for the blocks juxtaposition. From the compilation of geochronological data and apatite fission-track thermochronology, a temperature vs time correlation

  2. Saturation of Van Allen's belts

    CERN Document Server

    Le Bel, E


    The maximum number of electrons that can be trapped in van Allen's belts has been evaluated at CEA-DAM more precisely than that commonly used in the space community. The modelization that we have developed allows to understand the disagreement (factor 50) observed between the measured and predicted electrons flux by US satellites and theory. This saturation level allows sizing-up of the protection on a satellite in case of energetic events. (authors)

  3. Use of seatbelts in cars with automatic belts.


    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N J


    Use of seatbelts in late model cars with automatic or manual belt systems was observed in suburban Washington, DC, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. In cars with automatic two-point belt systems, the use of shoulder belts by drivers was substantially higher than in the same model cars with manual three-point belts. This finding was true in varying degrees whatever the type of automatic belt, including cars with detachable nonmotorized belts, cars with detachable motorized belts, and esp...

  4. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain; Levantamento dos niveis de radioatividade natural em aguas do alto Vale da Ribeira a planicie costeira do litoral sul do estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Sueli Carvalho de


    freshwater/saltwater mixing). Thus, the Ra isotopes provide fundamental information on the interaction of sediments, groundwater and estuarine waters. In this project, the distribution of natural Ra isotopes was studied in ix surface, groundwater and estuarine water samples collected from dry and wet seasons (2009 - 2010) campaigns performed in Ribeira Valley, Southern Sao Paulo State. The inventory allowed the application of Ra isotopes as tracers of fluvial and groundwater discharges to the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex. The exchange of groundwater/surface water in Ribeira do Iguape River basin and related fluxes of several constituents for the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex mass balance is still not very well known. The results obtained in this research work evidenced that there is a prevalence of {sup 228}Ra isotope in all the set of samples analyzed. However, the activity concentrations of Ra isotopes determined from Higher Ribeira Valley through the Southern Coastal Plain of Sao Paulo are representative of natural background levels, showing low or minimal human intervention. In the set of samples collected along Ribeira do Iguape River, Cananeia and Iguape outlets, the higher concentrations of Ra were observed in bottom waters, indicating the diffusion of {sup 228}Ra from sediments recently deposited as a potential source of the increased concentrations of this isotope when compared with others. The activity concentrations of the short-lived Ra isotopes were negligible, lower than the limit of the detection. Fluxes of Ra for Cananeia outlet are strongly influenced by tidal oscillations, which modulate the increase and decrease of Ra concentrations in response of the respective increase and decrease of waters salinity. In Iguape outlet and in hydrochemical stations performed along Ribeira do Iguape River it was observed a linear relationship between the amount of suspended matter and the increase of {sup 228}Ra activity concentration. When we evaluate

  5. Preservação óssea: um estudo tafonômico dos remanescentes ósseos humanos dos sambaquis fluviais do vale do Ribeira de Iguape, SP


    Rafael Bartolomucci


    No Brasil, os sítios arqueológicos conhecidos como \\"Sambaquis\\" estão geograficamente distribuídos ao longo da linha costeira e também perto de alguns rios e regiões lagunares. As análises tafonômicas foram aplicadas aos estudos dos remanescentes ósseos humanos recuperados dos sítios arqueológicos, denominados \\"Sambaquis fluviais\\", Capelinha, Moraes e Pavão XVI todos eles localizados no vale do rio Ribeira de Iguape, no sul do estado de São Paulo, distantes aproximadamente 30 km da linha c...

  6. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.


    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  7. Influence of water fluctuations on the limnological characteristics of two floodplain lagoons (Ribeira do Iguape Valley, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Herlon Furtado Freire


    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: Current study assessed the influence of hydrometric levels on the limnological characteristics of two river floodplain systems in the Ribeira do Iguape Basin (state of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Rainfall data were collected dailyfrom an automatic weather station in Jacupiranga SP Brazil and daily hydrometric level records were obtained from automatic linigraphs installed on the two adjacent rivers. Moreover, pH, electrical conductivity and dissolved oxygen were measured by a multiparametric probe. Water samples were collected to analyze nitrate, ammoniac nitrogen, total nitrogen and phosphorus, total alkalinity and suspended material. The samplings were carried out in April and July, representative months for low and high water periods, respectively. Results and Conclusions: Statistical analysis highlighted the “effect of homogenization”, attributed to the hydrological pulses in several studies carried out in river-floodplain systems. This effect in current study was more underscored at Lagoon 2, which remained connected for a longer period with the adjacent river, when compared to Lagoon 1- River Jacupiranguinha system. Higher dissolved oxygen concentrations at Lagoon 2, in contrast with the Lagoon 1 featuring anoxia during the whole period under analysis, were also attributed to the above-mentioned greater hydrological connectivity. Current study highlights that the water-mediated transferences during the high water period may contribute not only towards the fertilization of marginal lagoons (inputs of nutrients and organic matter but also to significant pollutant loads, according to land use along the watersheds. In the case of Lagoon 1- River Jacupiranguinha system, even though further studies are needed and strongly recommended, it is reasonable to assume that the discharges of mining effluents into the river may result in ecological damage not only to the receiving water body but also to the connected ecosystems.

  8. A model of the secondary radiation belt


    Selesnick, R. S.; Looper, M. D.; Mewaldt, R. A.


    Products of nuclear reactions between primary radiation belt protons and constituents of the tenuous upper atmosphere form a collocated secondary radiation belt. A calculation of the time-dependent secondary intensity provides a model specification of this environmental component for low- and medium-altitude satellite orbits. It is based on an earlier model of the radiation belt protons, the novel feature being a determination of the secondary source function from nuclear reaction cross secti...

  9. On the influence of environmental factors on radon levels in caves of Ribeira valley state parks, SP and evaluation of radioactive equilibrium and equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny; Sobre a influencia de fatores ambientais nos niveis de radonio em cavernas dos parques estaduais do vale do Ribeira, SP e avaliacao do equilibrio radioativo e fator de equilibrio entre radonio e seus descendentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberigi, Simone


    In the present study it was carried out the monitoring of radon in caves distributed among three state parks of Sao Paulo. The radon concentration were determinate in Morro Preto and Santana caves, located at PETAR - Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (High Ribeira River Tourist State Park), Diabo cave, situated in PEJ - Parque Estadual de Jacupiranga (Jacupiranga State Park) and Colorida cave located in PEI - Parque Estadual Intervales (Intervales State Park PEI). The monitoring covered measurements between April 2009 and June 2010. Radon concentrations were carried out by using the technique of passive detection with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors and NRPB diffusion chambers. The detectors were exposed in periods ranging from 30 to 150 days. Radon concentrations varied from 132 Bq/m{sup 3} to 9456 Bq/m{sup 3}. The values of radon concentrations were analyzed together with information about rainfall and internal and external temperature values of the Santana cave environment and regional literature values for a possible relationship between radon variations and weather information. Both the determinations of {sup 22}'6Ra in water samples collected in some caves and rivers and radon emanation from a stalactite collected at Santana cave allowed to verify that the radon in the caves comes from the walls rocks. The verification of the radioactive equilibrium between {sup 222}Rn, {sup 218}Po and '2{sup 14}Po in the exposed detectors was prejudiced by the high tracks densities, committing the methodology effectiveness. The annual effective dose was calculated for three values obtained from the literature for the equilibrium factor. Considering the most realistic scenario, with equilibrium factor of 0.5 and 52 working weeks, the annual effective dose was 5.1 mSv/y. Concerning the worst scenario, which simulates an extreme case, adopting an equilibrium factor equal to 1 and 52 weeks of work per year, the annual effective dose is 10.2 m

  10. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue? (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher


    Myanmar (Burma) is richly endowed in precious and base metals, having one of the most diverse collections of natural resources in SE Asia. Its geological history is dominated by the staged closing of Tethys and the suturing of Gondwana-derived continental fragments onto the South China craton during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. The country is located at a crucial geologic juncture where the main convergent Tethyan collision zone swings south around the Namche Barwa Eastern Himalayan syntaxis. However, despite recent work, the geological and geodynamic history of Myanmar remains enigmatic. Plate margin processes, magmatism, metasomatism and the genesis of mineral deposits are intricately linked, and there has long been recognized a relationship between the distribution of certain mineral deposit types, and the tectonic settings which favour their genesis. A better knowledge of the regional tectonic evolution of a potential exploration jurisdiction is therefore crucial to understanding its minerals prospectivity. This strong association between tectonics and mineralization can equally be applied in reverse. By mapping out the spatial, and temporal, distribution of presumed co-genetic mineral deposits, coupled with an understanding of their collective metallogenetic origin, a better appreciation of the tectonic evolution of a terrane may be elucidated. Identification and categorization of metallotects within a geodynamically-evolving terrane thus provides a complimentary tool to other methodologies (e.g. geochemical, geochronological, structural, geophysical, stratigraphical), for determining the tectonic history and inferred geodynamic setting of that terrane through time. Myanmar is one such study area where this approach can be undertaken. Here are found two near-parallel magmatic belts, which together contain a significant proportion of that country's mineral wealth of tin, tungsten, copper, gold and silver. Although only a few 100 km's apart, these belts exhibit a

  11. Condition-Based Conveyor Belt Replacement Strategy in Lignite Mines with Random Belt Deterioration (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek


    In Polish lignite surface mines, condition-based belt replacement strategies are applied in order to assure profitable refurbishment of worn out belts performed by external firms specializing in belt maintenance. In two of three lignite mines, staff asses belt condition subjectively during visual inspections. Only one mine applies specialized diagnostic device (HRDS) allowing objective magnetic evaluation of belt core condition in order to choose the most profitable moment for the dismantling of worn out belt segments from conveyors and sending them to the maintenance firm which provides their refurbishment. This article describes the advantages of a new diagnostic device called DiagBelt. It was developed at the Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. Economic gains from its application are calculated for the lignite mine and for the belt maintenance firm, taking into account random life (durability) of new and reconditioned belts (after the 1st and the 2nd refurbishment). Recursive calculations for following years allow the estimation of the length and costs of replaced, reconditioned and purchased belts on an annual basis, while the use of the Monte Carlo method allows the estimation of their variability caused by random deterioration of belts. Savings are obtained due to better selection of moments (times) for the replacement of belt segments and die to the possibility to qualify worn out belts for refurbishment without the need to remove their covers. In effect, increased belt durability and lowered share of waste belts (which were not qualified for reconditioning) create savings which can quickly cover expenditures on new diagnostic tools and regular belt inspections in the mine.

  12. Puzzling Snowballs: Main Belt Comets (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Meech, Karen


    Main belt comets (MBCs) are a class of newly discovered objects that exhibit comet-like appearances and yet are dynamically indistinguishable from ordinary main belt asteroids. The measured size and albedo of MBCs are similar to those of classical comets. At present, six MBCs have been discovered, namely 133P/Elst-Pizarro, 176P/LINEAR, 238P/Read, P/2008 R1, P/La Sagra and P/2006 VW139. The total number of active MBCs is estimated to be at the level of a few hundreds (Hsieh & Jewitt, 2006). Several explanations for the activity of MBCs have been suggested. These include impact ejection, sublimation and rotational instability. However, since renewed activity has been observed in 133P and 238P at successive perihelion passages, the most likely explanation may be a thermally-driven process - e.g sublimation of exposed surface ice. Although the proximity of MBCs to the Sun (r ~ 3 AU) makes the survival of surface ice improbable, thermal models have shown that water ice is thermally stable under a regolith layer a few meters thick. The study of MBCs has recently been complicated by the discoveries of two asteroid collisional events (P/2010 A2 (LINEAR) and (596) Scheila) in 2010, where comet-like dust coma/tail have been attributed to recent impacts. If MBCs are indeed icy, they represent the closest and the third established reservoir of comets (after the Oort cloud and the Kuiper belt). As such, they may have been an important source of water for the Earth's oceans. I will review the current state of MBC studies, present the latest observational results and discuss possible mechanisms that could produce the observed activity. I will also talk about current and future space missions that are dedicated or closely related to MBC studies.

  13. New component of radiation belts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorov, N.L.; Kurnosova, L.V.; Razorenov, L.A.; Remizov, A.S.; Fradkin, M.I. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)


    The mechanism of electron radiation belt filling with high-energy particles is discussed. Experimental data on particle fluxes in the Earth magnetosphere are presented. The experiments are carried out using the Cherenkov scintillation telescope installed on the ''Lightning-1'' satellite. Values of secondary particle flux obtained during the measurement at a height of 500 km and 30-40 th. km. coincide within the limits of errors. It is noted that secondary particle flux, equal to the albedo electron flux, is registered on large heights. This reason indicates the fact of forbidden angle filling with electrons with energies above 10 MeV.

  14. Use of seat belt and enforcement of seat belt laws in Pakistan. (United States)

    Klair, Ashfaq Ahmad; Arfan, Muhammad


    Traffic crashes are a leading cause of deaths and injuries in Pakistan. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately 30,131 people die in road crashes annually on Pakistani roads (WHO 2013). The use of seat belts can be effective in reducing road crash fatalities in Pakistan but under existing seat belt laws, seat belt use is mandatory only for drivers and is limited to specific vehicles and roads. Primarily, this study was aimed to measure seat belt use rates among Pakistani vehicle occupants. It was meant to investigate the factors influencing the compliance behavior of seat belt use among vehicle drivers. The second objective was to gauge the enforcement of seat belt laws and their effectiveness in Pakistan. A first ever national survey was conducted for the systematic recording of seat belt use rates among Pakistani drivers and front passengers on 5 different kinds of roads. Factors influencing compliance with seat belt use were gauged through a questionnaire for 5 different kinds of roads. Commitment level of different traffic police organizations to enforce seat belt laws was also measured through their previous year's enforcement data. Average seat belt use rates were 20% with the highest on motorways (53%) and the lowest on rural roads (5%). Unawareness of the law/usefulness, seat belt not fitted, discomfort, forgetfulness, low speed, and careless attitude were major reasons for noncompliance with seat belt laws among Pakistani drivers. Seat belt use rates were directly proportional to law enforcement strength and the National Highways and Motorways Police (NH&MP) showed maximum enforcement on M-2. There is a dire need to revise existing seat belt laws in order to raise seat belt use rates in Pakistan.

  15. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use : traffic tech. (United States)


    The legacy of research on increasing seat belt use has : focused on enactment of seat belt legislation, public education, : high-visibility police enforcement, and seat belt : reminder systems. Several behavioral programs have : produced large, susta...

  16. The Administrator's "Handy Dandy" Tool Belt (United States)

    Anderson, Terry


    Every good leader needs a tool belt. Throughout the author's years of building early childhood programs, she has acquired a number of tools for her personal belt. These tools have helped her sharpen her skills in supporting teachers and staff, connecting with families, and educating children. This article focuses on those leadership skills that…

  17. Understanding Quaternions and the Dirac Belt Trick (United States)

    Staley, Mark


    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2n rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4n rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors…

  18. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.


    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack

  19. Combined Radiation Belt - Plasma Sheet System Modeling (United States)

    Aseev, Nikita; Shprits, Yuri; Kellerman, Adam; Drozdov, Alexander; Zhu, Hui


    Recent years have given rise to numerous mathematical models of the Earth's radiation belt dynamics. Driven by observations at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) where satellites (e.g. GOES and LANL) provide extensive in-situ measurements, radiation belt models usually take into account only diffusion processes in the energetic electron belts (100 keV and greater), leaving aside the dynamics of colder source population (tens of keV). Such models are able to reconstruct the radiation belt state, but they are not capable of predicting the electron dynamics at GEO, where many communication and navigation satellites currently operate. In this work we present combined four-dimensional electron radiation belt - plasma sheet model accounting for adiabatic advective transport, radial diffusion due to interaction with ULF waves, local acceleration of electrons, scattering into the atmosphere, magnetopause shadowing, and adiabatic effects due to contraction and expansion of the magnetic field. The developed model is applicable to energetic, relativistic and ultrarelativistic electrons as well as to source electron population. The model provides spatial particle distribution allowing us to compare and validate the model with multiple satellite measurements at different MLT sectors (e.g. Van Allen Probes, GOES, LANL, THEMIS). The model can be helpful for the prediction of crucial for satellite operators geosynchronous electron fluxes and electron radiation belt dynamics including the heart of the outer belt, slot region and inner belt.

  20. Use of seatbelts in cars with automatic belts. (United States)

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N J


    Use of seatbelts in late model cars with automatic or manual belt systems was observed in suburban Washington, DC, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. In cars with automatic two-point belt systems, the use of shoulder belts by drivers was substantially higher than in the same model cars with manual three-point belts. This finding was true in varying degrees whatever the type of automatic belt, including cars with detachable nonmotorized belts, cars with detachable motorized belts, and especially cars with nondetachable motorized belts. Most of these automatic shoulder belts systems include manual lap belts. Use of lap belts was lower in cars with automatic two-point belt systems than in the same model cars with manual three-point belts; precisely how much lower could not be reliably estimated in this survey. Use of shoulder and lap belts was slightly higher in General Motors cars with detachable automatic three-point belts compared with the same model cars with manual three-point belts; in Hondas there was no difference in the rates of use of manual three-point belts and the rates of use of automatic three-point belts. PMID:1561301

  1. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt (United States)


    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  2. From transmission error measurement to Pulley-Belt slip determination in serpentine belt drives : influence of tensioner and belt characteristics


    Manin, Lionel; Michon, Guilhem; Rémond, Didier; Dufour, Regis


    Serpentine belt drives are often used in front end accessory drive of automotive engine. The accessories resistant torques are getting higher within new technological innovations as stater-alternator, and belt transmissions are always asked for higher capacity. Two kind of tensioners are used to maintain minimum tension that insure power transmission and minimize slip: dry friction or hydraulic tensioners. An experimental device and a specific transmission error measurement method have been u...

  3. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 24, 2011 ... and injuries can be reduced drastically because seat belts retain occupants in ... has been estimated that using seat belts can reduce the risk of fatalities in a ..... were about three times more likely to wear seatbelts than. Table 2: Availability of seat belts in the vehicles. Seat belt available. Car (%). Bus (%).

  4. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous to...

  5. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous to...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.104 - Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. 1926.104 Section... Saving Equipment § 1926.104 Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. (a) Lifelines, safety belts, and lanyards shall be used only for employee safeguarding. Any lifeline, safety belt, or lanyard actually...

  7. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Seat belts are designed to reduce injuries due to road crash among vehicle occupants. Aims: This study aims to determine the availability of seat belt in vehicles and compliance with seat belt use among vehicle occupants. Materials and methods: This was a 24‑h direct observational study of seat belt usage ...

  8. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained in functional...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage. (United States)


    ...) Underground belt conveyors shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors... can be stopped or started at any location. (b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled mantrips...

  11. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors


    Gao Yang


    Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a d...

  12. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund


    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  13. Radiation Belt and Plasma Model Requirements (United States)

    Barth, Janet L.


    Contents include the following: Radiation belt and plasma model environment. Environment hazards for systems and humans. Need for new models. How models are used. Model requirements. How can space weather community help?

  14. Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) Mission (United States)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Fox, N.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Mauk, B. H.


    Scheduled to launch in May 2012, NASA's dual spacecraft Living With a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission carries the field and particle instrumentation needed to determine the processes that produce enhancements in radiation belt ion and electron fluxes, the dominant mechanisms that cause the loss of relativistic electrons, and the manner by which the ring current and other geomagnetic phenomena affect radiation belt behavior. The two spacecraft will operate in low-inclination elliptical lapping orbits around the Earth, within and immediately exterior to the Van Allen radiation belts. During course of their two year primary mission, they will cover the full range of local times, measuring both AC and DC electric and magnetic fields to 10kHz, as well as ions from 50 eV to 1 GeV and electrons with energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 MeV.

  15. Eccentricity distribution in the main asteroid belt (United States)

    Malhotra, Renu; Wang, Xianyu


    The observationally complete sample of the main belt asteroids now spans more than two orders of magnitude in size and numbers more than 64 000 (excluding collisional family members). We undertook an analysis of asteroids' eccentricities and their interpretation with simple physical models. We find that a century old conclusion that the asteroids' eccentricities follow a Rayleigh distribution holds for the osculating eccentricities of large asteroids, but the proper eccentricities deviate from a Rayleigh distribution; there is a deficit of eccentricities smaller than ∼0.1 and an excess of larger eccentricities. We further find that the proper eccentricities do not depend significantly on asteroid size but have strong dependence on heliocentric distance; the outer asteroid belt follows a Rayleigh distribution, but the inner belt is strikingly different. Eccentricities in the inner belt can be modelled as a vector sum of a primordial eccentricity vector of random orientation and magnitude drawn from a Rayleigh distribution of parameter ∼0.06, and an excitation of random phase and magnitude ∼0.13. These results imply that when a late dynamical excitation of the asteroids occurred, it was independent of asteroid size and was stronger in the inner belt than in the outer belt. We discuss implications for the primordial asteroid belt and suggest that the observationally complete sample size of main belt asteroids is large enough that more sophisticated model-fitting of the eccentricities is warranted and could serve to test alternative theoretical models of the dynamical excitation history of asteroids and its links to the migration history of the giant planets.

  16. The Stability of the Conveyor Belt Pontoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří PODEŠVA


    Full Text Available To lead the conveyor belt transport cross water area the pontoon are used to support the carrying structure of the belts. The accident can happen when the pontoon turnover. For this reason the pontoon stability is investigated. The stability is described by the Reed’s diagram. This can be constructed analytically or via numerical modeling. Both methods are described in the paper.

  17. Synthesis of GeSe2 Nanobelts Using Thermal Evaporation and Their Photoelectrical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Zhang


    Full Text Available GeSe2 nanobelts were synthesized via a simple thermal-evaporation process by using gold particles as catalyst and GeSe2 flakes as starting materials. The morphology, crystal structure, and composition were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. SEM micrographs show that most of GeSe2 nanobelts have distinct segmented structures (wide belt, zigzag belt, and narrow belt. A possible mechanism was proposed for the growth of segmented nanobelts. It is possible that the growth of the segmented nanobelts is dominated by both vapor-liquid-solid and vapor-solid mechanisms. Devices made of single GeSe2 nanobelt have been fabricated and their photoelectrical property has been investigated. Results indicate that these nanobelt devices are potential building blocks for optoelectronic applications.

  18. Decay rate of the second radiation belt (United States)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Robbins, D. E.


    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.

  19. Decay rate of the second radiation belt. (United States)

    Badhwar, G D; Robbins, D E


    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.

  20. Jupiter's magnetosphere and radiation belts (United States)

    Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.


    Radioastronomy and Pioneer data reveal the Jovian magnetosphere as a rotating magnetized source of relativistic particles and radio emission, comparable to astrophysical cosmic ray and radio sources, such as pulsars. According to Pioneer data, the magnetic field in the outer magnetosphere is radially extended into a highly time variable disk-shaped configuration which differs fundamentally from the earth's magnetosphere. The outer disk region, and the energetic particles confined in it, are modulated by Jupiter's 10 hr rotation period. The entire outer magnetosphere appears to change drastically on time scales of a few days to a week. In addition to its known modulation of the Jovian decametric radio bursts, Io was found to absorb some radiation belt particles and to accelerate others, and most importantly, to be a source of neutral atoms, and by inference, a heavy ion plasma which may significantly affect the hydrodynamic flow in the magnetosphere. Another important Pioneer finding is that the Jovian outer magnetosphere generates, or permits to escape, fluxes of relativistic electrons of such intensities that Jupiter may be regarded as the dominant source of 1 to 30 MeV cosmic ray electrons in the heliosphere.

  1. Seat belts, airbags and child protection devices. [previously: Seat belts and child restraint seats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts results in a yearly reduction of hundreds of fatalities. Seat belts reduce the risk of fatal injury by 37 to 48%, depending on the position in the car. At 50%, the effect of child protection devices is even slightly higher. When last measured (in 2010), 97%

  2. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt. (United States)

    van Pelt, Stijn; Frijns, Arjan; den Toonder, Jaap


    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil systems that offer low field strengths and little versatility. We demonstrate a novel system based on an external rotating magnetic field and on-chip soft-magnetic structures to focus the field locally. These structures were designed and optimized using finite element simulations in order to create a number of local flux density maxima. These maxima, to which the magnetic beads are attracted, move over the chip surface in a continuous way together with the rotation of the external field, resulting in a mechanism similar to that of a conveyor belt. A prototype was fabricated using PDMS molding techniques mixed with iron powder for the magnetic structures. In the subsequent experiments, a quadrupole electromagnet was used to create the rotating external field. We observed that beads formed agglomerates that rolled over the chip surface, just above the magnetic structures. Field rotation frequencies between 0.1-50 Hz were tested resulting in magnetic bead speeds of over 1 mm s -1 for the highest frequency. With this, we have shown that our novel concept works, combining a simple design and simple operation with a powerful and versatile method for bead actuation. This makes it a promising method for further research and utilization in lab-on-chip systems.

  3. Theoretical study of influence of belt tension of intermediate belt conveyor drive on value of zone of relative slip of traction and carrying belts (United States)

    Goncharov, K. A.; Grishin, A. V.


    The issue of the influence of tension of the traction belt of intermediate drive of the multi-drive belt conveyor on the value of zones of relative rest and sliding of the traction and carrying belts is considered. A variety of values of proportional band of tractive effort regulation of the intermediate drive of belt conveyor while it is being controlled by the tensioning device was obtained in percentage terms. Recommendations on the control of the intermediate drive of belt conveyor by means of the tensioning device when starting and productivity changes are provided.

  4. Lubricants for Metal Belt Continuously Variable Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Narita


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the effects of lubricant additives and base stock used in metal belt continuously variable transmissions (CVT fluids on the CVT transmission torque capacity. Additive formulation composed of phosphorus anti-wear agent, calcium detergent, and dispersant improved the friction coefficient between the metals. The analysis on the post-test surface suggests that the friction behavior strongly depends on the local morphology of the tribofilms derived from lubricant additives. Examining the effect of base stock on the torque capacity in actual belt CVTs revealed that SN (synthetic naphthene exhibited 10% higher torque capacity than that of PAO (polyalphaolefin. It is believed that the difference in the torque capacity is due to the difference in the oil-film shearing force generated by the relative sliding between the belt and pulley.

  5. Structure of the Kuiper Belt Dust Disk (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.; Kaufmann, D. E.

    An overview of the Kuiper belt dust disk is provided in this chapter. Mutual collisions among Kuiper belt objects should produce a dust disk in the outer solar system similar to the observed circumstellar dust disks. As the Kuiper belt dust particles migrate toward the Sun due to Poynting-Robertson drag, they are perturbed by the giant planets. Mean-motion resonances with Neptune and gravitational scattering by Saturn and Jupiter alter their orbital evolution dramatically. Asa result, large-scale structures are created in the disk. Descriptions of the dynamics involved, and the numerical simulations required to unveil the disk features, are included. Implications for extrasolar planet detection from circumstellar dust disk modeling are also discussed.



    Ismet Ibishi; Ahmet Latifi; Gzim Ibishi; Kadri Sejdiu; Melihate Shala-Galica; Bekim Latifi


    In this paper is done the explanation on tension fashion of the belt conveyor which is employed in Kosovo Energy Corporation – KEK, for coal transportation to provide electric power plant. The aim of the paper enables to recognize tension forces not to pass with deformation of belt so that this problem will damage the workingprocess. Work principle is based on initial tension and tension during working process. The fact is known that the tension starts from the carriage on the way to tension ...

  7. Analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ozeke, Louis G; Mann, Ian R; Murphy, Kyle R; Jonathan Rae, I; Milling, David K


    We present analytic expressions for ULF wave‐derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, as a function of L and Kp , which can easily be incorporated into global radiation belt transport models...

  8. Chain Versus Belt – System Comparison of Future Timing Drives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howlett, Michael; Ausserhofer, Norbert; Schoeffmann, Wolfgang; Truffinet, Caroline; Zurk, Andreas


    ... and the quality requirements of timing drives. In the paper the main timing drive concepts, chain drive, dry belt and wet belt were analyzed and rated based on the functional influencing factors as target parameters to allow a scientifically...

  9. Evaluation of safety belt education program for employees (United States)


    This research was designed to determine the effectiveness of a nine-month safety belt educational program, utilizing various informational materials developed by NHTSA, in increasing safety belt usage among corporate employees. The materials used inc...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains visible-wavelength (0.435-0.925 micron) spectra for 1341 main-belt asteroids observed during the second phase of the Small Main-belt Asteroid...

  11. Structural and hydrological controls on the development of a river cave in marble (Tapagem Cave - SE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sallun Filho


    Full Text Available Tapagem Cave (or Devil’s Cave is a river cave developed in the dolomite marble karst of the Serra do André Lopes (State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Although this region is a plateau with significant variation in elevation and a humid subtropical climate, the cave is an anomalous feature in the André Lopes karst because there are few other caves. The marble, which is in a synclinal structure with subjacent phyllites, is a karst aquifer perched above the regional base level (Ribeira River and has little allogenic recharge. The cave developed on a secondary anticline on the northwest flank of the marble synform forming a blind valley, the Tapagem River sink, that is an underground tributary of Ostras River. Development of the cave is due to the entrenchment of the Ostras through-valley and the large allogenic catchment area of the sink. In plan view, the morphology of the cave can be divided into three different sectors. The first sector, known as the Tourist Sector, has extensive collapse rooms, fossil passages and a variety of speleothems of notable dimensions. The second and most extensive sector is the river passage, which is a sinuous gallery controlled by marble banding with NE-SW cleavage and NW-SE fractures. In cross-section, the passages are vadose canyons up to 70 m in height, controlled by the marble banding. Four NW-SE diabase dykes in this passage do not affect its direction in plan view. The third sector is an extensive network of passages and collapse rooms, which are interlaced in plan view and on different levels, forming a maze pattern. Initially, the Tapagem and Ostras Rivers developed on a gentle surface and flowed into the Ribeira River. With the entrenchment of the Ostras through-valley, the Tapagem River partially infiltrated via a paleosink into the upper passage of the “Erectus Room," remaining a half-blind valley. Following a series of collapses and obstructions, the River next infiltrated via the current

  12. A comparison of outer electron radiation belt dropouts during solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Energetic electrons are trapped in the Earth's radiation belts which occupy a toroidal region between 3 and 7 RE above the Earth's surface. Rapid loss of electrons from the radiation belts is known as dropouts. The source and loss mechanisms regulating the radiation belts population are not yet understood entirely, ...

  13. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 56.14212... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums except...

  14. 30 CFR 56.15005 - Safety belts and lines. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 56.15005 Section 56.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be worn when persons work where there...

  15. 33 CFR 142.42 - Safety belts and lifelines. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts and lifelines. 142... § 142.42 Safety belts and lifelines. (a) Except when moving from one location to another, personnel engaged in an activity where there is a hazard of falling 10 or more feet shall wear a safety belt or...

  16. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver has...

  17. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 57.14212... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums...

  18. 30 CFR 57.15005 - Safety belts and lines. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 57.15005 Section 57.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be worn...

  19. Seat belts and shoulder harnesses : smart protection in small airplanes. (United States)


    Seat belts alone will protect you only in minor impacts. : Using shoulder belts in small aircraft would reduce major injuries by 88% and fatalities by 20%. Shoulder belt kits are now available for most airplanes. : Proper use and installation of chil...

  20. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts should be fastened, they must be installed to be operated from either pilot seat. (b) Each...

  2. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger from...

  3. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal Schist belt, Andhra ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW-SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either ...

  4. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within... shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the drive pulley. A person...

  5. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall be...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved under...

  7. Green operations of belt conveyors by means of speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.


    Belt conveyors can be partially loaded due to the variation of bulk material flow loaded onto the conveyor. Speed control attempts to reduce the belt conveyor energy consumption and to enable the green operations of belt conveyors. Current research of speed control rarely takes the conveyor dynamics

  8. NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Mission (United States)

    Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry; Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr; Takahashi, Kazue; Sibeck, David; Grebowsky, Joseph; Kessel, Ramona

    Understanding of radiation belt physics has matured to the extent that we have identified a set of processes which interplay to cause the creation and variation of radiation populations. These universal processes operate coherently across the planetary radiation belts of the solar system, and have far reaching impacts even beyond. Improvements in our understanding of these processes will substantially enhance our ability to predict radiation dynamics and mitigate the impacts on space assets. An important link in developing fully predictive understanding of such processes is the Radiation Belt Storm Probes mission to be launched into Earth's radiation belts in 2012 as a part of NASA's Living with a Star program. RBSP comprises two spacecraft making in situ measurements for at least 2 years in nearly the same highly elliptical, low inclination orbits (1.1 x 5.8 RE, 10 degrees). The orbits are slightly different so that 1 spacecraft laps the other spacecraft about every 2.5 months, allowing separation of spatial from temporal affects over spatial scales ranging from 0.1 to 5 RE. The unusually comprehensive suite of instruments, identical on the two spacecraft, measures the particle spectra (electrons, ions, ion compositions), fields (E and B), and wave distributions (dE and dB) that are needed to resolve the most critical science questions. Here we describe the RBSP mission characteristics, review the most pressing science issues that need to be resolved to develop predictive understanding, and describe how RBSP will be used to resolve those issues.

  9. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS..., harness, or other restraining means for each occupant, unless the Administrator finds it unnecessary. If...

  10. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites (United States)

    Uwe Friedel


    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  11. Research on an Active Seat Belt System (United States)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In a car crash, permanent injury can be avoided if deformation of an occupant's rib cage is maintained within the allowable value. In order to realize this condition, the occupant's seat belt tension must be instantaneously adjusted by a feedback control system. In this study, a seat belt tension control system based on the active shock control system is proposed. The semi-active control law used is derived from the sliding mode control method. One advantage of this proposed system is that it does not require a large power actuator because the seat belt tension is controlled by a brake mechanism. The effectiveness is confirmed by numerical simulation using general parameters of a human thorax and a passenger car in a collision scenario with a wall at a velocity of 100 km/h. The feasibility is then confirmed with a control experiment using a scale model of about 1/10 scale. The relative displacement of the thorax model approaches the allowable value smoothly along the control reference and settles near this value. Thus, the proposed seat belt tension control system design is established.

  12. Composite Microdiscs with a Magnetic Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Høyer, Henrik; Helgesen, Geir


    We describe an emulsion-based preparation of patchy composite particles (diameter of 100-500 mu m) consisting of a disclike epoxy core and a belt of porous polystyrene particles (diameter of 30 mu m) with magnetite within the pores. Compared to the magnetically uniform polystyrene particles, the ...

  13. Design aspects of multiple driven belt conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttall, A.J.G.


    Worldwide belt conveyors are used to transport a great variety of bulk solid materials. The desire to carry higher tonnages over longer distances and more diverse routes, while keeping exploitation costs as low as possible, has fuelled many technological advances. An interesting development in the

  14. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lafon-Hughes


    Full Text Available Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG. Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair. Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt. In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO. PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications.

  15. Development of damage detector for coal conveyor belt; Sekitan conveyor belt sonsho tanchiki no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, S. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)


    To realize the automatic detection of disconnection of conveyor belt steel cords used at a coal handling facility in thermal power plants, a damage detector for conveyor belt with a non-contact magnetic balance type highly sensitive sensor and a data processing system having real-time display function of detected signals has been developed in a cooperation with Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI). A detection method of steel cord disconnection has been designed, by which the disconnection can be detected using a detecting coil as a change of magnetic balance with equivalent magnetic fields in opposite direction generated by two magnetic coils. Detecting performance was confirmed by making dummy disconnection with width of 2 mm in the steel cords of conveyor belt at the Numazu large-capacity coal handling and storage demonstration plant of IHI. Joint observation performance using an actually working conveyor belt was also confirmed at the Hekinan Thermal Power Plant of Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. Through the tests under four different velocities of conveyor belt, it was confirmed that disconnection and belt joints can be detected accurately. 9 figs.

  16. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yang


    Full Text Available Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a discrete element model of conveyor systems was established. The kinetic equations of each discrete unit was derived using kinetic energy, potential energy of driving segment, bearing segment and return segment and equation of energy dissipation and Lagrange equation. Based on Wilson-q algorithm, the kinetic equation of DT1307-type ST2000's conveyor belt was solved by using Matlab to write computer programs. Research on the change rule of conveyor displacement, velocity, acceleration and dynamic tension during the boot process revealed the working mechanism of nonlinear viscoelastic, which lay the theoretical foundation for dynamic performance optimization of large belt conveyor. The calculation results were used to optimize design and analysis of conveyor system, the result showed that it could reduce the driven tension peaks about 12 %, save 5 % of overall manufacturing cost, which bring considerable profits for enterprises.

  17. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.


    Full Text Available Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  18. Recurrent metalliferous fluid flow, Khetri Copper Belt, northern Rajasthan, NW India (United States)

    Stein, Holly J.; Pandit, Manoj K.; Hannah, Judith L.; Torsvik, Trond H.


    the north through Re-Os dating of sulfides from drill core covering three deposits in the >100 km-wide Khetri Cu belt. In this study, we do not seek to isolate an event in time, but to integrate existing geochronologic data, together with our own, to illuminate the regional history that bears on ore formation in the Khetri Cu belt and adjacent areas. In our reconstruction, we use Re-Os ages for chalcopyrites and molybdenites from Khetri and Rohil, and the Baniwala Ki Dhani - Dokan area of the Sikar district (30 km SE of the Khetri Cu belt). We propose that fluids acquired from dehydration of paleoslabs hung beneath earlier Proterozoic back-arc basins in the Khetri region may be important players in the ore-forming process and key to interpreting the phenomenal albitization associated with the Cu belt. Prominent NE-trending shear zones, with subordinate N-S structures at the deposit scale gave fluids access and focus into sedimentary packages in earlier-formed rift basins. These Re-Os data, together with regional U-Pb data, show that the Neoproterozoic was an important time for development of ore deposits in the metasedimentary sequences of the Ajabgarh Group in the Khetri Cu belt, the greater Khetri region, and the Aravalli-Delhi fold belt as a whole. Funded by U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) EAR-1119655.

  19. SE-FIT (United States)

    Chen, Yongkang; Weislogel, Mark; Schaeffer, Ben; Semerjian, Ben; Yang, Lihong; Zimmerli, Gregory


    The mathematical theory of capillary surfaces has developed steadily over the centuries, but it was not until the last few decades that new technologies have put a more urgent demand on a substantially more qualitative and quantitative understanding of phenomena relating to capillarity in general. So far, the new theory development successfully predicts the behavior of capillary surfaces for special cases. However, an efficient quantitative mathematical prediction of capillary phenomena related to the shape and stability of geometrically complex equilibrium capillary surfaces remains a significant challenge. As one of many numerical tools, the open-source Surface Evolver (SE) algorithm has played an important role over the last two decades. The current effort was undertaken to provide a front-end to enhance the accessibility of SE for the purposes of design and analysis. Like SE, the new code is open-source and will remain under development for the foreseeable future. The ultimate goal of the current Surface Evolver Fluid Interface Tool (SEFIT) development is to build a fully integrated front-end with a set of graphical user interface (GUI) elements. Such a front-end enables the access to functionalities that are developed along with the GUIs to deal with pre-processing, convergence computation operation, and post-processing. In other words, SE-FIT is not just a GUI front-end, but an integrated environment that can perform sophisticated computational tasks, e.g. importing industry standard file formats and employing parameter sweep functions, which are both lacking in SE, and require minimal interaction by the user. These functions are created using a mixture of Visual Basic and the SE script language. These form the foundation for a high-performance front-end that substantially simplifies use without sacrificing the proven capabilities of SE. The real power of SE-FIT lies in its automated pre-processing, pre-defined geometries, convergence computation operation

  20. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013. (United States)

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L


    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use.

  1. The question of food security in the localities of Ribeirão and Garça de Cima, in the municipality of Ribeira Grande, Santo Antão - Cape Verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Francisco Monteiro


    Full Text Available Cape Verde, an island country with few natural resources and with adverse soil and weather conditions, imports most of the foodstuffs that need. Local production, although scarce, is relevant to food security. This article reflects a case study in the municipality of Ribeira Grande, island of Santo Antão -Cape Verde, whose aim was to study the role of three production systems in the generation of income, food security and improving the quality of life of families. These systems are: vegetable production, rainfed production and sugar cane production. A total of 105 surveys were carried out in the localities of Ribeirão and Garça de Cima, equally distributed among different agricultural producers. It was found that the sugar cane producers have an average annual income superior to horticulture and rainfed farmers, 402,154, 337,602 and 259,764 CVE respectively (1 euro = 110.265 Cape Verdean escudos – CVE. With respect to food intake, the differences are not significant. Horticulture farmers have a calorie intake of 2959.71, rainfed producers 2926.65 and sugar cane producers 2888.86 kcal/EM/day. With regard to indicators of quality of life, the families of horticulture farmers and sugar cane producers present similar results, superior to the rainfed producers’ families.

  2. Pangenèse


    Gayon, Jean


    L'hypothèse darwinienne de la pangenèse postule que, à tout moment, les cellules du corps émettent de minuscules parcelles d'elles-mêmes qui sont capables de reconstituer des cellules équivalentes à celles dont elles proviennent. Appliquée à la question de l'hérédité, elle signifie que les gemmules circulent dans le corps et s'accumulent dans les cellules sexuelles. La pangenèse est ainsi un mécanisme hypothétique pouvant expliquer l'hérédité des caractères acquis. Cette notion est intervenue...

  3. Ionic composition of the earth's radiation belts (United States)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.


    Several different ion species have been positively identified in the earth's radiation belts. Besides protons, there are substantial fluxes of helium, carbon and oxygen ions, and there are measurable quantities of even heavier ions. European, American and Soviet space experimenters have reported ion composition measurements over wide ranges of energies: at tens of keV (ring-current energies) and below, and at hundreds of keV and above. There is still a gap in the energy coverage from several tens to several hundreds of keV where little observational data are available. In this review emphasis is placed on the radiation belt ionic structure above 100 keV. Both quiet time conditions and geomagnetic storm periods are considered, and comparison of the available space observations is made with theoretical analysis of geomagnetically trapped ion spatial, energy and charge state distributions.

  4. Drivers' attitudes toward front or rear child passenger belt use and seat belt reminders at these seating positions. (United States)

    Kidd, David G; McCartt, Anne T


    Passengers, especially those in rear seating positions, use seat belts less frequently than drivers. In-vehicle technology can inform drivers when their passengers are unbuckled and encourage passengers to use belts. The current study collected information about drivers' attitudes toward passenger belt use and belt reminders for front passengers and children in back seats. A national telephone survey of 1218 people 18 and older was conducted, of which 477 respondents were drivers who transport a front seat passenger at least once a week and 254 were drivers who transport an 8- to 15-year-old child in the back seat. Respondents were asked about their attitudes toward belt use by their front passengers or rear child passengers and preferences for different passenger belt reminder features. Ninety percent of drivers who regularly transport front seat passengers said that the passengers always use seat belts. Reported belt use was even higher among 8- to 15-year-old children in the back seat (97%). Among the drivers whose children do not always buckle up, about half said their child unbuckled the belt during the trip. Almost every full-time belt use driver (96%) would encourage front passengers to buckle up if not belted, compared to 57 percent of part-time belt users and nonusers. In contrast, nearly every driver who transports children in the back seat would encourage their belt use, regardless of the driver's belt use habits. Most drivers who transport front passengers wanted passenger belt reminders to encourage passengers to buckle up. Most of these drivers wanted a chime/buzzer or warning light or text display and wanted the reminder to last indefinitely. Most drivers who transport child passengers in the rear seat wanted the vehicle to indicate whether child passengers are unbuckled. A large majority of these drivers wanted notifications via a visual diagram of seating positions and belt use, a chime/buzzer, and a warning light or text display. These drivers

  5. Substyles of belting: phonatory and resonatory characteristics. (United States)

    Sundberg, Johan; Thalén, Margareta; Popeil, Lisa


    Belting has been described as speechlike, yell-like, or shouting voice production commonly used in contemporary commercial music genres and substantially differing from the esthetic of the Western classical voice tradition. This investigation attempts to describe phonation and resonance characteristics of different substyles of belting (heavy, brassy, ringy, nasal, and speechlike) and the classical style. A professional singer and voice teacher, skilled in these genres, served as the single subject. The recorded material was found representative according to a classification test performed by an expert panel. Subglottal pressure was measured as the oral pressure during the occlusion for the consonant /p/. The voice source and formant frequencies were analyzed by inverse filtering the audio signal. The subglottal pressure and measured flow glottogram parameters differed clearly between the styles heavy and classical assuming opposite extremes in most parameters. The formant frequencies, by contrast, showed fewer less systematic differences between the substyles but were clearly separated from the classical style with regard to the first formant. Thus, the differences between the belting substyles mainly concerned the voice source. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A binary main-belt comet (United States)

    Agarwal, Jessica; Jewitt, David; Mutchler, Max; Weaver, Harold; Larson, Stephen


    Asteroids are primitive Solar System bodies that evolve both collisionally and through disruptions arising from rapid rotation. These processes can lead to the formation of binary asteroids and to the release of dust, both directly and, in some cases, through uncovering frozen volatiles. In a subset of the asteroids called main-belt comets, the sublimation of excavated volatiles causes transient comet-like activity. Torques exerted by sublimation measurably influence the spin rates of active comets and might lead to the splitting of bilobate comet nuclei. The kilometre-sized main-belt asteroid 288P (300163) showed activity for several months around its perihelion 2011 (ref. 11), suspected to be sustained by the sublimation of water ice and supported by rapid rotation, while at least one component rotates slowly with a period of 16 hours (ref. 14). The object 288P is part of a young family of at least 11 asteroids that formed from a precursor about 10 kilometres in diameter during a shattering collision 7.5 million years ago. Here we report that 288P is a binary main-belt comet. It is different from the known asteroid binaries in its combination of wide separation, near-equal component size, high eccentricity and comet-like activity. The observations also provide strong support for sublimation as the driver of activity in 288P and show that sublimation torques may play an important part in binary orbit evolution.

  7. Rapid Rebuilding of the Outer Radiation Belt (United States)

    Glocer, A.; Fok, M.-C.; Nagai, T.; Toth, G.; Guild, T.; Bkake, J.


    Recent observations by the radiation monitor (RDM) on the spacecraft Akebono have shown several cases of greater than 2.5 MeV radiation belt electron enhancements occurring on timescales of less than a few hours. Similar enhancements are also seen in detectors on board the NOAA/POES and TWINS 1 satellites. These intervals are shorter than typical radial diffusion or wave-particle interactions can account for. We choose two so-called "rapid rebuilding" events that occur during high speed streams (4 September 2008 and 22 July 2009) and simulated them with the Space Weather Modeling Framework configured with global magnetosphere, radiation belt, ring current, and ionosphere electrodynamics model. Our simulations produce a weaker and delayed dipolarization as compared to observations, but the associated inductive electric field in the simulations is still strong enough to rapidly transport and accelerate MeV electrons resulting in an energetic electron flux enhancement that is somewhat weaker than is observed. Nevertheless, the calculated flux enhancement and dipolarization is found to be qualitatively consistent with the observations. Taken together, the modeling results and observations support the conclusion that storm-time dipolarization events in the magnetospheric magnetic field result in strong radial transport and energization of radiation belt electrons.

  8. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger


    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  9. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger


    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  10. Radiation Belts of Antiparticles in Planetary Magnetospheres (United States)

    Pugacheva, G. I.; Gusev, A. A.; Jayanthi, U. B.; Martin, I. M.; Spjeldvik, W. N.


    The Earth's radiation belts could be populated, besides with electrons and protons, also by antiparticles, such as positrons (Basilova et al., 1982) and antiprotons (pbar). Positrons are born in the decay of pions that are directly produced in nuclear reactions of trapped relativistic inner zone protons with the residual atmosphere at altitudes in the range of about 500 to 3000 km over the Earth's surface. Antiprotons are born by high energy (E > 6 GeV) cosmic rays in p+p - p+p+p+ pbar and in p+p - p+p+n+nbar reactions. The trapping and storage of these charged anti-particles in the magnetosphere result in radiation belts similar to the classical Van Allen belts of protons and electrons. We describe the mathematical techniques used for numerical simulation of the trapped positron and antiproton belt fluxes. The pion and antiproton yields were simulated on the basis of the Russian nuclear reaction computer code MSDM, a Multy Stage Dynamical Model, Monte Carlo code, (i.e., Dementyev and Sobolevsky, 1999). For estimates of positron flux there we have accounted for ionisation, bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron energy losses. The resulting numerical estimates show that the positron flux with energy >100 MeV trapped into the radiation belt at L=1.2 is of the order ~1000 m-2 s-1 sr-1, and that it is very sensitive to the shape of the trapped proton spectrum. This confined positron flux is found to be greater than that albedo, not trapped, mixed electron/positron flux of about 50 m-2 s-1 sr-1 produced by CR in the same region at the top of the geomagnetic field line at L=1.2. As we show in report, this albedo flux also consists mostly of positrons. The trapped antiproton fluxes produced by CR in the Earth's upper rarified atmosphere were calculated in the energy range from 10 MeV to several GeV. In the simulations we included a mathematic consideration of the radial diffusion process, both an inner and an outer antiproton source, losses of particles due to ionization process

  11. Cuidando se cuida


    Elizalde Munárriz, Ainhoa


    El proyecto que nos ocupa está planteado en tres ideas básicas: el primero de ellos aborda los cuidados hacia la personas dependiente; el segundo cómo cuidar cuidándose sin que suponga un riesgo para su salud y por último en el tercer apartado se abordará los recursos sociales de apoyo al cuidador y al anciano. Máster Universitario en Salud Pública Unibertsitate Masterra Osasun Publikoan

  12. Normative misperceptions of peer seat belt use among high school students and their relationship to personal seat belt use. (United States)

    Litt, Dana M; Lewis, Melissa A; Linkenbach, Jeffrey W; Lande, Gary; Neighbors, Clayton


    This research examined gender-specific perceptions of peer seat belt use norms among high school students and their relationship with one's own seat belt use. We expected that students would underestimate the seat belt use of their peers and that these perceptions would be positively associated with their own seat belt use. High school students from 4 schools (N = 3348; 52% male) completed measures assessing perceived seat belt use and personal seat belt use. Findings demonstrated that students perceived that others engaged in less seat belt use than they do and that perceived norms were positively associated with one's own seat belt use. Peer influences are a strong predictor of behavior, especially among adolescents. Ironically, adolescents' behaviors are often influenced by inaccurate perceptions of their peers. This research establishes the presence of a misperception related to seat belt use and suggests that misperception is associated with own behaviors. This research provides a foundation for social norms-based interventions designed to increase seat belt use by correcting normative misperceptions among adolescents.

  13. Random Deterioration Process of Conveyor Belt Evaluated by Statistical Analysis of Core Failures Detected Along Belt Axis and Elapsed Time (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek; Kirjanów, Agata; Kozlowski, Tomasz


    Magnetic diagnostic methods are used for steel cord belt condition evaluation since the beginning of 1970s. Initially they generated an analogue signal for several tens of centimetres of conveyor belts scanned sequentially with one measuring head in several cycles or the whole width of the belt at one time thanks to the installation of many measuring heads across the entire cross section. This did not allow identification of single centimetre failures, but rather an aggregate assessment of the state of quite wide waist. Modern diagnostic devices, thanks to miniaturization, allow up to 200 heads per belt width to identify damage of individual cords. Instead of analogue signals, they generate a zero-one digital signal corresponding to a change in the magnetic field sign, which can illustrate damage on 2D images. This makes it easier to identify the location and size of the damage in the belt image. Statistical analysis of digital signals summed up for consecutive sections along the belt axis allows to present both the source signal and its aggregation for band of a given width to form aggregate measures of belt damage such as the damage density per 1 meter of belt. Observation of changes in these measurements at different times allows on evaluation of its rate of change over time, which can be used to forecast future belt condition and to select the proper moment of preventive belt replacement to another one to avoid emergency downtimes (egg in underground mines) or to recondition of belts (egg. in lignite surface mines). The paper presents the results of investigations of the damage condition of a core of a single belt segment working in one of the copper ore underground mines. Scanning of the belt condition was performed few times at intervals of several months. The paper presents the results of the analysis of the changes in core condition, showing the random character of the damage process along the axis and its change over time.

  14. Lower and Middle Ordovician conodonts from the subsurface of SE Estonia and adjacent Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viive Viira


    Full Text Available The distribution of conodonts in the Lower–Middle Ordovician beds was studied in five drill core sections of south­eastern Estonia. Ten conodont zones and six subzones, from the Paroistodus proteus Zone to the Eoplacognathus lindstroemi Subzone, were established. The peculiarity of the studied sequence is that the Volkhov Stage is notably poor in conodonts, in particular Baltoniodus species. Large specimens of Drepanodus arcuatus and Protopanderodus rectus, however, are found in great numbers in the uppermost Volkhov and lower Kunda stages. The deeper shelf conodont faunas recognized in SE Estonia (Central Baltoscandian confacies belt are compared with shallow shelf faunas of northern Estonia (North Estonian confacies belt.

  15. Modeling Resonant Structure in the Kuiper Belt (United States)

    Holmes, E. K.; Dermott, S. F.; Grogan, K.


    There is a possible connection between structure in circumstellar disks and the presence of planets, our own zodiacal cloud being the prime example. Asymmetries in such a disk could be diagnostic of planets which would be otherwise undetectable. At least three different types of asymmetries can serve to indicate bodies orbiting a star in a disk: (1) a warp in the plane of symmetry of the disk, (2) an offset in the center of symmetry of the disk with respect to the central star, and (3) density anomalies in the plane of the disk due to resonant trapping of dust particles. In the asteroid belt, collisions between asteroids supply dust particles to the zodiacal cloud. By comparison, it has been postulated that collisions between KBOs could initiate a collisional cascade which would produce a Kuiper dust disk. In fact, the Kuiper Belt is the region of our solar system that is most analogous to the planetary debris disks we see around other stars such as Vega, β Pic, Fomalhaut, and ɛ Eridani (Backman and Paresce 1993). A Kuiper Disk would most likely have a resonant structure, with two concentrations in brightness along the ecliptic longitude. This large scale structure arises because many of the KBOs, the Plutinos, are in the 2:3 mean motion resonance with Neptune. By running numerical integrations of particles in Pluto-like orbits, the resonant structure of the Kuiper belt can be studied by determining the percentage of particles trapped in the resonance as a function of their initial velocity and beta, where β = Frad}/F{grav. The dynamical evolution of the particles is followed from source to sink with Poynting Robertson light drag, solar wind drag, radiation pressure, and the effects of planetary gravitational perturbations included. This research was funded in part by a NASA GSRP grant.

  16. Escape of asteroids from the main belt (United States)

    Granvik, Mikael; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Vokrouhlický, David; Bottke, William F.; Nesvorný, David; Jedicke, Robert


    Aims: We locate escape routes from the main asteroid belt, particularly into the near-Earth-object (NEO) region, and estimate the relative fluxes for different escape routes as a function of object size under the influence of the Yarkovsky semimajor-axis drift. Methods: We integrated the orbits of 78 355 known and 14 094 cloned main-belt objects and Cybele and Hilda asteroids (hereafter collectively called MBOs) for 100 Myr and recorded the characteristics of the escaping objects. The selected sample of MBOs with perihelion distance q > 1.3 au and semimajor axis a random spin obliquities (either 0 deg or 180 deg) for each test asteroid. Results: We find more than ten obvious escape routes from the asteroid belt to the NEO region, and they typically coincide with low-order mean-motion resonances with Jupiter and secular resonances. The locations of the escape routes are independent of the semimajor-axis drift rate and thus are also independent of the asteroid diameter. The locations of the escape routes are likewise unaffected when we added a model for Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) cycles coupled with secular evolution of the rotation pole as a result of the solar gravitational torque. A Yarkovsky-only model predicts a flux of asteroids entering the NEO region that is too high compared to the observationally constrained flux, and the discrepancy grows larger for smaller asteroids. A combined Yarkovsky and YORP model predicts a flux of small NEOs that is approximately a factor of 5 too low compared to an observationally constrained estimate. This suggests that the characteristic timescale of the YORP cycle is longer than our canonical YORP model predicts.

  17. The Overthrust Belt of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verrall, P.


    The Overthrust Belt extends for 5000 mi (8000 km) from the Brooks Range in Alaska to the Sierra Madre Oriental in Mexico. It consists of northeastward vergent thrust and fold structures involving late Precambrian to early Tertiary sedimentary section. These sediments represent deposition off the western rift margin, formed in late Precambrian time, of the North American Precambrian craton. The northeastward thrusting continued throughout the Mesozoic as a response to the convergence of the East Pacific Plate with the North American Plate. This convergence resulted in subduction beneath the North American Plate except at the northwest end (the Brooks Range) where the result was obduction. Convergence ceased when the west edge of the East Pacific Plate reached the subduction zone. The sedimentary section involved in the Thrust Belt contains good Devonian to Cretaceous hydrocarbon source rocks, and Ordovician to traps related to the thrusting (simple thrust sheets, imbricate thrust sheets, folded thrust sheets, step anticlines, footwall cutoffs, footwall anticlines, etc.). Field methods involved in exploration for hydrocarbons include field geological mapping, remote sensing (aerial photography and Landsat imagery), various seismic refraction and seismic reflection techniques (including modern detailed three dimension surveys) and potential field methods such as gravity and magnetic surveying. Studies of the field data include paleontology, source rock and hydrocarbon migration studies, structural and stratigraphic analyses, and the processing of geophysical data. This work has succeeded in two major areas: the Western Canadian Rocky Mountain Foothills, a major gas province producing mainly from Paleozoic reservoirs; and the Wyoming-Idaho-Utah portion of the thrust belt, also a major gas producer from Paleozoic reservoirs and, in addition, a major oil producer from the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone.

  18. An Evaluation Study of a CALL Application: With BELT or without BELT (United States)

    Genc, Humeyra


    The present study tried to evaluate the 6th grade students' attitudes towards the use of a CALL program which is called BELT Success used in English language learning course in a private school, the relationship to students' attitudes to their English language proficiency level, and finally teachers` experiences and opinions towards the use of…

  19. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission: Advancing Our Understanding of the Earth's Radiation Belts (United States)

    Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Kessel, Ramona; Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry


    We describe NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, whose primary science objective is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, the dynamics of relativistic electrons and penetrating ions in the Earth's radiation belts resulting from variable solar activity. The overarching scientific questions addressed include: 1. the physical processes that produce radiation belt enhancement events, 2. the dominant mechanisms for relativistic electron loss, and 3. how the ring current and other geomagnetic processes affect radiation belt behavior. The RBSP mission comprises two spacecraft which will be launched during Fall 2012 into low inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigee altitudes and apogee radial distances of 600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. During the two-year primary mission, the spacecraft orbits precess once around the Earth and lap each other twice in each local time quadrant. The spacecraft are each equipped with identical comprehensive instrumentation packages to measure, electrons, ions and wave electric and magnetic fields. We provide an overview of the RBSP mission, onboard instrumentation and science prospects and invite scientific collaboration.

  20. Period Determination of Six Main Belt Asteroids (United States)

    Ferrero, Andrea


    Observations of six main-belt asteroids (MBA) produced lightcurve parameters of: 487 Venetia, P = 13.34 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.20 mag; 684 Hildburg, P = 15.89 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.22 mag; 772 Tanete, P = 8.629 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.18 mag.; 1181 Lilith, P = 15.04 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.11 mag.; 1246 Chaka, P = 25.44 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.25 mag.; and 2834 Christy Carol, P = 12.79 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.39 mag.

  1. Pelvic belt effects on sacroiliac joint ligaments: a computational approach to understand therapeutic effects of pelvic belts. (United States)

    Sichting, Freddy; Rossol, Jerome; Soisson, Odette; Klima, Stefan; Milani, Thomas; Hammer, Niels


    The sacroiliac joint is a widely described source of low back pain. Therapeutic approaches to relieve pain include the application of pelvic belts. However, the effects of pelvic belts on sacroiliac joint ligaments as potential pain generators are mostly unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the influence of pelvic belts on ligament load by means of a computer model. Experimental computer study using a finite element method. A computer model of the human pelvis was created, comprising bones, ligaments, and cartilage. Detailed geometries, material properties of ligaments, and in-vivo pressure distribution patterns of a pelvic belt were implemented. The effects of pelvic belts on ligament strain were computed in the double-leg stance. Pelvic belts increase sacroiliac joint motion around the sagittal axis but decrease motion around the transverse axis. With pelvic belt application, most of the strained sacroiliac joint ligaments were relieved, especially the sacrospinous, sacrotuberous, and the interosseous sacroiliac ligaments. Sacroiliac joint motion and ligament strains were minute. These results agree with validation data from other studies. Assigning homogenous and linear material properties and excluding muscle forces are clear simplifications of the complex reality. Pelvic belts alter sacroiliac joint motion and provide partial relief of ligament strain that is subjectively marked, although minimal in absolute terms. These findings confirm theories that besides being mechanical stabilizers, the sacroiliac joint ligaments are likely involved in neuromuscular feedback mechanisms. The results from our computer model help with unraveling the therapeutic mechanisms of pelvic belts.

  2. Fading of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt (United States)

    Sola, Michael A.; Orton, Glenn; Baines, Kevin; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma


    One of Jupiter's most dominant features, the South Equatorial Belt, has historically gone through a "fading" cycle. The usual dark, brownish clouds turn white, and after a period of time, the region returns to its normal color. Understanding this phenomenon, the latest occurring in 2010, will increase our knowledge of planetary atmospheres. Using the near infrared camera, NSFCAM2, at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, images were taken of Jupiter accompanied by data describing the circumstances of each observation. These images are then processed and reduced through an IDL program. By scanning the central meridian of the planet, graphs were produced plotting the average values across the central meridian, which are used to find variations in the region of interest. Calculations using Albert4, a FORTRAN program that calculates the upwelling reflected sunlight from a designated cloud model, can be used to determine the effects of a model atmosphere due to various absorption, scattering, and emission processes. Spectra that were produced show ammonia bands in the South Equatorial Belt. So far, we can deduce from this information that an upwelling of ammonia particles caused a cloud layer to cover up the region. Further investigations using Albert4 and other models will help us to constrain better the chemical make up of the cloud and its location in the atmosphere.

  3. Seat belt utilisation and awareness in UAE. (United States)

    Bendak, S; Al-Saleh, K


    Seat belts (SBs) are effective devices for reducing injury risk due to traffic accidents. Seat belt wearing was made compulsory in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in January 1999 for drivers and front seat passengers (FSPs). No comprehensive study has ever assessed SB wearing rates across the country. Also, little is known on drivers' awareness of the importance of wearing seatbelts and how human factors affect wearing habits. This study aims to determine SB wearing rates for drivers and FSPs in UAE through an observational field study. It also aims to investigate perceptions and behaviour of drivers on this issue as well as human factors that affect wearing rate through a randomly distributed questionnaire. The results of the field study show that the overall SB wearing rate across the country was 61% for drivers and 43.4% for FSPs and that there were significant differences between the seven emirates that constitute the country. The questionnaire results show that age, education level, gender, marital status and nationality of drivers affect wearing habits and perceptions. Future implications in terms of improving traffic safety awareness are discussed.

  4. The Social Construction of the Great Belt Fixed Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte


    Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link.......Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link....

  5. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep


    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  6. Energy Saving for Belt Conveyors by Speed Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.


    Belt conveyors are widely used in bulk solids handling and conveying systems. Considering the extensive use of belt conveyors, their operations involve a large amount of energy. Taking the relevant economic and social challenges into account, there is a strong demand for lowering the energy

  7. Estimates of effectiveness of safety belts under discussion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.


    The use of safety belts reduces the change to be injured or killed in an accident. It has been proven in laboratories by impact tests. To determine the effectivety of safety belts in real terms before- and- after comparisons are made with adjustments for other influences. It seems probable that

  8. Seat Belt Use During Pregnancy in a Nigerian Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine compliance with car seat belt amongst antenatal patients and also identify the reasons for poor compliance with seat belt use. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Committee of the hospital prior to carrying out this study. This study was conducted between October and ...

  9. 46 CFR 169.825 - Wearing of safety belts. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wearing of safety belts. 169.825 Section 169.825 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.825 Wearing of safety belts. The master of each vessel shall ensure that each person wears...

  10. Ambient Response Analysis of the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Frandsen, J. B.; Andersen, P.


    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Great Belt Bridge is presented. The Great Belt Bridge is one of the largest suspension bridges in the world, and the analysis was carried out in order to investigate the possibilities of estimating reliable damping values from the ambient response...

  11. Increasing of horizontal velocity of particles leaving a belt conveyor (United States)

    Tavares, Abraão; Faria, Allbens


    We investigate the transport of granular materials by a conveyor belt via numerical simulations. We report an unusual increasing of particles horizontal velocity when they leave the belt and initiate free-fall. Using Discrete Elements Method, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon were investigated, and a study on how particle and system properties influences this effect were conducted.

  12. Design and Selection of a Belt Conveyor System for Increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of the modifications could not be realised as any increase in plant capacity beyond 850 t/h resulted in increased spillage on belt conveyor CB among a series of conveyors in the plant flow sheet. In this paper, the causes of the spillage on conveyor CB were investigated and a belt conveyor system capable of

  13. Increasing of horizontal velocity of particles leaving a belt conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavares Abraão


    Full Text Available We investigate the transport of granular materials by a conveyor belt via numerical simulations. We report an unusual increasing of particles horizontal velocity when they leave the belt and initiate free-fall. Using Discrete Elements Method, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon were investigated, and a study on how particle and system properties influences this effect were conducted.

  14. Belt conveyor dynamics in transient operation for speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.


    Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control.

  15. Performance approximation of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René)


    textabstractIn this paper, an approximation method is discussed for the analysis of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. The aim of the approximation method is to provide an instrument for obtaining rapid insight in the performance of designs of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. It can be used to

  16. Neptune's Eccentricity and the Nature of the Kuiper Belt (United States)

    Ward, William R.; Hahn, Joseph M.


    The small eccentricity of Neptune may be a direct consequence of apsidal wave interaction with the trans-Neptune population of debris called the Kuiper belt. The Kuiper belt is subject to resonant perturbations from Neptune, so that the transport of angular momentum by density waves can result in orbital evolution of Neptune as well as changes in the structure of the Kuiper belt. In particular, for a belt eroded out to the vicinity of Neptune's 2:1 resonance at about 48 astronomical units, Neptune's eccentricity can damp to its current value over the age of the solar system if the belt contains slightly more than an earth mass of material out to about 75 astronomical units.

  17. Survey of current situation in radiation belt modeling (United States)

    Fung, Shing F.


    The study of Earth's radiation belts is one of the oldest subjects in space physics. Despite the tremendous progress made in the last four decades, we still lack a complete understanding of the radiation belts in terms of their configurations, dynamics, and detailed physical accounts of their sources and sinks. The static nature of early empirical trapped radiation models, for examples, the NASA AP-8 and AE-8 models, renders those models inappropriate for predicting short-term radiation belt behaviors associated with geomagnetic storms and substorms. Due to incomplete data coverage, these models are also inaccurate at low altitudes (e.g., radiation data from modern space missions and advancement in physical modeling and data management techniques have now allowed the development of new empirical and physical radiation belt models. In this paper, we will review the status of modern radiation belt modeling. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  18. Pilot tests of a seat belt gearshift delay on the belt use of commercial fleet drivers : traffic tech. (United States)


    Wearing a seat belt has been shown effective in avoiding : or reducing serious injury due to traffic crashes. While : belt use rates in the United States increased from under : 60% in 1994 to 83% in 2008, a substantial number of drivers : still drive...

  19. Wampum Belts with Initials and/or Dates as Design Elements: A Preliminary Review of One Subcategory of Political Belts (United States)

    Becker, Marshall Joseph; Lainey, Jonathan


    Data on seventeen relatively well-documented examples as a preliminary review to an ongoing study of all that is known about belts that are a subcategory of the secular-political category is discussed. Evidence indicates that Wampum belts with initials and/or dates as design elements can clearly be demonstrated as but one subcategory of…

  20. Equilibria and Free Vibration of a Two-Pulley Belt-Driven System with Belt Bending Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyu Ding


    Full Text Available Nonlinear equilibrium curvatures and free vibration characteristics of a two-pulley belt-driven system with belt bending stiffness and a one-way clutch are investigated. With nonlinear dynamical tension, the transverse vibrations of the translating belt spans and the rotation motions of the pulleys and the accessory shaft are coupled. Therefore, nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous governing equations are established. Considering the bending stiffness of the translating belt spans, the belt spans are modeled as axially moving beams. The pattern of equilibria is a nontrivial solution. Furthermore, the nontrivial equilibriums of the dynamical system are numerically determined by using two different approaches. The governing equations of the vibration near the equilibrium solutions are derived by introducing a coordinate transform. The natural frequencies of the dynamical systems are studied by using the Galerkin method with various truncations and the differential and integral quadrature methods. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is investigated. Numerical results reveal that the study needs 16 terms after truncation in order to determine the free vibration characteristics of the pulley-belt system with the belt bending stiffness. Furthermore, the first five natural frequencies are very sensitive to the bending stiffness of the translating belt.

  1. Main-belt comets: sublimation-driven activity in the asteroid belt (United States)

    Hsieh, Henry H.


    Our knowledge of main-belt comets (MBCs), which exhibit comet-like activity likely due to the sublimation of volatile ices, yet orbit in the main asteroid belt, has increased greatly since the discovery of the first known MBC, 133P/Elst-Pizarro, in 1996, and their recognition as a new class of solar system objects after the discovery of two more MBCs in 2005. I review work that has been done over the last 10 years to improve our understanding of these enigmatic objects, including the development of systematic discovery methods and diagnostics for distinguishing MBCs from disrupted asteroids (which exhibit comet-like activity due to physical disruptions such as impacts or rotational destabilization). I also discuss efforts to understand the dynamical and thermal properties of these objects.

  2. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Understanding the influence of outflows on Gould Belt clouds (United States)

    Drabek-Maunder, E.; Hatchell, J.; Buckle, J. V.; Di Francesco, J.; Richer, J.


    Using James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey data from CO J = 3 → 2 isotopologues, we present a meta-analysis of the outflows and energetics of star-forming regions in several Gould Belt clouds. The majority of the regions are strongly gravitationally bound. There is evidence that molecular outflows transport large quantities of momentum and energy. Outflow energies are at least 20 per cent of the total turbulent kinetic energies in all of the regions studied and greater than the turbulent energy in half of the regions. However, we find no evidence that outflows increase levels of turbulence, and there is no correlation between the outflow and turbulent energies. Even though outflows in some regions contribute significantly to maintaining turbulence levels against dissipation, this relies on outflows efficiently coupling to bulk motions. Other mechanisms (e.g. supernovae) must be the main drivers of turbulence in most if not all of these regions.

  3. Very energetic protons in Saturn's radiation belt (United States)

    Fillius, W.; Mcilwain, C.


    Very energetic protons are trapped in the inner Saturnian radiation belt. The University of California at San Diego instrument on Pioneer 11 has definitely identified protons of energy greater than 80 MeV on channel M3 and has tentatively detected protons of energy greater than 600 MeV on channel C3. The spatial distribution of the protons is distinct from that of the trapped electrons, the main difference being that the protons are strongly absorbed by the innermost moons and that the electrons are not. The source strength for injecting protons by the decay of cosmic ray albedo neutrons generated in the rings of Saturn has been estimated. The required proton lifetime is approximately 20 years.

  4. NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe Mission (United States)

    Sibeck, David G.


    NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, comprising two identically-instrumented spacecraft, is scheduled for launch in May 2012. In addition to identifying and quantifying the processes responsible for energizing, transporting, and removing energetic particles from the Earth's Van Allen radiation, the mission will determine the characteristics of the ring current and its effect upon the magnetosphere as a whole. The distances separating the two RBSP spacecraft will vary as they move along their 1000 km altitude x 5.8 RE geocentric orbits in order to enable the spacecraft to separate spatial from temporal effects, measure gradients that help identify particle sources, and determine the spatial extent of a wide array of phenomena. This talk explores the scientific objectives of the mission and the manner by which the mission has been tailored to achieve them.

  5. Measuring and modeling twilight's Belt of Venus. (United States)

    Lee, Raymond L


    The Belt of Venus (or antitwilight arch) is a reddish band often seen above the antisolar horizon during clear civil twilights, and immediately beneath it is the bluish-gray earth's shadow (or dark segment) cast on the atmosphere. Although both skylight phenomena have prompted decades of scientific research, surprisingly few measurements exist of their spectral, colorimetric, and photometric structure. Hyperspectral imaging of several clear twilights supplies these missing radiometric details and reveals some common spectral features of the antisolar sky at twilight: (1) color differences between the dark segment and the sunlit sky above the antitwilight arch are small or nil; (2) antisolar color and luminance extremes usually occur at different elevation angles; and (3) the two twilight phenomena are most vivid for modest aerosol optical depths. A second-order scattering model that includes extinction by aerosols and ozone provides some preliminary radiative transfer explanations of these twilight features' color and brightness.

  6. Sample Set (SE): SE31 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE31 Comparison of seed metabolites among eggplant fruit tissues Investigation of Solanum melongena Se...shi 2, Daisuke Shibata 1, 1: Kazusa DNA Research Institute, 2: Chiba Prefectural Agriculture Research Center Direct Submittion version 1 ...

  7. Sample Set (SE): SE30 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE30 Comparison of seed metabolites among soybean varieties Investigation of Glycine max. green se...1, Kazuo Okoshi 2, Daisuke Shibata 1, 1: Kazusa DNA Research Institute, 2: Chiba Prefectural Agriculture Research Center Direct Submittion version 1 ...

  8. Anthropogenic influences in a lagoonal environment: a multiproxy approach at the valo grande mouth, Cananéia-Iguape system (SE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Michaelovitch de Mahiques


    Full Text Available The Cananéia-Iguape system, SE Brazil, consists of a complex of lagoonal channels, located in a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. Nevertheless, important environmental changes have occurred in approximately the last 150 yrs due to the opening of an artificial channel, the Valo Grande, connecting the Ribeira de Iguape River to the lagoonal system. Our objective is to assess the historical record of the uppermost layers of the sedimentary column of the lagoonal system in order to determine the history of environmental changes caused by the opening of the artificial channel. In this sense, an integrated geochemical-faunal approach is used. The environmental changes led significant modifications in salinity, in changes of the depositional patterns of sediments and foraminiferal assemblages (including periods of defaunation, and, more drastically, in the input of heavy metals to the coastal environment. The concentrations Pb in the core analyzed here were up to two times higher than the values measured in contaminated sediments from the Santos estuary, the most industrialized coastal zone in Brazil.O sistema Cananéia-Iguape (Sudeste do Brasil, consiste em um complexo de canais lagunares localizados no interior de uma Reserva da Biosfera (assim definida pela UNESCO. Não obstante, variações ambientais importantes ocorreram nos últimos 150 anos, devido à abertura de um canal artificial, o Valo Grande, conectando o Rio Ribeira de Iguape ao sistema lagunar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a história das variações ambientais no sistema lagunar, causadas pela abertura do canal artificial, através da análise das camadas superiores da coluna sedimentar de um testemunho coletado no sistema. Neste sentido, uma abordagem integrada, envolvendo variações geoquímicas e faunísticas foi utilizada. As variações ambientais ocorridas apontam para mudanças drásticas na salinidade, nos

  9. Space Weather Effects in the Earth's Radiation Belts (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Erickson, P. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Foster, J. C.; Jaynes, A. N.; Verronen, P. T.


    The first major scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or belts, of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. Recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed many novel properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic and ultra-relativistic kinetic energies. In this review we summarize the space weather impacts of the radiation belts. We demonstrate that many remarkable features of energetic particle changes are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. Recent comprehensive data show broadly and in many ways how high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. We also discuss how radiation belt particles are intimately tied to other parts of the geospace system through atmosphere, ionosphere, and plasmasphere coupling. The new data have in many ways rewritten the textbooks about the radiation belts as a key space weather threat to human technological systems.

  10. Review of GEM Radiation Belt Dropout and Buildup Challenges (United States)

    Tu, Weichao; Li, Wen; Morley, Steve; Albert, Jay


    In Summer 2015 the US NSF GEM (Geospace Environment Modeling) focus group named "Quantitative Assessment of Radiation Belt Modeling" started the "RB dropout" and "RB buildup" challenges, focused on quantitative modeling of the radiation belt buildups and dropouts. This is a community effort which includes selecting challenge events, gathering model inputs that are required to model the radiation belt dynamics during these events (e.g., various magnetospheric waves, plasmapause and density models, electron phase space density data), simulating the challenge events using different types of radiation belt models, and validating the model results by comparison to in situ observations of radiation belt electrons (from Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, GOES, LANL/GEO, etc). The goal is to quantitatively assess the relative importance of various acceleration, transport, and loss processes in the observed radiation belt dropouts and buildups. Since 2015, the community has selected four "challenge" events under four different categories: "storm-time enhancements", "non-storm enhancements", "storm-time dropouts", and "non-storm dropouts". Model inputs and data for each selected event have been coordinated and shared within the community to establish a common basis for simulations and testing. Modelers within and outside US with different types of radiation belt models (diffusion-type, diffusion-convection-type, test particle codes, etc.) have participated in our challenge and shared their simulation results and comparison with spacecraft measurements. Significant progress has been made in quantitative modeling of the radiation belt buildups and dropouts as well as accessing the modeling with new measures of model performance. In this presentation, I will review the activities from our "RB dropout" and "RB buildup" challenges and the progresses achieved in understanding radiation belt physics and improving model validation and verification.

  11. An Effective Belt Conveyor for Underground Ore Transportation Systems (United States)

    Krol, Robert; Kawalec, Witold; Gladysiewicz, Lech


    Raw material transportation generates a substantial share of costs in the mining industry. Mining companies are therefore determined to improve the effectiveness of their transportation system, focusing on solutions that increase both its energy efficiency and reliability while keeping maintenance costs low. In the underground copper ore operations in Poland’s KGHM mines vast and complex belt conveyor systems have been used for horizontal haulage of the run-of-mine ore from mining departments to shafts. Basing upon a long-time experience in the field of analysing, testing, designing and computing of belt conveyor equipment with regard to specific operational conditions, the improvements to the standard design of an underground belt conveyor for ore transportation have been proposed. As the key elements of a belt conveyor, the energy-efficient conveyor belt and optimised carrying idlers have been developed for the new generation of underground conveyors. The proposed solutions were tested individually on the specially constructed test stands in the laboratory and in the experimental belt conveyor that was built up with the use of prototype parts and commissioned for the regular ore haulage in a mining department in the KGHM underground mine “Lubin”. Its work was monitored and the recorded operational parameters (loadings, stresses and strains, energy dissipation, belt tracking) were compared with those previously collected on a reference (standard) conveyor. These in-situ measurements have proved that the proposed solutions will return with significant energy savings and lower maintenance costs. Calculations made on the basis of measurement results in the specialized belt conveyor designing software allow to estimate the possible savings if the modernized conveyors supersede the standard ones in a large belt conveying system.

  12. Power Transmission Through Timing Belt In Two Wheeler Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurumurthy Veerapathiran


    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of noise and friction on performance of the chain drive system for motor bikes. Experiment shows that chain transmission in chain drive system leads to poor overall performance, due to its noise and chain gets loose due to aging and sprockets wear due to chain friction etc., the proposed system consists of drive and driven pulley with timing belt transmission. Compared to conventional method, proposed method give improved tension in pulleys and belt by the additional arrangement called belt tensioner. This gives good overall performance of the system, and reduces noise, vibration and gives high transmission speed.

  13. Radiation Belt Storm Probes: Resolving Fundamental Physics with Practical Consequences (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr Y.; Mauk, Barry H.; Fox, Nicola J.; Sibeck, David G.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.


    The fundamental processes that energize, transport, and cause the loss of charged particles operate throughout the universe at locations as diverse as magnetized planets, the solar wind, our Sun, and other stars. The same processes operate within our immediate environment, the Earth's radiation belts. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission will provide coordinated two-spacecraft observations to obtain understanding of these fundamental processes controlling the dynamic variability of the near-Earth radiation environment. In this paper we discuss some of the profound mysteries of the radiation belt physics that will be addressed by RBSP and briefly describe the mission and its goals.

  14. Formation and Decay of the Inner Electron Radiation Belt (United States)


    Wave acceleration of electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts , Nature, 437, 227–230, doi:10.1038/nature03939. Kessel, R. L., N. J. mission of the Van Allen Probes Key Points: • Quantified upper limit of MeV electrons in the inner belt • Actual MeV electron intensity likely...have not happened yet since the launch of Van Allen Probes, significant enhancements of MeV electrons do not occur in the inner belt even

  15. Feasibility of electro-osmotic belt filter dewatering technology at pilot scale

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snyman, HG


    Full Text Available -effective dewatering technologies, electro-osmotic belt filtering was developed by Smollen and Kafaar in 1995. The mechanical equipment resembles a belt filter press but the belts are stainless steel, woven belts, which act as the electrodes. In this study...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz JAMROZ


    Full Text Available The article presents some problems of seat belt use by car drivers and passengers. It looks in particular at seat belt use and effectiveness in selected countries. Next, factors of seat belt use are presented and methodology of model development. A macro model of seat belt use is presented based on data from around fifty countries from different continents.

  17. Practical and medical aspects of the use of car seat belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, A. & Kampen, L.T.B. van


    An analysis is made of the influence of use and non-use of seat belts on type and severity of injuries to drivers and of the influence of seat belt type on type and severity of injuries to drivers. Users of lap belts and users of 3-point belts enjoy a comparable and considerable reduction of injury

  18. Belts Evaluated as Limb Tourniquets: BELT Study Comparing Trouser Supporters Used as Medical Devices in a Manikin Model of Wound Bleeding. (United States)

    Bequette, Blake W; Kragh, John F; Aden, James K; Dubick, Michael A


    The purpose of the present study is to compare several models of commercially designed belts as used as a tourniquet. In the Belts Evaluated as Limb Tourniquets (BELT) study, an experiment was designed to test the effectiveness of pants belts as nonimprovised medical devices to control hemorrhage in a manikin. Models of belts included Tourni-belt, Tourniquet Belt, ParaBelt, and Battle Buddy. Data collected included effectiveness, time to stop bleeding, total time of application, pressure, blood loss, and composite results (score count of good results; composite outcome good if every component was good). Differences in effectiveness percentages among models were not statistically significant. The difference in mean between users was statistically significant for stop time, total time, pressure, blood loss, composite score, and composite outcome. Mean time to stop bleeding differed for only 1 pair of models after the Tukey-Kramer adjustment; ParaBelt was faster than Tourniquet Belt. Mean total time of application differed between ParaBelt-Tourniquet Belt and Tourni-belt-Tourniquet Belt; the former model in both pairs was faster. No significant difference in mean blood loss measured by model was found. For composite outcome score, no pairwise difference between models was significant. For composite outcome (good-bad), ParaBelt had good results in 75% of tests; the other 3 models had significantly worse results. In a preliminary laboratory analysis of belt tourniquet models using a manikin, performance differed by model. ParaBelt performed better than other models for the composite outcome. Published by Elsevier Inc.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains low-resolution (R~150) near-infrared (0.7-2.5 microns) spectra of 90 main belt asteroids observed with the SpeX instrument on the NASA...

  20. "Abomination"--life as a Bible belt gay. (United States)

    Barton, Bernadette


    Drawing on observation, autoethnography, and audio-taped interviews, this article explores the religious backgrounds and experiences of Bible Belt gays. In the Bible Belt, Christianity is not confined to Sunday worship. Christian crosses, messages, paraphernalia, music, news, and attitudes permeate everyday settings. Consequently, Christian fundamentalist dogma about homosexuality-that homosexuals are bad, diseased, perverse, sinful, other, and inferior-is cumulatively bolstered within a variety of other social institutions and environments in the Bible Belt. Of the 46 lesbians and gay men interviewed for this study (age 18-74 years), most describe living through spirit-crushing experiences of isolation, abuse, and self-loathing. This article argues that the geographic region of the Bible Belt intersects with religious-based homophobia. Informants explained that negative social attitudes about homosexuality caused a range of harmful consequences in their lives including the fear of going to hell, depression, low self-esteem, and feelings of worthlessness.

  1. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Laysan 2004 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Laysan in the Northwest...

  2. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Maug, 2003 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 10 sites at Maug in the...

  3. May 2006 Click It or Ticket seat belt mobilization evaluation (United States)


    Click It or Ticket (CIOT) mobilizations are intense, short-duration, seat belt publicity and enforcement programs. The 2006 national mobilization involved approximately $27 million of purchased media. Law enforcement agencies across the nation report...

  4. Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) (United States)

    Mitchell, D. G.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Kim, C. K.; Stokes, M.; Ho, G.; Cooper, S.; Ukhorskiy, A.; Manweiler, J. W.; Jaskulek, S.; Haggerty, D. K.; Brandt, P.; Sitnov, M.; Keika, K.; Hayes, J. R.; Brown, L. E.; Gurnee, R. S.; Hutcheson, J. C.; Nelson, K. S.; Paschalidis, N.; Rossano, E.; Kerem, S.


    The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) on the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft is the magnetosphere ring current instrument that will provide data for answering the three over-arching questions for the Van Allen Probes Program: RBSPICE will determine "how space weather creates the storm-time ring current around Earth, how that ring current supplies and supports the creation of the radiation belt populations," and how the ring current is involved in radiation belt losses. RBSPICE is a time-of-flight versus total energy instrument that measures ions over the energy range from ˜20 keV to ˜1 MeV. RBSPICE will also measure electrons over the energy range ˜25 keV to ˜1 MeV in order to provide instrument background information in the radiation belts. A description of the instrument and its data products are provided in this chapter.

  5. Evolution of the Bhandara-Balaghat granulite belt along the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    100. Huin A K, Chattopadhyay A and Khan A S 1998 A reappraisal of stratigraphy and structure of the Sausar mobile belt around Deolapar-Pauni-Manegaon area,. Nagpur district, Maharashtra, India; In: International. Seminar on Precambrian ...

  6. Jupiter's radiation belt ions - A comparison of theory and observation (United States)

    Summers, Danny; Thorne, Richard M.; Mei, YI


    Radial profiles are constructed for the Jovian radiation belt flux-tube content Y-asterisk from the reported phase-space density of energetic particles obtained from Voyager 1 data over the range L = 6 to L = 9. These experimental profiles are compared with theoretical solutions for Y-asterisk from an interchange-diffusion model of the coupled radiation belt and Iogenic ion populations. Subject to certain limitations of the Voyager 1 data, the model solutions are found to be consistent with the data for a variety of input parameters. Model solutions are also found corresponding to radiation belt ions that are expected to be mainly responsible for the auroral energy input. Comparison of the present theoretical profiles with the data implies that the energetic radiation belt ions should have a peak loss rate within a factor of three of that for strong diffusion scattering.

  7. Calculated limits for particle fluxes in Jupiter's Van Allen belts (United States)

    Haffner, J.


    Electron and proton fluxes in Jupiter's radiation belts are calculated, along with the envelopes of dose rates. The following assumptions are made: the particles in the Jupiter belts are influenced only by the magnetic field of the planet; the particles act correspondingly to the particles in the Earth's belts and the Earth's belts can be used as a model; the magnetic field of Jupiter is essentially a dipole; the radiation of a decimetric nature received from Jupiter is synchrotron radiation due to the electrons, and to a first approximation it is emitted isotropically; and the strength of the emission in the decimetric wavelength range gives an upper bound considering how strong the field can be and how many electrons there are. The point dose rates for tissue and 0.1 gram/cm aluminum shielding at about 3 Jupiter radii are 10000 rads/hr for electrons and 1000 rads/hr for protons.

  8. Restraint use (seat belt and child passenger seat) survey (United States)


    In Arizona, lack of restraint usage (seat belts and child passenger seats) was a contributing factor to an average of 687 fatalities per year which is nearly 60% of total fatalities. These tragic statistics could be dramatically decreased if effectiv...

  9. Cenozoic intracontinental deformation of the Kopeh Dagh Belt, Northeastern Iran (United States)

    Chu, Yang; Wan, Bo; Chen, Ling; Talebian, Morteza


    Compressional intracontinental orogens represent large tectonic zones far from plate boundaries. Since intracontinental mountain belts cannot be framed in the conventional plate tectonics theory, several hypotheses have been proposed to account for the formations of these mountain belts. The far-field effect of collision/subduction at plate margins is now well accepted for the origin and evolution of the intracontinental crust thickening, as exemplified by the Miocene tectonics of central Asia. In northern Iran, the Binalud-Alborz mountain belt witnessed the Triassic tectonothermal events (Cimmerian orogeny), which are interpreted as the result of the Paleotethys Ocean closure between the Eurasia and Central Iran blocks. The Kopeh Dagh Belt, located to the north of the Binalud-Alborz Belt, has experienced two significant tectonic phases: (1) Jurassic to Eocene rifting with more than 7 km of sediments; and (2) Late Eocene-Early Oligocene to Quaternary continuous compression. Due to the high seismicity, deformation associated with earthquakes has received more and more attention; however, the deformation pattern and architecture of this range remain poorly understood. Detailed field observations on the Cenozoic deformation indicate that the Kopeh Dagh Belt can be divided into a western zone and an eastern zone, separated by a series of dextral strike-slip faults, i.e. the Bakharden-Quchan Fault System. The eastern zone characterized by km-scale box-fold structures, associated with southwest-dipping reverse faults and top-to-the NE kinematics. In contrast, the western zone shows top-to-the SW kinematics, and the deformation intensifies from NE to SW. In the northern part of this zone, large-scale asymmetrical anticlines exhibit SW-directed vergence with subordinate thrusts and folds, whereas symmetrical anticlines are observed in the southern part. In regard to its tectonic feature, the Kopeh Dagh Belt is a typical Cenozoic intracontinental belt without ophiolites or

  10. Observer-based fault diagnosis for trucks belt tensioner


    Dubuc, Donatien; Sename, Olivier; Bresch-Pietri, Delphine; Gauthier, Christophe


    International audience; This paper deals with the monitoring of a serpentine belt tensioner performance, a critical automotive engine component guaranteeing the cooling system efficiency. A belt tensioner fault will affect the transmission, deteriorate the water pump efficiency, and eventually, lead the engine to stall. Monitoring this component is thus a key to design predictive or corrective maintenance. In this paper, we propose to estimate a parameter which is shown to be characteristic o...

  11. The 2010-2011 revival of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt (United States)

    Giles, R. S.; Fletcher, L. N.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Orton, G. S.; Rogers, J. H.


    In 2009-2010, Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt (SEB) faded to a very pale colour before the 2010-2011 revival restored the belt to its ordinary dark appearance. Mid-infrared images of the revival were taken using VISIR (VLT) across a range of wavelengths from 7 to 25 μm. These were used to retrieve changes in temperature and aerosol optical depth as the revival proceeded between November 2010 and September 2011.

  12. Preparation and characterization of highly planar flexible silver crystal belts. (United States)

    Varade, Dharmesh; Haraguchi, Kazutoshi


    We report a novel simple one-pot strategy for fabricating pure and highly planar silver (Ag) crystal belts. Unique single-crystal Ag belts (high width-to-thickness ratio ~50) were successfully synthesized in high yield (80 wt%) by reducing AgNO3 using N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) as a reducing and a structure-determining agent in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) under mild conditions.

  13. Denouement of Jovian radiation belt theory (United States)

    Coroniti, F. V.


    Predictions of theoretical models of Jupiter's radiation belts are compared with Pioneer 10 measurements. A brief quasi-historical review is given of the evolution of the basic theoretical ideas with emphasis on the three physical processes that were believed to be dominant in the Jovian electron fluxes: radial-diffusion transport, limitation of particle fluxes by plasma wave turbulence, and particle losses from collisional sweep-up by the Galilean satellites. Pioneer 10 data on the inner zone are discussed which yield the clearest evidence for radial diffusion being the dominant transport process, the synchrotron flux density is estimated using Pioneer 10 measurements, and the observed outer-zone electron fluxes are favorably compared with the qualitative and quantitative predictions of the whistler-mode stable-trapping model. The outer-zone electron-precipitation flux is estimated, and it is suggested that precipitation could affect the structure of the Jovian ionosphere. Satellite sweep-up is shown to be less severe than had been anticipated.

  14. Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics: Modeling Atmospheric Losses (United States)

    Selesnick, R. S.


    The first year of work on this project has been completed. This report provides a summary of the progress made and the plan for the coming year. Also included with this report is a preprint of an article that was accepted for publication in Journal of Geophysical Research and describes in detail most of the results from the first year of effort. The goal for the first year was to develop a radiation belt electron model for fitting to data from the SAMPEX and Polar satellites that would provide an empirical description of the electron losses into the upper atmosphere. This was largely accomplished according to the original plan (with one exception being that, for reasons described below, the inclusion of the loss cone electrons in the model was deferred). The main concerns at the start were to accurately represent the balance between pitch angle diffusion and eastward drift that determines the dominant features of the low altitude data, and then to accurately convert the model into simulated data based on the characteristics of the particular electron detectors. Considerable effort was devoted to achieving these ends. Once the model was providing accurate results it was applied to data sets selected from appropriate periods in 1997, 1998, and 1999. For each interval of -30 to 60 days, the model parameters were calculated daily, thus providing good short and long term temporal resolution, and for a range of radial locations from L = 2.7 to 3.9. .

  15. Trapped radiation belts of Saturn - First look (United States)

    Fillius, W.; Ip, W. H.; Mcilwain, C. E.


    Data on the magnetosphere of Saturn obtained with the trapped radiation detector package on board the Pioneer 11 spacecraft is reported. Radiation belt profiles determined by the trapped radiation detectors on Pioneer 10 and 11 indicate that Saturn's magnetosphere is intermediate in size between those of the earth and Jupiter, with particle intensities similar to those of the earth. The outer region of the Saturn magnetosphere is found to contain particles of lower energy than the outer region, being strongly influenced by the time-varying solar wind. The moons and rings of Saturn are observed to be effective absorbers of trapped particles, confirming the discoveries of the F ring, the Pioneer ring division and the moon 1979 S 2. Particle diffusion rates are used to estimate a cross-sectional area of greater than 7 x 10 to the 13th sq cm and an opacity greater than 0.00001 for the F ring. It is suggested that cosmic-ray albedo neutron decay be studied as a possible source of energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn.

  16. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony


    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  17. Exploring the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt (United States)

    Bottke, W.; Broz, M.; O'Brien, D.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Morbidelli, A.


    The asteroid belt is a remnant of planet-formation processes. By modeling its collisional and dynamical history, and linking the results to constraints, we can probe how the planets and small bodies formed and evolved. Some key model constraints are: (i) The wavy shape of the main-belt size distribution (SFD), with inflection points near 100-km, 10--20-km, 1 to a few km, and ˜0.1-km diameter; (ii) The number of asteroid families created by the catastrophic breakup of large asteroid bodies over the last ˜ 4 Gy, with the number of disrupted D > 100 km bodies as small as ˜20 or as large as 60; (iii) the flux of small asteroids derived from the main belt that have struck the Moon over the last 3.5 Ga --- crater SFDs on lunar terrains with known ages suggest the D value may seem strange, considering the solar system is only 4.56 Gy old. One way to interpret it is that the main belt once had more mass that was eliminated by early dynamical processes between 4--4.56 Ga. This would allow for more early grinding, and it would suggest the main belt's wavy-shaped SFD is a ''fossil'' from a more violent early epoch. Simulations suggest that most D > 100 km bodies have been significantly battered, but only a fraction have been catastrophically disrupted. Conversely, most small asteroids today are byproducts of fragmentation events. These results are consistent with growing evidence that most of the prominent meteorite classes were produced by young asteroid families. The big question is how to use what we know to determine the main belt's original size and state. This work is ongoing, but dynamical models hint at many possibilities, including both the late arrival and late removal of material from the main belt. In addition, no model has yet properly accounted for the bombardment of the primordial main belt by leftover planetesimals in the terrestrial planet region. It is also possible to use additional constraints, such as the apparent paucity of Vesta-like or V

  18. Deformation and kinematics of the central Kirthar Fold Belt, Pakistan (United States)

    Hinsch, Ralph; Hagedorn, Peter; Asmar, Chloé; Nasim, Muhammad; Aamir Rasheed, Muhammad; Kiely, James M.


    The Kirthar Fold Belt is part of the lateral mountain belts in Pakistan linking the Himalaya orogeny with the Makran accretionary wedge. This region is deforming very oblique/nearly parallel to the regional plate motion vector. The study area is situated between the prominent Chaman strike-slip fault in the West and the un-deformed foreland (Kirthar Foredeep/Middle Indus Basin) in the East. The Kirthar Fold Belt is subdivided into several crustal blocks/units based on structural orientation and deformation style (e.g. Kallat, Khuzdar, frontal Kirthar). This study uses newly acquired and depth-migrated 2D seismic lines, surface geology observations and Google Earth assessments to construct three balanced cross sections for the frontal part of the fold belt. Further work was done in order to insure the coherency of the built cross-sections by taking a closer look at the regional context inferred from published data, simple analogue modelling, and constructed regional sketch sections. The Khuzdar area and the frontal Kirthar Fold Belt are dominated by folding. Large thrusts with major stratigraphic repetitions are not observed. Furthermore, strike-slip faults in the Khuzdar area are scarce and not observed in the frontal Kirthar Fold Belt. The regional structural elevation rises from the foreland across the Kirthar Fold Belt towards the hinterland (Khuzdar area). These observations indicate that basement-involved deformation is present at depth. The domination of folding indicates a weak decollement below the folds (soft-linked deformation). The fold pattern in the Khuzdar area is complex, whereas the large folds of the central Kirthar Fold Belt trend SSW-NNE to N-S and are best described as large detachment folds that have been slightly uplifted by basement involved transpressive deformation underneath. Towards the foreland, the deformation is apparently more hard-linked and involves fault-propagation folding and a small triangle zone in Cretaceous sediments

  19. Evaluation of legislation on seat belt use on rear seats : social persuasion as a new measure to promote seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.


    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts for front seat passengers was made compulsory in 1975, and on April 1st 1992 the use of rear seat belts, if fitted, became a legal requirement. Since 1968, an annual survey of the presence and use of seat belts on front seats - extended in 1989 to include

  20. On-conveyor belt analysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl Lim; David Abernethy; S. Rainey; L.K. Noack [CSIRO Minerals (Australia)


    The report describes the design and plant-testing of a prototype commercial on-belt ash analyser at the Bengalla CHPP (Muswellbrook, NSW). This analyser uses the Neutron Inelastic Scatter (NIS) and Thermal Neutron Capture (TNC) Analysis (NITA) technique, which has been investigated extensively in earlier ACARP projects C5051 (laboratory feasibility study) and the previous stage of C9042 (development and lab testing of a field prototype and evaluate the suitability of the technique for specific energy and sulphur measurement). The NITA analyser has been demonstrated to be capable of achieving an accuracy of 0.46 %ash. Specifically, a measured value for total r.m.s. error of 0.77 %ash, measured r.m.s error includes various uncertainties (estimated to be 0.61 %ash) associated with the chemical analysis and sample collection procedures used to generate the chemical laboratory data provided for calibration. In earlier laboratory work it was demonstrated that a measured r.m.s error of 0.75 %ash corresponded to an actual accuracy of 0.53 %ash after much smaller laboratory sampling errors had been excluded. Accurate measurement of ash value can be achieved in material which is expected to have significant variability in mineralogy, and in the past has not been amenable to analysis using the DUET technique. Accurate measurement of ash value is possible in the presence of significant levels of segregation and changes in mineral matter composition. CSIRO is collaborating with a commercial partner to demonstrate and complete the implementation of the NITA technology in industry. A commercial prototype analyser (NITA II) is under development and a plant installation is expected to occur in mid 2008.

  1. The Great Belt coherence experiment. [Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, J.; Kristensen, L.; Courtney, M.S.


    We have studied theoretically and experimentally lateral spectral coherences of turbulent velocity components over water at the height of 70 m. Simple theoretical considerations show that if these coherences are known it is possible with just the knowledge of the spectra to calculate the power spectrum of the lift forces on the bridge deck. These considerations also show that the force spectrum at a particular frequency {omega} = {omega}{sub 0} grows with the mean wind speed U raised to a power which can be as large as 17/3, i.e. the r.m.s. amplitude of the force at that frequency is proportional to U{sup 17/6}. We have shown quantitatively that only if the displacement D between the measured wind speed components is small compared to the scale of the turbulence do we know for certain that the coherences are parameterless functions of the dimensionless variable {omega}D/U with the implication that the coherence of identical velocity components goes to one as {omega} goes to zero. The experimental data were obtained from three sonic anemometers mounted at the top of two 70 m masts on the island Sprogoe in the middle of the Great Belt between Zealand and Fyn. The displacements were 15.0, 32.5 and 47.5 m. The data shows that the coherences only for the smallest displacement approach one as the frequency goes to zero. The larger the displacement the smaller the coherence at zero frequency. A dynamic ''shear distortion'' model explains the behavior of the coherence quite well and makes it possible to predict the coherence on basis of velocity spectra measured at one point. Simple exponential fit to the actual data have been obtained. (author) 23 refs.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ment probeer gee: (Niemand minder as) Chomsky se dat ons deur n studie van die ... sigself maak tog nie Chomsky se teorie oor n aangebore taalaanleg en die ...... BIBLIOGRAFIE. Alcock, Anthony E., Brian K. en John M. Welton. 1979. The future of cultural minorities. London: The Macmil- lan Press. Chomsky, Noam. 1975.

  3. Electrospun nanofiber belts made from high performance copolyimide. (United States)

    Chen, Shuiliang; Hu, Ping; Greiner, Andreas; Cheng, Chuyun; Cheng, Haofang; Chen, Fangfang; Hou, Haoqing


    Electrospun nanofibers based on copolyimides were made, aiming at finding a promising method for improving the mechanical properties of electrospun polyimide nanofibers. The copolyimide had a backbone consisting of 3,3',4,4'-biphenyl-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), biphenylamide (BPA) and 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA) residues. The structure and composition of the copolyimide was controlled by the ratio of rigid BPA and flexible ODA moieties. The electrospun copolyimide nanofibers were collected in the form of a belt using a rotating disc with a rim of 8 mm width. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, x-ray scattering and tensile testing, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the nanofiber belts. The nanofibers had a diameter range from 80 to 300 nm and were well aligned in the belts. The thermal stability of the nanofiber belts was over 460 °C. The tensile test showed that the copolyimide nanofiber belts had much better mechanical properties than either of the flexible and rigid homo-polyimide (homo-PI) nanofiber belts. The tensile strength, modulus and elongation to break of the copolyimide nanofiber belt with BPA/ODA ratio of 40/60 are respectively 1.1 ± 0.1 GPa, 6.2 ± 0.7 GPa and 20.8 ± 1.2%, compared to 459 ± 36 MPa, 2.1 ± 0.3 GPa and 41.3 ± 2.2% for BPDA/ODA homo-PI as well as 384 ± 18 MPa, 11.5 ± 0.6 GPa and 3.9 ± 0.1% for BPDA/BPA homo-PI. The important feature is that the electrospun polymer nanofibers can be made very strong by using copolyimides as spinning materials.

  4. Sample Set (SE): SE12 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE12 Effect of agricultural films for spinach leaf metabolites Investigation of Spi...nacia oleracea leaf metabolites. 2 cultivars (Nihon and Wasesaradaakari), 2 growth conditions (normal film and UV film

  5. Sample Set (SE): SE19 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE19 Grobal triacylglycerol analysis in mouse liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) ...rol (TAG) molecular species from complex lipid mixtures of mouse liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) using reverse-phase

  6. Sample Set (SE): SE20 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE20 Arabidopsis thaliana leaf metabolite analysis for a software test that were investigated to optimize the parameters of PowerGet software for better metabolite annotation i

  7. Sample Set (SE): SE10 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE10 Effect of phosphorus nutrition for cabbage metabolites Investigation of oleracea var. capitata Hatukoi leaf metabolites. 3 growth conditions (high, low and no phosphorus nutrition

  8. Sample Set (SE): SE26 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE26 Effect of compost for cabbage metabolites Investigation of Brassica oleracea capitata YR Seisyun leaf metabolites. 2 growth conditions (with or without 6t compost treatment) and 3 r

  9. Sample Set (SE): SE16 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE16 Effect of agricultural films for spinach leaf metabolites 2 Investigation of S...pinacia oleracea leaf metabolites. 3 growth conditions (covered with normal or UV cut agricultural film or no agricultura

  10. Sample Set (SE): SE14 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE14 Effect of agricultural films for tomato fruit metabolites Investigation of Sol...anum lycopersicum fruit metabolites. 3 growth conditions (covered with normal or UV cut agricultural film or no agricultura

  11. Sample Set (SE): SE51 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE51 RIKEN tandem mass spectral database (ReSpect) for phytochemicals: A plant-spec...o be narrowed down to candidate structures. Therefore, a web-based database of MS/MS data pertaining to phytochemicals

  12. Sample Set (SE): SE13 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE13 Comparison of leaf metabolites among spinach varieties Investigation of Spinacia oleracea leaf metaboli...tes. 4 cultivers (Nihon, Kanaji, Kurohaminstarland and Wasesaradaakari) and 3 repli

  13. Sample Set (SE): SE18 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in by Orbitrap MS and automated search engine Lipid Search A comprehensive and precise identification of pho...spholipid molecular species was established with negative ion mode analyses by high accuracy MS and auto mated se...SE18 Global identification of phospholipid molecular species in mouse liver and bra... were applied to the comprehensive analyses and differences in molecular species were detected. Taguchi R an

  14. Comparison and validation of shallow landslides susceptibility maps generated by bi-variate and multi-variate linear probabilistic GIS-based techniques. A case study from Ribeira Quente Valley (S. Miguel Island, Azores) (United States)

    Marques, R.; Amaral, P.; Zêzere, J. L.; Queiroz, G.; Goulart, C.


    Slope instability research and susceptibility mapping is a fundamental component of hazard assessment and is of extreme importance for risk mitigation, land-use management and emergency planning. Landslide susceptibility zonation has been actively pursued during the last two decades and several methodologies are still being improved. Among all the methods presented in the literature, indirect quantitative probabilistic methods have been extensively used. In this work different linear probabilistic methods, both bi-variate and multi-variate (Informative Value, Fuzzy Logic, Weights of Evidence and Logistic Regression), were used for the computation of the spatial probability of landslide occurrence, using the pixel as mapping unit. The methods used are based on linear relationships between landslides and 9 considered conditioning factors (altimetry, slope angle, exposition, curvature, distance to streams, wetness index, contribution area, lithology and land-use). It was assumed that future landslides will be conditioned by the same factors as past landslides in the study area. The presented work was developed for Ribeira Quente Valley (S. Miguel Island, Azores), a study area of 9,5 km2, mainly composed of volcanic deposits (ash and pumice lapilli) produced by explosive eruptions in Furnas Volcano. This materials associated to the steepness of the slopes (38,9% of the area has slope angles higher than 35°, reaching a maximum of 87,5°), make the area very prone to landslide activity. A total of 1.495 shallow landslides were mapped (at 1:5.000 scale) and included in a GIS database. The total affected area is 401.744 m2 (4,5% of the study area). Most slope movements are translational slides frequently evolving into debris-flows. The landslides are elongated, with maximum length generally equivalent to the slope extent, and their width normally does not exceed 25 m. The failure depth rarely exceeds 1,5 m and the volume is usually smaller than 700 m3. For modelling

  15. Cenozoic deformation and exhumation of the Kampot Fold Belt and implications for south Indochina tectonics (United States)

    Fyhn, Michael B. W.; Green, Paul F.; Bergman, Steven C.; Van Itterbeeck, Jimmy; Tri, Tran V.; Dien, Phan T.; Abatzis, Ioannis; Thomsen, Tonny B.; Chea, Socheat; Pedersen, Stig A. S.; Mai, Le C.; Tuan, Hoang A.; Nielsen, Lars H.


    Latest Mesozoic to earliest Cenozoic deformation affected SE Asia's Sundaland core. The deformation event bridges the Mesozoic SE Asian fusion with the Cenozoic era of rifting, translation, basin formation, and the creation of modern SE Asian oceans. Southern Cambodia and Vietnam are central to this shift, but geological investigations of the region are in their infancy. Based on apatite and zircon fission track analyses (AFTA and ZFTA), stratigraphic and structural observations, seismic data, thermal maturity, and igneous rock dating, the geological evolution of southern Cambodia and Vietnam is investigated. Diverse depositional styles, igneous activity, structural deformation and subsurface unconformities testify to a highly variable Phanerozoic tectonic setting. Major latest Cretaceous to Paleocene thrusting and uplift affected the Kampot Fold Belt and surrounding regions and the associated up to 11 km exhumation probably exceeds earlier denudation events since at least Permian time. The present relief of the Bokor Mountains rising high above the Kampot Fold Belt represents an artifact after differential erosion and only 2.5-4.5 km of erosion affected this area. The latest Cretaceous to Paleocene orogenesis affected much of greater Indochina probably owing to plate collision along eastern Sundaland or a combination of collisions along both east and west Sundaland. AFTA and ZFTA data document protracted cooling of Cretaceous granites and locally elevated thermal gradients persisting a few tens of million years after their emplacement. The thermal gradient had stabilized by early Miocene time, and Miocene cooling probably reflects a renewed denudation pulse driven by either regional tectonism or climate-enhanced erosion.

  16. Fall Protection Characteristics of Safety Belts and Human Impact Tolerance. (United States)

    Hino, Yasumichi; Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki


    Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt1), which has been used for more than 40 yr in the Japanese construction industry as a general type of safety equipment for fall accident prevention, and a full harness2, 3), which has been used in many other countries. To determine human tolerance for impact trauma, this study discusses features of safety belts with reference4-9) to relevant studies in the medical science, automobile crash safety, and aircrew safety. For this purpose, simple drop tests were carried out in a virtual workplace to measure impact load, head acceleration, and posture in the experiments, the Hybrid-III pedestrian model10) was used as a human dummy. Hybrid-III is typically employed in official automobile crash tests (New Car Assessment Program: NCAP) and is currently recognized as a model that faithfully reproduces dynamic responses. Experimental results shows that safety performance strongly depends on both the variety of safety belts used and the shock absorbers attached onto lanyards. These findings indicate that fall prevention equipment, such as safety belts, lanyards, and shock absorbers, must be improved to reduce impact injuries to the human head and body during falls.

  17. Rotationally driven 'zebra stripes' in Earth's inner radiation belt. (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, A Y; Sitnov, M I; Mitchell, D G; Takahashi, K; Lanzerotti, L J; Mauk, B H


    Structured features on top of nominally smooth distributions of radiation-belt particles at Earth have been previously associated with particle acceleration and transport mechanisms powered exclusively by enhanced solar-wind activity. Although planetary rotation is considered to be important for particle acceleration at Jupiter and Saturn, the electric field produced in the inner magnetosphere by Earth's rotation can change the velocity of trapped particles by only about 1-2 kilometres per second, so rotation has been thought inconsequential for radiation-belt electrons with velocities of about 100,000 kilometres per second. Here we report that the distributions of energetic electrons across the entire spatial extent of Earth's inner radiation belt are organized in regular, highly structured and unexpected 'zebra stripes', even when the solar-wind activity is low. Modelling reveals that the patterns are produced by Earth's rotation. Radiation-belt electrons are trapped in Earth's dipole-like magnetic field, where they undergo slow longitudinal drift motion around the planet because of the gradient and curvature of the magnetic field. Earth's rotation induces global diurnal variations of magnetic and electric fields that resonantly interact with electrons whose drift period is close to 24 hours, modifying electron fluxes over a broad energy range into regular patterns composed of multiple stripes extending over the entire span of the inner radiation belt.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The car is the second (40% most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4% of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective ways to reduce road accident fatalities in Malaysia and consequently the mandatory seat belt law was enforced in the early seventies. Therefore, a study on factors influencing the compliance behaviour of seat belt use among cars is needed as to date no such research has been undertaken in Malaysia. A questionnaire study was carried out in Selangor, Malaysia on the compliance behaviour of car occupants in relation to seat belt use. A total of 237 respondents were interviewed and the data analysed using logistic regression method. Six variables were found to be significant at 5 percent level (p<0.05: seating position, location of travel, education level, speeding, night-time driving and enforcement. Compliance with the seat belt law was higher among drivers, educated car users, in the presence of enforcement activities, travelling in city-center areas and car users with a positive attitude towards the risks of speeding and night driving.

  19. On static contact of belt and different pulleys (United States)

    Belyaev, A. K.; Eliseev, V. V.; Irschik, H.; Oborin, E. A.


    The fitting of a looped belt on two pulleys with different radii is considered. A geometrically nonlinear model with account for tension and transverse shear is applied for modeling the belt. The pulleys are considered rigid bodies, and the belt-pulley contact is assumed frictionless. The problem has an axis of symmetry, therefore the boundary value problem is formulated and solved for a half of the belt. The considered part consists of three segments, two contact segments and a free span segment between them. The introduction of a dimensionless material coordinate at all segments leads to a system of ordinary differential equations of fifteenth order. The nonlinear boundary value problem for this system and boundary conditions is solved numerically with the shooting method and the finite difference method. As a result, the belt shape including the rotation angle, the forces, moments and contact pressure are determined. The contact pressure increases near the end point of contact areas, however no concentrated contact forces occur.

  20. Angle stations in or for endless conveyor belts (United States)

    Steel, Alan


    In an angle station for an endless conveyor belt, there are presented to each incoming run of the belt stationary curved guide members (18, 19) of the shape of a major segment of a right-circular cylinder and having in the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) thereof rectangular openings (15) arranged in parallel and helical paths and through which project small freely-rotatable rollers (14), the continuously-changing segments of the curved surfaces of which projecting through said openings (15) are in attitude to change the direction of travel of the belt (13) through during passage of the belt about the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) of the guide member (18 or 19). The rectangular openings (15) are arranged with their longer edges lengthwise of the diagonals representing the mean of the helix but with those of a plurality of the rows nearest to each end of the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) slightly out of axial symmetry with said diagonals, being slightly inclined in a direction about the intersections (40) of the diagonals of the main portion of the openings, to provide a "toe-in" attitude in relation to the line of run of the endless conveyor belt.

  1. Fall protection characteristics of safety belts and human impact tolerance. (United States)

    Hino, Yasumichi; Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki


    Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt, which has been used for more than 40 yr in the Japanese construction industry as a general type of safety equipment for fall accident prevention, and a full harness, which has been used in many other countries. To determine human tolerance for impact trauma, this study discusses features of safety belts with reference to relevant studies in the medical science, automobile crash safety, and aircrew safety. For this purpose, simple drop tests were carried out in a virtual workplace to measure impact load, head acceleration, and posture in the experiments, the Hybrid-III pedestrian model was used as a human dummy. Hybrid-III is typically employed in official automobile crash tests (New Car Assessment Program: NCAP) and is currently recognized as a model that faithfully reproduces dynamic responses. Experimental results shows that safety performance strongly depends on both the variety of safety belts used and the shock absorbers attached onto lanyards. These findings indicate that fall prevention equipment, such as safety belts, lanyards, and shock absorbers, must be improved to reduce impact injuries to the human head and body during falls.

  2. Inertial compensation for belt acceleration in an instrumented treadmill. (United States)

    Hnat, Sandra K; van den Bogert, Antonie J


    Instrumented treadmills provide a convenient means for applying horizontal perturbations during gait or standing. However, varying the treadmill belt speed introduces inertial artifacts in the sagittal plane moment component of the ground reaction force. Here we present a compensation method based on a second-order dynamic model that predicts inertial pitch moment from belt acceleration. The method was tested experimentally on an unloaded treadmill at a slow belt speed with small random variations (1.20±0.10m/s) and at a faster belt speed with large random variations (2.00±0.50m/s). Inertial artifacts of up to 12Nm (root-mean-square, RMS) and 30Nm (peak) were observed. Coefficients of the model were calibrated on one trial and then used to predict and compensate the pitch moment of another trial with different random variations. Coefficients of determination (R(2)) were 72.08% and 96.75% for the slow and fast conditions, respectively. After compensation, the root-mean-square (RMS) of the inertial artifact was reduced by 47.37% for the slow speed and 81.98% for fast speed, leaving only 1.5Nm and 2.1Nm of artifact uncorrected, respectively. It was concluded that the compensation technique reduced inertial errors substantially, thereby improving the accuracy in joint moment calculations on an instrumented treadmill with varying belt speed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Señas Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. García Mejía


    Full Text Available En este artículo se muestra un sistema que permite el estudio y práctica del Lenguaje de Señas Mexicano (LMS, el cual es el método de comunicación de las personas que padecen un trastorno de procesamiento auditivo. El sistema propuesto en este artículo consta de un guante de tela instrumentado con sensores de flexión, una etapa de acondicionamiento de señales y una tarjeta de adquisición de datos; que en su conjunto constituyen el Hardware. El software esta formado por un programa de adquisición de datos y una interfaz de usuario, ambos codificados en Visual Basic Net. El sistema propuesto se modela por medio del lenguaje de modelado unificado (UML, ya que Visual Basic es un lenguaje orientado a eventos.

  4. La prensa gratuita se reivindica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fernández Beltrán


    Full Text Available La prensa gratuita que, irrumpió en 1995, con la aparición del diario METRO en Estocolmo. Hoy en España se afirma que fomenta el hábito lector, crea nuevos lectores e incrementa el consumo del resto de diarios. Su independencia es sensiblemente mayor al de la prensa de pago, que es "claramente sectaria". Quizá lo gratuito es el estigma pues se asocia a la falta de calidad.

  5. Porøse materialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place


    Dette undervisningsnotat er en samling af noter, der refererer til den indledende del af kurset Materialmekanik og Porøse materailer på Insitut for Bærende Konstruktiner og Materialer (BKM).......Dette undervisningsnotat er en samling af noter, der refererer til den indledende del af kurset Materialmekanik og Porøse materailer på Insitut for Bærende Konstruktiner og Materialer (BKM)....

  6. Hablando... se entiende la gente


    Nancy Citlalli Mora Zepeda


    Habiendo observado que muchos cursos centrados en el desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa oral se limitan a ofrecer actividades inconexas que suponen un gran esfuerzo por parte de los participantes para situarse ante cada actividad y dificultan el establecimiento de relaciones profundas entre los exponentes nociofuncionales, los objetivos comunicativos y los recursos lingüísticos necesarios para realizarlas por contar con un tiempo limitado en el aula para ello, se presentó, bajo el mism...

  7. Comparison of a static gravity screen-roll press combination separator to a PAM-assisted gravity belt thickener system for swine waste slurry solids separation. (United States)

    Walker, Paul; Kelley, Tim


    Liquid effluent resulting from solids separation from raw swine slurry (RS) using a static gravity screen-roll press separator (SE) and a polyacrylamide (PAM) flocculant-assisted gravity belt thickener system (BE1 and 2, with BE2 designating an added belt thickening of SE) were compared. Effluent pH was 7.6-7.7. Dissolved oxygen was less than 0.01 mg/l in RS and SE and 0.50 mg/l in BE1 and 2. Solids dry weight and total phosphorus concentrations were reduced significantly (p0.05) in SE (17-27%) and in BE1 and 2 (92-96%), relative to RS. Phosphorus concentration reductions were higher than those previously found. Settleable and suspended solids, total nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand were significantly reduced in BE1 and 2 (63-99%). No significant differences (p>0.05) were found between BE1 and 2. Results indicated that the gravity belt thickener system was more efficient at solids separation than the screen-roll press system.

  8. Traffic restrictions due to wind on the Fehmarn Belt bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, E.; Mann, Jakob; Rosenhagen, G.


    is given both as a total percentage of time and as a mean distribution of restrictions over the year. We perform the same analysis for the Øresund and the Great Belt bridge and compare the result with the actualfractions. Only during the last year of operation of the Øresund bridge the criteria......This report documents the calculations carried out in order to estimate the wind climate at the site where the Fehmarn Belt bridge is planned. Further, an estimate of how often and for how long traffic restrictions will be enforced according to statedcriteria (sec. 3.2) is given. This estimate...... are the same as used in this report and here the comparison is satisfactory. We estimate that the prospective Fehmarn Belt bridge will be closed roughly 2% of the timefor light roadway vehicles (unloaded trucks and caravans), corresponding to 7 days per year. This is slightly less than for the Fehmarnsund...

  9. Recent Developments in the Radiation Belt Environment Model (United States)

    Fok, M.-C.; Glocer, A.; Zheng, Q.; Horne, R. B.; Meredith, N. P.; Albert, J. M.; Nagai, T.


    The fluxes of energetic particles in the radiation belts are found to be strongly controlled by the solar wind conditions. In order to understand and predict the radiation particle intensities, we have developed a physics-based Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model that considers the influences from the solar wind, ring current and plasmasphere. Recently, an improved calculation of wave-particle interactions has been incorporated. In particular, the model now includes cross diffusion in energy and pitch-angle. We find that the exclusion of cross diffusion could cause significant overestimation of electron flux enhancement during storm recovery. The RBE model is also connected to MHD fields so that the response of the radiation belts to fast variations in the global magnetosphere can be studied.Weare able to reproduce the rapid flux increase during a substorm dipolarization on 4 September 2008. The timing is much shorter than the time scale of wave associated acceleration.

  10. The Living with a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probes (United States)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Mauk, B. H.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Fox, N. J.


    The goal of NASA's Living With a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, how populations of relativistic electrons and ions in space form or change in response to the variable inputs of energy from the Sun. The investigations selected for this 2-spacecraft mission scheduled for launch in early 2012 address this task by making extensive observations of the plasma waves, thermal, ring current, and relativistic particle populations, and DC electric and magnetic fields within the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts. We first describe the current mission concept within the scope of NASA's strategic plan and the Vision for Exploration, and then consider how its observations will be used to define and quantify the processes that accelerate, transport, and remove particles in the Earth's radiation belts.

  11. Radiation Belt Environment Model: Application to Space Weather and Beyond (United States)

    Fok, Mei-Ching H.


    Understanding the dynamics and variability of the radiation belts are of great scientific and space weather significance. A physics-based Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model has been developed to simulate and predict the radiation particle intensities. The RBE model considers the influences from the solar wind, ring current and plasmasphere. It takes into account the particle drift in realistic, time-varying magnetic and electric field, and includes diffusive effects of wave-particle interactions with various wave modes in the magnetosphere. The RBE model has been used to perform event studies and real-time prediction of energetic electron fluxes. In this talk, we will describe the RBE model equation, inputs and capabilities. Recent advancement in space weather application and artificial radiation belt study will be discussed as well.

  12. A minimalistic and optimized conveyor belt for neutral atoms. (United States)

    Roy, Ritayan; Condylis, Paul C; Prakash, Vindhiya; Sahagun, Daniel; Hessmo, Björn


    Here we report of a design and the performance of an optimized micro-fabricated conveyor belt for precise and adiabatic transportation of cold atoms. A theoretical model is presented to determine optimal currents in conductors used for the transportation. We experimentally demonstrate a fast adiabatic transportation of Rubidium ( 87 Rb) cold atoms with minimal loss and heating with as few as three conveyor belt conductors. This novel design of a multilayered conveyor belt structure is fabricated in aluminium nitride (AlN) because of its outstanding thermal and electrical properties. This demonstration would pave a way for a compact and portable quantum device required for quantum information processing and sensors, where precise positioning of cold atoms is desirable.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Suglobov


    Full Text Available Purpose. In the study is necessary: 1 to justify aligning drums of a new design of belt conveyors; 2 to develop a method for calculating and determining the rational design parameters of drums depending on the technical parameters of the conveyor belt (the length of the conveyor, belt width, the performance of the conveyor, the diameter of the drive and tension drums, etc.; 3 to carry out pilot studies of efficiency conveyor belt in a production environment in order to determine the magnitude of dynamic loads and a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of the centering ability of conventional and new designs of drums. Methodology. To substantiate the effectiveness of the centering ability of the drums of a new design by the authors developed a mathematical model of interaction of the tape with the drum. Mathematical simulation of tape reels with new design comes to drawing up a differential equation of the belt based on the dynamic component and restoring force. This model allowed us to estimate the movement of the tape in the transverse direction based on the calculated additional dynamic loads and forces on the investigated centering a conveyor belt with given specifications. For the first time the technique of calculating and determining the rational parameters of the drums, which allows determining the design parameters of the centering portions, depending on the mechanical properties and geometric parameters of the tape. Findings. With the help of mathematical modeling the scientifically substantiated effect of centering the ability of the new design of the drum, which ensures stable tape running along the longitudinal axis of the conveyor. The authors made the following conclusions: 1 the mathematical model of interaction with the new belt design of the drum, which allowed to describe the belt in the transverse direction in view of additional dynamic loads and renewable power was developed; 2 the method of calculation and

  14. Piezoelectric belts as a method for measuring chest and abdominal movement for obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis. (United States)

    Vaughn, Courtney M; Clemmons, Pamela


    Distinguishing obstructive sleep apnea from central apnea depends upon accurate measure of chest and abdominal movement. American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) polysomnography guidelines recommend the use of respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) belts but not piezoelectrode (PE) belts for measuring chest and abdominal movements. To compare these two sensors, we measured the signal amplitude for 10 RIP belts and 10 PE belts stretched by mechanical distraction across six distances (2.5 to 15.0 centimeters) and replicated 10 times for each belt. Amplitudes were measured using the Stellate Harmonie (Stellate Systems, Inc., Natus Medical, Inc., San Carlos, California, USA) recording system. A Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient was calculated. All RIP belts performed well at all distraction lengths and demonstrated linear performance. Eight of 10 PE belts performed well through all measures whereas, two showed nonlinear increase in signal on stretch of greater than 12.5 centimeters. Signals from PE belts highly correlated with the distance of distraction (r = 0.96 to 0.99) and the RIP belts (r = 0.98 to 0.99). These results suggest that PE belts perform similarly to RIP belts at distraction distances up to 10.0 centimeters. Further testing on biological models is needed to determine if PE belts are a suitable alternative for RIP belts in polysomnography.

  15. Predictors of rear seat belt use among U.S. adults, 2012. (United States)

    Bhat, Geeta; Beck, Laurie; Bergen, Gwen; Kresnow, Marcie-Jo


    Seat belt use reduces the risk of injuries and fatalities among motor vehicle occupants in a crash, but belt use in rear seating positions is consistently lower than front seating positions. Knowledge is limited concerning factors associated with seat belt use among adult rear seat passengers. Data from the 2012 ConsumerStyles survey were used to calculate weighted percentages of self-reported rear seat belt use by demographic characteristics and type of rear seat belt use enforcement. Multivariable regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios for rear seat belt use, adjusting for person-, household- and geographic-level demographic variables as well as for type of seat belt law in place in the state. Rear seat belt use varied by age, race, geographic region, metropolitan status, and type of enforcement. Multivariable regression showed that respondents living in states with primary (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio (APR): 1.23) and secondary (APR: 1.11) rear seat belt use enforcement laws were significantly more likely to report always wearing a seat belt in the rear seat compared with those living in a state with no rear seat belt use enforcement law. Several factors were associated with self-reported seat belt use in rear seating positions. Evidence suggests that primary enforcement covering all seating positions is an effective intervention that can be employed to increase seat belt use and in turn prevent motor vehicle injuries to rear-seated occupants. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Does warm debris dust stem from asteroid belts? (United States)

    Geiler, Fabian; Krivov, Alexander V.


    Many debris discs reveal a two-component structure, with a cold outer and a warm inner component. While the former are likely massive analogues of the Kuiper belt, the origin of the latter is still a matter of debate. In this work, we investigate whether the warm dust may be a signature of asteroid belt analogues. In the scenario tested here, the current two-belt architecture stems from an originally extended protoplanetary disc, in which planets have opened a gap separating it into the outer and inner discs which, after the gas dispersal, experience a steady-state collisional decay. This idea is explored with an analytic collisional evolution model for a sample of 225 debris discs from a Spitzer/IRS catalogue that are likely to possess a two-component structure. We find that the vast majority of systems (220 out of 225, or 98 per cent) are compatible with this scenario. For their progenitors, original protoplanetary discs, we find an average surface density slope of -0.93 ± 0.06 and an average initial mass of (3.3^{+0.4}_{-0.3})× 10^{-3} solar masses, both of which are in agreement with the values inferred from submillimetre surveys. However, dust production by short-period comets and - more rarely - inward transport from the outer belts may be viable, and not mutually excluding, alternatives to the asteroid belt scenario. The remaining five discs (2 per cent of the sample: HIP 11486, HIP 23497, HIP 57971, HIP 85790, HIP 89770) harbour inner components that appear inconsistent with dust production in an 'asteroid belt.' Warm dust in these systems must either be replenished from cometary sources or represent an aftermath of a recent rare event, such as a major collision or planetary system instability.

  17. The Belt voice: Acoustical measurements and esthetic correlates (United States)

    Bounous, Barry Urban

    This dissertation explores the esthetic attributes of the Belt voice through spectral acoustical analysis. The process of understanding the nature and safe practice of Belt is just beginning, whereas the understanding of classical singing is well established. The unique nature of the Belt sound provides difficulties for voice teachers attempting to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of a particular sound or performance. This study attempts to provide answers to the question "does Belt conform to a set of measurable esthetic standards?" In answering this question, this paper expands on a previous study of the esthetic attributes of the classical baritone voice (see "Vocal Beauty", NATS Journal 51,1) which also drew some tentative conclusions about the Belt voice but which had an inadequate sample pool of subjects from which to draw. Further, this study demonstrates that it is possible to scientifically investigate the realm of musical esthetics in the singing voice. It is possible to go beyond the "a trained voice compared to an untrained voice" paradigm when evaluating quantitative vocal parameters and actually investigate what truly beautiful voices do. There are functions of sound energy (measured in dB) transference which may affect the nervous system in predictable ways and which can be measured and associated with esthetics. This study does not show consistency in measurements for absolute beauty (taste) even among belt teachers and researchers but does show some markers with varying degrees of importance which may point to a difference between our cognitive learned response to singing and our emotional, more visceral response to sounds. The markers which are significant in determining vocal beauty are: (1) Vibrancy-Characteristics of vibrato including speed, width, and consistency (low variability). (2) Spectral makeup-Ratio of partial strength above the fundamental to the fundamental. (3) Activity of the voice-The quantity of energy being produced. (4

  18. Global storm time depletion of the outer electron belt. (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, A Y; Sitnov, M I; Millan, R M; Kress, B T; Fennell, J F; Claudepierre, S G; Barnes, R J


    The outer radiation belt consists of relativistic (>0.5 MeV) electrons trapped on closed trajectories around Earth where the magnetic field is nearly dipolar. During increased geomagnetic activity, electron intensities in the belt can vary by orders of magnitude at different spatial and temporal scales. The main phase of geomagnetic storms often produces deep depletions of electron intensities over broad regions of the outer belt. Previous studies identified three possible processes that can contribute to the main-phase depletions: adiabatic inflation of electron drift orbits caused by the ring current growth, electron loss into the atmosphere, and electron escape through the magnetopause boundary. In this paper we investigate the relative importance of the adiabatic effect and magnetopause loss to the rapid depletion of the outer belt observed at the Van Allen Probes spacecraft during the main phase of 17 March 2013 storm. The intensities of >1 MeV electrons were depleted by more than an order of magnitude over the entire radial extent of the belt in less than 6 h after the sudden storm commencement. For the analysis we used three-dimensional test particle simulations of global evolution of the outer belt in the Tsyganenko-Sitnov (TS07D) magnetic field model with an inductive electric field. Comparison of the simulation results with electron measurements from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer experiment shows that magnetopause loss accounts for most of the observed depletion at L >5, while at lower L shells the depletion is adiabatic. Both magnetopause loss and the adiabatic effect are controlled by the change in global configuration of the magnetic field due to storm time development of the ring current; a simulation of electron evolution without a ring current produces a much weaker depletion.

  19. Geological evolution of the Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt, northern Madagascar


    Thomas, Robert James; De Waele, Bert; Schofield, David; Goodenough, Kathryn Mary; Horstwood, Matthew; Tucker, Robert; Bauer, Wilfried; Annells, Richard; Howard, Keith; Walsh, Greg; Rabarimanana, Mamy; Rafahatelo, Jean-Marie; Ralison, Vonimanitre; Randriamananjara, Theogene


    The broadly east-west trending, Late Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt in northern Madagascar has been re-surveyed at 1: 100 000 scale as part of a large multi-disciplinary World Bank-sponsored project. The work included acquisition of fourteen U-Pb zircon dates and whole-rock major and trace element geochemical data of representative rocks. The belt has previously been modelled as a juvenile Neoproterozoic arc and our findings broadly support that model. The integrated datasets indicate that the ...

  20. The Main Belt Comets and ice in the Solar System (United States)

    Snodgrass, Colin; Agarwal, Jessica; Combi, Michael; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurelie; Hsieh, Henry H.; Hui, Man-To; Jehin, Emmanuel; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Knight, Matthew M.; Opitom, Cyrielle; Orosei, Roberto; de Val-Borro, Miguel; Yang, Bin


    We review the evidence for buried ice in the asteroid belt; specifically the questions around the so-called Main Belt Comets (MBCs). We summarise the evidence for water throughout the Solar System, and describe the various methods for detecting it, including remote sensing from ultraviolet to radio wavelengths. We review progress in the first decade of study of MBCs, including observations, modelling of ice survival, and discussion on their origins. We then look at which methods will likely be most effective for further progress, including the key challenge of direct detection of (escaping) water in these bodies.

  1. Fall Protection Characteristics of Safety Belts and Human Impact Tolerance


    HINO, Yasumichi; Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki


    Abstract: Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt1 ), which has been used for more than 40 yr in the Japanese construction industry as a general type of safety equipment for fall accident prevention, and a full harness2, 3 ), which has been used in many other countries. To determine human tolerance for ...

  2. Eso que no se puede decir, pero se puede mostrar


    Villares, Ramiro


    La elección de los autores para la confección de este ensayo se debe a que considero que afrontan núcleos problemáticos de nuestra época. Esa creo que es la principal virtud en esos textos, su voluntad de explorar a fondo estas cuestiones que tantos dolores de cabeza nos traen. La crítica al marxismo en la coyuntura actual, en la que el capitalismo genera el desastre social, tras el derrumbe del estado de bienestar, que se supone mengua su legitimidad, está lejos de ser capitalizada por los s...

  3. Plant diversity across five vegetation belts in the Pyrenees (Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferré, A.


    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the size and habitat partitioning of the vascular floras of five areas of the NE Iberian Peninsula, representing five distinct vegetation belts and three floristic regions: Mediterranean (basal belt, medio-European (submontane and montane belts and Boreo-Alpine (subalpine and alpine belts. Each area covered over 1000 ha, and was fairly uniform in terms of potential vegetation, bedrock and bioclimate. They excluded large villages and field areas, the landscape being mainly natural or moderately anthropized.
    The size of the local floras showed a unimodal function with respect to altitude, with the highest number of species (568 in the submontane belt. The decrease in species richness was moderate toward the neighbouring belts (basal and montane but more marked from the montane to the subalpine belt and then to the alpine belt (the poorest area, with 217 species. However, considering the size of the areas studied, the montane belt showed higher species richness than the submontane belt. The species impoverishment toward higher altitudes followed general tendencies found in other altitude and latitude gradients, and reflects the increasing environmental constraints and the decreasing habitat diversity of colder landscapes. On the contrary, the richer floras of the submontane and montane areas reflect less stressful general conditions, but also the occurrence within them of a number of taxa from the neighbouring regions (Mediterranean and Boreo-Alpine.
    The forest flora in the basal to subalpine landscapes accounted for a small percentage of the local floras (6.5-13.2%. Among the other species, roughly one half (42-46% made up diverse serial communities (forest clearings, scrubs, pastures while the other half (44-51% occurred in particular habitats (water sides, rocky areas or in anthropogenic habitats. In the alpine area almost half of the taxa were found in the pasture mosaic, and a similar amount thrived in rocky

  4. Fine Belt-Buckles of Walrus Ivory – also Made in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else


    On the production of decorative artefacts in Norse Greenland - and new finds of walrus ivory belt buckles......On the production of decorative artefacts in Norse Greenland - and new finds of walrus ivory belt buckles...

  5. Analysis on the Bending Stiffness and the Form Force of the Pipe Conveyor Belt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun Xiaoxia; Meng Wenjun; Zhao Hui; Yuan Yuan; Yang Zhengmao


      The bending stiffness and the form force of the pipe conveyor have a grate influence on the performance of conveyor belt into tube, the wear and tear of conveyor belt, running resistance and stability for pipe conveyor...

  6. Sample Set (SE): SE27 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE27 Effect of agricultural films for cabbage leaf metabolites Investigation of Bra...ssica oleracea var. capitata YR Tenkuu leaf metabolites. 3 growth conditions (covered with normal or UV cut agricultura...l film or no agricultural film), 3 replicates data are examined. Takeshi Ara 1, Naoki Yamamoto 1,

  7. Sample Set (SE): SE59 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available idopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). However, the behavior of flavonoids during drough...t stress is still not well documented. Herein we investigated the time-series alternation of flavonoids in t...vonoids, a class of specialized metabolites, including flavonols and anthocyanins w...SE59 Alternation of flavonoid accumulation under drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana We reported that fla

  8. Sample Set (SE): SE50 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oids We report that flavonoids with radical scavenging activity mitigate against ox...ress. These data confirm the usefulness of flavonoids for enhancing both biotic and abiotic stress tolerance...SE50 Enhancement of oxidative and drought tolerance in arabidopsis by overaccumulation of antioxidant flavon


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Bakhanovich


    Full Text Available Impact of technological process parameters (pressing pressure, duration and vulcanization temperature on drive toothed belt longevity has been investigated. Optimum parameters of the technological process that permit to improve a belt resource have been determined. Methodology for determination of a number of cycles intended for loading of belt teeth according to a test duration and transmission parameters has been developed. The paper presents results of industrial resource tests of drive toothed belts manufactured in accordance with an optimized technology

  10. Electron acceleration and loss caused by wave-particle interactions in the Van Allen radiation belts


    Kersten, Tobias


    Modern society relies substantially on satellite technology as it is involved in vital services like telecommunication services, Earth observation, navigation, and many more. There are more than 1000 operational satellites in Earth orbit and most of these spend at least some of their time in the harsh environment of the Van Allen radiation belts. The radiation belts are usually split into two regions, the inner and the outer radiation belt. While the inner belt is considered stable, the flux ...

  11. Explaining the dynamics of the ultra-relativistic third Van Allen radiation belt


    Mann, I. R.; Ozeke, L. G.; Murphy, K. R.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Turner, D. L.; Baker, D. N.; Rae, I. J.; Kale, A.; Milling, D. K.; Boyd, A. J.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Singer, H. J.; Dimitrakoudis, S.; Daglis, I. A.


    Since the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts over 50 years ago, an explanation for their complete dynamics has remained elusive. Especially challenging is understanding the recently discovered ultra-relativistic third electron radiation belt. Current theory asserts that loss in the heart of the outer belt, essential to the formation of the third belt, must be controlled by high-frequency plasma wave-particle scattering into the atmosphere, via whistler mode chorus, plasmaspheric hiss,...

  12. Long-Term Benefits of Prompts to Use Safety Belts among Drivers Exiting Senior Communities (United States)

    Cox, Cory D.; Cox, Brian S.; Cox, Daniel J.


    Senior drivers are vulnerable to automobile crashes and subsequent injury and death. Safety belts reduce health risks associated with auto crashes. Therefore, it is important to encourage senior drivers to wear safety belts while driving. Using a repeated baseline design (AAB), we previously reported that motivating signs boosted safety belt usage…

  13. A shared 336 kb haplotype associated with the belt pattern in three divergent cattle breeds. (United States)

    Drögemüller, C; Demmel, S; Engensteiner, M; Rieder, S; Leeb, T


    We recently mapped the belt mutation in Brown Swiss cattle to a 922 kb interval on BTA3. In this study, we analysed two additional cattle breeds with the belted phenotype: Galloway and Dutch Belted (Lakenvelder). By genotyping microsatellites in solid-coloured and belted Galloways, we confirmed that the belt mutation in Galloways is strongly associated with the same chromosomal locus as in Brown Swiss cattle. Subsequently, we analysed 36 SNPs in the belt interval in three breeds. We identified a single belt-associated haplotype for each of the analysed breeds. The three breed-specific belt haplotypes share alleles in four blocks. Three of these blocks comprise only one single or two consecutive markers, while the largest shared haplotype block encompasses nine consecutive SNPs in a 336 kb interval. The large shared haplotype across divergent breeds suggests a common mutation for the belt phenotype in all three breeds. We identified a potential candidate gene within this interval coding for the developmental transcription factor HES6. We re-sequenced the complete HES6 coding sequence in belted and solid-coloured cattle but did not find belt-associated polymorphisms. In conclusion, our data provide strong evidence in favour of a common founder for the belt phenotype in different cattle breeds and have resulted in an improved fine-mapping of the causative mutation.

  14. 29 CFR 1926.959 - Lineman's body belts, safety straps, and lanyards. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lineman's body belts, safety straps, and lanyards. 1926.959... and Distribution § 1926.959 Lineman's body belts, safety straps, and lanyards. (a) General...'s body belts, safety straps and lanyards acquired for use after the effective date of this subpart...

  15. 30 CFR 56.14130 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts. (United States)


    ... belts. 56.14130 Section 56.14130 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts. (a) Equipment included. Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts shall be installed on— (1) Crawler tractors and crawler loaders; (2) Graders; (3) Wheel...

  16. Evaluation of Maine's seat belt law change from secondary to primary enforcement. (United States)


    Maine upgraded its seat belt law to primary enforcement on September 20, 2007. Both daytime and nighttime observed belt use increased in the months following implementation of the law (daytime 77% to 84%; night 69% to 81%). Although daytime belt use ...

  17. 77 FR 20550 - Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use (United States)


    ... State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... implementation date for use of the revised uniform criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use... Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use.'' 76 FR 18042. That final rule amended the regulation establishing...

  18. 48 CFR 1252.223-73 - Seat belt use policies and programs. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seat belt use policies and....223-73 Seat belt use policies and programs. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1223.7000(c), insert the following clause: Seat Belt Use Policies and Programs (APR 2005) In accordance with Executive Order 13043...

  19. 23 CFR 1240.13 - Determination of national average seat belt use rate. (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of national average seat belt use rate... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.13 Determination of national average...

  20. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate D... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Pt. 1240, App. D Appendix D to Part 1240—Determination of National Average...

  1. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.166 Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners. (a... an inflatable bag assembly. A seat-belt pre-tensioner contains similar hazardous materials and is...

  2. The use of seat belts and contributing factors : an international comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. Wittink, R.D. & Hagenzieker, M.P.


    The purpose of this study was to define factors that contribute to the use or non-use of seat belts. Legislation prescribing compulsory seat belt usage is one of the most important factors. Promotion of the use of seat belts without this legislation is very difficult and time-consuming. So far, the

  3. 30 CFR 57.14131 - Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. 57.14131 Section 57.14131 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained...

  4. 30 CFR 14.22 - Test for flame resistance of conveyor belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of conveyor belts. 14..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPROVAL OF FLAME-RESISTANT CONVEYOR BELTS Technical Requirements § 14.22 Test for flame resistance of conveyor belts. (a) Test procedures. The test...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta-Maria MIHUT


    Full Text Available In this work we make a study of the improvement methods of quantity of material transported by conveyor belt. Determination of discharge of solids entail establish of the parameters of the conveyor belt. As a result, we determine the belt speed who provide maximum discharge of solids materials.

  6. WISE Albedos for Tens of Thousands of Main Belt Asteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R.; Dailey, J.; Delbo, M.; Grav, T.; McMillan, R. S.; Mueller, M.; Walker, R.; Wright, E.; WISE Science Team, [No Value


    Using thermal IR data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission we have calculated diameters for tens of thousands of previously known Main Belt asteroids. Using archival optical observations we have also determined albedos for each object. We present our results from this

  7. ALMA Discovery of Dust Belts around Proxima Centauri (United States)

    Anglada, Guillem; Amado, Pedro J.; Ortiz, Jose L.; Gómez, José F.; Macías, Enrique; Alberdi, Antxon; Osorio, Mayra; Gómez, José L.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar; Pérez-Torres, Miguel A.; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Berdiñas, Zaira M.; Jenkins, James S.; Jimenez-Serra, Izaskun; Lara, Luisa M.; López-González, Maria J.; López-Puertas, Manuel; Morales, Nicolas; Ribas, Ignasi; Richards, Anita M. S.; Rodríguez-López, Cristina; Rodriguez, Eloy


    Proxima Centauri, the star closest to our Sun, is known to host at least one terrestrial planet candidate in a temperate orbit. Here we report the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) detection of the star at 1.3 mm wavelength and the discovery of a belt of dust orbiting around it at distances ranging between 1 and 4 au, approximately. Given the low luminosity of the Proxima Centauri star, we estimate a characteristic temperature of about 40 K for this dust, which might constitute the dust component of a small-scale analog to our solar system’s Kuiper Belt. The estimated total mass, including dust and bodies up to 50 km in size, is of the order of 0.01 Earth masses, which is similar to that of the solar Kuiper Belt. Our data also show a hint of warmer dust closer to the star. We also find signs of two additional features that might be associated with the Proxima Centauri system that still require further observations to be confirmed: an outer extremely cold (about 10 K) belt around the star at about 30 au, with an orbital plane that is tilted about 45° with respect to the plane of the sky; additionally, we marginally detect a compact 1.3 mm emission source at a projected distance of about 1.2 arcsec from the star, the nature of which is still unknown.

  8. Some control problems of continuously variable belt transmission (United States)

    Radzymiński, B.


    Control problems of continuously variable belt transmission used in passenger cars have been discussed. Pulley adjustment solutions and choice of control and feedback signals are the main topics. Intention to use such a transmission as part of a complex system containing mechanical energy storage caused that the adjustment transition time become crucial problem.

  9. Determination of Flutter Derivatives for the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Damsgaard, Aage; Reinhold, Thim A.


    A new method which combines control theory and system identification techniques has been used to extract flutter derivatives from section model tests for the Great Belt East Bridge. Tests were conducted by exciting the section model simultaneously in vertical and torsional modes of vibration. Tes...... for automating the process of extracting aerodynamic derivatives from recorded time histories of coupled vertical and torsional motion....

  10. Stride length asymmetry in split-belt locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogkamer, W.; Bruijn, S.M.; Duysens, J.


    The number of studies utilizing a split-belt treadmill is rapidly increasing in recent years. This has led to some confusion regarding the definitions of reported gait parameters. The purpose of this paper is to clearly present the definitions of the gait parameters that are commonly used in

  11. Medical back belt with integrated neuromuscular electrical stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottenberg, E. (Eliza); Brinks, G.J. (Ger); Hesse, J. (Jenny)


    The medical back belt with integrated neuromuscular electrical stimulation is anorthopedic device, which has two main functions. The first function is to stimulate the backmuscles by using a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device that releases regular,electrical impulses. The second function of

  12. The Chemical Composition of an Extrasolar Kuiper-Belt-Object (United States)

    Xu, S.; Zuckerman, B.; Dufour, P.; Young, E. D.; Klein, B.; Jura, M.


    The Kuiper Belt of our solar system is a source of short-period comets that may have delivered water and other volatiles to Earth and the other terrestrial planets. However, the distribution of water and other volatiles in extrasolar planetary systems is largely unknown. We report the discovery of an accretion of a Kuiper-Belt-Object analog onto the atmosphere of the white dwarf WD 1425+540. The heavy elements C, N, O, Mg, Si, S, Ca, Fe, and Ni are detected, with nitrogen observed for the first time in extrasolar planetary debris. The nitrogen mass fraction is ˜2%, comparable to that in comet Halley and higher than in any other known solar system object. The lower limit to the accreted mass is ˜1022 g, which is about one hundred thousand times the typical mass of a short-period comet. In addition, WD 1425+540 has a wide binary companion, which could facilitate perturbing a Kuiper-Belt-Object analog into the white dwarf’s tidal radius. This finding shows that analogs to objects in our Kuiper Belt exist around other stars and could be responsible for the delivery of volatiles to terrestrial planets beyond the solar system. Part of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among Caltech, the University of California and NASA. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  13. Sleeping sickness (ss) in the Abraka Belt: a preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sleeping sickness (SS) in the Abraka belt: a preliminary geographical description of the disease focus.Annals Biomedical Sciences 2002;1:111-117.This retrospective study provides an analysis of the epidemiological data on Sleeping Sickness (SS) cases between January 1999 and December 2001 at the Baptist Medical ...

  14. Reconnaissance geochemical study of a part of Igarra Schist Belt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geochemical exploration of Orle district within the Igarra schist belt in southwestern Nigeria was carried out using reconnaissance stream-sediment survey. A total of 56 samples were collected and chemically analysed for 22 trace elements including Au, Ag, As, Pb, Zn, Cu, Co, Mo, Hg, Sb, Tl, Sc, Cr, Ni, La, W, V, U, Th, ...

  15. Elastic deformation behaviour of Palaeogene clay from Fehmarn Belt area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awadalkarim, Ahmed; Foged, Niels Nielsen; Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    Palaeogene clay samples were obtained by high quality boring and sampling techniques (Geobore S-system), during the extensive site investigations for building a bridge in the Fehmarn Belt area to link between Rødbyhavn in Denmark and Puttgarden in Germany. The Palaeogene clay is rich in smectite...

  16. Shaping mobile belts by small-scale convection. (United States)

    Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W


    Mobile belts are long-lived deformation zones composed of an ensemble of crustal fragments, distributed over hundreds of kilometres inside continental convergent margins. The Mediterranean represents a remarkable example of this tectonic setting: the region hosts a diffuse boundary between the Nubia and Eurasia plates comprised of a mosaic of microplates that move and deform independently from the overall plate convergence. Surface expressions of Mediterranean tectonics include deep, subsiding backarc basins, intraplate plateaux and uplifting orogenic belts. Although the kinematics of the area are now fairly well defined, the dynamical origins of many of these active features are controversial and usually attributed to crustal and lithospheric interactions. However, the effects of mantle convection, well established for continental interiors, should be particularly relevant in a mobile belt, and modelling may constrain important parameters such as slab coherence and lithospheric strength. Here we compute global mantle flow on the basis of recent, high-resolution seismic tomography to investigate the role of buoyancy-driven and plate-motion-induced mantle circulation for the Mediterranean. We show that mantle flow provides an explanation for much of the observed dynamic topography and microplate motion in the region. More generally, vigorous small-scale convection in the uppermost mantle may also underpin other complex mobile belts such as the North American Cordillera or the Himalayan-Tibetan collision zone.

  17. What kinds of people do not use seat belts? (United States)

    Helsing, K J; Comstock, G W


    In the course of a Community Mental Health Epidemiology study conducted in Washington County, Maryland between December, 1971 and July, 1974, interviews were conducted with randomly selected adults in a weekly systematic sampling of households. In a subsequent re-interview of 1009 respondents who had family cars with seat belts, nearly 47 per cent said they did not use them. Non-use of seat belts was significantly higher among females and among persons with less than high school education or low income. Non-use of seat belts was also higher among those who felt that their station in life as measured by the Cantril ladder was unsatisfactory, who felt powerless to change at least some aspects of their lives, and who were infrequent church attenders. Significant associations were also found with infrequency of two other preventive health behaviors, dental checkups and Pap tests. Among young adults the tendency seemed to be for marriage to increase the non-use of seat belts among females but to decrease non-use among males. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:911016

  18. Impact Tests of HBU-X Automatic Lap Belt Prototypes. (United States)


    technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. FOR THE COMMANDER HENNINGE. VON GIERKE, Dr Ing Director Biodynamics and...SYSTEM loed cells will be wine <i to provide a positive output Mhen the belt 1s pulled. +Z -z AMRL BBP COORDINATE SYSTEM ( Left Hand Rule ) FIGURE

  19. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125.211 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child...

  20. Geochemistry of amphibolites from the Kolar Schist Belt (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S.; Hanson, G. N.; Rajamani, V.


    How the Nd isotope data suggest that the amphibolites from the schist belt were derived from long-term depleted mantle sources at about 2.7 Ga is described. Trace element and Pb isotope data from the amphibolites also suggest that the sources for the amphibolites on the western and eastern sides of the narrow schist belt were derived from different sources. The Pb data from one outcrop of the central tholeiitic amphibolites lies on a 2.7 Ga isochron with a low model. The other amphibolites (W komatiitic, E komatiitic, and E tholeiitic) do not define isochrons, but suggest that they were derived from sources with distinct histories of U/Pb. There is some suggestion that the E komatiitic amphibolites may have been contaminated by fluids carrying Pb from a long-term, high U/Pb source, such as the old granitic crust on the west side of the schist belt. This is consistent with published galena Pb isotope data from the ore lodes within the belt, which also show a history of long-term U/Pb enrichment.

  1. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Jiapigou gold belt is located on the northern margin of the North China Craton, and is one of the most important gold-mining and production regions in the circum-Pacific metallogenic zone. Research has been conducted in this area since the 1960s, however, the timing of the gold mineralisation is still unresolved, and ...

  2. Geochemistry of Gold Deposits in Anka Schist Belt, Northwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gold quartz veins have been identified associated with the rock formations of the Anka Schist Belt forming eight gold deposits that include Kuba I, Kuba II, Doka, Dumi I, Dumi II, Zurzurfa I, Zurzurfa II, Jameson and Kwali. The present study involves the use of major and trace elements to characterize some of the features that ...

  3. Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Payload Safety Introduction Briefing (United States)

    Loftin, Chuck; Lampert, Dianna; Herrburger, Eric; Smith, Clay; Hill, Stuart; VonMehlem, Judi


    Mission of the Geospace Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) is: Gain s cientific understanding (to the point of predictability) of how populations of relativistic electrons and ions in space form or change in response to changes in solar activity and the solar wind.

  4. Rapid Loss of Radiation Belt Relativistic Electrons by EMIC Waves (United States)

    Su, Zhenpeng; Gao, Zhonglei; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Wygant, J. R.


    How relativistic electrons are lost is an important question surrounding the complex dynamics of the Earth's outer radiation belt. Radial loss to the magnetopause and local loss to the atmosphere are two main competing paradigms. Here on the basis of the analysis of a radiation belt storm event on 27 February 2014, we present new evidence for the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave-driven local precipitation loss of relativistic electrons in the heart of the outer radiation belt. During the main phase of this storm, the radial profile of relativistic electron phase space density was quasi-monotonic, qualitatively inconsistent with the prediction of radial loss theory. The local loss at low L shells was required to prevent the development of phase space density peak resulting from the radial loss process at high L shells. The rapid loss of relativistic electrons in the heart of outer radiation belt was observed as a dip structure of the electron flux temporal profile closely related to intense EMIC waves. Our simulations further confirm that the observed EMIC waves within a quite limited longitudinal region were able to reduce the off-equatorially mirroring relativistic electron fluxes by up to 2 orders of magnitude within about 1.5 h.

  5. On the propagation of uncertainties in radiation belt simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Camporeale (Enrico); Shprits, Y. (Yuri); M.H. Chandorkar (Mandar); Drozdov, A. (Alexander); S.P. Wing (Simon)


    textabstractWe present the first study of the uncertainties associated with radiation belt simulations, performed in the standard quasi-linear diffusion framework. In particular, we estimate how uncertainties of some input parameters propagate through the nonlinear simulation, producing a

  6. Dynamics of the low altitude secondary proton radiation belt. (United States)

    Gusev, A A; Kohno, T; Spjeldvik, W N; Martin, I M; Pugacheva, G I; Turtelli, A


    At the interface between the upper atmosphere and the radiation belt region, there exists a secondary radiation belt consisting mainly of energetic ions that have become neutralized in the ring current and the main radiation belt and then re-ionized by collisions in the inner exosphere. The time history of the proton fluxes in the 0.64-35 MeV energy range was traced in the equatorial region beneath the main radiation belts during the three year period from 21 February 1984 to 26 March 1987 using data obtained with the HEP experiment on board the Japanese OHZORA satellite. During most of this period a fairly small proton flux of -1.2 cm-2 S-1 sr-1 was detected on geomagnetic field lines in the range 1.05 < L < 1.15. We report a few surprisingly deep and rapid flux decreases (flux reduction by typically two orders of magnitude). These flux decreases were also long in duration (lasting up to three months). We also registered abrupt flux increases where the magnitude of the proton flux enhancements could reach three orders of magnitude with an enhancement duration of 1-3 days. Possible reasons for these unexpected phenomena are discussed.

  7. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 121; Issue 6. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China: Constrains from rare earth element, fluid inclusion geochemistry and geochronology. Zhixin Huang Wanming Yuan Changming Wang Xiangwei Liu Xiaotong Xu Liya Yang. Volume ...

  8. Knowledge, attitude and use of seat belt among commercial drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of seat belt usage in reducing the severity of the sequelae of road traffic accidents is widely known. ... Each correct response to the knowledge questions was scored one mark and wrong response or non-response was ...

  9. Stone Quarries and Sourcing in the Carolina Slate Belt (United States)


    collaborative project involving both geologists and archaeologists. The archaeological impetus for this project was provided by Jeff Irwin and Chris Moore...transported material. The senior author has observed six caches (all but one collected by amateurs ) of metavolcanic material. Cached material includes...analysis) are not without precedent. Although rocks of the Carolina Slate Belt have interested geologists for many years, a geoarchaeological

  10. A photometric search for active Main Belt asteroids (United States)

    Cikota, S.; Ortiz, J. L.; Cikota, A.; Morales, N.; Tancredi, G.


    It is well known that some Main Belt asteroids show comet-like features. A representative example is the first known Main Belt comet 133P/(7968) Elst-Pizarro. If the mechanisms causing this activity are too weak to develop visually evident comae or tails, the objects stay unnoticed. We are presenting a novel way to search for active asteroids, based on looking for objects with deviations from their expected brightnesses in a database. Just by using the MPCAT-OBS Observation Archive we have found five new candidate objects that possibly show a type of comet-like activity, and the already known Main Belt comet 133P/(7968) Elst-Pizarro. Four of the new candidates, (315) Constantia, (1026) Ingrid, (3646) Aduatiques, and (24 684) 1990 EU4, show brightness deviations independent of the object's heliocentric distance, while (35 101) 1991 PL16 shows deviations dependent on its heliocentric distance, which could be an indication of a thermal triggered mechanism. The method could be implemented in future sky survey programmes to detect outbursts on Main Belt objects almost simultaneously with their occurrence.

  11. Characterization of Main Belt Comet 133P/Elst-Pizarro (United States)

    Kaluna, H. M.; Meech, K. J.; Pittichova, J.; Zenn, T.; Sonnett, S.; Riesen, T.; Hsieh, H. H.


    We are using an extensive data set collected on the main belt comet 133P/Elst-Pizarro to gain insight into nucleus properties. The new information provided by this data set has provided us with constraints on the surface properties and activity in 133P.

  12. Formation and decay of the inner electron radiation belt (United States)

    Su, Y. J.; Selesnick, R.


    The inner electron radiation belt was found, early in the space age, to be highly variable with rapid injections followed by slower decay. Highly structured energy spectra were also observed (now known in energy-time spectrograms as "zebra stripes"). Inner belt formation was explained by inward diffusion. However, even the fastest diffusion is expected to require a period of many days, while observations show frequent rapid injections across the entire inner belt (as low as L=1.2) during periods of belt. In this presentation, we will explain the rapid injections, slow decay, and structured energy spectra, as observed from Van Allen Probes for electrons with energies of 100-400 keV, by the action of large-scale electric fields. In addition, a case study of a non-diffusive fast injection event that occurred on March 17, 2013, is simulated by a test particle code which demonstrates the sensitivity of electron intensity to the selected electric field model.

  13. Wave acceleration of electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts. (United States)

    Horne, Richard B; Thorne, Richard M; Shprits, Yuri Y; Meredith, Nigel P; Glauert, Sarah A; Smith, Andy J; Kanekal, Shrikanth G; Baker, Daniel N; Engebretson, Mark J; Posch, Jennifer L; Spasojevic, Maria; Inan, Umran S; Pickett, Jolene S; Decreau, Pierrette M E


    The Van Allen radiation belts are two regions encircling the Earth in which energetic charged particles are trapped inside the Earth's magnetic field. Their properties vary according to solar activity and they represent a hazard to satellites and humans in space. An important challenge has been to explain how the charged particles within these belts are accelerated to very high energies of several million electron volts. Here we show, on the basis of the analysis of a rare event where the outer radiation belt was depleted and then re-formed closer to the Earth, that the long established theory of acceleration by radial diffusion is inadequate; the electrons are accelerated more effectively by electromagnetic waves at frequencies of a few kilohertz. Wave acceleration can increase the electron flux by more than three orders of magnitude over the observed timescale of one to two days, more than sufficient to explain the new radiation belt. Wave acceleration could also be important for Jupiter, Saturn and other astrophysical objects with magnetic fields.

  14. A comparison of outer electron radiation belt dropouts during solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O Ogunjobi


    Jun 6, 2017 ... study identifies radiation belt electron dropouts which are ultimately triggered when solar wind stream interfaces (SI) arrived at ... (Plasmapause); indicating a combination of electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) and whistler mode waves as the contributing ... density known as the slot (Van-Allen 1959). Elec-.

  15. Geochemistry of Gold Deposits in Anka Schist Belt, Northwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Gold quartz veins have been identified associated with the rock formations of the Anka Schist Belt forming eight gold deposits that include Kuba I, Kuba II, Doka, Dumi I, Dumi II, Zurzurfa I, Zurzurfa II, Jameson and Kwali. The present study involves the use of major and trace elements to characterize some of the.

  16. Ud & se - med Claude Monet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lisbeth


    Udstillingen 'Claude Monet - Lost in Translation - på ARoS stiller ind på Claud Monet og hans samtidige malerkolleger. Udstillingen forsøger at "genlæse" Monet fra et samtidskunstnerisk perspektiv - og vurderer hans indsats, inden hans værker er blevet reproduceret ihjel....

  17. Jupiter's belts and zones: Contradictory evidence for upwelling and downwelling (United States)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Juno Science Team


    Early authors (Hess and Panofsky 1951, Ingersoll and Cuzzi 1969, Barcilon and Gierasch 1970) noted that the zonal winds are cyclonic in the belts and anticyclonic in the zones. From the thermal wind equation they concluded that the air below the clouds is colder at the belts and warmer at the zones. Hot air rising and cold air sinking led to the notion of downwelling in the belts and upwelling in the zones, which agreed with observations of clear air and low ammonia vapor in the belts and cloudy air and high ammonia vapor in the zones (Gierasch et al. 1986). However, lightning in the belts seemed to contradict that idea, based on the assumption that lightning and convection require upwelling of moist air from below (Little et al. 1999, Ingersoll et al. 2000). Convergence of the eddy momentum flux on the poleward sides of the zones (Salyk et al. 2006) supports the inference based on lightning by implying convergence of the meridional flow in the zones. Here we argue that lightning in the belts does not require upwelling. Instead, there is a threshold for moist convection that is triggered when the thickness of the weather layer drops below a critical value (Li and Ingersoll 2006, Thomson and McIntyre 2016). We also argue that the convergence of the eddy momentum flux does not require equatorward flow. Instead, the meridional flow is controlled by the sign of the potential vorticity (PV) gradient, which is southward on the equatorward sides of the zones (Ingersoll et al. 2017), implying divergence of the meridional flow in the zones. This is a new idea and is based on the observation that the predicted flat parts of the PV staircase (Dritschel and McIntyre 2008), might actually be sloping inward, since the curvature of the zonal velocity profile U_yy exceeds beta at the centers of the westward jets (Ingersoll and Cuzzi 1969, Ingersoll et al. 1981, Limaye et al. 1986, Li et al. 2004, Read et al. 2006). These arguments agree with observations of upwelling in the zones

  18. Sample Set (SE): SE37 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE37 Medicago truncatula shoot metabolite analysis using stable isotopes Metabolite...s in the Medicago truncatula shoot are investigated by using stable isotope labelings. This analysis was per...formed to estimate the elemental composition with high reliability using the number of stable isotopes incor...nces by comparing the mass spectra of isotope-labeled and unlabeled data sets. Plant Biotechnology (2014) 3: 269-274 ...

  19. Sample Set (SE): SE58 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available calibration curves over a biologically defined concentration range for all detected compounds. By performing... metabolomics on a stepwise gradient between two biological specimens, we obtain ...rference. Analysis of artificial biological gradients is a general and inexpensive tool for calibration that...ments using artificial biological gradients We introduce a powerful approach that provides semiquantitative ...SE58 Exploring matrix effects and quantification performance in metabolomics experi

  20. Teores de gordura e acidos graxos de clones de cacau nas condições do Vale do Ribeira (SP Fat and fatty acids content of cocoa clones under the conditions of Vale do Ribeira, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Sant'Anna Tucci


    Full Text Available O Estado de São Paulo é uma das regiões em que se cultiva o cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao L. mais afastadas do equador, com características climáticas distintas daquelas registradas nas regiões tradicionais de cultivo. A manteiga de cacau apresenta características físico-químicas peculiares, estreitamente relacionadas aos teores dos ácidos graxos que a constituem, os quais são influenciados pelas condições climáticas, especialmente a temperatura do ar. No presente trabalho, caracterizaram-se treze genótipos de cacau, da coleção do Instituto Agronômico, em Pariquera-Açu a 24°43' S, 47°53' W e 25 m de altitude, com base no teor de gordura e na composição em ácidos graxo. Os clones estudados foram os seguintes: SCA 6, SCA 12, IAC 1, ICS 39, ICS 60, ICS 95, UF29, UF 613, UF 667, UF 668, UF 677, P 7 e IMC 67. Houve diferenças significativas entre os clones quanto ao teor de gordura, que variou de 50,7%, para o ICS 95, a 57,6%, para o IAC 1. A composição de ácidos graxos diferiu significativamente entre os clones, exceto para o ácido araquídico. A relação entre ácidos graxos saturados e insaturados variou de 1,37 a 1,74: os clones SCA 12, SCA 6 e P 7 diferiram estatisticamente dos clones ICS 39, 60, 95, IMC 67 e UF 668.The State of São Paulo (Brazil represents the farthest region from the equator in which cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. is cultivated, with different climatic conditions from those observed in the traditional growing areas. Cocoa butter shows peculiar physical and chemical characteristics closely related to fatty acids balance, which are influenced by climatic conditions, mainly air temperature. This paper deals with the characterization of 13 clones of cocoa, growing in the State of São Paulo, based on fat content and fatty acid composition for the climatic conditions of Pariquera-Açu Experimental Station, at 24°43' S, 47°53' W and 25 m of altitude. The clones studied were: SCA 6, SCA 12, IAC 1, ICS 39, ICS

  1. Variação sazonal do fitoplâncton da região do Saco da Ribeira (lat. 23º30'S; long, 45º07'W, Ubatuba, Brasil Seasonal variation or phytoplankton in the region of Saco da Ribeira (lat. 23º30'S; long. 45º 07'W, Ubatuba, Brazil

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    Roberto Sassi


    Full Text Available Estudos sobre a variação sazonal do fitoplâncton e clorofila-a foram desenvolvidos na região de Ubatuba, extremo norte do Estado de São Paulo (Lat. 23º30'S, Long. 45º07'W, através de coletas mensais, durante o período de junho de 1974 a setembro de 1975. Foram também avaliados a temperatura da água, salinidade, oxigênio dissolvido e transparência. Paralelamente, foram obtidos dados pluviométricos da região, referentes ao período considerado. As amostras destinadas aos referidos estudos foram coletadas verticalmente, em três níveis de profundidade: superfície, profundidade de extinção do disco de Secchi e 60 centímetros acima do fundo. Qualitativamente, as diatomáceas apresentaram-se como o grupo mais diversificado e, em segundo lugar, os dinoflagelados. Quantitativamente, a população fitoplanctônica apresentou-se constituída fundamentalmente por fitoflagelados, seguidos por diatomáceas e dinoflagelados. Cianofíceas e silicoflagelados também estiveram presentes, porém em quantidades muito menores. Excluindo-se os fitoflagelados, as espécies mais representativas da população fitoplanctônica da região foram as diatomáceas Nitzchia closterium, Thalassionema nitzschioides, Navicula sp. e o dinoflagelado Gymnodinium sp. O número máximo de células observado, de um modo geral, ocorreu durante o verão, evidenciado tanto pelas contagens (máximo de 1.028.000 células/litro, como pelas determinações de clorofila-a (máximo de 6,86 µg/1; nesta época, houve um máximo de precipitação pluviométrica e modificação na estabilidade térmica da coluna d'água. Os estudos de fracionamento demonstraram que a fração menor que 20 µm (nanofitoplâncton é a predominante no fitoplâncton total.Seasonal changes in phytoplankton populations in the chlorophyll-a concentration and on some environmental factors were studied monthly from June 1974 to September 1975 at Ubatuba, northern coast of São Paulo. Water

  2. Contact binaries in the Trans-neptunian Belt (United States)

    Thirouin, Audrey; Sheppard, Scott S.


    A contact binary is made up of two objects that are almost touching or in contact with each other. These systems have been found in the Near-Earth Object population, the main belt of asteroids, the Jupiter Trojans, the comet population and even in the Trans-neptunian belt.Several studies suggest that up to 30% of the Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) could be contact binaries (Sheppard & Jewitt 2004, Lacerda 2011). Contact binaries are not resolvable with the Hubble Space Telescope because of the small separation between the system's components (Noll et al. 2008). Only lightcurves with a characteristic V-/U-shape at the minimum/maximum of brightness and a large amplitude can identify these contact binaries. Despite an expected high fraction of contact binaries, 2001 QG298 is the only confirmed contact binary in the Trans-Neptunian belt, and 2003 SQ317 is a candidate to this class of systems (Sheppard & Jewitt 2004, Lacerda et al. 2014).Recently, using the Lowell’s 4.3m Discovery Channel Telescope and the 6.5m Magellan Telescope, we started a search for contact binaries at the edge of our Solar System. So far, our survey focused on about 40 objects in different dynamical groups of the Trans-Neptunian belt for sparse or complete lightcurves. We report the discovery of 5 new potential contact binaries converting the current estimate of potential/confirmed contact binaries to 7 objects. With one epoch of observations per object, we are not able to model in detail the systems, but we derive estimate for basic information such as shape, size, density of both objects as well as the separation between the system’s components. In this work, we will present these new systems, their basic characteristics, and we will discuss the potential main reservoir of contact binaries in the Trans-neptunian belt.

  3. Constraints on the gas content of the Fomalhaut debris belt. Can gas-dust interactions explain the belt's morphology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cataldi, G.; Brandeker, A.; Olofsson, G.; Chen, C. H.; Dent, W. R. F.; Kamp, I.; Roberge, A.; Vandenbussche, B.

    Context. The 440 Myr old main-sequence A-star Fomalhaut is surrounded by an eccentric debris belt with sharp edges. This sort of a morphology is usually attributed to planetary perturbations, but the orbit of the only planetary candidate detected so far, Fomalhaut b, is too eccentric to efficiently

  4. Laboratory testing of conveyor textile belt joints used in underground mines

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    Monika Hardygóra


    Full Text Available In order to achieve the high standards of safety and operational reliability required of belt conveyors, there is a requirement for systematic testing of conveyor belts and their joints. This article describes joint testing methods and presents an analysis of the causes of reduced strength of multi-ply belt joints. Testing was carried out at the Belt Conveying Laboratory (LTT of Wroclaw University of Technology. Presented here is a proprietary method for the measurement of stress distribution in conveyor belt adhesive joints.

  5. Hablando se entiende la gente

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    Mila Crespo Picó


    Full Text Available Habiendo observado que muchos cursos centrados en el desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa oral se limitan a ofrecer actividades inconexas que suponen un gran esfuerzo por parte de los participantes para situarse ante cada actividad y dificultan el establecimiento de relaciones profundas entre los exponentes nociofuncionales, los objetivos comunicativos y los recursos lingüísticos necesarios para realizarlas por contar con un tiempo limitado en el aula para ello, se presentó, bajo el mismo título que esta comunicación, una propuesta didáctica para un curso de conversación que pretende paliar estos aspectos en el I Foro de Profesores de E/LE en la Universitat de València.

  6. Sample Set (SE): SE52 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE52 Mass spectra-based framework for automated structural elucidation of in liquid chromatography窶杜ass spectrometer metabolome data was constructed by integrating databases. High...-resolution tandem mass spectra data automatically acquired from each metabolite signal were use...d for database searches. Three distinct databases, KNApSAcK, ReSpect, and the PRIMe standard compound database...omated method was applied for the metabolome data sets obtained from the rosette leaves of 20 Arabidopsis ac


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Adrian PĂUN


    Full Text Available Conveyor belts are used for a long period of time in the industry branches where potentially explosive atmospheres could occur. Dangerous phenomena which can be in direct connection with the use of conveyor belts are the ones regarding: - sparks influence over the coating layer and/or resistance internal structure of the stopped conveyor belt; - propagation of a flame along the length of a conveyor belt that was exposed to a energy source relative high like a fire or due to blockage of a conveyor belt as a result of the driving mechanism still operating, that generate a local heating of the conveyor belt in contact with the driving drum, rollers or any other heating source generated by friction. Determining the safety parameters characteristic of the conveyor belts by employing test methods allows assessment of the safety level as well as certification of their explosion protection quality when used in environments with explosion danger.

  8. Dynamics of the earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere (geophysical monograph series)

    CERN Document Server


    Dynamics of the Earth's Radiation Belts and Inner Magnetosphere draws together current knowledge of the radiation belts prior to the launch of Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RPSP) and other imminent space missions, making this volume timely and unique. The volume will serve as a useful benchmark at this exciting and pivotal period in radiation belt research in advance of the new discoveries that the RPSP mission will surely bring. Highlights include the following: a review of the current state of the art of radiation belt science; a complete and up-to-date account of the wave-particle interactions that control the dynamical acceleration and loss processes of particles in the Earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere; a discussion emphasizing the importance of the cross-energy coupling of the particle populations of the radiation belts, ring current, and plasmasphere in controlling the dynamics of the inner magnetosphe...

  9. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel. (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C


    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect.

  10. Wrench tectonics control on Neogene-Quaternary sedimentation along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt (United States)

    Pogacsas, Gyorgy; Juhász, Györgyi; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Simon, Szilvia; Lukács, Szilveszter; Csizmeg, János


    terrain, lying originally between the Central Alpine and Southern Alpine units, reached its recent position by some hundred kilometers strike slip movement, resulting in shifting of depocenters from the SW toward NE. The TISZA unit was characterised by clockwise motion, while counterclockwise rotation of the ALPACA is inferred in Late Oligocene-Miocene. Lower Miocene layers were deposited in depocenters whose subsidence was initiated by escape tectonics, NE-ward displacement of the ALCAPA terrane, and uplifting of the NW-SE oriented Neo-Vardar zone. The Neo-Vardar zone was represented by wide area of continental and alluvial depositional systems. 2. During the middle-late Badenian (15.5-13.6Ma), the ALCAPA collided with the European platform, and the eastward movement of the Tisza-Dacia became pronounced. Because of that the former right lateral motion along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt ceased and a long period of left lateral strike slipe began. Earlier development of pull-apart basins, related to the extensive strike-slip faulting inside the ALCAPA, changed to the graben opening driven by the westward subduction and the eastward motion of the Tisza-Dacia. The middle-late Badenian period was characterised by sediments deposited in listric fault bounded half grabens, in crestal collapse grabens related to (flat-ramp) listric faults, in wide and/or narrow rift systems. Migration of volcanic activity and facies belts took place during relatively short period of times. Large displacements along listric faults have resulted in tilting of originally horizontal strata, and the formation of a regional unconformity between the middle Miocene and the upper Miocene sediments. Wrench fault related pull apart basins were filled by terrestrial to marine sediments. 3. During the Sarmatian-Pannonian (13.6-6.2 Ma), while the eastward motion of the ALPACA was strictly restricted, the Tisza-Dacia unit was able still to move eastward until the last parts of the remnant Carpathian Flysch

  11. Illa se iactet in aula!

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    Bertomeu, María Julia


    Full Text Available More than a few of Kant’s contemporaries, including some of his disciples, were sharply critical of the systematic character of his philosophy, and, markedly, of the philosophical prose in which this character was expressed. Others, on the contrary, found solace in the prospect of seeing the philosopher either isolated or trapped in the purely speculative realm of the academic room, in the good —or bad— company of all the metaphysical politicians of the time: «illa se iactet in aula!» However, fearful that the walls or the metaphorical bars of the room were not enough to contain the «popular» propagation of Kant’s ideas, they completed —in line with Burke— Virgilio’s poem, distinctly alluding to surely less symbolic bars: «Illa se iactet in aula Aeolus, et clauso ventorum carcere regnet». Kant replied in time, writing both to each group separately and to everyone at once. But he did it always from his fiercely held conviction about the importance of both a philosophical theory and a methodological discipline, which, even when «unpopular» in the beginning, he considered essential elements of a moral and political practice that was so hostile toward moral paternalism as it was to its counterpart, a (paternalistic political despotism.

    No pocos contemporáneos de Kant, incluidos algunos de sus discípulos, fueron pródigos en la crítica mordaz del carácter sistemático de su filosofía, y señaladamente, de la prosa filosófica en que ese carácter se expresaba. Otros, en cambio, no se privaron de manifestar el deseo de ver al filósofo aislado o acorralado en el recinto puramente especulativo del aula académica, en la buena —o en la mala— compañía de todos los políticos metafísicos de la época: «illa se iactet in aula!» Pero, temerosos de que los muros o los barrotes metafóricos del aula no bastaran a contener la propagación «popular» de las ideas del filósofo, completaron

  12. Proterozoic orogenic belts and rifting of Indian cratons: Geophysical constraints

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    D.C. Mishra


    Full Text Available The Aravalli–Delhi and Satpura Mobile Belts (ADMB and SMB and the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB in India form major Proterozoic mobile belts with adjoining cratons and contemporary basins. The most convincing features of the ADMB and the SMB have been the crustal layers dipping from both sides in opposite directions, crustal thickening (∼45 km and high density and high conductivity rocks in upper/lower crust associated with faults/thrusts. These observations indicate convergence while domal type reflectors in the lower crust suggest an extensional rifting phase. In case of the SMB, even the remnant of the subducting slab characterized by high conductive and low density slab in lithospheric mantle up to ∼120 km across the Purna–Godavari river faults has been traced which may be caused by fluids due to metamorphism. Subduction related intrusives of the SMB south of it and the ADMB west of it suggest N–S and E–W directed convergence and subduction during Meso–Neoproterozoic convergence. The simultaneous E–W convergence between the Bundelkhand craton and Marwar craton (Western Rajasthan across the ADMB and the N–S convergence between the Bundelkhand craton and the Bhandara and Dharwar cratons across the SMB suggest that the forces of convergence might have been in a NE–SW direction with E–W and N–S components in the two cases, respectively. This explains the arcuate shaped collision zone of the ADMB and the SMB which are connected in their western part. The Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB also shows signatures of E–W directed Meso–Neoproterozoic convergence with East Antarctica similar to ADMB in north India. Foreland basins such as Vindhyan (ADMB–SMB, and Kurnool (EGMB Supergroups of rocks were formed during this convergence. Older rocks such as Aravalli (ADMB, Mahakoshal–Bijawar (SMB, and Cuddapah (EGMB Supergroups of rocks with several basic/ultrabasic intrusives along these mobile belts, plausibly formed during

  13. The Madong Early Paleozoic fold-thrust belt in southern Tarim Basin (United States)

    Li, Yue-Jun; Wen, Lei; Li, Hui-Li; Peng, Geng-Xin; Qiu, Bin; Zheng, Duo-Ming; Luo, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Qiang; Jia, Tie-Gan


    The Madong fold-thrust belt, which strikes NE-SW and thrusts southeastward, locates in the southern Tarim Basin. It is a part of the Kunlun Early Paleozoic foreland fold-thrust belt, and so is the Tangnan fold-thrust belt on the southeast of Madong. The Madong and Tangnan fold-thrust belts developed in Cambrian-Ordovician strata, and the Middle Cambrian gypsum-salt layer serves as the main décollement surface. The Middle Silurian and above strata unconformably overlie Madong while the upper Lower Silurian unconformably overlie Tangnan. On the basis of the facts that: (1) the Upper Ordovician is the youngest strata involved in the fold-thrust deformation, (2) the upper-Lower to Middle Silurian is the oldest strata unconformably overlying the foreland fold-thrust belt (including Madong and Tangnan), and growth strata exist in the upper part of the Upper Ordovician, we infer that the deformation time of the Kunlun Early Paleozoic foreland fold-thrust belt (including Madong and Tangnan) was during the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian. Tangnan is the residual of the major part of the foreland fold-thrust belt. Its northwestward thrust direction represents the main thrust direction of the foreland fold-thrust belt. Madong is the front belt of the foreland fold-thrust belt. It mainly thrusts southeastward and serves as the back-thrust belt of the Kunlun Early Paleozoic foreland fold-thrust belt. It is a triangle zone between Madong and Tangnan. The Madong fold-thrust belt is the best-preserved section of the Kunlun Early Paleozoic collisional orogenic belt, and thus is an important geological record of the Kunlun Early Paleozoic orogeny.

  14. Self-reported safety belt use among emergency department patients in Boston, Massachusetts

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    Mitchell Patricia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safety belt use is 80% nationally, yet only 63% in Massachusetts. Safety belt use among potentially at-risk groups in Boston is unknown. We sought to assess the prevalence and correlates of belt non-use among emergency department (ED patients in Boston. Methods A cross-sectional survey with systematic sampling was conducted on non-urgent ED patients age ≥18. A closed-ended survey was administered by interview. Safety belt use was defined via two methods: a single-item and a multiple-item measure of safety belt use. Each was scored using a 5-point frequency scale. Responses were used to categorize safety belt use as 'always' or less than 'always'. Outcome for multivariate logistic regression analysis was safety belt use less than 'always'. Results Of 478 patients approached, 381 (80% participated. Participants were 48% female, 48% African-American, 40% White, median age 39. Among participants, 250 (66% had been in a car crash; 234 (61% had a valid driver's license, and 42 (11% had been ticketed for belt non-use. Using two different survey measures, a single-item and a multiple-item measure, safety belt use 'always' was 51% and 36% respectively. According to separate regression models, factors associated with belt non-use included male gender, alcohol consumption >5 drinks in one episode, riding with others that drink and drive, ever receiving a citation for belt non-use, believing that safety belt use is 'uncomfortable', and that 'I just forget', while 'It's my usual habit' was protective. Conclusion ED patients at an urban hospital in Boston have considerably lower self-reported safety belt use than state or national estimates. An ED-based intervention to increase safety belt use among this hard-to-reach population warrants consideration.

  15. Reversible Exchange of L-Type and Bound-Ion-Pair X-Type Ligation on Cadmium Selenide Quantum Belts. (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Buhro, William E


    CdSe quantum belts of composition {CdSe[n-octylamine]0.53} and protic acids HX (X = Cl, Br, NO3, acetate (OAc), and benzoate (OBz)) react to exchange the L-type amine ligation to bound-ion-pair X-type ligation. The latter ligation has X- anions bound to the nanocrystal surfaces and closely associated LH+ counter-cations (protonated n-octylamine or tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP) to balance the surface charges. The compositions of the exchanged QBs are {CdSe[Br]0.44[n-octylammonium]0.41}, {CdSe[NO3]0.10[TOPH]0.12}, {CdSe[OBz]0.08[n-octylammonium]0.02[TOPH]0.06}, and {CdSe[OAc]0.16[n-octylammonium]0.02[TOPH]0.14}. (The HCl-exchanged QBs are insufficiently stable for elemental analysis.) The bound-ion-pair X-type ligation is fully reversed to L-type n-octylamine ligation in the cases of X = NO3, acetate, and benzoate. The ligand exchanges are monitored by absorption spectroscopy, and the exchanged, bound-ion-pair X-type ligated nanocrystals are characterized by a range of methods.

  16. The extreme Kuiper Belt binary 2001 QW322. (United States)

    Petit, J-M; Kavelaars, J J; Gladman, B J; Margot, J L; Nicholson, P D; Jones, R L; Parker, J Wm; Ashby, M L N; Bagatin, A Campo; Benavidez, P; Coffey, J; Rousselot, P; Mousis, O; Taylor, P A


    The study of binary Kuiper Belt objects helps to probe the dynamic conditions present during planet formation in the solar system. We report on the mutual-orbit determination of 2001 QW322, a Kuiper Belt binary with a very large separation whose properties challenge binary-formation and -evolution theories. Six years of tracking indicate that the binary's mutual-orbit period is approximately 25 to 30 years, that the orbit pole is retrograde and inclined 50 degrees to 62 degrees from the ecliptic plane, and, most surprisingly, that the mutual orbital eccentricity is <0.4. The semimajor axis of 105,000 to 135,000 kilometers is 10 times that of other near-equal-mass binaries. Because this weakly bound binary is prone to orbital disruption by interlopers, its lifetime in its present state is probably less than 1 billion years.

  17. Flying through an African Greenstone Belt by EMusic (United States)

    Menghini, Antonio; Pontani, Stefano


    This performance will simulate a flying over and across a "Greenstone Belt" area in Sierra Leone, that was investigated by means of Airborne EM method for detecting gold. VTEM (Versatile Time Domain Electromagnetic - Geotech Ltd) data were sonified according to the procedure (EMusic) defined by Menghini and Pontani (2016). The soundtrack of the video showing a journey through the survey area (also into the subsurface) describes the different geophysical responses, provided by the regolith aquifer, the granitic-gneiss basement and by the greenstone belt bedrock. It represents a funny way to disseminate the knowledge and the utility of the geophysical methods towards common audience. References Menghini, A., and Pontani, S., (2016): What is the Sound of the Earth? First Break, 34, 41-46.

  18. Calculations of synchrotron emission from the terrestrial radiation belts (United States)

    Johnson, R.


    A theoretical model was developed to allow for the calculation of the synchrotron emission arising from high energy electrons trapped in the Van Allen belts of a planet with a dipole magnetic field. The model is general enough to allow for the calculation of the intensity of radiation received by an observer at any distance from and any latitude about the planet. The model is used to compute the emission from the earth's Van Allen belts that one should expect at various latitudes at a distance of 1.92 earth radii, the position of the Radio Astronomy Explorer satellite that was launched in 1968, for the frequencies 1.3 MHz and 2.2 MHz.

  19. Upper hybrid waves and energetic electrons in the radiation belt (United States)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Kim, Sunjung; Hwang, Junga; Shin, Dae-Kyu


    Van Allen radiation belt is characterized by energetic electrons and ions trapped in the Earth's dipolar magnetic field lines and persisting for long periods. It is also permeated by high-frequency electrostatic fluctuations whose peak intensity occurs near the upper hybrid frequency. Such a phenomenon can be understood in terms of spontaneous emission of electrostatic multiple harmonic electron cyclotron waves by thermal plasmas. In the literature, the upper hybrid fluctuations are used as a proxy for determining the electron number density, but they also contain important information concerning the energetic electrons in the radiation belt and possibly the ring current electrons. The companion paper analyzes sample quiet time events and demonstrates that the upper hybrid fluctuations are predominantly emitted by tenuous population of energetic electrons. The present paper supplements detailed formalism of spontaneous thermal emission of multiple-harmonic cyclotron waves that include upper hybrid fluctuations.

  20. Chorus Wave Energy Budget Analysis in the Earth's Radiation Belts (United States)

    Blancarte, J.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.


    Whistler-mode chorus emissions are important electromagnetic waves in the Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously scatter and accelerate electrons of the outer radiation belt, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts. Here, we present an analysis of Van Allen Probes electric and magnetic field VLF waveform data, evaluating the wave energy budget, and show that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to very oblique waves. Such waves, with a generally much smaller (up to 10 times) magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have comparable or even larger total energy. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth's radiation belts and also provide nonlinear effects due to wave-particle interaction through the Landau resonance due to the significant electric field component parallel to the background magnetic field.

  1. Critical phenomenon of granular flow on a conveyor belt. (United States)

    De-Song, Bao; Xun-Sheng, Zhang; Guang-Lei, Xu; Zheng-Quan, Pan; Xiao-Wei, Tang; Kun-Quan, Lu


    The relationship between the granular wafer movement on a two-dimensional conveyor belt and the size of the exit together with the velocity of the conveyor belt has been studied in the experiment. The result shows that there is a critical speed v(c) for the granular flow when the exit width d is fixed (where d=R/D, D being the diameter of a granular wafers). When vv(c), the flow rate Q is described as Q=Crho(v)(beta)(d-k)(3/2). These are the effects of the interaction among the granular wafers and the change of the states of the granular flow due to the changing of the speed or the exit width d.

  2. Hysteretic behavior of a belt tensioner: modeling and experimental investigation


    Michon, Guilhem; Manin, Lionel; Dufour, Regis


    In this paper we describe the modeling of the hysteretic behavior of belt tensioners. An initial experimental device is composed only of the tensioner by using forcing frequencies, preloads and deflection amplitudes. It permits the identification of the parameters of the restoring force model used. Comparison of the measured and predicted force deflection loops of the tensioner subjected to large deflections permits preliminary validation of the model.The second experimental device consists o...

  3. Rotation Periods for Three Main-belt Asteroids (United States)

    Franco, Lorenzo; Baj, Giorgio; Tinella, Vito; Bachini, Mauro; Succi, Giacomo; Casalnuovo, Giovanni Battista; Bacci, Paolo


    Photometric observations of three main-belt asteroids were made from Italy in order to determine their synodic rotation periods. For 1022 Olympiada the period is 3.834 ± 0.001 hr, amplitude 0.66 mag. For 1602 Indiana the results are 2.601 ± 0.001 hr and 0.16 mag. and for 2501 Lohja we report 3.809 ± 0.001 hr and 0.44 mag.

  4. Accelerated Comparative Fatigue Strength Testing of Belt Adhesive Joints (United States)

    Bajda, Miroslaw; Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek


    Belt joints are the weakest link in the serial structure that creates an endless loop of spliced belt segments. This affects not only the lower strength of adhesive joints of textile belts in comparison to vulcanized splices, but also the replacement of traditional glues to more ecological but with other strength parameters. This is reflected in the lowered durability of adhesive joints, which in underground coal mines is nearly twice shorter than the operating time of belts. Vulcanized splices require high precision in performance, they need long time to achieve cross-linking of the friction mixture and, above all, they require specialized equipment (vulcanization press) which is not readily available and often takes much time to be delivered down, which means reduced mining output or even downtime. All this reduces the reliability and durability of adhesive joints. In addition, due to the consolidation on the Polish coal market, mines are joined into large economic units serviced by a smaller number of processing plants. The consequence is to extend the transport routes downstream and increase reliability requirements. The greater number of conveyors in the chain reduces reliability of supply and increases production losses. With high fixed costs of underground mines, the reduction in mining output is reflected in the increase in unit costs, and this at low coal prices on the market can mean substantial losses for mines. The paper describes the comparative study of fatigue strength of shortened samples of adhesive joints conducted to compare many different variants of joints (various adhesives and materials). Shortened samples were exposed to accelerated fatigue in the usually long-lasting dynamic studies, allowing more variants to be tested at the same time. High correlation between the results obtained for shortened (100 mm) and traditional full-length (3×250 mm) samples renders accelerated tests possible.

  5. Anomalous heat flow belt along the continental margin of Brazil (United States)

    Hamza, Valiya M.; Vieira, Fabio P.; Silva, Raquel T. A.


    A comprehensive analysis of thermal gradient and heat flow data was carried out for sedimentary basins situated in the continental margin of Brazil (CMB). The results point to the existence of a narrow belt within CMB, where temperature gradients are higher than 30 °C/km and the heat flow is in excess of 70 mW/m2. This anomalous geothermal belt is confined between zones of relatively low to normal heat flow in the adjacent continental and oceanic regions. The width of the belt is somewhat variable, but most of it falls within the range of 100-300 km. The spatial extent is relatively large in the southern (in the basins of Pelotas, Santos and Campos) and northern (in the basins of Potiguar and Ceará) parts, when compared with those in the central parts (in the basins of South Bahia, Sergipe and Alagoas). The characteristics of heat flow anomalies appear to be compatible with those produced by thermal sources at depths in the lower crust. Hence, magma emplacement at the transition zone between lower crust and upper mantle is considered the likely mechanism producing such anomalies. Seismicity within the belt is relatively weak, with focal depths less than 10 km for most of the events. Such observations imply that "tectonic bonding" between continental and oceanic segments, at the transition zone of CMB, is relatively weak. Hence, it is proposed that passive margins like CMB be considered as constituting a type of plate boundary that is aseismic at sub-crustal levels, but allows for escape of significant amounts of earth's internal heat at shallow depths.

  6. Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics Driven by Large-Amplitude Whistlers (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Tel'nikhin, A. A.; Kronberg, T. K.


    Acceleration of radiation belt electrons driven by oblique large-amplitude whistler waves is studied. We show analytically and numerically that this is a stochastic process; the intensity of which depends on the wave power modified by Bessel functions. The type of this dependence is determined by the character of the nonlinear interaction due to coupling between action and phase. The results show that physically significant quantities have a relatively weak dependence on the wave power.

  7. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal schist belt, Andhra ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results indicate a synformal structure having a width of 1.8 km at the surface, tapering at a depth of about 2.6 km with a positive density contrast of 0.15 gm/cc with respect to the surrounding peninsular gneissic complex. 1. Introduction. Detailed geophysical appraisal of the northern schist belts of the Dharwar craton, (i.e. ...

  8. Beryllium resources of the tin-spodumene belt, North Carolina (United States)

    Griffitts, Wallace R.


    Pegmatite dikes in the tin-spodumene belt of North and South Carolina uniformly contain about 0.05 percent BeO. The most abundant minerals in the pegmatite contain from 0. 0001 to 0.01 percent BeO. Beryl, having 12.0 to 12.3 percent BeO, is the only beryllium-rich mineral and contains more than 80 percent of the total beryllium in the rock. Beryl-bearing pegmatite crops out on hillsides near streams that flow through the pegmatite belt. Much of the pegmatite contains spodumene, feldspar, mica, cassiterite, and columbite, as well as beryl, but separating these minerals will require milling. The minable spodumene ore in the Kings Mountain area, above a depth of 300 feet contains about 40,000 tons of beryl, equivalent to 6, 000 tons of BeO, if 80 percent of the BeO is assumed to be in beryl. Other pegmatite in that area contains an additional 238,000 tons of beryl, or 35, 900 tons of BeO. On the basis of the same assumptions the spodumene ore above a depth of 300 feet 1 in the Beaverdam Creek area contains 6, 000 tons of beryl, or 800 tons of BeO, and all other pegmatite in that area contains an additional 13, 000 tons of beryl, or 1, 700 tons of BeO. The entire tin-spodumene belt contains 823, 000 tons of beryl, equivalent to 122,800 tons of BeO. Little beryllium was found in the Piedmont province outside of the tin-spodumene belt.

  9. Cofilin activation during podosome belt formation in osteoclasts. (United States)

    Blangy, Anne; Touaitahuata, Heiani; Cres, Gaelle; Pawlak, Geraldine


    Podosomes are dynamic actin-based structures found constitutively in cells of monocytic origin such as macrophages, dendritic cells and osteoclasts. They have been involved in osteoclast cell adhesion, motility and matrix degradation, and all these functions rely on the ability of podosomes to form supra-molecular structures called podosome belts or sealing zones on mineralized substrates. Podosomes contain two distinct domains, an actin-rich core enriched in actin polymerization regulators, surrounded by a ring of signaling and plaque molecules. The organization of podosome arrays into belts is linked to actin dynamics. Cofilin is an actin-severing protein that is known to regulate cytoskeleton architecture and cell migration. Cofilin is present in lamellipodia and invadopodia where it regulates actin polymerization. In this report, we show that cofilin is a novel component of the podosome belt, the mature osteoclast adhesion structure. Time-course analysis demonstrated that cofilin is activated during primary osteoclast differentiation, at the time of podosome belt assembly. Immunofluorescence studies reveal a localization of active cofilin in the podosome core structure, whereas phosphorylated, inactive cofilin is concentrated in the podosome cloud. Pharmacological studies unraveled the role of a specific cofilin phosphatase to achieve cofilin activation during osteoclast differentiation. We ruled out the implication of PP1/PP2A and PTEN in this process, and rather provided evidence for the involvement of SSH1. In summary, our data involve cofilin as a regulator of podosome organization that is activated during osteoclast differentiation by a RANKL-mediated signaling pathway targeting the SSH1 phosphatase.

  10. Cofilin activation during podosome belt formation in osteoclasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Blangy

    Full Text Available Podosomes are dynamic actin-based structures found constitutively in cells of monocytic origin such as macrophages, dendritic cells and osteoclasts. They have been involved in osteoclast cell adhesion, motility and matrix degradation, and all these functions rely on the ability of podosomes to form supra-molecular structures called podosome belts or sealing zones on mineralized substrates. Podosomes contain two distinct domains, an actin-rich core enriched in actin polymerization regulators, surrounded by a ring of signaling and plaque molecules. The organization of podosome arrays into belts is linked to actin dynamics. Cofilin is an actin-severing protein that is known to regulate cytoskeleton architecture and cell migration. Cofilin is present in lamellipodia and invadopodia where it regulates actin polymerization. In this report, we show that cofilin is a novel component of the podosome belt, the mature osteoclast adhesion structure. Time-course analysis demonstrated that cofilin is activated during primary osteoclast differentiation, at the time of podosome belt assembly. Immunofluorescence studies reveal a localization of active cofilin in the podosome core structure, whereas phosphorylated, inactive cofilin is concentrated in the podosome cloud. Pharmacological studies unraveled the role of a specific cofilin phosphatase to achieve cofilin activation during osteoclast differentiation. We ruled out the implication of PP1/PP2A and PTEN in this process, and rather provided evidence for the involvement of SSH1. In summary, our data involve cofilin as a regulator of podosome organization that is activated during osteoclast differentiation by a RANKL-mediated signaling pathway targeting the SSH1 phosphatase.

  11. [A Dutch roadmap for care without belts usage]. (United States)

    Hamers, J P H; Gulpers, M J M; Bleijlevens, M H C; Capezuti, E; van Rossum, E


    The use of physical restraints still is highly prevalent in institutional long term care settings for older people. We know that the use of restrictive measures, such as belt restraints, do have many negative consequences for residents, and even can be harmful to their health. However, this knowledge does not result in a reduction of physical restraints. This paper describes the search for an intervention (EXBELT) aiming to safely reduce and prevent the use of belt restraints in nursing homes. EXBELT consists of a promotion of institutional policy change that discourages use of belt restraints, nursing home staff education, availability of alternative interventions, and consultation by a nurse specialist. Effect evaluations show that EXBELT is effective on the short and long term. According to a process evaluation, EXBELT was largely performed according to protocol and very well received by nursing home staff and resident's relatives. However, concurrently it is stated that the reduction of physical restraints in Dutch nursing home care runs slowly. The conclusion is that continuing focus is needed to reduce physical restraints in nursing homes and to prevent its use in home care.

  12. Metallogenic belt and mineral deposit maps of northeast Asia (United States)

    Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Gerel, Ochir; Hwang, Duk-Hwan; Miller, Robert J.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Smelov, Alexander P.; Yan, Hongquan; Seminskiy, Zhan V.


    This report contains explanatory material and summary tables for lode mineral deposits and placer districts (Map A, sheet 1) and metallogenic belts of Northeast Asia (Maps B, C, and D on sheets 2, 3, and 4, respectively). The map region includes eastern Siberia, southeastern Russia, Mongolia, northeast China, and Japan. A large group of geologists—members of the joint international project, Major Mineral Deposits, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of Northeast Asia—prepared the maps, tables, and introductory text. This is a cooperative project with the Russian Academy of Sciences, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Mongolian National University, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolian Technical University, Mineral Resources Authority of Mongolia, Geological Research Institute, Jilin University, China Geological Survey, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Geological Survey of Japan, and U.S. Geological Survey. This report is one of a series of reports on the mineral resources, geodynamics, and metallogenesis of Northeast Asia. Companion studies include (1) a detailed geodynamics map of Northeast Asia (Parfenov and others, 2003); (2) a compilation of major mineral deposit models (Rodionov and Nokleberg, 2000; Rodionov and others, 2000); (3) a series of metallogenic belt maps (Obolenskiy and others, 2004); (4) location map of lode mineral deposits and placer districts of Northeast Asia (Ariunbileg and others, 2003b); (5) descriptions of metallogenic belts (Rodionov and others, 2004); (6) a database on significant metalliferous and selected nonmetalliferous lode deposits and selected placer districts (Ariunbileg and others, 2003a); and (7) a series of summary project publications (Ariunbileg and 74 others, 2003b).

  13. A social media program to increase adolescent seat belt use. (United States)

    Drake, Stacy A; Zhang, Ni; Applewhite, Courtney; Fowler, Katherine; Holcomb, John B


    In response to motor vehicle crashes remaining the leading cause of death for teenagers in the United States, a nursing clinical group (n = 10) in conjunction with a local hospital injury prevention program created an educational campaign to bolster seat belt use. The nursing students created an Instagram account to serve as an educational tool to promote seat belt use among teenagers aged 14-19, and the program was presented at three high school health fairs. In all, 135 postings were made to the account over a 3-month period. The number of likes posted by high school students was the unit of analysis. The most significant result (p = .01) was the difference between postings most liked (celebrities wearing seat belts) and least liked (postings made at the high school health fair), otherwise, differences among postings liked (humor postings, response requests, pictures of celebrities, factual data) were not significant. Instagram user engagement, measured in number of likes, is indicative that social media provides platforms to promote injury prevention efforts. Further research is needed to identify measurable elements of social media and to follow-up on behavioral changes following participation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Investigating radiation belt losses though numerical modelling of precipitating fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger


    Full Text Available It has been suggested that whistler-induced electron precipitation (WEP may be the most significant inner radiation belt loss process for some electron energy ranges. One area of uncertainty lies in identifying a typical estimate of the precipitating fluxes from the examples given in the literature to date. Here we aim to solve this difficulty through modelling satellite and ground-based observations of onset and decay of the precipitation and its effects in the ionosphere by examining WEP-produced Trimpi perturbations in subionospheric VLF transmissions. In this study we find that typical Trimpi are well described by the effects of WEP spectra derived from the AE-5 inner radiation belt model for typical precipitating energy fluxes. This confirms the validity of the radiation belt lifetimes determined in previous studies using these flux parameters. We find that the large variation in observed Trimpi perturbation size occurring over time scales of minutes to hours is primarily due to differing precipitation flux levels rather than changing WEP spectra. Finally, we show that high-time resolution measurements during the onset of Trimpi perturbations should provide a useful signature for discriminating WEP Trimpi from non-WEP Trimpi, due to the pulsed nature of the WEP arrival.

  15. Modeling the Inner Magnetosphere: Radiation Belts, Ring Current, and Composition (United States)

    Glocer, Alex


    The space environment is a complex system defined by regions of differing length scales, characteristic energies, and physical processes. It is often difficult, or impossible, to treat all aspects of the space environment relative to a particular problem with a single model. In our studies, we utilize several models working in tandem to examine this highly interconnected system. The methodology and results will be presented for three focused topics: 1) Rapid radiation belt electron enhancements, 2) Ring current study of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs), Dst, and plasma composition, and 3) Examination of the outflow of ionospheric ions. In the first study, we use a coupled MHD magnetosphere - kinetic radiation belt model to explain recent Akebono/RDM observations of greater than 2.5 MeV radiation belt electron enhancements occurring on timescales of less than a few hours. In the second study, we present initial results of a ring current study using a newly coupled kinetic ring current model with an MHD magnetosphere model. Results of a dst study for four geomagnetic events are shown. Moreover, direct comparison with TWINS ENA images are used to infer the role that composition plays in the ring current. In the final study, we directly model the transport of plasma from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere. We especially focus on the role of photoelectrons and and wave-particle interactions. The modeling methodology for each of these studies will be detailed along with the results.

  16. Evolution of planet crossing asteroids in the inner Main Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, A O; Roig, F, E-mail: [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, 20921-400, RJ (Brazil)


    We studied the dynamical evolution of asteroids in terrestrial planet crossing orbits, located between 2.1 and 2.5 AU. The evolution is analyzed by direct numerical integration of massless particles under the gravitational influence of all planets from Venus to Neptune. The simulations include the Yarkovsky effect, introduced as a non conservative force that produces a slow variation of the average orbital semimajor axis. Our analysis focuses on the test particles that can reach the middle and outer regions of the Main Belt (semimajor axis > 2.5 AU) during their evolution, since these may be relevant for understanding the transport mechanisms of asteroids from the inner Belt. These mechanisms could help to explain, for example, the existence of basaltic asteroids beyond 2.5 AU assuming that these bodies originate in the Vesta family, located at {approx} 2.3 AU. We found that, although some orbits that reach the middle and outer regions of the Belt can become temporarily detached from the planet crossing regime, and may have their orbital eccentricities damped due to capture at some mean motion resonances, such orbits survive for only a few hundred thousand years and, ultimately, the test particles return to the planet crossing regime being eventually discarded by close encounters with the planets. These results seem to indicate that a transport mechanism based only on planetary encounters and resonant capture might not be efficient enough to justify the presence of basaltic asteroids beyond 2.5 AU.

  17. The South-Western Branch of the Variscan Belt: Evidence from Morocco (United States)

    Michard, A.; Soulaimani, A.; Hoepffner, C.; Ouanaimi, H.; Baidder, L.; Rjimati, E. C.; Saddiqi, O.


    This work is based on the compilation and re-evaluation of the most significant data, either personal or from the literature, concerning the Moroccan Variscides. The latter constitute the only, moderately disturbed or even undisturbed part of the South-Western Branch of the Variscan Belt, facing directly NW Gondwana. They include two orogenic segments, namely the northern Mauritanides and the Meseta Domain exposed in the Saharan and Atlas-Meseta regions respectively, and a foreland belt cropping out essentially in the Anti-Atlas. The eastward thrust units of Saharan Morocco (Oulad Dlim) mostly originate from the West African Craton (WAC) border in an area of thin Palaeozoic sedimentation. Thin-skinned fold-thrust foreland arcs develop progressively northward (Zemmour) at the expense of the increasingly thick Palaeozoic series, whereas thick-skinned deformation characterizes the inverted proximal paleomargin in the Anti-Atlas Domain. As suggested by the Meseta and Anti-Atlas stratigraphic similarities, the Meseta Domain corresponds to a collage of moderately displaced, thinned crustal blocks from the distal Gondwana paleomargin. Variscan deformation is dominated by NW-verging thrusts, and metamorphism developed in the thickened tectonic prism in relation with crustal anatexis at depth. The Meseta-Anti-Atlas boundary is a major, ENE-trending transpressional dextral fault referred to as the South Meseta Fault (SMF). Discussing the correlations between the Variscan segments of Morocco and SW Iberia allows us to suggest that a latitudinal transform zone similar to the SMF separated these segments during the Late Palaeozoic. Subduction of the Rheic Ocean crust would have been directed SE-ward along both the Iberian and Moroccan Meseta, and NW-ward south of the SMF, i.e. along the WAC.

  18. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives. (United States)

    Chaitiemwong, N; Hazeleger, W C; Beumer, R R


    Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives, in the absence or presence of food debris from meat, fish and vegetables and at temperatures of 10, 25 and 37 degrees C was investigated. The pathogen survived best at 10 degrees C, and better at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C on both conveyor belt materials. The reduction in the numbers of the pathogen on belt material with antimicrobial additives in the first 6h at 10 degrees C was 0.6 log unit, which was significantly higher (Pconveyor belt materials during the first 6h were observed. Under these conditions, there was no obvious effect of the antimicrobial substances. However, at 25 degrees C and 10 degrees C and high humidity (60-75% rh), a rapid decrease in bacterial numbers on the belt material with antimicrobial substances was observed. Apparently the reduction in numbers of L. monocytogenes on belt material with antimicrobial additives was greater than on belt material without additives only when the surfaces were wet. Moreover, the presence of food debris neutralized the effect of the antimicrobials. The results suggest that the antimicrobial additives in conveyor belt material could help to reduce numbers of microorganisms on belts at low temperatures when food residues are absent and belts are not rapidly dried. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparisons between the diverse electron radiation belts of the solar system; Implications for radiation belt studies at Earth (United States)

    Mauk, B. H.; Fox, N. J.


    Recent studies have demonstrated that several different processes limit the most intense relativistic electron intensities within the diverse radiation belts in the solar system. Specifically, the most intense radiation belt intensities at Earth, Uranus and Jupiter all appear to be limited by a differential and relativistic version of the so-called Kennel-Petschek limit, which relies on strong whistler-wave-stimulated losses acting in a non-linear feedback mode through reflection of the waves back into the system. The most intense observed intensities at Netune and Saturn reside below those allowed by the Kennel-Petschek limit. At Neptune the absence of dynamic injection phenomena may be limiting the acceleration of relativistic electrons. At Saturn, scattering and absorption by dense clouds of gas and dust from the plumes of the moon Enceladus appear to be responsible for limiting radiation belt intensities. Even given this diversity of behaviors within the solar system, the substantial consistency of electron spectral behaviors within the very different magnetospheres of Earth, Jupiter, and Uranus is rather remarkable. For Earth studies, the utilization of the Kennel-Petschek limit has fallen on disfavor as some of the simplifying assumptions that have gone into that original theory have been challenged by observations, specifically of the behavior of whistler waves within Earth’s inner and middle magnetosphere. Our results suggest strongly that the Kennel-Petschek theory is robust to the diversity of magnetospheric and whistler mode behaviors and that it still has important implications for the behavior of Earth’s radiation belts.

  20. Lithologies, structure and basement-cover relationships in the schist belt of the Dom Feliciano Belt in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Masquelin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This work is the result of a multiyear effort to use field geology to describe lithologies, to establish contact relationships and to create a sketch of the tectonic evolution of the Meso- to Neoproterozoic metasedimentary successions within the Schist Belt of the Dom Feliciano Belt. This low-grade metamorphic cover rests on the high-grade metamorphic basement of the La China and Las Tetas complexes. This basement is Archean-Paleoproterozoic in age. The Schist Belt is overlapped unconformably by the Barriga Negra formation. The Lavalleja complex and the Barriga Negra formation both deformed together during the D2 deformation event (~ 570 -540 Ma, but the Barriga Negra only partially recorded the D2 transpressive event, whereas the Lavalleja complex was affected by both the D1 tangential event and the D2 event. Event D1 would have developed a fold nappe with vergence to the south. This hypothesis is supported by different structures: (i recumbent and upright folds oriented E-W, (ii subhorizontal mylonitic foliation in marbles (calc-schists, (iii stretching lineations plunging towards the SW in metaconglomerates of the Las Tetas Complex, and (iv a reworking of the subhorizontal foliation parallel to the Sarandí del Yí strike-slip shear zone.

  1. Timing belts - development milestones and innovations; Meilensteine und Innovationen der Zahnriemenentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, H. [ContiTech Antriebssysteme GmbH, Hannover (Germany)


    Modern Timing Belts made of high temperature resistant elastomers for camshaft drives are designed for engine lifetime. Timing Belt drives gained in Europe 75% market share because of their advantages. The Belt drives generate up to 25% less friction than chain drives and create significantly lower noise levels. The new generation of Timing Belts are manufactured using: - special fibre glass types to transmit high forces with very high length stability - reinforced and Teflon treated fabrics to reduce friction and noise -high temperature resistant HNBR Elastomer to cover the temperature range (-40 C to +150 C) New belt drive developments are using Oval sprocket technology to eliminate unwanted vibrations and to reduce drive forces by 35%. Oil resistant Belts can substitute oil lubricated chains used for oil pump and camshaft drives to reduce the friction and noise level of the chain drives. (orig.)

  2. Possibilities for utilizing scrap rubber conveyor belts in manufacturing mine cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owinski, A.; Furmanik, K.


    Utilization of scrap conveyor belts removed due to wear in manufacturing mine cars used in underground coal mines is evaluated. Tests show that rubber packs (sandwiches) consisting of conveyor belt elements successfully replace springing in mine cars. The rubber packs are bent at an angle of 90 or 120 degrees to increase their damping properties. Evaluations show that service life of rubber springing is longer than 3 years. Replacing steel springs in car buffers with rubber belt packs is a further possibility. The rubber packs in car buffers absorb up to 35% of shock energy. Sections of scrap belts could also be used to reduce buildup of coal in mine cars. Belt sections are fastened to the bottom of mine cars. Belt deformation during car self-dumping (or unloading in a rotary tippler) reduces coal adhesion to the car body and prevents buildup. 4 references.

  3. Study on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model for the Safety of Mine Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Xiaoyan


    Full Text Available To improve the situation of the frequent failures of mine belt conveyor during operation, a model was used to evaluate the safety of mine belt conveyor. Based on the foundation of collecting and analyzing a large quantity of fault information of belt conveyor in the nationwide coal mine, the fault tree model of belt conveyor has been built, then the safety evaluation index system was established by analyzing and removing some secondary indicators. Furthermore, the weighted value of safety evaluation indexs was determined by analytic hierarchy process(AHP, and the single factor fuzzy evaluation matrix was constructed by experts grading method. Additionally, the model was applied in evaluating the security of belt conveyor in Nanliang coal mine. The results shows the security level is recognized to the “general”, which means that this model can be adopted widely in evaluating the safety of mine belt conveyor.

  4. Tracing cytotoxic effects of small organic Se species in human liver cells back to total cellular Se and Se metabolites. (United States)

    Marschall, T A; Kroepfl, N; Jensen, K B; Bornhorst, J; Meermann, B; Kuehnelt, D; Schwerdtle, T


    Small selenium (Se) species play a major role in the metabolism, excretion and dietary supply of the essential trace element selenium. Human cells provide a valuable tool for investigating currently unresolved issues on the cellular mechanisms of Se toxicity and metabolism. In this study, we developed two isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma tandem-mass spectrometry based methods and applied them to human hepatoma cells (HepG2) in order to quantitatively elucidate total cellular Se concentrations and cellular Se species transformations in relation to the cytotoxic effects of four small organic Se species. Species- and incubation time-dependent results were obtained: the two major urinary excretion metabolites trimethylselenonium (TMSe) and methyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-seleno-β-d-galactopyranoside (SeSugar 1) were taken up by the HepG2 cells in an unmodified manner and did not considerably contribute to the Se pool. In contrast, Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys) and selenomethionine (SeMet) were taken up in higher amounts, they were largely incorporated by the cells (most likely into proteins) and metabolized to other small Se species. Two new metabolites of MeSeCys, namely γ-glutamyl-Se-methylselenocysteine and Se-methylselenoglutathione, were identified by means of HPLC-electrospray-ionization-Orbitrap-MS. They are certainly involved in the (de-)toxification modes of Se metabolism and require further investigation.

  5. Various production methods are being tried in the Orinoco Oil Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Venezuela's state-owned Corporacion Venezolana del Petroleo (CVP) and Mobil Oil Co. de Venezuela intend to make an in-situ combustion test in the Orinoco Oil Belt, which is also known as the Orinoco Tar Belt. Estimates of oil in place in the Tar Belt are as high as 700 billion bbl in deposits located in an area 53 km by 600 km. Evaluation of all possible production processes is being continued.

  6. [Use of seat belts and mobile phone while driving in Florence: trend from 2005 to 2009]. (United States)

    Lorini, Chiara; Pellegrino, Elettra; Mannocci, Federico; Allodi, Guendalina; Indiani, Laura; Mersi, Anna; Petrioli, Giuseppe; Santini, Maria Grazia; Garofalo, Giorgio; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo


    to evaluate the trend over time of the use of seat belts by drivers and passengers of cars and vans and the use of hand held mobile phone while driving in Florence from 2005 to 2009. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: direct observations (58,773 vehicles) have been conducted to detect the use of seat belts by occupants of cars and vans, and the use of mobile phone while driving. It has been carried out correlation analysis between the use of the seat belt by occupants of vehicles and between the simultaneous use of this device and mobile phone while driving.Moreover, it has been carried out time series analysis (ARIMA Box Jenkins) of in the prevalence of the use of seat belts by occupants of vehicles observed, of mobile phone by drivers and the trend of the risk to drive using the mobile phone with unfastened seat belt rather than to drive using the mobile phone with fastened seat belt. seat belts were used on average by 75.7% of drivers, 75.5% of front passengers and 25.1% of rear passengers. The average mobile phone use while driving was 4.5%. Drivers most frequently fasten seat belt if front passengers use it and while they do not use mobile phone. The use of seat belts by drivers and front passengers has not changed over time, whereas the use of mobile phone while driving has significantly increased. The prevalence of using mobile phone with unfastened seat belt rather than to use it with fastened seat belt while driving has significantly decreased over the years, indicating an increase in the use of mobile phone, especially among those who fasten the seat belt. it is necessary to plan and realize stronger interventions in the whole area.

  7. Simulation of high-energy radiation belt electron fluxes using NARMAX-VERB coupled codes


    I. P. Pakhotin; A. Y. Drozdov; Yuri Shprits; R. J. Boynton; D. A. Subbotin; M. A. Balikhin


    This study presents a fusion of data-driven and physics-driven methodologies of energetic electron flux forecasting in the outer radiation belt. Data-driven NARMAX (Nonlinear AutoRegressive Moving Averages with eXogenous inputs) model predictions for geosynchronous orbit fluxes have been used as an outer boundary condition to drive the physics-based Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code, to simulate energetic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt environment. The coupled system ...

  8. Pattern of seat belt use by drivers in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies (United States)


    Background In Trinidad and Tobago, the law on the mandatory use of seat belts was passed in 1995, but this law is hardly enforced. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and predictors of seat belt use by motor vehicle drivers in the country. Findings A cross-sectional study of 959 motor vehicle drivers using a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis included Pearson Chi square test and multinomial logistic regression analysis in order to determine the possible predictors of seat belt use by the drivers in Trinidad and Tobago. A majority of the drivers sometimes (51.8%) or always (31.6%) use a seat belt. About 16.7%, 29% and 54.2% of the drivers perceived that the other drivers use their seat belts more frequently, with the same frequency and less frequently respectively compared to themselves. The main reason for not using seat belt by the drivers was given as frequent stops (40.7%) and the main motivation to use seat belt by the drivers was given as stiffer penalties for non-compliance with the seat belt law (44.5%). The predictors of seat belt use were male driver, no formal or lower level of education, driving for less than 10 years, and the perception that the other drivers use seat belts with the same or higher frequency compared to the respondents. Conclusion Only a small proportion of the drivers in Trinidad and Tobago always use a seat belt when driving. There is the need to enforce the seat belt legislation in the country. PMID:21679410

  9. Data From HANE-Generated Radiation Belts and the Origin of Diffusion Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winske, Dan [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    In this presentation we briefly review some of the published data regarding the artificial radiation belts produced by the Starfish and R2 high altitude nuclear explosions in 1962. The data showed slow temporal variations of the belts in altitude (L) and pitch angle ({alpha}) that could be modeled as a diffusion process. That early work formed the basis for more complex radiation belt diffusion models that are in use at present.

  10. Charles S. Peirce on creative metaphor: A case study of the conveyor belt methaphor in Oceanography.


    Brüning, R.; Lohmann, Gerrit


    With Charles Sanders Peirce's semiotical theory two different kinds of creative metaphorical reasoning in science can be identified. The building of remainder metaphors is especially important for creating new scientific models. We show that the conveyor belt metaphor provides an excellent example for Peirce's theory. The conveyor belt metaphor has recently been invented in order to describe the oceanic transport system. The paradigm of the oceanic conveyor belt strongly influenced the geosci...

  11. Effects of seat belts worn by pregnant drivers during low-impact collisions. (United States)

    Motozawa, Yasuki; Hitosugi, Masahito; Abe, Takeshi; Tokudome, Shogo


    The aim of this study was to understand the injury mechanisms of pregnant drivers and associated fetal outcomes. Frontal and rear impact tests using a dummy representing the anthropometry of a pregnant woman were conducted. In frontal impact tests without a seat belt, abdominal pressure peaked at the point where the dummy contacted the steering wheel. Rear impact tests without a seat belt showed that the dummy moved forward because of rebound and contacted the steering wheel, which was avoided when a seat belt was worn. Wearing a seat belt reduces abdominal pressure or prevents contact with the steering wheel during collisions. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The evolution of Saturn's radiation belts modulated by changes in radial diffusion (United States)

    Kollmann, P.; Roussos, E.; Kotova, A.; Paranicas, C.; Krupp, N.


    Globally magnetized planets, such as the Earth1 and Saturn2, are surrounded by radiation belts of protons and electrons with kinetic energies well into the million electronvolt range. The Earth's proton belt is supplied locally from galactic cosmic rays interacting with the atmosphere3, as well as from slow inward radial transport4. Its intensity shows a relationship with the solar cycle4,5 and abrupt dropouts due to geomagnetic storms6,7. Saturn's proton belts are simpler than the Earth's because cosmic rays are the principal source of energetic protons8 with virtually no contribution from inward transport, and these belts can therefore act as a prototype to understand more complex radiation belts. However, the time dependence of Saturn's proton belts had not been observed over sufficiently long timescales to test the driving mechanisms unambiguously. Here we analyse the evolution of Saturn's proton belts over a solar cycle using in-situ measurements from the Cassini Saturn orbiter and a numerical model. We find that the intensity in Saturn's proton radiation belts usually rises over time, interrupted by periods that last over a year for which the intensity is gradually dropping. These observations are inconsistent with predictions based on a modulation in the cosmic-ray source, as could be expected4,9 based on the evolution of the Earth's proton belts. We demonstrate that Saturn's intensity dropouts result instead from losses due to abrupt changes in magnetospheric radial diffusion.

  13. Prevalence of rear seat belt use among pregnant women in a suburban area of Japan. (United States)

    Ogawa, Shota; Shinozaki, Hiromitsu; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Itoh, Masahiro; Soda, Masayuki; Kameda, Takashi; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Yokota, Hidemi; Kamioka, Kiyoshi; Minegishi, Takashi


    The aim of this study was to clarify the prevalence and influencing factors of rear seat belt use among pregnant women. Questionnaires were given to 1546 pregnant women who visited obstetrics clinics and hospitals for prenatal checkups from October to December 2013. A total of 1494 pregnant women (96.6%) agreed to participate in this study and completed the questionnaire. Fewer than 20% of the rear-seat passengers 'always' used seat belts before and during pregnancy, whereas a third 'never' used a seat belt before or during pregnancy. There was no significant decrease in seat belt use by rear-seat passengers during compared to before pregnancy. Multivariate analysis revealed that age, knowledge of how to use a seat belt during pregnancy, belief in the compulsory use of a rear seat belt and driver behavioral characteristics before pregnancy were associated with rear seat belt use during pregnancy. The prevalence of fastening seat belts was substantially low. The provision of information regarding proper seat belt use and its role in protecting the fetus may increase use. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Application of software solutions for modeling and analysis of parameters of belt drive in engineering (United States)

    Timerbaev, N. F.; Sadrtdinov, A. R.; Prosvirnikov, D. B.; Fomin, A. A.; Stepanov, V. V.


    The application of software systems in engineering when developing the belt drive designs and evaluating their characteristics is considered. A technique for calculating and analyzing belt drives is described using the example of calculating V-belt and flat-belt drives using a software solution. As a result of the belt drive analysis, belt profiles, belt cross-sectional dimensions, drive and driven sheave diameters and power parameters are determined, and graphics images of the dependences of belt’s prestressing force and the force acting on the shaft from the diameter of the driving sheave are obtained. By approximating the results of calculations, theoretical equations for calculating the power parameters of the belt drives were derived. Carrying out the analysis of belt drives with the use of software solutions allows one to avoid computational errors and to optimize the design and performance. At the same time, a convenient and intuitive interface, as well as an integrated graphical editor, provide visibility of the output data and allow the accelerated engineering analysis of the development object.

  15. Study on the application of permanent magnet synchronous motors in underground belt conveyors (United States)

    Ma, S. H.


    This paper analyzes and compares the advantages and disadvantages of several kinds of drive devices of belt conveyors from the angle of energy saving, and summarizes the application advantages and using problems of permanent magnet motor variable frequency drive system in belt conveyors. An example is given to demonstrate the energy saving effect of this system compared with other driving methods. This paper points out the application prospect of permanent magnet motor variable frequency drive system on belt conveyors and other large mining machines in coal mine. This paper is aimed to provide the design direction for the designer and the choice basis for the user on belt conveyor.

  16. Permo-Triassic structural evolution of the Shiwandashan and Youjiang structural belts, South China (United States)

    Li, Jianhua; Zhao, Guochun; Johnston, Stephen T.; Dong, Shuwen; Zhang, Yueqiao; Xin, Yujia; Wang, Wenbao; Sun, Hanshen; Yu, Yingqi


    We conducted field mapping coupled with radiometric dating across the Shiwandashan and Youjiang structural belts (SWSB and YJSB), to investigate how southwest South China evolved and to better understand its links to plate boundary dynamics during the Late Permian to Middle Triassic. Our results reveal an episodic tectono-magmatic evolutionary history of the SWSB and YJSB. The SWSB underwent significant NW-SE shortening punctuated by ∼250-240 Ma S-type pluton emplacement during the Late Permian to Middle Triassic; the shortening was expressed by thin-skinned NW-verging thrusts and folds, and conjugate sets of ∼N-trending sinistral and ∼E-trending dextral faults. The NW-SE shortening overlapped with, and was succeeded by Triassic NE-SW shortening in the YJSB. The NE-SW shortening was expressed by NE-verging thrusts and folds, which documented a northeastward propagation of foreland deformation. The NE-verging folds overprinted older NW-verging folds, forming superimposed folds at the juncture of the YJSB and SWSB in the Long'an area. Our results, combined with regional considerations, support a model of the NW-SE shortening as an Andean-type orogeny that developed in response to westward subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate, and the NE-SW shortening as a product of the Indochina-South China collision. The subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate assisted in westward motion of the South China oceanic lithosphere, which may have facilitated the closure of the Paleo-Tethys ocean and subsequent collisions of South China with North China and Indochina.

  17. BAOBAB (Big And Outrageously Bold Asteroid Belt) Project (United States)

    Mcfadden, L. A.; Thomas, C. A; Englander, J. A.; Ruesch, O.; Hosseini, S.; Goossens, S. J.; Mazarico, E. M.; Schmerr, N.


    One of the intriguing results of NASA's Dawn mission is the composition and structure of the Main Asteroid Belt's only known dwarf planet, Ceres [1]. It has a top layer of dehydrated clays and salts [2] and an icy-rocky mantle [3,4]. It is widely known that the asteroid belt failed to accrete as a planet by resonances between the Sun and Jupiter. About 20-30 asteroids >100 km diameter are probably differentiated protoplanets [5]. 1) how many more and which ones are fragments of protoplanets? 2) How many and which ones are primordial rubble piles left over from condensation of the solar nebula? 3) How would we go about gaining better and more complete characterization of the mass, interior structure and composition of the Main Belt asteroid population? 4) What is the relationship between asteroids and ocean worlds? Bulk parameters such as the mass, density, and porosity, are important to characterize the structure of any celestial body, and for asteroids in particular, they can shed light on the conditions in the early solar system. Asteroid density estimates exist but currently they are often based on assumed properties of taxonomic classes, or through astronomical survey data where interactions with asteroids are weak at best resulting in large measurement uncertainty. We only have direct density estimates from spacecraft encounters for a few asteroids at this time. Knowledge of the asteroids is significant not only to understand their role in solar system workings, but also to assess their potential as space resources, as impact hazards on Earth, or even as harboring life forms. And for the distant future, we want to know if the idea put forth in a contest sponsored by Physics Today, to surface the asteroids into highly reflecting, polished surfaces and use them as a massively segmented mirror for astrophysical exploration [6], is feasible.

  18. The eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: formation and evolution (United States)

    Xu, Bei; Xu, Wenliang


    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) extends from the northern Eurasian continent in the west via Mongolia, Inner Mongolia and northeast part of China to the Russia Far East in the east. It is characterized by complex trench-arc-basin subduction system, exotic terrane (microcontinents) accretion, massive generation of juvenile crust during the Neoproterozoic-Phanerozoic (e.g., Jahn et al., 2000, 2004; Sengör et al., 1993). A lot of papers about formation and evolution of the CAOB have been published and new field observations and geochemical data for key areas of the CAOB challenge to previous assessments. Several areas previously defined as juvenile are now shown to have mixed crustal compositions. For example, Kröner et al. (2014, in press) estimated that the distribution of various crustal provinces is truly juvenile crustal material ca. 20%, mixed crust ca. 30%, old crust ca. 50%,respectively, in the CAOB, similar to those in other accretionary orogens through Earth history. A two-stage model for the evolution of the CAOB has been suggested based on recent data from the Eastern Tianshan and Beishan (Gao et al., 2011; Su et al., 2011; Chen et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2017), which suggests the process of the formation and evolution of the CAOB includes closure of the Paleo Asian ocean (PAO), formation of orogenic belt before the late Paleozoic and crustal extension and magmatism resulted from plume upon the young orogenic belt after the late Paleozoic. This new model changes previous concept that the CAOB developed through the Paleozoic and is supported by recent researches on the eastern CAOB.

  19. Analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients. (United States)

    Ozeke, Louis G; Mann, Ian R; Murphy, Kyle R; Jonathan Rae, I; Milling, David K


    We present analytic expressions for ULF wave-derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, as a function of L and Kp, which can easily be incorporated into global radiation belt transport models. The diffusion coefficients are derived from statistical representations of ULF wave power, electric field power mapped from ground magnetometer data, and compressional magnetic field power from in situ measurements. We show that the overall electric and magnetic diffusion coefficients are to a good approximation both independent of energy. We present example 1-D radial diffusion results from simulations driven by CRRES-observed time-dependent energy spectra at the outer boundary, under the action of radial diffusion driven by the new ULF wave radial diffusion coefficients and with empirical chorus wave loss terms (as a function of energy, Kp and L). There is excellent agreement between the differential flux produced by the 1-D, Kp-driven, radial diffusion model and CRRES observations of differential electron flux at 0.976 MeV-even though the model does not include the effects of local internal acceleration sources. Our results highlight not only the importance of correct specification of radial diffusion coefficients for developing accurate models but also show significant promise for belt specification based on relatively simple models driven by solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed or geomagnetic indices such as Kp. Analytic expressions for the radial diffusion coefficients are presentedThe coefficients do not dependent on energy or wave m valueThe electric field diffusion coefficient dominates over the magnetic.

  20. Collisions and drag in debris discs with eccentric parent belts (United States)

    Löhne, T.; Krivov, A. V.; Kirchschlager, F.; Sende, J. A.; Wolf, S.


    Context. High-resolution images of circumstellar debris discs reveal off-centred rings that indicate past or ongoing perturbation, possibly caused by secular gravitational interaction with unseen stellar or substellar companions. The purely dynamical aspects of this departure from radial symmetry are well understood. However, the observed dust is subject to additional forces and effects, most notably collisions and drag. Aims: To complement the studies of dynamics, we therefore aim to understand how the addition of collisional evolution and drag forces creates new asymmetries and strengthens or overrides existing ones. Methods: We augmented our existing numerical code Analysis of Collisional Evolution (ACE) by an azimuthal dimension, the longitude of periapse. A set of fiducial discs with global eccentricities ranging from 0 to 0.4 was evolved over gigayear timescales. Size distribution and spatial variation of dust were analysed and interpreted. We discuss the basic impact of belt eccentricity on spectral energy distributions and images. Results: We find features imposed on characteristic timescales. First, radiation pressure defines size cut-offs that differ between periapse and apoapse, resulting in an asymmetric halo. The differences in size distribution make the observable asymmetry of the halo depend on wavelength. Second, collisional equilibrium prefers smaller grains on the apastron side of the parent belt, reducing the effect of pericentre glow and the overall asymmetry. Third, Poynting-Robertson drag fills the region interior to an eccentric belt such that the apastron side is more tenuous. Interpretation and prediction of the appearance in scattered light is problematic when spatial and size distribution are coupled.

  1. DREAM3D simulations of inner-belt dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Gregory Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    A 1973 paper by Lyons and Thorne explains the two-belt structure for electrons in the inner magnetosphere as a balance between inward radial diffusion and loss to the atmosphere, where the loss to the atmosphere is enabled by pitch-angle scattering from Coulomb and wave-particle interactions. In the 1973 paper, equilibrium solutions to a decoupled set of 1D radial diffusion equations, one for each value of the first invariant of motion, μ, were computed to produce the equilibrium two-belt structure. Each 1D radial diffusion equation incorporated an L-and μ-dependent `lifetime' due to the Coulomb and wave-particle interactions. This decoupling of the problem is appropriate under the assumption that radial diffusion is slow in comparison to pitch-angle scattering. However, for some values of μ and L the lifetime associated with pitch-angle scattering is comparable to the timescale associated with radial diffusion, suggesting that the true equilibrium solutions might reflect `coupled modes' involving pitch-angle scattering and radial diffusion and thus requiring a 3D diffusion model. In the work we show here, we have computed the equilibrium solutions using our 3D diffusion model, DREAM3D, that allows for such coupling. We find that the 3D equilibrium solutions are quite similar to the solutions shown in the 1973 paper when we use the same physical models for radial diffusion and pitch-angle scattering from hiss. However, we show that the equilibrium solutions are quite sensitive to various aspects of the physics model employed in the 1973 paper that can be improved, suggesting that additional work needs to be done to understand the two-belt structure.

  2. Event-Specific Quantification of Radiation Belt Radial Diffusion (United States)

    Tu, W.; Sarris, T. E.; Ozeke, L.


    Recently, there has been a great emphasis on developing event-specific inputs for radiation belt models, since they are proven critical for reproducing the observed radiation belt dynamics during strong events. For example, our DREAM3D simulation of the 8-9 October 2012 storm demonstrates that event-specific chorus wave model and seed population are critical to reproduce the strong enhancement of MeV electrons in this event. However, the observed fast electron dropout preceding the enhancement was not captured by the simulation, which could be due to the combined effects of fast outward radial diffusion of radiation belt electrons with magnetopause shadowing and enhanced electron precipitation. Without an event-specific quantification of radial diffusion, we cannot resolve the relative contribution of outward radial diffusion and precipitation to the observed electron dropout or realistically reproduce the dynamics during the event. In this work, we provide physical quantification of radial diffusion specific to the October 2012 event by including both real-time and global distributions of ULF waves from a constellation of wave measurements and event-specific estimation of ULF wave mode structure. The global maps of ULF waves during the event are constructed by combining the real-time measurements from the Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, and GOES satellites in space and a large array of ground magnetometers. The real-time ULF wave mode structure is then estimated using the new Cross-Wavelet Transform technique, applied to various azimuthally aligned pairs of ULF wave measurements that are located at the same L shells. The cross power and phase differences between the time series are calculated using the technique, based on which the wave power per mode number is estimated. Finally, the physically estimated radial diffusion coefficients specific to the event are applied to the DREAM3D model to quantify the relative contribution of radial diffusion to the electron dynamics

  3. Fabrication and Operation of a Nano-Optical Conveyor Belt. (United States)

    Ryan, Jason; Zheng, Yuxin; Hansen, Paul; Hesselink, Lambertus


    The technique of using focused laser beams to trap and exert forces on small particles has enabled many pivotal discoveries in the nanoscale biological and physical sciences over the past few decades. The progress made in this field invites further study of even smaller systems and at a larger scale, with tools that could be distributed more easily and made more widely available. Unfortunately, the fundamental laws of diffraction limit the minimum size of the focal spot of a laser beam, which makes particles smaller than a half-wavelength in diameter hard to trap and generally prevents an operator from discriminating between particles which are closer together than one half-wavelength. This precludes the optical manipulation of many closely-spaced nanoparticles and limits the resolution of optical-mechanical systems. Furthermore, manipulation using focused beams requires beam-forming or steering optics, which can be very bulky and expensive. To address these limitations in the system scalability of conventional optical trapping our lab has devised an alternative technique which utilizes near-field optics to move particles across a chip. Instead of focusing laser beams in the far-field, the optical near field of plasmonic resonators produces the necessary local optical intensity enhancement to overcome the restrictions of diffraction and manipulate particles at higher resolution. Closely-spaced resonators produce strong optical traps which can be addressed to mediate the hand-off of particles from one to the next in a conveyor-belt-like fashion. Here, we describe how to design and produce a conveyor belt using a gold surface patterned with plasmonic C-shaped resonators and how to operate it with polarized laser light to achieve super-resolution nanoparticle manipulation and transport. The nano-optical conveyor belt chip can be produced using lithography techniques and easily packaged and distributed.

  4. A deep space inventory tour of the main asteroid belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbings, Alison; Bowles, Neil; Snodgrass, Colin


    A consortium of international scientists and industry partners are proposing the Main Belt Inventory Mission as a candidate in the next forthcoming ESA medium class mission call. The inventory mission will characterise a broad range of statistically significant asteroid samples throughout the Main...... a key tracer to understanding the dynamic evolution of the solar system, offer an insight into its early history and the origins of life forming material. Furthermore, by combing visible, near-infrared and thermal spectroscopy, the mission will unlock information on the major rock forming minerals...

  5. Collision rates and impact velocities in the Main Asteroid Belt (United States)

    Farinella, Paolo; Davis, Donald R.


    Wetherill's (1967) algorithm is presently used to compute the mutual collision probabilities and impact velocities of a set of 682 asteroids with large-than-50-km radius representative of a bias-free sample of asteroid orbits. While collision probabilities are nearly independent of eccentricities, a significant decrease is associated with larger inclinations. Collisional velocities grow steeply with orbital eccentricity and inclination, but with curiously small variation across the asteroid belt. Family asteroids are noted to undergo collisions with other family members 2-3 times more often than with nonmembers.

  6. Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt Revival in 2010/11 (United States)

    Rogers, J.; Jacquesson, M.; Adamoli, G.; Vedovato, M.; Mettig, H.-J.


    A Revival of the South Equatorial Belt (SEB) is the most impressive organised disturbance that occurs on Jupiter. It starts with a single vigorous outbreak from which vigorous storms and disturbances spread around the planet in the different zonal currents. The Revival that began in 2010 has been better observed than any before it. Here we present analysis of the amateur images of the event, in visible light and a methane absorption band. These results substantiate previous descriptions of SEB Revivals with much greater precision, showing a high degree of organisation, but also raise new puzzles as the usual zonal wind patterns were altered.

  7. How child-resistant are stroller belt buckles? (United States)

    Ridenour, M V


    70 children, between the ages of 24 and 36 months, participated in the assessment of three different styles of stroller seat buckles representing difficulties for children to disconnect the buckle mechanism in the restraint system. None could prevent all the children from opening the restraint system. One was much easier for children to open than the other two styles. Stroller-restraint buckles provide false security to parents who use strollers, as there are no published standards regarding the use of children's stroller seat-belt buckles as a safety device.

  8. V-type asteroids in the middle main belt (United States)

    Roig, F.; Nesvorný, D.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Lazzaro, D.


    V-type asteroids are bodies whose surfaces are constituted of basalt. In the Main Asteroid Belt, most of these asteroids are assumed to come from the basaltic crust of Asteroid (4) Vesta. This idea is mainly supported by (i) the fact that almost all the known V-type asteroids are in the same region of the belt as (4) Vesta, i.e., the inner belt (semi-major axis 2.1astro-ph/0609420], located at ˜2.54 AU, raises the question of whether it came from (4) Vesta or not. In this paper, we present spectroscopic observations indicating the existence of another V-type asteroid at ˜2.53 AU, (40521) 1999RL95, and we investigate the possibility that these two asteroids evolved from the Vesta family to their present orbits by a semi-major axis drift due to the Yarkovsky effect. The main problem with this scenario is that the asteroids need to cross the 3/1 mean motion resonance with Jupiter, which is highly unstable. Combining N-body numerical simulations of the orbital evolution, that include the Yarkovsky effect, with Monte Carlo models, we compute the probability that an asteroid of a given diameter D evolves from the Vesta family and crosses over the 3/1 resonance, reaching a stable orbit in the middle belt. Our results indicate that an asteroid like (21238) 1995WV7 has a low probability (˜1%) of having evolved through this mechanism due to its large size ( D˜5 km), because the Yarkovsky effect is not sufficiently efficient for such large asteroids. However, the mechanism might explain the orbits of smaller bodies like (40521) 1999RL95 ( D˜3 km) with ˜70-100% probability, provided that we assume that the Vesta family formed ≳3.5 Gy ago. We estimate the debiased population of V-type asteroids that might exist in the same region as (21238) and (40521) ( 2.51 km may come from the Vesta family by crossing over the 3/1 resonance. The remaining 70-90% must have a different origin.

  9. Novel Solution for Leg Motion with 5-Link Belt Mechanism (United States)

    E. Ch., Lovasz; Pop, C.; Pop, F.; Dolga, V.


    From the analysis of Theo Jansen walking mechanism and of the path curve that it describes the reduced capability for crossing over obstacles of the Jansen leg (1 DOF) is pointed out. By using a 5 link belt mechanism with 2 DOF can be adapted for generating similar Jansen mechanism path curve, where the step height of this path can be increased. For this purpose a mathematical model is conceived in order to analyse and determine the parameters for driving and control of the operation of the novel walking leg solution.

  10. Rapid energization of radiation belt electrons by nonlinear wave trapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Katoh


    Full Text Available We show that nonlinear wave trapping plays a significant role in both the generation of whistler-mode chorus emissions and the acceleration of radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies. We have performed particle simulations that successfully reproduce the generation of chorus emissions with rising tones. During this generation process we find that a fraction of resonant electrons are energized very efficiently by special forms of nonlinear wave trapping called relativistic turning acceleration (RTA and ultra-relativistic acceleration (URA. Particle energization by nonlinear wave trapping is a universal acceleration mechanism that can be effective in space and cosmic plasmas that contain a magnetic mirror geometry.

  11. The radiation belt origin of Uranus' nightside radio emission (United States)

    Curtis, S. A.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.


    On the basis of the location of the source field lines of the smooth nightside component of Uranus kilometric radiation, the most likely free energy source is the outer radiation belts. As the terminator sweeps over the magnetic north polar region, precipitation of electrons generated by solar heating of the upper atmosphere and submergence of the electron mirror points deeper in the atmosphere will create a backscattered electron distribution with an enhanced population at large pitch angles. The clocklike radio emission turns out to be a direct consequence of the terminator's control of the emission process.

  12. A New Perspective on Trapped Radiation Belts in Planetary Atmospheres (United States)

    Diaz, A.; Lodhi, M. A. K.; Wilson, T. L.


    The charged particle fluxes trapped in the magnetic dipole fields of certain planets in our Solar System are interesting signatures of planetary properties in space physics. They also represent a source of potentially hazardous radiation to spacecraft during planetary and interplanetary exploration. The Earth s trapped radiation belts have been studied for years and the physical mechanisms by which primary radiation from the Sun and Galaxy is captured is well understood. The higher-energy particles collide with molecules in the planetary atmosphere and initiate large cascades of secondary radiation which itself becomes trapped by the magnetic dipole field of the planet. Some of it is even backscattered as albedo neutrons.

  13. Geological evolution of the Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt, northern Madagascar (United States)

    Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Schofield, D.I.; Goodenough, K.M.; Horstwood, M.; Tucker, R.; Bauer, W.; Annells, R.; Howard, K. J.; Walsh, G.; Rabarimanana, M.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.


    The broadly east-west trending, Late Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt in northern Madagascar has been re-surveyed at 1:100 000 scale as part of a large multi-disciplinary World Bank-sponsored project. The work included acquisition of 14 U-Pb zircon dates and whole-rock major and trace element geochemical data of representative rocks. The belt has previously been modelled as a juvenile Neoproterozoic arc and our findings broadly support that model. The integrated datasets indicate that the Bemarivo Belt is separated by a major ductile shear zone into northern and southern "terranes", each with different lithostratigraphy and ages. However, both formed as Neoproterozoic arc/marginal basin assemblages that were translated southwards over the north-south trending domains of "cratonic" Madagascar, during the main collisional phase of the East African Orogeny at ca. 540 Ma. The older, southern terrane consists of a sequence of high-grade paragneisses (Sahantaha Group), which were derived from a Palaeoproterozoic source and formed a marginal sequence to the Archaean cratons to the south. These rocks are intruded by an extensive suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Antsirabe Nord Suite. Four samples from this suite yielded U-Pb SHRIMP ages at ca. 750 Ma. The northern terrane consists of three groups of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks, including a possible Archaean sequence (Betsiaka Group: maximum depositional age approximately 2477 Ma) and two volcano-sedimentary sequences (high-grade Milanoa Group: maximum depositional age approximately 750 Ma; low grade Daraina Group: extrusive age = 720-740 Ma). These supracrustal rocks are intruded by another suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Manambato Suite, 4 samples of which gave U-Pb SHRIMP ages between 705 and 718 Ma. Whole-rock geochemical data confirm the calc-alkaline, arc-related nature of the plutonic rocks. The volcanic rocks of the Daraina and Milanoa groups also

  14. Colloidal Microworms Propelling via a Cooperative Hydrodynamic Conveyor Belt. (United States)

    Martinez-Pedrero, Fernando; Ortiz-Ambriz, Antonio; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Tierno, Pietro


    We study propulsion arising from microscopic colloidal rotors dynamically assembled and driven in a viscous fluid upon application of an elliptically polarized rotating magnetic field. Close to a confining plate, the motion of this self-assembled microscopic worm results from the cooperative flow generated by the spinning particles which act as a hydrodynamic "conveyor belt." Chains of rotors propel faster than individual ones, until reaching a saturation speed at distances where induced-flow additivity vanishes. By combining experiments and theoretical arguments, we elucidate the mechanism of motion and fully characterize the propulsion speed in terms of the field parameters.

  15. Nano-optical conveyor belt, part I: Theory. (United States)

    Hansen, Paul; Zheng, Yuxin; Ryan, Jason; Hesselink, Lambertus


    We propose a method for peristaltic transport of nanoparticles using the optical force field over a nanostructured surface. Nanostructures may be designed to produce strong near-field hot spots when illuminated. The hot spots function as optical traps, separately addressable by their resonant wavelengths and polarizations. By activating closely packed traps sequentially, nanoparticles may be handed off between adjacent traps in a peristaltic fashion. A linear repeating structure of three separately addressable traps forms a "nano-optical conveyor belt"; a unit cell with four separately addressable traps permits controlled peristaltic transport in the plane. Using specifically designed activation sequences allows particle sorting.

  16. Mass attenuation coefficients for n-type InSe, InSe:Gd, InSe:Ho and InSe:Er single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icelli, Orhan E-mail:; Erzeneoglu, Salih; Guerbulak, Bekir


    Measurements have been made to determine the mass attenuation coefficients of undoped n-type InSe, and Gd, Ho, Er doped n-InSe single crystals using a Si(Li) detector in the energy region 15.746-40.930 keV X-ray energies with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence systems. InSe, InSe:Gd, InSe:Ho and InSe:Er single crystals were grown by using the stockbarger method. The measured values are graphically compared with the theoretical ones obtained using WinXcom.

  17. Vital signs: seat belt use among long-haul truck drivers--United States, 2010. (United States)

    Chen, Guang X; Collins, James W; Sieber, W Karl; Pratt, Stephanie G; Rodríguez-Acosta, Rosa L; Lincoln, Jennifer E; Birdsey, Jan; Hitchcock, Edward M; Robinson, Cynthia F


    Motor vehicle crashes were the leading cause of occupational fatalities in the United States in 2012, accounting for 25% of deaths. Truck drivers accounted for 46% of these deaths. This study estimates the prevalence of seat belt use and identifies factors associated with nonuse of seat belts among long-haul truck drivers (LHTDs), a group of workers at high risk for fatalities resulting from truck crashes. CDC analyzed data from its 2010 national survey of LHTD health and injury. A total of 1,265 drivers completed the survey interview. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between seat belt nonuse and risk factors. An estimated 86.1% of LHTDs reported often using a seat belt, 7.8% used it sometimes, and 6.0% never. Reporting never using a belt was associated with often driving ≥10 mph (16 kph) over the speed limit (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.9), working for a company with no written safety program (AOR = 2.8), receiving two or more tickets for moving violations in the preceding 12 months (AOR = 2.2), living in a state without a primary belt law (AOR = 2.1); and being female (AOR = 2.3). Approximately 14% of LHTDs are at increased risk for injury and death because they do not use a seat belt on every trip. Safety programs and other management interventions, engineering changes, and design changes might increase seat belt use among LHTDs. Primary state belt laws can help increase belt use among LHTDs. Manufacturers can use recently collected anthropometric data to design better-fitting and more comfortable seat belt systems.

  18. Biomechanical considerations for assessing interactions of children and small occupants with inflatable seat belts. (United States)

    Rouhana, Stephen W; Sundararajan, Srinivasan; Board, Derek; Prasad, Priya; Rupp, Jonathan D; Miller, Carl S; Jeffreys, Thomas A; Schneider, Lawrence W


    NHTSA estimates that more than half of the lives saved (168,524) in car crashes between 1960 and 2002 were due to the use of seat belts. Nevertheless, while seat belts are vital to occupant crash protection, safety researchers continue efforts to further enhance the capability of seat belts in reducing injury and fatality risk in automotive crashes. Examples of seat belt design concepts that have been investigated by researchers include inflatable, 4-point, and reverse geometry seat belts. In 2011, Ford Motor Company introduced the first rear seat inflatable seat belts into production vehicles. A series of tests with child and small female-sized Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) and small, elderly female Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) was performed to evaluate interactions of prototype inflatable seat belts with the chest, upper torso, head and neck of children and small occupants, from infants to young adolescents. Tests simulating a 6-year-old child asleep in a booster seat, with its head lying directly on its shoulder on top of the inflatable seat belt, were considered by engineering judgment, to represent a worst case scenario for interaction of an inflating seat belt with the head and neck of a child and/or small occupant. All evaluations resulted in ATD responses below Injury Assessment Reference Values reported by Mertz et al. (2003). In addition, the tests of the PMHS subjects resulted in no injuries from interaction of the inflating seat belt with the heads, necks, and chests of the subjects. Given the results from the ATD and PMHS tests, it was concluded that the injury risk to children and small occupants from deployment of inflatable seat belt systems is low.

  19. Mechanisms of abdominal organ injury in seat belt-restrained children. (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Kent, Richard W; Menon, Rajiv A; Ghati, Yoganand; Durbin, Dennis R; Rouhana, Stephen W


    Previous research has identified key predictors of elevated abdominal injury risk in seat belt-restrained child vehicle occupants; however these data cannot be used to isolate specific mechanisms or sources of injury to suggest strategies for prevention. Using a large child-focused crash surveillance system, cases of seat belt-restrained children who sustained an internal abdominal injury in a frontal crash were studied using standard crash investigation protocols. A second group of cases of restrained children in similar crashes without abdominal injury was investigated. Medical, crash, and child characteristics of each case were analyzed in the context of known biomechanics of abdominal injury to determine the mechanisms of injury and associated kinematics. Review of 21 cases of abdominal injury identified belt loading directly over the injured organ as the most common mechanism of injury. Three unique kinematic patterns were identified that varied by the initial position of the lap belt and kinematics of the upper torso. Sixty percent of the drivers and 90% of the other child occupants in these crashes sustained either no or minor injury. In the 16 no abdominal injury cases, all but one sustained external bruising to their abdomen and contact injury to the head and face. This evaluation of crashes in which belted children did and did not sustain abdominal injuries revealed key characteristics about their mechanism. In this data set, belt compression directly on the abdomen, manifested by improper initial placement of the seat belt, poor child posture, or misuse of the shoulder belt, resulted in abdominal injury in low-severity crashes in which other occupants sustained little injury. The cases pointed to control of torso excursion by consistent use of the shoulder belt and suggested that technologies such as lap belt pretensioners or belt-positioning booster seats might be a possible strategy, among others, for prevention.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bohomaz


    Full Text Available Purpose. A drive is one of the basic elements of belt conveyers. To determine the drive power it is necessary to conduct calculations by standard methodologies expounded in modern technical literature. Such calculations demand a fair amount of time. The basic design parameters of a belt conveyer include type of load, design efficiency, geometrical dimensions and path configuration, operation conditions. The article aims to build the parametric dependence of belt conveyer drive power on its design parameters, that takes into account standard dimensions and parameters of belts, idlers and pulleys. Methodology. The work examines a belt conveyer with two areas: sloping and horizontal. Using the methodology for pulling calculation by means of belt conveyer encirclement, there are built parametric dependences of pull forces in the characteristic conveyer path points on the type of load, design efficiency, geometrical dimensions and path configuration, operation conditions. Findings. For the belt conveyers of the considered type there are built parametric dependences of drive power on type of load, design efficiency, geometrical dimensions and path configuration, operation conditions, taking into account the belt standard dimensions and corresponding assumptions in relation to idler and pulley types. Originality.This is the first developed parametric dependence of two-area (sloping and horizontal belt conveyer drive power on type of load, design efficiency, geometrical dimensions and path configuration, operation conditions that takes into account standard dimensions and parameters of belts, idlers and pulleys. Practical value. Use of the built drive power dependences on design parameters for the belt conveyers with sloping and horizontal areas gives an opportunity of relatively rapid determination of drive power approximate value at the design stage. Also it allows quality selection of its basic elements at specific design characteristics and

  1. Seat belt use to save face: impact on drivers' body region and nature of injury in motor vehicle crashes. (United States)

    Han, Guang-Ming; Newmyer, Ashley; Qu, Ming


    Seat belt use is the single most effective way to save lives and reduce injuries in motor vehicle crashes. However, some case reports described seat belt use as a double-edged sword because some injuries are related to seat belt use in motor vehicle crashes. To comprehensively understand the effects of seat belt use, we systemically investigated the association between seat belt use and injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes. The injury information was obtained by linking crash reports with hospital discharge data and categorized by using the diagnosis codes based on the Barell injury diagnosis matrix. A total of 10,479 drivers (≥15 years) in passenger vehicles involved in motor vehicle crashes from 2006 to 2011 were included in this study. Seat belt use significantly reduced the proportions of traumatic brain injury (10.4% non-seat belt; 4.1% seat belt) and other head, face, and neck injury (29.3% non-seat belt; 16.6% seat belt) but increased the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury (17.9% non-seat belt; 35.5% seat belt). Although the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury was increased in drivers with seat belt use, the severity of injury was decreased, such as fracture (4.2% with seat belt use; 22.0% without seat belt use). Furthermore, the total medical charges decreased due to the change of injury profiles in drivers with seat belt use from a higher percentage of fractures (average cost for per case $26,352) to a higher percentage of sprains and/or strains ($1,897) with spine: thoracic to coccyx injury. This study provide a comprehensive picture for understanding the protective effect of seat belt use on injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes.

  2. Automation of belts; Automatizacion de Cintas de Interior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document presents the most important aspects, and the results of the project DEVELOPMENT AND COMMISSIONING OF AN INTEGRATED HAULAGE AND VENTILATION CONTROL SYSTEM IN A MINE USING VERY LONG SUBLEVEL-CAVING WINNING METHOD. Project's targets were to develop, implement and commission a distributed control system for underground mining, which should allow the control and optimisation of the whole (continuous) haulage network. It should also integrate statutory safety features required for both winning and haulage. The system is capable of controlling the most common devices used in underground coal mining transport networks, like conveyor belts, armored conveyors, regulation silos, etc. from the winning faces to the surface, and also the interlocks between them. Moreover, the system implements statutory safety functions for conveyor belt operation, and for mining activities carried out in culls de sac. Specifically, for its relationship with the transport system, it should monitor secondary ventilation, fire damp and toxic gases concentration, and mains power presence in the culls de sac, which have already reached a length of 2000 m. The prototype was installed in the mine that Carbones de Pedraforca owns in Saldes, Barcelona. (Author)

  3. Initial Highlights from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey (United States)

    André, Philippe; Men'shchikov, Alexander

    The Herschel Space Observatory provides a unique opportunity to improve our global un-derstanding of the earliest phases of star formation. I will present an overview of the first results from the Gould Belt survey (cf., one of the largest key projects with Herschel. The immediate objective of this SPIRE/PACS imaging survey is to obtain complete samples of nearby prestellar cores and Class 0 protostars with well char-acterized luminosities, temperatures, and density profiles, as well as robust core mass func-tions and protostar luminosity functions, in a variety of star-forming environments. Thanks to its high sensitivity and large spatial dynamic range, this survey can also probe, for the first time, the link between diffuse cirrus-like structures and compact self-gravitating cores. The main scientific goal is to elucidate the physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of prestellar cores out of the diffuse interstellar medium, crucial for understanding the origin of the stellar initial mass function. The first results, obtained toward the Aquila Rift and Polaris Flare regions during the 'Science Demonstration Phase' (SDP), are very promising (cf. kshops/presentations/IR/25A ndreG ouldBeltS DP 2009.pdf ).Basedonth


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alonso


    Full Text Available China´s interests in Central Asia were propelled, with the launching of the initiative “One Belt, One Road”, renamed as “The Belt and Road Initiative”, better known as the New Silk Road. Thanks to the infrastructure investment China will become interconnected with other regions of the world, breaking up its secular isolation and will send its products to the global market more easily by land and sea. One principal question in this revolutionary change has to do with China´s hypothetical second intentions of geopolitical influence on the countries affected by the new routes (countries of transit or final destination. The article tries to answer the following questions: Does the People's Republic of China aim only to revive its internal labour market, reduce its industrial overcapacity and boost its exports? Is globalization coming to an end or is it entering a new phase of interconnectivity? How does this affect the relations between Russia and China in the Asian region?

  5. Internal Charging Design Environments for the Earths Radiation Belts (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Edwards, David L.


    Relativistic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts are a widely recognized threat to spacecraft because they penetrate lightly shielded vehicle hulls and deep into insulating materials where they accumulate to sufficient levels to produce electrostatic discharges. Strategies for evaluating the magnitude of the relativistic electron flux environment and its potential for producing ESD events are varied. Simple "rule of thumb" estimates such as the widely used 10(exp 10) e-/sq cm fluence within 10 hour threshold for the onset of pulsing in dielectric materials provide a quick estimate of when to expect charging issues. More sophisticated strategies based on models of the trapped electron flux within the Earth s magnetic field provide time dependent estimates of electron flux along spacecraft orbits and orbit integrate electron flux. Finally, measurements of electron flux can be used to demonstrate mean and extreme relativistic electron environments. This presentation will evaluate strategies used to specify energetic electron flux and fluence environments along spacecraft trajectories in the Earth s radiation belts.

  6. PCNA tool belts and polymerase bridges form during translesion synthesis. (United States)

    Boehm, Elizabeth M; Spies, Maria; Washington, M Todd


    Large multi-protein complexes play important roles in many biological processes, including DNA replication and repair, transcription, and signal transduction. One of the challenges in studying such complexes is to understand their mechanisms of assembly and disassembly and their architectures. Using single-molecule total internal reflection (TIRF) microscopy, we have examined the assembly and disassembly of the multi-protein complex that carries out translesion synthesis, the error-prone replication of damaged DNA. We show that the ternary complexes containing proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and two non-classical DNA polymerases, Rev1 and DNA polymerase η, have two architectures: PCNA tool belts and Rev1 bridges. Moreover, these complexes are dynamic and their architectures can interconvert without dissociation. The formation of PCNA tool belts and Rev1 bridges and the ability of these complexes to change architectures are likely means of facilitating selection of the appropriate non-classical polymerase and polymerase-switching events. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Depositional Characteristics of River's Transition from Meander to Braided Belt (United States)

    Li, Shengli


    We describe characteristics of meander-braided transition belt and its sedimentary sequences. We classify abandoned channels into three types: avulsion, chute cut-off and neck cut-off based on the correlation between sinuosity and channel abandonment. Our study on the sedimentary characteristics and river's transitions from proximal to distal zones in Permian fluvial outcrops of the Beijing suburbs leads us to understand the main factor that causes the meander to braided transitions; that is the change in sediment supply, which itself is caused by changes in climate conditions. Three abandoned channels have been distinguished in this outcrop study. Furthermore, we have studied a typical fluvial Permian gas field in the Ordos Basin as an application to subsurface formation. We analyze the distribution of fluvial deposition using meander-braided transition and abandoned channel patterns. Our study has revealed that fluvial changes occurs from braided to meander-braided transition and then to high-sinuosity meandering channel from the northern to the southern part of the study area. Three abandoned channels were identified in the transitional and meandering belts of the gas field. Keywords: Characteristics of Meander-braided Transition; Fluvial Sedimentary Sequence; Abandoned Channel; Permian Fluvial Environment; The Ordos Basin

  8. The Kuiper Belt Survey of the GEST Mission (United States)

    Cook, K. H.; Bennett, D. P.; Clampin, M.; Drake, A. J.; Gould, A.; Horne, K.; Horner, S. D.; Jewitt, D. C.; Langston, G. I.; Lauer, T. R.; Lumsdaine, A.; Minniti, D.; Peale, S. J.; Rhie, S. H.; Shao, M.; Stevenson, R. L.; Tenerelli, D.; Tytler, D.; Woolf, N. J.


    A secondary science goal of the proposed Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope (GEST) is to discover ~ 100,000 new Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). Using a fraction of each season when GEST's primary target, the Galactic bulge, is not visible, GEST will survey ~ 1200 square degrees of sky near the ecliptic plane down to a limiting red magnitude of R ~ 26.5. GEST's KBO survey will be repeated at specific weekly, monthly, and yearly intervals to permit orbit determination. GEST will also do a deep KBO survey which aims to detect KBOs as faint as 29th magnitude in a single 1 square degree field. The number of KBOs that GEST will discover excedes the number of known KBOs by a factor of ~ 300 and the number of KBOs expected from other proposed telescopes by a factor of 10. This will enable the measurement of the number of KBOs in the more distant mean motion resonances, the measurement of the radial extent of the Kuiper Belt, and the measurement of the relative abundances of the classical, resonant and scattered KBO populations.

  9. Short-Term Forecasting of Radiation Belt and Ring Current (United States)

    Fok, Mei-Ching


    A computer program implements a mathematical model of the radiation-belt and ring-current plasmas resulting from interactions between the solar wind and the Earth s magnetic field, for the purpose of predicting fluxes of energetic electrons (10 keV to 5 MeV) and protons (10 keV to 1 MeV), which are hazardous to humans and spacecraft. Given solar-wind and interplanetary-magnetic-field data as inputs, the program solves the convection-diffusion equations of plasma distribution functions in the range of 2 to 10 Earth radii. Phenomena represented in the model include particle drifts resulting from the gradient and curvature of the magnetic field; electric fields associated with the rotation of the Earth, convection, and temporal variation of the magnetic field; and losses along particle-drift paths. The model can readily accommodate new magnetic- and electric-field submodels and new information regarding physical processes that drive the radiation-belt and ring-current plasmas. Despite the complexity of the model, the program can be run in real time on ordinary computers. At present, the program can calculate present electron and proton fluxes; after further development, it should be able to predict the fluxes 24 hours in advance

  10. Nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation. (United States)

    Wang, Guanghui; Ying, Zhoufeng; Ho, Ho-pui; Huang, Ying; Zou, Ningmu; Zhang, Xuping


    We propose a plasmonic nano-optical conveyor belt for peristaltic transport of nano-particles. Instead of illumination from the top, waveguide-coupled excitation is used for trapping particles with a higher degree of precision and flexibility. Graded nano-rods with individual dimensions coded to have resonance at specific wavelengths are incorporated along the waveguide in order to produce spatially addressable hot spots. Consequently, by switching the excitation wavelength sequentially, particles can be transported to adjacent optical traps along the waveguide. The feasibility of this design is analyzed using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain and Maxwell stress tensor methods. Simulation results show that this system is capable of exciting addressable traps and moving particles in a peristaltic fashion with tens of nanometers resolution. It is the first, to the best of our knowledge, report about a nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation, which is very important for scalability and on-chip integration. The proposed approach offers a new design direction for integrated waveguide-based optical manipulation devices and its application in large scale lab-on-a-chip integration.

  11. Future Rangeland Ecosystems in the Dryland Belt of Asia (United States)

    Qi, Jiaguo


    One of the greatest challenges humans are facing is sustainably managing water and land resources under changing global environment. This issue is especially pertinent in dryland belt in Asia where freshwater is scarce and shared among many nations. The region is heavily dependent on the diminishing Himalayan glaciers and limited and changing precipitation patterns. With increasing climate variability and a regional warming trend water security issues are acute and if not properly addressed could affect regional stability and lead to international conflicts. Solutions to these urgent regional issues are lacking and further research efforts are needed. Adaptive strategies addressing the complex and multifaceted water resource issues in the region will require a co-design and co-delivery of knowledge specific to the region and must consider exogenous factors such as policies of neighbouring countries and changing precipitation patterns due to climate change. There is a need to determine and fund scientific research priorities and practical approaches co-developed by local stakeholders and scientists to change the region's paradigm to "science for society". This presentation will summarize the collective outcome from a focused group discussion at the international workshop on "Future Earth and Science for Society" to be held from February 25-27, 2015 at Michigan State University, including knowledge gaps, research priorities, a general framework and international collaborations to move forward to addressing the future of the dyrland belt of Asia.

  12. Simulations of inner radiation belt proton loss during geomagnetic storms (United States)

    Engel, M. A.; Kress, B. T.; Hudson, M. K.; Selesnick, R. S.


    The loss of protons in the outer part of the inner radiation belt (L = 2 to 3) during the 6 April 2000 solar energetic particles event has been investigated using test particle simulations that follow full Lorentz trajectories with both magnetic and electric fields calculated from an empirical model. The electric fields are calculated as inductive fields generated by the time-changing magnetic field, which is achieved by time stepping analytic magnetic fields. The simulation results are compared with proton measurements from the highly elliptical orbit satellite for three different energy ranges (8.5-35 MeV, 16-40 MeV, and 27-45 MeV) as well as previous modeling work done. In previous work, inner zone radiation belt loss during geomagnetic storms has been modeled by simulating field line curvature scattering in static magnetic field snapshots with no electric field. The inclusion of the inductive electric field causes an increase in loss to lower L shells, improving the agreement with the satellite data.

  13. Cálculo analítico de la potencia nominal en transmisión por correa dentada // An analytical calculation of the power rating of synchronous belt drives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo González - Rey


    Full Text Available ResumenEn el contexto de las actuales normas internacionales, no se dispone de información suficiente paraenfrentar el cálculo analítico de la potencia transmisible por una correa dentada. Esta situaciónrestringe el desarrollo de un cálculo computacional o la estimación de la potencia nominal de lascorreas dentadas para casos no contemplados en los datos declarados por los fabricantes yderivados de ensayos experimentales. Por tal motivo, y con el interés de difundir el cálculo analíticode la potencia nominal en transmisiones por correas dentadas, se proporcionan en este trabajofórmulas de potencias nominales y también términos y factores de corrección apropiados para elcálculo y estudio de transmisiones por correas dentadas con dos poleas. Además, se presentanvalores óptimos de velocidad de correa para valores obtener valores máximos de potenciatransmisible por una correa dentada en función del paso. Estos resultados han sido base de unapropuesta informativa incorporada a la norma cubana NC-ISO 5295:2010 referida al cálculo de laspotencias nominales de correas dentadas con flancos de perfil recto.Palabras claves: Correa dentada, potencia nominal, Norma ISO 5295, velocidad óptima._____________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn the current context of the International Standards, there is not enough information to face theanalytical calculation of the power rating of synchronous belt drives. It’s practical habitual to usepower rating diagrams or tables offered by belt manufacturers with limitation to implementcomputational procedures, and for calculating ratings which are out of the range of speed or numberof teeth of pulleys conditions shown in the power rating diagrams or tables. For such a reason, thisarticle presents some useful results and detailed formulae based in ISO Standard 5295 for powerratings, together with appropriate correction terms and analytical factors used in the

  14. A study of the forest and aquatic ecology of the Bitumen belt of Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the forest and aquatic ecology of the Bitumen belt of Ogun state, Nigeria. Z O Opafunso, J O Okunlola. Abstract. A study of the forest and acquatic ecology of the bitumen belt of Ogun State, Nigeria was carried out. The status of the acquatic and wildlife species in the study area was investigated over a period of six ...

  15. Resonance strategies for the belting style : Results of a single female subject study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bestebreurtje, ME; Schutte, HK

    This study explores resonance strategies used for the belting style and associated vocal fold vibratory patterns, for the vowels /epsilon/, /a/, /i/, and /u/ on G4 and B4-flat. Acoustic spectra of belted vowels and their unoptimized, "speechlike" equivalents were compared. Vocal fold vibratory

  16. Demonstration of the Trauma Nurses Talk Tough seat belt diversion program in North Carolina. (United States)


    Trauma Nurses Talk Tough is a seat belt diversion program originally developed at the Legacy Emanuel Hospital in Portland, Oregon, in 1988. Attendance at the course is a condition for a one-time dismissal of a seat belt citation without fine or court...

  17. Injury pattern as an indication of seat belt failure in ejected vehicle occupants. (United States)

    Freeman, Michael D; Eriksson, Anders; Leith, Wendy


    Prior authors have suggested that when occupant ejection occurs in association with a seat belt failure, entanglement of the outboard upper extremity (OUE) with the retracting shoulder belt will invariably occur, leaving injury pattern evidence of belt use. In the present investigation, the authors assessed this theory using data accessed from the NASS-CDS for ejected front seat occupants of passenger vehicles. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between seat belt failure status and injuries. Injury types associated with seat belt failure were significant OUE and head injuries (OR = 3.87, [95% CI 1.2, 13.0] and 3.1, [95% CI 1.0, 9.7], respectively). The two injury types were found to be a predictor of seat belt use and subsequent failure only if combined with a high (≥0.8) precrash probability of belt use. The injury pattern associated with a seat belt failure-related ejection has limited use in the forensic investigation of crash-related ejections. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Enforcement or incentives ? : promoting safety belt use among military personnel in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P.


    During a nationwide campaign to promote safety belt use among military personnel, a field study was conducted at 12 different military bases in the netherlands. Amount of enforcement, type of publicity, and incentive strategies were varied among military bases. Observations of safety belt use among

  19. Alkaline intrusion in a granulite ensemble in the Eastern Ghats belt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The alkaline complex of Koraput, Orissa, India, is one of several bodies in the high-grade Eastern Ghats belt, but this one is an integral part of the high-grade belt and remote from the western boundary against the Bastar craton. The Koraput complex forms a lozenge-shaped intrusion into the metapelitic granulites and is ...

  20. Seat belts and the law : mandatory use laws and the legal consequences of non-use (United States)


    This report analyzes the current legal status of the seat belt defense in civil actions. Particular emphasis is given to factors which have altered the evolution of the seat belt defense since 1982, the most significant being the passage of laws mand...

  1. Algoma-type Neoproterozoic BIFs and related marbles in the Seridó Belt (NE Brazil)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sial, Alcides N.; Campos, Marcel S.; Gaucher, Claudio


    The Jucurutu Formation in the Seridó Belt, northeastern Brazil, encompasses fine-to coarse-grained amphibolite-facies marbles, locally with cross-bedding and stromatolites. Banded iron formations (BIF) at three localities in this belt comprise itabirites (actinolite- or cummingtonite-itabirite an...

  2. Alkaline intrusion in a granulite ensemble in the Eastern Ghats belt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The alkaline complex of Koraput, Orissa, India, is one of several bodies in the high-grade Eastern. Ghats belt, but this one is an integral part of the high-grade belt and remote from the western boundary against the Bastar craton. The Koraput complex forms a lozenge-shaped intrusion into the metapelitic granulites and is ...

  3. 14 CFR 29.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses. 29.785 Section 29.785 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and Cargo Accommodations § 29.785 Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses. (a) Each seat...

  4. 14 CFR 121.311 - Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses. 121.311 Section 121.311 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 121.311 Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless...

  5. 14 CFR 137.42 - Fastening of safety belts and shoulder harnesses. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fastening of safety belts and shoulder harnesses. 137.42 Section 137.42 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.42 Fastening of safety belts and shoulder harnesses. No...

  6. 14 CFR 25.785 - Seats, berths, safety belts, and harnesses. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seats, berths, safety belts, and harnesses. 25.785 Section 25.785 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and Cargo Accommodations § 25.785 Seats, berths, safety belts, and harnesses. (a) A seat (or berth for...

  7. 14 CFR 27.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses. 27.785 Section 27.785 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Cargo Accommodations § 27.785 Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses. (a) Each seat, safety...

  8. 14 CFR 23.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses. 23.785 Section 23.785 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... belts, and shoulder harnesses. There must be a seat or berth for each occupant that meets the following...

  9. 14 CFR 91.107 - Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems. 91.107 Section 91.107 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.107 Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child...

  10. Determining the Relationship of Primary Seat Belt Laws to Minority Ticketing (United States)


    Racial profiling is often raised as an issue when States change their seat belt law from secondary enforcement (i.e., stop only for some other violation) to primary enforcement (i.e., stop for an observed belt law violation alone). Thirteen States ma...

  11. Pattern of seat belt use and its associated factors among taxi drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Road traffic injuries constitute a major public health concern that demands effective interventions. Use of car seat belts is recommended as an effective intervention to reduce serious and fatal road traffic injuries. The study intended to investigate the pattern of seat belt use and its correlates among taxi drivers in ...

  12. 77 FR 19155 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages; Incorporation by Reference (United States)


    ..., belted, and pulled per the proposed FMVSS No. 210 test procedure. A statistical analysis was performed on... breakage occurs sometimes with the pelvic body block, which results in replacing the seat belt with steel... attachments are aluminum and steel, we do not expect them to experience any appreciable wear as a result of...

  13. Safety Belt Activity Book: A Guide for Teachers of Grades K-6. (United States)

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. National Highway Safety Bureau.

    This book is a teacher's guide for the instruction of elementary students on the use of safety belts. The purpose of the book is to train students how and when to use a safety belt, and to encourage students to pass on this information to others. There are 20 learning activities, each designated for small or large group instruction. Teachers are…

  14. Archimetrics: a quantitative tool to predict three-dimensional meander belt sandbody heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Lageweg, Wietse I.; van Dijk, Wout M.; Box, Darren; Kleinhans, Maarten G.

    Fluvial meander belt sediments form some of the most architecturally complex reservoirs in hydrocarbon fields due to multiple scales of heterogeneity inherent in their deposition. Currently, characterization of meander belt bodies largely relies on idealized vertical profiles and a limited number of

  15. Modeling radiation belt electron dynamics during GEM challenge intervals with the DREAM3D diffusion model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Tu (Weichao); G.S. Cunningham; Y. Chen; M.G. Henderson; E. Camporeale (Enrico); G.D. Reeves (Geoffrey)


    textabstractAs a response to the Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) “Global Radiation Belt Modeling Challenge,” a 3D diffusion model is used to simulate the radiation belt electron dynamics during two intervals of the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) mission, 15 August to 15

  16. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. (United States)


    ... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. 121.317 Section 121.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (l) of this section... paragraph (l) of this section, the “Fasten Seat Belt” sign shall be turned on during any movement on the...

  17. Increasing Seat Belt Use in Service Vehicle Drivers with a Gearshift Delay (United States)

    Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, J. E. Louis; Reagan, Ian; Sifrit, Kathy; Compton, Richard


    This study evaluated a device that prevents drivers from shifting vehicles into gear for up to 8 s unless seat belts are buckled. Participants were 101 commercial drivers who operated vans, pickups, or other light trucks from the U.S. and Canada. The driver could escape or avoid the delay by fastening his or her seat belt before shifting out of…

  18. Using Jupiter's Synchrotron Radiation as a Probe into Jupiter's Inner Radiation Belts (United States)

    Bolton, S. J.; Gulkis, S.; Klein, M. J.; Thorne, R. M.


    The Jovian decimetric emission is caused by the combined emission of synchrotron radiation originating from the relativistic electrons trapped in Jupiter's 'Van Allen radiation belts' and thermal emission from the planet's atmosphere. Synchrotron radiation characteristics and variations (which provides insight into the physical properties of Jupiter's inner radiation belts) will be amplified and discussed.

  19. Explaining the Dynamics of the Ultra-relativistic Third Van Allen Radiation Belt (United States)

    Mann, I. R.; Ozeke, L.; Murphy, K. R.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Turner, D. L.; Baker, D. N.; Rae, J.; Kale, A.; Milling, D. K.; Boyd, A. J.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Singer, H. J.; Dimitrakoudis, S.; Daglis, I. A.; Honary, F.


    Since the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts over 50 years ago, an explanation for their complete dynamics has remained elusive. Especially challenging is understanding losses deep in the heart of the belt which lead to the recently discovered ultra-relativistic third electron radiation belt. Prior theory asserted that loss in the heart of the outer belt, essential to the formation of the third belt, must be controlled by high-frequency plasma wave-particle scattering into the atmosphere, via whistler mode chorus, plasmaspheric hiss, or electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. However, this has failed to accurately reproduce the third belt. Using a data driven, time-dependent specification of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves we show for the first time how the third radiation belt can be established as a simple, elegant consequence of storm-time extremely fast outward ULF wave transport. High-frequency wave-particle scattering loss into the atmosphere is not needed in this case. When rapid ULF wave transport coupled to a dynamic boundary is accurately specified, the sensitive dynamics controlling the enigmatic ultra-relativistic third radiation belt are naturally explained.

  20. The Behavioral Impact of an Advertising Campaign to Promote Safety Belt Use. (United States)

    Cope, John G.; And Others


    Safety belt use with and without addition of an incentive strategy was observed among 8,635 drivers at a drive-through restaurant. During the promotional campaign, average rate of belt use tripled compared to baseline following the introduction of a contingent reward (a large soft drink), and declined during followup. (JW)