Sample records for ria superconducting drift

  1. RIA Superconducting Drift Tube Linac R & D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Popielarski; J. Bierwagen; S. Bricker; C. Compton; J. DeLauter; P. Glennon; T. Grimm; W. Hartung; D. Harvell; M. Hodek; M. Johnson; F. Marti; P. Miller; A. Moblo; D. Norton; L. Popielarski; J. Wlodarczak; R. C. York; A. Zeller


    Cavity and cryomodule development work for a superconducting ion linac has been underway for several years at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The original application of the work was the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator. At present, the work is being continued for use with the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The baseline linac for FRIB requires 4 types of superconducting cavities to cover the velocity range needed to accelerate an ion beam to 200 MeV/u: 2 types of quarter-wave resonator (QWR) and 2 types of half-wave resonator (HWR). Superconducting solenoids are used for focussing. Active and passive shielding is required to ensure that the solenoids’ field does not degrade the cavity performance. First prototypes of both QWR types and one HWR type have been fabricated and tested. A prototype solenoid has been procured and tested. A test cryomodule has been fabricated and tested. The test cryomodule contains one QWR, one HWR, one solenoid, and one super-ferric quadrupole. This report covers the design, fabrication, and testing of this cryomodule

  2. New iGrav superconducting gravimeter: accuracy, drift and first results (United States)

    Le Moigne, N.; Champollion, C.; Warburton, R. J.; Bayer, R.; Deville, S.; Doerflinger, E.; chery, J.; Vernant, P.; Boudin, F.; Collard, P.


    A GWR iGrav superconducting gravimeter has been installed in the Larzac karstic area (Southern France near the Mediterranean Sea, elevation 800m, karst thickness 200m). Continuous sub-μGal gravity measurements are needed to study water storage and transfer in the non-saturated zone of the karstic area. The GWR iGrav is a new generation of superconducting gravimeter of reduced size (Dewar 15L) with simplified installation. At first, the specifications of the iGrav site will be presented, then the drift behaviour and the data processing. The drift quickly decreases to less than 0.1 μGal per day and only a few offsets are observed in the data. In order to look at the stability of the iGrav over a wide time period, a FG5 gravimeter is used for bi-monthly absolute gravity measurements and for frequent calibrations. As a result of the installation, the iGrav allows sub-μGal gravity monitoring only a few weeks after the beginning of the installation. After having discussed the instrumental and data processing points of view, preliminary results on the local karstic water storage will be presented and interpreted by combining different geophysical data. Continuous gravity data allow to study processes at different timescale such as summer evapotranspiration or high precipitating event characteristic of the Mediterranean autumn.

  3. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, D B


    A short general review is presented of the progress made in applied superconductivity as a result of work performed in connection with the high-energy physics program in Europe. The phenomenon of superconductivity and properties of superconductors of Types I and II are outlined. The main body of the paper deals with the development of niobium-titanium superconducting magnets and of radio-frequency superconducting cavities and accelerating structures. Examples of applications in and for high-energy physics experiments are given, including the large superconducting magnet for the Big European Bubble Chamber, prototype synchrotron magnets for the Super Proton Synchrotron, superconducting d.c. beam line magnets, and superconducting RF cavities for use in various laboratories. (0 refs).

  4. Superconductivity (United States)

    Yeo, Yung K.

    Many potential high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) military applications have been demonstrated by low-temperature superconductivity systems; they encompass high efficiency electric drives for naval vessels, airborne electric generators, energy storage systems for directed-energy weapons, electromechanical launchers, magnetic and electromagnetic shields, and cavity resonators for microwave and mm-wave generation. Further HST applications in militarily relevant fields include EM sensors, IR focal plane arrays, SQUIDs, magnetic gradiometers, high-power sonar sources, and superconducting antennas and inertial navigation systems. The development of SQUID sensors will furnish novel magnetic anomaly detection methods for ASW.

  5. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterson, John B


    Conceived as the definitive reference in a classic and important field of modern physics, this extensive and comprehensive handbook systematically reviews the basic physics, theory and recent advances in the field of superconductivity. Leading researchers, including Nobel laureates, describe the state-of-the-art in conventional and unconventional superconductors at a particularly opportune time, as new experimental techniques and field-theoretical methods have emerged. In addition to full-coverage of novel materials and underlying mechanisms, the handbook reflects continued intense research into electron-phone based superconductivity. Considerable attention is devoted to high-Tc superconductivity, novel superconductivity, including triplet pairing in the ruthenates, novel superconductors, such as heavy-Fermion metals and organic materials, and also granular superconductors. What’s more, several contributions address superconductors with impurities and nanostructured superconductors. Important new results on...

  6. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Creswick, Richard J; Prozorov, Ruslan


    Superconductivity, Third Edition is an encyclopedic treatment of all aspects of the subject, from classic materials to fullerenes. Emphasis is on balanced coverage, with a comprehensive reference list and significant graphics from all areas of the published literature. Widely used theoretical approaches are explained in detail. Topics of special interest include high temperature superconductors, spectroscopy, critical states, transport properties, and tunneling. This book covers the whole field of superconductivity from both the theoretical and the experimental point of view. This third edition features extensive revisions throughout, and new chapters on second critical field and iron based superconductors.

  7. Superconductivity: (United States)

    Sacchetti, N.

    In this paper a short historical account of the discovery of superconductivity and of its gradual development is given. The physical interpretation of its various aspects took about forty years (from 1911 to 1957) to reach a successful description of this phenomenon in terms of a microscopic theory At the very end it seemed that more or less everything could be reasonably interpreted even if modifications and refinements of the original theory were necessary. In 1986 the situation changed abruptly when a cautious but revolutionary paper appeared showing that superconductivity was found in certain ceramic oxides at temperatures above those up to then known. A rush of frantic experimental activity started world-wide and in less than one year it was shown that superconductivity is a much more widespread phenomenon than deemed before and can be found at temperatures well above the liquid air boiling point. The complexity and the number of the substances (mainly ceramic oxides) involved call for a sort of modern alchemy if compounds with the best superconducting properties are to be manufactured. We don't use the word alchemy in a deprecatory sense but just to emphasise that till now nobody can say why these compounds are what they are: superconductors.

  8. Stokes drift (United States)

    van den Bremer, T. S.; Breivik, Ø.


    During its periodic motion, a particle floating at the free surface of a water wave experiences a net drift velocity in the direction of wave propagation, known as the Stokes drift (Stokes 1847 Trans. Camb. Philos. Soc. 8, 441-455). More generally, the Stokes drift velocity is the difference between the average Lagrangian flow velocity of a fluid parcel and the average Eulerian flow velocity of the fluid. This paper reviews progress in fundamental and applied research on the induced mean flow associated with surface gravity waves since the first description of the Stokes drift, now 170 years ago. After briefly reviewing the fundamental physical processes, most of which have been established for decades, the review addresses progress in laboratory and field observations of the Stokes drift. Despite more than a century of experimental studies, laboratory studies of the mean circulation set up by waves in a laboratory flume remain somewhat contentious. In the field, rapid advances are expected due to increasingly small and cheap sensors and transmitters, making widespread use of small surface-following drifters possible. We also discuss remote sensing of the Stokes drift from high-frequency radar. Finally, the paper discusses the three main areas of application of the Stokes drift: in the coastal zone, in Eulerian models of the upper ocean layer and in the modelling of tracer transport, such as oil and plastic pollution. Future climate models will probably involve full coupling of ocean and atmosphere systems, in which the wave model provides consistent forcing on the ocean surface boundary layer. Together with the advent of new space-borne instruments that can measure surface Stokes drift, such models hold the promise of quantifying the impact of wave effects on the global atmosphere-ocean system and hopefully contribute to improved climate projections. This article is part of the theme issue 'Nonlinear water waves'.

  9. Reducing Pesticide Drift (United States)

    Provides information about pesticide spray drift, including problems associated with drift, managing risks from drift and the voluntary Drift Reduction Technology program that seeks to reduce spray drift through improved spray equipment design.

  10. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L


    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  11. unsteady drift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Brannan


    Full Text Available We investigate fluid transport in random velocity fields with unsteady drift. First, we propose to quantify fluid transport between flow regimes of different characteristic motion, by escape probability and mean residence time. We then develop numerical algorithms to solve for escape probability and mean residence time, which are described by backward Fokker-Planck type partial differential equations. A few computational issues are also discussed. Finally, we apply these ideas and numerical algorithms to a tidal flow model.

  12. Dike/Drift Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Gaffiney


    This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses of the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1).

  13. Dike/Drift Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Gaffney


    This report documents the model of events associated with a potential intrusion of magma from a volcanic dike into a drift or drifts in the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository. The following topics are included in this report: (1) A discussion of dike propagation, which provides the basis for describing the path that a representative dike, or swarm of dikes, would follow during an event. (2) A discussion of magma flow, which evaluates the interaction at the junction of the propagating dike with the drift and the movement of magmatic products into and down drifts and, potentially, through a drift to the surface by way of access drift or a secondary dike opened up along the drift. (3) A discussion of gas flow and conductive cooling of a magma-filled drift, describing how an adjacent drift that has not been intersected by a dike could be affected by post-intrusion phenomena. Note that a gas flow analysis is also addressed in ''Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Form and Waste Packages'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 161810]), and those results are consistent with the results presented in this report.

  14. Drift Degradation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwayne C. Kicker


    A statistical description of the probable block sizes formed by fractures around the emplacement drifts has been developed for each of the lithologic units of the repository host horizon. A range of drift orientations with the drift azimuth varied in 15{sup o} increments has been considered in the static analysis. For the quasi-static seismic analysis, and the time-dependent and thermal effects analysis, two drift orientations have been considered: a drift azimuth of 105{sup o} and the current emplacement drift azimuth of 75{sup o}. The change in drift profile resulting from progressive deterioration of the emplacement drifts has been assessed both with and without backfill. Drift profiles have been determined for four different time increments, including static (i.e., upon excavation), 200 years, 2,000 years, and 10,000 years. The effect of seismic events on rock fall has been analyzed. Block size distributions and drift profiles have been determined for three seismic levels, including a 1,000-year event, a 5,000-year event, and a 10,000-year event. Data developed in this modeling and analysis activity have been entered into the TDMS (DTN: MO0109RDDAAMRR.003). The following conclusions have resulted from this drift degradation analysis: (1) The available fracture data are suitable for supporting a detailed key block analysis of the repository host horizon rock mass. The available data from the north-south Main Drift and the east-west Cross Drift provide a sufficient representative fracture sample of the repository emplacement drift horizon. However, the Tptpln fracture data are only available from a relatively small section of the Cross Drift, resulting in a smaller fracture sample size compared to the other lithologic units. This results in a lower degree of confidence that the key block data based on the Tptpln data set is actually representative of the overall Tptpln key block population. (2) The seismic effect on the rock fall size distribution for all events

  15. Modeling concept drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchani, Hanen; Martinez, Ana Maria; Masegosa, Andrés R.


    An often used approach for detecting and adapting to concept drift when doing classification is to treat the data as i.i.d. and use changes in classification accuracy as an indication of concept drift. In this paper, we take a different perspective and propose a framework, based on probabilistic ...

  16. The Drift Burst Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim; Oomen, Roel; Renò, Roberto

    The Drift Burst Hypothesis postulates the existence of short-lived locally explosive trends in the price paths of financial assets. The recent US equity and Treasury flash crashes can be viewed as two high profile manifestations of such dynamics, but we argue that drift bursts of varying magnitude....... We then develop a non-parametric test statistic that allows for the identification of drift bursts from noisy high-frequency data. We apply this methodology to a comprehensive set of tick data and show that drift bursts form an integral part of the price dynamics across equities, fixed income......, currencies and commodities. We find that the majority of identified drift bursts are accompanied by strong price reversals and these can therefore be regarded as “flash crashes” that span brief periods of severe market disruption without any material longer term price impacts....

  17. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.T. Birkholzer


    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package

  18. PREFACE: Superconducting materials Superconducting materials (United States)

    Charfi Kaddour, Samia; Singleton, John; Haddad, Sonia


    The discovery of superconductivity in 1911 was a great milestone in condensed matter physics. This discovery has resulted in an enormous amount of research activity. Collaboration among chemists and physicists, as well as experimentalists and theoreticians has given rise to very rich physics with significant potential applications ranging from electric power transmission to quantum information. Several superconducting materials have been synthesized. Crucial progress was made in 1987 with the discovery of high temperature superconductivity in copper-based compounds (cuprates) which have revealed new fascinating properties. Innovative theoretical tools have been developed to understand the striking features of cuprates which have remained for three decades the 'blue-eyed boy' for researchers in superconductor physics. The history of superconducting materials has been notably marked by the discovery of other compounds, particularly organic superconductors which despite their low critical temperature continue to attract great interest regarding their exotic properties. Last but not least, the recent observation of superconductivity in iron-based materials (pnictides) has renewed hope in reaching room temperature superconductivity. However, despite intense worldwide studies, several features related to this phenomenon remain unveiled. One of the fundamental key questions is the mechanism by which superconductivity takes place. Superconductors continue to hide their 'secret garden'. The new trends in the physics of superconductivity have been one of the two basic topics of the International Conference on Conducting Materials (ICoCoM2010) held in Sousse,Tunisia on 3-7 November 2010 and organized by the Tunisian Physical Society. The conference was a nice opportunity to bring together participants from multidisciplinary domains in the physics of superconductivity. This special section contains papers submitted by participants who gave an oral contribution at ICoCoM2010

  19. Development of drifting buoys

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, M.R.; Peshwe, V.B.; Tengali, S.

    Polar orbiting satellites equipped with random access data collection and position fixing systems have made long-term remote oceanographic/meteorological observations possible by means of instrumented drifting buoys fitted with ARGOS telementry...

  20. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)


    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  1. Drift Degradation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Kicker


    Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal

  2. Superconducting gravimeter (United States)

    Goodkind, J. M.


    The superconducting gravimeter was developed and applied to field measurements. The stability of the instrument yielded the highest precision measurements of the Earth tides ever attained. It revealed unprecedented details about the effect of the atmosphere on gravity. Secular variations in gravity and the stability of the instruments were measured by comparing records from co-located instruments. These efforts have resulted in substantial reductions in the noise level at very low frequencies so that the peak differences between two instruments at the same location can be reduced to 0.1 micron gal.

  3. Negative Drift in Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian


    An important step in gaining a better understanding of the stochastic dynamics of evolving populations, is the development of appropriate analytical tools. We present a new drift theorem for populations that allows properties of their long-term behaviour, e.g. the runtime of evolutionary algorithms...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.M. Jolley


    As directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a), a conceptual model for steel and corrosion products in the engineered barrier system (EBS) is to be developed. The purpose of this conceptual model is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department in modeling the geochemical environment within a repository drift, thus allowing PAO to provide a more detailed and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This document provides the conceptual framework for the in-drift corrosion products sub-model to be used in subsequent PAO analyses including the EBS physical and chemical model abstraction effort. This model has been developed to serve as a basis for the in-drift geochemical analyses performed by PAO. However, the concepts discussed within this report may also apply to some near and far-field geochemical processes and may have conceptual application within the unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) transport modeling efforts.

  5. Tapping with intentional drift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardy, A.N.; Daffertshofer, A.; Beek, P.J.


    When tapping a desired frequency, subjects tend to drift away from this target frequency. This compromises the estimate of the correlation between inter-tap intervals (ITIs) as predicted by the two-level model of Wing and Kristofferson which consists of an internal timer ('clock') and motor delays.

  6. Dike Propagation Near Drifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) supporting the Site Recommendation/License Application (SR/LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project is the development of elementary analyses of the interactions of a hypothetical dike with a repository drift (i.e., tunnel) and with the drift contents at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. This effort is intended to support the analysis of disruptive events for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). This AMR supports the Process Model Report (PMR) on disruptive events (CRWMS M&O 2000a). This purpose is documented in the development plan (DP) ''Coordinate Modeling of Dike Propagation Near Drifts Consequences for TSPA-SR/LA'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). Evaluation of that Development Plan and the work to be conducted to prepare Interim Change Notice (ICN) 1 of this report, which now includes the design option of ''Open'' drifts, indicated that no revision to that DP was needed. These analyses are intended to provide reasonable bounds for a number of expected effects: (1) Temperature changes to the waste package from exposure to magma; (2) The gas flow available to degrade waste containers during the intrusion; (3) Movement of the waste package as it is displaced by the gas, pyroclasts and magma from the intruding dike (the number of packages damaged); (4) Movement of the backfill (Backfill is treated here as a design option); (5) The nature of the mechanics of the dike/drift interaction. These analyses serve two objectives: to provide preliminary analyses needed to support evaluation of the consequences of an intrusive event and to provide a basis for addressing some of the concerns of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expressed in the Igneous Activity Issue Resolution Status Report.

  7. 100 years of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalla, Horst


    Even a hundred years after its discovery, superconductivity continues to bring us new surprises, from superconducting magnets used in MRI to quantum detectors in electronics. 100 Years of Superconductivity presents a comprehensive collection of topics on nearly all the subdisciplines of superconductivity. Tracing the historical developments in superconductivity, the book includes contributions from many pioneers who are responsible for important steps forward in the field.The text first discusses interesting stories of the discovery and gradual progress of theory and experimentation. Emphasizi

  8. Style drift in private equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumming, D.; Fleming, G.; Schwienbacher, A.


    We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less

  9. Drift-Diffusion Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Banoo


    equation in the discrete momentum space. This is shown to be similar to the conventional drift-diffusion equation except that it is a more rigorous solution to the Boltzmann equation because the current and carrier densities are resolved into M×1 vectors, where M is the number of modes in the discrete momentum space. The mobility and diffusion coefficient become M×M matrices which connect the M momentum space modes. This approach is demonstrated by simulating electron transport in bulk silicon.

  10. A superconducting transformer system for high current cable testing. (United States)

    Godeke, A; Dietderich, D R; Joseph, J M; Lizarazo, J; Prestemon, S O; Miller, G; Weijers, H W


    This article describes the development of a direct-current (dc) superconducting transformer system for the high current test of superconducting cables. The transformer consists of a core-free 10,464 turn primary solenoid which is enclosed by a 6.5 turn secondary. The transformer is designed to deliver a 50 kA dc secondary current at a dc primary current of about 50 A. The secondary current is measured inductively using two toroidal-wound Rogowski coils. The Rogowski coil signal is digitally integrated, resulting in a voltage signal that is proportional to the secondary current. This voltage signal is used to control the secondary current using a feedback loop which automatically compensates for resistive losses in the splices to the superconducting cable samples that are connected to the secondary. The system has been commissioned up to 28 kA secondary current. The reproducibility in the secondary current measurement is better than 0.05% for the relevant current range up to 25 kA. The drift in the secondary current, which results from drift in the digital integrator, is estimated to be below 0.5 A/min. The system's performance is further demonstrated through a voltage-current measurement on a superconducting cable sample at 11 T background magnetic field. The superconducting transformer system enables fast, high resolution, economic, and safe tests of the critical current of superconducting cable samples.

  11. Theory of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Crisan, Mircea


    This book discusses the most important aspects of the theory. The phenomenological model is followed by the microscopic theory of superconductivity, in which modern formalism of the many-body theory is used to treat most important problems such as superconducting alloys, coexistence of superconductivity with the magnetic order, and superconductivity in quasi-one-dimensional systems. It concludes with a discussion on models for exotic and high temperature superconductivity. Its main aim is to review, as complete as possible, the theory of superconductivity from classical models and methods up t

  12. Emplacement Drift System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros


    The Emplacement Drift System is part of the Engineered Barrier System and provides the interface between the various waste package (WP) systems and the Ground Control System. In conjunction with the various WPs, the Emplacement Drift System limits the release and transport of radionuclides from the WP to the Natural Barrier following waste emplacement. Collectively, the Emplacement Drift System consists of the structural support hardware (emplacement drift invert and WP emplacement pallet) and any performance-enhancing barriers (drip shields and invert ballast) installed or placed in the emplacement drifts. The Emplacement Drift System is entirely located within the emplacement drifts in the subsurface portion of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR); specifically, it is physically bounded by the Subsurface Facility System, the Ground Support System, and the Natural Barrier. The Emplacement Drift System supports the key MGR functions of limiting radionuclide release to the Natural Barrier, minimizing the likelihood of a criticality external to the WPs, limiting natural and induced environmental effects, and providing WP support. The Emplacement Drift System limits radionuclide release to the Natural Barrier by controlling the movement of radionuclides within the emplacement drift and to the Natural Barrier, and by limiting water contact with the WPs. The Emplacement Drift System provides physical support and barriers for emplaced WPs that reduce water contact. The Emplacement Drift WP spacing supports the thermal loading performance by complimenting drift layout and orientation as described in the system description document for the Subsurface Facility System. The Emplacement Drift System supports the WP and also provides an environment that aids in enhancing WP confinement performance. As part of the Engineered Barrier System, the Emplacement Drift System interfaces with the WP systems. The Emplacement Drift System also interfaces with the Natural Barrier


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Wilson


    Drift seepage refers to flow of liquid water into repository emplacement drifts, where it can potentially contribute to degradation of the engineered systems and release and transport of radionuclides within the drifts. Because of these important effects, seepage into emplacement drifts is listed as a ''principal factor for the postclosure safety case'' in the screening criteria for grading of data in Attachment 1 of AP-3.15Q, Rev. 2, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''. Abstraction refers to distillation of the essential components of a process model into a form suitable for use in total-system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this analysis/model is to put the information generated by the seepage process modeling in a form appropriate for use in the TSPA for the Site Recommendation. This report also supports the Unsaturated-Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report. The scope of the work is discussed below. This analysis/model is governed by the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a). Details of this activity are in Addendum A of the technical work plan. The original Work Direction and Planning Document is included as Attachment 7 of Addendum A. Note that the Work Direction and Planning Document contains tasks identified for both Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO). Only the PAO tasks are documented here. The planning for the NEPO activities is now in Addendum D of the same technical work plan and the work is documented in a separate report (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The Project has been reorganized since the document was written. The responsible organizations in the new structure are the Performance Assessment Department and the Unsaturated Zone Department, respectively. The work plan for the seepage abstraction calls for determining an appropriate abstraction methodology

  14. Simple Superconducting "Permanent" Electromagnet (United States)

    Israelson, Ulf E.; Strayer, Donald M.


    Proposed short tube of high-temperature-superconducting material like YBa2Cu3O7 acts as strong electromagnet that flows as long as magnetic field remains below critical value and temperature of cylinder maintained sufficiently below superconducting-transition temperature. Design exploits maximally anisotropy of high-temperature-superconducting material.

  15. The CLEO III drift chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, D; Briere, R A; Chen, G; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Csorna, S; Dickson, M; Dombrowski, S V; Ecklund, K M; Lyon, A; Marka, S; Meyer, T O; Patterson, J R; Sadoff, A; Thies, P; Thorndike, E H; Urner, D


    The CLEO group at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring has constructed and commissioned a new central drift chamber. With 9796 cells arranged in 47 layers ranging in radius from 13.2 to 79 cm, the new drift chamber has a smaller outer radius and fewer wires than the drift chamber it replaces, but allows the CLEO tracking system to have improved momentum resolution. Reduced scattering material in the chamber gas and in the inner skin separating the drift chamber from the silicon vertex detector provides a reduction of the multiple scattering component of the momentum resolution and an extension of the usable measurement length into the silicon. Momentum resolution is further improved through quality control in wire positioning and symmetry of the electric fields in the drift cells which have provided a reduction in the spatial resolution to 88 mu m (averaged over the full drift range).

  16. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Houseworth


    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water

  17. Enhanced superconductivity of fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, II, Aaron L.; Teprovich, Joseph A.; Zidan, Ragaiy


    Methods for enhancing characteristics of superconductive fullerenes and devices incorporating the fullerenes are disclosed. Enhancements can include increase in the critical transition temperature at a constant magnetic field; the existence of a superconducting hysteresis over a changing magnetic field; a decrease in the stabilizing magnetic field required for the onset of superconductivity; and/or an increase in the stability of superconductivity over a large magnetic field. The enhancements can be brought about by transmitting electromagnetic radiation to the superconductive fullerene such that the electromagnetic radiation impinges on the fullerene with an energy that is greater than the band gap of the fullerene.

  18. Superconducting material development (United States)


    A superconducting compound was developed that showed a transition to a zero-resistance state at 65 C, or 338 K. The superconducting material, which is an oxide based on strontium, barium, yttrium, and copper, continued in the zero-resistance state similar to superconductivity for 10 days at room temperature in the air. It was also noted that measurements of the material allowed it to observe a nonlinear characteristic curve between current and voltage at 65 C, which is another indication of superconductivity. The research results of the laboratory experiment with the superconducting material will be published in the August edition of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics.

  19. Heavy-ion LINAC development for the US RIA project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Particle Accelerator Conference, Chicago, IL, 18–22 June 2001 (to be published) Oral/ROPA002.pdf. [5] K W Shepard, The U.S. RIA Project SRF LINACS, presented in the 10th Int. Workshop on RF. Superconductivity, Paper TA003, Tsukuba, Japan, 6–11 September 2001.

  20. The KLOE drift chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Adinolfi, M; Ambrosino, F; Andryakov, A; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Anulli, F; Bacci, C; Bankamp, A; Barbiellini, G; Bellini, F; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, Sergio; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Bulychjov, S A; Cabibbo, G; Calcaterra, A; Caloi, R; Campana, P; Capon, G; Carboni, G; Cardini, A; Casarsa, M; Cataldi, G; Ceradini, F; Cervelli, F; Cevenini, F; Chiefari, G; Ciambrone, P; Conetti, S; Conticelli, S; Lucia, E D; Robertis, G D; Sangro, R D; Simone, P D; Zorzi, G D; Dell'Agnello, S; Denig, A; Domenico, A D; Donato, C D; Falco, S D; Doria, A; Drago, E; Elia, V; Erriquez, O; Farilla, A; Felici, G; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Finocchiaro, G; Forti, C; Franceschi, A; Franzini, P; Gao, M L; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Golovatyuk, V; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, F; Grandegger, W; Graziani, E; Guarnaccia, P; Von Hagel, U; Han, H G; Han, S W; Huang, X; Incagli, M; Ingrosso, L; Jang, Y Y; Kim, W; Kluge, W; Kulikov, V; Lacava, F; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Lomtadze, F; Luisi, C; Mao Chen Sheng; Martemyanov, M; Matsyuk, M; Mei, W; Merola, L; Messi, R; Miscetti, S; Moalem, A; Moccia, S; Moulson, M; Müller, S; Murtas, F; Napolitano, M; Nedosekin, A; Panareo, M; Pacciani, L; Pagès, P; Palutan, M; Paoluzi, L; Pasqualucci, E; Passalacqua, L; Passaseo, M; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Petrolo, E; Petrucci, Guido; Picca, D; Pirozzi, G; Pistillo, C; Pollack, M; Pontecorvo, L; Primavera, M; Ruggieri, F; Santangelo, P; Santovetti, E; Saracino, G; Schamberger, R D; Schwick, C; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Scuri, F; Sfiligoi, I; Shan, J; Silano, P; Spadaro, T; Spagnolo, S; Spiriti, E; Stanescu, C; Tong, G L; Tortora, L; Valente, E; Valente, P; Valeriani, B; Venanzoni, G; Veneziano, Stefano; Wu, Y; Xie, Y G; Zhao, P P; Zhou, Y


    The tracking detector of the KLOE experiment is 4 m diameter, 3.3 m length drift chamber, designed to contain a large fraction of the decays of low-energy K sub L produced at the Frascati DAPHINE phi-factory. The chamber is made by a thin carbon fiber structure and operated with a helium-based gas mixture in order to minimise conversion of low-energy photons and multiple scattering inside the sensitive volume. The tracking information is provided by 58 layers of stereo wires defing 12,582 cells, 2x2 cm sup 2 in size in the 12 innermost layers and 3x3 cm sup 2 in the outer ones. Details of the chamber design, calibration procedure and tracking performances are presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The characteristics of temporal drift in spectral responsivity of HgCdTe photodetectors is investigated and found to have an origin different from what has been reported in literature. Traditionally, the literature attributes the cause of drift due to the deposition of thin film of ice water on the active area of the cold detector. The source of drift as proposed in this paper is more critical owing to the difficulties in acquisition of infrared temperature measurements. A model explaining the drift phenomenon in HgCdTe detectors is described by considering the deep trapping of charge carriers and generation of radiation induced deep trap centers which are meta-stable in nature. A theoretical model is fitted to the experimental data. A comparison of the model with the experimental data shows that the radiation induced deep trap centers and charge trapping effects are mainly responsible for the drift phenomenon observed in HgCdTe detectors.

  2. CTF Void Drift Validation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gosdin, Chris [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Avramova, Maria N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gergar, Marcus [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)


    This milestone report is a summary of work performed in support of expansion of the validation and verification (V&V) matrix for the thermal-hydraulic subchannel code, CTF. The focus of this study is on validating the void drift modeling capabilities of CTF and verifying the supporting models that impact the void drift phenomenon. CTF uses a simple turbulent-diffusion approximation to model lateral cross-flow due to turbulent mixing and void drift. The void drift component of the model is based on the Lahey and Moody model. The models are a function of two-phase mass, momentum, and energy distribution in the system; therefore, it is necessary to correctly model the ow distribution in rod bundle geometry as a first step to correctly calculating the void distribution due to void drift.

  3. Frontiers in Superconducting Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Anant V


    Frontiers in Superconducting Materials gives a state-of-the-art report of the most important topics of the current research in superconductive materials and related phenomena. It comprises 30 chapters written by renowned international experts in the field. It is of central interest to researchers and specialists in Physics and Materials Science, both in academic and industrial research, as well as advanced students. It also addresses electronic and electrical engineers. Even non-specialists interested in superconductivity might find some useful answers.

  4. Fundamentals of Superconducting Nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Sidorenko, Anatolie


    This book demonstrates how the new phenomena in superconductivity on the nanometer scale (FFLO state, triplet superconductivity, Crossed Andreev Reflection, synchronized generation etc.) serve as the basis for the invention and development of novel nanoelectronic devices and systems. It demonstrates how rather complex ideas and theoretical models, like odd-pairing, non-uniform superconducting state, pi-shift etc., adequately describe the processes in real superconducting nanostructues and novel devices based on them. The book is useful for a broad audience of readers, researchers, engineers, P

  5. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service


    Being redied for installation, those at the right are for tank 1, those on the left for tank 2. Contrary to Linac 1, which had drift-tubes supported on stems, here the tubes are suspended, for better mechanical stability.

  6. Reduction of Dynamic Field Errors in Superconductive Undulators

    CERN Document Server

    Peiffer, Peter; Burkart, Florian; Ehlers, Sandra; Keilmann, Alexander; Baumbach, Tilo; Rossmanith, Robert; Schoerling, Daniel


    The magnetic field in superconductive undulators is changed by varying the current in the superconductive wires. During operation at stable current, the electric current is confined to the resistance-free filaments. During ramping, however, the superconducting wire bundles have an inductive impedance, causing part of the current to penetrate into the iron body if electric insulation leaks between the wire and the iron body are present. If this is the case the leak currents and other eddy currents decay slowly after the ramp. The magnetic field of the undulator changes during this period. It was shown experimentally that an effective electric insulation between the wires and the iron body can minimize the current and the magnetic field drifts. In this paper the results of these experiments and simulations of the described effects are presented

  7. Performance Improvement of a Measurement Station for Superconducting Cable Test

    CERN Document Server

    Arpaia, P; Montenero, G; Le Naour, S


    A fully digital system, improving measurements flexibility, integrator drift, and current control of superconducting transformers for cable test, is proposed. The system is based on a high-performance integration of Rogowski coil signal and a flexible direct control of the current into the secondary windings. This allows state-of-the-art performance to be overcome by means of out-of-the-shelf components: on a full-scale of 32 kA, current measurement resolution of 1 A, stability below 0.25 Amin-1, and controller ripple less than 50 ppm. The system effectiveness has been demonstrated experimentally on the superconducting transformer of the Facility for the Research of Superconducting Cables at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).

  8. Superconducting cavities for LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Above: a 350 MHz superconducting accelerating cavity in niobium of the type envisaged for accelerating electrons and positrons in later phases of LEP. Below: a small 1 GHz cavity used for investigating the surface problems of superconducting niobium. Albert Insomby stays on the right. See Annual Report 1983 p. 51.

  9. Academic training: Applied superconductivity

    CERN Multimedia


    LECTURE SERIES 17, 18, 19 January from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs Council Room, Bldg 503 Applied Superconductivity : Theory, superconducting Materials and applications E. PALMIERI/INFN, Padova, Italy When hearing about persistent currents recirculating for several years in a superconducting loop without any appreciable decay, one realizes that we are dealing with a phenomenon which in nature is the closest known to the perpetual motion. Zero resistivity and perfect diamagnetism in Mercury at 4.2 K, the breakthrough during 75 years of several hundreds of superconducting materials, the revolution of the "liquid Nitrogen superconductivity"; the discovery of still a binary compound becoming superconducting at 40 K and the subsequent re-exploration of the already known superconducting materials: Nature discloses drop by drop its intimate secrets and nobody can exclude that the last final surprise must still come. After an overview of phenomenology and basic theory of superconductivity, the lectures for this a...

  10. Superconducting RF cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Philippe


    It was 20 years ago when the research and development programme for LEP superconducting cavities was initiated. It lasted about 10 years. Today, my aim is not to tell you in great detail about the many innovations made thanks to our research, but I would like to point out some milestones in the development of superconducting cavities where Emilio's influence was particularly important.

  11. Large superconducting magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Pérot, J


    Discusses the use of large superconducting magnets in the areas of particle physics, thermonuclear fusion, and magnetohydrodynamics. In addition to considering the physics of the superconducting state, the article considers machines such as BEBC (Big European Bubble Chamber) at CERN, the LINAC at SLAC and possible Tokamak applications. The future application of superconductors to high speed trains is discussed. (0 refs).

  12. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Seiler, Eugen


    We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future......, the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10...... offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However...

  13. The Drifting Star (United States)


    By studying in great detail the 'ringing' of a planet-harbouring star, a team of astronomers using ESO's 3.6-m telescope have shown that it must have drifted away from the metal-rich Hyades cluster. This discovery has implications for theories of star and planet formation, and for the dynamics of our Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 09a/08 ESO PR Photo 09a/08 Iota Horologii The yellow-orange star Iota Horologii, located 56 light-years away towards the southern Horologium ("The Clock") constellation, belongs to the so-called "Hyades stream", a large number of stars that move in the same direction. Previously, astronomers using an ESO telescope had shown that the star harbours a planet, more than 2 times as large as Jupiter and orbiting in 320 days (ESO 12/99). But until now, all studies were unable to pinpoint the exact characteristics of the star, and hence to understand its origin. A team of astronomers, led by Sylvie Vauclair from the University of Toulouse, France, therefore decided to use the technique of 'asteroseismology' to unlock the star's secrets. "In the same way as geologists monitor how seismic waves generated by earthquakes propagate through the Earth and learn about the inner structure of our planet, it is possible to study sound waves running through a star, which forms a sort of large, spherical bell," says Vauclair. The 'ringing' from this giant musical instrument provides astronomers with plenty of information about the physical conditions in the star's interior. And to 'listen to the music', the astronomers used one of the best instruments available. The observations were conducted in November 2006 during 8 consecutive nights with the state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla. Up to 25 'notes' could be identified in the unique dataset, most of them corresponding to waves having a period of about 6.5 minutes. These observations allowed the astronomers to obtain a very precise portrait of Iota Horologii: its

  14. Atlas of Dutch drift sands (United States)

    Riksen, Michel; Jungerius, Pieter


    The Netherlands is well known for its aeolian landscapes. Frequent storms during the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 AD) reactivated Pleistocene coversands and river dunes and are responsible for the formation of the Holocene drift sands at a scale which is unique for Europe. A hypothesized relationship with farmer practices for making plaggensoils has recently been refuted, because drift sand formation began centuries earlier. The coastal dune belt with their parabolic dunes dates from the same period as the drift sand. An estimate of the extent of drift sands can be made from soil maps: drift sands are too young to show much profile development (Regosols). With this method Koster estimated the maximum extent of Holocene drift sands in the Netherlands to be about 800 km2 (Koster 2005). Laser altimetry allows a more precise estimate of the total surface affected by wind from the characteristic relief patterns produced by the Holocene wind, which is different from the smooth surface of cover sand deposits. Laser altimetry has been used before to investigate the mechanism of drift sand formation (Jungerius & Riksen 2010). Most of the surface affected by wind is not active anymore, but the tell-tale rough surface survived ages of different landuse. The total affected surface amounts to 825 km2. It is noteworthy that both methods give comparable results. We recorded a total number of 367 of affected areas of varying shapes, ranging in size from 1.6 ha to a large complex of drif sands of 7,119.5 ha. As is to be expected from their mode of origin, most occurrences are associated with cover sands, and with river dunes along the river Meuse and smaller rivers in other parts of the country. Particularly the final phases of cover sand and river dunes that show more relief as parabolic dunes were affected. There are also small aeolian deposits at the lee side blown from fallow agricultural fields but they are (sub)recent. Most of the relief is irregular, but the larger

  15. In-Drift Microbial Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Jolley


    As directed by written work direction (CRWMS M and O 1999f), Performance Assessment (PA) developed a model for microbial communities in the engineered barrier system (EBS) as documented here. The purpose of this model is to assist Performance Assessment and its Engineered Barrier Performance Section in modeling the geochemical environment within a potential repository drift for TSPA-SR/LA, thus allowing PA to provide a more detailed and complete near-field geochemical model and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This model and its predecessor (the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document, CRWMS M and O 1998a) was developed to respond to the applicable KTIs. Additionally, because of the previous development of the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a), the M and O was effectively able to resolve a previous KTI concern regarding the effects of microbial processes on seepage and flow (NRC 1998). This document supercedes the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a). This document provides the conceptual framework of the revised in-drift microbial communities model to be used in subsequent performance assessment (PA) analyses.

  16. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    With the advent of the 800 MeV PS Booster in 1972, the original injector of the PS, a 50 MeV Alvarez-type proton linac, had reached its limits, in terms of intensity and stability. In 1973 one therefore decided to build a new linac (Linac 2), also with a drift-tube Alvarez structure and an energy of 50 MeV. It had a new Cockcroft-Walton preinjector with 750 keV, instead of the previous one with 500 keV. Linac 2 was put into service in 1980. The old Linac 1 was then used for the study of, and later operation with, various types of ions. This picture shows Linac 2 drift-tubes, suspended on stems coming from the top, in contrast to Linac 1, where the drift-tubes stood on stems coming from the bottom.

  17. Studies of the Chromaticity, Tune, and Coupling Drift in the Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Martens, Michael A; Bauer, Pierre; Shiltsev, Vladimir; Velev, Gueorgui


    Chromaticity drift is a well-known and more or less well-understood phenomenon in superconducting colliders such as the Tevatron. Less known is the effect of tune and coupling drift, also observed in the Tevatron during injection. These effects are caused by field drifts in the superconducting magnets. Understanding of the behavior of the tune, coupling, and chromaticity at the start of the ramp is an important part of understanding the observed 5-10% loss in beam intensity at the start of the Tevatron ramp. In addition modifications in the Tevatron shot set-up procedure are being implemented to allow for a gain in integrated luminosity. In this context we conducted several beam-studies, during the period of April to August 2004, in which we measured the drift in the Tevatron chromaticity, tune and coupling during the injection porch. In some case we also measured the snapback at the start of the ramp. We will present the results of these studies data and put them into context of the results of off-line magne...

  18. Superconductivity fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Buckel, Werner


    This is the second English edition of what has become one of the definitive works on superconductivity in German -- currently in its sixth edition. Comprehensive and easy to understand, this introductory text is written especially with the non-specialist in mind. The authors, both long-term experts in this field, present the fundamental considerations without the need for extensive mathematics, describing the various phenomena connected with the superconducting state, with liberal insertion of experimental facts and examples for modern applications. While all fields of superconducting phenomena are dealt with in detail, this new edition pays particular attention to the groundbreaking discovery of magnesium diboride and the current developments in this field. In addition, a new chapter provides an overview of the elements, alloys and compounds where superconductivity has been observed in experiments, together with their major characteristics. The chapter on technical applications has been considerably expanded...

  19. Superconducting detectors in astronomy (United States)

    Rahman, F.


    Radiation detectors based on superconducting phenomena are becoming increasingly important for observational astronomy. Recent developments in this important field, together with relevant background, are described here. After a general introduction to superconductivity and the field of superconductor-based radiation sensors, the main detector types are examined with regard to their physical form, operating principles and principal advantages. All major forms of superconducting detectors used in contemporary research such as tunnelling detectors, mixers, hot-electron bolometers and transition edge sensitive devices are discussed with an emphasis on how more recent developments are overcoming the shortcomings of the previous device generations. Also, discussed are new ideas in superconducting detector technology that may find applications in the coming years.

  20. Superconducting metamaterial transmission line (United States)

    Rouxinol, Francisco; Wang, Haozhi; Plourde, B. L. T.


    Left-handed metamaterials are artificial composite structures with unusual properties. Such systems have a wide range of potential applications in photonics. We are developing transmission lines composed of superconducting metamaterials using thin-film lumped circuit elements. Such structures allow for the possibility of generating novel transmission spectra with a high density of modes in some frequency ranges and stop-bands in others. We discuss possible couplings of these lines to superconducting qubits in circuit QED architectures.

  1. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators


    Yunying Pan; Danhzen Gu


    Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends ...

  2. Superconducting transmission line particle detector (United States)

    Gray, Kenneth E.


    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

  3. Superconducting Fullerene Nanowhiskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Takano


    Full Text Available We synthesized superconducting fullerene nanowhiskers (C60NWs by potassium (K intercalation. They showed large superconducting volume fractions, as high as 80%. The superconducting transition temperature at 17 K was independent of the K content (x in the range between 1.6 and 6.0 in K-doped C60 nanowhiskers (KxC60NWs, while the superconducting volume fractions changed with x. The highest shielding fraction of a full shielding volume was observed in the material of K3.3C60NW by heating at 200 °C. On the other hand, that of a K-doped fullerene (K-C60 crystal was less than 1%. We report the superconducting behaviors of our newly synthesized KxC60NWs in comparison to those of KxC60 crystals, which show superconductivity at 19 K in K3C60. The lattice structures are also discussed, based on the x-ray diffraction (XRD analyses.

  4. Emergent Higgsless Superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Diamantini M.


    Full Text Available We present a new Higgsless model of superconductivity, inspired from anyon superconductivity but P- and T-invariant and generalizable to any dimension. While the original anyon superconductivity mechanism was based on incompressible quantum Hall fluids as average field states, our mechanism involves topological insulators as average field states. In D space dimensions it involves a (D-1-form fictitious pseudovector gauge field which originates from the condensation of topological defects in compact lowenergy effective BF theories. There is no massive Higgs scalar as there is no local order parameter. When electromagnetism is switched on, the photon acquires mass by the topological BF mechanism. Although the charge of the gapless mode (2 and the topological order (4 are the same as those of the standard Higgs model, the two models of superconductivity are clearly different since the origins of the gap, reflected in the high-energy sectors are totally different. In 2D thi! s type of superconductivity is explicitly realized as global superconductivity in Josephson junction arrays. In 3D this model predicts a possible phase transition from topological insulators to Higgsless superconductors.

  5. Clumps in drift wave turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecseli, H. L.; Mikkelsen, Torben


    is proposed in terms of conditional eddies, in order to discriminate turbulent flows where macro-clumps may be observed. The analysis is illustrated by results from experimental investigations of strongly turbulent, resistive drift-wave fluctuations. The related problem for electrostatic turbulence...

  6. Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.


    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.

  7. ATLAS muon drift tube production in Seattle

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, T; Kuykendall, W; Davisson, R


    The drift tube production facility that we developed for producing precision drift tubes of the ATLAS forward muon system in our laboratory is described in this paper. The results of quality assurance for approximately 30,000 tube produced are given. Our experience shows that this production facility is very efficient and the quality of produced drift tubes is very high. (2 refs).

  8. Fullerides - Superconductivity at the limit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    The successful synthesis of highly crystalline Cs3C60, exhibiting superconductivity up to a record temperature for fullerides of 38 K, demonstrates a powerful synthetic route for investigating the origin of superconductivity in this class of materials.

  9. Superconductivity in Dirac semimetals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Tatsuki; Kobayashi, Shingo [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Sato, Masatoshi [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)


    In this presentation, we would like to discuss the superconductivity in Dirac semimetals. Dirac semimetal is a material that hosts topologically protected bulk Dirac cones and surface Fermi loop. It has been revealed that the unique spin-orbit interaction in the Dirac semimetals stabilize the unconventional superconductivity. Experimentally, the zero-bias conductance peak that suggests the realization of topological superconductivity has been observed in Cd{sub 3}As{sub 2}. We use a k . p Hamiltonian around Γ point with spin and orbital degrees of freedom to describe the Dirac semimetal. For the model, we propose six types of k-independent pair potentials, where two of them are trivial pairings and others are topological ones. By introducing a single band description of the pair potentials, it is found that the superconducting gap and d-vector have the characteristic structure in each pair potential. To see these, we calculate the electronic specific heat and spin susceptibility and confirm that we can distinguish these superconducting states experimentally. In addition to the bulk physical properties, we also calculate the surface state by using the recursive Green's function method. It is find that either arc or flat shape Andreev bound states appear on the surface depending on the parity of mirror reflection symmetry.

  10. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, H., E-mail:


    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  11. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor (United States)

    Jansen, H.


    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  12. Remarks on superconducting gravimeter calibration by co-located gravity observations (United States)

    Meurers, B.; Blaumoser, N.; Ullrich, Ch.


    Using absolute gravimetry for site by site recording of temporal gravity variations is the most common method to calibrate stationary relative gravimeters, specifically superconducting gravimeters. This method is based on the assumption that both sensors record the same gravity signal. Actually, this condition is never perfectly fulfilled, not even when absolute gravimeters are involved. Instrumental effects like drift are the main reason. Therefore the situation dramatically deteriorates if spring gravimeters are applied as reference due to their large and sometimes irregular drift. This paper investigates the role of instrumental drift at calibration experiments based both on absolute and spring gravimeters and how the calibration results improve if drift is considered even in case of absolute gravimeters. The question whether spring gravimeters can reliably support SG calibration is discussed especially under the aspect of appropriate drift modelling. The accuracy which is presently achievable with FG5 absolute gravimeters strongly depends on the drop-to-drop scatter and therefore on the site noise. E.g. at Conrad observatory (Austria) the difference between the mean calibration factor obtained when drift is or is not taken into account turns out to be in the same order of magnitude as the error, i.e. the improvement by a common drift adjustment is just at the error limit. Nevertheless, based on this result, adjusting the instrumental drift is recommended. This will especially hold when further instrumental improvements reduce the drop-to-drop scatter or even presently at low noise stations.

  13. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffey, T.A. [Duffy, (T.A.) Tijeras, NM (United States); Goldman, A. [Goldman, (A.), Sandia, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Farrar, C.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated.

  14. Connectivity and superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinstein, Jacob


    The motto of connectivity and superconductivity is that the solutions of the Ginzburg--Landau equations are qualitatively influenced by the topology of the boundaries, as in multiply-connected samples. Special attention is paid to the "zero set", the set of the positions (also known as "quantum vortices") where the order parameter vanishes. The effects considered here usually become important in the regime where the coherence length is of the order of the dimensions of the sample. It takes the intuition of physicists and the awareness of mathematicians to find these new effects. In connectivity and superconductivity, theoretical and experimental physicists are brought together with pure and applied mathematicians to review these surprising results. This volume is intended to serve as a reference book for graduate students and researchers in physics or mathematics interested in superconductivity, or in the Schrödinger equation as a limiting case of the Ginzburg--Landau equations.

  15. Applied Superconductivity Conference 2014

    CERN Document Server


    Energy Efficiency is a worldwide imperative driven by an increasing awareness of the need to conserve valuable natural resources. Superconductivity, the technology which revolutionized non-invasive medical imaging through MRI starting in the 1980’s, is one of the most promising enablers of energy efficiency in the 21st century. From energy efficient supercomputers to power generation, transmission, and storage, the spectrum of applications of superconductivity is broad in its reach and potential. As ASC comes to Charlotte, site of the hall of fame of NASCAR, our theme, “Race to Energy Efficiency,” is intended to inspire the world experts in superconductivity who will converge to Charlotte to present their latest results, exchange information, network, and plan and project the future breakthroughs.

  16. High pressure induced superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, K.; Shimizu, K


    We have developed complex extreme condition of very low temperature down to 30 mK and ultra high pressure exceeding 200 GPa by assembling compact diamond anvil cell (DAC) on a powerful {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He dilution refrigerator. We have also developed measuring techniques of electrical resistance, magnetization and optical measurement for the sample confined in the sample space of the DAC. Using the newly developed apparatus and techniques, we have searched for superconductivity in various materials under pressure. In this paper, we will shortly review our newly developed experimental apparatus and techniques and discuss a few examples of pressure induced superconductivity which were observed recently.

  17. Superconducting metamaterials and qubits (United States)

    Plourde, B. L. T.; Wang, Haozhi; Rouxinol, Francisco; LaHaye, M. D.


    Superconducting thin-film metamaterial resonators can provide a dense microwave mode spectrum with potential applications in quantum information science. We report on the fabrication and low-temperature measurement of metamaterial transmission-line resonators patterned from Al thin films. We also describe multiple approaches for numerical simulations of the microwave properties of these structures, along with comparisons with the measured transmission spectra. The ability to predict the mode spectrum based on the chip layout provides a path towards future designs integrating metamaterial resonators with superconducting qubits.

  18. Superconducting magnetic quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.W.; Shepard, K.W.; Nolen, J.A.


    A design was developed for a 350 T/m, 2.6-cm clear aperture superconducting quadrupole focussing element for use in a very low q/m superconducting linac as discussed below. The quadrupole incorporates holmium pole tips, and a rectangular-section winding using standard commercially-available Nb-Ti wire. The magnet was modeled numerically using both 2D and 3D codes, as a basis for numerical ray tracing using the quadrupole as a linac element. Components for a prototype singlet are being procured during FY 1995.

  19. Gambling with Superconducting Fluctuations (United States)

    Foltyn, Marek; Zgirski, Maciej


    Josephson junctions and superconducting nanowires, when biased close to superconducting critical current, can switch to a nonzero voltage state by thermal or quantum fluctuations. The process is understood as an escape of a Brownian particle from a metastable state. Since this effect is fully stochastic, we propose to use it for generating random numbers. We present protocol for obtaining random numbers and test the experimentally harvested data for their fidelity. Our work is prerequisite for using the Josephson junction as a tool for stochastic (probabilistic) determination of physical parameters such as magnetic flux, temperature, and current.

  20. Small signals observed with Superconducting Gravimeters (United States)

    Warburton, R. J.


    After calibration at the 0.1% level and removal of a small linear drift of a few μGal/year, Superconducting Gravimeters (SGs) provide a continuous and precise record of gravity changes which can be combined with other geophysical measurements for analysis. As a result, SGs routinely measure small gravity signals from 1 nGal to a few μGal, which are generated by a wide variety of geophysical sources and can be either non-periodic or occurring over a wide range of periods from seconds to years. Secular gravity variations and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) are most often measured using AGs alone; however, the combination of AGs and SGs provides a higher precision measurement. SGs can be used to account for seasonal variation of hydrological signals to reduce this source of uncertainty in AG measurements; and the combination can be used to identify and remove instrumental errors that may occur from either instrument. Many small SG signals have been observed that originate from the atmosphere, ocean, hydrology, earthquakes and GIA. Nonetheless, the detection of small signals with SGs could be improved in several ways. Further reducing the instrumental drift and noise, improving the calibration accuracy and using pairs of SGs to measure either vertical or horizontal gravity gradients are all possibilities. The status of progress toward these improvements is presented.

  1. Optimization of drift gases for accuracy in pressurized drift tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchner, J J; Dinner, A R; Fidkowski, K J; Wyatt, J H


    Modern detectors such as ATLAS use pressurized drift tubes to minimize diffusion and achieve high coordinate accuracy. However, the coordinate accuracy depends on the exact knowledge of converting measured times into coordinates. Linear space-time relationships are best for reconstruction, but difficult to achieve in the $E \\propto \\frac{1}{r}$ field. Previous mixtures, which contained methane or other organic quenchers, are disfavored because of ageing problems. From our studies of nitrogen and carbon dioxide, two mixtures with only small deviations from linearity were determined and measured. Scaling laws for different pressures and magnetic fields are also given.

  2. Superconducting Magnets for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L


    Superconductivity has been the most influential technology in the field of accelerators in the last 30 years. Since the commissioning of the Tevatron, which demonstrated the use and operability of superconductivity on a large scale, superconducting magnets and rf cavities have been at the heart of all new large accelerators. Superconducting magnets have been the invariable choice for large colliders, as well as cyclotrons and large synchrotrons. In spite of the long history of success, superconductivity remains a difficult technology, requires adequate R&D and suitable preparation, and has a relatively high cost. Hence, it is not surprising that the development has also been marked by a few setbacks. This article is a review of the main superconducting accelerator magnet projects; it highlights the main characteristics and main achievements, and gives a perspective on the development of superconducting magnets for the future generation of very high energy colliders.

  3. Superconductors for superconducting magnets (United States)

    Larbalestier, David


    Even in 1913 Kamerlingh Onnes envisioned the use of superconductors to create powerful magnetic fields well beyond the capability provided by cooling normal metals with liquid helium. Only some ``bad places'' in his Hg and Pb wires seemed to impede his first attempts at this dream, one that he imagined would be resolved in a few weeks of effort. In fact, of course, resolution required another 50 years and development of both a true understanding of the difference between type I and type II superconductors and the discovery of compounds such as Nb 3 Sn that could remain superconducting to fields as high as 30 T. And then indeed, starting in the 1960s, Onnes's dreams were comfortably surpassed. In the last 45 years virtually all superconducting magnets have been made from just two Nb-base materials, Nb-Ti and Nb 3 Sn. Now it seems that a new generation of magnets based on cuprate high temperature superconductors with fields well above 30 T are possible using Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O and the RE-Ba-Cu-O compounds. We hope that a first demonstration of this possibility will be an all-superconducting 32 T magnet with RE-Ba-Cu-O insert that we are building for NHMFL users. The magnet application potential of this new generation of superconducting conductors will be discussed.

  4. Nonlinearities in Microwave Superconductivity


    Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.


    The research is focused on the modeling of nonlinear properties of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) thin films, using Bardeen, Cooper, Schrieffer and Lumped Element Circuit theories, with purpose to enhance microwave power handling capabilities of microwave filters and optimize design of microwave circuits in micro- and nano- electronics.

  5. High temperature superconducting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alario-Franco, M.A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas


    The perovskite structure is the basis of all known high-temperature superconducting materials. Many of the most successful (highest T{sub c}) materials are based on mercury and thallium phases but, due to the high toxicity of the component compounds effort has been invested in the substitution of these elements with silver. Progress is reviewed. (orig.)

  6. Superconductivity committee planning report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The recent discovery of superconductors that operate at relatively high temperatures has generated a large amount of research which promises to have applications in almost all branches of high technology, notably those in which high electric current densities are used. After a background description of the properties of superconductors, the market for superconductor technology is described from the Canadian perspective. Worldwide markets are growing rapidly and are estimated to total $920 million by 1990, considering only conventional low-temperature superconductors. Applications for superconductivity include the use of thin films and microelectronics, low loss signal transmission, tunnel injections, and sensitive magnetic detectors. Superconducting magnets find application in magnetic separation, magnetic levitation and propulsion, and for energy storage and transmission by power utilities. Research in superconductivity in British Columbia, reviewed in this report, has been under way at 3 universities and 4 or 5 compaines, where a small group of qualified researchers and some high-technology laboratories are focusing on thin-film and electonic applications. The potential market for superconductivity is felt to warrant more effort in British Columbia, and a number of recommendations are made for coordinating and promoting research, funding joint university-industry projects for innovative applications, and facilitating technology transfer.

  7. Checking BEBC superconducting magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    The superconducting coils of the magnet for the 3.7 m Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) had to be checked, see Annual Report 1974, p. 60. The photo shows a dismantled pancake. By December 1974 the magnet reached again the field design value of 3.5 T.

  8. Superconducting Quantum Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majer, J.B.


    This thesis describes a number of experiments with superconducting cir- cuits containing small Josephson junctions. The circuits are made out of aluminum islands which are interconnected with a very thin insulating alu- minum oxide layer. The connections form a Josephson junction. The current trough

  9. AC/RF Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Ciovati, G.


    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  10. Niobium superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    This 5-cell superconducting cavity, made from bulk-Nb, stems from the period of general studies, not all directed towards direct use at LEP. This one is dimensioned for 1.5 GHz, the frequency used at CEBAF and also studied at Saclay (LEP RF was 352.2 MHz). See also 7908227, 8007354, 8209255, 8210054, 8312339.

  11. ISR Superconducting Quadrupoles

    CERN Multimedia


    Michel Bouvier is preparing for curing the 6-pole superconducting windings inbedded in the cylindrical wall separating liquid helium from vacuum in the quadrupole aperture. The heat for curing the epoxy glue was provided by a ramp of infrared lamps which can be seen above the slowly rotating cylinder. See also 7703512X, 7702690X.

  12. Superconducting doped topological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Satoshi, E-mail: [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Mizushima, Takeshi, E-mail: [Department of Materials Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)


    Highlights: • Studies on both normal- and SC-state properties of doped topological materials. • Odd-parity pairing systems with the time-reversal-invariance. • Robust superconductivity in the presence of nonmagnetic impurity scattering. • We propose experiments to identify the existence of Majorana fermions in these SCs. - Abstract: Recently, the search for Majorana fermions (MFs) has become one of the most important and exciting issues in condensed matter physics since such an exotic quasiparticle is expected to potentially give rise to unprecedented quantum phenomena whose functional properties will be used to develop future quantum technology. Theoretically, the MFs may reside in various types of topological superconductor materials that is characterized by the topologically protected gapless surface state which are essentially an Andreev bound state. Superconducting doped topological insulators and topological crystalline insulators are promising candidates to harbor the MFs. In this review, we discuss recent progress and understanding on the research of MFs based on time-reversal-invariant superconducting topological materials to deepen our understanding and have a better outlook on both the search for and realization of MFs in these systems. We also discuss some advantages of these bulk systems to realize MFs including remarkable superconducting robustness against nonmagnetic impurities.

  13. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB


    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  14. High temperature superconductivity: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedell, K.S.; Coffey, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Meltzer, D.E. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (USA)); Pines, D. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA)); Schrieffer, J.R. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (USA)) (eds.)


    This book is the result of a symposium at Los Alamos in 1989 on High Temperature Superconductivity. The topics covered include: phenomenology, quantum spin liquids, spin space fluctuations in the insulating and metallic phases, normal state properties, and numerical studies and simulations. (JF)

  15. LEP superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia


    Engineers work in a clean room on one of the superconducting cavities for the upgrade to the LEP accelerator, known as LEP-2. The use of superconductors allow higher electric fields to be produced so that higher beam energies can be reached.

  16. LHC superconducting strand

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez


    This cross-section through a strand of superconducting matieral as used in the LHC shows the 8000 Niobium-Titanium filaments embedded like a honeycomb in copper. When cooled to 1.9 degrees above absolute zero in the LHC accelerator, these filaments will have zero resistance and so will carry a high electric current with no energy loss.

  17. Electrical Conduction and Superconductivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 9. Electrical Conduction and Superconductivity. Suresh V Vettoor. General Article Volume 8 Issue 9 September 2003 pp 41-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  18. A Double Take at 'Serpent' Drift (United States)


    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this microscopic imager picture of the drift dubbed 'Serpent' on Spirit's 73rd martian day on Mars after successfully digging into the side of the drift. The image is the first-ever microscopic look inside a drift. It captures only the scuffed interior of the Serpent drift and is dominated by larger pea-shaped particles. These grains are not natural to the inside of the drift, but are crust particles that have tumbled into the scuffed area as a result of the digging. These grains lost their dust cover in the process of falling into the scuff, giving scientists clues about the strength -- or lack of strength -- of the bond between the dust and sand particles. Most interesting to scientists are the fine grains making up the interior of Serpent drift. The grains of sand found within drifts or dunes on Earth are usually about 200 micrometers (.008 inches) in diameter -- much like sand on a beach. On Earth, dunes are formed when sand particles of this size are bounced across a surface by wind and collect together as drifts. Smaller particles, like the ones making up Serpent drift, would not necessarily collect into a dune on Earth, but would more likely be distributed across the surface like dust. The fine grains making up the interior of Serpent drift are no larger than 50 or 60 micrometers (.002 inches) and can be compared to silt on Earth. How did this very fine material manage to accumulate into a drift? Earth-based tests that simulate the wind speed and atmospheric density of Mars have found it difficult to reproduce dunes with grain particles as small as those found in the Serpent drift. However, Earth-based tests cannot duplicate the gravity of Mars, which is one-third that of the gravity on Earth. This environmental factor is a likely contributor to the diminutive material making up Serpent drift.

  19. Tidal analysis of data recorded by a superconducting gravimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Palmonari


    Full Text Available A superconducting gravimeter was used to monitor the tidal signal for a period of five months. The instrument was placed in a site (Brasimone station, Italy chat-acterized by a low noise level, and was calibrated with a precision of 0.2%. Then tidal analysis on hourly data was performed and the results presented in this paper; amplitudes, gravimetric factors, phase differences for the main tidal waves, M2, S2, N2, 01, Pl, K1, QI, were calculated together with barometric pressure admittance and long term instrumental drift.

  20. Spiral biasing adaptor for use in Si drift detectors and Si drift detector arrays (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Chen, Wei


    A drift detector array, preferably a silicon drift detector (SDD) array, that uses a low current biasing adaptor is disclosed. The biasing adaptor is customizable for any desired geometry of the drift detector single cell with minimum drift time of carriers. The biasing adaptor has spiral shaped ion-implants that generate the desired voltage profile. The biasing adaptor can be processed on the same wafer as the drift detector array and only one biasing adaptor chip/side is needed for one drift detector array to generate the voltage profiles on the front side and back side of the detector array.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Extremely high radiation, levels with accumulated doses comparable to those in nuclear reactors than in accelerators, and very high heat loads ({approx}15 kw) make the quadrupole magnets in the fragment separator one of the most challenging elements of the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). Removing large heat loads, protecting the superconducting coils against quenching, the long term survivability of magnet components, and in particular, insulation that can retain its functionality in such a harsh environment, are the major challenges associated with such magnets. A magnet design based on commercially available high temperature superconductor (HTS) and stainless steel tape insulation has been developed. HTS will efficiently remove these large heat loads and stainless steel can tolerate these large radiation doses. Construction of a model magnet has been started with several coils already built and tested. This paper presents the basic magnet design, results of the coil tests, the status and the future plans. In addition, preliminary results of radiation calculations are also presented.

  2. Limits to Drift Chamber Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, Werner


    ATLAS (A Large Toroidal LHC Apparatus) will be a general-purpose experiment at the Large Hadron Collider that will be operational at CERN in the year 2004. The ATLAS muon spectrometer aims for a momentum resolution of 10% for a transverse momentum of pT=1TeV. The precision tracking devices in the muon system will be high pressure drift tubes (MDTs) with a single wire resolution of 1100 chambers covering an area of ≈ 2500m2. The high counting rates in the spectrometer as well as the aim for excellent spatial resolution and high efficiency put severe constraints on the MDT operating parameters. This work describes a detailed study of all the resolution limiting factors in the ATLAS environment. A ’full chain’ simulation of the MDT response to photons and charged particles as well as quantitative comparisons with measurements was performed. The good agreement between simulation and measurements resulted in a profound understanding of the drift chamber processes and the individual contributions to the spat...

  3. Investigations of SPS Orbit Drifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drøsdal, Lene [CERN; Bracco, Chiara [CERN; Cornelis, Karel [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Wenninger, Jorg [CERN; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab


    The LHC is filled from the last pre-injector, the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), via two 3 km long transfer lines, TI 2 and TI 8. Over the LHC injection processes, a drift of the beam trajectories has been observed in TI 2 and TI 8, requiring regular correction of the trajectories, in order to ensure clean injection into the LHC. Investigations of the trajectory variations in the transfer lines showed that the main source of short term trajectory drifts are current variations of the SPS extraction septa (MSE). The stability of the power converters has been improved, but the variations are still present and further improvements are being investigated. The stability over a longer period of time cannot be explained by this source alone. The analysis of trajectory variations shows that there are also slow variations in the SPS closed orbit at extraction. A set of SPS orbit measurements has been saved and analysed. These observations will be used together with simulations and observed field errors to locate the second source of variations.

  4. Investigations of SPS orbit drifts

    CERN Document Server

    Drøsdal, L; Cornelis, K; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Wenninger, J; Gianfelice-Wendt, E


    The LHC is filled from the last pre-injector, the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), via two 3 km long transfer lines, TI 2 and TI 8. Over the LHC injection processes, a drift of the beam trajectories has been observed in TI 2 and TI 8, requiring regular correction of the trajectories, in order to ensure clean injection into the LHC. Investigations of the trajectory variations in the transfer lines showed that the main source of short term trajectory drifts are current variations of the SPS extraction septa (MSE). The stability of the power converters has been improved, but the variations are still present and further improvements are being investigated. The stability over a longer period of time cannot be explained by this source alone. The analysis of trajectory variations shows that there are also slow variations in the SPS closed orbit at extraction. A set of SPS orbit measurements has been saved and analysed. These observations will be used together with simulations and observed field errors to locate the s...

  5. Comparison of high order modes damping techniques for 800 MHz single cell superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Shashkov, Ya V; Zobov, M M


    Currently, applications of 800 MHz harmonic cavities in both bunch lengthening and shortening regimes are under consideration and discussion in the framework of the High Luminosity LHC project. In this paper we study electromagnetic characteristics of high order modes (HOM) for a single cell 800 MHz superconducting cavity and arrays of such cavities connected by drifts tubes. Different techniques for the HOM damping such as beam pipe grooves, coaxial-notch loads, fluted beam pipes etc. are investigated and compared. The influence of the sizes and geometry of the drift tubes on the HOM damping is analyzed.

  6. Drift chamber tracking with neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, C.S.; Denby, B.; Haggerty, H.


    We discuss drift chamber tracking with a commercial log VLSI neural network chip. Voltages proportional to the drift times in a 4-layer drift chamber were presented to the Intel ETANN chip. The network was trained to provide the intercept and slope of straight tracks traversing the chamber. The outputs were recorded and later compared off line to conventional track fits. Two types of network architectures were studied. Applications of neural network tracking to high energy physics detector triggers is discussed.

  7. Biology Undergraduates’ Misconceptions about Genetic Drift (United States)

    Andrews, T. M.; Price, R. M.; Mead, L. S.; McElhinny, T. L.; Thanukos, A.; Perez, K. E.; Herreid, C. F.; Terry, D. R.; Lemons, P. P.


    This study explores biology undergraduates’ misconceptions about genetic drift. We use qualitative and quantitative methods to describe students’ definitions, identify common misconceptions, and examine differences before and after instruction on genetic drift. We identify and describe five overarching categories that include 16 distinct misconceptions about genetic drift. The accuracy of students’ conceptions ranges considerably, from responses indicating only superficial, if any, knowledge of any aspect of evolution to responses indicating knowledge of genetic drift but confusion about the nuances of genetic drift. After instruction, a significantly greater number of responses indicate some knowledge of genetic drift (p = 0.005), but 74.6% of responses still contain at least one misconception. We conclude by presenting a framework that organizes how students’ conceptions of genetic drift change with instruction. We also articulate three hypotheses regarding undergraduates’ conceptions of evolution in general and genetic drift in particular. We propose that: 1) students begin with undeveloped conceptions of evolution that do not recognize different mechanisms of change; 2) students develop more complex, but still inaccurate, conceptual frameworks that reflect experience with vocabulary but still lack deep understanding; and 3) some new misconceptions about genetic drift emerge as students comprehend more about evolution. PMID:22949422

  8. Biology undergraduates' misconceptions about genetic drift. (United States)

    Andrews, T M; Price, R M; Mead, L S; McElhinny, T L; Thanukos, A; Perez, K E; Herreid, C F; Terry, D R; Lemons, P P


    This study explores biology undergraduates' misconceptions about genetic drift. We use qualitative and quantitative methods to describe students' definitions, identify common misconceptions, and examine differences before and after instruction on genetic drift. We identify and describe five overarching categories that include 16 distinct misconceptions about genetic drift. The accuracy of students' conceptions ranges considerably, from responses indicating only superficial, if any, knowledge of any aspect of evolution to responses indicating knowledge of genetic drift but confusion about the nuances of genetic drift. After instruction, a significantly greater number of responses indicate some knowledge of genetic drift (p = 0.005), but 74.6% of responses still contain at least one misconception. We conclude by presenting a framework that organizes how students' conceptions of genetic drift change with instruction. We also articulate three hypotheses regarding undergraduates' conceptions of evolution in general and genetic drift in particular. We propose that: 1) students begin with undeveloped conceptions of evolution that do not recognize different mechanisms of change; 2) students develop more complex, but still inaccurate, conceptual frameworks that reflect experience with vocabulary but still lack deep understanding; and 3) some new misconceptions about genetic drift emerge as students comprehend more about evolution.

  9. 2017 Gordon Conference on Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubukov, Andrey [Univ. of Minnesota, Twin Cities, MN (United States)


    The DOE award was for a 2017 Gordon Research conference on Superconductivity (GRC). The objective of GRC is to interchange the information about the latest theoretical and experimental developments in the area of superconductivity and to select most perspective directions for future research in this area.The goal of the Gordon Conference on Superconductivity is to present and discuss the latest results in the field of modern superconductivity, discuss new ideas and new directions of research in the area. It is a long-standing tradition of the Gordon conference on Superconductivity that the vast majority of participants are junior scientists. Funding for the conference would primarily be used to support junior researchers, particularly from under-represented groups. We had more 10 female speakers, some of them junior researchers, and some funding was used to support these speakers. The conference was held together with Gordon Research Seminar on Superconductivity, where almost all speakers and participants were junior scientists.

  10. Statistical mechanics of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Kita, Takafumi


    This book provides a theoretical, step-by-step comprehensive explanation of superconductivity for undergraduate and graduate students who have completed elementary courses on thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. To this end, it adopts the unique approach of starting with the statistical mechanics of quantum ideal gases and successively adding and clarifying elements and techniques indispensible for understanding it. They include the spin-statistics theorem, second quantization, density matrices, the Bloch–De Dominicis theorem, the variational principle in statistical mechanics, attractive interaction, and bound states. Ample examples of their usage are also provided in terms of topics from advanced statistical mechanics such as two-particle correlations of quantum ideal gases, derivation of the Hartree–Fock equations, and Landau’s Fermi-liquid theory, among others. With these preliminaries, the fundamental mean-field equations of superconductivity are derived with maximum mathematical clarity based on ...

  11. Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Mess, K H; Wolff, S


    The main topic of the book are the superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets needed in high-energy accelerators and storage rings for protons, antiprotons or heavy ions. The basic principles of low-temperature superconductivity are outlined with special emphasis on the effects which are relevant for accelerator magnets. Properties and fabrication methods of practical superconductors are described. Analytical methods for field calculation and multipole expansion are presented for coils without and with iron yoke. The effect of yoke saturation and geometric distortions on field quality is studied. Persistent magnetization currents in the superconductor and eddy currents the copper part of the cable are analyzed in detail and their influence on field quality and magnet performance is investigated. Superconductor stability, quench origins and propagation and magnet protection are addressed. Some important concepts of accelerator physics are introduced which are needed to appreciate the demanding requirements ...

  12. Hard superconducting nitrides (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Jia; Struzhkin, Viktor V.; Wu, Zhigang; Somayazulu, Maddury; Qian, Jiang; Kung, Simon; Christensen, Axel Nørlund; Zhao, Yusheng; Cohen, Ronald E.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Hemley, Russell J.


    Detailed study of the equation of state, elasticity, and hardness of selected superconducting transition-metal nitrides reveals interesting correlations among their physical properties. Both the bulk modulus and Vickers hardness are found to decrease with increasing zero-pressure volume in NbN, HfN, and ZrN. The computed elastic constants from first principles satisfy c11 > c12 > c44 for NbN, but c11 > c44 > c12 for HfN and ZrN, which are in good agreement with the neutron scattering data. The cubic δ-NbN superconducting phase possesses a bulk modulus of 348 GPa, comparable to that of cubic boron nitride, and a Vickers hardness of 20 GPa, which is close to sapphire. Theoretical calculations for NbN show that all elastic moduli increase monotonically with increasing pressure. These results suggest technological applications of such materials in extreme environments. PMID:15728352

  13. Superconductivity an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kleiner, Reinhold


    The third edition of this proven text has been developed further in both scope and scale to reflect the potential for superconductivity in power engineering to increase efficiency in electricity transmission or engines. The landmark reference remains a comprehensive introduction to the field, covering every aspect from fundamentals to applications, and presenting the latest developments in organic superconductors, superconducting interfaces, quantum coherence, and applications in medicine and industry. Due to its precise language and numerous explanatory illustrations, it is suitable as an introductory textbook, with the level rising smoothly from chapter to chapter, such that readers can build on their newly acquired knowledge. The authors cover basic properties of superconductors and discuss stability and different material groups with reference to the latest and most promising applications, devoting the last third of the book to applications in power engineering, medicine, and low temperature physics. An e...

  14. How to make graphene superconducting


    Profeta, Gianni; Calandra, Matteo; Mauri, Francesco


    Graphene is the physical realization of many fundamental concepts and phenomena in solid state-physics, but in the long list of graphene remarkable properties, a fundamental block is missing: superconductivity. Making graphene superconducting is relevant as the easy manipulation of this material by nanolytographic techniques paves the way to nanosquids, one-electron superconductor-quantum dot devices, superconducting transistors at the nano-scale and cryogenic solid-state coolers. Here we exp...

  15. Superconducting metamaterials and qubits


    Plourde, B. L. T.; Wang, Haozhi; Rouxinol, Francisco; LaHaye, M. D.


    Superconducting thin-film metamaterial resonators can provide a dense microwave mode spectrum with potential applications in quantum information science. We report on the fabrication and low-temperature measurement of metamaterial transmission-line resonators patterned from Al thin films. We also describe multiple approaches for numerical simulations of the microwave properties of these structures, along with comparisons with the measured transmission spectra. The ability to predict the mode ...

  16. Unconventional superconductivity near inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenicke, A.F.


    After the presentation of a quasi-classical theory the specific heat of Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} is considered. Then tunneling spectroscopy on cuprate superconductors is discussed. Thereafter the subharmonic gap structure in d-wave superconductors is considered. Finally the application of the S-matrix in superconductivity is discussed with spin mixing, CrO{sub 2} as example, and an interface model. (HSI)

  17. Silicon drift detectors with the drift field induced by pureB-coated trenches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanver, Lis Karen; Kneževi´c, Tihomir; Suligoj, Tomislav


    Junction formation in deep trenches is proposed as a new means of creating a built-in drift field in silicon drift detectors (SDDs). The potential performance of this trenched drift detector (TDD) was investigated analytically and through simulations, and compared to simulations of conventional

  18. The Genetic Drift Inventory: A Tool for Measuring What Advanced Undergraduates Have Mastered about Genetic Drift (United States)

    Price, Rebecca M.; Andrews, Tessa C.; McElhinny, Teresa L.; Mead, Louise S.; Abraham, Joel K.; Thanukos, Anna; Perez, Kathryn E.


    Understanding genetic drift is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of biology, yet it is difficult to learn because it combines the conceptual challenges of both evolution and randomness. To help assess strategies for teaching genetic drift, we have developed and evaluated the Genetic Drift Inventory (GeDI), a concept inventory that measures…

  19. Autoresonant control of drift waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shagalov, A.G.; Rasmussen, Jens Juul; Naulin, Volker


    The control of nonlinear drift waves in a magnetized plasmas column has been investigated. The studies are based on the Hasegawa–Mima model, which is solved on a disk domain with radial inhomogeneity of the plasma density. The system is forced by a rotating potential with varying frequency defined...... on the boundary. To excite and control the waves we apply the autoresonant effect, taking place when the amplitude of the forcing exceeds a threshold value and the waves are phase-locked with the forcing. We demonstrate that the autoresonant approach is applicable for excitation of a range of steady nonlinear...... waves of the lowest azimuthal mode numbers and for controlling their amplitudes and phases. We also demonstrate the excitation of zonal flows (m = 0 modes), which are controlled via the forced modes....

  20. Superconducting magnetic energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Schermer, R.I.


    Long-time varying-daily, weekly, and seasonal-power demands require the electric utility industry to have installed generating capacity in excess of the average load. Energy storage can reduce the requirement for less efficient excess generating capacity used to meet peak load demands. Short-time fluctuations in electric power can occur as negatively damped oscillations in complex power systems with generators connected by long transmission lines. Superconducting inductors with their associated converter systems are under development for both load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is based upon the phenomenon of the nearly lossless behavior of superconductors. Application is, in principal, efficient since the electromagnetic energy can be transferred to and from the storage coils without any intermediate conversion to other energy forms. Results from a reference design for a 10-GWh SMES unit for load leveling are presented. The conceptual engineering design of a 30-MJ, 10-MW energy storage coil is discussed with regard to system stabilization, and tests of a small scale, 100-KJ SMES system are presented. Some results of experiments are provided from a related technology based program which uses superconducting inductive energy storage to drive fusion plasmas.

  1. Superconducting linacs: some recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, L.M.


    The paper is a review of superconducting linacs that are of interest for heavy-ion acceleration. Most of the paper is concerned with energy boosters for projectiles from tandem electrostatic accelerators, the only application for which superconducting linacs are now used for heavy-ion acceleration. There is also a brief discussion of the concept of a superconducting injector linac being developed as a replacement of the tandem in a multi-stage acceleration system. Throughout, the emphasis is on the technology of the superconducting linac, including some attention to the relationships between resonator design parameters and accelerator performance characteristics. 21 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Topological Superconductivity in Dirac Semimetals. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shingo; Sato, Masatoshi


    Dirac semimetals host bulk band-touching Dirac points and a surface Fermi loop. We develop a theory of superconducting Dirac semimetals. Establishing a relation between the Dirac points and the surface Fermi loop, we clarify how the nontrivial topology of Dirac semimetals affects their superconducting state. We note that the unique orbital texture of Dirac points and a structural phase transition of the crystal favor symmetry-protected topological superconductivity with a quartet of surface Majorana fermions. We suggest the possible application of our theory to recently discovered superconducting states in Cd_{3}As_{2}.

  3. Unconventional superconductivity in honeycomb lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sahebsara


    Full Text Available   ‎ The possibility of symmetrical s-wave superconductivity in the honeycomb lattice is studied within a strongly correlated regime, using the Hubbard model. The superconducting order parameter is defined by introducing the Green function, which is obtained by calculating the density of the electrons ‎ . In this study showed that the superconducting order parameter appears in doping interval between 0 and 0.5, and x=0.25 is the optimum doping for the s-wave superconductivity in honeycomb lattice.

  4. Iceberg drift modelling in the Barents Sea (United States)

    Panasenkova, Irina; Gusev, Anatoly; Fomin, Vladimir; Diansky, Nikolay; Korshenko, Evgeniya; Marchenko, Aleksey


    Iceberg drift model is developed in the N.N.Zubov State Oceanographic Institute (SOI) of the Roshydromet. The model is forced by atmospheric reanalysis data from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and by ocean and sea ice data from the Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model (INMOM). The iceberg drift model is validated using observations of iceberg drift trajectory obtained during the annual expedition of RV Lance in the beginning of May 2009 in the Barents Sea. Field data collected in this expedition are also used for the modelling of iceberg drift. Verification tests with hindcast data from selected atmospheric and oceanic models and data from field studies were carried out to compare model predictions with field observations. Two different approaches are used to simulate iceberg drift. The first approach is a variation of wind and water drag coefficients in order to simulate the observed iceberg drift trajectory. High uncertainties in environmental driving forces and in iceberg shape and mass resulted in using ensemble forecast technique, which is the second approach to simulate the iceberg trajectory. The presented iceberg drift model shows a good capability of reproducing the observed iceberg drift.

  5. Particle drift, diffusion, and acceleration at shocks (United States)

    Jokipii, J. R.


    The gradient and curvature drifts implicit in change of the ambient magnetic field at a hydromagnetic shock wave are incorporated into the diffusive theory of shock acceleration of charged particles. The conventional jump condition at the shock is modified by a term incorporating the large drift along the shock plane. This term vanished identically for one-dimensional systems, but must be included in general for shocks which are finite in transverse extent or which have transverse structure. It is found that the effect of the drift is such that the transverse drift rate is proportional to the acceleration rate, and for perpendicular shocks is exactly equal to the rate of change of energy in the V x B electric field observed in the shock frame. This establishes a connection with the 'shock drift' models which neglect diffusion.

  6. Dissipative drift instability in dusty plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilakshi Das


    Full Text Available An investigation has been done on the very low-frequency electrostatic drift waves in a collisional dusty plasma. The dust density gradient is taken perpendicular to the magnetic field B0⃗, which causes the drift wave. In this case, low-frequency drift instabilities can be driven by E1⃗×B0⃗ and diamagnetic drifts, where E1⃗ is the perturbed electric field. Dust charge fluctuation is also taken into consideration for our study. The dust- neutral and ion-neutral collision terms have been included in equations of motion. It is seen that the low-frequency drift instability gets damped in such a system. Both dust charging and collision of plasma particles with the neutrals may be responsible for the damping of the wave. Both analytical and numerical techniques have been used while developing the theory.

  7. Optimization of superconducting tiling pattern for superconducting bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL)


    An apparatus and method for reducing magnetic field inhomogeneities which produce rotational loss mechanisms in high temperature superconducting magnetic bearings. Magnetic field inhomogeneities are reduced by dividing high temperature superconducting structures into smaller structures, and arranging the smaller structures into tiers which stagger the magnetic field maximum locations of the smaller structures.

  8. Drift velocity and pressure monitoring of the CMS muon drift chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnenschein, Lars


    The drift velocity in drift tubes of the CMS muon chambers is a key parameter for the muon track reconstruction and trigger. It needs to be monitored precisely in order to detect any deviation from its nominal value. A change in absolute pressure, a variation of the gas admixture or a contamination of the chamber gas by air affect the drift velocity. Furthermore, the temperature and magnetic field influence its value. First data, taken with a dedicated Velocity Drift Chamber (VDC) built by RWTH Aachen IIIA are presented. Another important parameter to be monitored is the pressure inside the muon drift tube chambers. The differential pressure must not exceed a certain value and the absolute pressure has to be kept slightly above ambient pressure to prevent air from entering into the muon drift tube chambers in case of a leak. Latest drift velocity monitoring results are discussed.

  9. Drift velocity and pressure monitoring of the CMS muon drift chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnenschein, Lars


    The drift velocity in drift tubes of the CMS muon chambers is a key parameter for the muon track reconstruction and trigger. It needs to be monitored precisely in order to detect any deviation from its nominal value. A change in absolute pressure, a variation of the gas admixture or a contamination of the chamber gas by air affect the drift velocity. Furthermore, the temperature and magnetic field influence its value. First data, taken with a dedicated Velocity Drift Chamber (VDC) built by RWTH Aachen IIIA are presented. Another important parameter to be monitored is the pressure inside the muon drift tube chambers because the drift velocity depends on it. Furthermore the differential pressure must not exceed a certain value and the absolute pressure has to be kept slightly above ambient pressure to prevent air from entering into the muon drift tube chambers in case of a leak. Latest pressure monitoring results are discussed.

  10. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, A.B.


    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found onthe applications of superconducting bearings...

  11. The Danish Superconducting Cable Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole


    The design and construction of a superconducting cable is described. The cable has a room temperature dielectric design with the cryostat placed inside the electrical insulation.BSCCO 2223 superconducting tapes wound in helix form around a former are used as the cable conductor. Results from...

  12. Superconductivity in a chiral nanotube (United States)

    Qin, F.; Shi, W.; Ideue, T.; Yoshida, M.; Zak, A.; Tenne, R.; Kikitsu, T.; Inoue, D.; Hashizume, D.; Iwasa, Y.


    Chirality of materials are known to affect optical, magnetic and electric properties, causing a variety of nontrivial phenomena such as circular dichiroism for chiral molecules, magnetic Skyrmions in chiral magnets and nonreciprocal carrier transport in chiral conductors. On the other hand, effect of chirality on superconducting transport has not been known. Here we report the nonreciprocity of superconductivity--unambiguous evidence of superconductivity reflecting chiral structure in which the forward and backward supercurrent flows are not equivalent because of inversion symmetry breaking. Such superconductivity is realized via ionic gating in individual chiral nanotubes of tungsten disulfide. The nonreciprocal signal is significantly enhanced in the superconducting state, being associated with unprecedented quantum Little-Parks oscillations originating from the interference of supercurrent along the circumference of the nanotube. The present results indicate that the nonreciprocity is a viable approach toward the superconductors with chiral or noncentrosymmetric structures.

  13. Experimental studies of herbicide drift characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.S.; Wolf, M.A.


    A knowledge of the drift characteristics of herbicides and pesticides released from ground and aerial rigs is important in forestry and agricultural applications so that methods for minimizing damage to downwind systems sensitive to these chamicals can be developed. A field experiment was undertaken on the Hanford Reservation in eastern Washington State during 1975 to study techniques for maximizing herbicide applications from a spray airplane on the intended area and minimizing drift. Several early morning experiments comparing drift characteristics of a fixed with a test application for various nozzle systems and herbicide concentrations were made. The results of these experiments have shown that the initial drift and drift deposit components varied by only a factor of two or so, depending on the production of smaller droplets, as various techniques were used to put the herbicides down from the aircraft. Meteorological conditions become increasingly important at greater downwind distances from the source. Furthermore, drift reduction was most effective under conditions of high relative humidities and cool temperatures. At large distances from the source, ground level drift was higher on stable than on unstable days. Comments on methods for improving the experimental design, and applications of studies such as these to forestry will be made.

  14. Slot-finger superconducting structure with rf focusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Senichev


    Full Text Available The linear accelerator based on a superconducting structure with a high accelerating gradient accordingly has a strong rf defocusing factor. Usually, a quadrupole or solenoid focusing system is used in such accelerators. Both of these systems complicate the linear accelerator. The quadrupoles are located outside the cavity and a transition between the cold and the warm systems is required. Therefore an additional drift space between cryostats is needed, which can cause parametric resonance in the longitudinal plane in the energy range of (3–20  MeV. In the system with the solenoid the high magnetic field can affect the superconductivity. We consider the novel superconducting H resonator based on the TE211 mode with a slot and rf finger, providing the high-intensity beam focusing in the large range of low energy of (3–50  MeV. Above 50 MeV we suggest using the slot structure with the external quadrupoles.

  15. Superconducting notch filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, C S; Falco, C M; Kampwirth, R T; Schuller, I K; Hudak, J J; Anastasio, T A


    Results of a preliminary investigation of a superconducting notch filter for possible application in the 2 to 30 MHz high frequency (HF) communication band are presented. The circuit was successfully implemented using planar geometry so that closed cycle refrigeration could be used to cool circuits fabricated from high T/sub c/ Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge thin films. In the present design, circuit Q's of about 2 x 10/sup 3/ were obtained with 50-ohm source and output impedance. (TFD)

  16. Superconductivity in nanowires

    CERN Document Server

    Bezryadin, Alexey


    The importance and actuality of nanotechnology is unabated and will be for years to come. A main challenge is to understand the various properties of certain nanostructures, and how to generate structures with specific properties for use in actual applications in Electrical Engineering and Medicine.One of the most important structures are nanowires, in particular superconducting ones. They are highly promising for future electronics, transporting current without resistance and at scales of a few nanometers. To fabricate wires to certain defined standards however, is a major challenge, and so i

  17. 100 years of superconductivity

    CERN Multimedia

    Globe Info


    Public lecture by Philippe Lebrun, who works at CERN on applications of superconductivity and cryogenics for particle accelerators. He was head of CERN’s Accelerator Technology Department during the LHC construction period. Centre culturel Jean Monnet, route de Gex Tuesday 11 October from 8.30 p.m. to 10.00 p.m. » Suitable for all – Admission free - Lecture in French » Number of places limited For further information: +33 (0)4 50 42 29 37

  18. Superconducting gravimeter. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodkind, J.M.


    The superconducting gravimeter was developed and applied to field measurements. The stability of the instrument yielded the highest precision measurements of the Earth tides ever attained. It revealed unprecedented details about the effect of the atmosphere on gravity. Secular variations in gravity and the stability of the instruments were measured by comparing records from co-located instruments. These efforts have resulted in substantial reductions in the noise level at very low frequencies so that the peak differences between two instruments at the same location can be reduced to 0.1 micron gal.

  19. Superconductivity under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, K.; Shimizu, K.; Takeda, K.; Tateiwa, N.; Muramatsu, T.; Ishizuka, M.; Kobayashi, T.C


    In part 1, we review techniques developed in our laboratory for producing the complex extreme condition of very low temperature and ultra-high pressure and those for measuring electrical resistance and magnetization of the sample confined in the extremely small space of the used pressure cell. In part 2, we review our experimental results in search for pressure-induced superconductivity, which have been obtained by the use of developed techniques. Typical examples are shown in the case of simple inorganic and organic molecular crystals, ionic crystals, and magnetic metals.

  20. Introduction to superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rose-Innes, A C


    Introduction to Superconductivity differs from the first edition chiefly in Chapter 11, which has been almost completely rewritten to give a more physically-based picture of the effects arising from the long-range coherence of the electron-waves in superconductors and the operation of quantum interference devices. In this revised second edition, some further modifications have been made to the text and an extra chapter dealing with """"high-temperature"""" superconductors has been added. A vast amount of research has been carried out on these since their discovery in 1986 but the results, both

  1. Heuristic Drift Elimination for Personnel Tracking Systems (United States)

    Borenstein, Johann; Ojeda, Lauro

    This paper pertains to the reduction of the effects of measurement errors in rate gyros used for tracking, recording, or monitoring the position of persons walking indoors. In such applications, bias drift and other gyro errors can degrade accuracy within minutes. To overcome this problem we developed the Heuristic Drift Elimination (HDE) method, that effectively corrects bias drift and other slow-changing errors. HDE works by making assumptions about walking in structured, indoor environments. The paper explains the heuristic assumptions and the HDE method, and shows experimental results. In typical applications, HDE maintains near-zero heading errors in walks of unlimited duration.

  2. Chiral magnetic superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharzeev Dmitri E.


    Full Text Available Materials with charged chiral quasiparticles in external parallel electric and magnetic fields can support an electric current that grows linearly in time, corresponding to diverging DC conductivity. From experimental viewpoint, this “Chiral Magnetic Superconductivity” (CMS is thus analogous to conventional superconductivity. However the underlying physics is entirely different – the CMS does not require a condensate of Cooper pairs breaking the gauge degeneracy, and is thus not accompanied by Meissner effect. Instead, it owes its existence to the (temperature-independent quantum chiral anomaly and the conservation of chirality. As a result, this phenomenon can be expected to survive to much higher temperatures. Even though the chirality of quasiparticles is not strictly conserved in real materials, the chiral magnetic superconductivity should still exhibit itself in AC measurements at frequencies larger than the chirality-flipping rate, and in microstructures of Dirac and Weyl semimetals with thickness below the mean chirality-flipping length that is about 1 – 100 μm. In nuclear physics, the CMS should contribute to the charge-dependent elliptic flow in heavy ion collisions.

  3. Overview on superconducting photoinjectors

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, A


    The success of most of the proposed energy recovery linac (ERL) based electron accelerator projects for future storage ring replacements (SRR) and high power IR–free-electron lasers (FELs) largely depends on the development of an appropriate source. For example, to meet the FEL specifications [J.W. Lewellen, Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5534, 22 (2004)] electron beams with an unprecedented combination of high brightness, low emittance (0.1 µmrad), and high average current (hundreds of mA) are required. An elegant way to create a beam of such quality is to combine the high beam quality of a normal conducting rf photoinjector with the superconducting technology, i.e., to build a superconducting rf photoinjector (SRF gun). SRF gun R&D programs based on different approaches have been launched at a growing number of institutes and companies (AES, Beijing University, BESSY, BNL, DESY, FZD, TJNAF, Niowave, NPS, Wisconsin University). Substantial progress was achieved in recent years and the first long term ...

  4. Overview on superconducting photoinjectors (United States)

    Arnold, A.; Teichert, J.


    The success of most of the proposed energy recovery linac (ERL) based electron accelerator projects for future storage ring replacements (SRR) and high power IR-free-electron lasers (FELs) largely depends on the development of an appropriate source. For example, to meet the FEL specifications [J. W. Lewellen, Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.PSISDG0277-786X 5534, 22 (2004)10.1117/12.557378] electron beams with an unprecedented combination of high brightness, low emittance (0.1μmrad), and high average current (hundreds of mA) are required. An elegant way to create a beam of such quality is to combine the high beam quality of a normal conducting rf photoinjector with the superconducting technology, i.e., to build a superconducting rf photoinjector (SRF gun). SRF gun R&D programs based on different approaches have been launched at a growing number of institutes and companies (AES, Beijing University, BESSY, BNL, DESY, FZD, TJNAF, Niowave, NPS, Wisconsin University). Substantial progress was achieved in recent years and the first long term operation was demonstrated at FZD [R. Xiang , in Proceedings of the 31st International Free Electron Laser Conference (FEL 09), Liverpool, UK (STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, 2009), p. 488]. In the near future SRF guns are expected to play an important role for linac-driven FEL facilities. In this paper we will review the concepts, the design parameters, and the status of the major SRF gun projects.

  5. Superconducting Bolometer Array Architectures (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Chervenak, James A.; Irwin, Kent D.; Moseley, S. H., Jr.; Shafer, Richard A.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Wollack, Ed


    The next generation of far-infrared and submillimeter instruments require large arrays of detectors containing thousands of elements. These arrays will necessarily be multiplexed, and superconducting bolometer arrays are the most promising present prospect for these detectors. We discuss our current research into superconducting bolometer array technologies, which has recently resulted in the first multiplexed detections of submillimeter light and the first multiplexed astronomical observations. Prototype arrays containing 512 pixels are in production using the Pop-Up Detector (PUD) architecture, which can be extended easily to 1000 pixel arrays. Planar arrays of close-packed bolometers are being developed for the GBT and for future space missions. For certain applications, such as a slewed far-infrared sky survey, feedhorn-coupling of a large sparsely-filled array of bolometers is desirable, and is being developed using photolithographic feedhorn arrays. Individual detectors have achieved a Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) of ~10-17 W/√Hz at 300mK, but several orders of magnitude improvement are required and can be reached with existing technology. The testing of such ultralow-background detectors will prove difficult, as this requires optical loading of below 1fW. Antenna-coupled bolometer designs have advantages for large format array designs at low powers due to their mode selectivity. We also present a design and preliminary results for an enhanced-dynamic-range transition edge sensor suitable for broadband ultralow-background detectors.

  6. Additive Manufactured Superconducting Cavities (United States)

    Holland, Eric; Rosen, Yaniv; Woolleet, Nathan; Materise, Nicholas; Voisin, Thomas; Wang, Morris; Mireles, Jorge; Carosi, Gianpaolo; Dubois, Jonathan

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities provide an ultra-low dissipative environment, which has enabled fundamental investigations in quantum mechanics, materials properties, and the search for new particles in and beyond the standard model. However, resonator designs are constrained by limitations in conventional machining techniques. For example, current through a seam is a limiting factor in performance for many waveguide cavities. Development of highly reproducible methods for metallic parts through additive manufacturing, referred to colloquially as 3D printing\\x9D, opens the possibility for novel cavity designs which cannot be implemented through conventional methods. We present preliminary investigations of superconducting cavities made through a selective laser melting process, which compacts a granular powder via a high-power laser according to a digitally defined geometry. Initial work suggests that assuming a loss model and numerically optimizing a geometry to minimize dissipation results in modest improvements in device performance. Furthermore, a subset of titanium alloys, particularly, a titanium, aluminum, vanadium alloy (Ti - 6Al - 4V) exhibits properties indicative of a high kinetic inductance material. This work is supported by LDRD 16-SI-004.

  7. Development of the composite superconducting magnetic bearing for superconducting flywheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaya, S.; Komura, K.; Kashima, N.; Kawashima, H.; Unisuga, S.; Kakiuchi, Y


    Superconducting magnetic bearing for flywheel requires the characteristics such as higher stiffness, lower loss and higher stability. There are two types of superconducting magnetic bearings, one is axial gap type and another is radial gap type and the characteristics of these types are quite different. We think that the supporting system of superconducting flywheel should support the rotor at one position near the center of gravity to minimize the cooling energy loss. We propose that the bearing composed of axial gap type and radial gap type is necessary from the result of this investigation, because the characteristics about both types of bearings should be compensated each other.

  8. Preserving inland drift sands in the Netherlands (United States)

    Riksen, M.; Sparrius, L.; Nijssen, M.; Keestra, S.


    Inland drift sands in the Netherlands are an important landscape type within the Dutch nature. They represent an important pioneer habitat which has become rare in European nature. Under current climate and environmental conditions (i.e. high N-deposition) these inland drift sands tend to be rapid colonialized by vegetation and therefor lose their aeolian activity. To maintain the area bare sand, managers regularly remove the vegetation. Lack of proper knowledge about the geomorphological processes and even more important on the geomorphological structure of these drift sands, could lead to the loss of characteristic dune structure. In an interdisciplinary research project a new management strategy was developed in which the geomorphological processes and structure form the base for the planning process. To improve the awareness of these aspects among nature managers we developed a management tool "PROMME". Several activities were taken to communicate this with the people involved in the management of drift sands like a brochure and field workshops.

  9. Drift and Behavior of E. coli Cells (United States)

    Micali, Gabriele; Colin, Rémy; Sourjik, Victor; Endres, Robert G.


    Chemotaxis of the bacterium Escherichia coli is well understood in shallow chemical gradients, but its swimming behavior remains difficult to interpret in steep gradients. By focusing on single-cell trajectories from simulations, we investigated the dependence of the chemotactic drift velocity on attractant concentration in an exponential gradient. While maxima of the average drift velocity can be interpreted within analytical linear-response theory of chemotaxis in shallow gradients, limits in drift due to steep gradients and finite number of receptor-methylation sites for adaptation go beyond perturbation theory. For instance, we found a surprising pinning of the cells to the concentration in the gradient at which cells run out of methylation sites. To validate the positions of maximal drift, we recorded single-cell trajectories in carefully designed chemical gradients using microfluidics.

  10. Stochastic resonance in dissipative drift motion (United States)

    Oyarzabal, Ricardo S.; Szezech, José D., Jr.; Batista, Antonio M.; Seoane, Jesus M.; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.


    We study a simple model of drift waves that describes the particle transport in magnetised plasmas. In particular, we focus our attention on the effects of noise on a dissipative drift wave model. In the noiseless case, the relationship between the escape time and the damping term obeys a power-law scaling. In this work, we show that peaks in the escape time are enhanced for certain values of the noise intensity, when noise is added in the dissipative drift motion. This enhancement occurs in the situation where stochastic resonance (SR) appears. We also observe that the noise produces significant alterations to the escape time distribution. This way, we expect this work to be useful for a better understanding of drift wave models in the presence of noise, since noise is a natural ingredient in the environment of this kind of physical problems.

  11. Stabilization Strategies for Drift Tube Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2085420; Lamehi Rashti, Mohammad

    The average axial electric fields in drift tube linac cavities are known to be sensitive with respect to the perturbation errors. Postcoupler is a powerful stabilizer devices that is used to reduce this sensitivity of average axial field. Postcouplers are the cylindrical rod which is extended from cavity wall toward the drift tube without touching the drift tube surface. Postcouplers need to be adjusted to the right length to stabilize the average axial field. Although postcouplers are used successfully in many projects, there is no straightforward procedure for postcouplers adjustment and it has been done almost based on trial and errors. In this thesis, the physics and characteristics of postcouplers has been studied by using an equivalent circuit model and 3D finite element method calculations. Finally, a straightforward and accurate method to adjust postcouplers has been concluded. The method has been verified by using experimental measurements on CERN Linac4 drift tube linac cavities.

  12. Meissner effect in superconducting microtraps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, Daniel


    This thesis investigates the impact of the Meissner effect on magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms near superconducting microstructures. This task has been accomplished both theoretically and experimentally. The Meissner effect distorts the magnetic fields near superconducting surfaces, thus altering the parameters of magnetic microtraps. Both computer simulations and experimental measurements demonstrate that the Meissner effect shortens the distance between the magnetic microtrap and the superconducting surface, reduces the magnetic-field gradients and dramatically lowers the trap depth. A novel numerical method for calculating magnetic fields in atom chips with superconducting microstructures has been developed. This numerical method overcomes the geometrical limitations of other calculation techniques and can solve superconducting microstructures of arbitrary geometry. The numerical method has been used to calculate the parameters of magnetic microtraps in computer-simulated chips containing thin-film wires. Simulations were carried out for both the superconducting and the normal-conducting state, and the differences between the two cases were analyzed. Computer simulations have been contrasted with experimental measurements. The experimental apparatus generates a magnetic microtrap for ultracold Rubidium atoms near a superconducting Niobium wire of circular cross section. The design and construction of the apparatus has met the challenge of integrating the techniques for producing atomic quantum gases with the techniques for cooling solid bodies to cryogenic temperatures. By monitoring the position of the atom cloud, one can observe how the Meissner effect influences the magnetic microtrap. (orig.)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Tsang


    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  14. Drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic, M.; Melchior, H.


    A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated.......A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated....

  15. Operational Merits of Maritime Superconductivity (United States)

    Ross, R.; Bosklopper, J. J.; van der Meij, K. H.

    The perspective of superconductivity to transfer currents without loss is very appealing in high power applications. In the maritime sector many machines and systems exist in the roughly 1-100 MW range and the losses are well over 50%, which calls for dramatic efficiency improvements. This paper reports on three studies that aimed at the perspectives of superconductivity in the maritime sector. It is important to realize that the introduction of superconductivity comprises two technology transitions namely firstly electrification i.e. the transition from mechanical drives to electric drives and secondly the transition from normal to superconductive electrical machinery. It is concluded that superconductivity does reduce losses, but its impact on the total energy chain is of little significance compared to the investments and the risk of introducing a very promising but as yet not proven technology in the harsh maritime environment. The main reason of the little impact is that the largest losses are imposed on the system by the fossil fueled generators as prime movers that generate the electricity through mechanical torque. Unless electric power is supplied by an efficient and reliable technology that does not involve mechanical torque with the present losses both normal as well as superconductive electrification of the propulsion will hardly improve energy efficiency or may even reduce it. One exception may be the application of degaussing coils. Still appealing merits of superconductivity do exist, but they are rather related to the behavior of superconductive machines and strong magnetic fields and consequently reduction in volume and mass of machinery or (sometimes radically) better performance. The merits are rather convenience, design flexibility as well as novel applications and capabilities which together yield more adequate systems. These may yield lower operational costs in the long run, but at present the added value of superconductivity rather seems more

  16. Beam test results of a drift velocity monitoring system for silicon drift detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Nouais, D; Bonvicini, V; Cerello, P; Giubellino, P; Hernández-Montoya, R; Kolojvari, A; Mazza, G; Nissinen, J; Rashevsky, A; Rivetti, A; Tosello, F; Vacchi, A


    We report results on drift velocity monitoring using MOS charge injectors in silicon drift detectors obtained in beam test conditions. The correction of velocity variations as small as 0.03% caused by temperature variations of the order of 0.04 K allowed to get an average space resolution along all the drift path of 28 mu m. Preliminary result demonstrating the possibility to correct for temperature gradients along the anode axis are also presented.

  17. Suppressing drift chamber diffusion without magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Martoff, C J; Ohnuki, T; Spooner, N J C; Lehner, M


    The spatial resolution in drift chamber detectors for ionizing radiation is limited by diffusion of the primary electrons. A strong magnetic field along the drift direction is often applied (Fancher et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 161 (1979) 383) because it suppresses the transverse diffusion, improving the resolution but at considerable increase in cost and complexity. Here we show that transverse track diffusion can be strongly suppressed without any magnetic field. This is achieved by using a gas additive which reversibly captures primary ionization electrons, forming negative ions. The ions drift with thermal energies even at very high drift fields and low pressures (E/P=28.5 V/cm torr), and the diffusion decreases with increasing drift field. Upon arrival at the avalanche region of the chamber the negative ions are efficiently stripped and ordinary avalanche gain is obtained. Using this technique, r.m.s. transverse diffusion less than 200 mu m has been achieved over a 15 cm drift path at 40 torr with ze...

  18. Calibration of the CMS Drift Tube Chambers and Measurement of the Drift Velocity with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; 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D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A


    This paper describes the calibration procedure for the drift tubes of the CMS barrel muon system and reports the main results obtained with data collected during a high statistics cosmic ray data-taking period. The main goal of the calibration is to determine, for each drift cell, the minimum time delay for signals relative to the trigger, accounting for the drift velocity within the cell. The accuracy of the calibration procedure is influenced by the random arrival time of cosmic muons. A more refined analysis of the drift velocity was performed during the offline reconstruction phase, which takes into account this feature of cosmic ray events.

  19. Signatures of topological superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yang


    The prediction and experimental discovery of topological insulators brought the importance of topology in condensed matter physics into the limelight. Topology hence acts as a new dimension along which more and more new states of matter start to emerge. One of these topological states of matter, namely topological superconductors, comes into the focus because of their gapless excitations. These gapless excitations, especially in one dimensional topological superconductors, are Majorana zero modes localized at the ends of the superconductor and exhibit exotic nonabelian statistics, which can be potentially applied to fault-tolerant quantum computation. Given their highly interesting physical properties and potential applications to quantum computation, both theorists and experimentalists spend great efforts to realize topological supercondoctors and to detect Majoranas. In two projects within this thesis, we investigate the properties of Majorana zero modes in realistic materials which are absent in simple theoretical models. We find that the superconducting proximity effect, an essential ingredient in all existing platforms for topological superconductors, plays a significant role in determining the localization property of the Majoranas. Strong proximity coupling between the normal system and the superconducting substrate can lead to strongly localized Majoranas, which can explain the observation in a recent experiment. Motivated by experiments in Molenkamp's group, we also look at realistic quantum spin Hall Josephson junctions, in which charge puddles acting as magnetic impurities are coupled to the helical edge states. We find that with this setup, the junction generically realizes an exotic 8π periodic Josephson effect, which is absent in a pristine Josephson junction. In another two projects, we propose more pronounced signatures of Majoranas that are accessible with current experimental techniques. The first one is a transport measurement, which uses

  20. Superconductivity papers database

    CERN Document Server

    International Superconductivity Technology Center. Tokyo

    This database covers mostly the articles on superconductivity appeared after the advent (1987) of the high Tc in 20 - 50 scientific journals including review papers. In the field of organic conductors, literatures are traced back to the era of TTF-TC 1970s). It contains 1)High Tc, 2) C60 related, 3) Organic Conductors, 4) Non-Oxide Superconductors including the conventional superconductors, 5) Oxide Conductors, and 6) Theory (new field since September 1997). Total number of articles at present amounts to 39,000 (December, 1998). Although the proceedings are out of the list in principle, necessary and important papers by the organizer's view are collected even from the proceedings, since some important proceedings.

  1. The LHC superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Boussard, Daniel; Häbel, E; Kindermann, H P; Losito, R; Marque, S; Rödel, V; Stirbet, M


    The LHC RF system, which must handle high intensity (0.5 A d.c.) beams, makes use of superconducting single-cell cavities, best suited to minimizing the effects of periodic transient beam loading. There will be eight cavities per beam, each capable of delivering 2 MV (5 MV/m accelerating field) at 400 MHz. The cavities themselves are now being manufactured by industry, using niobium-on-copper technology which gives full satisfaction at LEP. A cavity unit includes a helium tank (4.5 K operating temperature) built around a cavity cell, RF and HOM couplers and a mechanical tuner, all housed in a modular cryostat. Four-unit modules are ultimately foreseen for the LHC (two per beam), while at present a prototype version with two complete units is being extensively tested. In addition to a detailed description of the cavity and its ancillary equipment, the first test results of the prototype will be reported.

  2. Superconducting pulsed magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Lecture 1. Introduction to Superconducting Materials Type 1,2 and high temperature superconductors; their critical temperature, field & current density. Persistent screening currents and the critical state model. Lecture 2. Magnetization and AC Loss How screening currents cause irreversible magnetization and hysteresis loops. Field errors caused by screening currents. Flux jumping. The general formulation of ac loss in terms of magnetization. AC losses caused by screening currents. Lecture 3. Twisted Wires and Cables Filamentary composite wires and the losses caused by coupling currents between filaments, the need for twisting. Why we need cables and how the coupling currents in cables contribute more ac loss. Field errors caused by coupling currents. Lecture 4. AC Losses in Magnets, Cooling and Measurement Summary of all loss mechanisms and calculation of total losses in the magnet. The need for cooling to minimize temperature rise in a magnet. Measuring ac losses in wires and in magnets. Lecture 5. Stab...

  3. Superconducting Hadron Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Ostroumov, Peter


    This article discusses the main building blocks of a superconducting (SC) linac, the choice of SC resonators, their frequencies, accelerating gradients and apertures, focusing structures, practical aspects of cryomodule design, and concepts to minimize the heat load into the cryogenic system. It starts with an overview of design concepts for all types of hadron linacs differentiated by duty cycle (pulsed or continuous wave) or by the type of ion species (protons, H-, and ions) being accelerated. Design concepts are detailed for SC linacs in application to both light ion (proton, deuteron) and heavy ion linacs. The physics design of SC linacs, including transverse and longitudinal lattice designs, matching between different accelerating–focusing lattices, and transition from NC to SC sections, is detailed. Design of high-intensity SC linacs for light ions, methods for the reduction of beam losses, preventing beam halo formation, and the effect of HOMs and errors on beam quality are discussed. Examples are ta...

  4. Superconducting energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, R.F.


    This report describes the status of energy storage involving superconductors and assesses what impact the recently discovered ceramic superconductors may have on the design of these devices. Our description is intended for R&D managers in government, electric utilities, firms, and national laboratories who wish an overview of what has been done and what remains to be done. It is assumed that the reader is acquainted with superconductivity, but not an expert on the topics discussed here. Indeed, it is the author`s aim to enable the reader to better understand the experts who may ask for the reader`s attention, support, or funding. This report may also inform scientists and engineers who, though expert in related areas, wish to have an introduction to our topic.

  5. Overview on superconducting photoinjectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arnold


    Full Text Available The success of most of the proposed energy recovery linac (ERL based electron accelerator projects for future storage ring replacements (SRR and high power IR–free-electron lasers (FELs largely depends on the development of an appropriate source. For example, to meet the FEL specifications [J. W. Lewellen, Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5534, 22 (2004PSISDG0277-786X10.1117/12.557378] electron beams with an unprecedented combination of high brightness, low emittance (0.1  μmrad, and high average current (hundreds of mA are required. An elegant way to create a beam of such quality is to combine the high beam quality of a normal conducting rf photoinjector with the superconducting technology, i.e., to build a superconducting rf photoinjector (SRF gun. SRF gun R&D programs based on different approaches have been launched at a growing number of institutes and companies (AES, Beijing University, BESSY, BNL, DESY, FZD, TJNAF, Niowave, NPS, Wisconsin University. Substantial progress was achieved in recent years and the first long term operation was demonstrated at FZD [R. Xiang et al., in Proceedings of the 31st International Free Electron Laser Conference (FEL 09, Liverpool, UK (STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, 2009, p. 488]. In the near future SRF guns are expected to play an important role for linac-driven FEL facilities. In this paper we will review the concepts, the design parameters, and the status of the major SRF gun projects.

  6. Commissioning of the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Daniela; Abbott, Steve R.; Dwinell, Roger D.; Leitner, Matthaeus; Taylor, Clyde; Lyneis, Claude M.


    VENUS (Versatile ECR ion source for NUclear Science) is a next generation superconducting ECR ion source, designed to produce high current, high charge state ions for the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. VENUS also serves as the prototype ion source for the RIA (Rare Isotope Accelerator) front end. The magnetic confinement configuration consists of three superconducting axial coils and six superconducting radial coils in a sextupole configuration. The nominal design fields of the axial magnets are 4T at injection and 3T at extraction; the nominal radial design field strength at the plasma chamber wall is 2T, making VENUS the world most powerful ECR plasma confinement structure. The magnetic field strength has been designed for optimum operation at 28 GHz. The four-year VENUS project has recently achieved two major milestones: The first plasma was ignited in June, the first mass-analyzed high charge state ion beam was extracted in September of 2002. The pa per describes the ongoing commissioning. Initial results including first emittance measurements are presented.

  7. Superconducting Aero Propulsion Motor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Superconducting electric propulsion systems will yield improvements in total ownership costs due to the simplicity of electric drive when compared with gas turbine...

  8. Recent advances in fullerene superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Margadonna, S


    Superconducting transition temperatures in bulk chemically intercalated fulleride salts reach 33 K at ambient pressure and in hole-doped C sub 6 sub 0 derivatives in field-effect-transistor (FET) configurations, they reach 117 K. These advances pose important challenges for our understanding of high-temperature superconductivity in these highly correlated organic metals. Here we review the structures and properties of intercalated fullerides, paying particular attention to the correlation between superconductivity and interfullerene separation, orientational order/disorder, valence state, orbital degeneracy, low-symmetry distortions, and metal-C sub 6 sub 0 interactions. The metal-insulator transition at large interfullerene separations is discussed in detail. An overview is also given of the exploding field of gate-induced superconductivity of fullerenes in FET electronic devices.

  9. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Mulcahy, Thomas M.


    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure.

  10. The central question in superconductivity (United States)

    Hirsch, J. E.

    I will argue that the most basic and fundamental question in superconductivity is: when a superconductor in a magnetic field goes normal, how does the supercurrent stop? The supercurrent has to stop before the material becomes resistive because the transition is reversible in an ideal situation, with no Joule heat dissipated. I will argue that the conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity cannot answer this question. I will propose an answer to this question that requires that there is flow and counterflow of charge across the normal-superconductor phase boundary, and requires that the normal state current carriers have hole-like character. The conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity does not have these physical elements, the theory of hole superconductivity does.

  11. Superconductivity in all its states

    CERN Multimedia

    Globe Info


    Temporary exhibition at the Saint-Genis-Pouilly Tourist Office. For the 100th anniversary of its discovery, take a plunge into the amazing world of superconductivity. Some materials, when cooled down to extreme temperatures, acquire a remarkable property -  they become superconducting. Superconductivity is a rare example of a quantum effect that can be witnessed on the macroscopic scale and is today at the heart of much research. In laboratories, researchers try to gain a better understanding of its origins, study new superconducting materials, explore the phenomenon at the nanometric scale and pursue their indefatigable search for new applications. Monday to Friday: 09:00 a.m. to 12:00 and 2:30 p.m. to 6:30 p.m. Saturday: 10:00 a.m. to 12:00 noon » Open to all – Admission free For further information: +33 (0)4 50 42 29 37

  12. Positron annihilation in superconductive metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekhtjar, I.J.


    A correlation is shown between the parameters of superconductive metals and those of positron annihilation. Particular attention is paid to the density states obtained from the electron specific heat.

  13. Ballistic superconductivity in semiconductor nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; Gül, Ö.; Conesa-Boj, S.; Nowak, M.P.; Wimmer, M.; Zuo, K.; Mourik, V.; Vries, F.K. de; Veen, J. van; Moor, M.W.A. de; Bommer, J.D.S.; Woerkom, D.J. van; Car, D.; Plissard, S.R.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Quintero Pérez, M.; Cassidy, M.C.; Koelling, S.; Goswami, S.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.


    Semiconductor nanowires have opened new research avenues in quantum transport owing to their confined geometry and electrostatic tunability. They have offered an exceptional testbed for superconductivity, leading to the realization of hybrid systems combining the macroscopic quantum properties of

  14. International Conference on Organic Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Little, William A; Organic superconductivity


    This book contains papers presented at the International Conference on Organic Superconductivity which was held May 20-24, 1990, at the Stanford Sierra Conference Center, South Lake Tahoe, California. In the twenty years since the First Conference on Organic Superconductivity was held (Hawaii, 1969), there has been remarkable progress in the field. At present, development is accelerating with contributions from many groups in many countries worldwide. The discovery of high Tc superconductivity by G. Bednorz and K. Muller in 1986 and subsequent developments in the ceramic superconductors have had an enormous impact on the field of superconductivity as a whole. This discovery occurred in an area entirely different from that of conventional superconduc­ tivity, underscoring the importance of the search for and study of novel materials of all kinds. We believe that the organics, with their wide range of structural, chemical, and physical properties, belong in this category of novel materials. This book r...

  15. Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) facility will be based on upgrades to the existing NML pulsed SRF facility. ASTA is envisioned to contain 3 to 6...

  16. Superconductivity in Layered Organic Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Wosnitza


    Full Text Available In this short review, I will give an overview on the current understanding of the superconductivity in quasi-two-dimensional organic metals. Thereby, I will focus on charge-transfer salts based on bis(ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF or ET for short. In these materials, strong electronic correlations are clearly evident, resulting in unique phase diagrams. The layered crystallographic structure leads to highly anisotropic electronic as well as superconducting properties. The corresponding very high orbital critical field for in-plane magnetic-field alignment allows for the occurrence of the Fulde–Ferrell– Larkin–Ovchinnikov state as evidenced by thermodynamic measurements. The experimental picture on the nature of the superconducting state is still controversial with evidence both for unconventional as well as for BCS-like superconductivity.

  17. Superconducting Vortex with Antiferromagnetic Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arovas, D.P. [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Berlinsky, A.J.; Kallin, C.; Zhang, S. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)


    We show that a superconducting vortex in underdoped high T{sub c} superconductors could have an antiferromagnetic core. This type of vortex configuration arises as a topological solution in the recently constructed SO(5) nonlinear {sigma} model and in Landau-Ginzburg theory with competing antiferromagnetic and superconducting order parameters. Experimental detection of this type of vortex by muon spin resonance and neutron scattering is proposed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Superconductivity in domains with corners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnaillie-Noel, Virginie; Fournais, Søren


    We study the two-dimensional Ginzburg-Landau functional in a domain with corners for exterior magnetic field strengths near the critical field where the transition from the superconducting to the normal state occurs. We discuss and clarify the definition of this field and obtain a complete...... asymptotic expansion for it in the large $\\kappa$ regime. Furthermore, we discuss nucleation of superconductivity at the boundary....

  19. Electron drift velocities in fast Argon and CF4 based drift gases

    CERN Document Server

    van Apeldoorn, G


    98-063 Electron drift velocities in gas mixtures were measured in a tabletop experiment using a nitrogen laser to create the primary electrons. The maximum drift times for electrons in a 5 mm (10 mm) honeycomb drift cell at 2200 V anode voltage were 28 ns (53 ns) and 21 ns (61 ns) for Ar-Cf4-CH4 (75/18/6) and Ar-CF4-CO2 (68/27/5), respectively. Changing the ratio of the latter mix did not change the drift velocity very much. The gains of the gases are ~10^4 for a single primary electron. CF4 causes electron attachment. The measured drift times agree well with GARFIELD simulations.

  20. Community Air Monitoring for Pesticide Drift Using Pesticide Action Network's (PAN) Drift Catcher (United States)

    Marquez, E.


    Community air monitoring projects for pesticides in the air have been conducted by PAN in collaboration with community members and locally based groups engaged around pesticide issues. PAN is part of an international network working to promote a just, thriving food system and replace the use of hazardous pesticides with ecologically sound alternatives. The Drift Catcher is an air-monitoring device with a design based on the California Air Resource Board's air monitoring equipment, and has been used in community-based projects in 11 states. Observations of pesticide drift made by community members cannot always be confirmed by regulatory agencies—if an inspection is made hours or days after a drift incident, the evidence may no longer be present. The Drift Catcher makes it possible to collect scientific evidence of pesticide drift in areas where people live, work, and play. One of the most recent Drift Catcher projects was done in California, in partnership with the Safe Strawberry Coalition and led by the statewide coalition Californians for Pesticide Reform. The data were used to support a call for stronger mitigation rules for the fumigant chloropicrin and to support a campaign asking for stronger pesticide rules to protect children attending school in close proximity to agricultural fields. The Drift Catcher data are used by organizers and community members to engage policymakers with the intention of making policy change on a local and/or statewide level. On the national level, PAN's Drift Catcher data has helped win regulatory recognition of volatilization drift for pesticides other than fumigants. Lessons learned from conducting community-based research projects will also be discussed. PAN is also currently assessing other community-based monitoring tools, such as community surveys and drift questionnaires that may allow communities to collect data that can also support the campaign work.

  1. Active learning with drifting streaming data. (United States)

    Zliobaite, Indre; Bifet, Albert; Pfahringer, Bernhard; Holmes, Geoffrey


    In learning to classify streaming data, obtaining true labels may require major effort and may incur excessive cost. Active learning focuses on carefully selecting as few labeled instances as possible for learning an accurate predictive model. Streaming data poses additional challenges for active learning, since the data distribution may change over time (concept drift) and models need to adapt. Conventional active learning strategies concentrate on querying the most uncertain instances, which are typically concentrated around the decision boundary. Changes occurring further from the boundary may be missed, and models may fail to adapt. This paper presents a theoretically supported framework for active learning from drifting data streams and develops three active learning strategies for streaming data that explicitly handle concept drift. They are based on uncertainty, dynamic allocation of labeling efforts over time, and randomization of the search space. We empirically demonstrate that these strategies react well to changes that can occur anywhere in the instance space and unexpectedly.

  2. Drift due to viscous vortex rings (United States)

    Morrell, Thomas; Spagnolie, Saverio; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc


    Biomixing is the study of fluid mixing due to swimming organisms. While large organisms typically produce turbulent flows in their wake, small organisms produce less turbulent wakes; the main mechanism of mixing is the induced net particle displacement (drift). Several experiments have examined this drift for small jellyfish, which produce vortex rings that trap and transport a fair amount of fluid. Inviscid theory implies infinite particle displacements for the trapped fluid, so the effect of viscosity must be included to understand the damping of real vortex motion. We use a model viscous vortex ring to compute particle displacements and other relevant quantities, such as the integrated moments of the displacement. Fluid entrainment at the tail end of a growing vortex 'envelope' is found to play an important role in the total fluid transport and drift. Partially supported by NSF Grant DMS-1109315.

  3. Dealing with concept drifts in process mining. (United States)

    Bose, R P Jagadeesh Chandra; van der Aalst, Wil M P; Zliobaite, Indre; Pechenizkiy, Mykola


    Although most business processes change over time, contemporary process mining techniques tend to analyze these processes as if they are in a steady state. Processes may change suddenly or gradually. The drift may be periodic (e.g., because of seasonal influences) or one-of-a-kind (e.g., the effects of new legislation). For the process management, it is crucial to discover and understand such concept drifts in processes. This paper presents a generic framework and specific techniques to detect when a process changes and to localize the parts of the process that have changed. Different features are proposed to characterize relationships among activities. These features are used to discover differences between successive populations. The approach has been implemented as a plug-in of the ProM process mining framework and has been evaluated using both simulated event data exhibiting controlled concept drifts and real-life event data from a Dutch municipality.

  4. The KLOE drift chamber VCI 2001

    CERN Document Server

    Adinolfi, M; Ambrosino, F; Andryakov, A; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Anulli, F; Bacci, C; Bankamp, A; Barbiellini, G; Bellini, F; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, Sergio; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Bulychjov, S A; Cabibbo, G; Calcaterra, A; Caloi, R; Campana, P; Capon, G; Carboni, G; Cardini, A; Casarsa, M; Cataldi, G; Ceradini, F; Cervell, F; Cevenini, F; Chiefari, G; Ciambrone, P; Conetti, S; Conticelli, S; De Lucia, E; De Robertis, G; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; De Sangro, R; Dell'Agnello, S; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Falco, S; Doria, A; Drago, E; Elia, V; Erriquez, O; Farilla, A; Felici, G; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Finocchiaro, G; Forti, C; Franceschi, A; Franzini, P; Gao, M L; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Golovatyuk, V; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, F; Grandegger, W; Graziani, E; Guarnaccia, P; Han, H G; Han, S W; Huang, X; Incagli, M; Ingrosso, L; Jang, Y Y; Kim, W; Kluge, W; Kulikov, V; Lacava, F; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Lomtadze, F; Luisi, C; Mao Chen Sheng; Martemyanov, M; Matsyuk, M; Mei, W; Merola, L; Messi, R; Miscetti, S; Moalem, A; Moccia, S; Moulson, M; Murtas, F; Müller, S; Napolitano, M; Nedosekin, A; Pacciani, L; Pagès, P; Palutan, M; Panareo, M; Paoluzi, L; Pasqualucci, E; Passalacqua, L; Passaseo, M; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Petrolo, E; Petrucci, Guido; Picca, D; Pirozzi, G; Pistillo, C; Pollack, M; Pontecorvo, L; Primavera, M; Ruggieri, F; Santangelo, P; Santovetti, E; Saracino, G; Schamberger, R D; Schwick, C; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Scuri, F; Sfiligoi, I; Shan, J; Silano, P; Spadaro, T; Spagnolo, S; Spiriti, E; Stanescu, C; Tong, G L; Tortora, L; Valente, E; Valente, P; Valeriani, B; Venanzoni, G; Veneziano, Stefano; Von Hagel, U; Wu, Y; Xie, Y G; Zhao, P P; Zhou, Y


    The main goal of the KLOE experiment at the Frascati DAPHINE phi-factory is the study CP violation in kaon decays. The tracking device of the experiment is a drift chamber whose dimensions, 4 m of diameter and 3.3 m length, provide a large acceptance volume for the decay products of low momentum K sub L (lambda sub L =3.4 m). A complete stereo geometry with 12.582 cells arranged in 58 layers guarantees a high and uniform efficiency in the reconstruction of the charged K sub L decays. Very light materials have been chosen both for the drift medium, a helium-based gas mixture, and for the mechanical structure, made of carbon fiber, to minimize multiple scattering and conversion of low-energy photons. The design requirements, the adopted solutions together with the calibration procedure and the tracking performances of the drift chamber are discussed.

  5. P-type silicon drift detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, J.T.; Krieger, B.; Krofcheck, D.; O`Donnell, R.; Odyniec, G.; Partlan, M.D.; Wang, N.W.


    Preliminary results on 16 CM{sup 2}, position-sensitive silicon drift detectors, fabricated for the first time on p-type silicon substrates, are presented. The detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested recently at LBL and show interesting properties which make them attractive for use in future physics experiments. A pulse count rate of approximately 8 {times} l0{sup 6} s{sup {minus}1} is demonstrated by the p-type silicon drift detectors. This count rate estimate is derived by measuring simultaneous tracks produced by a laser and photolithographic mask collimator that generates double tracks separated by 50 {mu}m to 1200 {mu}m. A new method of using ion-implanted polysilicon to produce precise valued bias resistors on the silicon drift detectors is also discussed.

  6. A Scaling Law for the Snapback in Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Bauer, P; Haverkamp, M; Pieloni, T; Sanfilippo, S; Velev, G


    The decay of the sextupole component in the bending dipoles during injection and the subsequent snapback at the start of beam acceleration are issues of common concern for all superconducting colliders built or in construction. Recent studies performed on LHC and Tevatron dipole magnets revealed many similarities in the snapback characteristics. Some are expected, e.g. the effect of operational history. One particular similarity, however, is striking and is the subject of this paper. It appears that there is a simple linear relation between the amount of sextupole drift during the decay and the magnet current (or field) change during the ramp required to resolve the snapback. It is surprising that the linear correlation between snapback amplitude and snapback field holds very well for all magnets of the same family (e.g. Tevatron or LHC dipoles). In this paper we present the data collected to date and discuss a simple theory that explains the scaling found.

  7. Development of a very-low-velocity superconducting linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.


    Four types of superconducting accelerator structures are being developed for use in a low velocity positive-ion injector linac for the ATLAS heavy-ion accelerator. Prototypes of the first two of these have been tested. The structures are all variants of a quarter-wave line terminated with a four-gap interdigital drift-tube array. The two structure types so far tested operate at 48.5 mHz and have an active length of 10 cm (for the particle velocity - .008c type) and 16.5 cm (for the velocity - .014c type). Effective accelerating fields of 10 MV/m have been achieved with the 10 cm structure, corresponding to an effective accelerating potential of 1 MV. The 16.5 cm structure has been operated at field levels of 6 MV/m, also giving an effective potential of 1 MV. Prototypes of the remaining two resonant geometries are under construction.

  8. Generation of effective libraries by neutral drift. (United States)

    Kaltenbach, Miriam; Tokuriki, Nobuhiko


    Neutral drift is a recently developed experimental technique used to identify superior starting points for protein engineering. Neutral drift explores accessible sequence space by repeated rounds of mutagenesis and selection to maintain wild-type function. Mutations that are largely neutral for the native function accumulate, and those that are highly detrimental are purged, yielding a library of high diversity and quality. This technique is useful in situations where laboratory evolution is at a dead end, i.e., when the enzyme activity intended for evolution proves recalcitrant to improvements or is too low to be detected.

  9. Drift Mode Calculations in Nonaxisymmetric Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Rewoldt; L.-P. Ku; W.A. Cooper; W.M. Tang


    A fully kinetic assessment of the stability properties of toroidal drift modes has been obtained for nonaxisymmetric (stellarator) geometry, in the electrostatic limit. This calculation is a comprehensive solution of the linearized gyrokinetic equation, using the lowest-order ''ballooning representation'' for high toroidal mode number instabilities, with a model collision operator. Results for toroidal drift waves destabilized by temperature gradients and/or trapped particle dynamics are presented, using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equilibria generated as part of a design effort for a quasiaxisymmetric stellarator. Comparisons of these results with those obtained for typical tokamak cases indicate that the basic trends are similar.

  10. Superconducting permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipf, S.L.; Laquer, H.L.


    The concept of superconducting permanent magnets with fields trapped in shells or cylinders of Type II superconductors is an old one. Unfortunately, the low values of 0.5 to 1T for the first flux jump field, which is independent of the actual current density, have frustrated its implementation with classical Type II superconductors. The fact that the flux jump fields for high temperature superconductors should be an order of magnitude larger at liquid nitrogen temperatures allows us to reconsider these options. Analysis of the hysteresis patterns, based on the critical state model, shows that, if the dimensions are chosen so that the sample is penetrated at a field B/sub p/, which is equal to or just less than the first flux jump field, B/sub fj/, a temporarily applied field of 2B/sub fj/ will trap 0.5 B/sub fj/. Thus for a 90 K superconductor with a B/sub fj/ of 6T, a permanent field of 3 T should be trapped, with an energy product of 1.8 MJ/m/sup 3/ (225 MG . Oe). This is five times as large as for the best permanent magnet materials. The authors discuss means to verify the analysis and the limitations imposed by the low critical current densities in presently available high temperature superconductors.

  11. The Superconducting TESLA Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Aune, B.; Bloess, D.; Bonin, B.; Bosotti, A.; Champion, M.; Crawford, C.; Deppe, G.; Dwersteg, B.; Edwards, D.A.; Edwards, H.T.; Ferrario, M.; Fouaidy, M.; Gall, P-D.; Gamp, A.; Gössel, A.; Graber, J.; Hubert, D.; Hüning, M.; Juillard, M.; Junquera, T.; Kaiser, H.; Kreps, G.; Kuchnir, M.; Lange, R.; Leenen, M.; Liepe, M.; Lilje, L.; Matheisen, A.; Möller, W-D.; Mosnier, A.; Padamsee, H.; Pagani, C.; Pekeler, M.; Peters, H-B.; Peters, O.; Proch, D.; Rehlich, K.; Reschke, D.; Safa, H.; Schilcher, T.; Schmüser, P.; Sekutowicz, J.; Simrock, S.; Singer, W.; Tigner, M.; Trines, D.; Twarowski, K.; Weichert, G.; Weisend, J.; Wojtkiewicz, J.; Wolff, S.; Zapfe, K.


    The conceptional design of the proposed linear electron-positron colliderTESLA is based on 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting niobium cavities with anaccelerating gradient of Eacc >= 25 MV/m at a quality factor Q0 > 5E+9. Thedesign goal for the cavities of the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) linac was set tothe more moderate value of Eacc >= 15 MV/m. In a first series of 27industrially produced TTF cavities the average gradient at Q0 = 5E+9 wasmeasured to be 20.1 +- 6.2 MV/m, excluding a few cavities suffering fromserious fabrication or material defects. In the second production of 24 TTFcavities additional quality control measures were introduced, in particular aneddy-current scan to eliminate niobium sheets with foreign material inclusionsand stringent prescriptions for carrying out the electron-beam welds. Theaverage gradient of these cavities at Q0 = 5E+9 amounts to 25.0 +- 3.2 MV/mwith the exception of one cavity suffering from a weld defect. Hence only amoderate improvement in production and preparation technique...

  12. Tunability of Superconducting Metamaterials (United States)

    Ricci, Michael C.; Xu, Hua; Prozorov, Ruslan; Zhuravel, Alexander P.; Ustinov, Alexey V.; Anlage, Steven M.


    Metamaterials are artificial structures with unique electromagnetic properties, such as relative dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability with values less than 1, or even negative. Because these properties are so sensitive to loss, we have developed metamaterials comprised of superconducting waveguides, wires, and split-ring resonators. An important requirement for applications of these metamaterials is the ability to tune the frequency at which the unique electromagnetic response occurs. In this paper we present three methods (unique to superconductors) to accomplish this tuning: temperature, dc magnetic field, and rf magnetic field. Data are shown for dc and rf magnetic field tuning of a single Nb split-ring resonator (SRR). It was found that the dc field tuning was hysteritic in the resonant frequency data, while the quality factor, $Q$, was less hystertic. The rf power tuning showed no hysteresis, but did show supression of the $Q$ at high power. Magneto-optical images reveal inhomogeneous magnetic vortex entry in the dc field tuning, and laser scanning photoresponse images for a YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{7-\\delta}$ SRR reveals the current distribution in the rings.

  13. Surface wind-drifted currents observed by drifting buoys in the East China Sea (United States)

    Komatsu, K.

    Surface and upper layer currents were observed by drifting GPS buoys in the East China Sea from February to March in 2001 and 2003. Both observations showed that two buoys deployed at the same position 120 nautical miles northwestward from the Kuroshio made different trajectories each other. The buoy drogued at 15m depth drifted northward, indicating the Kuroshio Branch Current extending to the Japan Sea, whose trajectory was properly reproduced by a high resolution 3-D model assimilated to satellite sea level. On the other hand, the buoy without drogue was drawn in eastward to the Kuroshio and its trajectory was not reproduced by the numerical model. In the region where currents were comparatively weak, the no-drogue buoy drifted to the direction which gave good agreement in synoptic time scale with the surface current direction inferred from the Ekman drift using wind data based on QuikSCAT. However the drifting speed of the buoy was over twice faster than 3.5% of the wind speed, indicating the contamination of drifting effects due to wind waves. These results suggested that a small difference of the vertical position of organic/inorganic matters in the surface layer let their future routes change drastically under the multiple drifting effects.

  14. Superconductivity from magnetic elements under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Katsuya [KYOKUGEN, Research Center for Materials Science at Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Amaya, Kiichi [Toyota Physical and Chemical Research Institute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Suzuki, Naoshi [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Onuki, Yoshichika [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)


    Can we expect the appearance of superconductivity from magnetic elements? In general, superconductivity occurs in nonmagnetic metal at low temperature and magnetic impurities destroy superconductivity; magnetism and superconductivity are as incompatible as oil and water. Here, we present our experimental example of superconducting elements, iron and oxygen. They are magnetic at ambient pressure, however, they become nonmagnetic under high pressure, then superconductor at low temperature. What is the driving force of the superconductivity? Our understanding in the early stages was a simple scenario that the superconductive state was obtained as a consequence of an emergence of the nonmagnetic states. In both cases, we may consider another scenario for the appearance of superconductivity; the magnetic fluctuation mechanism in the same way as unconventional superconductors.

  15. Coexistence of Superconductivity and Ferromagnetism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Coexistence of Superconductivity and Ferromagnetism in Superconducting. Tsadik Kidanemariam. 1 and Gebregziabher Kahsay. 2*. 1. Department of Physics, Adigrat University, Adigrat, Ethiopia. 2. Department of Physics, College of Science, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. (*

  16. Inducing spin triplet superconductivity in a ferromagnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voltan, S.


    Combining ferromagnetism and superconductivity can lead to the development of a completely new generation of technology, with unique and powerful characteristics, called superconducting spintronics. The task of developing this, however, is challenging because at the microscopic level the

  17. Last LEP superconducting module travels to surface

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    The last superconducting module is raised from the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider tunnel, through the main shaft, to the surface. Superconducting modules were only used in the LEP-2 phase of the accelerator, from 1996 to 2000.

  18. Canadian contributions to high temperature superconductivity research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlinsky, A.J.

    This paper presents a review of contributions from Canadian researchers to the field of investigating superconductivity in the range of 35/sup 0/K and up. Research projects since January 1987 are described or mentioned, including investigation of superconducting materials, theories of superconducting behavior, measurements of local magnetic fields in superconductors, and the production and modification of new oxide superconductors.

  19. Superconducting Metallic Glass Transition-Edge-Sensors (United States)

    Hays, Charles C. (Inventor)


    A superconducting metallic glass transition-edge sensor (MGTES) and a method for fabricating the MGTES are provided. A single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is deposited on a substrate. The single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is an absorber for the MGTES and is electrically connected to a circuit configured for readout and biasing to sense electromagnetic radiation.

  20. Superconducting heavy-ion accelerating structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.


    This paper briefly reviews the technical history of superconducting ion-accelerating structures. Various superconducting cavities currently used and being developed for use in ion linacs are discussed. Principal parameters and operational characteristics of superconducting structures in active use at various heavy-ion facilities are described.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the southern Benguela, successful recruitment of Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis is highly variable and seems to be dependent on the spawning biomass only to a small extent. This paper investigates how the variations in the drift patterns of larvae from the spawning areas on the Agulhas Bank to the ...

  2. Pixelated CdZnTe drift detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl


    A technique, the so-called Drift Strip Method (DSM), for improving the CdZnTe detector energy response to hard X-rays and gamma-rays was applied as a pixel geometry. First tests have confirmed that this detector type provides excellent energy resolution and imaging performance. We specifically...

  3. Asymmetric Drift and the Stellar Velocity Ellipsoid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westfall, Kyle B.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.


    We present the decomposition of the stellar velocity ellipsoid using stellar velocity dispersions within a 40° wedge about the major-axis (smaj), the epicycle approximation, and the asymmetric drift equation. Thus, we employ no fitted forms for smaj and escape interpolation errors resulting from

  4. Drift wave in pair-ion plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ion plasma are discussed. It is shown that the temperature and/or mass difference of both species could produce drift wave in a pair-ion plasma. The results are discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiment.

  5. Mode selective control of drift wave turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, C.; Klinger, T.; Block, D.


    Experiments on spatiotemporal open-loop synchronization of drift wave turbulence in a magnetized cylindrical plasma are reported. The synchronization effect is modeled by a rotating current profile with prescribed mode structure. Numerical simulations of an extended Hasegawa-Wakatani model show g...

  6. Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift: Classroom Ideas. (United States)

    Stout, Prentice K.


    Suggests various classroom studies related to plate tectonics and continental drift, including comments on and sources of resource materials useful in teaching the topics. A complete list of magazine articles on the topics from the Sawyer Marine Resource Collection may be obtained by contacting the author. (JN)

  7. Stochastic Evolution Equations with Adapted Drift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, M.


    In this thesis we study stochastic evolution equations in Banach spaces. We restrict ourselves to the two following cases. First, we consider equations in which the drift is a closed linear operator that depends on time and is random. Such equations occur as mathematical models in for instance

  8. An Analytical Model of Iceberg Drift (United States)

    Wagner, Till J. W.; Dell, Rebecca W.; Eisenman, Ian


    Iceberg drift and decay and the associated freshwater release are increasingly seen as important processes in Earth's climate system, yet a detailed understanding of their dynamics has remained elusive. Here, an idealized model of iceberg drift is presented. The model is designed to include the most salient physical processes that determine iceberg motion while remaining sufficiently simple to facilitate physical insight into iceberg drift dynamics. We derive an analytical solution of the model, which helps build understanding and also enables the rapid computation of large numbers of iceberg trajectories. The long-standing empirical rule of thumb that icebergs drift at 2% of the wind velocity, relative to the ocean current, is derived here from physical first principles, and it is shown that this relation only holds in the limit of strong winds or small icebergs, which approximately applies for typical icebergs in the Arctic. It is demonstrated that the opposite limit of weak winds or large icebergs approximately applies for typical Antarctic tabular icebergs, and that in this case the icebergs simply move with the ocean surface current. It is furthermore found that when winds are strong, wind drag drives icebergs in the direction the wind blows, whereas weak winds drive icebergs at a 90 degree angle to the wind direction.

  9. Drift wave launching in a linear quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessema, G.Y.; Elliott, J.A.; Rusbridge, M.G. (Manchester Univ. (UK). Inst. of Science and Technology)


    Drift waves have been successfully launched from flag probes in a steady-state magnetized plasma, and the launching mechanism has been identified. Non-linear interactions are observed between launched and intrinsic waves. A wide range of further experimental studies is thus made possible, of fundamental relevance to plasma confinement. (author).

  10. Effects of Drifting Macroalgae in Eelgrass Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canal Vergés, Paula; Valdemarsen, Thomas Bruun; Kristensen, Erik


    It has been suggested that current-driven macroalge transport in shallow lagoons and estuaries may negatively impact eelgrass through increased turbidity and physical stress. Increased turbidity and lower light availability for eelgrass may result when drifting macroalgae erode surface sediment a...

  11. Soil and humus development in drift sands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevink, J.; de Waal, R.W.; Fanta, J.; Siepel, H.


    In drift sand, incipient mineral soils with a very thin endorganic horizon develop towards highly acid soils with a thick, differentiated, mor to moder type ectorganic horizon and incipient podzolisation, within a period of about 100 years. This is due slow litter decomposition and associated soil

  12. Ion Landau Damping on Drift Tearing Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, J W; Zocco, A


    The equations governing the ion Landau damping (ILD) layers for a drift tearing mode are derived and solved to provide a matching to ideal MHD solutions at large $x$ and to the drift tearing solution emerging from the ion kinetic region, $k\\rho_{i}\\sim1$, at small $x,$ the distance from the rational surface. The ILD layers lie on either side of the mode rational surface at locations defined by $k_{y}xV_{Ti}/L_{s}=\\omega_{*e}(1+0.73\\eta_{e})$ and have been ignored in many previous analyses of linear drift tearing stability. The effect of the ILD layer on the drift tearing mode is to introduce an additional stabilizing contribution, requiring even larger values of the stability index, $\\Delta^{\\prime}$ for instability, than predicted by Connor Hastie and Zocco [PPCF,54, 035003, (2012)] and Cowley, Kulsrud and Hahm [Phys. Fluids,29, 3230, (1986)]. The magnitude and scaling of the new stabilizing effect in slab geometry is discussed.

  13. Lagrangian Submesoscale Experiment (LASER) drift cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Daniel Frazier


    of imagery to study near-surface transport and dispersion. A GPS and inertial navigation system (INS) were also installed on STARRS. However, initialization issues with the INS resulted in inaccurate heading data for most of the drift card experiments. The GPS-INS data are also not precisely synchronized...

  14. Nonequilibrium superconductivity for particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, K.E.


    A considerable amount of attention has been devoted to nonequilibrium superconductivity over the last 10 to 15 years. A fairly complete and quantatitive understanding of the experimental and theoretical aspects of the subject has emerged. In this paper aspects of nonequilibrium superconductivity which are relevant to a majority of particle detector applications will be reviewed, and new calculations, more specific to actual detector applications, will be presented. The primary focus is on ionizing particles for which the characteristic energy is greater than typical superconducting energy gap values,, of about 1 MeV. Thus microwave and far-infrared detection is excluded, although many of the results and consequences may also apply in those cases. 36 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Sensing with Superconducting Point Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argo Nurbawono


    Full Text Available Superconducting point contacts have been used for measuring magnetic polarizations, identifying magnetic impurities, electronic structures, and even the vibrational modes of small molecules. Due to intrinsically small energy scale in the subgap structures of the supercurrent determined by the size of the superconducting energy gap, superconductors provide ultrahigh sensitivities for high resolution spectroscopies. The so-called Andreev reflection process between normal metal and superconductor carries complex and rich information which can be utilized as powerful sensor when fully exploited. In this review, we would discuss recent experimental and theoretical developments in the supercurrent transport through superconducting point contacts and their relevance to sensing applications, and we would highlight their current issues and potentials. A true utilization of the method based on Andreev reflection analysis opens up possibilities for a new class of ultrasensitive sensors.

  16. Superconducting properties of nanostructured microhelices (United States)

    Fomin, Vladimir M.; Rezaev, Roman O.; Levchenko, Evgenii A.; Grimm, Daniel; Schmidt, Oliver G.


    Superconducting micro- and nanohelices are proposed for the first time. A theoretical investigation of the superconducting state in the helical coils at the micro- and nanoscale is performed within the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach. The pattern and number of vortices in a stationary distribution are determined by their confinement to the ultrathin helical coil and can therefore be efficiently controlled by the spiral stripe width and the spiral pitch distance for both dense and sparse coils. Quasi-degeneracy of vortex patterns is manifested in the helical coil when the number of vortices is incommensurable with the total number of half-turns. With increasing radius, superconducting helical coils provide a physical realization of a transition from the vortex pattern peculiar to an open tube to that of a planar stripe.

  17. Superconducting TESLA cavities (United States)

    Aune, B.; Bandelmann, R.; Bloess, D.; Bonin, B.; Bosotti, A.; Champion, M.; Crawford, C.; Deppe, G.; Dwersteg, B.; Edwards, D. A.; Edwards, H. T.; Ferrario, M.; Fouaidy, M.; Gall, P.-D.; Gamp, A.; Gössel, A.; Graber, J.; Hubert, D.; Hüning, M.; Juillard, M.; Junquera, T.; Kaiser, H.; Kreps, G.; Kuchnir, M.; Lange, R.; Leenen, M.; Liepe, M.; Lilje, L.; Matheisen, A.; Möller, W.-D.; Mosnier, A.; Padamsee, H.; Pagani, C.; Pekeler, M.; Peters, H.-B.; Peters, O.; Proch, D.; Rehlich, K.; Reschke, D.; Safa, H.; Schilcher, T.; Schmüser, P.; Sekutowicz, J.; Simrock, S.; Singer, W.; Tigner, M.; Trines, D.; Twarowski, K.; Weichert, G.; Weisend, J.; Wojtkiewicz, J.; Wolff, S.; Zapfe, K.


    The conceptional design of the proposed linear electron-positron collider TESLA is based on 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting niobium cavities with an accelerating gradient of Eacc>=25 MV/m at a quality factor Q0>=5×109. The design goal for the cavities of the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) linac was set to the more moderate value of Eacc>=15 MV/m. In a first series of 27 industrially produced TTF cavities the average gradient at Q0 = 5×109 was measured to be 20.1+/-6.2 MV/m, excluding a few cavities suffering from serious fabrication or material defects. In the second production of 24 TTF cavities, additional quality control measures were introduced, in particular, an eddy-current scan to eliminate niobium sheets with foreign material inclusions and stringent prescriptions for carrying out the electron-beam welds. The average gradient of these cavities at Q0 = 5×109 amounts to 25.0+/-3.2 MV/m with the exception of one cavity suffering from a weld defect. Hence only a moderate improvement in production and preparation techniques will be needed to meet the ambitious TESLA goal with an adequate safety margin. In this paper we present a detailed description of the design, fabrication, and preparation of the TESLA Test Facility cavities and their associated components and report on cavity performance in test cryostats and with electron beam in the TTF linac. The ongoing research and development towards higher gradients is briefly addressed.

  18. Searching for Superconductivity in Micrometeorites (United States)

    Thiemens, M. H.; Guenon, S.; Ramirez, J. G.; Basaran, A. C.; Taylor, S.; Schuller, I.


    We have developed a very sensitive, highly selective, non-destructive technique for screening natural materials for the presence of superconductivity. This technique, based on phase sensitive detection of microwave absorption is capable of detecting 10-12 cm3of a superconductor embedded in a non-superconducting matrix. We applied our technique to search for superconductivity in micrometeorites, small extraterrestrial (ET) particles that add most of the ET mass to the present day Earth. We measured approximately 65 micrometeorites and compared their spectra with those of eight reference materials.Micrometeorites (MMs) are ideal samples with which to test our highly sensitive superconductivity probe, as individual MMs weigh 10-5 g and the large number of micrometeorites arriving on Earth, suggests some contain minerals formed under conditions that cannot be replicated in the laboratory. Minerals in meteorites formed during planetary processes associated with accretion/condensation, planetary differentiation, and segregation. Other components such as pre-solar grains, SiC, diamonds, graphite, Si3N4, and deuterium enriched organics formed under some of the most intense physical-chemical environments in the Universe, including supernovae and stellar outflows. It is during such severe processes that exotic superconducting species may have been created.The research presented here established the methodology and proved the ultrahigh sensitivity of the technique by detecting the presence of the Verwey-transition of the magnetite present in these micrometeorites. The investigated micrometeorites contained no superconducting phases. This work was supported by an AFOSR MURI grant no. F49550-09-1-0577.

  19. Superconducting Magnets for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, Luca; Yamamoto, Akira; Zlobin, Alexander V


    In this paper we summarize the evolution and contributions of superconducting magnets to particle accelerators as chronicled over the last 50 years of Particle Accelerator Conferences (PAC, NA-PAC and IPAC). We begin with an historical overview based primarily on PAC Proceedings augmented with references to key milestones in the development of superconducting magnets for particle accelerators. We then provide some illustrative examples of applications that have occurred over the past 50 years, focusing on those that have either been realized in practice or provided technical development for other projects, with discussion of possible future applications.

  20. Superconductivity: Anatomy of a Discovery (United States)

    Pesic, Peter


    The discovery of superconductivity in 1911 by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and his collaborators, though unexpected, rested on thirty years of prior work perfecting and applying the techniques of low temperature physics. His achievements reflected both his experimental skill and his close study of theory. The comparison with his competitors (especially James Dewar) reveals the effects of personal style, awareness of human nature, and organizational skill. That the actual first detection of superconductivity was made by a young assistant, Gilles Holst, raise deep questions of authorship, priority, and recognition.

  1. Barber's Point, Oahu, Hawaii Drift Card Study 2002-2004 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drift cards were be released from Barber's Point, Oahu, approximately once a month during the two year span to get an idea of the distribution of card drift under...

  2. Induced superconductivity in the topological insulator mercury telluride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Luis


    be in phase with the symmetric SQUID in case of an uniform band gap and out of phase if p- or d-wave superconductivity is dominating the transport, due to the 90° junction. As both devices are measured one after another, the problem of drift in the coil used to create the magnetic field has to be overcome in order to decide if the oscillations of both types of SQUIDs are in phase. With an oscillation period of 0.5 mT and a drift rate in the range of 5.5 μT/h the measurements on both configurations have to be conducted in a few hours. Only then the total shift is small enough to compare them with each other. For this to be possible a novel measurement system based on a real time micro controller was programmed, which allows a much faster extraction of the critical current of a device. The measurement times were reduced from days to hours, circumventing the drift problems and enabling the wanted comparison. After the final system optimizations it has been shown that the comparison should now be possible. Initial measurements with the old system hinted that both types of SQUIDs are in phase and thus the expected uniform band gap is more likely. With all needed optimizations in place it is now up to the successors of this project to conclusively prove this last point. This thesis has proven that it is possible to induce superconductivity in strained bulk HgTe. It has thus realized the most basic sample geometry proposed by Fu and Kane in 2008 for the appearance of Majorana bound states. Based on this work it is now possible to further explore induced superconductivity in strained bulk HgTe to finally reach a regime, where the Majorana states are both stable and detectable.

  3. Drift-Scale THC Seepage Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.R. Bryan


    The purpose of this report (REV04) is to document the thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) seepage model, which simulates the composition of waters that could potentially seep into emplacement drifts, and the composition of the gas phase. The THC seepage model is processed and abstracted for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA). This report has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Post-Processing Analysis for THC Seepage) Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172761]). The technical work plan (TWP) describes planning information pertaining to the technical scope, content, and management of this report. The plan for validation of the models documented in this report is given in Section 2.2.2, ''Model Validation for the DS THC Seepage Model,'' of the TWP. The TWP (Section 3.2.2) identifies Acceptance Criteria 1 to 4 for ''Quantity and Chemistry of Water Contacting Engineered Barriers and Waste Forms'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]) as being applicable to this report; however, in variance to the TWP, Acceptance Criterion 5 has also been determined to be applicable, and is addressed, along with the other Acceptance Criteria, in Section 4.2 of this report. Also, three FEPS not listed in the TWP (,, and are partially addressed in this report, and have been added to the list of excluded FEPS in Table 6.1-2. This report has been developed in accordance with LP-SIII.10Q-BSC, ''Models''. This report documents the THC seepage model and a derivative used for validation, the Drift Scale Test (DST) THC submodel. The THC seepage model is a drift-scale process model for predicting the composition of gas and water that could enter waste emplacement drifts and the effects of mineral

  4. Electromagnetic drift modes in an inhomogeneous electron gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P. K.; Pecseli, H. L.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens


    A pair of nonlinear equations is derived which describes the dynamics of the electromagnetic drift oscillations in a nonuniform magnetized electron gas. It is shown that the nonlinear electromagnetic drift modes can propagate in the form of dipole vortices......A pair of nonlinear equations is derived which describes the dynamics of the electromagnetic drift oscillations in a nonuniform magnetized electron gas. It is shown that the nonlinear electromagnetic drift modes can propagate in the form of dipole vortices...

  5. A new microwave resonator readout scheme for superconducting qubits (United States)

    Metcalfe, Michael B.

    Quantum computation is a relatively new field of research, which uses the properties of quantum mechanical systems for information processing. While most proposals for constructing such a quantum computer involve using microscopic degrees of freedom such as those of trapped ions or nuclear spins, this thesis concentrates on using the collective electromagnetic response of a macroscopic electrical circuit to construct the fundamental building block of a quantum computer---a qubit. These macroscopic systems are inherently more difficult to protect from decoherence compared to the microscopic qubit systems because of strong environmental coupling through, for example, the measurement leads. However, superconducting quantum circuits should be easier to scale to large multi qubit systems since they involve simple electrical elements, such as inductors and capacitors for coupling qubits. Furthermore, they can be produced using the highly developed fabrication techniques of integrated circuits. One of the outstanding issues in superconducting qubit circuits is to read out the qubit state without introducing excessive noise. Such a readout scheme requires speed, sensitivity and should minimally disturb the qubit state. To meet these requirements we have developed a new type of dispersive bifurcating amplifier, called the cavity bifurcation amplifier (CBA), which consists of a Josephson junction imbedded in a microwave on-chip resonator. The optimum resonator design is based on a simple coplanar waveguide (CPW), imposing a pre-determined frequency and whose other RF characteristics like the quality factor are easily controlled and optimized. The CBA is sensitive to the susceptibility of the superconducting qubit with respect to an external control parameter (e.g., flux) and hence during both qubit manipulation and readout sequences, the qubit can be biased on a so-called "sweet spot", where it is immune to first order fluctuations in this parameter. This readout has no on

  6. A method for the correction of drift in movement analysis. (United States)

    Stokes, V P


    A method is proposed for the correction of drift over cyclic three-dimensional kinematic data during treadmill locomotion. An adaptive least-squares drift correction algorithm (ALSDC) is developed from the operational definition of no drift. This method includes automatic selection of least-squares polynomial degree and sequential processing of large data sets.

  7. Age of marginal Wisconsin drift at corry, northwestern Pennsylvania (United States)

    Droste, J.B.; Rubin, M.; White, G.W.


    Marl began to accumulate about 14,000 years ago, as determined by radiocarbon dating, in a pond in a kettle hole in Kent drift at Corry, Pa., 9 miles inside the Wisconsin drift margin. This radiocarbon age represents the minimum time since the disappearance of the ice from Corry and confirms an assignment of Cary age to the drift.

  8. Discovering superconductivity an investigative approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ireson, Gren


    The highly-illustrated text will serve as excellent introduction for students, with and without a physics background, to superconductivity. With a strong practical, experimental emphasis, it will provide readers with an overview of the topic preparing them for more advanced texts used in more advanced undergraduate and post-graduate courses.

  9. Power applications for superconducting cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Hansen, Steen; Jørgensen, Preben


    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables for use in electric ac power systems are under development around the world today. There are two main constructions under development: the room temperature dielectric design and the cryogenic dielectric design. However, theoretical studies have shown...

  10. Nonlinear diffusion and superconducting hysteresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayergoyz, I.D. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)


    Nonlinear diffusion of electromagnetic fields in superconductors with ideal and gradual resistive transitions is studied. Analytical results obtained for linear and nonlinear polarizations of electromagnetic fields are reported. These results lead to various extensions of the critical state model for superconducting hysteresis.

  11. Collaring of Po Superconducting Dipole

    CERN Multimedia


    The picture shows the placing of a stack of stainless steel collars around the superconducting coils.Pre-assembled collar stacks were placed under and on top of the coils,the collars interleaving as comb teeth. During the following collaring operation of compression under a press the collars were locked together by means of side wedges. See also photos 8211532X, 7903168

  12. Superconductivity in the Carbon Nanotubes (United States)

    Ieong, Chao

    This is an experimental study of the superconductivity of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs)--more specifically the CNTs studied is 0.4 nm diameter single-wall CNTs existing inside the channels of the AFI zeolite crystal, abbreviated as CNT AFI--by probing the magnetization property of this CNT AFI system. These human engineered 4-Angstrom CNTs, which is a nanoscale and low-dimensional material, are approaching the limit set by nature, and superconductivity in the CNTs in general is theoretically (microscopic or first-principles) both interesting and challenging. Hence, empirical studies are important in providing useful guiding information. The magnetization and specific-heat studies could provide convincing evidences supporting or critiquing the electrical transport results of the CNT AFI system. But probing the superconductivity in this system, as the superconducting signal is very small in a large background, is another challenge. Therefore the high-resolution calorimetry and magnetometry techniques detailedin this thesis are invaluable. With improved method of fabrication to increase the CNTs content inside the channels of the AFI crystallites, the empirical results [Nanoscale 4, 21-41 (2012)]were markedly different from those published in 2001 [Science 292, 2462 (2001)]. The magnetization results of this thesis largely agree with the results from the electrical transport study [Phys. Rev. B 81, 174530 (2010)], but there is some result that raises doubt in the critical current interpretation there. Lastly, there is still some electrical transport result of this system that has not been explained convincingly and is of interest.

  13. Topological Properties of Superconducting Junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulin, D.I.; Nazarov, Y.V.

    Motivated by recent developments in the field of one-dimensional topological superconductors, we investigate the topological properties of s-matrix of generic superconducting junctions where dimension should not play any role. We argue that for a finite junction the s-matrix is always topologically

  14. Vacuum Technology for Superconducting Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chiggiato, P


    The basic notions of vacuum technology for superconducting applications are presented, with an emphasis on mass and heat transport in free molecular regimes. The working principles and practical details of turbomolecular pumps and cryopumps are introduced. The specific case of the Large Hadron Collider’s cryogenic vacuum system is briefly reviewed.

  15. Superconductivity by kinetic energy saving?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Marel, D; Molegraaf, HJA; Presura, C; Santoso, [No Value; Hewson, AC; Zlatic,


    A brief introduction is given in the generic microscopic framework of superconductivity. The consequences for the temperature dependence of the kinetic energy, and the correlation energy are discussed for two cases: The BCS scenario and the non-Fermi liquid scenario. A quantitative comparison is

  16. Tutorial on Superconducting Accelerator Magnets (United States)

    Ball, M. J. Penny; Goodzeit, Carl L.


    A multimedia CD-ROM tutorial on the physics and engineering concepts of superconducting magnets for particle accelerators is being developed under a U.S. Dept. of Energy SBIR grant. The tutorial, scheduled for distribution this summer, is targeted to undergraduate junior or senior level science students. However, its unified presentation of the broad range of issues involved in the design of superconducting magnets for accelerators and the extensive detail about the construction process (including animations and video clips) will also be of value to staff of research institutes and industrial concerns with an interest in applied superconductivity or magnet development. The source material, which is based on the world-wide R and D programs to develop superconducting accelerator magnets, is organized in five units with the following themes: Introduction to magnets and accelerators; (2) Superconductors for accelerator magnets; (3) Magnetic design methods for accelerator magnets; (4) Electrical, mechanical, and cryogenic considerations for the final magnet package; (5) Performance characteristics and measurement methods. A detailed outline and examples will be shown.

  17. Enhanced estimation of the gravity rate of change by combining superconducting and absolute gravimeter data (United States)

    Warburton, R. J.; de Viron, O.; Van Camp, M. J.


    Most often, vertical ground movements are at the limit of the noise level and close to or below the accuracy of current geodetic techniques. Absolute gravity measurements are valuable to quantify slow vertical movements, as this instrument is drift free and, unlike GPS, independent of the terrestrial reference frame. On the other hand, for logistic reasons, it is not possible to have a continuous monitoring of a station with an absolute gravimeter (AG), and each station is only visited at most a few times a year. When the same station is monitored by a superconducting gravimeter (SG), one can benefit from a continuous dataset. On the other hand, SGs are known to drift, which makes it impossible to use as a standalone instrument to monitor slow change of the gravity. In this presentation, we discuss how the information of the SG can be used together with the repeated AG measurement in order to improve the trend determination.

  18. Influence of helium puff on divertor asymmetry in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, S. C.; Guo, H. Y.; Xu, G. S.


    Divertor asymmetries with helium puffing are investigated in various divertor configurations on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The outer divertor electron temperature decreases significantly during the gas injection at the outer midplane. As soon as the gas is injected...... parameters are measured by reciprocating probes at the outer midplane, showing that the electron temperature and density increase but the parallel Mach number decreases significantly due to the gas injection. Effects of poloidal E × B drifts and parallel SOL flows on the divertor asymmetry observed in EAST...

  19. Nonlinear dynamics of resistive electrostatic drift waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, H.L.


    The evolution of weakly nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in an externally imposed strong homogeneous magnetic field is investigated numerically in three spatial dimensions. The analysis is based on a set of coupled, nonlinear equations, which are solved for an initial condition which is pertur......The evolution of weakly nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in an externally imposed strong homogeneous magnetic field is investigated numerically in three spatial dimensions. The analysis is based on a set of coupled, nonlinear equations, which are solved for an initial condition which...... is perturbed by a small amplitude incoherent wave-field. The initial evolution is exponential, following the growth of perturbations predicted by linear stability theory. The fluctuations saturate at relatively high amplitudes, by forming a pair of magnetic field aligned vortex-like structures of opposite...... polarity, i.e. a pair of electrostatic convective cells....

  20. Gas sensor with attenuated drift characteristic (United States)

    Chen, Ing-Shin [Danbury, CT; Chen, Philip S. H. [Bethel, CT; Neuner, Jeffrey W [Bethel, CT; Welch, James [Fairfield, CT; Hendrix, Bryan [Danbury, CT; Dimeo, Jr., Frank [Danbury, CT


    A sensor with an attenuated drift characteristic, including a layer structure in which a sensing layer has a layer of diffusional barrier material on at least one of its faces. The sensor may for example be constituted as a hydrogen gas sensor including a palladium/yttrium layer structure formed on a micro-hotplate base, with a chromium barrier layer between the yttrium layer and the micro-hotplate, and with a tantalum barrier layer between the yttrium layer and an overlying palladium protective layer. The gas sensor is useful for detection of a target gas in environments susceptible to generation or incursion of such gas, and achieves substantial (e.g., >90%) reduction of signal drift from the gas sensor in extended operation, relative to a corresponding gas sensor lacking the diffusional barrier structure of the invention

  1. Bottle appeal drifts across the Pacific (United States)

    Ebbesmeyer, Curtis; Ingraham, W. James, Jr.; McKinnon, Richard; Okubo, Akira; Wang, Dong-Ping; Strickland, Richard; Willing, Peter

    Pacific drift currents were used by a group of oceanographers to estimate the path of a drift bottle that was found on a beach of Barkley Sound in Vancouver Island by Richard Strickland on June 10, 1990. The Chinese rice wine bottle, which remained unopened until December 18, 1991, contained six leaflets, one appealing for the release of China's well-known dissident, Wei Jingsheng. The bottle was one of thousands set adrift as part of a propaganda effort from the islands of Quemoy and Matsu off mainland China shortly after Wei was sentenced in 1979 to 15 years in prison (see Figure 1 for locations). Wei was in poor health and still in prison when the bottle made its way across the Pacific Ocean.

  2. Toroidal effects on drift wave turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBrun, M.J.; Tajima, T.; Gray, M.G.; Furnish, G.; Horton, W.


    The universal drift instability and other drift instabilities driven by density and temperature gradients in a toroidal system are investigated in both linear and nonlinear regimes via particle simulation. Runs in toroidal and cylindrical geometry show dramatic differences in plasma behavior, primarily due to the toroidicity-induced coupling of rational surfaces through the poloidal mode number m. In the toroidal system studied, the eigenmodes are seen to possess (i) an elongated, nearly global radial extent (ii) a higher growth rate than in the corresponding cylindrical system, (iii) an eigenfrequency nearly constant with radius, (iv) a global temperature relaxation and enhancement of thermal heat conduction. Most importantly, the measured Xi shows an increase with radius and an absolute value on the order of that observed in experiment. On the basis of our observations, we argue that the increase in Xi with radius observed in experiment is caused by the global nature of heat convection in the presence of toroidicity-induced mode coupling.

  3. Clean Industrial Room for Drift Tube Assembling

    CERN Document Server

    Glonti, GL; Evtoukhovitch, P G; Kroa, G; Manz, A; Potrap, I N; Rihter, P; Stoletov, G D; Tskhadadze, E G; Chepurnov, V F; Chirkov, A V; Shelkov, G A


    Description of a clean industrial room for assembly of drift tubes for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is presented. High quality specifications on the detectors to be produced demanded creation of a workplace with stable temperature and humidity, as well as minimum quantity of dust in the room. Checking of parameters of intra-room air during long period of continuous work has been confirmed correctness of the designed characteristics of the climatic system installed in the clean room. The room large volum (\\sim 190 m^3), the powerful and flexible climatic system, and simplicity of service allow assembling of detectors with length up to 5 m. Subsequent checking of functionality of the assembled detectors has shown high quality of assembling (the amount of rejected tubes does not exceed 2 %). It demonstrates conformity to the assembling quality requirements for mass production of drift chambers for the muon spectrometer.





    The capacitive pressure sensors based on silicon are characterized by their very high sensitivities and their low power consumption. Nevertheless, their thermal behavior remains more or less unpredictable because they can indicate very high thermal coefficients. The study of the thermal behavior of these sensors is essential to define the parameters that cause the output characteristics drift. In this study, we modeled the thermal behavior of this sensors, using Finite Element Analysis (FE...

  5. Snow Drift Management: Summit Station Greenland (United States)


    publication, or promotional purposes. Ci- tation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial...potential that may be deposited as drifts is se- vere by standards for the continental United States, it is significantly less than the maximum potential...taken annually. Fur - ther work is needed to apply this to the broader station that includes the cargo berms and other buildings that are further removed

  6. Learning in the context of distribution drift (United States)


    However, the world is dynamic, in a constant state of flux. Despite this changing environment , conventional machine learning algorithms derive static...Classifiers. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 17(44), 1-35. Chen, S., Martínez, A. M., Webb, G. I., & Wang, L. (2016). Selective AnDE for large...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0039 Learning in the context of distribution drift Geoff Webb MONASH UNIVERSITY Final Report 05/09/2017 DISTRIBUTION A

  7. Spin-drift transport in semiconductors (United States)

    Idrish Miah, M.


    We present a study on spin transport in semiconductors under applied electric fields. Our experiments detect photoinjected electron spins and their relaxation during drift transport in intrinsic and moderately n-doped GaAs, based on the extraordinary Hall (eH) effect. For relatively low electric field (E), the optically spin-induced eH effect in n-doped GaAs is found to be enhanced with increasing doping density and not to depend much on E, indicating that a substantial amount of optical spin polarization is preserved during the drift transport in these extrinsic semiconductors. However, when the spin-oriented electrons are injected with a high E, a very significant decrease is observed in the eH voltage (VeH) due to an increase in the spin precession frequency of the hot electrons. Spin relaxation by the D'yakonov-Perel' mechanism is calculated, and is suggested to be the reason for such a rapid spin relaxation for hot electrons under a high E. However, in an intrinsic GaAs (i-GaAs), a much weaker VeH is observed and, as the electron spins scattered by holes due to the Coulomb interaction in i-GaAs, the spin relaxation by the Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanism is considered. Skew scattering and side jump as possible mechanisms of the optically spin-induced transverse Hall currents are discussed. Based on a spin drift-diffusion model, drift and diffusion contributions to the VeH are examined. The results are also discussed in comparison with theoretical investigations.

  8. Spin-drift transport in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M Idrish [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Chittagong-4331 (Bangladesh)


    We present a study on spin transport in semiconductors under applied electric fields. Our experiments detect photoinjected electron spins and their relaxation during drift transport in intrinsic and moderately n-doped GaAs, based on the extraordinary Hall (eH) effect. For relatively low electric field (E), the optically spin-induced eH effect in n-doped GaAs is found to be enhanced with increasing doping density and not to depend much on E, indicating that a substantial amount of optical spin polarization is preserved during the drift transport in these extrinsic semiconductors. However, when the spin-oriented electrons are injected with a high E, a very significant decrease is observed in the eH voltage (V{sub eH}) due to an increase in the spin precession frequency of the hot electrons. Spin relaxation by the D'yakonov-Perel' mechanism is calculated, and is suggested to be the reason for such a rapid spin relaxation for hot electrons under a high E. However, in an intrinsic GaAs (i-GaAs), a much weaker V{sub eH} is observed and, as the electron spins scattered by holes due to the Coulomb interaction in i-GaAs, the spin relaxation by the Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanism is considered. Skew scattering and side jump as possible mechanisms of the optically spin-induced transverse Hall currents are discussed. Based on a spin drift-diffusion model, drift and diffusion contributions to the V{sub eH} are examined. The results are also discussed in comparison with theoretical investigations.

  9. Comparison of drift velocities of nighttime equatorial plasma depletions with ambient plasma drifts and thermospheric neutral winds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, G.; England, S.L.; Frey, H.U.; Immel, T.J.; Lin, C.S.; Pacheco, E.E.; Häusler, K.; Doornbos, E.N.


    This is the first study to compare plasma depletion drifts with the ambient plasma drifts and neutral winds in the post sunset equatorial ionosphere using global-scale satellite observations. The local time and latitude variations of the drift velocities of O+ plasma depletions at 350–400?km


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The capacitive pressure sensors based on silicon are characterized by their very high sensitivities and their low power consumption. Nevertheless, their thermal behavior remains more or less unpredictable because they can indicate very high thermal coefficients. The study of the thermal behavior of these sensors is essential to define the parameters that cause the output characteristics drift. In this study, we modeled the thermal behavior of this sensors, using Finite Element Analysis (FEA made in COMSOL. The model solved by COMSOL environment takes into account the entire sensor and thermal effects due to the temperature considering the materials’ properties, the geometric shape and also the heat transfer mechanisms. By COMSOL we determine how the temperature affects the sensor during the manufacturing process. For that end, we calculated the thermal drift of capacitance at rest, the thermal coefficients and we compared them with experimental results to validate our model. Further, we studied the thermal drift of sensor characteristics both at rest and under constant and uniform pressure. Further, our study put emphasis on the geometric influence parameters on these characteristics to optimize the sensor performance. Finally, this study allows us to predict the sensor behavior against temperature and to minimize this effect by optimizing the geometrical parameters.

  11. Internal Clock Drift Estimation in Computer Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Marouani


    Full Text Available Most computers have several high-resolution timing sources, from the programmable interrupt timer to the cycle counter. Yet, even at a precision of one cycle in ten millions, clocks may drift significantly in a single second at a clock frequency of several GHz. When tracing the low-level system events in computer clusters, such as packet sending or reception, each computer system records its own events using an internal clock. In order to properly understand the global system behavior and performance, as reported by the events recorded on each computer, it is important to estimate precisely the clock differences and drift between the different computers in the system. This article studies the clock precision and stability of several computer systems, with different architectures. It also studies the typical network delay characteristics, since time synchronization algorithms rely on the exchange of network packets and are dependent on the symmetry of the delays. A very precise clock, based on the atomic time provided by the GPS satellite network, was used as a reference to measure clock drifts and network delays. The results obtained are of immediate use to all applications which depend on computer clocks or network time synchronization accuracy.

  12. Transient chaotic transport in dissipative drift motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyarzabal, R.S. [Pós-Graduação em Ciências/Física, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Szezech, J.D. [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Batista, A.M., E-mail: [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Souza, S.L.T. de [Departamento de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de São João del Rei, 36420-000, Ouro Branco, MG (Brazil); Caldas, I.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05315-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Viana, R.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sanjuán, M.A.F. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipán s/n, 28933 Móstoles, Madrid (Spain)


    Highlights: • We consider a situation for which a chaotic transient is present in the dynamics of the two-wave model with damping. • The damping in plasma models can be a way for study a realistic behavior of confinement due the collisional effect. • The escape time as a function of the damping obey a power-law scaling. • We have made a qualitative transport analysis with a simple model that can be useful for more complete models. • We have shown that the pattern of the basin of attraction depends on the damping parameter. - Abstract: We investigate chaotic particle transport in magnetised plasmas with two electrostatic drift waves. Considering dissipation in the drift motion, we verify that the removed KAM surfaces originate periodic attractors with their corresponding basins of attraction. We show that the properties of the basins depend on the dissipation and the space-averaged escape time decays exponentially when the dissipation increases. We find positive finite time Lyapunov exponents in dissipative drift motion, consequently the trajectories exhibit transient chaotic transport. These features indicate how the transient plasma transport depends on the dissipation.

  13. Chemotaxis when bacteria remember: drift versus diffusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakuntala Chatterjee


    Full Text Available Escherichia coli (E. coli bacteria govern their trajectories by switching between running and tumbling modes as a function of the nutrient concentration they experienced in the past. At short time one observes a drift of the bacterial population, while at long time one observes accumulation in high-nutrient regions. Recent work has viewed chemotaxis as a compromise between drift toward favorable regions and accumulation in favorable regions. A number of earlier studies assume that a bacterium resets its memory at tumbles - a fact not borne out by experiment - and make use of approximate coarse-grained descriptions. Here, we revisit the problem of chemotaxis without resorting to any memory resets. We find that when bacteria respond to the environment in a non-adaptive manner, chemotaxis is generally dominated by diffusion, whereas when bacteria respond in an adaptive manner, chemotaxis is dominated by a bias in the motion. In the adaptive case, favorable drift occurs together with favorable accumulation. We derive our results from detailed simulations and a variety of analytical arguments. In particular, we introduce a new coarse-grained description of chemotaxis as biased diffusion, and we discuss the way it departs from older coarse-grained descriptions.

  14. Correlated Energy Exchange in Drifting Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chmel


    Full Text Available The ice floe speed variations were monitored at the research camp North Pole 35 established on the Arctic ice pack in 2008. A three-month time series of measured speed values was used for determining changes in the kinetic energy of the drifting ice floe. The constructed energy distributions were analyzed by methods of nonextensive statistical mechanics based on the Tsallis statistics for open nonequilibrium systems, such as tectonic formations and drifting sea ice. The nonextensivity means the nonadditivity of externally induced energy changes in multicomponent systems due to dynamic interrelation of components having no structural links. The Tsallis formalism gives one an opportunity to assess the correlation between ice floe motions through a specific parameter, the so-called parameter of nonextensivity. This formalistic assessment of the actual state of drifting pack allows one to forecast some important trends in sea ice behavior, because the level of correlated dynamics determines conditions for extended mechanical perturbations in ice pack. In this work, we revealed temporal fluctuations of the parameter of nonextensivity and observed its maximum value before a large-scale sea ice fragmentation (faulting of consolidated sea ice. The correlation was not detected in fragmented sea ice where long-range interactions are weakened.

  15. Monitored Drift Chambers in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Herten, G

    Monitored Drift Chambers (MDT) are used in the ATLAS Detector to measure the momentum of high energy muons. They consist of drift tubes, which are filled with an Ar-CO2 gas mixture at 3 bar gas pressure. About 1200 drift chambers are required for ATLAS. They are up to 6 m long. Nevertheless the position of every wire needs to be known with a precision of 20 µm within a chamber. In addition, optical alignment sensors are required to measure the relative position of adjacent chambers with a precision of 30µm. This gigantic task seems impossible at first instance. Indeed it took many years of R&D to invent the right tools and methods before the first chamber could be built according to specifications. Today, at the time when 50% of the chambers have been produced, we are confident that the goal for ATLAS can be reached. The mechanical precision of the chambers could be verified with the x-ray tomograph at CERN. This ingenious device, developed for the MDT system, is able to measure the wire position insid...

  16. Commissioning of the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS at 18 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Daniela; Abbott, Steven R.; Dwinell, Roger D.; Leitner, Matthaeus; Taylor, Clyde E.; Lyneis, Claude M.


    During the last year, the VENUS ECR ion source was commissioned at 18 GHz and preparations for 28 GHz operation are now underway. During the commissioning phase with 18 GHz, tests with various gases and metals have been performed with up to 2000 W RF power. The ion source performance is very promising [1,2]. VENUS (Versatile ECR ion source for Nuclear Science) is a next generation superconducting ECR ion source, designed to produce high current, high charge state ions for the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. VENUS also serves as the prototype ion source for the RIA (Rare Isotope Accelerator) front end. The goal of the VENUS ECR ion source project as the RIA R&D injector is the production of 240e{micro}A of U{sup 30+}, a high current medium charge state beam. On the other hand, as an injector ion source for the 88-Inch Cyclotron the design objective is the production of 5e{micro}A of U{sup 48+}, a low current, very high charge state beam. To meet these ambitious goals, VENUS has been designed for optimum operation at 28 GHz. This frequency choice has several design consequences. To achieve the required magnetic confinement, superconducting magnets have to be used. The size of the superconducting magnet structure implies a relatively large plasma volume. Consequently, high power microwave coupling becomes necessary to achieve sufficient plasma heating power densities. The 28 GHz power supply has been delivered in April 2004.

  17. Ground Control for Emplacement Drifts for SR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Sun


    This analysis demonstrates that a satisfactory ground control system can be designed for the Yucca Mountain site, and provides the technical basis for the design of ground support systems to be used in repository emplacement and non-emplacement drifts. The repository ground support design was based on analytical methods using acquired computer codes, and focused on the final support systems. A literature review of case histories, including the lessons learned from the design and construction of the ESF, the studies on the seismic damages of underground openings, and the use of rock mass classification systems in the ground support design, was conducted (Sections 6.3.4 and 6.4). This review provided some basis for determining the inputs and methodologies used in this analysis. Stability of the supported and unsupported emplacement and non-emplacement drifts was evaluated in this analysis. The excavation effects (i.e., state of the stress change due to excavation), thermal effects (i.e., due to heat output from waste packages), and seismic effects (i.e., from potential earthquake events) were evaluated, and stress controlled modes of failure were examined for two in situ stress conditions (k_0=0.3 and 1.0) using rock properties representing rock mass categories of 1 and 5. Variation of rock mass units such as the non-lithophysal (Tptpmn) and lithophysal (Tptpll) was considered in the analysis. The focus was on the non-lithophysal unit because this unit appears to be relatively weaker and has much smaller joint spacing. Therefore, the drift stability and ground support needs were considered to be controlled by the design for this rock unit. The ground support systems for both emplacement and non-emplacement drifts were incorporated into the models to assess their performance under in situ, thermal, and seismic loading conditions. Both continuum and discontinuum modeling approaches were employed in the analyses of the rock mass behavior and in the evaluation of the

  18. Performance of the drift chamber beta-ray momentum analyzer for double beta decay experiments (United States)

    Ishihara, N.; Ohama, T.; Yamada, Y.; Kato, Y.; Inagaki, T.; Iwai, G.; Iwase, H.; Kawai, M.; Kondou, Y.; Makida, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Ujiie, N.; Tanaka, K.; Tonooka, M.; Hamatsu, R.; Ishikawa, T.; Igarashi, H.; Ito, T.; Kakizaki, M.; Kakuno, H.; Kitamura, S.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Yoshioka, T.; Ishizuka, T.; Tamura, N.; Sakamoto, Y.; Nagasaka, Y.; Ito, R.


    One of the most important problems in neutrino physics is whether neutrinos are Majorana particles or Dirac ones. If a neutrino has a Majorana nature, neutrinoless double beta decay (0ν2β) certainly takes place. On the other hand, there is a theory in which neutrinoless quadruple beta decay (0ν4β) is possible, allowing for lepton number violation by four units, even if a neutrino has a Dirac nature. Since the half-lives of both 0ν2β and 0ν4β are theoretically expected to be very long, detectors have to have an excellent capability to eliminate backgrounds. We have been developing a series of electron momentum analyzers called the drift chamber beta-ray analyzer (DCBA) at KEK for double beta decay experiments. DCBA consists of drift chambers detecting charged particle tracks, and a superconducting solenoid serving a uniform magnetic field. Since the momentum acceptance is in the region of 0.5-3.5 MeV/c, it is easy to eliminate background particles like alpha particles, protons, and muons, which have much higher momenta because of their large masses. The particle identification property and the 3D position determination capability are powerful tools to search for 0ν2β and 0ν4β events. In this article, we describe the performance of DCBA as well as the details of the detector construction processes.

  19. A novel silicon drift detector with two dimensional drift time measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hijzen, E.A. (Dept. of Applied Physics, Radiation Technology Group, Delft Univ. of Tech. (Netherlands)); Schooneveld, E.M. (Dept. of Applied Physics, Radiation Technology Group, Delft Univ. of Tech. (Netherlands)); Van Eijk, C.W.E. (Dept. of Applied Physics, Radiation Technology Group, Delft Univ. of Tech. (Netherlands)); Hollander, R.W. (Dept. of Applied Physics, Radiation Technology Group, Delft Univ. of Tech. (Netherlands)); Sarro, P.M. (Delft Inst. of Microelectronics and Submicrontechnology, Delft Univ. of Tech. (Netherlands)); Van den Bogaard, A. (Delft Inst. of Microelectronics and Submicrontechnology, Delft Univ. of Tech. (Netherlands))


    Until now silicon drift detectors with two dimensional position resolution made use of drift time measurement in one dimension only. The resolution in the other dimension was obtained by dividing the collecting anode into small pixels. In this paper we present a new type of drift detector that uses drift time measurements for both dimensions. The design consists of concentric quadrilateral closed strips with a small collecting anode in the centre. At first electrons will travel perpendicular to the strips until they reach a diagonal. Then they will proceed along this diagonal until they are collected at the centre. Position resolution in two dimensions can be obtained when both the time the electrons need to reach the diagonal and the time they need to reach the centre are measured. The latter is obtained from the collecting anode, the former from a diagonal strip present at the back side of the detector. Compared to common 2D drift detectors this detector offers the advantage of a small amount of readout electronics. It also has the advantage of having just one small collecting anode with a very low capacitance, resulting in low noise and therefore in a good energy resolution. ((orig.))

  20. The Genetic Drift Inventory: A Tool for Measuring What Advanced Undergraduates Have Mastered about Genetic Drift (United States)

    Price, Rebecca M.; Andrews, Tessa C.; McElhinny, Teresa L.; Mead, Louise S.; Abraham, Joel K.; Thanukos, Anna; Perez, Kathryn E.


    Understanding genetic drift is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of biology, yet it is difficult to learn because it combines the conceptual challenges of both evolution and randomness. To help assess strategies for teaching genetic drift, we have developed and evaluated the Genetic Drift Inventory (GeDI), a concept inventory that measures upper-division students’ understanding of this concept. We used an iterative approach that included extensive interviews and field tests involving 1723 students across five different undergraduate campuses. The GeDI consists of 22 agree–disagree statements that assess four key concepts and six misconceptions. Student scores ranged from 4/22 to 22/22. Statements ranged in mean difficulty from 0.29 to 0.80 and in discrimination from 0.09 to 0.46. The internal consistency, as measured with Cronbach's alpha, ranged from 0.58 to 0.88 across five iterations. Test–retest analysis resulted in a coefficient of stability of 0.82. The true–false format means that the GeDI can test how well students grasp key concepts central to understanding genetic drift, while simultaneously testing for the presence of misconceptions that indicate an incomplete understanding of genetic drift. The insights gained from this testing will, over time, allow us to improve instruction about this key component of evolution. PMID:24591505

  1. Construction of the superconducting ECR ion source Venus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, M.A.; Lyneis, C.M.; Wutte, D.C.; Taylor, C.E.; Abbott, S.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)


    A new, very high magnetic field superconducting ECR ion source, VENUS, is under development at the LBNL 88-inch cyclotron. It will boost the maximum energies and intensities for heavy ions from the cyclotron particularly for ions with mass greater than 60. It will also serve as R and D ion source for the proposed rare isotope accelerator (RIA) project in the US, which requires up to 10 p{mu}A of U{sup 30+}. The superconducting magnet structure consists of three solenoids and six racetrack coils with iron poles forming the sextupole. The coils are designed to generate a 4 T axial mirror field at injection and 3 T at extraction and a radial sextupole field of 2.4 T at the plasma chamber wall. Test results of the magnet coils, which exceeded design requirements with minimum training, are presented. The magnet assembly with its cryostat will be enclosed by an iron shield and therefore must be designed to withstand any possible forces between coils and iron, which can be as high as 3.4.10{sup 5} N (35,000 kgf). The low energy beam transport line (LEBT) and mass analyzing system of the ion source is designed to transport a proton-equivalent current of 25 mA at 20 kV extraction voltage. The design of the ion source and LEBT will be discussed. (orig.)

  2. Quantum acoustics with superconducting qubits (United States)

    Chu, Yiwen; Kharel, Prashanta; Renninger, William H.; Burkhart, Luke D.; Frunzio, Luigi; Rakich, Peter T.; Schoelkopf, Robert J.


    Mechanical objects have important practical applications in the fields of quantum information and metrology as quantum memories or transducers for measuring and connecting different types of quantum systems. The field of electromechanics is in pursuit of a robust and highly coherent device that couples motion to nonlinear quantum objects such as superconducting qubits. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a high-frequency bulk acoustic wave resonator that is strongly coupled to a superconducting qubit using piezoelectric transduction with a cooperativity of 260. We measure qubit and mechanical coherence times on the order of 10 microseconds. Our device requires only simple fabrication methods and provides controllable access to a multitude of phonon modes. We demonstrate quantum control and measurement on gigahertz phonons at the single-quantum level.

  3. Technical tasks in superconducting cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kenji [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    The feature of superconducting rf cavities is an extremely small surface resistance on the wall. It brings a large energy saving in the operation, even those are cooled with liquid helium. That also makes possible to operate themselves in a higher field gradient comparing to normal conducting cavities, and brings to make accelerators compact. These merits are very important for the future accelerator engineering which is planed at JAERI for the neutron material science and nuclear waste transmutation. This machine is a high intensity proton linac and uses sc cavities in the medium and high {beta} sections. In this paper, starting R and D of proton superconducting cavities, several important technical points which come from the small surface resistance of sc cavities, are present to succeed it and also differences between the medium and high - {beta} structures are discussed. (author)

  4. Mixed-parity superconductivity in centrosymmetric crystals


    Sergienko, I. A.


    A weak-coupling formalism for superconducting states possessing both singlet (even parity) and triplet (odd parity) components of the order parameter in centrosymmetric crystals is developed. It is shown that the quasiparticle energy spectrum may be non-degenerate even if the triplet component is unitary. The superconducting gap of a mixed-parity state may have line nodes in the strong spin-orbit coupling limit. The pseudospin carried by the superconducting electrons is calculated, from which...

  5. Quantum fluctuations of the superconducting cosmic string (United States)

    Zhang, Shoucheng


    Quantum fluctuations of the proposed superconducting string with Bose charge carriers are studied in terms of the vortices on the string world sheet. In the thermodynamical limit, it is found that they appear in the form of free vortices rather than as bound pairs. This fluctuation mode violates the topological conservation law on which superconductivity is based. However, this limit may not be reached. The critical size of the superconducting string is estimated as a function of the coupling constants involved.

  6. Superconducting states of pure and doped graphene. (United States)

    Uchoa, Bruno; Castro Neto, A H


    We study the superconducting phases of the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice of graphene. We find two spin singlet pairing states; s wave and an exotic p+ip that is possible because of the special structure of the honeycomb lattice. At half filling, the p+ip phase is gapless and superconductivity is a hidden order. We discuss the possibility of a superconducting state in metal coated graphene.

  7. Superconducting states of pure and doped graphene


    Uchoa, Bruno; Neto, A. H. Castro


    We study the superconducting phases of the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice of graphene. We find two spin singlet pairing states, s-wave and an exotic $p+ip$ that is possible because of the special structure of the honeycomb lattice. At half filling, the $p+ip$ phase is gapless and superconductivity is a hidden order. We discuss the possibility of a superconducting state in metal coated graphene.

  8. Superconductivity of Thin Film Intermetallic Compounds. (United States)


    D-RISE 2?I SUPERCONDUCTIVITY OF THIN FILM INTERMETLLIC COMPOUNDS I/i. (U) MINNESOTR UNIV MINNERPOLIS SCHOOL OF PHYSICS AND RSTRONOMY R M GOLDMRN 15...parameters to either higher temperatures of higher critical fields. Materials under study are the superconducting Chevrel phase compounds, selected Heavy...superconducting field effect. Processing of the Chevrel Phase I compounds is carried out in a multi-source deposition system. The latter has been upgraded and

  9. Controlled interactions in superconducting quantum circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulschner, Karl Friedrich


    This thesis deals with controlled interactions between superconducting circuit elements for quantum computation and simulation applications. First, the electrical design and measurements of transmon type qubits, which are coupled to superconducting resonators, are presented. Secondly the controllable coupling of superconducting microwave resonators via an rf SQUID is experimentally investigated. Thirdly, a theoretical discussion about interaction and entanglement of a microwave resonator with a nanomechanical beam via an rf SQUID is discussed.

  10. Experimental setup to detect superconducting wire motion


    K. Ruwali; A. Yamanaka; Y. Teramoto; K. Nakanishi; K. Hosoyama


    An experimental setup was designed and fabricated to study superconducting wire motion under the influence of electromagnetic force. Experiments were conducted at 4.2 K by varying the experimental conditions such as the tension to the superconducting wire and different insulating materials at the interface of the superconducting wire and head part. The insulating materials used in the experiments were polyimide film and a high strength polyethylene fiber cloth, Dyneema. Details of the experim...

  11. Nanoscale high-temperature superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, P.; Wei, J.Y.T.; Ananth, V.; Morales, P.; Skocpol, W


    We discuss the exciting prospects of studying high-temperature superconductivity in the nanometer scale from the perspective of experiments, theory and simulation. In addition to enabling studies of novel quantum phases in an unexplored regime of system dimensions and parameters, nanoscale high-temperature superconducting structures will allow exploration of fundamental mechanisms with unprecedented insight. The prospects include, spin-charge separation, detection of electron fractionalization via novel excitations such as vison, stripe states and their dynamics, preformed cooper pairs or bose-condensation in the underdoped regime, and other quantum-ordered states. Towards this initiative, we present the successful development of a novel nanofabrication technique for the epitaxial growth of nanoscale cuprates. Combining the techniques of e-beam lithography and nanomachining, we have been able to fabricate the first generation of high-temperature superconducting nanoscale devices, including Y-junctions, four-probe wires and rings. Their initial transport characterization and scanning tunneling microscopy reveal the integrity of the crystal structure, grown on nanometer scale lateral dimensions. Here, we present atomic force micrographs and electrical characterization of a few nanoscale YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) samples.

  12. Attenuation in Superconducting Circular Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Yeap


    Full Text Available We present an analysis on wave propagation in superconducting circular waveguides. In order to account for the presence of quasiparticles in the intragap states of a superconductor, we employ the characteristic equation derived from the extended Mattis-Bardeen theory to compute the values of the complex conductivity. To calculate the attenuation in a circular waveguide, the tangential fields at the boundary of the wall are first matched with the electrical properties (which includes the complex conductivity of the wall material. The matching of fields with the electrical properties results in a set of transcendental equations which is able to accurately describe the propagation constant of the fields. Our results show that although the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide above cutoff (but below the gap frequency is finite, it is considerably lower than that in a normal waveguide. Above the gap frequency, however, the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide increases sharply. The attenuation eventually surpasses that in a normal waveguide. As frequency increases above the gap frequency, Cooper pairs break into quasiparticles. Hence, we attribute the sharp rise in attenuation to the increase in random collision of the quasiparticles with the lattice structure.

  13. Ballistic superconductivity in semiconductor nanowires. (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Nowak, Michał P; Wimmer, Michael; Zuo, Kun; Mourik, Vincent; de Vries, Folkert K; van Veen, Jasper; de Moor, Michiel W A; Bommer, Jouri D S; van Woerkom, David J; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P A M; Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Cassidy, Maja C; Koelling, Sebastian; Goswami, Srijit; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kouwenhoven, Leo P


    Semiconductor nanowires have opened new research avenues in quantum transport owing to their confined geometry and electrostatic tunability. They have offered an exceptional testbed for superconductivity, leading to the realization of hybrid systems combining the macroscopic quantum properties of superconductors with the possibility to control charges down to a single electron. These advances brought semiconductor nanowires to the forefront of efforts to realize topological superconductivity and Majorana modes. A prime challenge to benefit from the topological properties of Majoranas is to reduce the disorder in hybrid nanowire devices. Here we show ballistic superconductivity in InSb semiconductor nanowires. Our structural and chemical analyses demonstrate a high-quality interface between the nanowire and a NbTiN superconductor that enables ballistic transport. This is manifested by a quantized conductance for normal carriers, a strongly enhanced conductance for Andreev-reflecting carriers, and an induced hard gap with a significantly reduced density of states. These results pave the way for disorder-free Majorana devices.

  14. Demersally drifting invertebrates from Kongsfjorden, Svalbård (Arctic Ocean)-a comparison of catches from drift-pump and drift-nets (United States)

    Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Joo, Hyoung-Min; Lee, Jae Hyung; Yun, Mi Sun; Ahn, So Hyun; Lee, Sang Heon


    Demersally drifting organisms were collected at Ny Ålesund (Svalbård-Arctic Ocean) to study the taxon composition and relative abundances in the Arctic summer. Catch potentials of two collection devices for demersal drift were compared. A lowvolume submersible drift-pump and a drift-net unit were employed for the collection of demersally drifting biota, particularly for shallow aquatic habitats. With the exception of Appendicularia, Chaetognatha, Coelenterata, and Ctenophora, which were damaged at times, the pump catches were in good condition and sufficient for identification and quantification of less mobile fauna. A comparison of the two devices revealed that the drift-pump collected more specimens than the drift-net. However, the drift-net may have caused an underestimation of the abundances of invertebrates. No differences in identified taxon number and indices of richness, evenness and diversity were found. However, the proportion of invertebrate animals in the two devices was different for the three groups: zooplankton, macrofauna and meiofauna. At Svalbård, zooplankton, larvae of macrofauna, and meiofauna were successfully collected by the two collecting devices. However, the catchibility of the two devices in collecting various invertebrate taxa was different and, therefore, a sound `Device Effect' was revealed.

  15. Mechanical Design of Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Toral, Fernando


    This paper is about the mechanical design of superconducting accelerator magnets. First, we give a brief review of the basic concepts and terms. In the following sections, we describe the particularities of the mechanical design of different types of superconducting accelerator magnets: solenoids, costheta, superferric, and toroids. Special attention is given to the pre-stress principle, which aims to avoid the appearance of tensile stresses in the superconducting coils. A case study on a compact superconducting cyclotron summarizes the main steps and the guidelines that should be followed for a proper mechanical design. Finally, we present some remarks on the measurement techniques.

  16. Search for superconductivity of magnetic metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, K [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Furomoto, S [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Kimura, T [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Shimizu, K [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Onuki, Y [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)


    A search for superconductivity of magnetic elemental metals is performed. A successful discovery of the onset of superconductivity is reported in the case of iron under pressure. By electrical resistance measurement, a maximum value of the superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} of 2 K and the upper critical magnetic field H{sub c} of 0.2 T are observed under pressure of 20 GPa where iron is in the crystallographic hcp phase and non-magnetic. Further confirmation of the superconducting transition of hcp iron was obtained by the detection of the diamagnetic signal due to the Meissner effect in accordance with the results of the electrical resistance measurements.

  17. Search for superconductivity of magnetic metals

    CERN Document Server

    Amaya, K; Kimura, T; Shimizu, K; Onuki, Y


    A search for superconductivity of magnetic elemental metals is performed. A successful discovery of the onset of superconductivity is reported in the case of iron under pressure. By electrical resistance measurement, a maximum value of the superconducting transition temperature T sub c of 2 K and the upper critical magnetic field H sub c of 0.2 T are observed under pressure of 20 GPa where iron is in the crystallographic hcp phase and non-magnetic. Further confirmation of the superconducting transition of hcp iron was obtained by the detection of the diamagnetic signal due to the Meissner effect in accordance with the results of the electrical resistance measurements.

  18. Method of superconducting joint and its measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Lee, Ho Jin; Hong, Gye Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The development of joint techniques for superconducting wires is essential to fabricate the high quality superconducting magnet. In this report, the various joining methods and their measuring techniques were reviewed. In order to fabricate a precise superconducting magnet, joining and measuring experiment by using the field decay technique carried out. The contact resistance of coupled specimens with joint was measured as 3.0 x 10{sup -15} ohm at 1 Tesla which is lower than that of the real operating condition of MRI magnet. It is expected that these data can be used to design and fabricate the superconducting magnets successfully. (Author) 12 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Superconductivity in Ca-doped graphene laminates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chapman, J; Su, Y; Howard, C A; Kundys, D; Grigorenko, A N; Guinea, F; Geim, A K; Grigorieva, I V; Nair, R R


    Despite graphene's long list of exceptional electronic properties and many theoretical predictions regarding the possibility of superconductivity in graphene, its direct and unambiguous experimental...

  20. Background Assay and Rejection in DRIFT


    Brack, J.; Daw, E.; Dorofeev, A.; Ezeribe, A.; Gauvreau, J. -L.; Gold, M; Harton, J.; Lafler, R.; Lauer, R.; Lee, E.R.; Loomba, D.; Matthews, J.; Miller, E. H.; Monte, A; Murphy, A


    The DRIFT-IId dark matter detector is a m$^3$-scale low-pressure TPC with directional sensitivity to WIMP-induced nuclear recoils. Its primary backgrounds were due to alpha decays from contamination on the central cathode. Efforts to reduce these backgrounds led to replacing the 20 \\mu m wire central cathode with one constructed from 0.9 \\mu m aluminized mylar, which is almost totally transparent to alpha particles. Detailed modeling of the nature and origin of the remaining backgrounds led t...

  1. Nonlinear Simulation of Drift Wave Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Numata, R; Dewar, R L


    In a two-dimensional version of the modified Hasegawa-Wakatani (HW) model, which describes electrostatic resistive drift wave turbulence, the resistive coupling between vorticity and density does not act on the zonal components ($k_{y}=0$). It is therefore necessary to modify the HW model to treat the zonal components properly. The modified equations are solved numerically, and visualization and analysis of the solutions show generation of stable zonal flows, through conversion of turbulent kinetic energy, and the consequent turbulence and transport suppression. It is demonstrated by comparison that the modification is essential for generation of zonal flows.

  2. The Mark II Vertex Drift Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J.P.; Baggs, R.; Fujino, D.; Hayes, K.; Hoard, C.; Hower, N.; Hutchinson, D.; Jaros, J.A.; Koetke, D.; Kowalski, L.A.


    We have completed constructing and begun operating the Mark II Drift Chamber Vertex Detector. The chamber, based on a modified jet cell design, achieves 30 {mu}m spatial resolution and <1000 {mu}m track-pair resolution in pressurized CO{sub 2} gas mixtures. Special emphasis has been placed on controlling systematic errors including the use of novel construction techniques which permit accurate wire placement. Chamber performance has been studied with cosmic ray tracks collected with the chamber located both inside and outside the Mark II. Results on spatial resolution, average pulse shape, and some properties of CO{sub 2} mixtures are presented. 10 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Drift Tube Linac Conditioning of Tank1

    CERN Document Server

    Shafqat, N; Toor, W A


    Tank1 of the Drift Tube Linac (DTL) of the Linac4 has been conditioned at the Linac4 tunnel. The tank was tuned for resonance at 352.2 MHz, and stable operation has been achieved with 725 µs long RF pulses at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. The maximum RF level that has been reached is 810 kW with a pulse width of 600 µs. Since this was the first RF structure exclusively conditioned in the Linac4 tunnel with the operation and control software of Linac4, some related issues and limitations had to be taken into account.

  4. Crowdsourcing and annotating NER for Twitter #drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromreide, Hege; Hovy, Dirk; Søgaard, Anders


    ) language drift on Twitter is significant, and while off-the-shelf systems have been reported to perform well on in-sample data, they often perform poorly on new samples of tweets, (b) state-of-the-art performance across various datasets can beobtained from crowdsourced annotations, making it more feasible......We present two new NER datasets for Twitter; a manually annotated set of 1,467 tweets (kappa=0.942) and a set of 2,975 expert-corrected, crowdsourced NER annotated tweets from the dataset described in Finin et al. (2010). In our experiments with these datasets, we observe two important points: (a...

  5. Overview of Superconducting Materials Researches held in HFLSM at Tohoku University(Part III. Superconducting Materials Researches)


    Noto, Koshichi; Watanabe, Kazuo; Muto, Yoshio


    Recent remarkable progresses in practical superconducting conductors for high field magnets and advanced high field superconducting materials developments held at the High Field Laboratory for Superconducting Materials (HFLSM) are overlooked.

  6. Coriorretinite esclopetária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Carvalho de Oliveira Ramos


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar um caso de trauma ocular por projétil de arma de fogo, que atingiu e se alojou na cavidade orbitária, desenvolvendo coriorretinite esclopetária. Foram abordados o mecanismo fisiopatológico, os principais achados clínicos e de exames complementares, além das opções de tratamento. As características do caso relatado reforçam a importância de uma abordagem multidisciplinar no trauma ocular.

  7. Ground Control for Non-Emplacement Drifts for LA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Tang


    The purpose of this calculation is to analyze the stability of repository non-emplacement drifts during the preclosure period, and to provide a final ground support method for non-emplacement drifts for the License Application (LA). This calculation will provide input for the development of LA documents. The scope of this calculation is limited to the non-emplacement drifts including access mains, ramps, exhaust mains, turnouts, intersections between access mains and turnouts, and intersections between exhaust mains and emplacement drifts, portals, TBM launch chambers, observation drift and test alcove in the performance confirmation (PC) facilities, etc. The calculation is limited to the non-emplacement drifts subjected to a combined loading of in-situ stress, seismic stress, and/or thermal stress. Other effects such as hydrological and chemical effects are not considered in this analysis.

  8. Snow particle speeds in drifting snow (United States)

    Nishimura, Kouichi; Yokoyama, Chika; Ito, Yoichi; Nemoto, Masaki; Naaim-Bouvet, Florence; Bellot, Hervé; Fujita, Koji


    Knowledge of snow particle speeds is necessary for deepening our understanding of the internal structures of drifting snow. In this study, we utilized a snow particle counter (SPC) developed to observe snow particle size distributions and snow mass flux. Using high-frequency signals from the SPC transducer, we obtained the sizes of individual particles and their durations in the sampling area. Measurements were first conducted in the field, with more precise measurements being obtained in a boundary layer established in a cold wind tunnel. The obtained results were compared with the results of a numerical analysis. Data on snow particle speeds, vertical velocity profiles, and their dependence on wind speed obtained in the field and in the wind tunnel experiments were in good agreement: both snow particle speed and wind speed increased with height, and the former was always 1 to 2 m s-1 less than the latter below a height of 1 m. Thus, we succeeded in obtaining snow particle speeds in drifting snow, as well as revealing the dependence of particle speed on both grain size and wind speed. The results were verified by similar trends observed using random flight simulations. However, the difference between the particle speed and the wind speed in the simulations was much greater than that observed under real conditions. Snow transport by wind is an aeolian process. Thus, the findings presented here should be also applicable to other geophysical processes relating to the aeolian transport of particles, such as blown sand and soil.

  9. Species selection and random drift in macroevolution. (United States)

    Chevin, Luis-Miguel


    Species selection resulting from trait-dependent speciation and extinction is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of phenotypic macroevolution. However, the recent bloom in statistical methods quantifying this process faces a scarcity of dynamical theory for their interpretation, notably regarding the relative contributions of deterministic versus stochastic evolutionary forces. I use simple diffusion approximations of birth-death processes to investigate how the expected and random components of macroevolutionary change depend on phenotype-dependent speciation and extinction rates, as can be estimated empirically. I show that the species selection coefficient for a binary trait, and selection differential for a quantitative trait, depend not only on differences in net diversification rates (speciation minus extinction), but also on differences in species turnover rates (speciation plus extinction), especially in small clades. The randomness in speciation and extinction events also produces a species-level equivalent to random genetic drift, which is stronger for higher turnover rates. I then show how microevolutionary processes including mutation, organismic selection, and random genetic drift cause state transitions at the species level, allowing comparison of evolutionary forces across levels. A key parameter that would be needed to apply this theory is the distribution and rate of origination of new optimum phenotypes along a phylogeny. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Mariner


    This report documents the development and validation of the in-drift precipitates/salts (IDPS) model. The IDPS model is a geochemical model designed to predict the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). Application of the model in support of TSPA-LA is documented in ''Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156]) is the technical work plan (TWP) for this report. It called for a revision of the previous version of the report (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167734]) to achieve greater transparency, readability, data traceability, and report integration. The intended use of the IDPS model is to estimate and tabulate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation, deliquescence, and potential environmental conditions on the pH, ionic strength, and chemical compositions of water and minerals on the drip shield or other location within the drift during the postclosure period. Specifically, the intended use is as follows: (1) To estimate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the presence and composition of water occurring within the repository during the postclosure period (i.e., effects on pH, ionic strength, deliquescence relative humidity, total concentrations of dissolved components in the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO{sub 3}-SO{sub 4}-Br-CO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O, and concentrations of the following aqueous species that potentially affect acid neutralizing capacity: HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, OH{sup -}, H{sup +}, HSO{sub 4}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, CaHCO{sub 3}{sup +}, MgHCO{sub 3

  11. Are drifting FADs essential for testing the ecological trap hypothesis ?


    Dagorn, Laurent; Holland, K. N.; Filmalter, J.


    Because tropical tunas are known to aggregate around floating objects, it has been suggested that the large number of drifting fish aggregating devices (FADS) built and deployed by purse seiners could act as an 'ecological trap'. This hypothesis states that these networks of drifting FADS could take fish to areas where they would not normally go or retain them in places that they would otherwise leave. Because the ecological trap hypothesis was first advanced for drifting FADs, some have argu...

  12. Proportional drift tubes for large area muon detectors (United States)

    Cho, C.; Higashi, S.; Hiraoka, N.; Maruyama, A.; Okusawa, T.; Sato, T.; Suwada, T.; Takahashi, T.; Umeda, H.


    A proportional drift chamber which consists of eight rectangular drift tubes with cross section of 10 cm x 5 cm, a sense wire of 100 micron phi gold-plated tungsten wire and the length of 6 m, was tested using cosmic ray muons. Spatial resolution (rms) is between 0.5 and 1 mm over drift space of 50 mm, depending on incident angle and distance from sense wire.

  13. From superconductivity near a quantum phase transition to superconducting graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Saxena


    Full Text Available   The collapse of antiferromagnetic order as a function of some quantum tuning parameter such as carrier density or hydrostatic pressure is often accompanied by a region of superconductivity. The corresponding phenomenon in the potentially simpler case of itinerant-electron ferromagnetism, however, remains more illusive. In this paper we consider the reasons why this may be so and summaries evidence suggesting that the obstacles to observing the phenomenon are apparently overcome in a few metallic ferromagnets. A new twist to the problem presented by the recent discoveries in ferroelectric symmetric systems and new graphite intercalate superconductors will also be discussed.

  14. Theoretical Analyses of Superconductivity in Iron Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The microscopic understanding of the phenomenon, however, was not given due attention until the formulation of the superconductivity theory by. Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer in 1957(BCS) who provided a microscopic theoretical analysis suitable for describing the observed superconducting state (Bardeen et al., 1957).


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    We employ the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory to calculate the frequency-dependent interlayer conductivity of a superconducting bilayer, the two layers of which are coupled by weak single-particle tunneling. The effect of the superconducting transition on the normal-state absorption band is to

  16. Josephson plasma resonance in superconducting multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig


    We derive an analytical solution for the josephson plasma resonance of superconducting multilayers. This analytical solution is derived mainly for low T-c systems with magnetic coupling between the superconducting layers, but many features of our results are more general, and thus an application...... to the recently derived plasma resonance phenomena for high T-c superconductors of the BSCCO type is discussed....

  17. Diagram of a LEP superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia


    This diagram gives a schematic representation of the superconducting radio-frequency cavities at LEP. Liquid helium is used to cool the cavity to 4.5 degrees above absolute zero so that very high electric fields can be produced, increasing the operating energy of the accelerator. Superconducting cavities were used only in the LEP-2 phase of the accelerator, from 1996 to 2000.

  18. Superconducting linear accelerator system for NSC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports the construction of a superconducting linear accelerator as a booster to the 15 UD Pelletron accelerator at Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi. The LINAC will use superconducting niobium quarter wave resonators as the accelerating element. Construction of the linear accelerator has progressed ...

  19. Superconducting gap anomaly in heavy fermion systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    metal and undergoes a transition to the gap-less superconducting state. Keywords. Heavy fermion superconductor; Narrow band system; Valence fluctuation. PACS Nos 74.70.Tx; 71.28.+d; 75.30.Mb. 1. Introduction. The discovery of superconductivity in the so-called heavy fermion system CeCu2Si2,. UBe13, UPt3 [1] ...

  20. Superconductivity in Correlated Fermions System | Babalola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... technique and found out that there was a transition from metallic state to a superconducting state as we move from the positive value of the On-site interaction strength to the negative value of the On-site interaction strength U. Keywords: Hubbard model, exact diagonalization, superconducting state and interaction strength

  1. Multiple superconducting phases in heavy fermion compounds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here we show that multiple superconducting phases are present in heavy fermion superconductors, CeCoIn5 [2] and PrOs4Sb12 [3] , both of which were discovered very recently. The superconducting gap function of PrOs4Sb12 was investigated using thermal transport measurements in magnetic field rotated relative to the.

  2. Critical current densities in superconducting materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The electrical resistance of a superconducting material drops to zero below its critical temper-. atureTC, and the Joule heating given byi2R drops to zero. The largest commercial applications of superconductors have been based on this ability to carry current without resistance, and have been in the form of superconducting ...

  3. Superconducting Continuous Graphene Fibers via Calcium Intercalation. (United States)

    Liu, Yingjun; Liang, Hui; Xu, Zhen; Xi, Jiabin; Chen, Genfu; Gao, Weiwei; Xue, Mianqi; Gao, Chao


    Superconductors are important materials in the field of low-temperature magnet applications and long-distance electrical power transmission systems. Besides metal-based superconducting materials, carbon-based superconductors have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Up to now, five allotropes of carbon, including diamond, graphite, C60, CNTs, and graphene, have been reported to show superconducting behavior. However, most of the carbon-based superconductors are limited to small size and discontinuous phases, which inevitably hinders further application in macroscopic form. Therefore, it raises a question of whether continuously carbon-based superconducting wires could be accessed, which is of vital importance from viewpoints of fundamental research and practical application. Here, inspired by superconducting graphene, we successfully fabricated flexible graphene-based superconducting fibers via a well-established calcium (Ca) intercalation strategy. The resultant Ca-intercalated graphene fiber (Ca-GF) shows a superconducting transition at ∼11 K, which is almost 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of early reported alkali metal intercalated graphite and comparable to that of commercial superconducting NbTi wire. The combination of lightness and easy scalability makes Ca-GF highly promising as a lightweight superconducting wire.

  4. Theoretical analyses of superconductivity in iron based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the theoretical analysis of superconductivity in iron based superconductor Ba1−xKxFe2As2. After reviewing the current findings on this system, we suggest that phononexciton combined mechanism gives a right order of superconducting transition temperature (TC) for Ba1−xKxFe2As2 . By developing ...

  5. 17th International Conference on RF Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Laxdal, Robert E.; Schaa, Volker R.W.


    RF superconductivity is the key technology of accelerators for particle physics, nuclear physics and light sources. SRF 2015 covered the latest advances in the science, technology, and applications of superconducting RF. There was also an industrial exhibit during the conference with the key vendors in the community available to discuss their capabilities and products.

  6. Growth of superconducting FeSe films (United States)

    Naito, Michio; Agatsuma, Shinya; Ueda, Shinya


    The recently discovered Fe arsenide and chalcogenide superconductors have provided the superconducting community with a great surprise that Fe-based compounds are not ferromagnetic but superconducting with high Tc. The superconducting Fe arsenides and chalcogenides are also interested from the viewpoint of superconducting electronics. One can see good lattice compatibility between the superconducting Fe family and the existing III-V and II-VI semiconducting family (GaAs, ZnSe). All-epitaxial super-semiconductor multilayer structures may be ideal for superconducting electronics and spintronics. Toward this goal, we have attempted to grow epitaxial thin films of the superconducting Fe family. Of this family, tetragonal α-FeSe seems to be the easiest to grow thin films. We employed two approaches for FeSe film growth: post-annealing and MBE growth. In the post-annealing, precursor films of Fe are annealed at 500 - 600 ^oC with Se vapor in an evacuated quartz tube. Annealing with elemental Se produced semiconducting FeSe2 whereas annealing with FeSe polycrystalline pellets produced superconducting FeSe with Tc(onset) ˜ 10 K. In the MBE growth, we attempted the growth similar to GaAs growth, namely with the vapor rich in Se, expecting self-limiting adsorption of Se. MBE films so far obtained with the growth temperature of 330 ^oC are nonsuperconducting hexagonal β-FeSe.

  7. Silicon Drift Detectors with the Drift Field Induced by PureB-Coated Trenches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Knežević


    Full Text Available Junction formation in deep trenches is proposed as a new means of creating a built-in drift field in silicon drift detectors (SDDs. The potential performance of this trenched drift detector (TDD was investigated analytically and through simulations, and compared to simulations of conventional bulk-silicon drift detector (BSDD configurations. Although the device was not experimentally realized, the manufacturability of the TDDs is estimated to be good on the basis of previously demonstrated photodiodes and detectors fabricated in PureB technology. The pure boron deposition of this technology allows good trench coverage and is known to provide nm-shallow low-noise p+n diodes that can be used as radiation-hard light-entrance windows. With this type of diode, the TDDs would be suitable for X-ray radiation detection down to 100 eV and up to tens of keV energy levels. In the TDD, the drift region is formed by varying the geometry and position of the trenches while the reverse biasing of all diodes is kept at the same constant voltage. For a given wafer doping, the drift field is lower for the TDD than for a BSDD and it demands a much higher voltage between the anode and cathode, but also has several advantages: it eliminates the possibility of punch-through and no current flows from the inner to outer perimeter of the cathode because a voltage divider is not needed to set the drift field. In addition, the loss of sensitive area at the outer perimeter of the cathode is much smaller. For example, the simulations predict that an optimized TDD geometry with an active-region radius of 3100 µm could have a drift field of 370 V/cm and a photo-sensitive radius that is 500-µm larger than that of a comparable BSDD structure. The PureB diodes on the front and back of the TDD are continuous, which means low dark currents and high stability with respect to leakage currents that otherwise could be caused by radiation damage. The dark current of the 3100-µm TDD

  8. Quantum acoustics with superconducting qubits (United States)

    Chu, Yiwen


    The ability to engineer and manipulate different types of quantum mechanical objects allows us to take advantage of their unique properties and create useful hybrid technologies. Thus far, complex quantum states and exquisite quantum control have been demonstrated in systems ranging from trapped ions to superconducting resonators. Recently, there have been many efforts to extend these demonstrations to the motion of complex, macroscopic objects. These mechanical objects have important applications as quantum memories or transducers for measuring and connecting different types of quantum systems. In particular, there have been a few experiments that couple motion to nonlinear quantum objects such as superconducting qubits. This opens up the possibility of creating, storing, and manipulating non-Gaussian quantum states in mechanical degrees of freedom. However, before sophisticated quantum control of mechanical motion can be achieved, we must realize systems with long coherence times while maintaining a sufficient interaction strength. These systems should be implemented in a simple and robust manner that allows for increasing complexity and scalability in the future. In this talk, I will describe our recent experiments demonstrating a high frequency bulk acoustic wave resonator that is strongly coupled to a superconducting qubit using piezoelectric transduction. In contrast to previous experiments with qubit-mechanical systems, our device requires only simple fabrication methods, extends coherence times to many microseconds, and provides controllable access to a multitude of phonon modes. We use this system to demonstrate basic quantum operations on the coupled qubit-phonon system. Straightforward improvements to the current device will allow for advanced protocols analogous to what has been shown in optical and microwave resonators, resulting in a novel resource for implementing hybrid quantum technologies.

  9. Superconductivity in compensated and uncompensated semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Yanase and Naoyuki Yorozu


    Full Text Available We investigate the localization and superconductivity in heavily doped semiconductors. The crossover from the superconductivity in the host band to that in the impurity band is described on the basis of the disordered three-dimensional attractive Hubbard model for binary alloys. The microscopic inhomogeneity and the thermal superconducting fluctuation are taken into account using the self-consistent 1-loop order theory. The superconductor-insulator transition accompanies the crossover from the host band to the impurity band. We point out an enhancement of the critical temperature Tc around the crossover. Further localization of electron wave functions leads to the localization of Cooper pairs and induces the pseudogap. We find that both the doping compensation by additional donors and the carrier increase by additional acceptors suppress the superconductivity. A theoretical interpretation is proposed for the superconductivity in the boron-doped diamond, SiC, and Si.

  10. RF superconductivity for accelerators. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padamsee, H. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. of Nuclear Studies; Knobloch, J. [BESSY GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Hays, T. [Cosmic Consulting, Gore, VA (United States)


    This book introduces some of the key ideas of RF Superconductivity by using a pedagogic approach, and presents a comprehensive overview of the field. It is divided into four parts. The first part introduces the basic concepts of microwave cavities for particle acceleration. The second part is devoted to the observed behavior of superconducting cavities. In the third part, general issues connected with beam-cavity interaction and related issues for critical components are covered. The final part discusses applications of superconducting cavities to frontier accelerators of the future, drawing heavily on examples that are in their most advanced stage. Each part of the book ends in a problems section to illustrate and amplify text material as well as to draw on example applications of superconducting cavities to existing and future accelerators. From the Contents: - Basics - Performance of Superconducting Cavities - Couplers and Tuners - Frontier Accelerators. (orig.)

  11. Development of superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech


    In this paper, the commercial activities in the field of superconducting machines, particularly superconducting wind turbine generators, are reviewed and presented. Superconducting generators have the potential to provide a compact and light weight drive train at high torques and slow rotational...... speeds, because high magnetic fields can be produced by coils with very little loss. Three different superconducting wind turbine generator topologies have been proposed by three different companies. One is based on low temperature superconductors; one is based on high temperature superconductors...... and production volumes prohibit a large scale impact on the wind sector. The low temperature superconductors are readily available, but will need more sophisticated cooling. Eventually the Cost of Energy from superconducting wind turbines, with particular emphasis on reliability, will determine if they become...

  12. Properties of ultrasmall superconducting grains

    CERN Document Server

    Lorenzo, A D; Fazio, R; Giaquinta, G; Mastellone, A; Hekking, F W J


    We briefly review some properties of ultrasmall superconducting grains. The ground state and the first excited states of the grains are analyzed by studying the parity gap and the spectroscopic gap. Both quantities turn out to be parity dependent and universal functions of the ratio between the level spacing and the BCS gap, delta/DELTA. pairing correlations show up also in the thermodynamic quantities. The presence of a BCS interaction is responsible for an anomaly in the spin susceptibility as a function of temperature. This anomaly persists also in very small grains.

  13. Superconductivity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Stephen


    Superconductivity is one of the most exciting areas of research in physics today. Outlining the history of its discovery, and the race to understand its many mysterious and counter-intuitive phenomena, this Very Short Introduction explains in accessible terms the theories that have been developed, and how they have influenced other areas of science, including the Higgs boson of particle physics and ideas about the early Universe. It is an engaging and informative accountof a fascinating scientific detective story, and an intelligible insight into some deep and beautiful ideas of physics

  14. Efficient Measurement of Superconducting Resonators (United States)

    Sendelbach, Steven; Stoutimore, Micah; Strong, Josh; Naaman, Ofer; Campbell, Brooks; Martinis, John


    S-parameter measurements of high-Q superconducting resonators at single-photon drive powers often require significant averaging with associated long acquisition time. We have developed a procedure for optimizing the frequency sweep-plan of the measurement, and found that an appropriate choice of frequencies has a significant impact on its efficiency. An optimized sweep-plan design offers up to a factor of two reduction in the variance of extracted parameters, in comparison to a linear sweep-plan having the same total acquisition time. We experimentally compare the performance of the optimized and linear sweeps in measurements of high-Q aluminum CPW resonators.

  15. High specific heat superconducting composite (United States)

    Steyert, Jr., William A.


    A composite superconductor formed from a high specific heat ceramic such as gadolinium oxide or gadolinium-aluminum oxide and a conventional metal conductor such as copper or aluminum which are insolubly mixed together to provide adiabatic stability in a superconducting mode of operation. The addition of a few percent of insoluble gadolinium-aluminum oxide powder or gadolinium oxide powder to copper, increases the measured specific heat of the composite by one to two orders of magnitude below the K. level while maintaining the high thermal and electrical conductivity of the conventional metal conductor.

  16. Quantum Memristors with Superconducting Circuits. (United States)

    Salmilehto, J; Deppe, F; Di Ventra, M; Sanz, M; Solano, E


    Memristors are resistive elements retaining information of their past dynamics. They have garnered substantial interest due to their potential for representing a paradigm change in electronics, information processing and unconventional computing. Given the advent of quantum technologies, a design for a quantum memristor with superconducting circuits may be envisaged. Along these lines, we introduce such a quantum device whose memristive behavior arises from quasiparticle-induced tunneling when supercurrents are cancelled. For realistic parameters, we find that the relevant hysteretic behavior may be observed using current state-of-the-art measurements of the phase-driven tunneling current. Finally, we develop suitable methods to quantify memory retention in the system.

  17. Large superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Magnusson, Niklas; Jensen, Bogi Bech


    To realize large (>10 MW) direct-driven off-shore wind turbines, a number of steps are needed to reduce weight and cost compared to on-shore technologies. One of the major challenges is to provide drive trains which can comply with the large torque as the turbine rotor diameter is scaled up...... and thereby having a smaller size and weight [1, 2]. A 5 MW superconducting wind turbine generator forms the basics for the feasibility considerations, particularly for the YBCO and MgB2 superconductors entering the commercial market. Initial results indicate that a 5 MW generator with an active weight of 34...

  18. Slip-Cast Superconductive Parts (United States)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Buckley, John D.; Vasquez, Peter; Buck, Gregory M.; Hicks, Lana P.; Hooker, Matthew W.; Taylor, Theodore D.


    Complex shapes fabricated without machining. Nonaqueous slip-casting technique used to form complexly shaped parts from high-temperature superconductive materials like YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-delta). Such parts useful in motors, vibration dampers, and bearings. In process, organic solvent used as liquid medium. Ceramic molds made by lost-wax process used instead of plaster-of-paris molds, used in aqueous slip-casting but impervious to organic solvents and cannot drain away liquid medium. Organic-solvent-based castings do not stick to ceramic molds as they do to plaster molds.

  19. Toward a superconducting quantum computer (United States)

    Tsai, Jaw-Shen


    Intensive research on the construction of superconducting quantum computers has produced numerous important achievements. The quantum bit (qubit), based on the Josephson junction, is at the heart of this research. This macroscopic system has the ability to control quantum coherence. This article reviews the current state of quantum computing as well as its history, and discusses its future. Although progress has been rapid, the field remains beset with unsolved issues, and there are still many new research opportunities open to physicists and engineers. PMID:20431256

  20. Multilevel Drift-Implicit Tau-Leap

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Hammouda, Chiheb


    The dynamics of biochemical reactive systems with small copy numbers of one or more reactant molecules is dominated by stochastic effects. For those systems, discrete state-space and stochastic simulation approaches were proved to be more relevant than continuous state-space and deterministic ones. In systems characterized by having simultaneously fast and slowtimescales, the existing discrete space-state stochastic path simulation methods such as the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) and the explicit tauleap method can be very slow. Implicit approximations were developed in the literature to improve numerical stability and provide efficient simulation algorithms for those systems. In this work, we propose an efficient Multilevel Monte Carlo method in the spirit of the work by Anderson and Higham (2012) that uses drift-implicit tau-leap approximations at levels where the explicit tauleap method is not applicable due to numerical stability issues. We present numerical examples that illustrate the performance of the proposed method.

  1. Redshift drift exploration for interacting dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Jia-Jia; Li, Yun-He; Zhang, Jing-Fei [Northeastern University, Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Zhang, Xin [Northeastern University, Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Peking University, Center for High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)


    By detecting redshift drift in the spectra of the Lyman-α forest of distant quasars, the Sandage-Loeb (SL) test directly measures the expansion of the universe, covering the ''redshift desert'' of 2 drift observations would help break the geometric degeneracies in a meaningful way, thus the measurement precisions of Ω{sub m}, H{sub 0}, w, and γ could be substantially improved using future probes. (orig.)

  2. Spectroscopic measurements with a silicon drift detector having a continuous implanted drift cathode-voltage divider

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvicini, V; D'Acunto, L; Franck, D; Gregorio, A; Pihet, P; Rashevsky, A; Vacchi, A; Vinogradov, L I; Zampa, N


    A silicon drift detector (SDD) prototype where the drift electrode also plays the role of a high-voltage divider has been realised and characterised for spectroscopic applications at near-room temperatures. Among the advantages of this design, is the absence of metal on the sensitive surface which makes this detector interesting for soft X-rays. The detector prototype has a large sensitive area (2x130 mm sup 2) and the charge is collected by two anodes (butterfly-like detector). The energy resolution of a such a detector has been investigated at near-room temperatures using a commercial, hybrid, low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier. The results obtained for the X-ray lines from sup 5 sup 5 Fe and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am are presented.

  3. The Storm Time Evolution of the Ionospheric Disturbance Plasma Drifts (United States)

    Zhang, Ruilong; Liu, Libo; Le, Huijun; Chen, Yiding; Kuai, Jiawei


    In this paper, we use the C/NOFS and ROCSAT-1 satellites observations to analyze the storm time evolution of the disturbance plasma drifts in a 24 h local time scale during three magnetic storms driven by long-lasting southward IMF Bz. The disturbance plasma drifts during the three storms present some common features in the periods dominated by the disturbance dynamo. The newly formed disturbance plasma drifts are upward and westward at night, and downward and eastward during daytime. Further, the disturbance plasma drifts are gradually evolved to present significant local time shifts. The westward disturbance plasma drifts gradually migrate from nightside to dayside. Meanwhile, the dayside downward disturbance plasma drifts become enhanced and shift to later local time. The local time shifts in disturbance plasma drifts are suggested to be mainly attributed to the evolution of the disturbance winds. The strong disturbance winds arisen around midnight can constantly corotate to later local time. At dayside the westward and equatorward disturbance winds can drive the F region dynamo to produce the poleward and westward polarization electric fields (or the westward and downward disturbance drifts). The present results indicate that the disturbance winds corotated to later local time can affect the local time features of the disturbance dynamo electric field.

  4. Cardiovascular drift during heat stress: implications for exercise prescription. (United States)

    Wingo, Jonathan E; Ganio, Matthew S; Cureton, Kirk J


    Cardiovascular drift, the progressive increase in heart rate and decrease in stroke volume that begins after approximately 10 min of prolonged moderate-intensity exercise, is associated with decreased maximal oxygen uptake, particularly during heat stress. Consequently, the increased heart rate reflects an increased relative metabolic intensity during prolonged exercise in the heat when cardiovascular drift occurs, which has implications for exercise prescription.

  5. The importance of correcting for signal drift in diffusion MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Sjoerd B; Tax, Chantal M W; Luijten, Peter R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304821098; Ourselin, Sebastien; Leemans, Alexander|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/340300108; Froeling, Martijn

    PURPOSE: To investigate previously unreported effects of signal drift as a result of temporal scanner instability on diffusion MRI data analysis and to propose a method to correct this signal drift. METHODS: We investigated the signal magnitude of non-diffusion-weighted EPI volumes in a series of

  6. Concentrated Hitting Times of Randomized Search Heuristics with Variable Drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Witt, Carsten


    Drift analysis is one of the state-of-the-art techniques for the runtime analysis of randomized search heuristics (RSHs) such as evolutionary algorithms (EAs), simulated annealing etc. The vast majority of existing drift theorems yield bounds on the expected value of the hitting time for a target...

  7. Nonlinear propagation of short wavelength drift-Alfven waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P. K.; Pecseli, H. L.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens


    Making use of a kinetic ion and a hydrodynamic electron description together with the Maxwell equation, the authors derive a set of nonlinear equations which governs the dynamics of short wavelength ion drift-Alfven waves. It is shown that the nonlinear drift-Alfven waves can propagate as two...

  8. New Pulsars Discovered in Arecibo Drift-Scan Searches


    McLaughlin, M. A.; Lorimer, D. R.; Champion, D.J.; Xilouris, K.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Backer, D. C.; Cordes, J. M.; Lommen, A. N.; Fruchter, A. S.


    We report on new pulsars discovered in Arecibo drift-scan data. Processing of 2200 square degrees of data has resulted in the detection of 41 known and 12 new pulsars. New pulsars include two millisecond pulsars, one solitary and one binary recycled pulsar, and one pulsar with very unusual pulse profile morphology and complex drifting subpulse behavior.

  9. A drift free nernstian iridium oxide PH sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikse, J.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet


    A novel way of eliminating drift problems in metal oxide pH sensors is presented. The method employs a FET-structure under the electrode that uses the metal oxide as a gate contact. In addition to the enhanced drift properties, the new sensor has an almost ideal nernstian response. First a

  10. The LHC Superconducting RF System

    CERN Document Server

    Boussard, Daniel


    The European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), the largest high energy physics laboratory worldwide, is constructing the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the existing 27 km circumference LEP (Large Electron Positron) collider tunnel. For the LHC, superconducting cavities, operating at 4.5 K, will provide the required acceleration field for ramping the beam energy up to 7 TeV and for keeping the colliding proton beams tightly bunched. Superconducting cavities were chosen, not only because of their high acceleration field leading to a small contribution to the machine impedance, but also because of their high stored energy which minimises the effects of periodic transient beam loading associated with the high beam intensity (0.5 A). There will be eight single-cell cavities per beam, each delivering 2 MV (5.3 MV/m) at 400 MHz. The cavities themselves are now being manufactured by industrial firms, using niobium on copper technology which gives full satisfaction at LEP. A complete cavity prototype assembly in...

  11. Three-flavor color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, H.


    I investigate some of the inert phases in three-flavor, spin-zero color-superconducting quark matter: the CFL phase (the analogue of the B phase in superfluid {sup 3}He), the A and A{sup *} phases, and the 2SC and sSC phases. I compute the pressure of these phases with and without the neutrality condition. Without the neutrality condition, after the CFL phase the sSC phase is the dominant phase. However, including the neutrality condition, the CFL phase is again the energetically favored phase except for a small region of intermediate densities where the 2SC/A{sup *} phase is favored. It is shown that the 2SC phase is identical to the A{sup *} phase up to a color rotation. In addition, I calculate the self-energies and the spectral densities of longitudinal and transverse gluons at zero temperature in color-superconducting quark matter in the CFL phase. I find a collective excitation, a plasmon, at energies smaller than two times the gap parameter and momenta smaller than about eight times the gap. The dispersion relation of this mode exhibits a minimum at some nonzero value of momentum, indicating a van Hove singularity. (orig.)

  12. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Roger, A.


    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  13. Superconducting rf development at ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kedzie, M.; Clifft, B.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Roy, A.; Potukuchi, P. [Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi (India); Givens, J.; Potter, J.; Crandall, K. [AccSys Technology, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Added, N. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil)


    The ATLAS superconducting heavy-ion linac began operation in 1978 and has operated nearly continuously since that time, while undergoing a series of upgrades and expansions, the most recent being the ``uranium upgrade`` completed earlier this year and described below. In its present configuration the ATLAS linac consists of an array of 64 resonant cavities operating from 48 to 145 MHz, which match a range of particle velocities .007 < {beta} = v/c < .2. The linac provides approximately 50 MV of effective accelerating potential for ions of q/m > 1/10 over the entire periodic table. Delivered beams include 5 {minus} 7 pnA of {sup 238}U{sup 39+} at 1535 MeV. At present more than 10{sup 6} cavity-hours of operation at surface electric fields of 15 MV/m have been accumulated. Superconducting structure development at ATLAS is aimed at improving the cost/performance of existing low velocity structures both for possible future ATLAS upgrades, and also for heavy-ion linacs at other institutions. An application of particular current interest is to develop structures suitable for accelerating radioactive ion beams. Such structures must accelerate very low charge to mass ratio beams and must also have very large transverse acceptance.

  14. Characterization of superconducting multilayers samples

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, C Z; Berry, S; Bouat, S; Jacquot, J F; Villegier, J C; Lamura, G; Gurevich, A


    Best RF bulk niobium accelerating cavities have nearly reached their ultimate limits at rf equatorial magnetic field H  200 mT close to the thermodynamic critical field Hc. In 2006 Gurevich proposed to use nanoscale layers of superconducting materials with high values of Hc > HcNb for magnetic shielding of bulk niobium to increase the breakdown magnetic field inside SC RF cavities [1]. Depositing good quality layers inside a whole cavity is rather difficult but we have sputtered high quality samples by applying the technique used for the preparation of superconducting electronics circuits and characterized these samples by X-ray reflectivity, dc resistivity (PPMS) and dc magnetization (SQUID). Dc magnetization curves of a 250 nm thick Nb film have been measured, with and without a magnetron sputtered coating of a single or multiple stack of 15 nm MgO and 25 nm NbN layers. The Nb samples with/without the coating clearly exhibit different behaviors. Because SQUID measurements are influenced by edge an...

  15. Drift estimation for single marker switching based imaging schemes. (United States)

    Geisler, Claudia; Hotz, Thomas; Schönle, Andreas; Hell, Stefan W; Munk, Axel; Egner, Alexander


    In recent years, the diffraction barrier in fluorescence imaging has been broken and optical nanoscopes now routinely image with resolutions of down to 20 nm, an improvement of more than 10 fold. Because this allows imaging much smaller features and because all super-resolution approaches trade off speed for spatial resolution, mechanical instabilities of the microscopes become a limiting factor. Here, we propose a fully data-driven statistical registration method for drift detection and drift correction for single marker switching (SMS) imaging schemes, including a guideline for parameter choice and quality checks of the drift analysis. The necessary assumptions about the drift are minimal, allowing a model-free approach, but more specific models can easily be integrated. We determine the resulting performance on standard SMS measurements and show that the drift determination can be routinely brought to the range of precision achievable by fiducial marker-tracking methods.

  16. Application of RPF in MEMS gyro random drift filtering (United States)

    Guowei, GAO; Yan, XIE


    With the development of micro-mechanical inertial technology, how to suppress the MEMS gyro’s random drift increasingly become a hot topic. In order to filter a certain type of MEMS gyro’s random drift, this paper introduces the regularized particle filter algorithm. The derivation of the algorithm and its application in MEMS gyro’s filtering process are described in detail in this paper: First, acquiring MEMS gyro’s static drift data and conducting data pre-treatment; then establishing the AR model by using time series analysis method, and transforming it into the corresponding state space model; finally, executing the estimation and compensation for MEMS gyro’s random drift with regular particle filter algorithm, and comparing it with other common methods in engineering. Tests and simulation results show that the regularized particle filter algorithm could achieve a good effect on the suppression of MEMS gyro’s random drift, it has a higher practical application value.

  17. Drift compression and final focus options for heavy ionfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.; Barnard, John J.; Lee, Edward P.


    A drift compression and final focus lattice for heavy ion beams should focus the entire beam pulse onto the same focal spot on the target. The authors show that this requirement implies that the drift compression design needs to satisfy a self-similar symmetry condition. For un-neutralized beams, the Lie symmetry group analysis is applied to the warm-fluid model to systematically derive the self-similar drift compression solutions. For neutralized beams, the 1D Vlasov equation is solved explicitly and families of self-similar drift compression solutions are constructed. To compensate for the deviation from the self-similar symmetry condition due to the transverse emittance, four time-dependent magnets are introduced in the upstream of the drift compression such that the entire beam pulse can be focused onto the same focal spot.

  18. Sample of superconducting wiring (Niobium Titanium)

    CERN Multimedia

    About NbTi cable: The cable consists of 36 strands of superconducting wire, each strand has a diameter of 0.825 mm and houses 6300 superconducting filaments of niobium-titanium (Nb-Ti, a superconducting alloy). Each filament has a diameter of about 0.006 mm, i.e. 10 times smaller than a typical human hair. The filaments are embedded in a high-purity copper matrix. Copper is a normal conducting material. The filaments are in the superconductive state when the temperature is below about -263ºC (10.15 K). When the filaments leave the superconductive state, the copper acts as conductor transports the electrical current. Each strand of The NbTi cable (at superconducting state) has a current density of up to above 2000 A/mm2 at 9 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). A cable transport a current of about 13000 A at 10 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). About LHC superconducting wiring: The high magnetic fields needed for the LHC can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resista...

  19. Sample of superconducting wiring (Niobium Titanium)

    CERN Multimedia

    About NbTi cable: The cable consists of 36 strands of superconducting wire, each strand has a diameter of 0.825 mm and houses 6300 superconducting filaments of niobium-titanium (Nb-Ti, a superconducting alloy). Each filament has a diameter of about 0.006 mm, i.e. 10 times smaller than a typical human hair. The filaments are embedded in a high-purity copper matrix. Copper is a normal conducting material. The filaments are in the superconductive state when the temperature is below about -263ºC (10.15 K). When the filaments leave the superconductive state, the copper acts as conductor transports the electrical current. Each strand of The NbTi cable (at superconducting state) has a current density of up to above 2000 A/mm2 at 9 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). A cable transport a current of about 13000 A at 10 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). About LHC superconducting wiring: The high magnetic fields needed for the LHC can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistan...

  20. Charge order, superconducting correlations, and positive muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonier, J.E., E-mail:


    The recent discoveries of short-range charge-density wave order in the normal state of several hole-doped cuprate superconductors constitute a significant addition to the known intrinsic properties of these materials. Besides likely being associated with the normal-state pseudogap, the charge-density wave order presumably influences the build-up of known superconducting correlations as the temperature is lowered toward the superconducting state. As a pure magnetic probe, muon spin rotation (μ SR) is not directly sensitive to charge order, but may sense its presence via the effect it has on the magnetic dipolar coupling of the muon with the host nuclei at zero or low magnetic field. At higher field where μ SR is completely blind to the effects of charge order, experiments have revealed a universal inhomogeneous normal-state response extending to temperatures well above T{sub c}. The measured inhomogeneous line broadening has been attributed to regions of superconducting correlations that exhibit varying degrees of fluctuation diamagnetism. Here, the compatibility of these results with other measurements showing charge order correlations or superconducting fluctuations above T{sub c} is discussed. - Highlights: • Superconducting fluctuations in high-T cuprates probed by positive muons are discussed. • Superconducting fluctuations are detected at higher temperatures than by other methods. • The muon experiments indicate that the superconducting fluctuations are inhomogeneous. • The compatibility with short-range charge order in the normal state is considered.

  1. Superconductivity in Ca-doped graphene laminates. (United States)

    Chapman, J; Su, Y; Howard, C A; Kundys, D; Grigorenko, A N; Guinea, F; Geim, A K; Grigorieva, I V; Nair, R R


    Despite graphene's long list of exceptional electronic properties and many theoretical predictions regarding the possibility of superconductivity in graphene, its direct and unambiguous experimental observation has not been achieved. We searched for superconductivity in weakly interacting, metal decorated graphene crystals assembled into so-called graphene laminates, consisting of well separated and electronically decoupled graphene crystallites. We report robust superconductivity in all Ca-doped graphene laminates. They become superconducting at temperatures (Tc) between ≈4 and ≈6 K, with Tc's strongly dependent on the confinement of the Ca layer and the induced charge carrier concentration in graphene. We find that Ca is the only dopant that induces superconductivity in graphene laminates above 1.8 K among several dopants used in our experiments, such as potassium, caesium and lithium. By revealing the tunability of the superconducting response through doping and confinement of the metal layer, our work shows that achieving superconductivity in free-standing, metal decorated monolayer graphene is conditional on an optimum confinement of the metal layer and sufficient doping, thereby bringing its experimental realization within grasp.

  2. Effects of hydro- and thermopeaking on benthic macroinvertebrate drift. (United States)

    Schülting, Lisa; Feld, Christian K; Graf, Wolfram


    The operation of storage hydropower plants is commonly linked to frequent fluctuations in discharge and water level (hydropeaking) of downstream river stretches and is often accompanied by cooling or warming of the water body downstream (cold or warm thermopeaking, respectively). The objective of this study is to assess the single and combined effects of hydropeaking and cold thermopeaking on the drift of selected aquatic macroinvertebrates in experimental flumes. The study specifically aims to (1) investigate the macroinvertebrate drift induced by hydropeaking, (2) identify taxon-specific drift patterns following combined hydropeaking and cold thermopeaking and (3) quantify diurnal drift differences under both impact types. Overall, hydropeaking induced significantly higher drift rates of most macroinvertebrate taxa. Combined hydropeaking and cold thermopeaking, however, revealed reduced total drift rates, however with strong taxon-specific response patterns. Hydropeaking during night led to significantly higher drift rates than during daytime, while in combination with thermopeaking the same trend was observable, although insignificant. Taxon-specific analysis revealed lower drift rates following hydropeaking for rheophilic and interstitial taxa (e.g. Leuctra sp., Hydropsyche sp.), whereas many limnophilic taxa adapted to low current showed markedly increased drift (e.g. Lepidostoma hirtum and Leptoceridae). In line with previous studies, our results confirm a significant loss of limnophilic macroinvertebrate taxa following hydraulic stress. The mitigating effect of cold thermopeaking might be explained by behavioural patterns, but requires further investigation to clarify if macroinvertebrates actively avoid drift and intrude into the interstitial, when cold water is discharged. Our results imply that river restoration projects must address the hydrological regime and, if necessary need to include suitable management schemes for hydropower plants. Besides

  3. Estrutura & História.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Ferreira Gonçalves


    Full Text Available O presente artigo discorre sobre as ligações entre estrutura e história a partir das perspectivas estruturalista francesa e culturalista norte-americana, focalizando as interlocuções teóricas entre Claude Lévi-Strauss e Marshall Sahlins entre o final dos anos 1940 e ao longo dos anos 1990 do século XX.

  4. Superconductivity - Will its potential be realized (United States)

    Lerner, E. J.


    The article surveys possible applications of superconductivity and the question of how rapidly or whether this potential will be realized. Attention is given to applications such as magnetic levitation trains, Josephson junction computers, new means of cancer detection, and water purification. Also discussed are the use of superconducting magnets to produce the high fields needed for nuclear fusion plants and for magnetohydrodynamic generators. Further, experiments under way on superconducting power lines for virtually lossless transmission of electric power are examined. It is concluded that the main obstacle to implementation of such applications is the reluctance of American business and government to invest in further research.

  5. Experimental setup to detect superconducting wire motion (United States)

    Ruwali, K.; Yamanaka, A.; Teramoto, Y.; Nakanishi, K.; Hosoyama, K.


    An experimental setup was designed and fabricated to study superconducting wire motion under the influence of electromagnetic force. Experiments were conducted at 4.2 K by varying the experimental conditions such as the tension to the superconducting wire and different insulating materials at the interface of the superconducting wire and head part. The insulating materials used in the experiments were polyimide film and a high strength polyethylene fiber cloth, Dyneema. Details of the experimental setup and the test results are reported in this paper.

  6. Nb-Pb superconducting RF-gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekutowicz, J.; Iversen, J.; Kreps, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (DE)] (and others)


    We report on the status of an electron RF-gun made of two superconductors: niobium and lead. The presented design combines the advantages of the RF performance of bulk niobium superconducting cavities and the reasonably high quantum efficiency of lead, as compared to other superconducting metals. The concept, mentioned in a previous paper, follows the attractive approach of all niobium superconducting RF-gun as it has been proposed by the BNL group. Measured values of quantum efficiency for lead at various photon energies, analysis of recombination time of photon-broken Cooper pairs for lead and niobium, and preliminary cold test results are discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  7. Nb-Pb superconducting RF gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Sekutowicz; J. Iversen; G. Kreps; W.D. Moller; W. Singer; X. Singer; I. Ben-Zvi; A. Burrill; J. Smedley; T. Rao; M. Ferrario; P. Kneisel; J. Langner; P. Strzyzewski; R. Lefferts; A. Lipski; K. Szalowski; K. Ko; L. Xiao


    We report on the status of an electron RF-gun made of two superconductors: niobium and lead. The presented design combines the advantages of the RF performance of bulk niobium superconducting cavities and the reasonably high quantum efficiency of lead, as compared to other superconducting metals. The concept, mentioned in a previous paper, follows the attractive approach of all niobium superconducting RF-gun as it has been proposed by the BNL group. Measured values of quantum efficiency for lead at various photon energies, analysis of recombination time of photon-broken Cooper pairs for lead and niobium, and preliminary cold test results are discussed in this paper.

  8. Nb-Pb Superconducting RF Gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekutowicz, J.; Iversen, J.; Kreps, G.; Moller, W.D.; Singer, W.; Singer, X.; /DESY; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Smedley, J.; Rao, T.; /Brookhaven; Ferrario, M.; /Frascati; Kneisel, P.; /Jefferson Lab; Langner, J.; Strzyzewski, P.; /Warsaw, Inst. Nucl. Studies; Lefferts, R.; Lipski, A.; /SUNY, Stony Brook; Szalowski, K.; /Lodz U.; Ko, K.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC


    We report on the status of an electron RF-gun made of two superconductors: niobium and lead. The presented design combines the advantages of the RF performance of bulk niobium superconducting cavities and the reasonably high quantum efficiency of lead, as compared to other superconducting metals. The concept, mentioned in a previous paper, follows the attractive approach of all niobium superconducting RF-gun as it has been proposed by the BNL group. Measured values of quantum efficiency for lead at various photon energies, analysis of recombination time of photon-broken Cooper pairs for lead and niobium, and preliminary cold test results are discussed in this paper.

  9. Insulation systems for superconducting transmission cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole


    This paper describes shortly the status of superconducting transmission lines and assesses what impact the recently discovered BSCCO superconductors may have on the design of the cables.Two basically different insulation systems are discussed:1) The room temperature dielectric design, where...... the electrical insulation is placed outside both the superconducting tube and the cryostat. The superconducting tube is cooled by liquid nitrogen which is pumped through the hollow part of the tube.2) The cryogenic dielectric design, where the electrical insulation is placed inside the cryostat and thus is kept...

  10. Simulation of an HTS Synchronous Superconducting Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In this work we present a simulation of a synchronous generator with superconducting rotor windings. As many other electrical rotating machines, superconducting generators are exposed to ripple fields that could be produced from a wide variety of sources: short circuit, load change, etc. Unlike...... element model of a synchronous generator where the current distribution in the rotor windings is assumed uniform. Then, a second finite element model for the superconducting material is linked to calculate the actual current distribution in the windings of the rotor. Finally, heating losses are computed...

  11. The cold wars a history of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Matricon, Jean


    Among the most peculiar of matter¡¦s behaviors is superconductivity„oelectric current without resistance. Since the 1986 discovery that superconductivity is possible at temperatures well above absolute zero, research into practical applications has flourished. The Cold Wars tells the history of superconductivity, providing perspective on the development of the field and its relationship with the rest of physics. Superconductivity offers an excellent example of the evolution of physics in the twentieth century: the science itself, its foundations, and its social context. The authors also introduce the reader to the fascinating scientific personalities, including 2003 Nobel Prize winners Alexei Alexeievich Abrikosov and Vitali Ginzburg, and political struggles behind this research.

  12. Superconducting detectors for semiconductor quantum photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reithmaier, Guenther M.


    In this thesis we present the first successful on-chip detection of quantum light, thereby demonstrating the monolithic integration of superconducting single photon detectors with individually addressable semiconductor quantum dots in a prototypical quantum photonic circuit. Therefore, we optimized both the deposition of high quality superconducting NbN thin films on GaAs substrates and the fabrication of superconducting detectors and successfully integrated these novel devices with GaAs/AlGaAs ridge waveguides loaded with self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots.

  13. Thermodynamic Green functions in theory of superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A general theory of superconductivity is formulated within the thermodynamic Green function method for various types of pairing mediated by phonons, spin fluctuations, and strong Coulomb correlations in the Hubbard and t-J models. A rigorous Dyson equation for matrix Green functions is derived in terms of a self-energy as a many-particle Green function. By applying the noncrossing approximation for the self-energy, a closed self-consistent system of equations is obtained, similar to the conventional Eliashberg equations. A brief discussion of superconductivity mediated by kinematic interaction with an estimation of a superconducting transition temperature in the Hubbard model is given.

  14. Experimental setup to detect superconducting wire motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ruwali


    Full Text Available An experimental setup was designed and fabricated to study superconducting wire motion under the influence of electromagnetic force. Experiments were conducted at 4.2 K by varying the experimental conditions such as the tension to the superconducting wire and different insulating materials at the interface of the superconducting wire and head part. The insulating materials used in the experiments were polyimide film and a high strength polyethylene fiber cloth, Dyneema. Details of the experimental setup and the test results are reported in this paper.

  15. Fabrication and Characterization of Superconductive Coplanar Waveguide Resonators : Fabrication and Characterization of Superconductive Coplanar Waveguide Resonators


    Ergül, Adem


    The objective of this thesis is to evaluate a generic process for fabrication and characterization of the Superconductive coplanar waveguide (CPW) resonators. Superconductive CPW resonators with various lengths and shapes are designed to investigate their electrical and magnetic properties as well as resonance properties and sensitivities. In the first part of thesis, two different models are introduced in order to estimate the nonlinear kinetic inductance of a superconducting CPW resonator. ...

  16. In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Mariner


    As directed by ''Technical Work Plan For: Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY03 Work Activities'' (BSC 2003 [165601]), the In-Drift Precipitates/Salts (IDPS) model is developed and refined to predict the aqueous geochemical effects of evaporation in the proposed repository. The purpose of this work is to provide a model for describing and predicting the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the proposed Engineered Barrier System (EBS). Application of this model is to be documented elsewhere for the Total System Performance Assessment License Application (TSPA-LA). The principal application of this model is to be documented in REV 02 of ''Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model'' (BSC 2003 [165601]). The scope of this document is to develop, describe, and validate the IDPS model. This model is a quasi-equilibrium model. All reactions proceed to equilibrium except for several suppressed minerals in the thermodynamic database not expected to form under the proposed repository conditions within the modeling timeframe. In this revision, upgrades to the EQ3/6 code (Version 8.0) and Pitzer thermodynamic database improve the applicable range of the model. These new additions allow equilibrium and reaction-path modeling of evaporation to highly concentrated brines for potential water compositions of the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO{sub 3}-SO{sub 4}-Br-CO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O at temperatures in the range of 0 C to 125 C, pressures in the atmospheric range, and relative humidity in the range of 0 to 100 percent. This system applies to oxidizing conditions only, and therefore limits the model to applications involving oxidizing conditions. A number of thermodynamic parameters in the Pitzer database have values that have not been determined or verified for the entire temperature range. In these cases

  17. Superconducting materials for the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, R.; Royet, J.; Taylor, C.E.


    The proposed Superconducting Supercollider presents several new challenges with regard to materials for dipole magnets. One design requires a NbTi superconductor with J/sub c/ (5T) greater than 2400 A/mm/sup 2/, whereas the Tevatron recently completed at Fermilab required a J/sub c/ (5T) greater than or equal to 1800 A/mm/sup 2/. In addition, the high field design requires a conductor with a filament diameter of about 2.5, if correction coils are to be eliminated. Finally, the high field design utilizes a 30-strand cable which again is a significant increase from the 23-strand cable used in the Tevatron. This paper describes the results of recent R and D programs aimed at meeting the stringent material requirements for the SSC.

  18. An experimental superconducting helical undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspi, S.; Taylor, C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)


    Improvements in the technology of superconducting magnets for high energy physics and recent advancements in SC materials with the artificial pinning centers (APC){sup 2}, have made a bifilar helical SC device an attractive candidate for a single-pass free electron laser (FEL){sup 3}. Initial studies have suggested that a 6.5 mm inner diameter helical device, with a 27 mm period, can generate a central field of 2-2.5 Tesla. Additional studies have also suggested that with a stored energy of 300 J/m, such a device can be made self-protecting in the event of a quench. However, since the most critical area associated with high current density SC magnets is connected with quenching and training, a short experimental device will have to be built and tested. In this paper we discuss technical issues relevant to the construction of such a device, including a conceptual design, fields, and forces.

  19. Towards inducing superconductivity into graphene (United States)

    Efetov, Dmitri K.

    Graphenes transport properties have been extensively studied in the 10 years since its discovery in 2004, with ground-breaking experimental observations such as Klein tunneling, fractional quantum Hall effect and Hofstadters butterfly. Though, so far, it turned out to be rather poor on complex correlated electronic ground states and phase transitions, despite various theoretical predictions. The purpose of this thesis is to help understanding the underlying theoretical and experimental reasons for the lack of strong electronic interactions in graphene, and, employing graphenes high tunability and versatility, to identify and alter experimental parameters that could help to induce stronger correlations. In particular graphene holds one last, not yet experimentally discovered prediction, namely exhibiting intrinsic superconductivity. With its vanishingly small Fermi surface at the Dirac point, graphene is a semi-metal with very weak electronic interactions. Though, if it is doped into the metallic regime, where the size of the Fermi surface becomes comparable to the size of the Brillouin zone, the density of states becomes sizeable and electronic interactions are predicted to be dramatically enhanced, resulting in competing correlated ground states such as superconductivity, magnetism and charge density wave formation. Following these predictions, this thesis first describes the creation of metallic graphene at high carrier doping via electrostatic doping techniques based on electrolytic gates. Due to graphenes surface only properties, we are able to induce carrier densities above n>1014 cm-2 (epsilonF>1eV) into the chemically inert graphene. While at these record high carrier densities we yet do not observe superconductivity, we do observe fundamentally altered transport properties as compared to semi-metallic graphene. Here, detailed measurements of the low temperature resistivity reveal that the electron-phonon interactions are governed by a reduced, density

  20. Drift curves from spray applications on commom bean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rodrigues Bueno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to avoid the occurrence of drift in pesticide applications, it is fundamental to know the behavior of sprayed droplets. This study aimed to determine drift curves in pesticide applications on common bean crop under brazilian weather conditions, using different nozzle types and compared them with the "German" and "Dutch" drift prediction models. The experiment was conducted in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais/Brazil, in completely randomized design with ten replications and 4 x 20 split-plot arrangement in space. Drift deposited on collectors located over ground level was resulted by 150 L ha-1 carrier volume applications through four nozzle types (XR 11002 (fine droplets; AIXR 11002 (coarse droplets; TT 11002 (medium droplets; TTI 11002 (extremely coarse droplets, collected in 20 downwind distances, parallel to the crop line outside the target area, spaced by 2.5 m. The tracer rhodamine B was added to the spray to be quantified by fluorimetry. Drift prediction models adjusted by exponential functions were obtained considering the 90th percentile for XR, TT, AIXR and TTI nozzles. It is suggested to use the estimated drift models from this study for each nozzle type in drift prediction evaluations on bean crops under brazilian weather conditions.

  1. Positive-feedback photometric drift in the PDS (United States)

    Cornett, R. H.; Bohlin, R. C.; Hill, J. K.; Stecher, T. P.


    Digitizing flatfield images produces conditions in the Photometric Data System PDS which cause the measured density to drift by as much as .1 DN during a 10 minute interval. The drift occurs when the PDS, set up in equilibrium at fog level, subsequently scans a reasonably dense region for periods of longer than a few minutes. The drift is manifested primarily as a positive shift in density that is approximately the same for all densities. If the fog level is assumed to be in fact constant and is monitored during scans of flat fields, the PDS drift may be removed by subtracting the difference between the observed fog level and its assumed constant value for each pixel. This function is then smoothed and subtracted, as a function of scan line, from the measured density. The fog level is then adjusted to a standard value by adding a constant. The result is a flattened scan with PDS drift removed to the accuracy within which the fog level drift matches the drift at other levels.

  2. Emergent gravity and ether-drift experiments (United States)

    Consoli, M.; Pappalardo, L.


    According to several authors, gravity might be a long-wavelength phenomenon emerging in some ‘hydrodynamic limit’ from the same physical, flat-space vacuum viewed as a form of superfluid medium. In this framework, light might propagate in an effective acoustic geometry and exhibit a tiny anisotropy that could be measurable in the present ether-drift experiments. By accepting this view of the vacuum, one should also consider the possibility of sizeable random fluctuations of the signal that reflect the stochastic nature of the underlying ‘quantum ether’ and could be erroneously interpreted as instrumental noise. To test the present interpretation, we have extracted the mean amplitude of the signal from various experiments with different systematics, operating both at room temperature and in the cryogenic regime. They all give the same consistent value {< A rangle ={mathcal O}(10^{-15})} which is precisely the magnitude expected in an emergent-gravity approach, for an apparatus placed on the Earth’s surface. Since physical implications could be substantial, it would be important to obtain more direct checks from the instantaneous raw data and, possibly, with new experimental set-ups operating in gravity-free environments.

  3. Wind Drifts at Viking 1 Landing Site (United States)


    This image is of so-called wind drifts seen at the Viking 1 landing site. These are somewhat different from the features seen at the Pathfinder site in two important ways. 1) These landforms have no apparent slip-or avalanche-face as do both terrestrial dunes and the Pathfinder features, and may represent deposits of sediment falling from the air, as opposed to dune sand, which 'hops' or saltates along the ground; 2) these features may indicate erosion on one side, because of the layering and apparent scouring on their right sides. They may, therefore have been deposited by a wind moving left to right, partly or weakly cemented or solidified by surface processes at some later time, then eroded by a second wind (right to left), exposing their internal structure.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  4. Travelling fronts in stochastic Stokes’ drifts

    KAUST Repository

    Blanchet, Adrien


    By analytical methods we study the large time properties of the solution of a simple one-dimensional model of stochastic Stokes\\' drift. Semi-explicit formulae allow us to characterize the behaviour of the solutions and compute global quantities such as the asymptotic speed of the center of mass or the effective diffusion coefficient. Using an equivalent tilted ratchet model, we observe that the speed of the center of mass converges exponentially to its limiting value. A diffuse, oscillating front attached to the center of mass appears. The description of the front is given using an asymptotic expansion. The asymptotic solution attracts all solutions at an algebraic rate which is determined by the effective diffusion coefficient. The proof relies on an entropy estimate based on homogenized logarithmic Sobolev inequalities. In the travelling frame, the macroscopic profile obeys to an isotropic diffusion. Compared with the original diffusion, diffusion is enhanced or reduced, depending on the regime. At least in the limit cases, the rate of convergence to the effective profile is always decreased. All these considerations allow us to define a notion of efficiency for coherent transport, characterized by a dimensionless number, which is illustrated on two simple examples of travelling potentials with a sinusoidal shape in the first case, and a sawtooth shape in the second case. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Acoustic emission induced from an NbTi ac superconducting coil and quenching pattern; NbTi koryu koiru no AE tokusei to kuenchi patan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, K.; Yamaguchi, H.; Kaiho, K. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Ninomiya, A.; Ishigooka, T. [Seikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Fuji, H.; Sadakata, N.; Saito, T. [Fujikura Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Alternating current superconducting magnet is easy to receive movement, alternating current loss, drift, effect of the longitudinal magnetic-field effect of the line, and these become the lowering factor of the stability. We carry out the research on stability and state estimation of alternating current superconducting magnet, coil using the AE signal. Sensor itself does not become a cause of the disturbance, because the measurement is possible for the AE measurement in superconducting magnet, coil for the sensor, while it is unique of two, and while it is no contacting with the superconductive winding. And, it is detectable by one sensor in respect of wide information of the superconducting coil. Necessary information for the analysis of the alternating current phenomenon from the AE signal is extracted, and it seems to be important to examine the correspondence with the condition of the coil. This time, it was possible that the undulate pattern of the AE signal observed the characteristic phenomenon in proportion to the situation of the quenching. (NEDO)

  6. Distribution of drifting seaweeds in eastern East China Sea (United States)

    Komatsu, Teruhisa; Tatsukawa, Kenichi; Filippi, Jean B.; Sagawa, Tatsuyuki; Matsunaga, Daisuke; Mikami, Atsuko; Ishida, Kenichi; Ajisaka, Tetsuro; Tanaka, Katsuhiko; Aoki, Masakazu; Wang, Wei-Ding; Liu, Hui-Fei; Zhang, Shou-Du; Zhou, Min-Dong; Sugimoto, Takashige


    In offshore waters with relatively low primary production, drifting seaweeds composed of Sargassum species form an identical ecosystem such as an oasis in desert. Commercially important pelagic fishes such as jack mackerel ( Trachurus japonicus) and yellow tail ( Seriola quinqueradiata) spawn in East China Sea pass their juvenile period accompanying drifting seaweeds. Therefore drifting seaweeds are very important not only in offshore ecosystem but also fishery resources. However the distribution of drifting seaweeds in East China Sea has scarcely known. Then we conducted two research cruises of R/V Hakuho-Maru in May 2002 and in March 2004. During the cruises, drifting seaweeds were visually observed from the bridge and sampled with a towing net. The observation revealed that the drifting seaweeds were distributed along the front between the Kuroshio Current and coastal waters and mainly composed of one seaweed species, Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh from spring to early summer. There are no reports on geographical distribution of this species in the coasts south of southern Kyushu Island in Japan. Kuroshio Current flows northeastward there. Buoys with GPS attached to drifting seaweeds released off Zhejiang Province, China, in March 2005 to track their transport. Their positions monitored by ORBCOM satellite showed that they were transported to the area in East China Sea, where the drifting seaweeds were observed during the cruises, in 2 months. These facts suggest that S. horneri detached from Chinese coast in March or months earlier than March could be transported to fringe area of continental shelf and waters influenced by Kuroshio Current from March to May. Therefore the Sargassum forests, especially S. horneri, along the Chinese coast play a very important role in the ecosystem of the East China Sea as a source of drifting seaweeds.

  7. Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Birkholzer; S. Mukhopadhyay


    The purpose of this report is to document drift-scale modeling work performed to evaluate the thermal-hydrological (TH) behavior in Yucca Mountain fractured rock close to waste emplacement drifts. The heat generated by the decay of radioactive waste results in rock temperatures elevated from ambient for thousands of years after emplacement. Depending on the thermal load, these temperatures are high enough to cause boiling conditions in the rock, giving rise to water redistribution and altered flow paths. The predictive simulations described in this report are intended to investigate fluid flow in the vicinity of an emplacement drift for a range of thermal loads. Understanding the TH coupled processes is important for the performance of the repository because the thermally driven water saturation changes affect the potential seepage of water into waste emplacement drifts. Seepage of water is important because if enough water gets into the emplacement drifts and comes into contact with any exposed radionuclides, it may then be possible for the radionuclides to be transported out of the drifts and to the groundwater below the drifts. For above-boiling rock temperatures, vaporization of percolating water in the fractured rock overlying the repository can provide an important barrier capability that greatly reduces (and possibly eliminates) the potential of water seeping into the emplacement drifts. In addition to this thermal process, water is inhibited from entering the drift opening by capillary forces, which occur under both ambient and thermal conditions (capillary barrier). The combined barrier capability of vaporization processes and capillary forces in the near-field rock during the thermal period of the repository is analyzed and discussed in this report.

  8. Structural aspects of superconducting fusion magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, M.; Lehner, J.; Powell, J.


    Some methods for studying various static, dynamic, elastic-plastic, and fracture mechanics problems of superconducting magnets are described. Sample solutions are given for the UWMAK-I magnet. Finite element calculations were used. (MOW)

  9. On superconductivity and superfluidity a scientific autobiography

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, Vitaly L


    This book presents the Nobel Laureate Vitaly Ginzburg's views on the development in the field of superconductivity. It contains a selection of Ginzburg's key writings, including his amended version of the Nobel lecture in Physics 2003. Also included are an expanded autobiography, which was written for the Nobel Committee, an article entitled "A Scientific Autobiography: An Attempt," a fundamental article co-written with L.D. Landau entitled "To the theory of superconductivity," an expanded review article "Superconductivity and superfluidity (what was done and what was not done)," and some newly written short articles about superconductivity and related subjects. So, in toto, presented here are the personal contributions of Ginzburg, that resulted in the Nobel Prize, in the context of his scientific biography.

  10. On superconductivity and superfluidity. A scientific autobiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, Vitaly L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst.


    This book presents the Nobel Laureate Vitaly Ginzburg's views on the development in the field of superconductivity. It contains a selection of Ginzburg's key writings, including his amended version of the Nobel lecture in Physics 2003. Also included are an expanded autobiography, which was written for the Nobel Committee, an article entitled 'A Scientific Autobiography: An Attempt,' a fundamental article co-written with L.D. Landau entitled 'To the theory of superconductivity,' an expanded review article 'Superconductivity and superfluidity (what was done and what was not done),' and some newly written short articles about superconductivity and related subjects. So, in toto, presented here are the personal contributions of Ginzburg, that resulted in the Nobel Prize, in the context of his scientific biography. (orig.)

  11. Degreasing and cleaning superconducting RF Niobium cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauchmiller, Michael; Kellett, Ron; /Fermilab


    The purpose and scope of this report is to detail the steps necessary for degreasing and cleaning of superconducting RF Niobium cavities in the A0 clean room. It lists the required equipment and the cleaning procedure.

  12. Generalized superconducting flows -- Plasma confinement, organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahajan, S.M.


    Complete expulsion of magnetic vorticity is used to characterize the superconducting flow. It is shown that a simple, intuitive, but speculative generalization can serve as a paradigm for a variety of organized flows.

  13. Magnetic fields in superconducting neutron stars. (United States)

    Lander, S K


    The interior of a neutron star is likely to be predominantly a mixture of superfluid neutrons and superconducting protons. This results in the quantization of the star's magnetic field into an array of thin flux tubes, producing a macroscopic force very different from the Lorentz force of normal matter. We show that in an axisymmetric superconducting equilibrium the behavior of a magnetic field is governed by a single differential equation. Solving this, we present the first self-consistent superconducting neutron star equilibria with poloidal and mixed poloidal-toroidal fields and also give the first quantitative results for the corresponding magnetically induced distortions to the star. The poloidal component is dominant in all our configurations. We suggest that the transition from normal to superconducting matter in a young neutron star may cause a large-scale field rearrangement.

  14. LEP superconducting cavities go into storage

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    Superconducting radio-frequency cavities from the LEP-2 phase (1996-2000) are put into storage in the tunnel that once housed the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR), the world’s first proton collider, located at CERN.

  15. Temperature Induced Voltage Offset Drifts in Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensors (United States)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Lukco, Dorothy; Nguyen, Vu; Savrun, Ender


    We report the reduction of transient drifts in the zero pressure offset voltage in silicon carbide (SiC) pressure sensors when operating at 600 C. The previously observed maximum drift of +/- 10 mV of the reference offset voltage at 600 C was reduced to within +/- 5 mV. The offset voltage drifts and bridge resistance changes over time at test temperature are explained in terms of the microstructure and phase changes occurring within the contact metallization, as analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results have helped to identify the upper temperature reliable operational limit of this particular metallization scheme to be 605 C.

  16. Simplified Drift Analysis for Proving Lower Bounds in Evolutionary Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveto, Pietro S.; Witt, Carsten


    Drift analysis is a powerful tool used to bound the optimization time of evolutionary algorithms (EAs). Various previous works apply a drift theorem going back to Hajek in order to show exponential lower bounds on the optimization time of EAs. However, this drift theorem is tedious to read...... involving the complicated theorem can be redone in a much simpler and clearer way. In some cases even improved results may be achieved. Therefore, the simplified theorem is also a didactical contribution to the runtime analysis of EAs....

  17. Weddell Sea ice drift: Kinematics and wind forcing (United States)

    Vihma, Timo; Launiainen, Jouko; Uotila, Juha


    Ice drift in the Weddell Sea was studied on the basis of positional and meteorological data from Argos buoys drifting in 1990-1992 and surface pressure analyses from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The drift kinematics showed differences between the eastern and western parts of the Weddell Sea. Close to the Antarctic Peninsula, the ice drifted as an almost nonrotating uniform field at a low speed, having reduced small-scale motions with little meandering, compared to regions further to the east. Inertial motion was detected from the ice drift in areas east of 35°W and in the region of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. On timescales of days, wind was the primary forcing factor for the drift. A linear model between the wind and ice drift explained 40-80% of the drift velocity variance. The degree of explanation was higher in the central Weddell Sea (around 40°W) and lower closer to the Antarctic Peninsula. The geostrophic wind was found to provide almost as good a basis for the general drift estimation as the surface wind observed by the buoys, although strong cyclones were not well detected by the ECMWF analyses. The data suggest a dependency upon atmospheric stability such that stable stratification reduces the wind forcing on the drift. For 60-80% of the time the direction of the drift deviated less than 45° from the geostrophic wind and for 45-70% of the time less than 45° from the ocean current. Ice transport through a transect crossing the Weddell Sea from the Antarctic Peninsula tip to Kapp Norwegia was estimated on the basis of the geostrophic winds, the drift's observed response to the wind, and literature-based information on ice concentration and thickness. The estimated annual mean net export in 1992-1994 varied from 8000 to 22,000 m3/s. Most of the net export took place in winter and spring, export prevailing west of 35°W and import east of it.

  18. Simulating superluminal physics with superconducting circuit technology (United States)

    Sabín, Carlos; Peropadre, Borja; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique


    We provide tools for the quantum simulation of superluminal motion with superconducting circuits. We show that it is possible to simulate the motion of a superconducting qubit at constant velocities that exceed the speed of light in the electromagnetic medium and the subsequent emission of Ginzburg radiation. We also consider possible setups for simulating the superluminal motion of a mirror, finding a link with the super-radiant phase transition of the Dicke model.

  19. ZGS roots of superconductivity: People and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pewitt, E.G.


    The ZGS community made basic contributions to the applications of superconducting magnets to high energy physics as well as to other technological areas. ZGS personnel pioneered many significant applications until the time the ZGS was shutdown in 1979. After the shutdown, former ZGS personnel developed magnets for new applications in high energy physics, fusion, and industrial uses. The list of superconducting magnet accomplishments of ZGS personnel is impressive.

  20. Heterogeneous Superconducting Low-Noise Sensing Coils (United States)

    Hahn, Inseob; Penanen, Konstantin I.; Ho Eom, Byeong


    A heterogeneous material construction has been devised for sensing coils of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers that are subject to a combination of requirements peculiar to some advanced applications, notably including low-field magnetic resonance imaging for medical diagnosis. The requirements in question are the following: The sensing coils must be large enough (in some cases having dimensions of as much as tens of centimeters) to afford adequate sensitivity; The sensing coils must be made electrically superconductive to eliminate Johnson noise (thermally induced noise proportional to electrical resistance); and Although the sensing coils must be cooled to below their superconducting- transition temperatures with sufficient cooling power to overcome moderate ambient radiative heat leakage, they must not be immersed in cryogenic liquid baths. For a given superconducting sensing coil, this combination of requirements can be satisfied by providing a sufficiently thermally conductive link between the coil and a cold source. However, the superconducting coil material is not suitable as such a link because electrically superconductive materials are typically poor thermal conductors. The heterogeneous material construction makes it possible to solve both the electrical- and thermal-conductivity problems. The basic idea is to construct the coil as a skeleton made of a highly thermally conductive material (typically, annealed copper), then coat the skeleton with an electrically superconductive alloy (typically, a lead-tin solder) [see figure]. In operation, the copper skeleton provides the required thermally conductive connection to the cold source, while the electrically superconductive coating material shields against Johnson noise that originates in the copper skeleton.

  1. Quantum gates between superconducting and atomic qubits (United States)

    Saffman, Mark; Wilhelm, Frank; McDermott, Robert


    We propose methods for performing entangling gate operations between superconducting phase qubits and neutral atom hyperfine qubits. The gate is mediated by mapping the superconducting qubit onto a microwave excitation of a coplanar waveguide resonator (CPW). The large transition dipole moments of atomic Rydberg states at microwave frequencies enable bidirectional entanglement between a single atom and a single CPW photon. Specific gate protocols and fidelity calculations are presented for experimentally realistic geometries.

  2. 13th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server


    EUCAS is a worldwide forum for scientists and engineers, and provides an ideal platform to share knowledge and the most recent advances in all areas of applied superconductivity: from large-scale applications to miniature electronics devices, with a traditional focus on advanced materials and conductors. The broad scope is at the same time a challenge and an opportunity to foster novel, inter-disciplinary approaches and promote cross-fertilization among the various fields of applied superconductivity.

  3. Experimenting with a Superconducting Levitation Train (United States)

    Miryala, Santosh; Koblischka, M. R.


    The construction and operation of a prototype high-"Tc" superconducting train model is presented. The train is levitated by a melt-processed GdBa[subscript 2]Cu[subscript 3]O[subscript x] (Gd-123) superconducting material over a magnetic rail (track). The oval shaped track is constructed in S-N-S or PM3N configuration arranged on an iron…

  4. Transport studies of individual crystalline nanowires contacted by superconducting electrodes (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Singh, Meenakshi; Tian, Mingliang; Kumar, Nitesh; Liu, Bangzhi; Shi, Chuntai; Jain, J. K.; Samarth, Nitin; Mallouk, T. E.; Chan, M. H. W.


    When a crystalline Au nanowire of 70 nm diameter is contacted by superconducting electrodes, the wire acquires superconductivity via the proximity effect. Instead of a single sharp drop to zero resistance as seen in a shorter wire, a two step superconducting transition was found for a wire of 1.2 microns in length. The normal and fully superconducting regions are separated by what we call the ``mini-gap'' phase. In addition, clear periodic differential magnetoresistance oscillations in the superconducting to normal transition region were observed. Our systematic study of individual single crystal ferromagnetic Co nanowires, contacted by superconducting electrodes found the surprising result that a wire of 600 nm is completely superconducting with zero resistance. For longer wires, there is a large and sharp resistance peak at the onset of superconductivity that ``anticipates'' the incomplete superconductivity at low temperatures.

  5. Study of the drift properties of high pressure drift tubes for the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Branchini, Paolo; Ceradini, Filippo; Graziani, Enrico; Iodice, Mauro; Orestano, Domizia; Passeri, Antonio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Tagliaventi, S; Tonazzo, Alessandra


    High pressure drift tubes chambers, MDT, are used as precision tracking detectors in the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. MDT chambers, operated at 3 bar absolute pressure with 93% argon 7% carbon dioxide gas mixture, were tested with cosmic rays at the Roma TRE test site and their properties upon variations of the operating conditions are discussed. The possibility to improve the tube spatial resolution measuring a fraction of the collected charge, exploiting the final version of the MDT read-out electronics, is considered.

  6. Collective coupling in hybrid superconducting circuits (United States)

    Saito, Shiro

    Hybrid quantum systems utilizing superconducting circuits have attracted significant recent attention, not only for quantum information processing tasks but also as a way to explore fundamentally new physics regimes. In this talk, I will discuss two superconducting circuit based hybrid quantum system approaches. The first is a superconducting flux qubit - electron spin ensemble hybrid system in which quantum information manipulated in the flux qubit can be transferred to, stored in and retrieved from the ensemble. Although the coherence time of the ensemble is short, about 20 ns, this is a significant first step to utilize the spin ensemble as quantum memory for superconducting flux qubits. The second approach is a superconducting resonator - flux qubit ensemble hybrid system in which we fabricated a superconducting LC resonator coupled to a large ensemble of flux qubits. Here we observed a dispersive frequency shift of approximately 250 MHz in the resonators transmission spectrum. This indicates thousands of flux qubits are coupling to the resonator collectively. Although we need to improve our qubits inhomogeneity, our system has many potential uses including the creation of new quantum metamaterials, novel applications in quantum metrology and so on. This work was partially supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25220601.

  7. Superconductivity in compressed lithium at 20 K. (United States)

    Shimizu, Katsuya; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Takao, Daigoroh; Yagi, Takehiko; Amaya, Kiichi


    Superconductivity at high temperatures is expected in elements with low atomic numbers, based in part on conventional BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) theory. For example, it has been predicted that when hydrogen is compressed to its dense metallic phase (at pressures exceeding 400 GPa), it will become superconducting with a transition temperature above room temperature. Such pressures are difficult to produce in a laboratory setting, so the predictions are not easily confirmed. Under normal conditions lithium is the lightest metal of all the elements, and may become superconducting at lower pressures; a tentative observation of a superconducting transition in Li has been previously reported. Here we show that Li becomes superconducting at pressures greater than 30 GPa, with a pressure-dependent transition temperature (T(c)) of 20 K at 48 GPa. This is the highest observed T(c) of any element; it confirms the expectation that elements with low atomic numbers will have high transition temperatures, and suggests that metallic hydrogen will have a very high T(c). Our results confirm that the earlier tentative claim of superconductivity in Li was correct.

  8. Tuberculose genitourinária


    Silva, Joelma Clotilde Costa da


    Dissertação de mestrado em medicina (Urologia), apresentado á Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra Introdução e Objectivos A tuberculose genitourinária é a forma mais frequente de tuberculose logo a seguir à infecção pulmonar e ganglionar. Estima-se que um terço da população mundial esteja afectada pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis, mas apesar da melhoria das condições higiénicas e socioeconómicas, é o HIV o maior responsável pelo recrudescimento desta doença. H...

  9. Urticária Urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo Criado


    Full Text Available A urticária apresenta-se com diversas formas clínicas e causas distintas. Constitui uma das dermatoses mais freqüentes: 15% a 20% da população têm pelo menos um episódio agudo da doença em sua vida, resultando em percentual que varia de um a 2% dos atendimentos nas especialidades de Dermatologia e Alergologia. A urticária é classificada do ponto de vista de duração da evolução temporal em aguda (inferior a seis semanas ou crônica (superior a seis semanas. O tratamento da urticária pode compreender medidas não farmacológicas e intervenções medicamentosas, as quais são agrupadas em tratamentos de primeira (anti-histamínicos, segunda (corticosteróides e antileucotrienos e terceira linha (medicamentos imunomoduladores. As medidas terapêuticas de segunda e terceira linha apresentam maiores efeitos adversos, devendo ser reservadas aos doentes que não apresentaram controle da doença com os de primeira linha, ou àqueles a respeito dos quais não é possível estabelecer uma etiologia, tal como nas urticárias auto-imunes.Urticaria has diverse clinical presentations and causes. It is one of the most frequent dermatological conditions: 15% to 20% of population has at least one acute eruption during their lifetime, resulting in 1% to 2% of dermatological and allergological visits. Urticaria is classified based on its temporal evolution as acute (less than 6 weeks or chronic (more than 6 weeks. Management strategies may involve non-pharmacological measures and drug interventions, which are grouped into first- (antihistamines, second- (corticosteroids and anti-leukotrienes and third-line therapies (immunomodulators. Stronger, but potentially riskier, second- and third-line management may be justified for patients who do not respond to first-line therapy, or whenever a specific etiology cannot be determined, such as in autoimmune urticaria.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. E. Taylor and D. H. Tang


    This technical report evaluates and develops options for reducing the amount of steel in the emplacement drift invert. Concepts developed in the ''Invert Configuration and Drip Shield Interface'' were evaluated to determine material properties required for the proposed invert concepts. Project requirements documents prescribe the use of a carbon steel frame for the invert with a granular material of crushed tuff as ballast. The ''Invert Configuration and Drip Shield Interface'' developed three concepts: (1) All-Ballast Invert; (2) Modified Steel Invert with Ballast; and (3) Steel Tie with Ballast Invert. Analysis of the steel frame members, runway beams, and guide beams, for the modified steel invert with ballast, decreased the quantity of steel in the emplacement drift invert, however a substantial steel support frame for the gantry and waste package/pallet assembly is still required. Use of one of the other two concepts appears to be an alternative to the steel frame and each of the concepts uses considerably less steel materials. Analysis of the steel tie with ballast invert shows that the bearing pressure on the ballast under the single steel tie, C 9 x 20, loaded with the waste package/pallet assembly, drip shield, and backfill exceeds the upper bound of the allowable bearing capacity for tuff used in this study. The single tie, C 10 x 20, will also fail for the same loading condition except for the tie length of 4.2 meters and longer. Analysis also shows that with two ties, C 9 or 10 x 20's, the average ballast pressure is less than the allowable bearing capacity. Distributing the waste package/pallet, drip shield, and backfill loads to two steel ties reduces the contact bearing pressure. Modifying the emplacement pallet end beams to a greater width, reducing the tie spacing, and increasing the width of the ties would ensure that the pallet beams are always supported by two steel ties. Further analysis is required

  11. Length and Time Scales in Continental Drift (United States)

    Phillips, B. R.; Bunge, H.


    Nonlinear feedback between continents and the mantle through thermal blanketing has long been surmised as a mechanism for continental drift and Wilson cycles. Paleomagnetism provides ample evidence for large scale (10,000 km) continental motion on time scales of several hundred million years, indicative of large scale mantle circulation. While much has been learned about the interactions between continents and mantle flow from analog and numerical modeling studies in two and three dimensions, a rigorous sensitivity study on the effects of continents in high resolution 3D spherical mantle convection models has yet to be pursued. As a result, a quantitative understanding of the scales of continental motion as they relate to relevant fluid dynamic processes is lacking. Here we focus on the effect of continental size. Continents covering 30% of the surface are representative of a supercontinent such as Pangea, smaller continents (10% of Earth's surface) are representative of present day Asia, and still smaller continents (3% of Earth's surface) are similar to present day Antarctica. These continents are introduced into simple end-member mantle flow regimes characterized by combinations of bottom or internal heating and uniform or layered mantle viscosity. We find that large scale mantle structure, and correspondingly the large scale displacement of continents, depends not only on mantle heating mode and radial viscosity structure, but also on continental size. Supercontinents promote heterogeneity on the largest scales (spherical harmonic degree one), especially when combined with strong bottom heating and a high viscosity lower mantle. Degree one heterogeneities in turn drive cyclical continental motion, with continents moving from the hot to the cold hemisphere on time scales of several hundred million years. Smaller continents are unable to initiate degree one convection. As a result, their motion is governed by shorter length and time scales. We apply these

  12. ASC 84: applied superconductivity conference. Final program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Abstracts are given of presentations covering: superconducting device fabrication; applications of rf superconductivity; conductor stability and losses; detectors and signal processing; fusion magnets; A15 and Nb-Ti conductors; stability, losses, and various conductors; SQUID applications; new applications of superconductivity; advanced conductor materials; high energy physics applications of superconductivity; electronic materials and characterization; general superconducting electronics; ac machinery and new applications; digital devices; fusion and other large scale applications; in-situ and powder process conductors; ac applications; synthesis, properties, and characterization of conductors; superconducting microelectronics. (LEW)

  13. Ac loss measurements on a superconducting transformer for a 25 kA superconducting rectifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Mulders, J.M.; de Reuver, J.L.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.


    Ac loss measurements have been performed on a superconducting transformer. The transformer is a part of a 25 kA thermally switched superconducting rectifier operating at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. The loss measurements have been automatized by means of a microcomputer sampling four relevant signals and

  14. CEC/ICMC'99. Superconduction. Superconducting cavity path; Chodendo kudo kanren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsunobu, Shinji [National Laboratory for High Energy Physis, Tsukuba (Japan)


    Presentations relating to superconducting cavity path are outlined, which include the present state of cryomodule of TESLA linear collider which is being developed under international cooperation, an idea of improvement for supporting cavity path of cryostat, cryomodule, connector for large power input, designation of superconductive proton linear accelerator for nuclear extinction, field intensity necessary for development of cavity path, and some experiments. (NEDO)

  15. Silicon drift detector with reduced lateral diffusion: experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonsky, J. E-mail:; Valk, H.; Huizenga, J.; Hollander, R.W.; Eijk, C.W.E. van; Sarro, P.M


    In a standard multi-anode silicon drift detector electron cloud broadening during the drifting towards the anode pixels deteriorates the energy and position resolution. This makes the detector less applicable for detection of low-energy X-rays. The signal charge sharing between several anodes can be eliminated by introducing sawtooth-shaped p{sup +} field strips. The sawtooth structure results in small electric fields directed parallel to the sensor surface and perpendicular to the drift direction which produce gutters. The drifting electrons are confined in these gutters of one saw tooth period wide. For a detector with a sawtooth period of 500 {mu}m, we have measured the maximum number of fully confined electrons as a function of the potential gutter depth induced by different sawtooth angles.

  16. Silicon drift detector with reduced lateral diffusion: experimental results

    CERN Document Server

    Sonsky, J; Huizenga, John R; Hollander, R W; Eijk, C W E; Sarro, P M


    In a standard multi-anode silicon drift detector electron cloud broadening during the drifting towards the anode pixels deteriorates the energy and position resolution. This makes the detector less applicable for detection of low-energy X-rays. The signal charge sharing between several anodes can be eliminated by introducing sawtooth-shaped p sup + field strips. The sawtooth structure results in small electric fields directed parallel to the sensor surface and perpendicular to the drift direction which produce gutters. The drifting electrons are confined in these gutters of one saw tooth period wide. For a detector with a sawtooth period of 500 mu m, we have measured the maximum number of fully confined electrons as a function of the potential gutter depth induced by different sawtooth angles.

  17. Drift in interference filters. II - Radiation effects. [for solar instrumentation (United States)

    Title, A. M.


    Studies of peak transmission drift in narrow-band interference filters have shown that there exist two mechanisms that cause drift toward shorter wavelengths. One is dependent on the thermal history of the filter and is discussed in Part 1 of this paper. The other is dependent on the exposure of the filter to radiation. For ZnS-cryolite filters of particular design, it is experimentally demonstrated that the filters are most sensitive to radiation in a 100-A band centered at approximately 3900 A. The drift rate in the focal plane of an f/20 solar image is approximately 3 A/100 hr of exposure. Further, it is also shown by model calculations that the observed radiation-induced drift is consistent with the hypothesis that the optical thickness of ZnS decreases in proportion to the radiant energy absorbed.

  18. IABP Drifting Buoy Pressure, Temperature, Position, and Interpolated Ice Velocity (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP) maintains a network of drifting buoys to provide meteorological and oceanographic data for real-time operational...

  19. Snow drift: acoustic sensors for avalanche warning and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lehning


    Full Text Available Based on wind tunnel measurements at the CSTB (Jules Verne facility in Nantes and based on field observations at the SLF experimental site Versuchsfeld Weissfluhjoch, two acoustic wind drift sensors are evaluated against different mechanical snow traps and one optical snow particle counter. The focus of the work is the suitability of the acoustic sensors for applications such as avalanche warning and research. Although the acoustic sensors have not yet reached the accuracy required for typical research applications, they can, however, be useful for snow drift monitoring to help avalanche forecasters. The main problem of the acoustic sensors is a difficult calibration that has to take into account the variable snow properties. Further difficulties arise from snow fall and high wind speeds. However, the sensor is robust and can be operated remotely under harsh conditions. It is emphasized that due to the lack of an accurate reference method for snow drift measurements, all sensors play a role in improving and evaluating snow drift models. Finally, current operational snow drift models and snow drift sensors are compared with respect to their usefulness as an aid for avalanche warning. While drift sensors always make a point measurement, the models are able to give a more representative drift index that is valid for a larger area. Therefore, models have the potential to replace difficult observations such as snow drift in operational applications. Current models on snow drift are either only applicable in flat terrain, are still too complex for an operational application (Lehning et al., 2000b, or offer only limited information on snow drift, such as the SNOWPACK drift index (Lehning et al., 2000a. On the other hand, snow drift is also difficult to measure. While mechanical traps (Mellor 1960; Budd et al., 1966 are probably still the best reference, they require more or less continuous manual operation and are thus not suitable for remote locations

  20. Snow drift: acoustic sensors for avalanche warning and research (United States)

    Lehning, M.; Naaim, F.; Naaim, M.; Brabec, B.; Doorschot, J.; Durand, Y.; Guyomarc'h, G.; Michaux, J.-L.; Zimmerli, M.

    Based on wind tunnel measurements at the CSTB (Jules Verne) facility in Nantes and based on field observations at the SLF experimental site Versuchsfeld Weissfluhjoch, two acoustic wind drift sensors are evaluated against different mechanical snow traps and one optical snow particle counter. The focus of the work is the suitability of the acoustic sensors for applications such as avalanche warning and research. Although the acoustic sensors have not yet reached the accuracy required for typical research applications, they can, however, be useful for snow drift monitoring to help avalanche forecasters. The main problem of the acoustic sensors is a difficult calibration that has to take into account the variable snow properties. Further difficulties arise from snow fall and high wind speeds. However, the sensor is robust and can be operated remotely under harsh conditions. It is emphasized that due to the lack of an accurate reference method for snow drift measurements, all sensors play a role in improving and evaluating snow drift models. Finally, current operational snow drift models and snow drift sensors are compared with respect to their usefulness as an aid for avalanche warning. While drift sensors always make a point measurement, the models are able to give a more representative drift index that is valid for a larger area. Therefore, models have the potential to replace difficult observations such as snow drift in operational applications. Current models on snow drift are either only applicable in flat terrain, are still too complex for an operational application (Lehning et al., 2000b), or offer only limited information on snow drift, such as the SNOWPACK drift index (Lehning et al., 2000a). On the other hand, snow drift is also difficult to measure. While mechanical traps (Mellor 1960; Budd et al., 1966) are probably still the best reference, they require more or less continuous manual operation and are thus not suitable for remote locations or long

  1. The Geodiversity in Drift Sand Landscapes of The Netherlands (United States)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Riksen, Michel


    The authors carried out detailed field studies of more than twelve drift sand landscapes in The Netherlands. The objective of these studies was to restore Natura-2000 values by restoring the wind activity. Active drift sands occur almost exclusively in The Netherlands, Natura 2000 habitat 2330 'Inland dunes with open Corynephorus and Agrostis grasslands', for which reason our country is largely responsible for this European landscape. Active drift sands had almost disappeared for two reasons: first, the stabilization of the drift sands by air pollution, mainly nitrogen, which stimulates the growth of algae and grasses that initiate soil formation, and second, by the growth of forests surrounding the sands, which decreases the wind force. The restoration studies revealed differences in the geodiversity between and within the drift sand areas. Whereas the drift sands on geological and soil maps show as almost homogenous areas, they have in fact highly variable geo-conditions of which examples will be given. These geodiversity aspects concern differences in geomorphological structure, origin, sediments and age of the drift sands. Differences in wind and water erosion, trampling and soil formation add to the geodiversity within the drift sand areas. Especially in the primary stages of succession the differences in geodiversity are relevant for the Natura-2000 values. We discerned three main types of active sands. Firstly, the impressive drift sands with large parabolic dune structures, often consisting of series of interlocking parabolic dunes. They developed from the northeast towards the southwest, against the direction of the dominant wind, and must have taken centuries to develop. Small parts of these systems are still active, other parts show different degrees of soil formation. Their origin is still unclear but probably dates from medieval times (Heidinga, 1985, Jungerius & Riksen, 2008). Second are the drift sand areas with irregular hills from 0.5 to about 2

  2. Predicting Escherichia coli's chemotactic drift under exponential gradient (United States)

    Samanta, Sibendu; Layek, Ritwik; Kar, Shantimoy; Raj, M. Kiran; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Chakraborty, Suman


    Bacterial species are known to show chemotaxis, i.e., the directed motions in the presence of certain chemicals, whereas the motion is random in the absence of those chemicals. The bacteria modulate their run time to induce chemotactic drift towards the attractant chemicals and away from the repellent chemicals. However, the existing theoretical knowledge does not exhibit a proper match with experimental validation, and hence there is a need for developing alternate models and validating experimentally. In this paper a more robust theoretical model is proposed to investigate chemotactic drift of peritrichous Escherichia coli under an exponential nutrient gradient. An exponential gradient is used to understand the steady state behavior of drift because of the logarithmic functionality of the chemosensory receptors. Our theoretical estimations are validated through the experimentation and simulation results. Thus, the developed model successfully delineates the run time, run trajectory, and drift velocity as measured from the experiments.

  3. Transport of Na48 Drift Chambers to Dubna

    CERN Multimedia



    On 22 July, in the occasion of the departure of the Na48 Drift Chambers from CERN, Mikhail Itkis (acting Director of the JIINR) and Rolf Heuer (CERN Director General) visited the NA62 experimental area.

  4. Modeling of Drift Effects on Solar Tower Concentrated Flux Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis O. Lara-Cerecedo


    Full Text Available A novel modeling tool for calculation of central receiver concentrated flux distributions is presented, which takes into account drift effects. This tool is based on a drift model that includes different geometrical error sources in a rigorous manner and on a simple analytic approximation for the individual flux distribution of a heliostat. The model is applied to a group of heliostats of a real field to obtain the resulting flux distribution and its variation along the day. The distributions differ strongly from those obtained assuming the ideal case without drift or a case with a Gaussian tracking error function. The time evolution of peak flux is also calculated to demonstrate the capabilities of the model. The evolution of this parameter also shows strong differences in comparison to the case without drift.

  5. Ageing tests for the MEG II drift chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, M., E-mail: [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Baldini, A.M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Baracchini, E. [ICEPP, University of Tokyo 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Cei, F.; D' Onofrio, A. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dussoni, S.; Galli, L.; Grassi, M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Nicolò, D. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Signorelli, G.; Tenchini, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Zermini, A. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)


    The MEG II drift chamber will track positrons from μ{sup +} decays in a very harsh environment. For testing the robustness of the chamber to ageing effects an irradiation facility was set up at INFN Pisa. - Highlights: • We built up an X-ray facility for ageing studies of particle detectors. • Stable irradiation conditions were obtained over one-month timescale. • A moderate gain loss is expected for the MEG II drift chamber.

  6. Silicon Drift Detector Readout Electronics for a Compton Camera


    Nurdan, T. Conka; Nurdan, K; Walenta, A. H.; Besch, H J; Fiorini, C; Freisleben, B.; Pavel, N. A.


    A prototype detector for Compton camera imaging is under development. A monolithic array of 19 channel Silicon drift detector with on-chip electronics is going to be used as a scatter detector for the prototype system. Custom designed analog and digital readout electronics for this detector was first tested by using a single cell Silicon drift detector. This paper describes the readout architecture and presents the results of the measurement.

  7. Fabrication of joint Bi-2223/Ag superconducting tapes with BSCCO superconducting powders by diffusion bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Wei, E-mail: [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University and Key Laboratory for Advanced Manufacturing by Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education of PR China, Beijing 100084 (China); Zou Guisheng; Wu Aiping; Zhou Fangbing; Ren Jialie [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University and Key Laboratory for Advanced Manufacturing by Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education of PR China, Beijing 100084 (China)


    61-Filaments Bi-2223/Ag superconducting tapes have been successfully joined with BSCCO superconducting powder interlayer by diffusion bonding. The electrical properties of the diffusion bonding joints were tested by standard four probe method and the microstructures of the joints were also examined by SEM. Additionally, the phase constituents of the superconducting powders between the tapes before and after bonding process were evaluated by XRD analysis. The result shows that the diffusion bonding joints are superconductive. The microstructures of the joint display a good bonding with no cracks and discontinuities. The joining zones are mainly composed of Bi-2223 phase, Bi-2212 phase and a small amount of CuO, Ca{sub 2}PbO{sub 4}. At last, the phase transformations of the superconducting powders in the bonding process are discussed.

  8. Measuring the equatorial plasma bubble drift velocities over Morroco (United States)

    Lagheryeb, Amine; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Makela, Jonathan J.; Harding, Brian; Kaab, Mohamed; Lazrek, Mohamed; Fisher, Daniel J.; Duly, Timothy M.; Bounhir, Aziza; Daassou, Ahmed


    In this work, we present a method to measure the drift velocities of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) in the low latitude ionosphere. To calculate the EPB drift velocity, we use 630.0-nm airglow images collected by the Portable Ionospheric Camera and Small Scale Observatory (PICASSO) system deployed at the Oukkaimden observatory in Morocco. To extract the drift velocity, the individual images were processed by first spatially registering the images using the star field. After this, the stars were removed from the images using a point suppression methodology, the images were projected into geographic coordinates assuming an airglow emission altitude of 250 km. Once the images were projected into geographic coordinates, the intensities of the airglow along a line of constant geomagnetic latitude (31°) are used to detect the presence of an EPB, which shows up as a depletion in airglow intensity. To calculate the EPB drift velocity, we divide the spatial lag between depletions found in two images (found by the application of correlation analysis) by the time difference between these two images. With multiple images, we will have several velocity values and consequently we can draw the EPB drift velocity curve. Future analysis will compare the estimates of the plasma drift velocity with the thermospheric neutral wind velocity estimated by a collocated Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) at the observatory.

  9. Redshift drift reconstruction for some cosmological models from observations (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Jian; Liu, Wen-Biao


    Redshift drift is a tool to directly probe the expansion history of the universe. Based on the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker framework, we reconstruct the velocity drift and deceleration factor for several cosmological models using observational H(z) data from the differential ages of galaxies and baryon acoustic oscillation peaks, luminosity distance of Type Ia supernovae, cosmic microwave background shift parameter, and baryon acoustic oscillation distance parameter. They can, for the first time, provide an objective and quantifiable measure of the redshift drift. We find that reconstructed velocity drift with different peak values and corresponding redshifts can potentially provide a method to distinguish the quality of competing dark energy models at low redshifts. Better fitting between models and observational data indicate that current data are insufficient to distinguish the quality of these models. However, by comparing with the simulated velocity drift from Liske et al, we find that the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model is inconsistent with the data at high redshift, which originally piqued the interest of researchers in the topic of redshift drift. Considering the deceleration factor, we are able to give a stable instantaneous estimation of a transition redshift of zt ~ 0.7 from joint constraints, which incorporates a more complete set of values than the previous study that used a single data set.

  10. Measurement of Spray Drift with a Specifically Designed Lidar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Gregorio


    Full Text Available Field measurements of spray drift are usually carried out by passive collectors and tracers. However, these methods are labour- and time-intensive and only provide point- and time-integrated measurements. Unlike these methods, the light detection and ranging (lidar technique allows real-time measurements, obtaining information with temporal and spatial resolution. Recently, the authors have developed the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for spray drift monitoring. This prototype is based on a 1534 nm erbium-doped glass laser and an 80 mm diameter telescope, has scanning capability, and is easily transportable. This paper presents the results of the first experimental campaign carried out with this instrument. High coefficients of determination (R2 > 0.85 were observed by comparing lidar measurements of the spray drift with those obtained by horizontal collectors. Furthermore, the lidar system allowed an assessment of the drift reduction potential (DRP when comparing low-drift nozzles with standard ones, resulting in a DRP of 57% (preliminary result for the tested nozzles. The lidar system was also used for monitoring the evolution of the spray flux over the canopy and to generate 2-D images of these plumes. The developed instrument is an advantageous alternative to passive collectors and opens the possibility of new methods for field measurement of spray drift.

  11. Algorithm for spectral response analysis of superconducting microwave transmission-line resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Hanif, Muhammad


    It has always been a challenge for researchers to efficiently and accurately post process experimental data which is distorted by the noise. Superconducting microwave devices e.g. resonators, directional filters, beam-splitters etc. operate at frequency of several GHz to THz and temperatures well below critical temperature (Tc) with few exceptions like transition edge sensors where devices are operated at temperatures close to Tc. These devices are measured usually with vector network analyser in terms of scattering parameters. Two kinds of errors, systematic and drift can easily be removed from the measurements taken with VNA. However, random errors are not easy to address and remove due to their unpredictability and randomness. In this manuscript we will present an algorithm to post process experimental data to cope with measurements that have been corrupted or useful spectral response is buried in spurious signal. We have developed a robust and efficient algorithm, implemented in MATLAB, to detect peaks in...

  12. Thermodynamic system drift in protein evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Hart


    Full Text Available Proteins from thermophiles are generally more thermostable than their mesophilic homologs, but little is known about the evolutionary process driving these differences. Here we attempt to understand how the diverse thermostabilities of bacterial ribonuclease H1 (RNH proteins evolved. RNH proteins from Thermus thermophilus (ttRNH and Escherichia coli (ecRNH share similar structures but differ in melting temperature (T(m by 20 °C. ttRNH's greater stability is caused in part by the presence of residual structure in the unfolded state, which results in a low heat capacity of unfolding (ΔCp relative to ecRNH. We first characterized RNH proteins from a variety of extant bacteria and found that Tm correlates with the species' growth temperatures, consistent with environmental selection for stability. We then used ancestral sequence reconstruction to statistically infer evolutionary intermediates along lineages leading to ecRNH and ttRNH from their common ancestor, which existed approximately 3 billion years ago. Finally, we synthesized and experimentally characterized these intermediates. The shared ancestor has a melting temperature between those of ttRNH and ecRNH; the T(ms of intermediate ancestors along the ttRNH lineage increased gradually over time, while the ecRNH lineage exhibited an abrupt drop in Tm followed by relatively little change. To determine whether the underlying mechanisms for thermostability correlate with the changes in T(m, we measured the thermodynamic basis for stabilization--ΔCp and other thermodynamic parameters--for each of the ancestors. We observed that, while the T(m changes smoothly, the mechanistic basis for stability fluctuates over evolutionary time. Thus, even while overall stability appears to be strongly driven by selection, the proteins explored a wide variety of mechanisms of stabilization, a phenomenon we call "thermodynamic system drift." This suggests that even on lineages with strong selection to increase

  13. Superconducting materials suitable for magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit


    The range of materials available for superconducting magnets is steadily expanding, even as the choice of material becomes potentially more complex. When virtually all magnets were cooled by helium at ~2-5 K it was easy to separate the domain of Nb-Ti from those of Nb3Sn applications and very little surprise that more than 90% of all magnets are still made from Nb-Ti. But the development of useful conductors of the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O and YBa2Cu3Ox high temperature superconductors, coupled to the recent discovery of the 39 K superconductor MgB2 and the developing availability of cryocoolers suggests that new classes of higher temperature, medium field magnets based on other than Nb-based conductors could become available in the next 5-10 years. My talks will discuss the essential physics and materials science of these 5 classes of material - Nb-Ti, Nb3Sn, MgB2, Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O and YBa2Cu3Ox - in the context of those aspects of their science, properties and fabrication properties, which circumscribe their applications...

  14. Free electron laser and superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Iwata, A


    The lasing of the first free-electron laser (FEL) in the world was successfully carried out in 1977, so the history of FELs as a light source is not so long. But FELs are now utilized for research in many scientific and engineering fields owing to such characteristics as tunability of the wavelength, and short pulse and high peak power, which is difficult utilizing a common light source. Research for industrial applications has also been carried out in some fields, such as life sciences, semiconductors, nano-scale measurement, and others. The task for the industrial use of FEL is the realization of high energy efficiency and high optical power. As a means of promoting realization, the combining of an FEL and superconducting linac is now under development in order to overcome the thermal limitations of normal-conducting linacs. Further, since tuning the wavelength is carried out by changing the magnetic density of the undulator, which is now induced by moving part of the stack of permanent magnets, there is un...

  15. Economical Aspects of Superconducting Cable (United States)

    Ohya, Masayoshi

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cables are expected to resolve technical problems with power grids because they put large-capacity, low-loss power transmission into a compact package. One problem is replacing old 275-kV oil filled (OF) cables with cross-linked polyethylene insulated vinyl sheath cables (XLPE cables). This is difficult because XLPE cable has a lower transmission capacity than OF cable. In addition, the high concentration of public infrastructure underground makes it extremely difficult to build new ones. However, if 66-kV HTS cables can be installed inside existing underground conduits and can achieve a power capacity equivalent to conventional 275-kV cables, construction costs could be significantly reduced. Moreover, if XLPE cables are used for a 1,000 MVA-class transmission line, then three circuits of nine 275-kV single-core cables would be required, which would incur a transmission loss of 90 W/m/cct. Three circuits of three 66-kV Three-in-One HTS cables, however, with an AC loss of 1 W/m/ph@3 kA, heat invasion of 2 W/m, and cooling system efficiency of 0.1, would reduce transmission loss to less than three-fifths that of XLPE cables.

  16. Superconducting Coil of Po Dipole

    CERN Multimedia


    The Po superconducting dipole was built as a prototype beam transport magnet for the SPS extracted proton beam P0. Its main features were: coil aperture 72 mm, length 5 m, room-temperature yoke, NbTi cable conductor impregnated with solder, nominal field 4.2 T at 4.7 K (87% of critical field). It reached its nominal field without any quench.After this successful test up to its nominal field of 4.2 T, the power was not raised to reach a quench. The magnet was not installed in a beam and had no other further use. Nevertheless its construction provided knowledges and experience which became useful in the design and construction of the LHC magnets. The photo shows a detail of the inner layer winding before superposing the outer layer to form the complete coil of a pole. Worth noticing is the interleaved glass-epoxy sheet (white) with grooved channels for the flow of cooling helium. See also 8211532X.

  17. Optimization of Steering Elements in the RIA Driver Linac

    CERN Document Server

    SchnirmanLessner, Eliane; Ostroumov, Peter


    The driver linac of the projected RIA facility is a versatile accelerator, a 1.4-GV, CW superconducting linac designed to simultaneously accelerate several heavy-ion charge states, providing beams from protons at about 1 GeV to uranium at 400 MeV/u at power levels at a minimum of 100 kW and up to 400 kW for most beams. Acceleration of multiple-charge-state uranium beams places stringent requirements on the linac design. A steering algorithm was derived that fulfilled the driver’s real estate requirements, such as placement of steering dipole coils on SC solenoids and of beam position monitors outside cryostats, and beam-dynamics requirements, such as coupling effects induced by the focusing solenoids.* The algorithm has been fully integrated in the tracking code TRACK** and is used to study and optimize the number and position of steering elements that minimize the multiple-beam centroid oscillations and preserve the beam emittance under misalignments of accelerating and transverse focusing elements...

  18. Quantum Theory of Conducting Matter Superconductivity and Quantum Hall Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Shigeji; Godoy, Salvador


    Explains major superconducting properties including zero resistance, Meissner effect, sharp phase change, flux quantization, excitation energy gap, and Josephson effects using quantum statistical mechanical calculations. This book covers the 2D superconductivity and the quantum Hall effects

  19. Prototype superconducting radio-frequency cavity for LEP

    CERN Multimedia


    This niobium superconducting cavity was part of the prototype stages for an upgrade to LEP, known as LEP-2. Superconducting cavities would eventually replace the traditional copper cavities and allow beam energies of 100 GeV.

  20. Development of innovative superconducting DC power cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, Teruo; Kiuchi, Masaru [Dept. of Computer Science and Electronics Kyushu Institute of Technology, Iizuka (Japan)


    It is required to reduce the cost of superconducting cable to realize a superconducting DC power network that covers a wide area in order to utilize renewable energy. In this paper a new concept of innovative cable is introduced that can enhance the current-carrying capacity even though the same superconducting tape is used. Such a cable can be realized by designing an optimal winding structure in such a way that the angle between the tape and magnetic field becomes small. This idea was confirmed by preliminary experiments for a single layer model cable made of Bi-2223 tapes and REBCO coated conductors. Experiments of three and four layer cables of practical sizes were also done and it was found that the current-carrying capacity increased as theoretically predicted. If the critical current properties of commercial superconducting tapes are further improved in a parallel magnetic field, the enhancement will become pronounced and this technology will surely contribute to realization of superconducting DC power network.

  1. Superconducting circuitry for quantum electromechanical systems (United States)

    LaHaye, Matthew D.; Rouxinol, Francisco; Hao, Yu; Shim, Seung-Bo; Irish, Elinor K.


    Superconducting systems have a long history of use in experiments that push the frontiers of mechanical sensing. This includes both applied and fundamental research, which at present day ranges from quantum computing research and e orts to explore Planck-scale physics to fundamental studies on the nature of motion and the quantum limits on our ability to measure it. In this paper, we first provide a short history of the role of superconducting circuitry and devices in mechanical sensing, focusing primarily on efforts in the last decade to push the study of quantum mechanics to include motion on the scale of human-made structures. This background sets the stage for the remainder of the paper, which focuses on the development of quantum electromechanical systems (QEMS) that incorporate superconducting quantum bits (qubits), superconducting transmission line resonators and flexural nanomechanical elements. In addition to providing the motivation and relevant background on the physical behavior of these systems, we discuss our recent efforts to develop a particular type of QEMS that is based upon the Cooper-pair box (CPB) and superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) cavities, a system which has the potential to serve as a testbed for studying the quantum properties of motion in engineered systems.

  2. Induced superconductivity in the Hubbard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittner, Nikolaj; Manske, Dirk [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Tohyama, Takami [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo 125-8585 (Japan)


    New insights into the properties of the strongly correlated electron system can be gained by studying it in nonequilibrium. For instance, under the action of a strong laser pulse the system can undergo a phase transition and even the induced superconductivity may occur. In this contribution we present a theoretical study of the nonequilibrium dynamics in the one-dimensional extended Hubbard model. Particular emphasis is on the possibility to induce superconductivity in this system driven out of equilibrium. Within the framework of the time-dependent Lanczos algorithm we investigate the time evolution of our model for two different nonequilibrium scenarios, which occur by (i) an interaction quench and by (ii) action of a light pulse. For both cases we calculate the time dependent optical conductivity and the superconducting correlation functions. In particular, we observe from our calculations appearance of a transient Meissner effect, which is a fingerprint of the induced superconductivity. This is in agreement with the obtained correlation functions and opens a new way to induce superconductivity in an experiment.

  3. Design of 57.5 MHz cw RFQ for medium energy heavy ion superconducting linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Ostroumov


    Full Text Available The nuclear science community considers the construction of the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA facility as a top priority. The RIA includes a 1.4 GV superconducting linac for production of 400 kW cw heavy ion beams. The initial acceleration of heavy ions delivered from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source can be effectively performed by a 57.5 MHz 4-m long room temperature RFQ. The principal specifications of the RFQ are (i formation of extremely low longitudinal emittance, (ii stable operation over a wide range of voltage for acceleration of various ion species needed for RIA operation, and (iii simultaneous acceleration of two-charge states of uranium ions. cw operation of an accelerating structure leads to a number of requirements for the resonators such as high shunt impedance, efficient water cooling of all parts of the resonant cavity, mechanical stability together with precise alignment, reliable rf contacts, a stable operating mode, and fine tuning of the resonant frequency during operation. To satisfy these requirements a new resonant structure has been developed. This paper discusses the beam dynamics and electrodynamics design of the RFQ cavity, as well as some aspects of the mechanical design of the low-frequency cw RFQ.

  4. Adding Drift Kinetics to a Global MHD Code (United States)

    Lyon, J.; Merkin, V. G.; Zhang, B.; Ouellette, J.


    Global MHD models have generally been successful in describing thebehavior of the magnetosphere at large and meso-scales. An exceptionis the inner magnetosphere where energy dependent particle drifts areessential in the dynamics and evolution of the ring current. Even inthe tail particle drifts are a significant perturbation on the MHDbehavior of the plasma. The most common drift addition to MHD has beeninclusion of the Hall term in Faraday's Law. There have been attemptsin the space physics context to include gradient and curvature driftswithin a single fluid MHD picture. These have not been terriblysuccessful because the use of a single, Maxwellian distribution doesnot capture the energy dependent nature of the drifts. The advent ofmulti-fluid MHD codes leads to a reconsideration of this problem. TheVlasov equation can be used to define individual ``species'' whichcover a specific energy range. Each fluid can then be treated ashaving a separate evolution. We take the approach of the RiceConvection Model (RCM) that each energy channel can be described by adistribution that is essentially isotropic in the guiding centerpicture. In the local picture, this gives rise to drifts that can bedescribed in terms of the energy dependent inertial and diamagneticdrifts. By extending the MHD equations with these drifts we can get asystem which reduces to the RCM approach in the slow-flow innermagnetosphere but is not restricted to cases where the flow speed issmall. The restriction is that the equations can be expanded in theratio of the Larmor radius to the gradient scale lengths. At scalesapproaching di, the assumption of gyrotropic (or isotropic)distributions break down. In addition to the drifts, the formalism canalso be used to include finite Larmor radius effects on the pressuretensor (gyro-viscosity). We present some initial calculations with this method.

  5. Quantum transport in superconducting hybrids : Molecular devices and layered materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Island, J.O.; van der Zant, H.S.J.

    In this thesis we investigate superconducting hybrids made from two material systems, namely, molecules and layered materials. For studies of superconducting phenomena in molecular junctions we develop two platforms which rely on the superconducting proximity effect to preserve pre-existing nano-gap

  6. Quantum transport in superconducting hybrids : Molecular devices and layered materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Island, J.O.


    In this thesis we investigate superconducting hybrids made from two material systems, namely, molecules and layered materials. For studies of superconducting phenomena in molecular junctions we develop two platforms which rely on the superconducting proximity effect to preserve pre-existing nano-gap

  7. Proposed experimental test of the theory of hole superconductivity (United States)

    Hirsch, J. E.


    The theory of hole superconductivity predicts that in the reversible transition between normal and superconducting phases in the presence of a magnetic field there is charge flow in direction perpendicular to the normal-superconductor phase boundary. In contrast, the conventional BCS-London theory of superconductivity predicts no such charge flow. Here we discuss an experiment to test these predictions.

  8. Superconducting Dome in a Gate-Tuned Band Insulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, J. T.; Zhang, Y. J.; Akashi, R.; Bahramy, M. S.; Arita, R.; Iwasa, Y.


    A dome-shaped superconducting region appears in the phase diagrams of many unconventional superconductors. In doped band insulators, however, reaching optimal superconductivity by the fine-tuning of carriers has seldom been seen. We report the observation of a superconducting dome in the

  9. Characteristic parameters of drift chambers calculation; Calculo de los parametros caracteristicos de camaras de deriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, I.; Martinez-Laso, L.


    We present here the methods we used to analyse the characteristic parameters of drift chambers. The algorithms to calculate the electric potential in any point for any drift chamber geometry are presented. We include the description of the programs used to calculate the electric field, the drift paths, the drift velocity and the drift time. The results and the errors are discussed. (Author) 7 refs.

  10. International Workshop on Novel Mechanisms of Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Stuart A; Novel superconductivity


    The Novel Mechanisms of Superconductivity Conference was initially conceived in the early part of 1986 as a small, 2-1/2 day workshop of 40-70 scientists, both theorists and experimentalists interested in exploring the possible evidence for exotic, non phononic superconductivity. Of course, the historic discoveries of high temperature oxide superconductors by Bednorz and Mftller and the subsequent enhancements by the Houston/Alabama groups made such a small conference impractical. The conference necessarily had to expand, 2-1/2 days became 4-1/2 days and superconductivity in the high Tc oxides became the largest single topic in the workshop. In fact, this conference became the first major conference on this topic and thus, these proceedings are also the first maj or publication. However, heavy fermion, organic and low carrier concentration superconductors remained a very important part of this workshop and articles by the leaders in these fields are included in these proceedings. Ultimately the work...

  11. Superconducting wire turns to electrical power

    CERN Document Server

    Sargent, P


    Two years after the discovery that magnesium diboride is a superconductor, engineers and entrepreneurs are keen to transform its properties into profit. The discovery of superconductivity at 39 K in the metallic compound magnesium diboride two years ago created quite a stir. Since then, physicists and chemists have come a long way in understanding the curious set of circumstances that lead to such a high critical temperature in this widely available material. At the same time, metallurgists, engineers and entrepreneurs have been focusing on the commercial potential of magnesium diboride as superconducting wire, which was the subject of a one-day meeting in Cambridge, UK, in April. Superconducting wire made from magnesium diboride could make 'second- generation' electrical machines commercially viable. (U.K.)

  12. Characterizing superconducting filters using residual microwave background (United States)

    Lehtinen, J. S.; Mykkänen, E.; Kemppinen, A.; Lotkhov, S. V.; Golubev, D.; Manninen, A. J.


    A normal metal-superconductor hybrid single-electron trap with tunable barrier is utilized as a tool for spectrum analysis at the extremely low signal levels, using only well filtered cryogenic microwave background as a photon source in the frequency range from about 50 to 210 GHz. We probe millimeter wave propagation in two superconducting systems: a Josephson junction array around its plasma frequency, and a superconducting titanium film in the limit when the photon energies are larger than the superconducting energy gap. This regime is relevant for improving the performance of cryogenic quantum devices but is hard to access with conventional techniques. We show that relatively simple models can be used to describe the essential properties of the studied components.

  13. Hybrid quantum systems: Outsourcing superconducting qubits (United States)

    Cleland, Andrew

    Superconducting qubits offer excellent prospects for manipulating quantum information, with good qubit lifetimes, high fidelity single- and two-qubit gates, and straightforward scalability (admittedly with multi-dimensional interconnect challenges). One interesting route for experimental development is the exploration of hybrid systems, i.e. coupling superconducting qubits to other systems. I will report on our group's efforts to develop approaches that will allow interfacing superconducting qubits in a quantum-coherent fashion to spin defects in solids, to optomechanical devices, and to resonant nanomechanical structures. The longer term goals of these efforts include transferring quantum states between different qubit systems; generating and receiving ``flying'' acoustic phonon-based as well as optical photon-based qubits; and ultimately developing systems that can be used for quantum memory, quantum computation and quantum communication, the last in both the microwave and fiber telecommunications bands. Work is supported by Grants from AFOSR, ARO, DOE and NSF.

  14. High Temperature Superconductivity in Cuprates: a model

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, P R


    A model is proposed such that quasi-particles (electrons or holes) residing in the CuO2 planes of cuprates may interact leading to metallic or superconducting behaviors. The metallic phase is obtained when the quasi-particles are treated as having classical kinetic energies and the superconducting phase occurs when the quasi-particles are taken as extremely relativistic objects. The interaction between both kinds of particles is provided by a force dependent-on-velocity. In the case of the superconducting behavior, the motion of apical oxygen ions provides the glue to establish the Cooper pair. The model furnishes explicit relations for the Fermi velocity, the perpendicular and the in-plane coherence lengths, the zero-temperature energy gap, the critical current density, the critical parallel and perpendicular magnetic fields. All these mentioned quantities are expressed in terms of fundamental physical constants as: charge and mass of the electron, light velocity in vacuum, Planck constant, electric permitti...

  15. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Superconducting Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Nisenhoff, Martin; Superconducting Electronics


    The genesis of the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) upon which this volume is based, occurred during the summer of 1986 when we came to the realization that there had been significant progress during the early 1980's in the field of superconducting electronics and in applications of this technology. Despite this progress, there was a perception among many engineers and scientists that, with the possible exception of a limited number of esoteric fundamental studies and applications (e.g., the Josephson voltage standard or the SQUID magnetometer), there was no significant future for electronic systems incorporating superconducting elements. One of the major reasons for this perception was the aversion to handling liquid helium or including a closed-cycle helium liquefier. In addition, many critics felt that IBM's cancellation of its superconducting computer project in 1983 was "proof" that superconductors could not possibly compete with semiconductors in high-speed signal processing. From our persp...

  16. Microwave mode structure of superconducting metamaterial resonators (United States)

    Wang, Haozhi; Rouxinol, Francisco; Lahaye, Matthew; Plourde, Britton


    Arrays of lumped circuit elements can be used to form metamaterial resonant structures that exhibit novel behavior compared to resonators made from conventional distributed transmission lines. By engineering the parameters and configurations of the lumped elements composing the unit cell of such a metamaterial resonator, one can generate spectra with wide stop-bands as well as pass-bands with dense microwave modes. If the metamaterials are fabricated from superconducting traces, the losses can be low enough to allow for these dense modes to be resolved and potentially coupled to quantum systems, such as superconducting qubits. We will present our low-temperature measurements of a variety of superconducting metamaterial resonators and we will compare these with numerical simulations of the microwave properties.

  17. Nonlinear electromagnetic response of superconducting quantum metamaterials (United States)

    Kawabata, Shiro

    Metamaterials are artificial electromagnetic materials consisting of artificial atoms, that is, artificial structures whose sizes are small compared to the wavelength of respective electromagnetic (EM) wave. The effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials can be controlled at will by changing shapes and arrangements of the artificial atoms. The concept of metamaterial is quite useful for fabricating novel optical devices such as cloaking devices. Recently, quantum metamaterial (QMM), which utilizes superconducting qubits as artificial atoms, has been theoretically proposed and its prototypes have been realized experimentally. Unlike conventional metamaterials composed of classical elements, QMMs are expected to show several unique EM responses originating from quantum superposition and entanglement of qubits. In this talk, we will present our recent theoretical studies on the nonlinear EM response of a QMM based on superconducting qubit arrays. Especially, we will discuss on a peculiar lasing phenomena and the formation of a superconducting-vortex state in such systems.

  18. Simulation of an HTS Synchronous Superconducting Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Zermeno, Victor Manuel; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad


    In this work we present a simulation of a synchronous generator with superconducting rotor windings. As many other,electrical rotating machines, superconducting generators are exposed to ripple fields that could be produced from a wide variety of sources: short circuit, load change, mechanical...... with an electric load is used to drive the finite element model of a synchronous generator where the current distribution in the rotor windings is assumed uniform. Then, a second finite element model for the superconducting material is linked to calculate the actual current distribution in the windings...... of the rotor. Finally, heating losses are computed as a response to the electric load. The model is used to evaluate the transient response of the generator. © 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the Guest Editors....

  19. Material Specific Design for Room Temperature Superconductivity (United States)

    Isikaku-Ironkwe, O.-Paul; Ofe, Uko; Oriaku, Chijioke; Asiegbu, Dan; Oguzi, Emeka


    The transition temperature, Tc, of superconductors has been increased sevenfold from 23K in Nb3Ge to 164K in Hg-1223. A further two-fold increase would get us to above room temperature superconductivity. Studying high temperature superconductors (HTSCs), we have developed a formula that expresses Tc in terms of electronegativity, valence electrons, Ne, atomic number, Z, formula mass and a coupling constant, Ko. We observe an increasing linear relationship between Tc and Ko. Ko also correlates with formula mass and atomic number and the number of atoms in the compound. By our formula, Hg-1223 has Ko = 70. We propose, using our design algorithm, that room temperature superconductivity may be realized in a system with ko = 160; electronegativity = 2.5, Ne/Sqrt Z = 0.8. We proceed to show combinations of oxides and elements that will yield the required parameters for synthesizing reproducible room temperature superconductivity.

  20. Applied superconductivity handbook on devices and applications

    CERN Document Server


    This wide-ranging presentation of applied superconductivity, from fundamentals and materials right up to the latest applications, is an essential reference for physicists and engineers in academic research as well as in the field. Readers looking for a systematic overview on superconducting materials will expand their knowledge and understanding of both low and high Tc superconductors, including organic and magnetic materials. Technology, preparation and characterization are covered for several geometries, but the main benefit of this work lies in its broad coverage of significant applications in power engineering or passive devices, such as filter and antenna or magnetic shields. The reader will also find information on superconducting magnets for diverse applications in mechanical engineering, particle physics, fusion research, medicine and biomagnetism, as well as materials processing. SQUIDS and their usage in medicine or geophysics are thoroughly covered as are applications in quantum metrology, and, las...

  1. Superconductivity in carrier-doped silicon carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Muranaka, Yoshitake Kikuchi, Taku Yoshizawa, Naoki Shirakawa and Jun Akimitsu


    Full Text Available We report growth and characterization of heavily boron-doped 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC and Al-doped 3C-SiC. Both 3C-SiC:B and 6H-SiC:B reveal type-I superconductivity with a critical temperature Tc=1.5 K. On the other hand, Al-doped 3C-SiC (3C-SiC:Al shows type-II superconductivity with Tc=1.4 K. Both SiC:Al and SiC:B exhibit zero resistivity and diamagnetic susceptibility below Tc with effective hole-carrier concentration n higher than 1020 cm−3. We interpret the different superconducting behavior in carrier-doped p-type semiconductors SiC:Al, SiC:B, Si:B and C:B in terms of the different ionization energies of their acceptors.

  2. A future for drifting seismic networks (United States)

    Simons, F. J.; Nolet, G.; Babcock, J.


    One-dimensional, radial Earth models are sufficiently well constrained to accurately locate earthquakes and calculate the paths followed by seismic rays. The differences between observations and theoretical predictions of seismograms in such Earth models can be used to reconstruct the three-dimensional wave speed distribution in the regions sampled by the seismic waves, by the technique of seismic tomography. Caused by thermal, compositional, and textural variations, wave speed anomalies remain the premier data source to fully understand the structure and evolution of our planet, from the scale of mantle convection and the mechanisms of heat transfer from core to surface to the international between the deep Earth and surface processes such as plate motion and crustal deformation. Unequal geographical data coverage continues to fundamentally limit the quality of tomographic reconstructions of seismic wave speeds in the interior of the Earth. Only at great cost can geophysicists overcome the difficulties of placing seismographs on the two thirds of the Earth's surface that is covered by oceans. The lack of spatial data coverage strongly hampers the determination of the structure of the Earth in the uncovered regions: all 3-D Earth models are marked by blank spots in areas, distributed throughout the Earth, where little or no information can be obtained. As a possible solution to gaining equal geographic data coverage, we have developed MERMAID, a prototype mobile receiver that could provide an easy, cost-effective way to collect seismic data in the ocean. It is a modification of the robotic floating instruments designed and used by oceanographers. Like them, MERMAID spends its life at depth but is capable of surfacing using a pump and bladder. We have equipped it with a hydrophone to record water pressure variations induced by compressional (P) waves. Untethered and passively drifting, such a floating seismometer will surface upon detection of a "useful" seismic

  3. The insulating-to-superconducting transition in europium high-temperature superconducting ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenbaum, R


    Experiment resistivity data on high-temperature superconducting ceramics of fully oxygenated EuBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 sub - sub x Co sub x O sub y show that the insulating-to-superconducting transitions take place at liquid-helium temperature, provided that the cobalt fraction x exceeds 0.3. The resistivity follows a simple power-law dependence rho propor to T sup - sup 1 sup / sup 2 , attributed to electron-electron interactions. A model based upon intrinsic Josephson tunnelling junctions is suggested to explain the transition from insulating to superconducting states. (author)

  4. Superconducting micronets: The Wheatstone bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammann, C.; Erdoes, P. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Haley, S.B. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)


    Using the Ginzburg-Landau theory, a particular superconducting (sc) micronet, called the Wheatstone bridge, is studied. This planar micronet is made of two nodes connected by three thin sc wires. A magnetic field is applied perpendicularly to its plane. The sc-normal second-order phase transition is characterized by only two configurations of the order parameter: {ital cphi}{sub {ital A}}={ital cphi}{sub {ital B}} and {ital cphi}{sub {ital A}}={minus}{ital cphi}{sub {ital B}}, where {ital cphi}{sub {ital A}} and {ital cphi}{sub {ital B}} are the order parameters at the nodes. For temperatures near {ital T}{sub {ital c}}, we show that only the {ital cphi}{sub {ital A}}={ital cphi}{sub {ital B}} configuration is admissible for fluxes near {Phi}={ital n}{Phi}{sub 0}, where {ital n} is an integer and {Phi}{sub 0} is the flux quantum. Finally, the exact solution of the nonlinear Ginzburg-Landau equations for one-dimensional systems is numerically fitted to the boundary conditions of the Wheatstone bridge for the two configurations {ital cphi}{sub {ital A}}={ital cphi}{sub {ital B}} and {ital cphi}{sub {ital A}}={minus}{phi}{sub {ital B}}. Graphs of the Gibbs energy and of the spontaneous supercurrent, which for these two configurations is always a screening supercurrent, are given as functions of the total flux. A discontinuous transition between configurations occurs as a function of the flux.

  5. Effect of drift waves on plasma blob dynamics. (United States)

    Angus, Justin R; Umansky, Maxim V; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I


    Most of the work to date on plasma blobs found in the edge region of magnetic confinement devices is limited to 2D theory and simulations which ignore the variation of blob parameters along the magnetic field line. However, if the 2D convective rate of blobs is on the order of the growth rate of unstable drift waves, then drift wave turbulence can drastically alter the dynamics of blobs from that predicted by 2D theory. The density gradients in the drift plane that characterize the blob are mostly depleted during the nonlinear stage of drift waves resulting in a much more diffuse blob with a greatly reduced radial velocity. Sheath connected plasma blobs driven by effective gravity forces are considered in this Letter and it is found that the effects of resistive drift waves occur at earlier stages in the 2D motion for smaller blobs and in systems with a smaller effective gravity force. These conclusions are supported numerically by a direct comparison of 2D and 3D seeded blob simulations.

  6. MALDI-TOF Baseline Drift Removal Using Stochastic Bernstein Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Daniel


    Full Text Available Stochastic Bernstein (SB approximation can tackle the problem of baseline drift correction of instrumentation data. This is demonstrated for spectral data: matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF data. Two SB schemes for removing the baseline drift are presented: iterative and direct. Following an explanation of the origin of the MALDI-TOF baseline drift that sheds light on the inherent difficulty of its removal by chemical means, SB baseline drift removal is illustrated for both proteomics and genomics MALDI-TOF data sets. SB is an elegant signal processing method to obtain a numerically straightforward baseline shift removal method as it includes a free parameter that can be optimized for different baseline drift removal applications. Therefore, research that determines putative biomarkers from the spectral data might benefit from a sensitivity analysis to the underlying spectral measurement that is made possible by varying the SB free parameter. This can be manually tuned (for constant or tuned with evolutionary computation (for .

  7. Learning From Short Text Streams With Topic Drifts. (United States)

    Li, Peipei; He, Lu; Wang, Haiyan; Hu, Xuegang; Zhang, Yuhong; Li, Lei; Wu, Xindong


    Short text streams such as search snippets and micro blogs have been popular on the Web with the emergence of social media. Unlike traditional normal text streams, these data present the characteristics of short length, weak signal, high volume, high velocity, topic drift, etc. Short text stream classification is hence a very challenging and significant task. However, this challenge has received little attention from the research community. Therefore, a new feature extension approach is proposed for short text stream classification with the help of a large-scale semantic network obtained from a Web corpus. It is built on an incremental ensemble classification model for efficiency. First, more semantic contexts based on the senses of terms in short texts are introduced to make up of the data sparsity using the open semantic network, in which all terms are disambiguated by their semantics to reduce the noise impact. Second, a concept cluster-based topic drifting detection method is proposed to effectively track hidden topic drifts. Finally, extensive studies demonstrate that as compared to several well-known concept drifting detection methods in data stream, our approach can detect topic drifts effectively, and it enables handling short text streams effectively while maintaining the efficiency as compared to several state-of-the-art short text classification approaches.

  8. New ideas for two dimensional position sensitive silicon drift detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hijzen, E.A.; Schooneveld, E.M.; Eijk, C.W.E. van; Hollander, R.W.; Sarro, P.M.; Bogaard, A. van den (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))


    In this paper the authors present two new ideas for drift detectors with two dimensional position resolution. The first idea is based on the regular drift detector, but has a slightly different design in order to deal with diffusion problems. The second idea embodies a completely new type of drift detector that uses drift time measurements for both dimensions. The design consists of concentric quadrilateral closed strips with a small collecting anode in the center. At first electrons travel perpendicular to the strips until they reach a diagonal. Then they proceed along this diagonal until they are collected at the centre. Position resolution in two dimensions can be obtained when both the time the electrons need to reach the diagonal and the time they need to reach the centre are measured. The latter is obtained from the collecting anode, the former form a diagonal strip present at the back side of the detector. Compared to common 2D drift detectors this detector offers the advantage of a small amount of read out electronics. It also has the advantage of having just one small collecting anode with a very low capacitance, resulting in low noise and therefore in a good energy resolution.

  9. Drift-scale thermomechanical analysis for the retrievability systems study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, F.C. [M& O/Woodward Clyde Federal Services, Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    A numerical method was used to estimate the stability of potential emplacement drifts without considering a ground support system as a part of the Thermal Loading Systems Study for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The stability of the drift is evaluated with two variables: the level of thermal loading and the diameter of the emplacement drift. The analyses include the thermomechanical effects generated by the excavation of the drift, subsequently by the thermal loads from heat-emitting waste packages, and finally by the thermal reduction resulting from rapid cooling ventilation required for the waste retrieval if required. The Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA) code was used to analyze the thermomechanical response of the rock mass of multiple blocks separated by joints. The result of this stability analysis is used to discuss the geomechanical considerations for the advanced conceptual design (ACD) with respect to retrievability. In particular, based on the rock mass strength of the host rock described in the current version of the Reference Information Base, the computed thermal stresses, generated by 111 MTU/acre thermal loads in the near field at 100 years after waste emplacement, is beyond the criterion for the rock mass strength used to predict the stability of the rock mass surrounding the emplacement drift.

  10. Sample drift correction in 3D fluorescence photoactivation localization microscopy (United States)

    Mlodzianoski, Michael J.; Schreiner, John M.; Callahan, Steven P.; Smolková, Katarina; Dlasková, Andrea; Šantorová, Jitka; Ježek, Petr; Bewersdorf, Joerg


    The recent development of diffraction-unlimited far-field fluorescence microscopy has overcome the classical resolution limit of ~250 nm of conventional light microscopy by about a factor of ten. The improved resolution, however, reveals not only biological structures at an unprecedented resolution, but is also susceptible to sample drift on a much finer scale than previously relevant. Without correction, sample drift leads to smeared images with decreased resolution, and in the worst case to misinterpretation of the imaged structures. This poses a problem especially for techniques such as Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy (FPALM/PALM) or Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM), which often require minutes recording time. Here we discuss an approach that corrects for three-dimensional (3D) drift in images of fixed samples without the requirement for fiduciary markers or instrument modifications. Drift is determined by calculating the spatial cross-correlation function between subsets of localized particles imaged at different times. Correction down to ~5 nm precision is achieved despite the fact that different molecules are imaged in each frame. We demonstrate the performance of our drift correction algorithm with different simulated structures and analyze its dependence on particle density and localization precision. By imaging mitochondria with Biplane FPALM we show our algorithm's feasibility in a practical application.

  11. Sub-nanometer drift correction for super-resolution imaging. (United States)

    Tang, Y; Wang, X; Zhang, X; Li, J; Dai, L


    Spatial resolution of conventional far-field fluorescence microscopy is limited by diffraction of light. Single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM), such as (direct) stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM/STORM), and (fluorescence) photoactivation localization microscopy (fPALM/PALM), can break this barrier by localizing single emitters and reconstructing super-resolution image with much higher precision. Nevertheless, a SMLM measurement needs to record a large number of image frames and takes considerable recording time. In this process, sample drift becomes a critical problem and cannot be neglected. In this Letter, we present a sub-nanometer precision, low-cost sample drift correction method based on minimizing normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) between bright field images. Two optical configurations are suggested for recording bright field and fluorescence images simultaneously or alternately. The method was demonstrated on simulated data, and better than 0.3 nm drift correction precision was achieved. It was also applied on dSTORM imaging of F-actins of 3T3 cell, and the quality of reconstructed super-resolution image was improved observably. This method does not require special hardware, extra labelling or markers, and no precision decline due to photobleaching. It can be applied as an add-on for SMLM setups and achieves sub-nanometer precision drift correction for post-measurement or real time drift compensation.

  12. Comparison of Vertical Ionospheric Drifts Obtained by Different Techniques (United States)

    Kouba, D.


    Since 2004 the ionospheric observatory in Pruhonice (Czech Republic, 50N, 14.9E) provides regular ionospheric sounding using Digisonde. In addition to classical ionograms the drift velocities in both E and F region using DDA method are measured routinely. However, vertical component of the drift velocity vector can be estimated by several different methods which can be found in the literature; for example the indirect estimation based on the temporal evolution of measured ionospheric characteristics is often used for calculation of the vertical drift component. The vertical velocity is thus estimated according to the change of characteristics scaled from the classical quarter-hour ionograms. In present paper the direct drift measurement is compared with technique based on measuring of the virtual height at fixed frequency from the F-layer trace on ionogram, technique based on variation of h`F and hmF. The ionospheric observatory in Pruhonice is midlatitudinal station and typicaly provides measurements in 15 minutes cadence. Due to the fact that the most papers use different indirect methods use equatorial data, we also focuse on results of equatorial stations and other stations that carry out measurements with higher cadence (5 minutes). Our comparison shows possibility of using different methods for calculating vertical drift velocity and their relationship to the direct measurement used by Digisondes.

  13. Incremental learning of concept drift in nonstationary environments. (United States)

    Elwell, Ryan; Polikar, Robi


    We introduce an ensemble of classifiers-based approach for incremental learning of concept drift, characterized by nonstationary environments (NSEs), where the underlying data distributions change over time. The proposed algorithm, named Learn(++). NSE, learns from consecutive batches of data without making any assumptions on the nature or rate of drift; it can learn from such environments that experience constant or variable rate of drift, addition or deletion of concept classes, as well as cyclical drift. The algorithm learns incrementally, as other members of the Learn(++) family of algorithms, that is, without requiring access to previously seen data. Learn(++). NSE trains one new classifier for each batch of data it receives, and combines these classifiers using a dynamically weighted majority voting. The novelty of the approach is in determining the voting weights, based on each classifier's time-adjusted accuracy on current and past environments. This approach allows the algorithm to recognize, and act accordingly, to the changes in underlying data distributions, as well as to a possible reoccurrence of an earlier distribution. We evaluate the algorithm on several synthetic datasets designed to simulate a variety of nonstationary environments, as well as a real-world weather prediction dataset. Comparisons with several other approaches are also included. Results indicate that Learn(++). NSE can track the changing environments very closely, regardless of the type of concept drift. To allow future use, comparison and benchmarking by interested researchers, we also release our data used in this paper. © 2011 IEEE

  14. Scroll wave drift along steps, troughs, and corners. (United States)

    Ke, Hua; Zhang, Zhihui; Steinbock, Oliver


    Three-dimensional excitable systems can create nonlinear scroll waves that rotate around one-dimensional phase singularities. Recent theoretical work predicts that these filaments drift along step-like height variations. Here, we test this prediction using experiments with thin layers of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. We observe that over short distances scroll waves are attracted towards the step and then rapidly commence a steady drift along the step line. The translating filaments always reside on the shallow side of the step near the edge. Accordingly, filaments in the deep domain initially collide with and shorten at the step wall. The drift speeds obey the predicted proportional dependence on the logarithm of the height ratio and the direction depends on the vortex chirality. We also observe drift along the perimeter of rectangular plateaus and find that the filaments perform sharp turns at the corners. In addition, we investigate rectangular troughs for which vortices of equal chirality can drift in different directions. The latter two effects are reproduced in numerical simulations with the Barkley model. The simulations show that narrow troughs instigate scroll wave encounters that induce repulsive interaction and symmetry breaking. Similar phenomena could exist in the geometrically complicated ventricles of the human heart where reentrant vortex waves cause tachycardia and fibrillation.

  15. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium: 1994 Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The mission of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, is to advance the science and understanding of high {Tc} superconductivity. During the past year, 27 projects produced over 123 talks and 139 publications. Group activities and interactions involved 2 MISCON group meetings (held in August and January); with the second MISCON Workshop held in August; 13 external speakers; 79 collaborations (with universities, industry, Federal laboratories, and foreign research centers); and 48 exchanges of samples and/or measurements. Research achievements this past year focused on understanding the effects of processing phenomena on structure-property interrelationships and the fundamental nature of transport properties in high-temperature superconductors.

  16. Compact superconducting coplanar microwave beam splitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baust, Alexander; Haeberlein, Max; Goetz, Jan; Hoffmann, Elisabeth; Menzel, Edwin P.; Schwarz, Manuel J.; Wulschner, Friedrich; Zhong, Ling; Deppe, Frank; Marx, Achim; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TUM, Garching (Germany); Kalb, Norbert; Losinger, Thomas [Physik-Department, TUM, Garching (Germany)


    The recent evolution of circuit quantum electrodynamics systems making use of standing-wave microwave modes towards setups for propagating quantum microwaves has triggered the need for low-loss superconducting microwave beam splitters. Such a device should have ports compatible with the coplanar geometry relevant for circuit QED and, at the same time, be compact allowing for scalability. This combination presents fundamental and technological challenges. In this work, we present the fabrication and characterization of various compact superconducting coplanar microwave beam splitters. In addition, we discuss efforts towards a tunable beam splitter.

  17. Quantum Magnetomechanics with Levitating Superconducting Microspheres (United States)

    Romero-Isart, O.; Clemente, L.; Navau, C.; Sanchez, A.; Cirac, J. I.


    We show that by magnetically trapping a superconducting microsphere close to a quantum circuit, it is possible to perform ground-state cooling and prepare quantum superpositions of the center-of-mass motion of the microsphere. Due to the absence of clamping losses and time-dependent electromagnetic fields, the mechanical motion of micrometer-sized metallic spheres in the Meissner state is predicted to be very well isolated from the environment. Hence, we propose to combine the technology of magnetic microtraps and superconducting qubits to bring relatively large objects to the quantum regime.

  18. Experimenting with a superconducting levitation train


    Koblischka, Michael Rudolf; Miryala, Santosh


    The construction and operation of a prototype high-Tc superconducting train model is presented. The train is levitated by a melt-processed GdBa2Cu3Ox (Gd-123) superconducting material over a magnetic rail (track). The oval shaped track is constructed in S-N-S or PM3N configuration arranged on an iron plate. The train bodies are constructed with FRP sheets forming a vessel to maintain the temperature of liquid nitrogen. The superconductors are field-cooled on the magnetic track, which provides...

  19. Magnetic and Superconducting Materials at High Pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struzhkin, Viktor V. [Carnegie Inst. of Washington, Washington, DC (United States)


    The work concentrates on few important tasks in enabling techniques for search of superconducting compressed hydrogen compounds and pure hydrogen, investigation of mechanisms of high-Tc superconductivity, and exploring new superconducting materials. Along that route we performed several challenging tasks, including discovery of new forms of polyhydrides of alkali metal Na at very high pressures. These experiments help us to establish the experimental environment that will provide important information on the high-pressure properties of hydrogen-rich compounds. Our recent progress in RIXS measurements opens a whole field of strongly correlated 3d materials. We have developed a systematic approach to measure major electronic parameters, like Hubbard energy U, and charge transfer energy Δ, as function of pressure. This technique will enable also RIXS studies of magnetic excitations in iridates and other 5d materials at the L edge, which attract a lot of interest recently. We have developed new magnetic sensing technique based on optically detected magnetic resonance from NV centers in diamond. The technique can be applied to study superconductivity in high-TC materials, to search for magnetic transitions in strongly correlated and itinerant magnetic materials under pressure. Summary of Project Activities; development of high-pressure experimentation platform for exploration of new potential superconductors, metal polyhydrides (including newly discovered alkali metal polyhydrides), and already known superconductors at the limit of static high-pressure techniques; investigation of special classes of superconducting compounds (high-Tc superconductors, new superconducting materials), that may provide new fundamental knowledge and may prove important for application as high-temperature/high-critical parameter superconductors; investigation of the pressure dependence of superconductivity and magnetic/phase transformations in 3d transition metal compounds, including

  20. Study on the transport by superconducting elevators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ona, K. [Technov Inc., Tokyo (Japan)


    A study on the development of a transport system using the pinning effect of a superconducting bulk structure was undertaken and a model of a flywheel for electric power storage was manufactured by introducing a bearing applying the pinning effect to investigate the feasibility through its operation. The operation behavior of vertical transport combining the superconducting bulk structure and the electromagnetic coils reproduced the predictions of simulation. As for the electric power storage via flywheel, it was confirmed that the lighting duration of a indicating lamp was elongated from the ordinary interval, 1 min., to 4 min. (H. Baba)

  1. Josephson plasma resonance in superconducting multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sakai, S


    We derive an analytical solution for the Josephson plasma resonance of superconducting multilayers. This analytical solution is derived mainly for low-T-c systems with magnetic coupling between the superconducting layers. but many features of our results are more general, and thus an application...... to the recently derived plasma resonance phenomena for high-T-c superconductors of the Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox type is discussed. Our approach allows us to give full details of the different plasma resonance excitations, and we also predict the existence of new nonlinear effects, so far only identified in single junctions....

  2. Tunable graphene dc superconducting quantum interference device. (United States)

    Girit, Caglar; Bouchiat, V; Naaman, O; Zhang, Y; Crommie, M F; Zettl, A; Siddiqi, I


    Graphene exhibits unique electrical properties on account of its reduced dimensionality and "relativistic" band structure. When contacted with two superconducting electrodes, graphene can support Cooper pair transport, resulting in the well-known Josephson effect. We report here the fabrication and operation of a two junction dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) formed by a single graphene sheet contacted with aluminum/palladium electrodes in the geometry of a loop. The supercurrent in this device can be modulated not only via an electrostatic gate but also by an applied magnetic fielda potentially powerful probe of electronic transport in graphene and an ultrasensitive platform for nanomagnetometry.

  3. STM/STS study of superconducting diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Troyanovskiy, Terukazu Nishizaki and Evgeniy Ekimov


    Full Text Available We present a scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS study of synthetic polycrystalline boron-doped diamond in the temperature range 0.5–4.3 K. At 4.3 K the sample-surface was very non-uniform and tunneling I(V spectra were typical for p-type semiconductors. After cooling below the superconducting transition temperature, we detected and measured the superconducting gap of diamonds. At temperatures around 0.5 K the energy gap was around 0.8 and 1 mV (for two different samples.

  4. Analog superconducting quantum simulator for Holstein polarons (United States)

    Mei, Feng; Stojanović, Vladimir M.; Siddiqi, Irfan; Tian, Lin


    We propose an analog quantum simulator for the Holstein molecular-crystal model based on a superconducting circuit QED system in the dispersive regime. By varying the driving field on the superconducting resonators, one can access both the adiabatic and antiadiabatic regimes of this model, and the strong electron-phonon coupling required for small-polaron formation can be readily reached. We show that a small-polaron state of arbitrary quasimomentum can be generated by applying a microwave pulse to the resonators. We also show that significant squeezing in the resonator modes can be achieved in the polaron-crossover regime through a measurement-based scheme.

  5. Odd triplet superconductivity in ultrasmall quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Stephan; Koenig, Juergen [Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen and CENIDE (Germany); Sothmann, Bjoern [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany)


    We report on the possibility to create odd frequency Cooper pairs in proximized interacting quantum dots attached to ferromagnetic leads. Spin blockade effects together with induced superconductivity allow electron pairs with same spin at different times to carry superconducting correlations. Besides the conventional finite singlet pairing amplitude on the dot, only odd frequency triplet pairing is possible here. This is in contrast to the double dot case. We demonstrate how the order parameter for odd-frequency triplet pairing as well as the differential Andreev conductance are influenced when tuning gate and/or bias voltages, the angle of magnetizations of the leads and the coupling to the nearby superconductor.

  6. Soon superconductive TGV; Bientot des TGV supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The existing TGV (high speed train) technology does not allow speeds over 400 km/h unless unacceptable energy consumption and huge engine weight. Superconductive engines can produce high couple with a reduced weight and an excellent yield. Within 5 years the transformer which is the simplest link in the electric traction chain, will be superconductive. 5 years more and the whole chain will be based on superconductor technology. The global gain will be a 50% reduced weight and a 10% better yield. (A.C.)

  7. Superconductivity and magnetism: Materials properties and developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, N.H.; Bay, N.; Grivel, J.C. (eds.) [and others


    The 24th Risoe International Symposium on Materials Science focuses on development of new materials, devices and applications, as well as experimental and theoretical studies of novel and unexplained phenomena in superconductivity and magnetism, e.g. within high.T{sub c} superconductivity, magnetic superconductors, MgB{sub 2}, CMR materials, nanomagnetism and spin-tronics. The aim is to stimulate exchange of ideas and establish new collaborations between leading Danish and international scientists. The topics are addressed by presentations from 24 invited speakers and by 41 contributed papers. (ln)

  8. Superconducting circuits for quantum information: an outlook. (United States)

    Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J


    The performance of superconducting qubits has improved by several orders of magnitude in the past decade. These circuits benefit from the robustness of superconductivity and the Josephson effect, and at present they have not encountered any hard physical limits. However, building an error-corrected information processor with many such qubits will require solving specific architecture problems that constitute a new field of research. For the first time, physicists will have to master quantum error correction to design and operate complex active systems that are dissipative in nature, yet remain coherent indefinitely. We offer a view on some directions for the field and speculate on its future.

  9. Superconducting properties of lithographic lead break junctions (United States)

    Weber, David; Scheer, Elke


    We have fabricated mechanically controlled break junction samples made of lead (Pb) by means of state-of-the-art nanofabrication methods: electron beam lithography and physical vapour deposition. The electrical and magnetic properties were characterized in a {}3{He} cryostat and showed a hard superconducting gap. Temperature and magnetic field dependence of tunnel contacts were compared and quantitatively described by including either thermal broadening of the density of states or pair breaking in the framework of a Skalski model, respectively. We show point contact spectra of few-atom contacts and present tunneling spectra exhibiting a superconducting double-gap structure.

  10. Metallization of molecular condensates and superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomolov, V N


    The possibility of explaining the light absorption by xenon metallization under the pressure as a transition into the superconducting state is considered. The energy structure of the Van der Waals condensates is considered. It is supposed, that by compression of such samples and decrease in the interatomic distances in the Fermi metals and the Van der Waals dielectrics the condensate gets into the area of the superconducting state. This is the area of the binding energies 40-60 kJ/mol. Many of the molecular condensates and metals are close to this area of instability

  11. Topological phase diagram of superconducting carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milz, Lars; Marganska-Lyzniak, Magdalena; Grifoni, Milena [Institut I - Theoretische Physik Universitaet Regensburg (Germany)


    The topological superconducting phase diagram of superconducting carbon nanotubes is discussed. Under the assumption of a short-ranged pairing potential, there are two spin-singlet states: an s-wave and an exotic p + ip-wave that are possible because of the special structure of the honeycomb lattice. The consequences for the possible presence of Majorana edge states in carbon nanotubes are addressed. In particular, regions in the magnetic field-chemical potential plane possibly hosting localized Majorana modes are discussed.

  12. Manufacturing of superconductive silver/ceramic composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifi, Behrouz; Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Eriksen, Morten


    Manufacturing of superconducting metal/ceramic composites is a rather new discipline within materials forming processes. High Temperature SuperConductors, HTSC, are manufactured applying the Oxide-Powder-In-Tube process, OPIT. A ceramic powder containing lead, calcium, bismuth, strontium, and cop......Manufacturing of superconducting metal/ceramic composites is a rather new discipline within materials forming processes. High Temperature SuperConductors, HTSC, are manufactured applying the Oxide-Powder-In-Tube process, OPIT. A ceramic powder containing lead, calcium, bismuth, strontium...

  13. Synthesis of Bulk Superconducting Magnesium Diboride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Olbinado


    Full Text Available Bulk polycrystalline superconducting magnesium diboride, MgB2, samples were successfully prepared via a one-step sintering program at 750°C, in pre Argon with a pressure of 1atm. Both electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the superconductivity of the material at 39K, with a transition width of 5K. The polycrystalline nature, granular morphology, and composition of the sintered bulk material were confirmed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX.

  14. Superconductivity in single wall carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Yavari


    Full Text Available   By using Greens function method we first show that the effective interaction between two electrons mediated by plasmon exchange can become attractive which in turn can lead to superconductivity at a high critical temperature in a singl wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT. The superconducting transition temperature Tc for the SWCNT (3,3 obtained by this mechanism agrees with the recent experimental result. We also show as the radius of SWCNT increases, plasmon frequency becomes lower and leads to lower Tc.

  15. Superconducting Detectors for Superlight Dark Matter. (United States)

    Hochberg, Yonit; Zhao, Yue; Zurek, Kathryn M


    We propose and study a new class of superconducting detectors that are sensitive to O(meV) electron recoils from dark matter-electron scattering. Such devices could detect dark matter as light as the warm dark-matter limit, m(X)≳1  keV. We compute the rate of dark-matter scattering off of free electrons in a (superconducting) metal, including the relevant Pauli blocking factors. We demonstrate that classes of dark matter consistent with terrestrial and cosmological or astrophysical constraints could be detected by such detectors with a moderate size exposure.

  16. Estimation of the Gravimetric Pole Tide Using GGP Superconducting Gravimeters (United States)

    Ziegler, Y.; Hinderer, J.; Rogister, Y. J.; Rosat, S.


    The movement of the Earth rotation axis induces a perturbation of the surface gravity field through (1) the variation of the centrifugal force along with (2) surface deformation and mass redistribution. This effect of the polar motion can be recovered from the gravimetric data and we usually estimate the amplitude Aobserved and the phase φobserved of the perturbation. Those values are compared to theoretical estimates Atheoretical and φtheoretical based on astronomically-determined time series of the pole position. In this work, we use superconducting gravimeter (SG) data from the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP) and Earth orientation parameters provided by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS). First, we compute the gravimetric factor δ = Aobserved/Atheoretical and phase lag κ = φobserved - φtheoretical at the Chandler period, which is approximately 14 months, using Strasbourg gravimetric data that span more than 15 years. We discuss the influence of the processing (filtering, drift and offsets removal), the importance of the corrections (atmospheric and hydrological loading, ocean pole tide) and the convergence with time of the computed values. Second, we extend the method to process jointly the gravity data from a set of SG stations and estimate a global gravimetric factor. We apply a spatial data weighting taking into account the latitude and longitude dependency, which is a degree-2, order-1, surface spherical harmonics, of the gravity perturbation related to polar motion. Third, we stack the resulting signal to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The stacking method enables us to get rid of local effects that considerably affect the individual estimates of the gravimetric factor at the Chandler period. This method will provide a set of optimal amplitude factor and phase lag that we will compare to the results obtained for each station.

  17. Superconducting Gravimeter Calibration by CoLocated Gravity Observations: Results from GWR C025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Meurers


    Full Text Available In autumn 2007 the superconducting gravimeter GWR C025 was transferred from Vienna (VI to the new Conrad observatory (CO 60 km SW of Vienna. It is one of few instruments which were operated at different stations. This aspect motivated a reanalysis of all calibration experiments at VI and CO, focused on drift and noise effects. Considering the drift even of absolute gravimeters in a common adjustment reduces the root mean square error of the averaged calibration factor essentially. Also spring type gravimeters have some potential to contribute to the SG calibration factor determination. The calibration factor of GWR C025 did not significantly change during the transfer from VI to CO. The final calibration factor is calculated as weighted average over in total 9 JILAg and FG5 experiments with an accuracy of better than ±0.5‰. The calibration factor is temporarily stable with maximum variation less than ±0.1‰. Based on these results the gravity time series of VI and CO have been analyzed. The respective amplitude factors for O1, K1, and M2 agree almost perfectly at both stations after correcting for ocean loading effects. The maximum deviation from the numbers provided by the nonhydrostatic-body-tide models DDW and MAT01 is 0.8‰.

  18. Color-symmetric superconductivity in a phenomenological QCD model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Providencia, C.; Providencia, J. da


    In this paper, we construct a theory of the NJL type where superconductivity is present, and yet the superconducting state remains, in the average, color symmetric. This shows that the present approach to color superconductivity is consistent with color singletness. Indeed, quarks are free...... in the deconfined phase, but the deconfined phase itself is believed to be a color singlet. The usual description of the color superconducting state violates color singletness. On the other hand, the color superconducting state here proposed is color symmetric in the sense that an arbitrary color rotation leads...

  19. Drift-wave stability in the field-reversed configuration (United States)

    Lau, C. K.; Fulton, D. P.; Holod, I.; Lin, Z.; Binderbauer, M.; Tajima, T.; Schmitz, L.


    Gyrokinetic simulations of C-2-like field-reversed configuration (FRC) find that electrostatic drift-waves are locally stable in the core. The stabilization mechanisms include finite Larmor radius effects, magnetic well (negative grad-B), and fast electron short circuit effects. In the scrape-off layer (SOL), collisionless electrostatic drift-waves in the ion-to-electron-scale are destabilized by electron temperature gradients due to the resonance with locally barely trapped electrons. Collisions can suppress this instability, but a collisional drift-wave instability still exists at realistic pressure gradients. Simulation results are in qualitative agreement with C-2 FRC experiments. In particular, the lack of ion-scale instability in the core is not inconsistent with experimental measurements of a fluctuation spectrum showing a depression at ion-scales. The pressure gradient thresholds for the SOL instability from simulations are also consistent with the critical gradient behavior observed in experiments.

  20. Drift waves in a high-density cylindrical helicon discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, C.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.


    of the background plasma parameters. All experimentally observed features of the instability are found to be consistent with drift waves. A linear nonlocal numerical model for drift modes, based on the two-fluid description of a plasma, is used for comparison between the experimental observations and theory....... Comparing numerical and experimental frequencies, it is found that the experimentally observed frequencies are consistent with drift waves. The numerical results show that the high electron collision frequencies provide the strongest destabilization mechanism in the helicon plasma. (c) 2005 American......A low-frequency instability. is investigated in a helicon plasma, which is characterized by comparably high plasma-beta and high collision frequencies. Single movable Langmuir probes and a poloidal probe. array are used for studies of spatiotemporal dynamics and for characterization...

  1. Effect of solenoidal magnetic field on drifting laser plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kazumasa; Sekine, Megumi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Okamura, Masahiro [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States) and RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (United States); Cushing, Eric [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Jandovitz, Peter [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)


    An ion source for accelerators requires to provide a stable waveform with a certain pulse length appropriate to the application. The pulse length of laser ion source is easy to control because it is expected to be proportional to plasma drifting distance. However, current density decay is proportional to the cube of the drifting distance, so large current loss will occur under unconfined drift. We investigated the stability and current decay of a Nd:YAG laser generated copper plasma confined by a solenoidal field using a Faraday cup to measure the current waveform. It was found that the plasma was unstable at certain magnetic field strengths, so a baffle was introduced to limit the plasma diameter at injection and improve the stability. Magnetic field, solenoid length, and plasma diameter were varied in order to find the conditions that minimize current decay and maximize stability.

  2. First Observations with the New Dual Sphere Superconducting Gravimeter Osg-073 at Metsähovi, Finland (United States)

    Virtanen, H.; Raja-Halli, A.; Bilker-Koivula, M.; Naranen, J.; Ruotsalainen, H. E. O.


    The new dual sphere superconducting gravimeter (SG) OSG-073 was installed in the Metsähovi Geodetic Observatory in February 2014. Its two gravity sensors are side by side, not one on top of another as in most earlier dual sensor installations. One sensor is the standard iGrav™ SG, with a lightweight sphere (5 grams) which is nearly drift-free. The second sensor uses a heavy 20-gram sphere which gives ultra low noise and a much higher quality factor Q. We present time domain observations of the first months, and estimate drift rates after the initial exponential drift. We have determined the transfer functions. Calibration factors were obtained using parallel registrations with the FG5X-221 absolute gravimeter of the FGI. We show selected free oscillation spectra from the SG, and seismic data obtained at Metsähovi with the Nanometrics Trillium 120P broadband seismometer of the Institute of Seismology (University of Helsinki). The noise level of the data is then compared with the New Low Noise Model NLNM. The results with the dual sphere SG can be compared with parallel observations with the SG T020. This 20-year old instrument is situated in the same room at a distance of 2 metres from the dual-sphere SG.

  3. Intermittent superconductivity and unconventional vortex configurations in nanoscale superconducting noncircular systems (United States)

    Yang, Ze-Lei; Zha, Guo-Qiao; Zhou, Shi-Ping


    The flux-dependent evolution of vortex states in nanoscale superconducting noncircular systems is investigated based on the Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory. For a superconductor with the coherence length comparable to the Fermi wavelength, the spatial variations of the superconducting order parameter are very sensitive to the finite size of the sample. With increasing the applied flux, the superconducting state and the normal state can alternately appear in small squares, and a remarkable intermittent superconducting behavior for the ground-state transition is found. Moreover, when the square size is enlarged, the asymmetric single-vortex and multivortex states as well as the vortex-antivortex pairs can emerge as the metastable or ground states, arising from the effect of strong quantum confinement.

  4. Drift and ownership toward a distant virtual body. (United States)

    Pomés, Ausiàs; Slater, Mel


    In body ownership illusions participants feel that a mannequin or virtual body (VB) is their own. Earlier results suggest that body ownership over a body seen from behind in extra personal space is possible when the surrogate body is visually stroked and tapped on its back, while spatially and temporal synchronous tactile stimulation is applied to the participant's back. This result has been disputed with the claim that the results can be explained by self-recognition rather than somatic body ownership. We carried out an experiment with 30 participants in a between-groups design. They all saw the back of a VB 1.2 m in front, that moved in real-time determined by upper body motion capture. All felt tactile stimulation on their back, and for 15 of them this was spatially and temporally synchronous with stimulation that they saw on the back of the VB, but asynchronous for the other 15. After 3 min a revolving fan above the VB descended and stopped at the position of the VB neck. A questionnaire assessed referral of touch to the VB, body ownership, the illusion of drifting forwards toward the VB, and the VB drifting backwards. Heart rate deceleration (HRD) and the amount of head movement during the threat period were used to assess the response to the threat from the fan. Results showed that although referral of touch was significantly greater in the synchronous condition than the asynchronous, there were no other differences between the conditions. However, a further multivariate analysis revealed that in the visuotactile synchronous condition HRD and head movement increased with the illusion of forward drift and decreased with backwards drift. Body ownership contributed positively to these drift sensations. Our conclusion is that the setup results in a contradiction-somatic feelings associated with a distant body-that the brain attempts to resolve by generating drift illusions that would make the two bodies coincide.

  5. Nonlinear Stability and Evolution of Drift-Tearing Modes (United States)

    Scott, Bruce Douglas

    The question of the nonlinear stability and subsequent evolution of drift-tearing modes in tokamak-like environments is considered. The tearing mode and the drift physics are introduced, and a brief review of previous work given. A set of reduced equations for the drift-tearing mode is derived from two-fluid magnetohydrodynamics. The equations are specialised for small, nonlinear magnetic islands in slab geometry. These are used to scrutinise the results of linear stability theory in light of nonlinear physics arising from the effect of the mode on the equilibrium density and temperature profiles. It is shown that linearly growing drift-tearing modes are rendered stable at a very small island width by quasilinear thermal effects. However, both linearly and quasilinearly stabilised modes grow to large amplitude if the initial island width is larger than the linear tearing layer, demonstrating the importance of nonlinear considerations in predictions of stability. Having concluded that drift-tearing modes will in fact be seen in present and near-future thermal regimes, their evolution is addressed. Observations of rotating m = 2 magnetic fluctuations in tokamak discharges are often attributed to diamagnetically propagating drift-tearing modes. It is shown, however, that this propagation ceases at small island width as the local density profile is flattened by sound waves. The critical width for density flattening is small compared to island widths typically inferred from the observed fluctuations. The rotation of these fluctuations must therefore result from radial electric fields, implying that observed rotation rates can be used as a local diagnostic for these fields.

  6. Spray drift reduction techniques for vineyards in fragmented landscapes. (United States)

    Otto, S; Loddo, D; Baldoin, C; Zanin, G


    In intensive agricultural systems spray drift is one of the major potential diffuse pollution pathways for pesticides and poses a risk to the environment. There is also increasing concern about potential exposure to bystanders and passers-by, especially in fragmented landscapes like the Italian pre-Alps, where orchards and vineyards are surrounded by residential houses. There is thus an urgent need to do field measurements of drift generated by air-blast sprayer in vineyards, and to develop measures for its reduction (mitigation). A field experiment with an "event method" was conducted in north-eastern Italy in no-wind conditions, in the hilly area famed for Prosecco wine production, using an air-blast sprayer in order to evaluate the potential spray drift from equipment and the effectiveness of some practical mitigation measures, either single or in combination. A definition of mitigation is proposed, and a method for the calculation of total effectiveness of a series of mitigation measures is applied to some what-if scenarios of interest. Results show that low-drift equipment reduced potential spray drift by 38% and that a fully developed vine curtain mitigated it by about 70%; when the last row was treated without air-assistance mitigation was about 74%; hedgerows were always very effective in providing mitigation of up to 98%. In conclusion, spray drift is not inevitable and can be markedly reduced using a few mitigation measures, most already available to farmers, that can be strongly recommended for environmental regulatory schemes and community-based participatory research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of stream enclosures on drifting invertebrates and fish growth (United States)

    Zimmerman, J.K.H.; Vondracek, B.


    Stream ecologists often use enclosure experiments to investigate predator-prey interactions and competition within and among fish species. The design of enclosures, manipulation of species densities, and method of replication may influence experimental results. We designed an experiment with enclosure cages (1 m2, 6-mm mesh) to examine the relative influence of fish size, density, and prey availability on growth of brown trout (Salmo trutta), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) within enclosures in Valley Creek, Minnesota. In addition, we examined water flow and invertebrate drift entering enclosures and in open riffles to investigate whether enclosures reduced the supply of invertebrate prey. Growth of small (age-0) brook and brown trout was not influenced by fish density, but growth of larger (age-1) trout generally decreased as density increased. Sculpin growth was not related to fish size or density, but increased with mean size of invertebrates in the drift. Enclosures reduced water flow and tended to reduce invertebrate drift rate, although total drift rate (ind./min), total drift density (ind./m3), and mean size of invertebrates were not significantly different inside enclosures compared to adjacent stream riffles. Enclosures had no effect on drift rate or size of Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, the main prey item for trout and sculpin in Valley Creek. Overall, our analyses indicated that reductions of prey availability by enclosures did not influence fish growth. Trout growth may have been limited at larger sizes and densities because of increased activity costs of establishing and defending territories, whereas sculpin growth was related to availability of large prey, a factor not influenced by enclosures. ?? 2006 by The North American Benthological Society.

  8. 56th (fiscal 1997) Meeting on Cryogenics and Superconductivity; Dai 56 kai 1997 nendo shunki teion kogaku chodendo gakkai koen gaiyoshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In the meeting, 266 papers were made public which deal with the following fields: GM refrigerators, pulse tube refrigerators, cold storage equipment, Bi-2212 system, coil application, superconducting generators, LHD/ITER/accelerators, cable-in conduit conductors, electromagnetic phenomena/proximity effect, oxide cable, Nb3Sn, Nb3Al, metal materials, WE-NET, friction/organic materials, composite materials, Nb3Sn, Nb3Al wires, strand wire structure analysis, hybrid superconducting wire, Y system, Bi system, low temperature device, measurement, high magnetic field NMR magnet, oxide NMR application, Bi-2223 system wire, pinning, NbTi ac wire, pinning/ac loss, various characteristics, superconducting application, refrigerating system, heat transfer, cryostat, Hg/Ti/Y system wire, ac loss/application, superconducting electric power storage system and the development of element technology therefor, current limiter/magnetic flotation, stability and drift of strand conductors, stability, ITER, LHD/accelerator/SLIM, oxide application, conductor stability test and others, and quench of ac cable.

  9. Coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in YBCO nanoparticles. (United States)

    Zhu, Zhonghua; Gao, Daqiang; Dong, Chunhui; Yang, Guijin; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jinlin; Shi, Zhenhua; Gao, Hua; Luo, Honggang; Xue, Desheng


    Nanoparticles of superconducting YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-δ) were synthesized via a citrate pyrolysis technique. Room temperature ferromagnetism was revealed in the samples by a vibrating sample magnetometer. Electron spin resonance spectra at selected temperatures indicated that there is a transition from the normal to the superconducting state at temperatures below 100 K. The M-T curves with various applied magnetic fields showed that the superconducting transition temperatures are 92 K and 55 K for the air-annealed and the post-annealed samples, respectively. Compared to the air-annealed sample, the saturation magnetization of the sample by reheating the air-annealed one in argon atmosphere is enhanced but its superconductivity is weakened, which implies that the ferromagnetism maybe originates from the surface oxygen defects. By superconducting quantum interference device measurements, we further confirmed the ferromagnetic behavior at high temperatures and interesting upturns in field cooling magnetization curves within the superconducting region are found. We attributed the upturn phenomena to the coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity at low temperatures. Room temperature ferromagnetism of superconducting YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-δ) nanoparticles has been observed in some previous related studies, but the issue of the coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity within the superconducting region is still unclear. In the present work, it will be addressed in detail. The cooperation phenomena found in the spin-singlet superconductors will help us to understand the nature of superconductivity and ferromagnetism in more depth.

  10. Characterization of a superconducting Pb photocathode in a superconducting rf photoinjector cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Barday, R; Jankowiak, A; Kamps, T; Knobloch, J; Kugeler, O; Matveenko, A; Neumann, A; Schmeißer, M; Volker, J; Kneisel, P; Nietubyc, R; Schubert S; Smedley J; Sekutowicz, J; Will, I


    Photocathodes are a limiting factor for the next generation of ultrahigh brightness photoinjectors. We studied the behavior of a superconducting Pb cathode in the cryogenic environment of a superconducting rf gun cavity to measure the quantum efficiency, its spatial distribution, and the work function. We will also discuss how the cathode surface contaminants modify the performance of the photocathode as well as the gun cavity and we discuss the possibilities to remove these contaminants.

  11. Precise muon drift tube detectors for high background rate conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engl, Albert


    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS-experiment at the Large Hadron Collider consists of drift tube chambers, which provide the precise measurement of trajectories of traversing muons. In order to determine the momentum of the muons with high precision, the measurement of the position of the muon in a single tube has to be more accurate than {sigma}{<=}100 {mu}m. The large cross section of proton-proton-collisions and the high luminosity of the accelerator cause relevant background of neutrons and {gamma}s in the muon spectrometer. During the next decade a luminosity upgrade to 5.10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} is planned, which will increase the background counting rates considerably. In this context this work deals with the further development of the existing drift chamber technology to provide the required accuracy of the position measurement under high background conditions. Two approaches of improving the drift tube chambers are described: - In regions of moderate background rates a faster and more linear drift gas can provide precise position measurement without changing the existing hardware. - At very high background rates drift tube chambers consisting of tubes with a diameter of 15 mm are a valuable candidate to substitute the CSC muon chambers. The single tube resolution of the gas mixture Ar:CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} in the ratio of 96:3:1 Vol %, which is more linear and faster as the currently used drift gas Ar:CO{sub 2} in the ratio of 97:3 Vol %, was determined at the Cosmic Ray Measurement Facility at Garching and at high {gamma}-background counting rates at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN. The alternative gas mixture shows similar resolution without background. At high background counting rates it shows better resolution as the standard gas. To analyse the data the various parts of the setup have to be aligned precisely to each other. The change to an alternative gas mixture allows the use of the existing hardware. The second approach are drift tubes

  12. Slow Drift-Oscillations of a Ship in Irregular Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd M. Faltinsen


    Full Text Available A procedure to calculate horizontal slow drift excitation forces on an infinitely long horizontal cylinder in irregular beam sea waves is presented. The hydrodynamic boundary-value problem is solved correctly to second order in wave amplitude. Results in the form of second order transfer functions are presented for different, two-dimensional shapes. It is concluded that Newman's approximative method is a practical way to calculate slow drift excitation forces on a ship in beam sea and it is suggested that it may be used in a more general case. Applications of the results for moored ships are discussed.

  13. Assembly of Drift Tubes (DT) Chambers at CIEMAT (Madrid)

    CERN Multimedia

    Jesus Puerta-Pelayo


    The construction of muon drift tube chambers (DT) has been carried out in four different european institutes: Aachen (Germany), CIEMAT-Madrid (Spain), Legnaro and Turin (Italy), all of them following similar procedures and quality tests. Each chamber is composed by three or two independent units called superlayers, with four layers of staggered drift cells each. The assembly of a superlayer is a succesive glueing of aluminium plates and I-beams with electrodes previously attached, forming a rectangular and gas-tight volume. These pictures illustrate the various processes of material preparation, construction, equipment and assembly of full chambers at CIEMAT (Madrid).

  14. Precision Drift Chambers for the Atlas Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00215825; Kortner, O.; Kroha, H.; Manz, A.; Mohrdieck, S.; Zhuravlov, V.


    ATLAS is a detector under construction to explore the physics at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It has a muon spectrometer with an excellent momentum resolution of 3-10%, provided by three layers of precision monitored-drift-tube chambers in a toroidal magnetic field. A single drift tube measures a track point with a mean resolution close to 100 micron, even at the expected high neutron and gamma background rates. The tubes are positioned within the chamber with an accuracy of 20 microns, achieved by elaborate construction and assembly monitoring procedures.

  15. Annals of the international geophysical year ionospheric drift observations

    CERN Document Server

    Rawer, K; Beloussov, V V; Beynon, W J G


    Annals of the International Geophysical Year, Volume 33: Results of Ionospheric Drift Observations describes the systematic changes in individual ionospheric observations during the International Geophysical Year (IGY). This book is composed of four chapters, and begins with a presentation of the general data on stations and the lists of publications concerning drift work during IGY/IGC. The next chapter contains the results obtained mainly by intercomparison of the time shift between fadings observed on three antenna separated by a distance of roughly a wavelength. These data are followed by

  16. Zonal flow excitation by drift waves in toroidal plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Chen; Z. Lin; R. White


    Recent 3D gyrokinetic and gyrofluid simulations in toroidal plasmas have demonstrated that zonal flows play a crucial role in regulating the nonlinear evolution of electrostatic drift-wave instabilities such as the ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes and, as a consequence, the level of the anomalous ion thermal transport, and that zonal flows could be spontaneously excited by ITG turbulence, suggesting parametric instability processes as the generation mechanism. Diamond et. al. have proposed the modulational instability of drift-wave turbulence ( plasmons ) in a slab-geometry treatment.

  17. Organic Scintillator Detector Response Simulations with DRiFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Madison Theresa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bates, Cameron Russell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mckigney, Edward Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pinilla, Maria Isabel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Solomon, Jr., Clell Jeffrey [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sood, Avneet [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Accurate detector modeling is a requirement to design systems in many non-proliferation scenarios; by determining a Detector’s Response Function (DRF) to incident radiation, it is possible characterize measurements of unknown sources. DRiFT is intended to post-process MCNP® output and create realistic detector spectra. Capabilities currently under development include the simulation of semiconductor, gas, and (as is discussed in this work) scintillator detector physics. Energy spectra and pulse shape discrimination (PSD) trends for incident photon and neutron radiation have been reproduced by DRiFT.

  18. The problem of estimating wind drift in migrating birds. (United States)

    Green, Martin; Alerstam, Thomas


    Whether migrating birds compensate for wind drift or not is a fundamental question in bird migration research. The procedures to demonstrate and quantitatively estimate wind drift or compensation are fraught with difficulties and pitfalls. In this paper, we evaluate four methods that have been used in several studies over the past decades. We evaluate the methods by analysing a model migratory movement with a realistic scatter in flight directions, for the ideal cases of full drift and complete compensation. Results obtained with the different methods are then compared with the "true behaviour" of the model movement, illustrating that spurious patterns of drift and compensation arise in some cases. We also illustrate and evaluate the different methods of estimating drift for a real case, based on tracking radar measurements of bird migration in relation to winds. Calculating the linear regression of mean geographic track (resulting flight direction) and heading directions (directions of the birds' body axis) of a migratory movement under different wind conditions in relation to the angle alpha (the angle between mean track and heading) always provides robust and reliable results. Comparing mean flight directions between occasions with winds from the left and right of the mean flight direction of the whole migratory movement also always provides expected and correct measures of drift. In contrast, regressions of individual flight directions in relation to alpha (the angle between track and heading for the specific individuals or flocks) are liable to produce biased and spurious results, overestimating compensation/overcompensation if following winds dominate in the analysis and overestimating drift/overdrift if opposed winds are dominating. Comparing mean directions for cases with winds from the left and right in relation to individual flight directions also gives biased and spurious results unless there is full variation in wind directions or an equal distribution

  19. Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire

    CERN Multimedia



    Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire. From the current experience from LHC and HL-LHC we know that the performance requirements for Nb3Sn conductor for future circular collider are challenging and should exceed that of present state-of-the-art materials.

  20. Centenary of the discovery of superconductivity

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède


    To mark the centenary of the discovery of the phenomenon of superconductivity, MANEP and the University of Geneva are organising open days at the PhysiScope between 8 and 15 April 2011. On 13 April CERN will make a contribution to the series of events with a lecture on superconductivity followed by a demonstration of the phenomenon at the Globe   Historic graph showing the superconducting transition of mercury, measured in Leiden in 1911 by H. Kamerlingh Onnes. On 8 April 2011 it will be a hundred years since the discovery of superconductivity by the Dutch physicist Kamerlingh Onnes. To mark the occasion, the University of Geneva and MANEP are organising a week-long interactive workshop at the PhysiScope. “The purpose of this initiative is to introduce the general public to this spectacular phenomenon by giving them an opportunity to take part in entertaining experiments”, explains Adriana Aleman, Head of Communications of the University of Geneva. As its contribution to the e...